Pompili, M; Pizzolante, F; Larocca, L M; Covino, M; Rapaccini, G L; Gasbarrini, G
A 53-year-old male with compensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A5) and mixed cryoglobulinaemia (cryocrit: 2.0%), both hepatitis C virus-related, was treated with pegylated interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin. After three months of therapy, he developed segmental jejunal vasculitis requiring emergency resection of an ischaemic intestinal loop 60cm long. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed signs of ischaemic injury with haemorrhagic infarction due to arteritis and arterial occlusion. The postoperative course was complicated by progressive liver and renal failure that led to the patient's death six months after surgery. To our knowledge, ischaemic jejunal vasculitis has never been reported during interferon therapy, but the latter treatment may have played causative roles.
Broch, Kaspar; Ueland, Thor; Nymo, Ståle H; Kjekshus, John; Hulthe, Johannes; Muntendam, Pieter; McMurray, John J; Wikstrand, John; Cleland, John G; Aukrust, Pål; Gullestad, Lars
In patients with ischaemic heart failure (HF), myocardial dysfunction often progresses. Elevated levels of soluble ST2 (sST2) are associated with a poor prognosis, but an association between sST2 and worsening heart failure per se has not been established. We assessed the association between sST2 and cause-specific outcome in 1449 patients enrolled in the Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure (CORONA study). Soluble ST2 was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay in 1449 patients ≥60 years of age with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% due to ischaemic heart disease. By Cox regression analyses, we found sST2 to be associated with the primary endpoint, i.e. a composite of cadiovascular (CV) death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or stroke, as well as all pre-defined secondary endpoints in the CORONA study, even after adjustment for baseline clinical variables. After adjustment for N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein, the association between sST2 and the primary endpoint was attenuated and no longer statistically significant. However, sST2 remained associated with death due to worsening HF, hospitalization due to worsening HF, and hospitalization due to any CV cause, even after full adjustment. Soluble ST2 is associated with adverse outcomes in older patients with systolic, ischaemic HF. In particular, sST2 is independently associated with worsening HF.
Glover, D R; Littler, W A
An evaluation of factors which may influence survival and mode of death was conducted over a three year period in a consecutive series of 50 patients with severe chronic ischaemic cardiac failure for more than three months. At the initial assessment all patients were already receiving intensive medical treatment. During follow up four patients successfully underwent cardiac surgery and medical treatment was modified in most patients, with four patients receiving antiarrhythmic drugs. Twenty six patients died: 17 suddenly within one hour of onset of symptoms and nine of progressive cardiac failure. The mortality by one year was 26% and by two years it was 62%. Comparison of those who survived with those who died within one year of follow up showed that a very low left ventricular ejection fraction, severe ventricular arrhythmias, the presence of gallop rhythm, and New York Heart Association class IV were the variables that predicted mortality. By two years left ventricular ejection fraction, ventricular arrhythmias, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were the variables that were significantly different in survivors and patients who died. No differences were found in any of the recorded variables between those who died suddenly and those who did not. Thus in patients with chronic ischaemic cardiac failure determination of the left ventricular ejection fraction and the severity of ventricular arrhythmia on the ambulatory electrocardiogram are the best ways to predict prognosis. The presence of gallop rhythm and New York Heart Association class IV status predict early death. PMID:3814447
Fillmore, N; Mori, J; Lopaschuk, G D
Heart disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. In many forms of heart disease, including heart failure, ischaemic heart disease and diabetic cardiomyopathies, changes in cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism contribute to contractile dysfunction and to a decrease in cardiac efficiency. Specific metabolic changes include a relative increase in cardiac fatty acid oxidation rates and an uncoupling of glycolysis from glucose oxidation. In heart failure, overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism can be impaired while, in ischaemic heart disease, energy production is impaired due to a limitation of oxygen supply. In both of these conditions, residual mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation dominates over mitochondrial glucose oxidation. In diabetes, the ratio of cardiac fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation also increases, although primarily due to an increase in fatty acid oxidation and an inhibition of glucose oxidation. Recent evidence suggests that therapeutically regulating cardiac energy metabolism by reducing fatty acid oxidation and/or increasing glucose oxidation can improve cardiac function of the ischaemic heart, the failing heart and in diabetic cardiomyopathies. In this article, we review the cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolic changes that occur in these forms of heart disease, what role alterations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation have in contributing to cardiac dysfunction and the potential for targeting fatty acid oxidation to treat these forms of heart disease. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24147975
Fisher, Sheila A; Doree, Carolyn; Mathur, Anthony; Taggart, David P; Martin-Rendon, Enca
A promising approach to the treatment of chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure is the use of stem cells. The last decade has seen a plethora of randomised controlled trials developed worldwide, which have generated conflicting results. The critical evaluation of clinical evidence on the safety and efficacy of autologous adult bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells as a treatment for chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. We searched CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, and four ongoing trial databases for relevant trials up to 14 December 2015. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials comparing autologous adult stem/progenitor cells with no cells in people with chronic ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. We included co-interventions, such as primary angioplasty, surgery, or administration of stem cell mobilising agents, when administered to treatment and control arms equally. Two review authors independently screened all references for eligibility, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. We undertook a quantitative evaluation of data using random-effects meta-analyses. We evaluated heterogeneity using the I(2) statistic and explored substantial heterogeneity (I(2) greater than 50%) through subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADEprofiler (GRADEpro), excluding studies with a high or unclear risk of selection bias. We focused our summary of findings on long-term follow-up of mortality, morbidity outcomes, and left ventricular ejection fraction measured by magnetic resonance imaging. We included 38 randomised controlled trials involving 1907 participants (1114 cell therapy, 793 controls) in this review update. Twenty-three trials were at high or unclear risk of selection bias. Other sources of potential bias included lack of blinding of participants (12 trials) and
Abegunde, Ayokunle T.; Aisien, Efe; Mba, Benjamin; Chennuri, Rohini; Sekosan, Marin
Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options. PMID:25815217
Cheng, Kang; Wu, Feng; Cao, Feng
Intramyocardial cellular delivery provides a promising therapeutic strategy for ischaemic cardiac dysfunction. However, individual studies have reported controversial results. Relevant trials were identified by systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane database, and CINAH database. Studies, which applied randomised design and compared intramyocardial cell injection with placebo or optimal medical therapy in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure, were eligible. A total of 210 participants in five randomised controlled trials were included. The pooled analyses showed that cell therapy did not significantly improve left ventricular ejection fraction compared with the control (95% CI -0.35 to 0.31, p=0.91). Nevertheless, cell therapy provided a benefit in increasing 6-min walk distance (95% CI 21.09 m-142.62 m, p=0.008), improving MLHF score (95% CI -25.21 to -3.55, p=0.009), and lowering the incidence of NYHA functional class deterioration (95% CI 0.05-0.76, p=0.02). However, the novel procedure did not result in a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. Conversely, cell therapy did not significantly increase the risk of ventricular tachycardia or acute heart failure, however we were underpowered to evaluate these endpoints. Intramyocardial cell therapy was feasible in treating patients with ischaemic heart failure. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kodali, Sudha; McGuire, Brendan M
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with cerebral edema (CE), increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and subsequent neurologic complications; it is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in fulminant hepatic failure. The goal of therapy should be early diagnosis and treatment of HE with measures to reduce CE. A combination of clinical examination and diagnostic modalities can aid in prompt diagnosis. ICP monitoring and transcranial Doppler help diagnose and monitor response to treatment. Transfer to a transplant center and intensive care unit admission with airway management and reduction of CE with hypertonic saline, mannitol, hypothermia, and sedation are recommended as a bridge to liver transplantation.
Paschoal Jr, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson
Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545
Selden, Clare; Spearman, Catherine Wendy; Kahn, Delawir; Miller, Malcolm; Figaji, Anthony; Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Massie, Isobel; Chalmers, Sherri-Ann; Arendse, Hiram; Gautier, Aude; Sharratt, Peter; Fuller, Barry; Hodgson, Humphrey
Liver failure is an increasing problem. Donor-organ shortage results in patients dying before receiving a transplant. Since the liver can regenerate, alternative therapies providing temporary liver-support are sought. A bioartificial-liver would temporarily substitute function in liver failure buying time for liver regeneration/organ-procurement. Our aim: to develop a prototype bioartificial-liver-machine (BAL) comprising a human liver-derived cell-line, cultured to phenotypic competence and deliverable in a clinical setting to sites distant from its preparation. The objective of this study was to determine whether its use would improve functional parameters of liver failure in pigs with acute liver failure, to provide proof-of-principle. HepG2cells encapsulated in alginate-beads, proliferated in a fluidised-bed-bioreactor providing a biomass of 4–6×1010cells, were transported from preparation-laboratory to point-of-use operating theatre (6000miles) under perfluorodecalin at ambient temperature. Irreversible ischaemic liver failure was induced in anaesthetised pigs, after portal-systemic-shunt, by hepatic-artery-ligation. Biochemical parameters, intracranial pressure, and functional-clotting were measured in animals connected in an extracorporeal bioartificial-liver circuit. Efficacy was demonstrated comparing outcomes between animals connected to a circuit containing alginate-encapsulated cells (Cell-bead BAL), and those connected to circuit containing alginate capsules without cells (Empty-bead BAL). Cells of the biomass met regulatory standards for sterility and provenance. All animals developed progressive liver-failure after ischaemia induction. Efficacy of BAL was demonstrated since animals connected to a functional biomass (+ cells) had significantly smaller rises in intracranial pressure, lower ammonia levels, more bilirubin conjugation, improved acidosis and clotting restoration compared to animals connected to the circuit without cells. In the +cell
Gholson, C F; Warren, G H
Fatal fulminant hepatic failure accompanied by brisk hemolysis developed in an elderly man after intravenous administration of erythromycin lactobionate for a lower respiratory infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of fatal hepatotoxicity associated with intravenous erythromycin therapy. Erythromycin should be added to the list of drugs that can cause fulminant hepatic failure.
Kramer, Ludwig; Bauer, Edith; Schenk, Peter; Steininger, Rudolf; Vigl, Marion; Mallek, Reinhold
Ecstasy-induced fulminant hepatic failure is associated with high mortality. If complicated by cerebral oedema, orthotopic liver transplantation is the only established treatment. We report a case of combined ecstasy/cocaine-induced fulminant hepatic failure presenting with severe rhabdomyolysis, myocardial infarction and multiorgan failure. Transplantation was declined by the transplant surgeons because of a history of intravenous drug abuse. As excessive hyperammonaemia (318 mumol/l) and refractory transtentorial herniation developed, treatment with a new liver detoxification device combining high-flux haemodialysis and adsorption (FPSA-Prometheus) was initiated. Within a few hours of treatment, ammonia levels normalised. Cerebral oedema was greatly reduced by day 4 and hepatic function gradually recovered. Following neurologic rehabilitation for ischaemic sequelae of herniation, the patient was discharged from hospital with only minimal deficits. In conclusion, efficient extracorporeal detoxification may be an option for reversal of hyperammonaemia and refractory cerebral oedema in ecstasy/cocaine-induced acute liver failure.
Ozçay, Figen; Bikmaz, Y Emre; Canan, Oğuz; Ozbek, Namik
Acute viral hepatitis with hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses in the etiology of fulminant hepatic failure either single or in combinations has been described. Parvovirus B19 is also an etiologic agent of acute liver failure and hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia. We present a patient diagnosed with fulminant hepatitis A referred for liver transplantation. Parvovirus B19 superinfection was detected when the patient developed anemia during the course of the disease. We discuss possible roles of both viruses in fulminant hepatitis and pure red cell aplasia.
Abdo, A; López, O; Fernández, A; Santos, J; Castillo, J; Castellanos, R; González, L; Gómez, F; Limonta, D
The clinical course of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is often worsened by the presence of cerebral edema and endocranial hypertension. In spite of the multiple studies using Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCDS), few have shown the cerebral blood flow (CBF) pattern among patients with encephalopathy resulting from FHF. Our objective was to characterize the CBF pattern in these patients through the use of TCDS to provide therapeutic strategies. The TCDS pattern was assessed in five patients diagnosed with FHF and compared with a control group who displayed critical neurologic conditions not associated with FHF. Pulsatile index, systolic, diastolic, and mean velocity of the middle cerebral artery were measured. The mean age of patients with FHF was 45.4 years. One hundred percent were women, with viral hepatitis as the predominant etiology. A cerebral hypoperfusion pattern was found in 80% of the FHF group and 40% of the control group. In the former group there was no evidence of hyperemia, as there was among 20% of the control group. The mean values of velocity and pulsatile index were 36.6 cm/sec and 2.4, respectively, in the FHF group and 47.8 cm/s and 1.8 in the control group (P=0.268, P=0.402). FHF patients show a predominance of cerebral hypoperfusion pattern with mean velocities lower than normal values and an increased pulsatile index. We recommend that clinicians take appropriate measures to improve cerebral perfusion and avoid hypoxia. Hyperventilation as a first level measure is contraindicated.
Franco, D; Durandy, Y; Deporte, A; Bismuth, H
Emergency fibroscopy revealed bleeding lesions in 84 cirrhotic patients. In patients with moderate or no hepatic failure, the commonest actively bleeding sources were oesophagogastric varices and acute mucosal ulcers associated with the ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs. In patients with severe hepatic failure, acute mucosal ulcers unrelated to drugs predominated and there was evidence that these were stress-induced erosions.
Cheng, Yanping; Aboodi, Michael S.; Wechsler, Andrew S.; Kaluza, Greg L.; Granada, Juan F.; Van Bladel, Kevin; Annest, Lon S.; Yi, Geng-Hua
OBJECTIVES Surgical ventricular reconstruction has been used to treat ischaemic cardiomyopathy with large akinetic or dyskinetic areas. However, application of this approach requires a sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and a left ventriculotomy. This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of minimally invasive, off-pump, epicardial catheter-based ventricular reconstruction (ECVR) in an anteroapical aneurysm ovine model. METHODS Left ventricular (LV) anteroapical myocardial infarction was induced percutaneously by coil embolization of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Eight weeks after infarction, via mini left thoracotomy and without cardiopulmonary bypass, ECVR was performed in six sheep. The scar was excluded by placing anchor pairs on the LV epicardial anterior wall and the right ventricular side of the interventricular septum under fluoroscopic guidance. LV performance was evaluated before, immediately after device implantation and after 6 weeks by echocardiography. Terminal histopathology was performed. RESULTS ECVR was completed expeditiously in all animals without complications. Parameters obtained 6 weeks after device implantation were compared with baseline (pre-device). End-systolic volume was decreased by 38% (25.6 ± 6.1 ml vs baseline 41.2 ± 7.2 ml, P = 0.02) with preservation of stroke volume. Ejection fraction was significantly increased by 13% (48.5 ± 7% vs baseline 35.8 ± 7%, P = 0.02). The circumferential strain in the anterior septum (−7.67 ± 5.12% vs baseline −0.96 ± 2.22%, P = 0.03) and anterior wall (−9.01 ± 3.51% vs baseline −4.15 ± 1.36%, P = 0.01) were significantly improved. The longitudinal strain in apex was reversed (−3.08 ± 1.53% vs baseline 3.09 ± 3.39%, P = 0.01). Histopathology showed full endocardial healing over the anchors with appreciable reduction of the chronic infarct in the LV. CONCLUSIONS ECVR without cardiopulmonary bypass is a less invasive alternative to current standard therapies
Søreide, E; Harboe, S; Søndenaa, K
A young trauma patient developed severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), right heart failure, hepatic congestion and an extreme hepatomegaly but no hepatic failure. The patient needed 100% oxygen during ventilatory support for 80 days and was weaned from the ventilator after more than 100 days. The hepatomegaly gradually disappeared. Four months after the injury, the anatomical shape of the lungs, heart and liver were normalized. This case illustrates that severe ARDS may cause right heart failure and extreme hepatomegaly due to venous congestion in the liver and spleen, but without hepatic failure.
Viswanathan, Stalin; Iqbal, Nayyar; Anemon, P. Philip; Kumar, G. Shyam
We report a 49-year-old diabetic with dengue hemorrhagic fever who developed fulminant hepatitis, severe coagulopathy, shock, and refractory metabolic acidosis and died on the eighth day of illness. This is the only second report of an adult with fatal fulminant hepatic failure due to dengue, and the first case arising from a primary dengue infection. PMID:21234316
FRANCAVILLA, A.; MAKOWKA, L.; POLIMENO, L.; BARONE, M.; DEMETRIS, J.; PRELICH, J.; Van THIEL, D. H.; STARZL, T. E.
The development of a large animal model of fulminant hepatic failure produced with acetaminophen that should be useful in the development and evaluation of potential medical therapies for the important clinical problem of fulminant hepatic failure is described. Acetaminophen in dimethyl sulfoxide (600 mg/ml) given as three subcutaneous injections, with the first dose (750 mg/kg body wt) being given at noon, the second dose (200 mg/kg body wt) being given 9 h later, and the third dose (200 mg/kg body wt) being given 24 h after the initial dose consistently produces fulminant hepatic failure in dogs. The dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle, injected intramuscularly, does not influence either animal survival or hepatic function in control-treated dogs. No deaths occur within the first 36 h. By 72 h after initial drug administration, the mortality is 90%. Histopathological and biochemical investigations demonstrate a high degree of hepatocellular necrosis in nonsurviving animals without appreciable damage to the kidneys, lungs, or heart. The drug schedule and preparation outlined avoids the administration of large volumes of vehicle and results in prolonged high levels of acetaminophen in the blood sufficient to induce severe hepatic injury. Ranitidine (120 mg/kg body wt i.m.) given 30 min before each acetaminophen dose significantly reduces the mortality and hepatic necrosis produced using this model. This model satisfies all criteria established by Miller et al. for the production of a suitable large animal model of fulminant acute hepatic failure. PMID:2910762
Almeida, Osvaldo P; Garrido, Griselda J; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Arnolda, Leonard; Alfonso, Helman; Flicker, Leon
Heart failure (HF) has been associated with cognitive dysfunction, a high prevalence of mood disorders, and a relative loss of grey matter in several brain regions. This study aimed to determine if, compared with controls with and without ischaemic heart disease (IHD), adults with HF show evidence of progressive loss of cerebral grey matter, and whether morphological changes are associated with changes in cognition, depression and anxiety symptoms over a follow-up period of 2 years. This was a 24-month longitudinal study of 19 participants with systolic HF, 43 with IHD, and 45 controls. Subjects were older than 45 years and free of cognitive impairment at the start of follow-up. We acquired magnetic resonance images and used Statistical Parametric Mapping version 8 (SPM8) to investigate changes in the distribution of cerebral grey matter volume over time. We used the Cambridge Cognitive Examination of the Elderly (CAMCOG) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess 2-year changes in cognitive function and mood. Changes in total grey matter volume and cognitive function were similar across the three study groups, but participants with HF showed evidence of increasing severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms. HF was associated with subtle regional loss of grey matter in the right and left thalamus, left caudate, left and right posterior cingulate, left and right parahippocampal gyri, left superior and middle temporal gyri, and right inferior parietal lobule compared with controls and, to a lesser extent, participants with IHD. HF and IHD are not associated with a disproportional loss of cerebral grey matter or cognitive decline over 2 years compared with cardiologically healthy controls. Adults with HF experience increasing symptoms of anxiety and depression over 2 years compared with controls, and this increased vulnerability is associated with a relative loss of grey matter in brain regions that are important for the modulation of emotions.
Ring-Larsen, H; Palazzo, U
Forty patients with terminal cirrhosis and 40 patients with fulminant hepatic failure-all consecutively admitted-were studied with regard to incidence, types, and prognosis of complicating renal insufficiency. Renal failure was considered present when the serum creatinine was greater than 0.20 mmol/l. Of the patients with cirrhosis 26 (65%) developed renal failure. In 15 the type was functional, in three due to acute tubular necrosis, and in eight indeterminable. Of the patients with fulminant hepatic failure 22 (55%) had renal insufficiency; of these 13 had functional renal failure, five acute tubular necrosis, and in four the type was indeterminable. In both categories of patients, renal failure was equally frequent among patients with or without gastrointestinal bleeding and with or without ascites or diuretic therapy. The biochemical tests of liver function were similar in patients with or without renal failure in both categories. The mean renal blood flow in seven unselected patients with fulminant hepatic failure was reduced in the same order as previously observed in patients with cirrhosis. In terminal cirrhosis the mortality rate was 88% in the presence of renal failure, 71% in its absence (p greater than 0.05), while the same figures in fulminant hepatic failure were 100% and 67% (p less than 0.05). The incidence, relative frequency, and prognosis of renal failure were not different in the two conditions, indicating identical pathophysiological circumstances. PMID:7262632
Labadarios, D; Rossouw, J E; McConnell, J B; Davis, M; Williams, R
Nine out of 24 patients with acute hepatocellular necrosis leading to fulminant hepatic failure showed biochemical evidence of thiamine deficiency early in the course of their illness, probably as a result of inadequate intake of the vitamin. This was corrected by twice daily administration of intravenous vitamin supplements containing thiamine hydrochloride (100 mg b.d.). These studies indicate that conversion of thiamine hydrochloride to its biologically active co-enzyme form, thiamine pyrophosphate, is possible even in the presence of severe acute hepatocellular necrosis, and it is suggested that supplements of the vitamin should be included in the routine management of patients with acute hepatic failure.
Manka, Paul; Verheyen, Jens; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali
Viral hepatitis is still one of the key causes of acute liver failure (ALF) in the world. A selective literature search of the PubMed database was conducted, including current studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines. We obtained an overview of ALF due to viral hepatitis in terms of epidemiology, course, and treatment options. Most fulminant viral courses are reported after infection with hepatitis A, B, and B/D, but not with hepatitis C. Hepatitis E is also known to cause ALF but has not gained much attention in recent years. However, more and more autochthonous hepatitis E virus infections have been recently observed in Europe. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) under immunosuppressive conditions, such as after intensive chemotherapy, is also an increasing problem. For most viral-induced cases of ALF, liver transplantation represented the only therapeutic option in the past. Today, immediate treatment of HBV-induced ALF with nucleotide or nucleoside analogs is well tolerated and beneficially affects the course of the disease. Although numbers in Western European countries are decreasing rapidly, reliable diagnostic screening for hepatitis A-E is necessary to identify the etiology and to determine those most at risk of developing ALF.
Manka, Paul; Verheyen, Jens; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali
Background Viral hepatitis is still one of the key causes of acute liver failure (ALF) in the world. Methods A selective literature search of the PubMed database was conducted, including current studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines. We obtained an overview of ALF due to viral hepatitis in terms of epidemiology, course, and treatment options. Results Most fulminant viral courses are reported after infection with hepatitis A, B, and B/D, but not with hepatitis C. Hepatitis E is also known to cause ALF but has not gained much attention in recent years. However, more and more autochthonous hepatitis E virus infections have been recently observed in Europe. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) under immunosuppressive conditions, such as after intensive chemotherapy, is also an increasing problem. For most viral-induced cases of ALF, liver transplantation represented the only therapeutic option in the past. Today, immediate treatment of HBV-induced ALF with nucleotide or nucleoside analogs is well tolerated and beneficially affects the course of the disease. Conclusion Although numbers in Western European countries are decreasing rapidly, reliable diagnostic screening for hepatitis A-E is necessary to identify the etiology and to determine those most at risk of developing ALF. PMID:27413724
Ebenezer, K; Agarwal, I; Fleming, D
A 7-month-old infant developed acute fatal hepatic failure owing to inadvertent duplication of paracetamol prescriptions. Paracetamol toxicity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants presenting with acute hepatic failure.
Karki, Pragya; Malik, Sarthak; Mallick, Bipadabhanjan; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S
Abstract Acute viral hepatitis is usually a self-limiting illness. However, it can lead to complications that can be life-threatening, such as acute liver failure. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the setting of acute viral hepatitis can lead to a massive hemolysis, manifesting as acute kidney injury and markedly raised bilirubin levels; although cases are rare. Here, we report such a case. The patient had a viral hepatitis E infection and presented with kidney injury requiring dialysis. Examination showed very high mixed hyperbilirubinemia due to massive intravascular hemolysis. The patient experienced a long, protracted course of illness, requiring renal replacement therapy with other supportive management, which led to improvement over a period of four weeks. This case highlights the importance of recognizing associated hemolysis in a patient with viral hepatitis who presents with very high bilirubin levels or associated kidney injury. Such patients will require aggressive supportive care with prompt fluid and electrolyte management. PMID:28097104
The presence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) within 4 weeks is part of the criteria for defining acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The pathophysiology of HE is complex, and hyperammonemia and cerebral hemodynamic dysfunction appear to be central in the pathogenesis of encephalopathy. Recent data also suggest that inflammatory mediators may have a significant role in modulating the cerebral effect of ammonia. Multiple prospective and retrospective studies have shown that hepatic encephalopathy in ACLF patients is associated with higher mortality, especially in those with grade III-IV encephalopathy, similar to that of acute liver failure (ALF). Although significant cerebral edema detected by CT in ACLF patients appeared to be less common, specialized MRI imaging was able to detect cerebral edema even in low grade HE. Ammonia-focused therapy constitutes the basis of current therapy, as in the treatment of ALF. Emerging treatment strategies focusing on modulating the gut-liver-circulation-brain axis are discussed.
Baudouin, S. V.; Howdle, P.; O'Grady, J. G.; Webster, N. R.
BACKGROUND--There is little information on the incidence of acute lung injury or changes in the pulmonary circulation in acute liver failure. The aim of this study was to record the incidence of acute lung injury in fulminant hepatic failure caused by paracetamol poisoning, to document the associated pulmonary circulatory changes, and to assess the impact of lung injury on patient outcome. METHODS--The degree of lung injury was retrospectively assessed by a standard scoring system (modified from Murray) in all patients with fulminant hepatic failure caused by paracetamol poisoning, admitted to the intensive care unit over a one year period. The severity of liver failure and illness, other organ system failure, and patient outcome were also analysed. RESULTS--Twenty four patients with paracetamol-induced liver failure were admitted and nine developed lung injury of whom eight (33%) had severe injury (Murray score > 2.5). In two patients hypoxaemia contributed to death. Patients with lung injury had higher median encephalopathy grades (4 v 2 in the non-injured group) and APACHE II scores (29 v 16). Circulatory failure, requiring vasoconstrictor support, occurred in all patients with lung injury but in only 40% of those without. Cerebral oedema, as detected by abnormal rises in intracranial pressure, also occurred in all patients with lung injury but in only 27% of the non-injured patients. The incidence of renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy was similar in both groups (67% and 47%). Pulmonary artery occlusion pressures were normal in the lung injury group. Cardiac output was high (median 11.2 1/min), systemic vascular resistance low (median 503 dynes/s/cm-5), and pulmonary vascular resistance low (median 70 dynes/s/cm-5), but not significantly different from the group without lung injury. Mortality was much higher in the lung injury group than in the non-injured group (89% v 13%). CONCLUSIONS--Acute lung injury was common in patients with paracetamol
Patel, Harish; Tariq, Hassan; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Vakde, Trupti; Makker, Jasbir; Daniel, Myrta
Herpes hepatitis is a rare cause of fulminant hepatic failure contributing to less than 1% of all cases. It is most often seen in persons who are immunosuppressed and in pregnant women. The presentation is usually non-specific and rapidly progressive, thus making antemortem diagnosis of this condition rare. We present a patient who was on chronic immunosuppressive therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus and subsequently developed multi-organ failure with anicteric transaminitis as a result of disseminated herpes infection. The diagnosis was only made post-mortem. A confounding factor in this case was the fact that the patient underwent plasmapheresis, which skewed the interpretation of liver function tests in the setting of acute liver failure. PMID:27829961
Patel, Harish; Tariq, Hassan; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Vakde, Trupti; Makker, Jasbir; Daniel, Myrta
Herpes hepatitis is a rare cause of fulminant hepatic failure contributing to less than 1% of all cases. It is most often seen in persons who are immunosuppressed and in pregnant women. The presentation is usually non-specific and rapidly progressive, thus making antemortem diagnosis of this condition rare. We present a patient who was on chronic immunosuppressive therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus and subsequently developed multi-organ failure with anicteric transaminitis as a result of disseminated herpes infection. The diagnosis was only made post-mortem. A confounding factor in this case was the fact that the patient underwent plasmapheresis, which skewed the interpretation of liver function tests in the setting of acute liver failure.
Cameron, Andrew M; Truty, Jadwiga; Truell, Jeff; Lassman, Charles; Zimmerman, Michael A; Kelly, Burnett S; Farmer, Douglas G; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Ghobrial, Rafik; Busuttil, Ronald W
Systemic lymphomas may involve the liver but rarely cause fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Acute liver failure from primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is even less common with most patients succumbing to the sequelae of FHF before the correct diagnosis is made. We report a patient who underwent successful orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) and chemotherapy for FHF secondary to PHL. This previously-well male developed profound coagulopathy and encephalopathy 6 weeks after the onset of jaundice and fatigue. Workup failed to reveal the underlying cause of his liver failure and the patient soon required urgent OLT. Pathologic evaluation of his explanted liver revealed a malignant T-cell rich, large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with widespread hepatocellular necrosis. The patient made an excellent clinical recovery and is undergoing CHOP-Rituxan chemotherapy. This scenario demonstrates that lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FHF without clear etiology because of the potential for intervention with transplant and chemotherapy.
Rahimi, Kazem; Duncan, Marie; Pitcher, Alex; Emdin, Connor A; Goldacre, Michael J
Age-standardised death rates from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) have been declining in most developed countries. However, the magnitude of such reductions and how they impact on death from heart failure are less certain. We sought to assess and compare temporal trends in mortality from heart failure, AMI and non-AMI IHD over a 30-year period in England. We analysed death registration data for multiple-cause-coded mortality for all deaths in people aged 35 years and over in England from 1995 to 2010, population 52 million, and in a regional population (Oxford region) from 1981 to 2010, population 2.5 million, for which data on all causes of death were available. Considering all ages and both sexes combined, during the 30-year observation period, age-standardised and sex-standardised mortality rates based on all certified causes of death declined by 60% for heart failure, 80% for AMI and 46% for non-AMI IHD. These longer term trends observed in the Oxford region were consistent with those for the whole of England from 1995 to 2010, with no evidence of a plateau in recent years. Although proportional reductions in rates differed by age and sex, even in those aged 85 years or more, there were substantial reductions in mortality rates in the all-England data set (50%, 66% and 20% for heart failure, AMI and non-AMI IHD, respectively). This study shows large and sustained reductions in age-specific and sex-specific and standardised death rates from heart failure, as well as from AMI and non-AMI IHD, over a 30-year period in England. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rahimi, Kazem; Duncan, Marie; Pitcher, Alex; Emdin, Connor A; Goldacre, Michael J
Background Age-standardised death rates from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) have been declining in most developed countries. However, the magnitude of such reductions and how they impact on death from heart failure are less certain. We sought to assess and compare temporal trends in mortality from heart failure, AMI and non-AMI IHD over a 30-year period in England. Methods We analysed death registration data for multiple-cause-coded mortality for all deaths in people aged 35 years and over in England from 1995 to 2010, population 52 million, and in a regional population (Oxford region) from 1981 to 2010, population 2.5 million, for which data on all causes of death were available. Results Considering all ages and both sexes combined, during the 30-year observation period, age-standardised and sex-standardised mortality rates based on all certified causes of death declined by 60% for heart failure, 80% for AMI and 46% for non-AMI IHD. These longer term trends observed in the Oxford region were consistent with those for the whole of England from 1995 to 2010, with no evidence of a plateau in recent years. Although proportional reductions in rates differed by age and sex, even in those aged 85 years or more, there were substantial reductions in mortality rates in the all-England data set (50%, 66% and 20% for heart failure, AMI and non-AMI IHD, respectively). Conclusions This study shows large and sustained reductions in age-specific and sex-specific and standardised death rates from heart failure, as well as from AMI and non-AMI IHD, over a 30-year period in England. PMID:26136081
Davison, Beth A.; Filippatos, Gerasimos S.; Radovanovic, Slavica; Beleslin, Branko; Merkely, Bela; Musialek, Piotr; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Andreka, Peter; Horvath, Ivan G.; Katz, Amos; Dolatabadi, Dariouch; El Nakadi, Badih; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Edes, Istvan; Seferovic, Petar M.; Obradovic, Slobodan; Vanderheyden, Marc; Jagic, Nikola; Petrov, Ivo; Atar, Shaul; Halabi, Majdi; Gelev, Valeri L.; Shochat, Michael K.; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw D.; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Heyndrickx, Guy R.; Nyolczas, Noémi; Legrand, Victor; Guédès, Antoine; Heyse, Alex; Moccetti, Tiziano; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Jimenez-Quevedo, Pilar; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Hernandez-Garcia, Jose Maria; Ribichini, Flavio; Gruchala, Marcin; Waldman, Scott A.; Teerlink, John R.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Povsic, Thomas J.; Henry, Timothy D.; Metra, Marco; Hajjar, Roger J.; Tendera, Michal; Behfar, Atta; Alexandre, Bertrand; Seron, Aymeric; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Sherman, Warren; Cotter, Gad; Wijns, William
Aims Cardiopoietic cells, produced through cardiogenic conditioning of patients’ mesenchymal stem cells, have shown preliminary efficacy. The Congestive Heart Failure Cardiopoietic Regenerative Therapy (CHART-1) trial aimed to validate cardiopoiesis-based biotherapy in a larger heart failure cohort. Methods and results This multinational, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study was conducted in 39 hospitals. Patients with symptomatic ischaemic heart failure on guideline-directed therapy (n = 484) were screened; n = 348 underwent bone marrow harvest and mesenchymal stem cell expansion. Those achieving > 24 million mesenchymal stem cells (n = 315) were randomized to cardiopoietic cells delivered endomyocardially with a retention-enhanced catheter (n = 157) or sham procedure (n = 158). Procedures were performed as randomized in 271 patients (n = 120 cardiopoietic cells, n = 151 sham). The primary efficacy endpoint was a Finkelstein–Schoenfeld hierarchical composite (all-cause mortality, worsening heart failure, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score, 6-min walk distance, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction) at 39 weeks. The primary outcome was neutral (Mann–Whitney estimator 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.61 [value > 0.5 favours cell treatment], P = 0.27). Exploratory analyses suggested a benefit of cell treatment on the primary composite in patients with baseline left ventricular end-diastolic volume 200–370 mL (60% of patients) (Mann–Whitney estimator 0.61, 95% CI 0.52–0.70, P = 0.015). No difference was observed in serious adverse events. One (0.9%) cardiopoietic cell patient and 9 (5.4%) sham patients experienced aborted or sudden cardiac death. Conclusion The primary endpoint was neutral, with safety demonstrated across the cohort. Further evaluation of cardiopoietic cell therapy in patients with elevated end-diastolic volume is warranted. PMID:28025189
Kandil, Emad; Khalek, Mohamed Abdel; Thethi, Tina; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria; Khan, Amna; Jaffe, Bernard M
This manuscript describes a 28-year-old patient with a history of Graves' disease who was transferred to Tulane University Hospital with fulminant hepatic failure. He reported associated nausea, vomiting, anorexia, as well as jaundice and abdominal discomfort for a period of 3 weeks prior to his admission. His thyroid function tests on admission were TSH, 0.013 μU/mL; T3, 94.9 μU/mL; T4, 9.37 μU/mL; Free T4, >6 μU/mL. His liver function tests were characteristic of hepatic failure. The patient underwent an emergent liver transplant. His surgery was complicated by heart failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Given the patients clinical presentation and laboratory results, a diagnosis of thyroid storm was made and a decision was made to proceed with an emergent thyroidectomy. The posttransplant multiorgan dysfunction was rapidly reversed by prompt thyroidectomy and decisive management. The patient was discharged from the hospital with normal thyroid and liver function tests.
Nishikawa, Taichiro; Bell, Aaron; Brooks, Jenna M.; Setoyama, Kentaro; Melis, Marta; Han, Bing; Fukumitsu, Ken; Handa, Kan; Tian, Jianmin; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Locker, Joseph; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fox, Ira J.
The cause of organ failure is enigmatic for many degenerative diseases, including end-stage liver disease. Here, using a CCl4-induced rat model of irreversible and fatal hepatic failure, which also exhibits terminal changes in the extracellular matrix, we demonstrated that chronic injury stably reprograms the critical balance of transcription factors and that diseased and dedifferentiated cells can be returned to normal function by re-expression of critical transcription factors, a process similar to the type of reprogramming that induces somatic cells to become pluripotent or to change their cell lineage. Forced re-expression of the transcription factor HNF4α induced expression of the other hepatocyte-expressed transcription factors; restored functionality in terminally diseased hepatocytes isolated from CCl4-treated rats; and rapidly reversed fatal liver failure in CCl4-treated animals by restoring diseased hepatocytes rather than replacing them with new hepatocytes or stem cells. Together, the results of our study indicate that disruption of the transcription factor network and cellular dedifferentiation likely mediate terminal liver failure and suggest reinstatement of this network has therapeutic potential for correcting organ failure without cell replacement. PMID:25774505
Zhou, Ping; Xia, Jie; Guo, Gang; Huang, Zi-Xing; Lu, Qiang; Li, Li; Li, Hong-Xia; Shi, Yu-Jun; Bu, Hong
AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies. PMID:22346249
Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hepatic and renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and glycerol-treated rats. After intravenous administration of flunixin (2 mg/kg), the plasma concentration of flunixin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both acute hepatic and renal failure resulted in significantly increased area under the curve (AUC), prolonged elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and reduced total body clearance (Cl(tot)) compared with respective controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic failure as well as renal failure modified the pharmacokinetics of flunixin.
French, Samuel W; Masouminia, Maryam; Samadzadeh, Sara; Tillman, Brittany C; Mendoza, Alejandro; French, Barbara A
The mechanisms of protein quality control in hepatocytes in cases of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) including ufmylation, FAT10ylation, metacaspase 1 (Mca1), ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation), JUNQ (juxta nuclear quality control), IPOD (insoluble protein deposit) autophagocytosis, and ER stress are reviewed. The Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation develops in the hepatocytes in alcoholic hepatitis as a consequence of the failure of these protein quality control mechanisms to remove misfolded and damaged proteins and to prevent MDB aggresome formation within the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The proteins involved in the quality control pathways are identified, quantitated, and visualized by immunofluorescent antibody staining of liver biopsies from patients with AH. Quantification of the proteins are achieved by measuring the fluorescent intensity using a morphometric system. Ufmylation and FAT10ylation pathways were downregulated, Mca1 pathways were upregulated, autophagocytosis was upregulated, and ER stress PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) and CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein) mechanisms were upregulated.
Association between β-blocker therapy and outcomes in patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease with underlying ischaemic heart disease, heart failure or hypertension.
Stefan, Mihaela S; Rothberg, Michael B; Priya, Aruna; Pekow, Penelope S; Au, David H; Lindenauer, Peter K
β-Blocker therapy has been shown to improve survival among patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) and is underused among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Evidence regarding the optimal use of β-blocker therapy during an acute exacerbation of COPD is particularly weak. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients aged ≥40 years with IHD, CHF or hypertension who were hospitalised for an acute exacerbation of COPD from 1 January 2006 to 1 December 2007 at 404 acute care hospitals throughout the USA. We examined the association between β-blocker therapy and in-hospital mortality, initiation of mechanical ventilation after day 2 of hospitalisation, 30-day all-cause readmission and length of stay. Of 35 082 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 29% were treated with β blockers in the first two hospital days, including 22% with β1-selective and 7% with non-selective β blockers. In a propensity-matched analysis, there was no association between β-blocker therapy and in-hospital mortality (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.09), 30-day readmission (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.03) or late mechanical ventilation (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.24). However, when compared with β1 selective β blockers, receipt of non-selective β blockers was associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.44). Among patients with IHD, CHF or hypertension, continuing β1-selective β blockers during hospitalisation for COPD appears to be safe. Until additional evidence becomes available, β1-selective β blockers may be superior to treatment with a non-selective β blocker.
Automatic identification of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and their levels of severity from Italian General Practitioners' electronic medical records: a validation study
Schuemie, Martijn J; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Lapi, Francesco; Francesconi, Paolo; Pasqua, Alessandro; Bianchini, Elisa; Montalbano, Carmelo; Roberto, Giuseppe; Barletta, Valentina; Cricelli, Iacopo; Cricelli, Claudio; Dal Co, Giulia; Bellentani, Mariadonata; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Klazinga, Niek
Objectives The Italian project MATRICE aimed to assess how well cases of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) and their levels of severity can be automatically extracted from the Health Search/CSD Longitudinal Patient Database (HSD). From the medical records of the general practitioners (GP) who volunteered to participate, cases were extracted by algorithms based on diagnosis codes, keywords, drug prescriptions and results of diagnostic tests. A random sample of identified cases was validated by interviewing their GPs. Setting HSD is a database of primary care medical records. A panel of 12 GPs participated in this validation study. Participants 300 patients were sampled for each disease, except for HF, where 243 patients were assessed. Outcome measures The positive predictive value (PPV) was assessed for the presence/absence of each condition against the GP's response to the questionnaire, and Cohen's κ was calculated for agreement on the severity level. Results The PPV was 100% (99% to 100%) for T2DM and hypertension, 98% (96% to 100%) for IHD and 55% (49% to 61%) for HF. Cohen's kappa for agreement on the severity level was 0.70 for T2DM and 0.69 for hypertension and IHD. Conclusions This study shows that individuals with T2DM, hypertension or IHD can be validly identified in HSD by automated identification algorithms. Automatic queries for levels of severity of the same diseases compare well with the corresponding clinical definitions, but some misclassification occurs. For HF, further research is needed to refine the current algorithm. PMID:27940627
Chen, Paul; Marentis, Theodore; Brown, Richard K J
Hepatic uptake on an MDP bone scan is a non-specific finding. When present, the etiology needs to be determined. The differential diagnosis depends on the pattern of uptake. Metastatic breast and colon cancer are frequent causes of focal faint uptake. Diffuse uptake is rare, but can be seen with hepatitis, amyloid, and IV gadolinium administration. In addition, aluminum breakthrough from the molybdenum generator can cause colloid formation and subsequent diffuse hepatic uptake. We present a case of diffuse uptake in a patient with acute hepatic failure. The etiology of the failure was extensive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC).
Poddar, U; Thapa, B; Prasad, A; Sharma, A; Singh, K
Background: The natural history of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) without liver transplantation is not well known. Aims: To study the natural history and prognostic factors, especially the presence of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), in children with FHF. Methods: FHF was defined by the onset of encephalopathy within 12 weeks of onset of jaundice. From August 1997 to December 2000, 67 children (≤12 years) were diagnosed with FHF. Their clinical features, investigations and outcome were noted. Viral markers A to E (IgM, anti-HAV; IgM, anti-HEV, HBsAg, and anti-HCV) were determined by ELISA. SBP was defined by the presence of ≥250 neutrophils with or without a positive culture in ascitic fluid. Results: Mean age of the children was 5.8 years with an almost equal sex distribution. Viral markers were positive in 63 (94%) cases: hepatitis A in 34 (54%), E in 17 (27%), A+E in seven (11%), and B in five (8%). Thirty one children presented with grade I or II encephalopathy and all recovered, whereas 17 of 36 children who had grade III or IV encephalopathy died. Ascites was detected (both clinically and ultrasonically) in 34 (51%) cases, nine (26%) of which had SBP. Overall mortality was 25%. Mortality was higher in those who had ascites than in those who did not (32% v 18%); among those with ascites it was maximum in those who had SBP (78% v 16%). Total serum bilirubin and grade of encephalopathy were significantly higher, serum albumin was significantly lower, and prothrombin time was significantly prolonged in those who died than in those who recovered. Conclusion: The natural history of FHF in Indian children depends on age, grade of encephalopathy, ascites, and SBP. SBP depicts worse outcome. In all cases of FHF with ascites, the presence of SBP should be investigated. PMID:12089125
Latt, N L; Araz, F; Alachkar, N; Durand, C M; Gurakar, A
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a rising global public health burden with an estimated 130-150 million infected people worldwide and 350,000 to 500,000 HCV-related deaths each year. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also a highly prevalent public health issue as the escalating numbers of patients worldwide are developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension due to high fat diets and a growing obesity epidemic. The high incidence and prevalence of HCV infection leads to substantial morbidity and mortality among renal dialysis patients. Recommendations are to screen for HCV infection among all patients with renal failure especially prior to initiation of hemodialysis and renal transplant evaluation. HCV-antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by confirmation with HCV RNA nucleic acid test (NAT) is recommended for low prevalence regions, but in dialysis centers with a high prevalence of HCV, initial testing with NAT is recommended due to higher false positive EIA rates. Liver biopsy is used to assess of liver disease severity. Transjugular liver biopsy, as an effective and safe technique in patients with ESRD can be considered instead of percutaneous approach. Non-invasive approaches to staging fibrosis, including liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography and panels of serum fibrosis biomarkers, are also widely used. Although difficult to manage, combined pegylated- interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin therapy was the only treatment modality available for HCV-positive patients until the recently introduced new direct-acting antiviral agents. However, except boceprevir, there are no currently available data to suggest that these new anti-viral drugs are safe and effective among end-stage renal failure patients. IFN-containing regimens were also associated with high rates of renal graft loss in post-renal transplant patients. Therefore, management of HCV infection in renal failure patients is unique and should be tailored individually with
Shalimar; Acharya, Subrat K.
Hepatitis E virus is a positive strand RNA virus with three open reading frames which is transmitted predominantly through the fecal contamination of water and food. It is the most common cause of acute liver failure in endemic areas. Pregnant women especially from the Indian subcontinent and Africa are at increased risk of contracting acute HEV infection as well as developing severe complications including ALF. Transmission of HEV occurs from mother to unborn child. Both maternal and fetal complications may occur, including abortion, fetal demise, preterm labor and maternal or neonatal death. The precise reasons for increased susceptibility to HEV infection during pregnancy and associated severe disease are still an enigma. Management is supportive and termination of pregnancy is not recommended as a general rule. Prevention of infection is of vital importance, as availability of clean drinking water can reduce the burden of this disease in the community. There is a need for future research to focus on prevention of ALF in pregnancy and to study the disease pathogenesis, which is not explicitly understood at present. The availability of a vaccine may alter the natural course of the disease in this select population which is at risk. PMID:25755503
Chi, Heng; Haagsma, Elizabeth B; Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; van den Berg, Arie P; Metselaar, Herold J; de Knegt, Robert J
We present a patient with no medical history admitted for jaundice and dark coloured urine. Further investigations revealed hepatitis A related acute liver failure while the patient had no travel history, nor contact with infected individuals. After admission, the patient deteriorated fulfilling the King's College criteria for acute liver failure. Two days after admission, he underwent liver transplantation and recovered. Careful investigation identified imported semi-dried tomatoes as the source of the hepatitis A infection. This patient was part of a foodborne hepatitis A outbreak in the Netherlands in 2010 affecting 13 patients. Virus sequence analysis of our patient's virus showed a strain commonly found in Turkey. Hepatitis A related acute liver failure is rare, but is associated with a poor prognosis. In developed countries, the incidence of hepatitis A is low, but foodborne outbreaks are emerging. Further, we review the literature on recent foodborne hepatitis A outbreaks in developed countries, hepatitis A related acute liver failure, and hepatitis A vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ravikanth, Reddy; Sandeep, S.; Philip, Babu
White phosphorus is well known as a potent hepatotoxin and a severe local and systemic toxin causing damage to gastrointestinal, hepatic, cardiovascular, and renal systems. It is used in the manufacture of matches, fireworks, rodenticide, and fertilizers. Death results due to acute liver failure. Management of yellow phosphorus (YP) poisoning is supportive with no antidote available. Here, we present a case of acute YP poisoning in a 25-year-old female presenting with fulminant hepatic failure and duodenal perforation. PMID:28515612
Hepatitis A virus is the most common acute viral hepatitis worldwide with approximately 1.5 million cases annually. Hepatitis A virus infection in general is self-limited. In rare cases, hepatitis A virus infection may cause renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and/or cholestasis. We report the first case of acute cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection complicated by hemolytic anemia, and renal failure in one patient. A 42-year-old Caucasian male presented with cholestasis, hemolytic anemia and renal failure after consuming street tacos in Central and South America while on a business trip. His protracted course required corticosteroid therapy, multiple sessions of plasma exchange, and numerous units of packed red blood cells. This case demonstrates the importance of vaccination in high-risk adults. A prompt diagnosis of acute hepatitis A virus infection is essential, as uncommon presentations may delay diagnosis leading to permanent morbidity and potentially death in fulminant cases. We also demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection, hemolytic anemia, and renal failure with corticosteroids and plasma exchange. PMID:25431704
Percutaneous ventricular restoration (PVR) therapy using the Parachute device in 100 subjects with ischaemic dilated heart failure: one-year primary endpoint results of PARACHUTE III, a European trial.
Thomas, Martyn; Nienaber, Christoph A; Ince, Hüseyin; Erglis, Andrejs; Vukcevic, Vladan; Schäfer, Ulrich; Ferreira, Rui Cruz; Hardt, Stefan; Verheye, Stefan; Gama Ribeiro, Vasco; Sugeng, Lissa; Tamburino, Corrado
This prospective, non-randomised, observational study conducted in Europe was designed in order to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the Parachute device in ischaemic heart failure subjects as a result of left ventricle remodelling after anterior wall myocardial infarction. One hundred subjects with New York Heart Association Class II-IV ischaemic heart failure (HF), ejection fraction (EF) between 15% and 40%, and dilated akinetic or dyskinetic anterior-apical wall without the need to be revascularised were enrolled. The primary safety endpoint was procedural- or device-related major adverse cardiac cerebral events (MACCE). The secondary safety endpoint was the composite of mortality and morbidity. Secondary efficacy endpoints included haemodynamic measurements determined by echocardiography, LV volume indices, and assessment of functional improvement measured by a standardised six-minute walk test. Of the 100 subjects enrolled, device implantation was successful in 97 (97%) subjects. The one-year rates of the primary and secondary safety endpoints were 7% and 32.3%, respectively. The secondary endpoints, LV volume reduction (p<0.0001) and six-minute walk distance improvement (p<0.01), were achieved. The favourable outcomes observed in this high-risk population provide reassuring safety and efficacy data to support adoption of this technology as a therapeutic option for HF subjects.
Costilla, Vanessa; Mathur, Neha; Gutierrez, Julio A
The current standard of care for hepatitis C therapy is the combination of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents. These orally administered medications target the viral proteins and halt the hepatitis C virus lifecycle. Despite high cure rates with these novel drugs, virologic failure with DAAs are of mounting concern as real-world sustained virologic response 12 rates seem lower than expected. The mechanisms of virologic failure to DAAs are likely multifactorial, including baseline resistance variants, the efficacy of the agents used, and host factors. Salvage therapy for DAA virologic failures is an area of emerging research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bémeur, Chantal; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F.
Malnutrition is common in patients with end-stage liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy, and is considered a significant prognostic factor affecting quality of life, outcome, and survival. The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of nutrition by trafficking the metabolism of nutrients, their distribution and appropriate use by the body. Nutritional consequences with the potential to cause nervous system dysfunction occur in liver failure, and many factors contribute to malnutrition in hepatic failure. Among them are inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased protein losses, hypermetabolism, insulin resistance, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, inflammation/infection, and hyponatremia. Patients at risk of malnutrition are relatively difficult to identify since liver disease may interfere with biomarkers of malnutrition. The supplementation of the diet with amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins as well as probiotics in addition to meeting energy and protein requirements may improve nutritional status, liver function, and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with end-stage liver failure. PMID:21234351
Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT1A, on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. KEY RESULTS Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. PMID:21182490
Voiculescu, Mihai; Ionescu, Camelia; Ismail, Gener; Mandache, Eugen; Hortopan, Monica; Constantinescu, Ileana; Iliescu, Olguta
Renal transplantation is often associated with severe complications. Except for acute rejection, infections and toxicity of immunosuppressive treatment are the most frequent problems observed after transplantation. Infections with hepatic viruses (HBV, HDV, HCV, HGV) and cytomegalic virus (CMV) are the main infectious complications after renal transplantation. Cyclosporine toxicity is not unusual for a patient with renal transplantation and is even more frequent for patients with hepatic impairment due to viral infections. The subjects of this report are two renal transplant recipients with acute pancreatitis, severe hepatitis and acute renal failure on graft, receiving immunosuppressive therapy for maintaining renal graft function
Cao, Xu; Liu, Mei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Dong-Yan
AIM: To investigate the change in intestinal dendritic cell (DC) number in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: An animal model of FHF was created. Intestinal CD11b/c was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect intestinal integrin-α mRNA expression. Intestinal CD83, CD86, CD74, CD3 and AKT were detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and PCR. Phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT) was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. RESULTS: In the FHF group [D-galactosamine (D-Galn) + lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group], the mice began to die after 6 h; conversely, in the D-Galn and LPS groups, the activity of mice was poor, but there were no deaths. Immunohistochemistry results showed that in FHF, the expression of CD11b/c (7988400 ± 385941 vs 1102400 ± 132273, P < 0.05), CD83 (13875000 ± 467493 vs 9257600 ± 400364, P < 0.05), CD86 (7988400 ± 385941 vs 1102400 ± 13227, P < 0.05) and CD74 (11056000 ± 431427 vs 4633400 ± 267903, P < 0.05) was significantly increased compared with the normal saline (NS) group. Compared with the NS group, the protein expression of CD11b/c (5.4817 ± 0.77 vs 1.4073 ± 0.37, P < 0.05) and CD86 (4.2673 ± 0.69 vs 1.1379 ± 0.42, P < 0.05) was significantly increased. Itg-α (1.1224 ± 0.3 vs 0.4907 ± 0.19, P < 0.05), CD83 (3.6986 ± 0.40 vs 1.0762 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and CD86 (1.5801 ± 0.32 vs 0.8846 ± 0.10, P < 0.05) mRNA expression was increased significantly in the FHF group. At the protein level, expression of CD74 in the FHF group (2.3513 ± 0.52) was significantly increased compared with the NS group (1.1298 ± 0.33), whereas in the LPS group (2.3891 ± 0.47), the level of CD74 was the highest (P < 0.05). At the gene level, the relative expression of CD74 mRNA in the FHF group (1.5383 ± 0.26) was also significantly increased in comparison to the NS group (0.7648 ± 0.22; P < 0.05). CD3 expression was the highest in the FHF group (P < 0
Curran, B J; Havill, J H
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare inherited metabolic disorder. Although fructose intolerance usually presents in the paediatric age group, individuals can survive into adulthood by self.manipulation of diet. Hospitalisation can become a high.risk environment for these individuals because of loss of control of their strict dietary constraints and the added danger of administration of medications containing fructose, sucrose and sorbitol. We report a case of hereditary fructose intolerance in an adult presenting with hepatic and renal failure associated with an amiodarone infusion and explore the possibility of polysorbate 80 as a cause of this patient's hepatic and renal failure.
Benítez-Gutiérrez, Laura; Barreiro, Pablo; Labarga, Pablo; de Mendoza, Carmen; Fernandez-Montero, José V; Arias, Ana; Peña, José M; Soriano, Vicente
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has become a curable disease. Sustained virologic response rates above 90% have been achieved with recommended direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combinations in most registration trials. However, outcomes in real-world patients are lower. In patients experiencing DAA failure, resistance-associated variants (RAVs) are almost universally selected. At this time it is unclear when and how to re-treat hepatitis C in patients with prior DAA failure. The rate of DAA failure and predictors of lack of treatment response using distinct DAA combinations are analyzed. We discuss the management of HCV treatment failure and the impact of RAVs on re-treatment strategies. Failure to DAA combinations occurs more often in chronic hepatitis C patients with baseline predictors of poor response, such as those with RAVs, genotypes 3 or 1a, advanced liver cirrhosis, elevated serum HCV-RNA and perhaps HIV coinfection. Impaired antiviral efficacy is more frequent when multiple factors are present. On-treatment predictors of DAA failure are poor drug adherence and development of side effects. Extending the length of therapy, adding ribavirin and/or using DAA from other drug families may allow successful re-treatment of most prior DAA failures.
Pestalozza, Isabella F; Di Legge, Silvia; Calabresi, Marco; Lenzi, Gian Luigi
The ischaemic penumbra was described for the first time in the late 1970s as a ring of hypoperfused zone surrounding the region of complete infarction. The penumbral zone is a functionally silent tissue which is able to regain its function if promptly reperfused. This implies that the ischaemic penumbra is not a static but a "dynamic" and "time-dependent" concept. In this paper we describe the role of neuroimmaging tecniques such as single photon emission tomography (SPET), positron emission tomography (PET), and diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI and PWI) in the study of ischaemic penumbra. These functional imaging techniques have the advantage of giving "in vivo" quantitative estimate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) as well as information on how the ischaemic tissue metabolic changes develop. It follows that, as therapeutic options for treating acute stroke evolve, neuroimaging strategies are assuming an increasingly important role in the initial evaluation and management of the acute ischaemic patient. In this regard, a wide range of therapeutic approaches have been investigated for either ameliorating the perfusion, or interfering with the pathobiochemical cascade leading to ischaemic neuronal damage, or improving endogenous neuroprotection pathways. The "time windows" required for these treatments to be effective varies being rather short for reperfusion and longer for neuroprotection. Salvaging more penumbra would enhance recovery and thereby allow the most appropriate candidate for therapeutic trials to be selected.
Tschiedel, E; Gierenz, N; Wieland, R; Wulff, B; Ballauff, A
Aplastic anaemia can coincide with non-A-E hepatitis. Treatment follows a standardised study protocol of the German Society of Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH). Patients receive immunosuppression and/or bone marrow transplantation. We present six cases of aplastic anaemia after non-A-E hepatitis with different courses. In four of these children illness first presented with acute gastroenteritis. Five out of six children fully recovered, two of these with immunosuppression alone, three after bone marrow transplantation. One patient died due to complications of the bone marrow transplantation. In two patients steroid therapy was carried out to treat the hepatitis. This did not have any effect on the course of their aplastic anemia. We emphasise this common combination of aplastic anemia following non-A-E hepatitis. This overview underlines the necessity of regular blood testing after non-A-E hepatitis. Often gastroenteritis seems to precede illness thus perhaps indicating an infectious trigger.
Ben Ari, Ziv; Avlas, Orna; Pappo, Orit; Zilbermints, Veacheslav; Cheporko, Yelena; Bachmetov, Larissa; Zemel, Romy; Shainberg, Asher; Sharon, Eran; Grief, Franklin; Hochhauser, Edith
Liver transplantation is the only therapy of proven benefit in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced FHF is a well established model of liver injury in mice. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as a receptor for LPS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLR4 in FHF induced by D-GalN/LPS administration in mice. Wild type (WT) and TLR4 deficient (TLR4ko) mice were studied in vivo in a fulminant model induced by GalN/LPS. Hepatic TLR4 expression, serum liver enzymes, hepatic and serum TNF-α and interleukin-1β levels were determined. Apoptotic cells were identified by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3. Nuclear factor-kappaβ (NF-κ β) and phosphorylated c-Jun hepatic expression were studied using Western blot analysis. All WT mice died within 24 hours after administration of GalN/LPS while all TLR4ko mice survived. Serum liver enzymes, interleukin-1β, TNF-α level, TLR4 mRNA expression, hepatic injury and hepatocyte apoptosis all significantly decreased in TLR4ko mice compared with WT mice. A significant decrease in hepatic c-Jun and IκB signaling pathway was noted in TLR4ko mice compared with WT mice. In conclusion, following induction of FHF, the inflammatory response and the liver injury in TLR4ko mice was significantly attenuated through decreased hepatic c-Jun and NF-κB expression and thus decreased TNF-α level. Down-regulation of TLR4 expression plays a pivotal role in GalN/LPS induced FHF. These findings might have important implications for the use of the anti TLR4 protein signaling as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in FHF.
Liver failure is a frequent and serious complication that causes morbidity and mortality in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Liver dysfunction in these patients can be related to infectious causes, most common viral hepatitis. We report a case of disseminated acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection following HCT that led to acute liver failure and death. Although rare, HSV hepatitis leads to high morbidity and mortality and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of HCT recipients with marked elevation of hepatic transaminase. Acyclovir is a first-line therapy for HSV infection; however, acyclovir-resistant viral strains should be considered and alternative HSV therapies given in HCT recipients whose HSV infection does not improve on acyclovir therapy.
Denis, J; Opolon, P; Nusinovici, V; Granger, A; Darnis, F
Forty-one patients with fulminant hepatic failure and coma underwent 180 periods of haemodialysis with polyacrylonitrile membrane (AN 69 HD). Hepatic failure was due to viral hepatitis in 40 and drugs in one. Total recovery of consciousness occurred in 17 patients (43.6%), and partial in seven (17.9%)--that is, an overall figure of 61.5%. Regain of consciousness was not related to liver regeneration as assessed by levels of factor V and hepatocyte volume fraction. At the time of the first haemodialysis, neurological status was significantly impaired in the patients who could not be aroused. Mean duration of coma grade IV averaged 6.1 +/- 4.3 days and mean duration of illness until death or decerebration 8.6 +/- 8.3 days. Of the 17 patients who totally regained consciousness, nine recovered and eight died (three from intercurrent complications and five with no liver regeneration). PMID:710967
Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Magen, I; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiav, L; Zolotarev, O; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM
Background and purpose: Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by liver failure. In view of the effects of cannabinoids in a thioacetamide-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy and liver disease and the beneficial effect of capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) in liver disease, we assumed that capsaicin may also affect hepatic encephalopathy. Experimental approach: Fulminant hepatic failure was induced in mice by thioacetamide and 24 h later, the animals were injected with one of the following compound(s): 2-arachidonoylglycerol (CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor agonist); HU308 (CB2 receptor agonist), SR141716A (CB1 receptor antagonist); SR141716A+2-arachidonoylglycerol; SR144528 (CB2 receptor antagonist); capsaicin; and capsazepine (TRPV1 receptor agonist and antagonist respectively). Their neurological effects were evaluated on the basis of activity in the open field, cognitive function in an eight-arm maze and a neurological severity score. The mice were killed 3 or 14 days after thioacetamide administration. 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, respectively. Results: Capsaicin had a neuroprotective effect in this animal model as shown by the neurological score, activity and cognitive function. The effect of capsaicin was blocked by capsazepine. Thioacetamide induced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and the cerebellum and raised brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, which were decreased by capsaicin, SR141716A and HU-308. Thioacetamide lowered brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels, an effect reversed by capsaicin. Conclusions: Capsaicin improved both liver and brain dysfunction caused by thioacetamide, suggesting that both the endocannabinoid and the vanilloid systems play important roles in hepatic encephalopathy. Modulation of these systems may have therapeutic value. PMID:19764982
Ito, Daisuke; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Ito, Kyoji; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Fujinaga, Hidetaka; Kokudo, Norihiro
Abstract The authors present a case of recurrent acute liver failure because of occupational exposure to organic solvents. A 35-year-old man with a 3-week history of worsening jaundice and flu-like symptoms was admitted to our hospital. Viral hepatitis serology and autoimmune factors were negative. The authors considered liver transplantation, but the patient's liver function spontaneously recovered. Liver biopsy revealed massive infiltration of neutrophils, but the cause of the acute hepatitis was not identified. Four months after discharge, the patient's liver function worsened again. The authors considered the possibility of antinuclear antibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis and initiated steroid treatment, which was effective. Four months after discharge, the patient was admitted for repeated liver injury. The authors started him on steroid pulse therapy, but this time it was not effective. Just before the first admission, he had started his own construction company where he was highly exposed to organic solvents, and thus the authors considered organic solvent-induced hepatitis. Although urine test results for organic solvents were negative, a second liver biopsy revealed severe infiltration of neutrophils, compatible with toxic hepatitis. Again, his liver function spontaneously improved. Based on the pathology and detailed clinical course, including the patient's high exposure to organic solvents since just before the first admission, and the spontaneous recovery of his liver damage in the absence of the exposure, he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis. The authors strongly advised him to avoid organic solvents. Since then, he has been in good health without recurrence. This is the first report of recurrent acute liver failure because of exposure to organic solvents, which was eventually diagnosed through a meticulous medical history and successfully recovered by avoiding the causative agents. In acute liver failure with an undetermined etiology, clinicians
Yoshida, Yuichi; Okada, Yohei; Suzuki, Akiko; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Akio; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki
Hepatitis A viral infection is a well-known cause of subclinical or acute self-limited hepatitis. Few cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) have been reported in low HAV endemic countries annually. To investigate the possible factors that affected the severity of HAV infection, a family cluster infected with the HAV subgenotype IB strain, which is not common in Japan, was described. This family consisted of five members who all were infected with HAV. Four of the five patients hospitalized except for an asymptomatic patient. Two of the five patients, men in their 50s and 60s, developed ALF, and one patient died. Various host factors, including sex (male), age, and a high bilirubin level, may affect the outcomes. Based on viral factors, HAV RNA was higher in the fatal case compared with others, and it decreased within a short period of time. The similarity of the nucleotide sequences was 99.9% among the HAV isolates based on an entire genomic sequence. Deletions and/or insertions on the HAV protein-coding sequences that caused a frameshift were found in surviving cases but not in the fatal case. The rapid clearance of increased HAV and the absence of defective HAV might be closely associated with the onset of liver failure.
Colpitts, Che C; Baumert, Thomas F
Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment by offering genuine prospects for the first comprehensive cure of a chronic viral infection in humans. While antiviral resistance is a significant limitation for interferon-based therapies, resistance and treatment failure still appear to be present in a small fraction of patients even in state-of-the-art DAA combination therapies. Therefore, treatment failure and resistance still remain a clinical challenge for the management of patients not responding to DAAs. In this special issue of Viruses on HCV drug resistance, mechanisms of antiviral resistance for different classes of antiviral drugs are described. Furthermore, the detection and monitoring of resistance in clinical practice, the clinical impact of resistance in different patient groups and strategies to prevent and address resistance and treatment failure using complementary antiviral strategies are reviewed.
Colpitts, Che C.; Baumert, Thomas F.
Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment by offering genuine prospects for the first comprehensive cure of a chronic viral infection in humans. While antiviral resistance is a significant limitation for interferon-based therapies, resistance and treatment failure still appear to be present in a small fraction of patients even in state-of-the-art DAA combination therapies. Therefore, treatment failure and resistance still remain a clinical challenge for the management of patients not responding to DAAs. In this special issue of Viruses on HCV drug resistance, mechanisms of antiviral resistance for different classes of antiviral drugs are described. Furthermore, the detection and monitoring of resistance in clinical practice, the clinical impact of resistance in different patient groups and strategies to prevent and address resistance and treatment failure using complementary antiviral strategies are reviewed. PMID:27537906
Frass, Michael; Zagorchev, Petko; Yurukova, Vasilka; Wulkersdorfer, Beatrix; Thieves, Karin; Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, Konstantin; Bursch, Willfried; Kaye, Alan David
Background Intoxication with Amanita phalloides is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment therapies include general support, toxin elimination, pharmacotherapy with agents such as the hepatoprotective agent silibinin, and, in extreme states, liver transplantation. Despite these therapeutic interventions, mortality remains relatively high. Case Reports We present reports of 2 patients with severe hepatic failure following intoxication with Amanita phalloides. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit; 1 patient suffered from hepatic failure solely, and the second patient experienced severe 5-organ failure. In addition to conventional intensive care treatment, both patients were treated additively with classical homeopathy. The 2 patients survived without any residual pathological sequelae. Conclusion Based on the 2 cases, including 1 extreme situation, we suggest that adjunctive homeopathic treatment has a role in the treatment of acute Amanita phalloides–induced toxicity following mushroom poisoning. Additional studies may clarify a more precise dosing regimen, standardization, and better acceptance of homeopathic medicine in the intensive care setting. PMID:24940137
Al Saadi, Tareq; Sawaf, Bisher; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Zakaria, Mhd Ismael; Daaboul, Bisher
Abstract Hepatitis A is a common viral illness worldwide. It usually results in an acute, self-limiting disease and only rarely leads to fulminant hepatic failure or any other complications. During the period of conflict in Syria, and due to the damages to water infrastructure and poor sanitation, a dramatic increase in hepatitis A virus infection has been documented. Here we report a rare case of a 14-year-old male whose hepatitis A was complicated with hepatorenal syndrome and subacute liver failure. The war condition in Syria impeded transportation of the patient to a nearby country for liver transplantation, contributing to his unfortunate death. PMID:27247182
Malla, Ivone; Fauda, Martín; Casanueva, Enrique; Fernández, María Isabel; Amante, Marcelo; Cheang, Yu; Giacove, Gisela; Pedreira, Alejandra; Petracca, Pablo; González Campaña, Ariel; Silva, Marcelo; Podestá, Gustavo
Hepatoxicity of isoniazid, mainly in association with rifampin, is a rare secondary effect of tuberculostatic treatment. In the United States, it accounts for 0.2% of all pediatric orthotropic liver transplant, and 14% of transplants for drug hepatotoxicity. We report the case of a 10 year-old patient who presented with acute liver failure requiring orthotropic liver transplant after forty days of tuberculostatic treatment with isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide.
Fagugli, R M; Gentile, G; Ferrara, G; Brugnano, R
Hyperuricemia is present in about 5% of the population, and allopurinol is frequently used to treat it. The use of this drug can be associated with a number of side effects, indicating allergic reactions, such as skin rash, reversible after its withdrawal. In some cases more severe hypersensitivity reactions may be seen, such as erythema multiforme exudativum, or Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS). Reversible clinical hepatotoxicity, as well as acute renal failure, may also develop after allopurinol therapy. We describe here the case of a 74-year-old woman with chronic renal failure who was admitted to hospital after 1 week of sore throat and fever, presenting mucous membrane lesions, widespread blistering of the skin, evolving to flaccid vesicles and bullae, and extensive epidermal detachment associated with acute renal failure and cholestatic jaundice. A diagnosis of allopurinol-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) was established. Allopurinol was discontinued, and intensive care management was required: the patient was successfully treated by using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), standard hemodialysis, and albumin dialysis (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System - MARS, Teraklin AG, Rostock, Germany). Allopurinol-induced TEN is extremely rare, however, the survival rate is extremely low. Clinicians should be aware of this potentially severe adverse effect. This report emphasizes the importance of an aggressive pharmacological and dialysis treatment in the case of TEN.
Borchers, Angela; Epstein, Steven E; Gindiciosi, Blaz; Cartoceti, Andrew; Puschner, Birgit
Manganese is a ubiquitous, essential trace element and a common ingredient of joint supplement tablets. Little information is known about the inherent toxic potential if ingested at higher doses. A 5-year-old female spayed Pug dog presented for evaluation of vomiting and ataxia after accidental ingestion of approximately 100 joint supplement tablets. The dog developed acute hepatic failure and was euthanized 6 days after presentation due to progression of the disease. Necropsy showed severe acute hepatic necrosis. Liver and kidney samples were submitted for toxicology analysis, results of which showed severely elevated manganese concentrations in the liver and kidneys.
Wagle, Kalyan; Akinseye, Oluwaseun A; Shrestha, Prakash; Chandnani, Madhuri; Munankarmi, Raiko; Ripin, Vivian; Yee, Jimmy
There are so far only a few reported cases of acute fulminant hepatic failure resulting from acute cardiomyopathy. This is a rare occurrence, especially in patients that do not exhibit any signs and symptoms of acute cardiac decompensation. We report a case of fulminant liver failure with nondiagnostic work up for the common causes of liver failure. This patient had concurrent history of congestive heart failure, but did not have acute decompensation. Right upper quadrant sonogram revealed hepatomegaly of 15 cm, trace amount of perihepatic ascites, pericholecystic fluid, and also thickened edematous gallbladder wall with no stones, no common bile duct stones, and no portal vein thrombosis. Echocardiogram revealed dilated left atrium and ventricle, severe mitral regurgitation, severe tricuspid regurgitation, grade 4 diastolic dysfunction, diffuse hypokinesis of left ventricle, and severely and newly reduced systolic function with an ejection fraction of 10 percent (decreased from 25 percent on last ECHO 18 months prior). Liver biopsy demonstrated marked centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis and dropout accompanied by congestion, some areas of bridging necrosis and focal confluent necrosis which was suggestive of severe congestive hepatopathy. With initiation of heart failure medications, liver function improved significantly. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.
Ciocca, Mirta; Moreira-Silva, Sandra Fagundes; Alegría, Sylvia; Galoppo, Maria Cristina; Ruttiman, Ricardo; Porta, Gilda; Da Silvera, Themis Reverbel; Rubio, Pilar; Macias, Mercedes; Cervantes, Yolanda; Avila-Aguero, Maria Luisa; Clemens, Sue Anne Costa; Clemens, Ralf; Weil, John
This prospective, multicenter study examined the importance of hepatitis viruses as etiological agents of acute liver failure (ALF) and the outcome of ALF cases in Latin American children and adolescents. The study was conducted for minimum 12 months in 9 centers in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico during 2001-2002. Hospitalized patients aged 1-20 years with a suspected diagnosis of ALF were included in the study and tested for serologic markers for hepatitis A, B, and C viruses. Of the 106 patients enrolled, 88 were included in the analysis. Median age was 5 years, and 55% with ALF were aged 1-5 years. A total of 37 individuals (43%) tested positive for anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) as marker of acute HAV infection; one was positive for anti-hepatitis B core antigen IgM and negative for hepatitis B surface antigen. None had markers of hepatitis C virus infection. Mortality rates in the overall study cohort (45%) and for those who tested anti-HAV IgM positive (41%) were similar. Forty-one percent of all patients and 46% of those positive for anti-HAV IgM underwent transplantation. The mortality rate in those with liver transplantation was half of that in patients who were not transplanted (28% versus 57%). HAV was the main etiologic agent of ALF in the population studied.
Kakisaka, Keisuke; Kuroda, Hidekatsu; Abe, Tamami; Suzuki, Yuji; Yoshida, Yuichi; Kataoka, Kojiro; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Takikawa, Yasuhiro
A 52-year-old Japanese woman admitted to our hospital for the treatment of liver dysfunction due to an undetermined cause developed disorientation on the 58th hospital day and was diagnosed with late-onset liver failure. Abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed several times from the admission. Before the disorientation appeared, the results of the examinations revealed that the portal flow decreased, after which the hepatic arterial flow increased and the degree of liver stiffness became elevated. Although the pathophysiology of these changes remains unclear, hemodynamic changes and elevation of liver stiffness might be predictive markers of severe liver tissue damage.
Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W
Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients. PMID:28018115
Gutierrez, C; Kebriaei, P; Turner, K A; Yemelyanova, A; Ariza-Heredia, E J; Foo, W C
We present the case of a patient, with history of myelodysplastic syndrome and recent bone marrow transplant, who developed fulminant liver failure secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. His presentation was unique, as findings of liver microabscesses on computed tomography scan have not been described previously in this patient population. Despite initial treatment with acyclovir, he continued to deteriorate, and later sensitivities found the HSV strain to be resistant to acyclovir. HSV hepatitis with secondary liver failure is rare and, without appropriate treatment, its mortality is >80%. Early suspicion and immediate therapy are the keys to improve patient survival. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Olivier, François; Wieckowska, Anna; Piedboeuf, Bruno; Alvarez, Fernando
Unexpected severe cholestasis is part of the presentation in some neonates with hemolytic anemia but is usually self-resolving. Here we report the case of a neonate with pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) who presented severe hemolytic anemia at birth, characterized by a rapidly progressive and severe cholestasis with normal γ-glutamyl transpeptidase level associated with hepatic failure. After an extensive investigation to rule out contributing conditions explaining the severity of this patient's clinical presentation, PKD has remained the sole identified etiology. The patient abruptly died of sepsis at 3 months of age before a planned splenectomy and ongoing evaluation for liver transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, only a few similar cases of severe neonatal presentation of PKD complicated with severe hepatic failure and cholestasis have been reported.
Mhanni, A A; Chan, A; Collison, M; Seifert, B; Lehotay, D C; Sokoro, Ah; Huynh, H Q; Greenberg, C R
We report on two Aboriginal patients with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. Both presented with acute hepatic failure with severe hypertransaminasemia and coagulopathy, prompting evaluation for emergent liver transplantation. The diagnosis of HHH syndrome was based on the presence of typical metabolic abnormalities. A protein-restricted diet and L-arginine or L-citrulline supplementation were immediately started, with rapid normalization of liver function test results and other biochemical abnormalities. Molecular analysis of the SLC25A15 gene showed that the two patients were homozygous for the common French Canadian mutation (F188Delta). The diagnosis of HHH syndrome should be considered in patients with unexplained fulminant hepatic failure. There does not appear to be a genotype-phenotype correlation for this presentation, inasmuch as the only other reported patient presenting with this picture had two different point mutations. Early identification and prompt treatment of these patients is crucial to avoid liver transplantation and can be life saving.
Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W
Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.
Step, D L; Blue, J T; Dill, S G
Acute, severe hemolytic anemia occurred in a horse being treated for tetanus with intravenous penicillin and tetanus antitoxin. During treatment, the horse developed a positive direct antiglobulin test and a high titer (maximum 1:1024) of IgG anti-penicillin antibody. The horse recovered from the tetanus and penicillin induced hemolytic anemia, but later developed acute hepatic failure, probably resulting from the administration of equine origin tetanus antitoxin.
Hori, Tomohide; Chen, Feng; Baine, Ann-Marie T.; Gardner, Lindsay B.; Nguyen, Justin H.
Aim To develop a reliable murine model for fulminant liver failure (FLF). Material and Methods We treated three groups of male C57BL/6 mice:as controls, with azoxymethane (AOM), and with galactosamine (Gal) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). Effects of body temperature (BT) control on survival, in all three groups were investigated. Using BT control, survival, histopathological findings and biochemical/coagulation profiles were compared between the experimental groups. Effects of hydration on international normalized ratios of prothrombin time (PT-INR) were also checked. Dose-dependent survival curves were made for both experimental groups. Neurological behaviors were assessed using a coma scale. Results No unexpected BT effects were seen in the control group. The AOM group, but not the Gal+TNFα group, showed significant differences in survival curves between those with and without BT care. Histopathological assessment showed consistent FLF findings in both experimental groups with BT care. Between the experimental groups, there were significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase levels and PT-INR; and significant differences in PT-INRs between sufficiently- and insufficiently-hydrated groups. There were significant differences between FLF models, in the duration of each coma stage, with significant differences in stages 1 and 3 as percentages of the diseased state (stages 1-4). The two FLF models with BT care showed different survival curves in the dose-dependent survival study. Conclusion Azoxymethane can provide a good FLF model, but requires a specialized environment and careful BT control. Other FLF models may also be useful, depending on research purpose. Thoughtful attention to caregiving and close observation are indispensable for successful FLF models. PMID:24713795
Dubin, Perry H; Yuan, Hejun; Devine, Robert K; Hynan, Linda S; Jain, Mamta K; Lee, William M
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is the foremost liver-related micro-RNA, but its role in the hepatocyte is not fully understood. To evaluate whether circulating levels of miR-122 are elevated in chronic-HCV for a reason other than hepatic injury, we compared serum level in patients with chronic hepatitis C to other forms of liver injury including patients with acute liver failure and healthy controls. MiR-122 was quantitated using sera from 35 acute liver failure patients (20 acetaminophen-induced, 15 other etiologies), 39 chronic-HCV patients and 12 controls. In parallel, human genomic DNA (hgDNA) levels were measured to reflect quantitatively the extent of hepatic necrosis. Additionally, six HIV-HCV co-infected patients, who achieved viral clearance after undergoing therapy with interferon and ribavirin, had serial sera miR-122 and hgDNA levels measured before and throughout treatment. Serum miR-122 levels were elevated approximately 100-fold in both acute liver failure and chronic-HCV sera as compared to controls (P < 0.001), whereas hgDNA levels were only elevated in acute liver failure patients as compared to both chronic-HCV and controls (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that chronic-HCV sera with normal aminotransferase levels showed elevated miR-122 despite low levels of hepatocyte necrosis. All successfully treated HCV patients showed a significant Log10 decrease in miR-122 levels ranging from 0.16 to 1.46, after sustained viral response. Chronic-HCV patients have very elevated serum miR-122 levels in the range of most patients with severe hepatic injury leading to acute liver failure. Eradication of HCV was associated with decreased miR-122 but not hgDNA. An additional mechanism besides hepatic injury may be active in chronic-HCV to explain the exaggerated circulating levels of miR-122 observed.
Sharma, Pankaj; Yadav, Sunaina; Meschia, James F
Recent advances in genomics and statistical computation have allowed us to begin addressing the genetic basis of stroke at a molecular level. These advances are at the cusp of making important changes to clinical practice of some monogenic forms of stroke and, in the future, are likely to revolutionise the care provided to these patients. In this review we summarise the state of knowledge in ischaemic stroke genetics particularly in the context of how a practicing clinician can best use this knowledge.
Ajmera, V.; Xia, G.; Vaughan, G.; Forbi, J. C.; Ganova-Raeva, L. M.; Khudyakov, Y.; Opio, C. K.; Taylor, R.; Restrepo, R.; Munoz, S.; Fontana, R. J.; Lee, W. M.
SUMMARY The reason(s) that hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may progress infrequently to acute liver failure are poorly understood. We examined host and viral factors in 29 consecutive adult patients with HAV-associated acute liver failure enrolled at 10 sites participating in the US ALF Study Group. Eighteen of twenty-four acute liver failure sera were PCR positive while six had no detectable virus. HAV genotype was determined using phylogenetic analysis and the full-length genome sequences of the HAV from a cute liver failure sera were compared to those from self-limited acute HAV cases selected from the CDC database. We found that rates of nucleotide substitution did not vary significantly between the liver failure and non-liver failure cases and there was no significant variation in amino acid sequences between the two groups. Four of 18 HAV isolates were subgenotype IB, acquired from the same study site over a 3.5-year period. Sub-genotype IB was found more frequently among acute liver failure cases compared to the non-liver failure cases (chi-square test, P < 0.01). At another centre, a mother and her son presented with HAV and liver failure within 1 month of each other. Predictors of spontaneous survival included detectable serum HAV RNA, while age, gender, HAV genotype and nucleotide substitutions were not associated with outcome. The more frequent appearance of rapid viral clearance and its association with poor outcomes in acute liver failure as well as the finding of familial cases imply a possible host genetic predisposition that contributes to a fulminant course. Recurrent cases of the rare subgenotype IB over several years at a single centre imply a community reservoir of infection and possible increased pathogenicity of certain infrequent viral genotypes. PMID:21143345
Jansen, Jeffrey W; Powderly, Gillian M; Linneman, Travis W
New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies report cure rates of ~90% but are expensive. Identification of predictors for treatment failure could help decrease health care costs, limit unnecessary drug exposure and adverse events, and prevent drug-drug interactions. Failure to achieve rapid viral response (RVR), defined as detectable viral load at 4 weeks, has previously been identified as a predictor of treatment failure with some previous HCV therapies. To evaluate RVR, and other potential variables, as predictors of treatment failure in patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF). A retrospective, case-control analysis of adult veterans treated with LDV/SOF was conducted. Included patients had a viral load obtained between weeks 3 and 6 of therapy (RVR) and between weeks 12 and 16 after the end of therapy for sustained viral response (SVR12) evaluation. Identified SVR12 failures (viral load detectable) constituted the case population. The control population was randomly selected in a 1:4 case: control ratio from all identified SVR12 successes. In all, 12 SVR12 failures were identified; 48 of 144 SVR12 successes were randomly selected for inclusion. Overall failure rate was 7.7% (12/156). Univariate analysis identified histamine-2 receptor antagonist, previous treatment failure, and pretreatment creatinine clearance (CrCl; Cockcroft-Gault) >90 mL/min as potential predictors of SVR12 failure; these variables were included in the regression model with RVR per protocol. In multivariate analysis, pretreatment CrCl >90 mL/min was independently associated with SVR12 failure (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% CI = 1.33 to 39.72; P = 0.022). Patients with pretreatment CrCl >90 mL/min were more likely to fail SVR12 than patients with CrCl <90 mL/min.
Potts, Jonathan R; Verma, Sumita
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disease of unknown etiology, its hallmark being ongoing hepatic inflammation. By its very nature, it is a chronic condition, although increasingly, we are becoming aware of patients with acute presentations, some of whom may have liver failure. There are very limited published data on patients with AIH with liver failure at initial diagnosis, which consist mostly of small retrospective studies. As a consequence, the clinical features and optimal management of this cohort remain poorly defined. A subset of patients with AIH who present with liver failure do respond to corticosteroids, but for the vast majority, an urgent liver transplantation may offer the only hope of long-term survival. At present, there is uncertainty on how best to stratify such a cohort into responders and non- responders to corticosteroids as soon as possible after hospitalization, thus optimizing their management. This editorial attempts to answer some of the unresolved issues relating to management of patients with AIH with liver failure at initial presentation. However, it must be emphasized that, at present, this editorial is based mostly on small retrospective studies, and it is an understatement that multicenter prospective studies are urgently needed to address this important clinical issue. PMID:21547124
Shiomi, S; Kuroki, T; Ueda, T; Takeda, T; Nishiguchi, S; Nakajima, S; Kobayashi, K; Ochi, H
The prognosis of hepatic reticuloendothelial failure is said to be poor. Scanning with the radiocolloid 99mTc phytate is needed for diagnosis; as a rule; only seriously ill patients are so investigated. We use 99mTc phytate for liver scans of almost all inpatients with liver disease. This routine made diagnosis of a mild form or early stage of the disease possible. We evaluated the clinical findings of the five patients we have diagnosed, in an attempt to find why four survived. Radiocolloid scans were taken starting 20-30 min after the intravenous injection of 111 MBq of 99mTc phytate. Hepatobiliary images were taken by use of 99mTc pyridoxylidine-5-methyl trytophan, and hepatic receptor images were taken by use of 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid coupled with galactosyl human serum albumin. The livers were not visible in the radiocolloid scans, so the diagnosis of hepatic reticuloendothelial failure was considered. In the two other imaging examinations, the livers were visible. The cause was identified as heavy alcohol intake in four cases and toluene hepatotoxicity in one case. Histological examinations showed cirrhosis in two patients; the three other patients did not have cirrhosis. All five patients had anemia, and three had infections. One patient died of multiple organ failure, and the four other patients survived. Long-term observation by radiocolloid scanning was possible in one patient in whom radionuclide uptake into the liver rose as hepatic function improved. This disorder is associated with a temporary decrease in Kupffer cell function and hence is liable to be complicated by infection, which can result in death. If the cause is removed promptly, recovery is likely. There being a mild form of this disease, previously not generally diagnosed, probably accounts for the outcomes being good in all of our patients except the one patient with severe liver dysfunction at the time of diagnosis.
Kühl, J S; Schwarz, K; Münch, A; Schmugge, M; Pekrun, A; Meisel, C; Wahn, V; Ebell, W; von Bernuth, H
Adenosin deaminase (ADA) deficiency is the cause for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in about 15% of patients with SCID, often presenting as T (-)B (-)NK (-)SCID. Treatment options for ADA-SCID are enzyme replacement, bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. We here describe the first patient with ADA-SCID and fatal hepatic failure despite bone marrow transplantation from a 10/10 HLA identical related donor. As patients with ADA-SCID may be at yet underestimated increased risk for rapid hepatic failure we speculate whether hepatitis in ADA-SCID should lead to the immediate treatment with enzyme replacement by pegylated ADA.
Oe, Shinji; Shibata, Michihiko; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Hiura, Masaaki; Abe, Shintaro; Harada, Masaru
A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory data showed severe liver injury and that the patient was positive for immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies. He was also complicated with severe renal dysfunction and had an extremely high level of serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Therefore, he was diagnosed with severe acute liver failure with acute renal failure (ARF) caused by HAV infection. Prognosis was expected to be poor because of complications by ARF and high serum HGF. However, liver and renal functions both improved rapidly without intensive treatment, and he was subsequently discharged from our hospital on the 21(st) hospital day. Although complication with ARF and high levels of serum HGF are both important factors predicting poor prognosis in acute liver failure patients, the present case achieved a favorable outcome. Endogenous HGF might play an important role as a regenerative effector in injured livers and kidneys.
Zheng, Yu-Bao; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Zhan-Lian; Lin, Chao-Shuang; Lai, Jing; Gu, Yu-Rong; Lin, Bin-Liang; Xie, Dong-Ying; Xie, Shi-Bin; Peng, Liang; Gao, Zhi-Liang
Uncontrolled hepatic immunoactivation is regarded as the primary pathological mechanism of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The major acute-phase mediators associated with FHF, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, impair the regeneration of liver cells and stem cell grafts. Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) have the capacity, under specific conditions, to differentiate into hepatocytes. Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) plays an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role in acute and chronic inflammation, and has been used in many experimental and clinical applications. In the present study, we implanted IL-1Ra-expressing AF-MSCs into injured liver via the portal vein, using D-galactosamine-induced FHF in a rat model. IL-1Ra expression, hepatic injury, liver regeneration, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6), and animal survival were assessed after cell transplantation. Our results showed that AF-MSCs over-expressing IL-1Ra prevented liver failure and reduced mortality in rats with FHF. These animals also exhibited improved liver function and increased survival rates after injection with these cells. Using green fluorescent protein as a marker, we demonstrated that the engrafted cells and their progeny were incorporated into injured livers and produced albumin. This study suggests that AF-MSCs genetically modified to over-express IL-1Ra can be implanted into the injured liver to provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of FHF.
Kim, T-S; Kim, J M; Kwon, C H D; Kim, S J; Joh, J-W; Lee, S-K
Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been accepted as feasible treatment for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), although it has generated several debatable issues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic factors predicting fatal outcome after LDLT for FHF. From April 1999 to April 2011, 60 patients underwent LT for acute liver failure, including 42 patients for FHF at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Among 42 patients, 30 patients underwent LDLT for FHF, and the database of these patients was analyzed retrospectively to investigate the prognostic factors after LDLT for FHF. Among 30 patients, 7 patients (23%) died during the in-hospital period within 6 months, and 23 patients (77%) survived until recently. In univariate analyses, donor age (>35 years), graft volume (GV)/standard liver volume (SLV) (<50%), cold ischemic time (>120 minutes), hepatic encephalopathy (grade IV), hepato-renal syndrome (HRS), and history of ventilator care were associated with fatal outcome after LDLT for FHF. In multivariate analyses, HRS, GV/SLV (<50%), and donor age (>35 years) were significantly associated with fatal outcome. Although the statistical significance was not shown in this analysis (P = .059), hepatic encephalopathy grade IV also appears to be a risk factor predicting fatal outcome. The survival of patients with FHF undergoing LDLT was comparable to that in published data. In this study, HRS, GV/SLV <50%, and donor age >35 years are the independent poor prognostic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Balcells, Mercedes; Edelman, Elazer R
Liver transplantation is limited by ischaemic injury which promotes endothelial cell and hepatocyte dysfunction and eventually organ failure. We sought to understand how endothelial state determines liver recovery after hepatectomy and engraftment. Matrix-embedded endothelial cells (MEECs) with retained healthy phenotype or control acellular matrices were implanted in direct contact with the remaining median lobe of donor mice undergoing partial hepatectomy (70%), or in the interface between the remaining median lobe and an autograft or isograft from the left lobe in hepatectomised recipient mice. Hepatic vascular architecture, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in the median lobe and grafts, serum markers of liver damage and phenotype of macrophage and lymphocyte subsets in the liver after engraftment were analysed 7 days post-op. Healthy MEECs create a functional vascular splice in donor and recipient liver after 70% hepatectomy in mouse protecting these livers from ischaemic injury, hepatic congestion and inflammation. Macrophages recruited adjacent to the vascular nodes into the implants switched to an anti-inflammatory and regenerative profile M2. MEECs improved liver function and the rate of liver regeneration and prevented apoptosis in donor liver lobes, autologous grafts and syngeneic engraftment. Implants with healthy endothelial cells rescue liver donor and recipient endothelium and parenchyma from ischaemic injury after major hepatectomy and engraftment. This study highlights endothelial-hepatocyte crosstalk in hepatic repair and provides a promising new approach to improve regenerative medicine outcomes and liver transplantation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Yamanishi, A; Ishibashi, Y; Kuriyama, K; Tachiiri, T; Kusajima, H; Kojima, E; Momo, K
To predict the potential utility of calcitriol in human osteoporosis with hepatic dysfunction, we examined the effects of calcitriol and alfacalcidol in ovariectomized (OVX) aged-rats with CCl4-induced hepatic failure. In OVX+CCl4 rats, GOT, GTP, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin increased and hepatic enzyme activity (cytochrome b5 and P450) decreased. Repeated oral doses of calcitriol (0.1 and 0.2 microgram/kg) for 51 days inhibited a decrease in serum calcium concentration. This effect was more potent than that of alfacalcidol at the same dose. Both drugs tended to inhibit a decrease in femoral calcium contents. Calcitriol (0.2 microgram/kg) prevented a decrease in femoral bone density (dry and ash weight per volume), unlike alfacalcidol. Soft X-ray imaging analysis revealed that both drugs tended to inhibit the decrease in femoral bone density. There were no differences in the femoral bone strength between OVX+CCl4 and sham-operated rats. The serum calcitriol concentrations increased after the last doses of calcitriol, while they did not increase after the last dose of alfacalcidol. All these effects of calcitriol were related to the serum calcitriol levels. These results suggest that calcitriol, unlike alfacalcidol, may have a clinical therapeutic effect in osteoporosis with hepatic dysfunction.
Steczko, J; Bax, K C; Ash, S R
Changes in plasma amino acid concentrations were measured in patients with hepatic failure during extracorporeal hemodiabsorption (using the Liver Dialysis Unit, "the Unit") or hemodiabsorption plus sorbent-based pheresis treatment (using the Liver Dialysis Plasmafilter Unit, "the PF-Unit") Systems. Eight patients with hepatic failure, grade 3 or 4 encephalopathy, elevated bilirubin and/or creatinine levels and respiratory or renal failure were treated for 1-3 days with the Unit alone. Three of these were also treated with the Unit containing 10 g of BCAA in the sorbent suspension. Four patients with hepatic failure treated with the PF Unit also had 10 g of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) added to the sorbents of the Unit portion of this device. Pre- and post-plasma samples were drawn and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to separate and detect amino acids in the plasma. Both the Unit and the PF-Unit have the capability to selectively remove various amino acids, especially aromatic amino acids (AAA). The pre-treatment amino acid profiles of plasma were typical for hepatic failure, with abnormally high levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and methionine and decreased levels of valine, leucine and isbolucine. The average pre-treatment Fischer ratio (BCAA/AAA) for both Unit and PF-Unit patients was 1.43 (+/- 0.58). Treatments by both systems resulted in an increase of BCAA levels in blood and concomitant decrease of AAA levels, with an average Fischer ratio improvement of 30-38% for the Unit and PF-Unit without BCAA. The Fischer ratio improved by 90% (average) for the Unit with BCAA. Levels of many other amino acids (such as alanine, glycine, proline or lysine) increased during both Unit and PF-Unit treatments. The removal of strongly protein-bound toxin and amino acids such as tryptophan and sulphydryl amino acids was more effective by the PF-Unit. Both the Unit and the PF-Unit have the unique capability to remove toxic aromatic amino
Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling
Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called “second pathway of liver regeneration.” The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin. PMID:26136687
Tokarz, D; Poppenga, R; Kaae, J; Filigenzi, M; Lowenstine, L J; Pesavento, P
Amanitin is a toxic cyclopeptide present in several species of poisonous mushrooms. Amanitin toxicosis was diagnosed in 2 cats from separate premises. Both cats initially had lethargy and vomiting, and they rapidly developed depression and neurological signs over 24-48 hours. Marked elevation of alanine aminotransferase was the primary finding, with subsequent serum chemistry values compatible with hepatic and renal failure. Histopathological findings consisted of submassive to massive acute hepatic necrosis, renal proximal tubular epithelial necrosis, and foci of necrosis and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Amanitin exposure was confirmed postmortem by detection of α-amanitin in the kidney by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A similar clinical course and pathological changes are reported in human and canine amanitin intoxication; however, gastrointestinal lesions are not typically described.
Haas, Christopher; Ziccardi, Mary Rodriguez; Borgman, Jody
Abacavir hypersensitivity is a rare, yet significant adverse reaction that results in a spectrum of physical and laboratory abnormalities, and has been postulated to stem from a variety of aetiological factors. The major histocompatibility complex haplotype human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B5701 is a significant risk factor in development of hypersensitivity reactions, yet only 55% of HLA-B5701+ individuals develop such reactions, suggesting a multifactorial aetiology. Nevertheless, prospective screening and avoidance of abacavir in these patients has limited adverse events. Within this spectrum of adverse events, abacavir-induced liver toxicity is exceedingly rare and reported events have ranged from mild elevations of aminotransferases to fulminant hepatic failure. We report the case of a 50-year-old Caucasian woman with a history significant for HIV, hepatitis C virus and a HLA-B5701+ status, transferred to our emergency department in a hypotensive state and found to have acute liver failure, acute renal failure and significant rhabdomyolysis following a change of highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen.
Brotons, Carlos; Cuende, José I; Fernández Pardo, Jacinto; Plana, Nuria; Moral, Irene
In the year 2011, cardiovascular diseases were responsible of 31.2% of total deaths in Spain. The absolute number of cases of acute coronary syndrome in this year will be approximately 115,752 cases (95%CI: 114,822-116,687). The prevalence of stable angina in the population aged 25-74 years is 2.6% in men and 3.5% in women. Cardiovascular diseases were in the year 2011 the first cause of hospitalizations representing 14.1% of the total hospitalizations. Diagnose of ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction were responsible of 110,950 and 50,064 hospitalizations, respectively. In the year 2003, the hospitalization rate was 314 while in the year 2011 was 237 per 100,000, a reduction of 24.4%. The average cost of hospitalization due to ischaemic heart disease in 1997 was 3,093.7euros while in the year 2011 was 7,028.71euros. Cardiovascular mortality rates have decreased from 2007 to 2011, showing a relative reduction of 7% in women and 8% in men. With regard to myocardial infarction, it was observed a relative reduction of 17% in men and 20% in women. According to EUROASPIREIII survey done in 8,966 patients with ischaemic heart disease in Europe, 17% of patients were still smokers, 35% were obese, 56% has uncontrolled blood pressure, 51% has raised blood cholesterol and 25% were diabetics. With regard to drugs utilisation, 91% were treated with antiplatelets agents, 80% with beta blockers, 71% with ACE inhibitors/ARBs.
Gulia, Seema; Khurana, Sachin; Shet, Tanuja; Gupta, Sudeep
The liver is one of the commonest sites of metastatic involvement in breast cancer, usually evident as focal lesions on imaging tests. Rarely, the pattern of metastatic spread is so diffuse that it remains radiologically occult. Such patients usually present with signs of hepatic insufficiency without any focal lesions on liver imaging. In such cases, liver biopsy is required to make a definitive diagnosis. We report a case of a 56-year-old postmenopausal woman with metastatic breast cancer who presented with subacute progressive liver failure. Repeated imaging of the liver was normal or non-descript. Liver biopsy finally established the diagnosis of intrasinusoidal metastases from breast cancer.
Liang, Wei-Cheng; Liang, Pu-Ping; Wong, Cheuk-Wa; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Huang, Jun-Jiu; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Fu, Wei-Ming
Fulminant hepatic failure is a life-threatening disease which occurs in patients without preexisting liver disease. Nowadays, there is no ideal therapeutic tool in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. Recent studies suggested that a novel technology termed CRISPR/Cas9 may be a promising approach for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. In this project, we have designed single chimeric guide RNAs specifically targeting the genomic regions of mouse Fas gene. The in vitro and in vivo effects of sgRNAs on the production of Fas protein were examined in cultured mouse cells and in a hydrodynamic injection-based mouse model, respectively. The in vivo delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 could maintain liver homeostasis and protect hepatocytes from Fas-mediated cell apoptosis in the fulminant hepatic failure model. Our study indicates the clinical potential of developing the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a novel therapeutic strategy to rescue Concanavalin-A-induced fulminant hepatic failure in the mouse model. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 530-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Noterdaeme, Timothée; Longrée, Luc; Bataille, Christian; Deroover, Arnaud; Lamproye, Anne; Delwaide, Jean; Beguin, Yves; Honoré, Pierre; Detry, Olivier
Hepatitis B (HBV) reactivation induced by chemotherapy is problem encountered recently in the management of malignant diseases. Chemotherapy-induced HBV reactivation may ultimately lead to terminal acute liver failure. Liver transplantation (LT) currently remains the only definitive treatment option for such cases, but is generally denied to patients suffering from malignancy. Here, the authors describe 2 cases of cancer-free and HBV graft re-infection-free survival after LT performed for terminal liver failure arising from HBV reactivation induced by chemotherapy for advanced stage lymphoma. These 2 cases, and some other reports in the literature, may suggest that patients suffering from hematologic malignancies and terminal liver disease can be considered for LT if the prognosis of their hematologic malignancy is good. PMID:21799656
... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... have liver damage because of it. What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...
Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Meisheng; Wan, Mengqi; Huang, Xiaoliu; Jiang, Yan; Xu, Siying; Luo, Mansheng
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a common severe clinical syndrome in intensive care unit. No other methods are available for its prevention apart from supportive treatment and liver transplantation. Tamoxifen (TAM) was reported to attenuate ALF induced by excessive acetaminophen, while its effect on LPS-induced ALF remained unknown. For this, in the present study, we comprehensively assessed whether TAM can attenuate ALF induced by LPS/galactosamine (GaIN). Mice were given TAM once a day for three times. Twelve hours after the last treatment, mice were given LPS/GaIN (intraperitoneally [i.p.]). Survival, plasma transaminases, and histopathology were examined. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed by ELISA. Hepatic apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL and caspase-3 Western blotting, respectively. Compared to the model group, ALF induced by LPS/GaIN was alleviated remarkably following TAM administration, as evidenced by the improvement of survival (87.5% vs. 37.5%), hepatic swell, moderate transaminases, slightly increased serum TNF-α, IL-1β (P < 0.05), and moderate histopathology. In respect of apoptosis, severe hepatocellular apoptosis was reduced notably by TAM treatment confirmed by less TUNEL-positive hepatocytes and decreased caspase-3 cleavage. The results demonstrated that TAM could attenuate LPS/GaIN-induced ALF effectively, probably due to hepatic inflammation and apoptosis antagonism. Furthermore, it was the first report about the effect of TAM on LPS/GaIN-induced ALF.
Ataergin, Selmin; Tasar, Mustafa; Solchaga, Luis; Ozet, Ahmet; Arpaci, Fikret
We describe a 45-year-old male patient with malignant melanoma who underwent hepatic arterial chemoembolization due to liver metastases. Four months after the procedure, the patient developed a giant cystic cavity in the liver. Cytologic examination of the cystic fluid retention revealed necrotic tumor material. The fluid was drained by percutaneous catheter, but the patient developed hepatic failure. This case represents another rare complication of transarterial chemoembolization and shows that transarterial chemoembolization may have rare fatal complications.
Schleimer, Karina; Kalder, Johannes; Grommes, Jochen; Jalaie, Houman; Tawadros, Samir; Greiner, Andreas; Jacobs, Michael; Kokozidou, Maria
In acute hepatic failure auxiliary liver transplantation is an interesting alternative approach. The aim is to provide a temporary support until the failing native liver has regenerated.1-3 The APOLT-method, the orthotopic implantation of auxiliary segments- averts most of the technical problems. However this method necessitates extensive resections of both the native liver and the graft.4 In 1998, Erhard developed the heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation (HALT) utilizing portal vein arterialization (PVA) (Figure 1). This technique showed promising initial clinical results.5-6 We developed a HALT-technique with flow-regulated PVA in the rat to examine the influence of flow-regulated PVA on graft morphology and function (Figure 2). A liver graft reduced to 30 % of its original size, was heterotopically implanted in the right renal region of the recipient after explantation of the right kidney. The infra-hepatic caval vein of the graft was anastomosed with the infrahepatic caval vein of the recipient. The arterialization of the donor’s portal vein was carried out via the recipient’s right renal artery with the stent technique. The blood-flow regulation of the arterialized portal vein was achieved with the use of a stent with an internal diameter of 0.3 mm. The celiac trunk of the graft was end-to-side anastomosed with the recipient’s aorta and the bile duct was implanted into the duodenum. A subtotal resection of the native liver was performed to induce acute hepatic failure. 7 In this manner 112 transplantations were performed. The perioperative survival rate was 90% and the 6-week survival rate was 80%. Six weeks after operation, the native liver regenerated, showing an increase in weight from 2.3±0.8 g to 9.8±1 g. At this time, the graft’s weight decreased from 3.3±0.8 g to 2.3±0.8 g. We were able to obtain promising long-term results in terms of graft morphology and function. HALT with flow-regulated PVA reliably bridges acute hepatic failure
Hanish, Steven I; Stein, Deborah M; Scalea, Joseph R; Essien, Eno-Obong; Thurman, Paul; Hutson, William R; Bartlett, Stephen T; Barth, Rolf N; Scalea, Thomas M
Patients with severe acute liver failure (ALF) have extreme physiologic dysfunction and often die if transplantation is not immediately available. Patients may be supported with MARS (Baxter International Inc., Deerfield, IL) until transplantation or spontaneous recovery occurs. We present the largest series in the United States of MARS therapy as temporary hepatic replacement for ALF. MARS was used to support patients with severe liver trauma (SLT), in ALF patients as a bridge to transplantation (BTT), and as definitive therapy for toxic ingestion or idiopathic liver failure (DT) in a level 1 trauma center and large transplant center. Patient demographics, etiology of ALF, and laboratory values were recorded. Endpoints were patient survival ± liver transplant and/or recovery of liver function. Twenty-seven patients with severe ALF received MARS therapy. Five patients with SLT had a 60% survival with recovery of liver and renal function. Thirteen patients received MARS as a BTT, of which 9 were transplanted with a 1-year survival of 78% (program overall survival 85% at 1 year). All 4 who were not transplanted expired. Nine patients with ALF from toxic ingestion received MARS as DT with liver recovery and survival in 67%. MARS therapy resulted in significant improvement in liver function, coagulation, incidence of encephalopathy, and creatinine. MARS therapy successfully replaced hepatic function in ALF allowing time for spontaneous recovery or transplantation. Spontaneous recovery was remarkably common if support can be sustained.
Tuñón, María Jesús; Alvarez, Marcelino; Culebras, Jesús M; González-Gallego, Javier
Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is a severe liver injury accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy which causes multiorgan failure with an extremely high mortality rate, even if intensive care is provided. Management of severe AHF continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. Liver transplantation has been shown to be the most effective therapy, but the procedure is limited by shortage of donor organs. Although a number of clinical trials testing different liver assist devices are under way, these systems alone have no significant effect on patient survival and are only regarded as a useful approach to bridge patients with AHF to liver transplantation. As a result, reproducible experimental animal models resembling the clinical conditions are still needed. The three main approaches used to create an animal model for AHF are: surgical procedures, toxic liver injury and infective procedures. Most common models are based on surgical techniques (total/partial hepatectomy, complete/transient devascularization) or the use of hepatotoxic drugs (acetaminophen, galactosamine, thioacetamide, and others), and very few satisfactory viral models are available. We have recently developed a viral model of AHF by means of the inoculation of rabbits with the virus of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. This model displays biochemical and histological characteristics, and clinical features that resemble those in human AHF. In the present article an overview is given of the most widely used animal models of AHF, and their main advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:19575487
Agarwal, R. K.; Moudgil, A.; Kishore, K.; Srivastava, R. N.; Tandon, R. K.
Five patients with acute viral hepatitis developed severe intrasvascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of serum bilirubin (427 to 1368 mumol/l). All 5 had high fever, marked anaemia, reticulocytosis and neutrophilic leucocytosis. Three of them developed acute renal failure, which was of non-oliguric type in 2. The clinical course was protracted, but complete recovery occurred in 4 patients between 4 to 10 weeks. One patient with hepatic coma and oliguric renal failure died. Deficiency of the enzyme G-6-PD was confirmed in 4 cases. Massive haemolysis in the patients was probably induced by the administration of chloroquine and other drugs. Intravascular haemolysis should be suspected in patients with acute viral hepatitis, if they show unexplained anaemia and very high serum bilirubin levels, and measures to prevent renal failure should be instituted in such cases. PMID:4070114
Ischaemic mitral insufficiency (IMI) due to regurgitation of an anatomically normal valve, due to dysfunction directly related to myocardial ischaemia, is observed in over 20% of post-infarction patients and is associated with a doubling of the risk of death. The responsibility of ventricular remodelling with displacement of the papillary muscles in the genesis of IMI has been demonstrated experimentally. 3-D echocardiography has improved our understanding of the central role of geometrical changes of the subvalvular apparatus. The inconsistent results of surgery using an undersized mitral annulus have led to the search for alternative techniques. The correction of mitral insufficiency at coronary bypass surgery is a current topic of research. The application of new techniques of mitral valvuloplasty seems more effective and should provide an answer to this problem.
Kang, T W; Lee, M W; Hye, M J; Song, K D; Lim, S; Rhim, H; Lim, H K; Cha, D I
To evaluate the technical feasibility of artificial ascites formation using an angiosheath before percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatic tumours and to determine predictive factors affecting the technical failure of artificial ascites formation. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. One hundred and thirteen patients underwent percutaneous RFA of hepatic tumours after trying to make artificial ascites using an angiosheath to avoid collateral thermal damage. The technical success rate of making artificial ascites using an angiosheath and conversion rate to other techniques after initial failure of making artificial ascites were evaluated. The technical success rate for RFA was assessed. In addition, potential factors associated with technical failure including previous history of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or RFA, type of abdominal surgery, and adjacent perihepatic structures were reviewed. Predictive factors for the technical failure of artificial ascites formation were analysed using multivariate analysis. The technical success rates of artificial ascites formation by angiosheath and that of RFA were 84.1% (95/113) and 97.3% (110/113), respectively. The conversion rate to other techniques after the failure of artificial ascites formation using an angiosheath was 15.9% (18/113). Previous hepatic resection was the sole independent predictive factor affecting the technical failure of artificial ascites formation (p<0.001, odds ratio = 29.03, 95% confidence interval: 4.56-184.69). Making artificial ascites for RFA of hepatic tumours using an angiosheath was technically feasible in most cases. However, history of hepatic resection was a significant predictive factor affecting the technical failure of artificial ascites formation. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Bing; You, Shao-Li; Wan, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Hong-Ling; Rong, Yi-Hui; Zang, Hong; Xin, Shao-Jie
AIM: To investigate the clinical features, response to corticosteroids, and prognosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH)-induced liver failure in China. METHODS: A total of 22 patients (19 female and 3 male; average age 51 ± 15 years) with AIH-induced liver failure treated in our hospital from 2004 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical, biochemical and pathological characteristics of the 22 patients and responses to corticosteroid treatment in seven patients were examined retrospectively. The patients were divided into survivor and non-survivor groups, and the clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared between the two groups. The t test was used for data analysis of all categorical variables, and overall survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, mean IgG was 2473 ± 983 mg/dL, with three (18.8%) patients showing normal levels. All of the patients had elevated serum levels of antinuclear antibody (≥ 1:640). Liver histology from one patient showed diagnostic pathological changes, including massive necrosis and plasma cell infiltration. Four patients survived (18.2%) and 18 died (81.8%) without liver transplantation. The results showed that patients with low admission Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores (21.50 ± 2.08 vs 30.61 ± 6.70, P < 0.05) and corticosteroid therapy (100% vs 16.7%, P < 0.05) had better prognosis. A total of seven patients received corticosteroid therapy, of whom, four responded and survived, and the other three died. Survivors showed young age, shorter duration from diagnosis to corticosteroid therapy, low MELD score, and absence of hepatic encephalopathy at the time of corticosteroid administration. Six patients who were administered corticosteroids acquired fungal infections but recovered after antifungal therapy. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and corticosteroid therapy are essential for improving the prognosis of patients with AIH-induced liver failure without liver
Changes in ventricular remodelling and clinical status during the year following a single administration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 non-viral gene therapy in chronic ischaemic heart failure patients: the STOP-HF randomized Phase II trial
Chung, Eugene S.; Miller, Leslie; Patel, Amit N.; Anderson, Russell David; Mendelsohn, Farrell O.; Traverse, Jay; Silver, Kevin H.; Shin, Julia; Ewald, Gregory; Farr, Mary Jane; Anwaruddin, Saif; Plat, Francis; Fisher, Scott J.; AuWerter, Alexander T.; Pastore, Joseph M.; Aras, Rahul; Penn, Marc S.
Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) promotes tissue repair through mechanisms of cell survival, endogenous stem cell recruitment, and vasculogenesis. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Plasmid Treatment for Patients with Heart Failure (STOP-HF) is a Phase II, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of a single treatment of plasmid stromal cell-derived factor-1 (pSDF-1) delivered via endomyocardial injection to patients with ischaemic heart failure (IHF). Methods Ninety-three subjects with IHF on stable guideline-based medical therapy and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%, completed Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLWHFQ) and 6-min walk distance (6 MWD), were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to receive a single treatment of either a 15 or 30 mg dose of pSDF-1 or placebo via endomyocardial injections. Safety and efficacy parameters were assessed at 4 and 12 months after injection. Left ventricular functional and structural measures were assessed by contrast echocardiography and quantified by a blinded independent core laboratory. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Plasmid Treatment for Patients with Heart Failure was powered based on change in 6 MWD and MLWHFQ at 4 months. Results Subject profiles at baseline were (mean ± SD): age 65 ± 9 years, LVEF 28 ± 7%, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) 167 ± 66 mL, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) (NTproBNP) 1120 ± 1084 pg/mL, MLWHFQ 50 ± 20 points, and 6 MWD 289 ± 99 m. Patients were 11 ± 9 years post most recent myocardial infarction. Study injections were delivered without serious adverse events in all subjects. Sixty-two patients received drug with no unanticipated serious product-related adverse events. The primary endpoint was a composite of change in 6 MWD and MLWHFQ from baseline to 4 months follow-up. The primary endpoint was not met (P = 0.89). For the patients treated with pSDF-1, there was a trend toward an
Dostovic, Zikrija; Dostovic, Ernestina; Smajlovic, Dzevdet; Ibrahimagic, Omer C.; Avdic, Leila
Objectives: To determine the incidence of brain edema after ischaemic stroke and its impact on the outcome of patients in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 114 patients. Ischaemic stroke and brain edema are verified by computed tomography. The severity of stroke was determined by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Laboratory findings were made during the first four days of hospitalization, and complications were verified by clinical examination and additional tests. Results: In 9 (7.9%) patients developed brain edema. Pneumonia was the most common complication (12.3%). Brain edema had a higher incidence in women, patients with hypertension and elevated serum creatinine values, and patients who are suffering from diabetes. There was no significant correlation between brain edema and survival in patients after acute ischaemic stroke. Patients with brain edema had a significantly higher degree of neurological deficit as at admission, and at discharge (p = 0.04, p = 0.004). Conclusion: The cerebral edema is common after acute ischaemic stroke and no effect on survival in the acute phase. The existence of brain edema in acute ischaemic stroke significantly influence the degree of neurological deficit. PMID:27994292
Quenault, Aurélien; Martinez de Lizarrondo, Sara; Etard, Olivier; Gauberti, Maxime; Orset, Cyrille; Haelewyn, Benoît; Segal, Helen C; Rothwell, Peter M; Vivien, Denis; Touzé, Emmanuel; Ali, Carine
SEE SUN ET AL DOI101093/AWW306 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: About 20% of patients with ischaemic stroke have a preceding transient ischaemic attack, which is clinically defined as focal neurological symptoms of ischaemic origin resolving spontaneously. Failure to diagnose transient ischaemic attack is a wasted opportunity to prevent recurrent disabling stroke. Unfortunately, diagnosis can be difficult, due to numerous mimics, and to the absence of a specific test. New diagnostic tools are thus needed, in particular for radiologically silent cases, which correspond to the recommended tissue-based definition of transient ischaemic attack. As endothelial activation is a hallmark of cerebrovascular events, we postulated that this may also be true for transient ischaemic attack, and that it would be clinically relevant to develop non-invasive in vivo imaging to detect this endothelial activation. Using transcriptional and immunohistological analyses for adhesion molecules in a mouse model, we identified brain endothelial P-selectin as a potential biomarker for transient ischaemic attack. We thus developed ultra-sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging using antibody-based microparticles of iron oxide targeting P-selectin. This highly sensitive imaging strategy unmasked activated endothelial cells after experimental transient ischaemic attack and allowed discriminating transient ischaemic attack from epilepsy and migraine, two important transient ischaemic attack mimics. We provide preclinical evidence that combining conventional magnetic resonance imaging with molecular magnetic resonance imaging targeting P-selectin might aid in the diagnosis of transient ischaemic attack. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Zhang, Li-Mei; Liu, Dian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Long-Mei; Wang, Li-Qin
AIM: To study the protective effect of eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) on acute hepatic injury and hepatic failure in rats. METHODS: The PCR-amplified ALR gene was recombined with pcDNA3 plasmid, and used to treat rats with acute hepatic injury. The rats with acute hepatic injury induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL/kg 50% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were randomly divided into saline control group and recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid treatment groups. Recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid DNA (50 or 200 μg/kg) was injected into the rats with acute hepatic injury intraven-ously, intraperitoneally, or intravenously and intraperitoneally in combination 4 h after CCl4 administration, respectively. The recombinant plasmid was injected once per 12 h into all treatment groups four times, and the rats were decapitated 12 h after the last injection. Hepatic histopathological alterations were observed after HE staining, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was determined by biochemical method. The recombinant plasmid DNA (200 μg/kg) and saline were intraperitoneally injected into the rats with acute hepatic failure induced by intraperitoneal injection of 4 mL/kg 50% CCl4 after 4 h of CCl4 administration, respectively. Rats living over 96 h were considered as survivals. RESULTS: The sequence of ALR cDNA of recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid was accordant with the reported sequence of rat ALR cDNA. After the rats with acute hepatic injury were treated with recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid, the degree of liver histopathological injury markedly decreased. The pathologic liver tissues, in which hepatic degeneration and necrosis of a small amount of hepatocytes and a large amount of infiltrating inflammatory cells were observed, and they became basically normal in the
... clotting problems or chronic liver disease. previous continue Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Although hep A is a ... does — through direct contact with infected body fluids. Hepatitis B and C are even more easily passed in ...
... A if they've been vaccinated against it. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a more serious infection. It may lead ... of which cause severe illness and even death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from person to person ...
... a problem with the liver itself What Is Hepatitis A? Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is contagious, usually spreading to others ... objects contaminated by feces (poop) containing HAV. The hepatitis A vaccine has helped to make the infection rare ...
Lim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Won; Park, Sang-Jin; Song, In-Bae; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Cho, Eun-Sang; Son, Hwa-Young; Lee, Sang-Wook; Suh, Joo-Won; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yun, Hyo-In
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum (BC703) on thioacetamide (TA)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We found that BC703 significantly decreased mortality and the change in serum transaminase following TA administration. The group treated with BC703 at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg produced significant hepatoprotective effects against TA-induced liver damage by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation in dose-dependent manners. Histopathological studies further substantiated the protective effect of BC703. These results show the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum on thioacetamide-induced fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:22319234
Pawa, Sonica; Ali, Shakir
Boron has well-defined biological effects and may be of therapeutic benefit. In the current paper, the effect of boron in the form of borax was tested in experimental animal model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The syndrome was induced in female Wistar rats by three consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (400 mg/kg). In the treatment groups, rats received borax (4.0 mg/kg) orally for three consecutive days followed by thioacetamide. The group administered with thioacetamide plus vehicle, and the borax alone treated rats served as controls. In all groups, rats were terminated 4 h after administering the last dose of thioacetamide, and the tissue/serum was used to measure hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and various enzymes associated with oxidative stress including peroxide metabolizing enzymes and xanthine oxidase. In thioacetamide treated group, many fold increase in the activity level of serum marker enzymes suggesting FHF was observed that could be brought down significantly in rats receiving boron. Modulation and a correlation in the activity level of oxidant generating enzyme and lipid peroxidation as well as hepatic glutathione level was also observed in rats receiving thioacetamide. In the group receiving boron followed by thioacetamide, these changes could be minimized moderately. The activity level of the peroxide metabolizing enzymes and the tripeptide glutathione, which decreased following thioacetamide treatment were moderately elevated in the group receiving boron followed by thioacetamide. The data clearly shows that borax partly normalizes the liver and offsets the deleterious effects observed in FHF by modulating the oxidative stress parameters.
Tinti, F; Umbro, I; Meçule, A; Rossi, M; Merli, M; Nofroni, I; Corradini, S Ginanni; Poli, L; Pugliese, F; Ruberto, F; Berloco, P B; Mitterhofer, A P
Renal dysfunction in cirrhotic patients is primary related to disturbances of circulatory function, triggered by portal hypertension with chronic intrarenal vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion. Pretransplant renal function is an important factor implicated in the development of acute renal failure (ARF) after liver transplantation (OLT), but other factors mostly related to liver function seem to influence the development of ARF. The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative workgroup developed the RIFLE classification to define ARF. We sought to evaluate the incidence of ARF among patients undergoing OLT, to evaluate the association of ARF with pre-OLT renal and hepatic functions, and to evaluate the influence of ARF on chronic kidney disease (CKD) at 1 month post-OLT. Clinical, renal, hepatic function, and donor risk index data of 24 patients who underwent deceased donor OLT were collected before transplantation, in the perioperative period and in the first month post-OLT. ARF occurred in 37.5% of patients with 56% developing the R grade and 44% the I grade; no patient showed the F grade. An association was observed between ARF and a higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and between ARF and a reduced pre-OLT serum albumin. No association was noted between ARF and other pre-OLT parameters. In cirrhotic patients serum creatinine is a bias for renal function assessment and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula overestimates GFR. Post-OLT CKD was present in 6.7% of patients without ARF and in 44.4% of patients with ARF. The R grade developed more frequently among patients with viral cirrhosis. The association of ARF with MELD and hypoalbuminemia may be the result of a close relationship between renal and hepatic functions among cirrhotic patients. Post-OLT CKD may be the result of unrecognized, preexisting CKD and/or the effects of not fully resolved acute damage to an injured kidney. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, George S.; Monte, Andrew; Bagdure, Dayanand
We describe the case of a patient with massive acetaminophen-diphenhydramine overdose and a 4-hour serum acetaminophen concentration of 653 μg/mL. The patient was treated with acetylcysteine 5 hours after ingestion. Because of a persistently elevated serum acetaminophen level of 413 μg/mL 45 hours after ingestion, a medical toxicologist recommended that the patient be treated with a second bolus of acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg followed by 12.5 mg/kg per hour for 4 hours, then 6.25 mg/kg per hour). On hospital day 3, she developed hepatic failure despite early treatment. Her transaminase levels and hepatic synthetic function began to improve on hospital day 6, and acetylcysteine was discontinued on hospital day 10. In cases of massive acetaminophen overdose, standard acetylcysteine dosing may not be adequate. We suggest that elevated serum acetaminophen concentrations at the end of a standard 20-hour acetylcysteine infusion should be discussed with the local poison center. PMID:21402629
Kasmi, Irena; Sallabanda, Sashenka; Kasmi, Gentian
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is a drug widely used in children because of its safety and efficacy. Although the risk of its toxicity is lower in children such reactions occur in pediatric patients from intentional overdoses and less frequently attributable to unintended inappropriate dosing. The aim of reporting this case is to attract the attention to the risk of the acetaminophen toxicity when administered in high doses. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a 5 year old girl who developed fulminate liver failure with renal impairment and acute pancreatitis, as a result of acetaminophen toxicity caused from unintentional repeated supratherapeutic ingestion, with a total administered dose of 4800 mg in three consecutive days, 1600 mg/day, approximately 90 mg/kg/day. The blood level of acetaminophen after 10 hours of the last administered dose was 32 mg/l. The patient presented with high fever, jaundice, lethargic, agitating with abdominal pain accompanied by encephalopathy. The liver function test revealed with high level of alanine aminotransferase 5794 UI/l and aspartate aminotransferase 6000 UI/l. Early initiation of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) after biochemical evidence of liver toxicity was beneficial with rapid improvement of liver enzymes, hepatic function and encephalopathy. During the course of the illness the child developed acute pancreatitis with hyperamylasemia 255 UI/L and hyperlypasemia 514 UI/L. Patient totally recovered within 29 days. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers should considered probable acetaminophen toxicity in any child who has received the drug and presented with liver failure. When there is a high index of suspicion of acetaminophen toxicity NAC should be initiated and continued until there are no signs of hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27275268
Hambleton, Catherine; Buell, Joseph; Saggi, Bob; Balart, Luis; Shores, Nathan J; Kandil, Emad
Thyroid storm is a presentation of severe thyrotoxicosis that has a mortality rate of up to 20% to 30%. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) entails encephalopathy with severe coagulopathy in the setting of liver disease. It carries a high mortality rate, with an approximately 60% rate of overall survival for patients who undergo orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Fulminant hepatic failure is a rare but serious complication of thyroid storm. There have been only 6 previously reported cases of FHF with thyroid storm. We present a patient from our institution with thyroid storm and FHF. A literature review was performed to analyze the outcomes of the 6 additional cases of concomitant thyroid storm and FHF. Our patient underwent thyroidectomy followed by OLT. Her serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and transaminase normalized, and she was ready for discharge within 10 days of surgery. She has survived without complication. There is a 40% mortality rate for the reported patients treated medically with these conditions. Of the 7 total cases of reported FHF and thyroid storm, 2 patients died. Only 2 of the 7 patients underwent thyroidectomy and OLT--both at our institution. Both patients survived without complications. Thyroid storm and FHF each independently carry high mortality rates, and managing patients with both conditions simultaneously is an extraordinary challenge. These cases should compel clinicians to investigate liver function in hyperthyroid patients and to be wary of its rapid decline in patients who present in thyroid storm with symptoms of liver dysfunction. Patients with rapidly progressing thyroid storm and FHF should be considered for total thyroidectomy and OLT.
McCabe, Christopher; Arroja, Mariana M; Reid, Emma; Macrae, I Mhairi
Over the past forty years, animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia have allowed us to identify the critical cerebral blood flow thresholds responsible for irreversible cell death, electrical failure, inhibition of protein synthesis, energy depletion and thereby the lifespan of the potentially salvageable penumbra. They have allowed us to understand the intricate biochemical and molecular mechanisms within the 'ischaemic cascade' that initiate cell death in the first minutes, hours and days following stroke. Models of permanent, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and embolic stroke have been developed each with advantages and limitations when trying to model the complex heterogeneous nature of stroke in humans. Yet despite these advances in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke-induced cell death with numerous targets identified and drugs tested, a lack of translation to the clinic has hampered pre-clinical stroke research. With recent positive clinical trials of endovascular thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke the stroke community has been reinvigorated, opening up the potential for future translation of adjunctive treatments that can be given alongside thrombectomy/thrombolysis. This review discusses the major animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia highlighting their advantages and limitations. Acute imaging is crucial in longitudinal pre-clinical stroke studies in order to identify the influence of acute therapies on tissue salvage over time. Therefore, the methods of identifying potentially salvageable ischaemic penumbra are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhong, Jianhui; Xu, Qiang; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Guang Ming
Purpose To evaluate the effect of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), hepatic failure, and portosystemic shunt (PS) on the brain volume alteration in cirrhotic patients with MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods Sixty cirrhotic patients (overt HE [OHE], n = 11; minimal HE [MHE], n = 19; non HE [nHE], n = 30) including 12 with pre- and post-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) scanning and 40 healthy controls were recruited. Neuropsychological and laboratory tests were performed in all patients. VBM was analyzed with ANOVA test among 4 groups, and t-tests for patients with different hepatic function, PS scores, and TIPS. Multiple linear regression was performed to investigate the effect of venous blood ammonia levels, Child-Pugh scores, and PS on the brain volumes in all patients. Results Cirrhotic patients exhibited decreased volume in many areas of gray matter (GM), increased volume in thalamus, and increased whiter matter (WM) volume, with the extent of affected brain volume greater in HE patients than nHE patients. Hepatic failure also resulted in decreased GM volume. Patients with high PS scores and TIPS displayed decreased GM and increased WM volume in some regions. Post-TIPS patients displayed increased GM volume in the thalamus. Multiple covariate regression results suggested that Child-Pugh score was a major factor to affect GM volume, while PS mainly affected WM volume. Conclusion Brain structure abnormalities appeared bilaterally symmetrical in cirrhotic patients, and the impairment was more extensive in HE patients than those without HE. Increased thalamus volume was not associated with HE progression. Hepatic failure and PS altered cirrhotic patients’ brain structure. PMID:22912746
Kang, Wenyu; Ding, Zhengrong; Shen, Liping; Zhao, Zhixian; Huang, Guofei; Zhang, Jie; Xiong, Qing; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Feng
To explore the risk factors associated with immunoprophylaxis failure against mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis B vaccination status in Yunnan province, China. Multicenter cluster sampling was used to select pregnant women who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HBV immunoprophylaxis was carried out for the newborns. Blood samples were collected and tested for HBV markers from 7 to 10 month old infants. The factors were analyzed by univariate and logistic regression. A total of 2765 mothers and their infants were enrolled. The failure rate of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) was 4.12%. The rate of timely HepB1 vaccination within 24h was 98.04%, the rate of three-dose vaccination was 92.30% and the rate of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) administration was 68.97%. Place of residence, maternal education, gestational age and birth weight were related to administration of HBV immunoprophylaxis. It was remarkable that the rate of HBIG administration of infants was only 63.89% with whose mothers were both HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive. Further analysis showed that there were three risk factors associated with HBV immunoprophylaxis failure: mothers who were positive for HBsAg and HBeAg, maternal HBVDNA level, and HBIG administration or not. PMTCT of HBV was well implemented in Yunnan. However, in order to achieve optimal prevention of vertical HBV transmission, it is mandatory to make additional efforts to improve the implementation of regulatory HBV immunoprophylaxis, especially for HBsAg-positive pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vaboe, A L; Leh, S; Forslund, T
This is the first report from Norway of a patient with interstitial nephritis and renal failure due to non-fulminant hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. HAV infection was confirmed by positive anti-HAV IgM serology. All tests for other virus infections were negative. At admittance serum creatinine (s-Creat) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were 539 microlmol/l and 32.6 mmol/l increasing the following days to 890 micromol/l and 39.9 mmol/l, respectively. Nine courses of hemodialysis had to be given. Kidney biopsy specimen showed interstitial edema, lymphocytic cell infiltration and acute tubular injury with normal glomeruli. Examination with immunohistochemistry was negative. In contrast to the findings associated with HBV and HCV infection in which glomerular disease is predominantly found, the HAV infection in our patient was associated with interstitial nephritis and acute tubular necrosis. The prognosis of the renal failure due to HAV infection was good although the recovery was substantially delayed.
Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Thimme, Robert
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is only cleared in a minority of infected individuals, the majority of patients develop chronic infection. Chronic HCV infection potentially leads to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. The host immune response is an important determinant in the outcome of HCV infection. Innate as well as adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses mediate important antiviral actions; however, virus-specific T cell responses appear to be most critical. Indeed, strong and multispecific CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cell responses are required for viral clearance. Interestingly, individuals who express certain HLA alleles (which are important for antigen presentation to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) have a higher chance to clear the virus. The mechanisms of protection by HLA class I alleles such as HLA-B27 have been characterized recently. In most individuals, however, the HCV-specific immune response fails to clear the virus. Several mechanisms underlying this HCV-specific T cell failure have been identified. These include viral factors such as viral escape mutations and immunological factors such as the expression of inhibitory receptors, which lead to CD8+ T cell dysfunction. An in-depth understanding of the determinants of success or failure of the HCV-specific T cell response is critical for the development of prophylactic as well as therapeutic vaccination regimes against HCV. Here, we will discuss the virological and immunological determinants of HCV clearance and persistence.
Shao, Zhexin; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Limin; Feng, Guofang; Zhang, Juanwen; Zhang, Jie
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (AoCLF) is the most common type of liver failure and is associated with high mortality. Fibrinogen is critical in maintaining primary and secondary hemostasis. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the association between fibrinogen and outcomes in AoCLF patients. Plasma fibrinogen was measured in 169 AoCLF, 173 chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 171 healthy patients using a coagulation method. The predictive ability of fibrinogen for 3-month mortality in AoCLF patients was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Plasma fibrinogen was significantly lower in nonsurvivor AoCLF patients compared with survivor AoCLF, CHB, and control patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve of 1/fibrinogen predicting mortality in AoCLF patients were 66.7%, 72.5%, and 0.746 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.672-0.820, P < 0.001), and the fibrinogen cutoff value was 0.90 g/L. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, low fibrinogen was an independent factor predicting mortality (odds ratio: 0.304; 95% CI: 0.094-0.983; P = 0.047). Nonsurvivor AoCLF patients had significantly decreased fibrinogen levels, suggesting that low plasma fibrinogen may be a useful predictor of poor prognosis in AoCLF patients.
Gonzalez, Stevan A; Keeffe, Emmet B
A significant proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who undergo antiviral therapy have persistent or recurrent viremia and fail to achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). Factors associated with treatment failure include HCV genotype 1 infection, high serum HCV RNA levels, and advanced fibrosis. Consensus interferon (CIFN) is a synthetic type I interferon derived from a consensus sequence of the most common amino acids found in naturally occurring alpha interferon subtypes. Several prospective clinical studies have demonstrated that CIFN may be a treatment option in patients who have failed prior interferon-based therapy, including those who have failed combination therapy with standard interferon or peginterferon plus ribavirin. Daily CIFN in combination with ribavirin may be an effective regimen in this setting; however, optimal dose and treatment duration of CIFN therapy have not been well established. Patients who achieve viral suppression during prior interferon-based therapy and those who do not have advanced fibrosis have a greater likelihood of achieving a SVR with CIFN retreatment. Individualized therapy targeting specific patient groups will be an important consideration in the successful management of prior treatment failures. Additional prospective studies are required in order to identify optimal treatment strategies for the use of CIFN in these patients. PMID:19707403
Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Y K; Dhiman, R K; Kumar, Amit; Choudhary, Narendra; Taneja, Sunil
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a newly coined term to describe simultaneous coexistence of two liver conditions, one of them being chronic or long-standing and the other acute or recent. There is limited data on the entity of ACLF. This study was performed to review our experience in ACLF patients from a tertiary care centre. ACLF was defined as per the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) criteria, except for including the non-hepatic insults as precipitating events. Based on the type of acute insult, patients were divided into type I (non hepatic injury) and type II (hepatic injury-further divided in to IIA-acute viral hepatitis (AVH) on underlying chronic liver disease (CLD), IIB-other acute hepatitic insults like drugs/toxins and IIC-same disease responsible for worsening). Patients were also analyzed for the mode of presentation, severity of liver illness, presence of acute kidney injury and other organ failure, hospital stay and final outcome. One hundred two patients with ACLF (85 males, mean age 44 ± 12.5 years) were included in the study; they accounted for 49% of all liver failures and 27% of all admissions during the study period. Sixty patients (59%) had known cirrhosis whereas 42 (41%) patients presented for the first time as ACLF, unaware of the underlying CLD. Sixty-two (60%) patients had type I ACLF while 40 (40%) patients had type II ACLF. Infections (47%) were the most common non-hepatic causes of acute deterioration in type I ACLF. Amongst type II, acute viral hepatitis (IIA) accounted for six patients (4 hepatitis E virus, 2 hepatitis A virus) and type II C was the most common with alcoholic hepatitis accounting for 30 (29%) patients. Acute kidney injury was present in 47 (46%) and hypotension in 36 (35%) patients. Hypoxemia with ventilatory support was required in 22 (21%) patients. Mean hospital stay of patients was 9.7 ± 6 days (2-27 days). Forty-seven (46%) patients either died or left hospital in a very
Borkakoti, Jayanta; Hazam, Rajib Kishore; Mohammad, Asim; Kumar, Ashok; Kar, Premashis
The incidence and mortality in pregnant women with acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) is high. Data on the viral load of HEV during pregnancy are limited. The study was designed to determine the viral load of HEV and its association with the disease severity in patients with acute liver failure. A total of HEV related 163 patients with acute liver failure which included 105 pregnant, 46 non-pregnant women and girls and 12 men and 730 patients with acute viral hepatitis which comprised of 220 pregnant women; 282 non-pregnant women and girls and 228 men were included. Viral load was measured by real-time PCR. Comparison was made between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. HEV RNA was detectable in 265 patients (142 pregnant; 75 non-pregnant and 48 men) and 104 patients with acute liver failure (64 pregnant, 34 non-pregnant and 6 men). The viral load of HEV in pregnant women with acute liver failure and acute viral hepatitis was significantly higher 129,984.0 ± 103,104.17 and 768.92 ± 1,105.40 copies/ml, respectively compared to the non-pregnant women which was 189.2 ± 225 and 12.73 ± 7.8 copies/ml (P < 0.0001). The viral load of HEV was also significantly higher in the pregnant patients with acute liver failure compared to the pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis and also men (P < 0.0001). High viral load of HEV during pregnancy could be one of the factors responsible for the severity of the infection during pregnancy.
de Andrade Júnior, D R; Fujita Neto, F G; Vieira, G S; Tibério, I F; Warth, M P; Calich, I
We describe in this work a clinical case of a female patient aged 21 years, bearer of Wilson's disease, a first clinical manifestation of the disease occurred as an acute hemolytic crisis followed by fulminant hepatic failure evolving to death after 26 days' internment. The definitive diagnosis was obtained only as a quantitative measurement of hepatic copper from the necropsy material. The search for Kayser-Fleischer ring was negative and the serum ceruloplasmin level was 9 mg/dl (15 to 60). No involvement of the central nervous system was noted from the pathologic analysis. The patient presented two Coombs negative hemolytic crises during the internment; the first on being admitted to hospital and the second after a transjugular hepatic biopsy carried out on the 16th day after internment. The last hemolytic crisis was accompanied by an increase of serum and urinary copper levels. On this occasion the patient evolved to a progressive hepatic failure with severe jaundice and hepatic encephalopathy. We are presenting the clinical-biochemical evolution of the patient and we shall discuss the existent hypotheses to the pathophysiology of this rare form for manifestation of the Wilson's disease as well the diagnostic difficulties.
Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Kami, Masahiro; Kishi, Yukiko; Murashige, Naoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Kusumi, Eiji; Matsumura, Tomoko; Onishi, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Kim, Sung-Won; Hamaki, Tamae; Takaue, Yoichi; Taniguchi, Shuichi
A 54-year-old man with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF) underwent RIST. His clinical course had been uneventful until day 60, when splenomegaly reappeared. Hepatic dysfunction developed on day 75. Recipient-type hematopoiesis increased to 51% on day 90. After rapid tapering of cyclosporin, serum levels of AST and ALP normalized in parallel with recovery of complete chimerism on day 134. Yet, jaundice progressed. He died of liver failure on day 176. Postmortem examination revealed neither GVHD nor VOD. Graft rejection following RIST for CIMF may lead to fatal hepatic damage through extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver or cytokine-mediated immune dysregulations.
Background Hepatitis G virus (HGV) is an RNA virus. It is mainly transmitted through exposure to contaminated blood although other routes may also exist. Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are at high risk of acquiring HGV because they require frequent blood transfusions. Ongoing HGV infection can be only diagnosed by demonstrating viremia in patient sample by reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR. Antibodies to the envelop protein E2 (anti E2) of HGV is an indicator of virus clearance and testify past HGV contact. This cross sectional study was done to assess the frequency of HGV exposure (ongoing and past infection) in Egyptian children with CRF and to study the possible risk factors of infection. Methods This study included 100 children with CRF [34 on regular haemodialysis (HD) and 66 before the start of dialysis (predialysis)]. All patients sera were tested for HGV RNA by RT-PCR, anti E2, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAB). Twenty five healthy children of matched age & sex were used as controls. Results HGV RNA was positive in 9 (26.5%) of HD and 9 (13.6%) of predialysis children. Anti E2 was positive in 14 (41.2%) of HD and 19 (28.8%) of predialysis children. In comparison to controls; CRF (n = 100); HD and predialysis children had significantly higher prevalence of anti E2 [4% VS 33% for all CRF cases; (p = 0.002)& 41.2% (p = 0.002) and 28.8% (p = 0.01); for HD and predialysis groups; respectively]. HGV RNA was significantly more prevalent only in HD children in comparison to controls (p = 0.03). HD and predialysis children did not have significant difference in the prevalence of HGV RNA (p = 0.16) or anti E2 (p = 0.26). HGV exposure was not correlated with positivity of anti HCV (p = 0.32), HCV RNA (0.09), HBsAg/HBcAB (p = 1), age (p = 0.06), or gender (p = 0.83). It was significantly correlated with duration of the disease (p < 0.001). Ongoing HGV infection was significantly more
Liver involvement in pediatric influenza A (H1N1) infection is rare. Focused clinical evaluation and laboratory tests can rule out or identify hepatic complications early on. Here we report on a 9-year-old boy treated by the Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Unit of Al-Adan Hospital’s Pediatric Department. The patient, who was infected with H1N1 during the 2010 pandemic, showed symptoms of associated acute hepatic failure, was managed conservatively, and recovered completely following treatment. The author would like to draw the attention of pediatricians to the hepatic aspect of human H1N1 infection in order for them to recognize it early and treat it in a timely manner. PMID:24367231
Cooper, Sheldon C; Aldridge, Roland C; Shah, Tahir; Webb, Kerry; Nightingale, Peter; Paris, Sue; Gunson, Bridget K; Mutimer, David J; Neuberger, James M
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity, whether due to intentional overdose or therapeutic misadventure, is an indication for liver transplantation in selected cases. However, there is a concern that long-term outcomes may be compromised by associated psychopathology that may predispose patients to further episodes of self-harm or poor treatment adherence. We therefore undertook a retrospective analysis of patients transplanted for paracetamol-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) to determine their long-term outcomes, psychiatric problems, and compliance and whether these issues could be predicted from pretransplant information. Records from patients undergoing liver transplantation for paracetamol-associated liver failure in this unit and 2 comparison groups (patients undergoing liver replacement for FHF from other causes and for chronic liver diseases) were examined. Of 60 patients transplanted for paracetamol-induced FHF between 1989 and 2007, 44 (73%) survived to discharge. Currently, 35 patients (58%) are surviving at an average of 9 years post-transplantation. The incidence of psychiatric disease (principally depression) and 30-day mortality were greatest in the paracetamol group, but for those who survived 30 days, there was no difference in long-term survival rates between the groups. Adherence to follow-up appointments and compliance with immunosuppression were lowest in the paracetamol overdose group. Poor adherence was not predicted by any identifiable premorbid psychiatric conditions. Two patients grafted for paracetamol FHF died from self-harm (1 from suicide and 1 from alcoholic liver disease after 5 years). This study suggests that, notwithstanding the shortage of donor liver grafts, transplantation is an appropriate therapy in selected patients, although close follow-up is indicated. Copyright 2009 AASLD
Sathyasaikumar, K V; Swapna, I; Reddy, P V B; Murthy, Ch R K; Dutta Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B; Reddanna, P
Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) is one of the most common complications of acute liver diseases and is known to have profound influence on the brain. Most of the studies, available from the literature are pertaining to whole brain homogenates or mitochondria. Since brain is highly heterogeneous with functions localized in specific areas, the present study was aimed to assess the oxidative stress in different regions of brain-cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons medulla during acute HE. Acute liver failure was induced in 3-month old adult male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide (300 mg/kg body weight for two days), a well known hepatotoxin. Oxidative stress conditions were assessed by free radical production, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide levels, GSH/GSSG ratio and antioxidant enzyme machinery in three distinct structures of rat braincerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons medulla. Results of the present study indicate a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS), total nitric oxide levels [(NO) estimated by measuring (nitrites + nitrates)] and a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio in all the regions of brain. There was also a marked decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes-glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase while the super oxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased. However, the present study also revealed that pons medulla and cerebral cortex were more susceptible to oxidative stress than cerebellum. The increased vulnerability to oxidative stress in pons medulla could be due to the increased NO levels and increased activity of SOD and decreased glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. In summary, the present study revealed that oxidative stress prevails in different cerebral regions analyzed during thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure with more pronounced effects on pons medulla and cerebral cortex.
HSV hepatitis is a rare but often fatal cause of liver failure which tends to affect immunocompromised individuals. Early treatment with Acyclovir has been shown to reduce mortality in HSV hepatitis making recognition of the condition critically important. Here, we present a case of HSV hepatitis in a young woman with Crohn's disease on Prednisone, Azathioprine, and Infliximab. We discuss the clinical presentation of HSV hepatitis as well as the possible causes of hepatitis in a patient on these medications. This case helps demonstrate the importance of early clinical suspicion for HSV in undifferentiated fulminate liver failure. It is also the first reported case of HSV hepatitis in a patient on Infliximab, raising the possibility of HSV reactivation in patients on Infliximab. PMID:27818806
Weiner, Joshua; Griesemer, Adam; Island, Eddie; Lobritto, Steven; Martinez, Mercedes; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Lefkowitch, Jay; Velasco, Monica; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiotis; Emond, Jean; Tzakis, Andreas; Kato, Tomoaki
By preserving part of the native liver, auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) provides the advantage of potential immunosuppression (ISP) withdrawal if the native liver recovers but has had limited acceptance, especially in the United States, due to technical complications and low rates of native liver regeneration. No previous study has evaluated APOLT specifically for preadolescent children with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). This population might benefit especially based on greater capacity for liver regeneration. Data from 13 preadolescent children who underwent APOLT were compared to 13 matched controls who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for FHF from 1996 to 2013. There were no significant differences in patient demographics or survival between the 2 groups. However, all surviving OLT recipients (10/13) remain on ISP, while all but 1 surviving APOLT recipient (12/13) showed native liver regeneration, and the first 10 recipients (76.9%) are currently off ISP with 2 additional patients currently weaning. In our experience, APOLT produced excellent survival and high rates of native liver regeneration in preadolescent children with FHF. This represents the largest series to date to report such outcomes. Liberating these children from lifelong ISP without the downside of increased surgical morbidity makes APOLT an attractive alternative. In conclusion, we therefore propose that, with the availability of technical expertise and with the technical modifications above, APOLT for FHF should be strongly considered for preteenage children with FHF.
de Amorim, Regina Maria Santos; Coelho, Alexandre; Lampe, Elisabeth; Raiol, Tainá; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies constitute a dynamic population in a continuous process of variation and selection. To investigate effect of the immune system on the genetic variability of HCV, we compared the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of immunosuppressed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF group) to immunocompetent patients with HCV chronic infection (control group). The HVR1 from ten samples of each group was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The HCV quasispecies from the control group had a higher frequency of variable sites in HVR1 (83.9 % vs 59.3 %, p < 0.05), as well as a greater diversity within (intra-patient) and between samples, compared to the CRF group. The clustering of the majority of the quasispecies of the CRF group in the phylogenetic tree also showed the limited diversity of the quasispecies in immunosuppressed patients. Moreover, a higher variability of amino acids at positions 384, 386, 391, 394, 397, 398, 400, 405 and 410 was observed in the control group than in the CRF group, which showed a greater variability only at position 388 (p < 0.05). These data corroborates the hypothesis that the major selective pressure factor is the immune system, which promotes a high degree of diversity in the viral progeny and contributes to a constant evolution of HCV.
Rowe, Ian A; Barber, Kerri M; Birch, Rhiannon; Curnow, Elinor; Neuberger, James M
AIM: To investigate the outcome of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection undergoing liver retransplantation. METHODS: Using the UK National Registry, patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCV-related liver disease were identified. Data on patient and graft characteristics, as well as transplant and graft survival were collected to determine the outcome of HCV patients undergoing retransplantation and in order to identify factors associated with transplant survival. RESULTS: Between March 1994 and December 2007, 944 adult patients were transplanted for HCV-related liver disease. At the end of follow-up, 617 of these patients were alive. In total, 194 (21%) patients had first graft failure and of these, 80 underwent liver retransplantation, including 34 patients where the first graft failed due to recurrent disease. For those transplanted for HCV-related disease, the 5-year graft survival in those retransplanted for recurrent HCV was 45% [95% confidence interval (CI): 24%-64%] compared with 80% (95% CI: 62%-90%) for those retransplanted for other indications (P = 0.01, log-rank test); the 5-year transplant survival after retransplantation was 43% (95% CI: 23%-62%) and 46% (95% CI: 31%-60%), respectively (P = 0.8, log-rank test). In univariate analysis of all patients retransplanted, no factor analyzed was significantly associated with transplant survival. CONCLUSION: Outcomes for retransplantation in patients with HCV infection approach agreed criteria for minimum transplant benefit. These data support selective liver retransplantation in patients with HCV infection. PMID:20976844
Majmudar, Maulik D.; Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Shah, Ravi V.; Kolli, Swathy; Mousavi, Negareh; Foster, Courtney R.; Hainer, Jon; Blankstein, Ron; Dorbala, Sharmila; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Stevenson, Lynne W.; Mehra, Mandeep R.; Di Carli, Marcelo F.
Aims Patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction frequently show abnormal coronary vascular function, even in the absence of overt coronary artery disease. Moreover, the severity of vascular dysfunction might be related to the aetiology of cardiomyopathy. We sought to determine the incremental value of assessing coronary vascular dysfunction among patients with ischaemic (ICM) and non-ischaemic (NICM) cardiomyopathy at risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Methods and results Coronary flow reserve (CFR, stress/rest myocardial blood flow) was quantified in 510 consecutive patients with rest left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% referred for rest/stress myocardial perfusion PET imaging. The primary end point was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, heart failure hospitalization, late revascularization, and aborted sudden cardiac death. Median follow-up was 8.2 months. Cox proportional hazards model was used to adjust for clinical variables. The annualized MACE rate was 26.3%. Patients in the lowest two tertiles of CFR (CFR ≤ 1.65) experienced higher MACE rates than those in the highest tertile (32.6 vs. 15.5% per year, respectively, P = 0.004), irrespective of aetiology of cardiomyopathy. Conclusion Impaired coronary vascular function, as assessed by reduced CFR by PET imaging, is common in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and is associated with MACE. PMID:25719181
Wollersheim, Susan K; Humphries, Romney M; Cherry, James D; Krogstad, Paul
We describe a case of acute liver failure caused by echovirus 25 (E25) in a previously healthy 2-year-old boy. Initial serological studies were consistent with hepatitis A virus (HAV), with prozone phenomenon. The similarity of E25 to HAV may obscure accurate diagnosis in some cases of hepatitis.
Gao, Fang-Yuan; Liu, Yao; Li, Xiao-Shu; Ye, Xie-Qiong; Sun, Le; Geng, Ming-Fan; Wang, Rui; Liu, Hui-Min; Zhou, Xiao-Bing; Gu, Li-Li; Liu, Yan-Min; Wan, Gang; Wang, Xian-Bo
AIM: To establish a clinical scoring model to predict risk of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 1457 patients hospitalized for CHB between October 2008 and October 2013 at the Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. The patients were divided into two groups: severe acute exacerbation (SAE) group (n = 382) and non-SAE group (n = 1075). The SAE group was classified as the high-risk group based on the higher incidence of ACLF in this group than in the non-SAE group (13.6% vs 0.4%). Two-thirds of SAE patients were randomly assigned to risk-model derivation and the other one-third to model validation. Univariate risk factors associated with the outcome were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model for screening independent risk factors. Each variable was assigned an integer value based on the regression coefficients, and the final score was the sum of these values in the derivation set. Model discrimination and calibration were assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS: The risk prediction scoring model included the following four factors: age ≥ 40 years, total bilirubin ≥ 171 μmol/L, prothrombin activity 40%-60%, and hepatitis B virus DNA > 107 copies/mL. The sum risk score ranged from 0 to 7; 0-3 identified patients with lower risk of ACLF, whereas 4-7 identified patients with higher risk. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed the cumulative risk for ACLF and ACLF-related death in the two risk groups (0-3 and 4-7 scores) of the primary cohort over 56 d, and log-rank test revealed a significant difference (2.0% vs 33.8% and 0.8% vs 9.4%, respectively; both P < 0.0001). In the derivation and validation data sets, the model had good discrimination (C index = 0.857, 95% confidence interval: 0.800-0.913 and C index = 0.889, 95% confidence interval: 0.820-0.957, respectively) and calibration
Zhang, Min; Ye, Yinong; Wang, Fenglan; Zhu, Jianyun; Zhao, Qiyi; Zheng, Yubao; Gu, Yurong; Xie, Chan; Huang, Zhanlian; Tai, Qiang; Chong, Yutian; Gao, Zhiliang
Although patients with liver failure exhibit a generalized inflammatory-imbalance status, substantial evidence indicates that this immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory state may be deleterious. Increased expression of CD163 (known to be involved in several anti-inflammatory functions of the immune system) in patients with liver failure is significantly correlated with a fatal outcome. However, little is known of the regulatory mechanisms that influence the expression of CD163. We assessed the expression of CD163 on monocytes from both circulating cells and the liver tissues of patients with hepatitis B induced liver failure using flow cytometry and isolated the myofibroblasts from diseased livers. The ability of human liver myofibroblasts to regulate CD163 expression on monocytes was studied in vitro. We showed that CD163⁺ monocytes were enriched primarily in diseased livers and that they were associated with liver myofibroblasts in the same area. Accordingly, liver myofibroblasts were significantly superior to normal skin fibroblasts in inducing the expression of CD163 on monocytes in vitro. Moreover, we found that liver myofibroblasts triggered the activation of monocytes by secreting PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production in liver myofibroblasts using NS-398 markedly reduced CD163 expression in vitro. These results suggest that liver myofibroblasts play a direct role in regulating the expression of CD163 on monocytes in human liver tissues and thereby may regulate monocyte function during hepatitis B induced liver failure.
Background Although patients with liver failure exhibit a generalized inflammatory-imbalance status, substantial evidence indicates that this immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory state may be deleterious. Increased expression of CD163 (known to be involved in several anti-inflammatory functions of the immune system) in patients with liver failure is significantly correlated with a fatal outcome. However, little is known of the regulatory mechanisms that influence the expression of CD163. Methods We assessed the expression of CD163 on monocytes from both circulating cells and the liver tissues of patients with hepatitis B induced liver failure using flow cytometry and isolated the myofibroblasts from diseased livers. The ability of human liver myofibroblasts to regulate CD163 expression on monocytes was studied in vitro. Results We showed that CD163+ monocytes were enriched primarily in diseased livers and that they were associated with liver myofibroblasts in the same area. Accordingly, liver myofibroblasts were significantly superior to normal skin fibroblasts in inducing the expression of CD163 on monocytes in vitro. Moreover, we found that liver myofibroblasts triggered the activation of monocytes by secreting PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production in liver myofibroblasts using NS-398 markedly reduced CD163 expression in vitro. Conclusion These results suggest that liver myofibroblasts play a direct role in regulating the expression of CD163 on monocytes in human liver tissues and thereby may regulate monocyte function during hepatitis B induced liver failure. PMID:24597777
Li, Hai; Xia, Qiang; Zeng, Bo; Li, Shu-Ting; Liu, Heng; Li, Qi; Li, Jun; Yang, Shu-Yin; Dong, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Ting; Munker, Stefan; Liu, Yan; Liebe, Roman; Xue, Feng; Li, Qi-Gen; Chen, Xiao-Song; Liu, Qiang; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Ji-Yao; Xie, Qing; Meng, Qin-Hua; Wang, Jie-Fei; Mertens, Peter R; Lammert, Frank; Singer, Manfred V; Dooley, Steven; Ebert, Matthias P A; Qiu, De-Kai; Wang, Tai-Ling; Weng, Hong-Lei
Distinguishing between acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) and decompensated liver cirrhosis is difficult due to a lack of pathological evidence. A prospective single-center study investigated 174 patients undergoing liver transplantation due to acute decompensation of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated liver cirrhosis. Two groups were distinguished by the presence or absence of submassive hepatic necrosis (SMHN, defined as necrosis of 15-90% of the entire liver on explant). Core clinical features of ACLF were compared between these groups. Disease severity scoring systems were applied to describe liver function and organ failure. Serum cytokine profile assays, gene expression microarrays and immunohistochemical analyzes were used to study systemic and local inflammatory responses. SMHN was identified in 69 of 174 patients proven to have cirrhosis by histological means. Characteristic features of SMHN were extensive necrosis along terminal hepatic veins and spanning multiple adjacent cirrhotic nodules accompanied by various degrees of liver progenitor cell-derived regeneration, cholestasis, and ductular bilirubinostasis. Patients with SMHN presented with more severely impaired hepatic function, a higher prevalence of multiple organ failure (as indicated by higher CLIF-SOFA and SOFA scores) and a shorter interval between acute decompensation and liver transplantation than those without SMHN (p<0.01 for all parameters). Further analyzes based on serum cytokine profile assays, gene expression microarrays and immunohistochemical analyzes revealed higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with SMHN. SMHN is a critical histological feature of HBV-associated ACLF. Identification of a characteristic pathological feature strongly supports that ACLF is a separate entity in end-stage liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ye, Hong; Wang, Li-Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Kai
AIM: To assess CD163 expression in plasma and peripheral blood and analyze its association with disease in acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF) patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted from January 1, 2011 to January 1, 2012. Forty patients with ACHBLF (mean age 44.48 ± 12.28 years, range 18-69 years), 40 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (mean age 39.45 ± 12.22 years, range 21-57 years) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age 38.35 ± 11.97 years, range 28-60 years) were included in this study. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the frequency of CD163+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and surface protein expression of CD163. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess relative CD163 mRNA levels in PBMCs. Plasma soluble CD163 (sCD163) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical variables were also recorded. Comparisons between groups were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 15.0 software and a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Flow cytometry showed that the population of CD163+ PBMCs was significantly greater in ACHBLF patients than in CHB patients and healthy controls (47.9645% ± 17.1542%, 32.0975% ± 11.0215% vs 17.9460% ± 6.3618%, P < 0.0001). However, there were no significant differences in mean fluorescence intensity of CD163+ PBMCs within the three groups (27.4975 ± 11.3731, 25.8140 ± 10.0649 vs 20.5050 ± 6.2437, P = 0.0514). CD163 mRNA expression in ACHBLF patients was significantly increased compared with CHB patients and healthy controls (1.41 × 10-2 ± 2.18 × 10-2, 5.10 × 10-3 ± 3.61 × 10-3 vs 37.0 × 10-4 ± 3.55 × 10-4, P = 0.02). Plasma sCD163 levels in patients with ACHBLF were significantly increased compared with CHB patients and healthy controls (4706.2175 ± 1681.1096 ng/mL, 1089.7160 ± 736.8395 ng/mL vs 435.9562 ± 440
Ye, Hong; Wang, Li-Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Kai
To assess CD163 expression in plasma and peripheral blood and analyze its association with disease in acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF) patients. A retrospective study was conducted from January 1, 2011 to January 1, 2012. Forty patients with ACHBLF (mean age 44.48 ± 12.28 years, range 18-69 years), 40 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (mean age 39.45 ± 12.22 years, range 21-57 years) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age 38.35 ± 11.97 years, range 28-60 years) were included in this study. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the frequency of CD163+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and surface protein expression of CD163. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess relative CD163 mRNA levels in PBMCs. Plasma soluble CD163 (sCD163) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical variables were also recorded. Comparisons between groups were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 15.0 software and a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Flow cytometry showed that the population of CD163+ PBMCs was significantly greater in ACHBLF patients than in CHB patients and healthy controls (47.9645% ± 17.1542%, 32.0975% ± 11.0215% vs 17.9460% ± 6.3618%, P < 0.0001). However, there were no significant differences in mean fluorescence intensity of CD163+ PBMCs within the three groups (27.4975 ± 11.3731, 25.8140 ± 10.0649 vs 20.5050 ± 6.2437, P = 0.0514). CD163 mRNA expression in ACHBLF patients was significantly increased compared with CHB patients and healthy controls (1.41 × 10⁻² ± 2.18 × 10⁻², 5.10 × 10⁻³ ± 3.61 × 10⁻³ vs 37.0 × 10⁻⁴ ± 3.55 × 10⁻⁴, P = 0.02). Plasma sCD163 levels in patients with ACHBLF were significantly increased compared with CHB patients and healthy controls (4706.2175 ± 1681.1096 ng/mL, 1089.7160 ± 736.8395 ng/mL vs 435.9562 ± 440
Yamamoto, Satoshi; Nguyen, Justin H.
Background Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a devastating disease. When coma sets in, brain edema develops, changing FHF into a lethal condition. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment. However, a third of these patients die as the result of brain edema before a donor becomes available. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), or TIMP, and MMP-9 are implicated in ischemic brain edema. We thus hypothesized that an imbalance in TIMP-1/MMP-9 relationship plays a role in the development of increased brain extravasation and edema in FHF. Materials and methods FHF was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (250 mg/kg). Control rats received saline. GM6001, a synthetic MMP inhibitor, was administered (30 mg/kg) every 12 h for 3 doses starting at 12 h after D-galactosamine injection. MMP-9 was assayed with standard gelatin zymography. Brain extravasation, a measurement of the blood–brain barrier permeability, was determined with Evans blue. Brain edema was determined using specific gravity method. Results The active MMP-9 in the systemic circulation was significantly increased in the comatose FHF as compared to the precoma FHF and control animals (6.5 ± 0.7 versus 4.6 ± 0.4 versus 2.6 ± 0.5 pg/µg, respectively; P < 0.05). Conversely, TIMP-1 was steadily decreased in precoma and coma FHF rats by 35% and 45%, respectively. Blocking MMP-9 activity with GM6001 significantly attenuated brain extravasation and edema in rats with FHF. Conclusions Our study strongly supports that the perturbation of decreased TIMP-1 and increased MMP-9 contributes to the pathogenesis of brain edema in FHF. Our findings present a potential therapeutic approach to effectively increase the window of opportunity for life-saving liver transplantation. PMID:16488444
Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P < 0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P = 0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. © 2015 by the American Association
Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G.; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P <0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P=0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. Conclusion In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. PMID:25761863
PATRONO, D.; PARALUPPI, G.; PERINO, M.; PALISI, M.; MIGLIARETTI, G.; BERCHIALLA, P.; ROMAGNOLI, R.; SALIZZONI, M.
Background Posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is the third most frequent complication and the major cause of postoperative mortality after resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). In case of synchronous resectable CRLM, it is still unclear if surgical strategy (simultaneous versus staged resection of colorectal cancer and hepatic metastases) influences the incidence and severity of PHLF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of surgical strategy on PHLF and on the early and long-term outcome. Patients and Methods Retrospective study on 106 consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy for synchronous CRLM between 1997 and 2012. Results Of 106 patients, 46 underwent simultaneous resection and 60 had staged hepatectomy. The rate of PHLF was similar between groups (16.7% vs 15.2%; p=1) and subgroup analysis restricted to patients undergoing major hepatectomy confirmed this observation (31.8% vs 23.8%; p=0.56). Propensity-score analysis showed that pre-operative total bilirubin level and the amount of intra-operative blood transfusion were independently associated with an increased risk of PHLF. Nevertheless, the risk of severe PHLF (grade B – C) was increased in patients who underwent simultaneous resection and major hepatectomy (OR: 4.82; p=0.035). No significant differences were observed in severe (Dindo – Clavien 3 – 4) postoperative morbidity (23.9% vs 20.0%; p=0.64) and survival (3 and 5-year survival: 55% and 34% vs 56% and 33%; p=0.83). Conclusions The risk of PHLF is not associated with surgical strategy in the treatment of synchronous CRLM. Nevertheless, the risk of severe PHLF is increased in patients undergoing simultaneous resection and major hepatectomy. PMID:24841686
Yang, Xue-Fei; He, Yi; Li, Hai-Yuan; Liu, Xin; Chen, Huan; Liu, Jian-Bang; Ji, Wen-Jun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Li-Na
Fulminant hepatic failure is a severe clinical syndrome associated with a high rate of patient mortality. Recent studies have shown that in addition to its hematopoietic effect, erythropoietin (EPO) has multiple protective effects and exhibits antiapoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to determine the hepatoprotective effect of EPO and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms using a D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of acute liver injury. Experimental groups of mice were administered with various doses of EPO (1,000, 3,000 or 10,000 U/kg, intraperitoneal) once per day for 3 days, prior to injection with D-GalN (700 mg/kg)/LPS (10 µg/kg). Mice were sacrificed 8 h after treatment with D‑GalN/LPS. Liver function and histopathology, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑Px) activities and EPO receptor (EPOR) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) mRNA expression were evaluated. D-GalN/LPS administration markedly induced liver injury, as evidenced by elevated levels of serum aminotransferases, as well as histopathological changes. Compared with the D-GalN/LPS group, pretreatment with EPO significantly decreased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and MDA, and increased the activities of SOD and GSH-Px. Furthermore, the protective effects of EPO were paralleled by an upregulation in the mRNA expression of EPOR and PI3K. These data suggest that EPO can ameliorate D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and upregulating the mRNA expression of EPOR and PI3K.
Overton, E. Turner; Tamhane, Ashutosh R.; Forsythe, Jordan M.; Rodgers, Joel B.; Schexnayder, Julie K.; Guthrie, Deanne; Thogaripally, Suneetha; Zinski, Anne; Saag, Michael S.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Wang, Henry E.; Galbraith, James W.
Background. Emergency departments (EDs) are high-yield sites for hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening, but data regarding linkage to care (LTC) determinants are limited. Methods. Between September 2013 and June 2014, 4371 baby boomers unaware of their HCV status presented to the University of Alabama at Birmingham ED and underwent opt-out screening. A linkage coordinator facilitated referrals for positive cases. Demographic data, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes, and clinic visits were collected, and patients were (retrospectively) followed up until February 2015. Linkage to care was defined as an HCV clinic visit within the hospital system. Results. Overall, 332 baby boomers had reactive HCV antibody and detectable plasma ribonucleic acid. The mean age was 57.3 years (standard deviation = 4.8); 70% were male and 61% were African Americans. Substance abuse (37%) and psychiatric diagnoses (30%) were prevalent; 9% were identified with cirrhosis. During a median follow-up of 433 days (interquartile range, 354–500), 117 (35%) linked to care and 48% needed inpatient care. In multivariable analysis, the odds of LTC failure were significantly higher for white males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–6.38) and uninsured individuals (aOR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.43–18.63) and lower for patients with cirrhosis (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14–0.92) and access to primary care (aOR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.10–0.41). Conclusions. In this cohort of baby boomers with newly diagnosed HCV in the ED, only 1 in 3 were linked to HCV care. Although awareness of HCV diagnosis remains important, intensive strategies to improve LTC and access to curative therapy for diagnosed individuals are needed. PMID:28066793
Yang, You; Gong, Xiao-Bao; Huang, Li-Gua; Wang, Zhen-Xu; Wan, Rong-Zhen; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Qing-Yan; Chen, Zhu; Zhang, Bao-Shun
To investigate the effects and mechanism of diosmetin on acute hepatic failure (AHF), an AHF murine model was established through administration of lipopolysaccharides/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN). In vitro, diosmetin scavenged free radicals. In vivo, diosmetin decreased mortality among mice, blocked the development of histopathological changes and hepatic damage, and suppressed levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. In addition, diosmetin prevented the expression of phosphorylated IKK, IκBα, and NF-κB p65 in the NF-κB signaling pathway, and JNK and p38 in the MAPK signaling pathway. Diosmetin also inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis. Thus, diosmetin exerts protective effects against endotoxin-induced acute hepatic failure in mice. The underlying mechanisms are antioxidation, NF-κB signaling inhibition, inflammatory mediator/cytokine attenuation, and hepatocyte apoptosis suppression. Diosmetin is thus a potential drug candidate for use in the treatment of acute hepatic failure. PMID:28430612
Mao, Yong; Huang, Xin; Yu, Ke; Qu, Hai-bin; Liu, Chang-xiao; Cheng, Yi-yu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced liver failure is an emergent liver disease leading to high mortality. The severity of liver failure may be reflected by the profile of some metabolites. This study assessed the potential of using metabolites as biomarkers for liver failure by identifying metabolites with good discriminative performance for its phenotype. The serum samples from 24 HBV-induced liver failure patients and 23 healthy volunteers were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to generate metabolite profiles. The 24 patients were further grouped into two classes according to the severity of liver failure. Twenty-five commensal peaks in all metabolite profiles were extracted, and the relative area values of these peaks were used as features for each sample. Three algorithms, F-test, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) combined with exhaustive search (ES), were employed to identify a subset of metabolites (biomarkers) that best predict liver failure. Based on the achieved experimental dataset, 93.62% predictive accuracy by 6 features was selected with FSVM-ES and three key metabolites, glyceric acid, cis-aconitic acid and citric acid, are identified as potential diagnostic biomarkers.
Debing, Yannick; Ramière, Christophe; Dallmeier, Kai; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Lebossé, Fanny; Scholtès, Caroline; Roche, Magali; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; André, Patrice; Neyts, Johan
Ribavirin monotherapy is the preferred treatment for chronic hepatitis E, although occasional treatment failure occurs. We present a patient with chronic hepatitis E experiencing ribavirin treatment failure with a completely resistant phenotype. We aimed to identify viral mutations associated with treatment failure and explore the underlying mechanisms. Viral genomes were deep-sequenced at different time points and the role of identified mutations was assessed in vitro using mutant replicons, antiviral assays, cell culture of patient-derived virus and deep-sequencing. Ribavirin resistance was associated with Y1320H, K1383N and G1634R mutations in the viral polymerase, but also an insertion in the hypervariable region comprising a duplication and a polymerase-derived fragment. Analysis of these genome alterations in vitro revealed replication-increasing roles for Y1320H and G1634R mutations and the hypervariable region insertion. In contrast, the K1383N mutation in the polymerase F1-motif suppressed viral replication and increased the in vitro sensitivity to ribavirin, contrary to the clinical phenotype. Analysis of the replication of mutant full-length virus and in vitro culturing of patient-derived virus confirmed that sensitivity to ribavirin was retained. Finally, deep-sequencing of hepatitis E virus genomes revealed that ribavirin is mutagenic to viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Mutations Y1320H, G1634R and the hypervariable region insertion compensated for K1383N-associated replication defects. The specific role of the K1383N mutation remains enigmatic, but it appears to be of importance for the ribavirin resistant phenotype in this patient. Ribavirin is the most common treatment for chronic hepatitis E and is mostly effective, although some cases of ribavirin treatment failure have been described. Here, we report on a particular case of ribavirin resistance and investigate the underlying causes of treatment failure. Mutations in the viral polymerase
Chang, Timothy S; Jensen, Matthew B
Background Ischaemic stroke interrupts the flow of blood to part of the brain. Haemodilution is thought to improve the flow of blood to the affected areas of the brain and thus reduce infarct size. Objectives To assess the effects of haemodilution in acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2014), MEDLINE (January 2008 to October 2013) and EMBASE (January 2008 to October 2013). We also searched trials registers, scanned reference lists and contacted authors. For the previous version of the review, the authors contacted manufacturers and investigators in the field. Selection criteria Randomised trials of haemodilution treatment in people with acute ischaemic stroke. We included only trials in which treatment was started within 72 hours of stroke onset. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed trial quality and one review author extracted the data. Main results We included 21 trials involving 4174 participants. Nine trials used a combination of venesection and plasma volume expander. Twelve trials used plasma volume expander alone. The plasma volume expander was plasma alone in one trial, dextran 40 in 12 trials, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in five trials and albumin in three trials. Two trials tested haemodilution in combination with another therapy. Evaluation was blinded in 14 trials. Five trials probably included some participants with intracerebral haemorrhage. Haemodilution did not significantly reduce deaths within the first four weeks (risk ratio (RR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.34). Similarly, haemodilution did not influence deaths within three to six months (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.20), or death and dependency or institutionalisation (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07). The results were similar in confounded and unconfounded trials, and in trials of isovolaemic and hypervolaemic haemodilution. No
Eguchi, S; Lilja, H; Hewitt, W R; Middleton, Y; Demetriou, A A; Rozga, J
We earlier described a model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in the rat where partial hepatectomy is combined with induction of right liver lobes necrosis. After this procedure, lack of regenerative response in the residual viable liver tissue (omental lobes) was associated with elevated plasma hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) levels and delayed expression of HGF and c-met mRNA in the remnant liver. Here, we investigated whether syngeneic isolated hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen will prolong survival and facilitate liver regeneration in FHF rats. Inbred male Lewis rats were used. Group I rats (n = 46) received intrasplenic injection of 2 x 10(7) hepatocytes and 2 days later FHF was induced. Group II FHF rats (n = 46) received intrasplenic injection of saline. Rats undergoing partial hepatectomy of 68% (PH; n = 30) and a sham operation (SO; n = 30) served as controls. In 20 FHF rats (10 rats/group), survival time was determined. The remaining 72 FHF rats (36 rats/group) were used for physiologic studies (liver function and regeneration and plasma growth factor levels). In Group I rats survival was longer than that of Group II controls (73 +/- 22 hr vs. 33 +/- 9 hr; P < 0. 01). During the first 36 hr, Group I rats had lower blood ammonia, lactate, total bilirubin, PT, and PTT values, lower activity of liver enzymes, and higher monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) production than Group II rats. In Group I rats, livers increased in weight at a rate similar to that seen in PH controls and showed distinct mitotic and DNA synthetic activity (incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and proliferation cell nuclear antigen expression). Plasma HGF and TGF-beta1 levels in these rats decreased and followed the pattern seen in PH rats; additionally, c-met expression in the remnant liver was accelerated. Hepatocyte transplantation prolonged survival in FHF rats and facilitated liver regeneration. Even though the remnant liver increased
Chan, Wing W; Waltman Johnson, Katherine; Friedman, Howard S; Navaratnam, Prakash
Myocardial injury, worsening renal function, and hepatic impairment are independent risk factors for poor patient acute heart failure (AHF) outcomes. Biomarkers of organ damage may be useful in identifying patients at risk for poor outcomes. The objective of this analysis was to assess the relationship between abnormal AHF biomarkers and outcomes in AHF patients. AHF admissions (N = 104,794) data from the Cerner Health Facts® inpatient database were analyzed retrospectively. Multivariate predictive models determined the impact of biomarkers on mortality, readmission, length of stay (LOS), and cost from index admission through 180 days post discharge. Thirty and 60 day time windows are reported but 180 day results were consistent with 60 day outcomes. Biomarkers evaluated were aspartate transaminase (AST), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), high sensitivity cardiac troponin, bilirubin, alanine transaminase (ALT), sodium, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), uric acid, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), NT-ProBNP, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), and hemoglobin. All biomarkers evaluated except hs-CRP, uric acid, and NT-ProBNP were significant (p < 0.0001) predictors of mortality at all timepoints; non-significance for these 3 biomarkers is likely due to low patient counts (1%-2%). Odds ratios for significant biomarkers of mortality ranged from 1.168-2.076 at index admission, 1.205-1.946 at 30 days post-discharge, and 1.233-1.991 at 60 days post-discharge. AST, eGFR, troponin, ALT, BNP, BUN, SCr, and hemoglobin were significant (p < 0.0001) predictors of readmission risk at all timepoints. AST, eGFR, troponin, bilirubin, BUN, SCr, and hemoglobin were significant (p < 0.0001) predictors of cumulative LOS at all timepoints. AST, eGFR, troponin, ALT, sodium, BUN, and hemoglogin were significant (p < 0.0001) cost predictors at 30 and 60 days post-discharge. Renal function measures were associated with outcomes in
Liu, Mei; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Min; Liu, DY
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is defined as rapid acute liver injury, often complicated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The precise onset of FHF with SBP is still unknown, but it is thought that SBP closely correlates with a weakened intestinal barrier. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in forming the intestinal immune barrier, therefore the number, maturity and chemotactic ability of intestinal DCs were studied in FHF. Mouse intestinal and spleen DCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) and surface markers of DCs, namely CD11c, CD74, CD83 and CD86, were identified using flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were performed to detect the distribution and expression of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and CC-chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9), as well as their ligands-CC-chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) and CC-chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25). Real-time PCR was used to detect CCR7 and CCR9 mRNA, along with their ligands-CCL21 and CCL25 mRNA. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the markers CD74, CD83 and CD86 of CD11c+DCs were lower in the D-galactosamine (D-GalN) group and were significantly decreased in the FHF group, while there were no significant changes in the expression of these markers in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group. Immunohistochemistry results showed that staining for CCR7 and CCR9, as well as their ligands CCL21 and CCL25, was significantly weaker in the D-GalN and FHF groups compared with the normal saline (NS) group or the LPS group; the FHF group even showed completely unstained parts. Protein expression of CCR7 and CCR9, as well as their ligands- CCL21 and CCL25, was also lower in the D-GalN group and decreased even more significantly in the FHF group. At the gene level, CCR7 and CCR9, along with CCL21 and CCL25 mRNA expression, was lower in the D-GalN group and significantly decreased in the FHF group compared to the NS and LPS groups, consisting with the protein expression. Our study indicated that
Mutanen, Annika; Heikkilä, Päivi; Lohi, Jouko; Raivio, Taneli; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P
Previously, FGF21 has been related to glucose and lipid metabolism and liver steatosis. Our aim was to evaluate serum FGF21 levels in pediatric onset intestinal failure (IF). Serum FGF21 was measured in 35 IF patients at median age of 7.8 years (range 0.2-27) and 59 matched healthy controls. Thirty patients underwent liver biopsy. Serum FGF21 levels were increased in patients compared to controls [229 pg/ml (21-20,345) vs. 133 pg/ml (7-1607), p=0.018]. Frequency of liver steatosis (60% vs. 50%, p=0.709) was similar during (6/10) and after (10/20) weaning off parenteral nutrition (PN). Patients with steatosis had markedly higher serum FGF21 concentration [626 pg/ml (21-20,345) vs. 108 pg/ml (32-568), p=0.002] and more advanced liver fibrosis [Metavir stage 1.6 (0-4) vs. 0.7 (0-3), p=0.020] without associated inflammation or Mallory body formation. Serum FGF21 levels reflected the degree of steatosis [FGF21 in grade 3 vs. grades 0-2, p<0.001; grade 1 vs. controls, p=0.002], and correlated with steatosis grade (r=0.589, p=0.001). Hepatic steatosis and serum FGF21 showed similar associations with duration of PN and remaining small bowel length (p<0.05 for all). In a multivariate regression model, liver steatosis grade (β=0.630, p=0.001) predicted serum FGF21 concentration. In pediatric IF increased serum FGF21 levels reflect liver steatosis, while both are exclusively associated with duration of PN and extent of small intestinal resection. Liver steatosis is coupled with progression of fibrosis without accompanying inflammation. Serum FGF21 assay may be useful for diagnosing liver steatosis in IF patients. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lakhin, R E; Belozerova, L A; Maksimets, V A; Romanov, D M
Effects of hyperbaric oxygenation, bemitil, and solcoseryl used in preoperative treatment of patients with hepatic failure on the oxidant-antioxidant system are studied. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed from changes in the levels of malonic dialdehyde and diene conjugate and the antioxidant system from the number of SH-groups. Hyperbaric oxygenation led to activation of LPO processes. Bemitil decreased the intensity of LPO by extending the potentialities of the antioxidant system. Antioxidant properties of solcoseryl were not realized through the thiol buffer of the antioxidant system. Only a course of treatment with this drug brings about a stable effect.
... low because of routine testing of donated blood. Sexual transmission and transmission among family members through close contact ... associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses ... B Blood, needles, sexual 10% of older children develop chronic infection. 90% ...
Kobashi-Margáin, Ramón A; Gavilanes-Espinar, Juan G; Gutiérrez-Grobe, Ylse; Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Angel A; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto; Ponciano-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Uribe, Misael; Méndez Sánchez, Nahum
Acute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver diseases are major health issues worldwide, and most cases end with the need for liver transplantation. Up to 90% of the patients die waiting for an organ to be transplanted. Hepatic encephalopathy is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome that usually accompanies liver failure and impacts greatly on the quality of life. The molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is a recently developed form of artificial liver support that functions on a base of albumin dialysis. It facilitates the dialysis of albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins, allowing the patient to survive and even improving some clinical features of liver failure. The following manuscript reviews the technical features of MARS operation and some of the clinical trials that analyze the efficacy of the system in the therapy of liver diseases.
Wang, Jia M.; Ma, Cheng J.; Li, Guang Y.; Wu, Xiao Y.; Thayer, Penny; Greer, Pamela; Smith, Ashley M.; High, Kevin P.; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection given their shared risk factors and increased liver-related morbidity and mortality upon super-infection. Vaccine responses in this setting are often blunted, with poor response rates to HBV vaccinations in chronically HCV-infected individuals compared to healthy subjects. In this study, we investigated the role of T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (Tim-3)-mediated immune regulation in HBV vaccine responses during HCV infection. We found that Tim-3, a marker for T cell exhaustion, was over-expressed on monocytes, leading to a differential regulation of IL-12/IL-23 production with in turn TH17 cell accumulation, in HCV-infected HBV vaccine non-responders compared to HCV-infected HBV vaccine responders or healthy subjects (HS). Importantly, ex vivo blockade of Tim-3 signaling corrected the imbalance of IL-12/IL-23 as well as the IL-17 bias observed in HBV vaccine non-responders during HCV infection. These results suggest that Tim-3-mediated dysregulation of innate to adaptive immune responses is involved in HBV vaccine failure in individuals with chronic HCV infection, raising the possibility that blocking this negative signaling pathway might improve the success rate of HBV immunization in the setting of chronic viral infection. PMID:23499521
Schvoerer, Evelyne; Moenne-Loccoz, Rémy; Murray, John M; Velay, Aurélie; Turek, Marine; Fofana, Isabel; Fafi-Kremer, Samira; Erba, Anne-Claire; Habersetzer, François; Doffoël, Michel; Gut, Jean-Pierre; Donlin, Maureen J; Tavis, John E; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Baumert, Thomas F
A major challenge for antiviral treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is viral resistance, potentially resulting from the high variability of HCV envelope glycoproteins and subsequent selection of strains with enhanced infectivity and/or immune escape. We used a bioinformatics and functional approach to investigate whether E1/E2 envelope glycoprotein structure and function were associated with treatment failure in 92 patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Bioinformatics analysis identified 1 sustain virological response (R)-related residue in E1 (219T) and 2 non-SVR (NR)-related molecular signatures in E2 (431A and 642V) in HCV genotype 1a. Two of these positions also appeared in minimal networks separating NR patients from R patients. HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) expressing 431A and 642V resulted in a decrease in antibody-mediated neutralization by pretreatment sera. 431A/HCVpp entry into Huh7.5 cells increased with overexpression of CD81 and SR-BI. Moreover, an association of envelope glycoprotein signatures with treatment failure was confirmed in an independent cohort (Virahep-C). Combined in silico and functional analyses demonstrate that envelope glycoprotein signatures associated with treatment failure result in an alteration of host cell entry factor use and escape from neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that virus-host interactions during viral entry contribute to treatment failure.
Philips, Cyriac Abby; Sarin, Shiv Kumar
Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a disease entity with a high mortality rate. The acute event arises from drugs and toxins, viral infections, bacterial sepsis, interventions (both surgical and non-surgical) and vascular events on top of a known or occult chronic liver disease. ACLF secondary to reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus is a distinct condition; the high mortality of which can be managed in the wake of new potent antiviral therapy. For example, lamivudine and entecavir use has shown definite short-term survival benefits, even though drug resistance is a concern in the former. The renoprotective effects of telbivudine have been shown in a few studies to be useful in the presence of renal dysfunction. Monotherapy with newer agents such as tenofovir and a combination of nucleos(t)ides is promising for improving survival in this special group of liver disease patients. This review describes the current status of potent antiviral therapy in patient with acute on chronic liver failure due to reactivation of chronic hepatitis B, thereby providing an algorithm in management of such patients.
Philips, Cyriac Abby; Sarin, Shiv Kumar
Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a disease entity with a high mortality rate. The acute event arises from drugs and toxins, viral infections, bacterial sepsis, interventions (both surgical and non-surgical) and vascular events on top of a known or occult chronic liver disease. ACLF secondary to reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus is a distinct condition; the high mortality of which can be managed in the wake of new potent antiviral therapy. For example, lamivudine and entecavir use has shown definite short-term survival benefits, even though drug resistance is a concern in the former. The renoprotective effects of telbivudine have been shown in a few studies to be useful in the presence of renal dysfunction. Monotherapy with newer agents such as tenofovir and a combination of nucleos(t)ides is promising for improving survival in this special group of liver disease patients. This review describes the current status of potent antiviral therapy in patient with acute on chronic liver failure due to reactivation of chronic hepatitis B, thereby providing an algorithm in management of such patients. PMID:25473156
Moretti, Antonio; Ferrari, Federica; Villa, Roberto F
Stroke is the third cause of death worldwide and the main cause of chronic, severe adult disability. We focus on acute ischaemic stroke, which accounts for approximately 80% of all strokes. The current therapy aims at restoring cerebral blood flow within a narrow time window in order to prevent damaging the "penumbra" which surrounds the infarct core. Intravenous thrombolysis remains the fundamental treatment worldwide, though not ideal for various restrictions and complications, limiting to 10% or less the percentage of patients treated within the appropriate time window. Neuroprotection is an alternative or adjunct approach to thrombolysis, targeting cerebral parenchyma in the acute ischaemic phase. Furthermore, neurorepair attempts to restore neuronal function in the after-stroke phase in those patients (treated or untreated) with significant impairment. In the past decades, the efficacy and safety of numerous candidate neuroprotective agents were shown in various animal stroke models. However, in clinical trials, promising pre-clinical studies have not been translated into positive outcomes. Our review will analyse the possible reasons for this failure and the new approaches and recommendations to overcome it, as well as novel strategies targeting additional events in ischaemia cascade. The combination of thrombolysis with pharmacological and non-pharmacological neuroprotective approaches has also been tested. Finally, the neurorepair strategy will be described with special emphasis on the role of cell-based therapies and ischaemic conditioning. Hopefully, the future therapy of ischaemic stroke will encompass a combination of neuroprotection (to stabilise penumbra), thrombolysis, antithrombotics (for secondary prevention) and neurorepair based on cell therapy plus rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Abasvali, Mozhgan; Zarei, Mehdi; Ommati, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdoli, Narges; Khodaei, Forouzan; Yeganeh, Yasaman; Jafari, Faezeh; Zarei, Azita; Latifpour, Zahra; Mardani, Elnaz; Azarpira, Negar; Asadi, Behnam; Najibi, Asma
Ammonia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis is known as a critical consequence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hence, mitochondria are potential targets of therapy in HE. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of taurine treatment on the brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. The animals received thioacetamide (400mg/kg, i.p, for three consecutive days at 24-h intervals) as a model of acute liver failure and hyperammonemia. Several biochemical parameters were investigated in the serum, while the animals' cognitive function and locomotor activity were monitored. Mitochondria was isolated from the rats' brain and liver and several indices were assessed in isolated mitochondria. Liver failure led to cognitive dysfunction and impairment in locomotor activity in the rats. Plasma and brain ammonia was high and serum markers of liver injury were drastically elevated in the thioacetamide-treated group. An assessment of brain and liver mitochondrial function in the thioacetamide-treated animals revealed an inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDA), collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial swelling, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, a significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP was detected in the brain and liver mitochondria isolated from thioacetamide-treated animals. Taurine treatment (250, 500, and 1000mg/kg) decreased mitochondrial swelling, ROS, and LPO. Moreover, the administration of this amino acid restored brain and liver mitochondrial ATP. These data suggest taurine to be a potential protective agent with therapeutic capability against hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis.
Ficko, C; Conan, P L; Bigaillon, C; Duron, S; Rapp, C
In stays in tropical countries, the French military, and travelers in general, are exposed to diseases transmitted by the fecal-oral route, some of which are vaccine-preventable. Here we report a 42-yer-old soldier with hepatitis A, which first appeared on his return from a military operation in the Central African Republic. Despite its excellent immunogenicity and a duration of seroprotection extending beyond 20 years in the vast majority of cases, the hepatitis A vaccine can fail. This reminds us of the importance of combining vaccine and non-vaccine prevention in tropical countries, especially in precarious living conditions.
Vallet-Pichard, Anaïs; Pol, Stanislas
Chronic infections by hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) result in diagnosis and therapeutic issues in dialysis and kidney recipients patients. The exposure to nosocomial, including blood transfusion, risk explains the high prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in this setting. Chronic infection reduces the survival of both patients and allografts, including a specific risk of de novo glomerulonephritis. Cirrhosis was considered as a contra-indication to renal transplantation given the high risk of decompensation and death, questionning the indication of a combined liver and kidney transplantation. Thus, it is mandatory to screen HBV and HCV markers in all dialysis patients, whether or not they are candidates to transplantation. Liver biopsy allows evaluating the severity of the liver disease since the noninvasive markers of fibrosis appear to be less accurate in "renal" patients than in the general population and to better define antiviral therapeutic indications. HCV treatment was mainly based on pegylated interferon α (and low doses of ribavirin), which is contra-indicated in kidney recipients given the risk of graft rejection; HCV treatment is now based on the use of oral direct acting antivirals, which are very potent and well tolerated. HBV replication is now easily suppressed by second-generation nucleos(t)tidic analogues (entecavir and tenofovir), which will be indicated in all the dialysis patients with significant fibrosis (F2,3 or 4 according to the Metavir scoring system) and in any candidate to renal transplantation and to any HBsAg-positive kidney recipients. The best treatment remains preventive by anti-HBV vaccination for HBV and by the respect of universal hygiene rules for HCV. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Bechtel-Grosch, Ursina; Beguelin, Charles; Berezowska, Sabina; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Takala, Jukka; Schefold, Joerg C
Pyogenic tonsillitis may often be observed in the general Western population. In severe cases, it may require antibiotic treatment or even hospitalization and often a prompt clinical response will be noted. Here we present an unusual case of progressive multiple organ failure including fulminant liver failure following acute tonsillitis initially mistaken for "classic" pyogenic (that is bacterial) tonsillitis. A 68-year-old previously healthy white man was referred with suspicion of pyogenic angina. After tonsillectomy, he developed acute liver failure and consecutive multiple organ failure including acute hemodynamic, pulmonary and dialysis-dependent renal failure. Immunohistopathological analysis of his tonsils and liver as well as serum polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed herpes simplex virus-2 to be the causative pathogen. Treatment included high-dose acyclovir and multiorgan supportive intensive care therapy. His final outcome was favorable. Fulminant herpes simplex virus-2-induced multiple organ failure is rarely observed in the Western hemisphere and should be considered a potential diagnosis in patients with tonsillitis and multiple organ failure including acute liver failure. From a clinical perspective, it seems important to note that fulminant herpes simplex virus-2 infection may masquerade as "routine" bacterial severe sepsis/septic shock. This persevering condition should be diagnosed early and treated goal-oriented in order to gain control of this life-threatening condition.
Stott, D J; Spilg, E; Campbell, A M; Rumley, A; Mansoor, M A; Lowe, G D
Abnormalities of coagulation and fibrinolysis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke and vascular dementia. We aimed to determine whether haemostatic function is altered in acute recent-onset or chronic ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. We studied consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke (n = 74) and vascular dementia (n = 42) compared with healthy controls (n = 40) in a case-control study. The ischaemic stroke group was assessed twice, 3-10 days after the acute stroke and at 1-3 months. Fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer (marker of fibrin turnover) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) (marker of endothelial disturbance) were elevated acutely (P < 0.0001) and in the convalescent phase after ischaemic stroke (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.01 respectively, compared with controls). Similar results were seen in the vascular dementia group. Stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that cerebrovascular disease correlated independently with fibrinogen (P < 0.001) and fibrin D-dimer levels (P < 0.001), while vWF correlated independently with electrocardiograph evidence of ischaemic heart disease (P = 0.004). Changes between acute and convalescent phases in ischaemic stroke were slightly inconsistent. However, in the acute stage there were tendencies for fibrinogen, D-dimer and vWF to be increased, and factor VIII was significantly higher. Abnormalities of haemostasis, including increased fibrin turnover and endothelial disturbance, are found in both acute and chronic cerebral ischaemia. Many of these patients have co-existent ischaemic heart disease and this may contribute to some of these changes. Acute ischaemic stroke is associated with transient changes in haemostatic factors; however, most abnormalities persist into the convalescent phase, and are also demonstrable in subjects with vascular dementia.
Chang, Hua-Ming; Liao, Yi-Wen; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Chen, Yi-Jen; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Hen-Li; Jeng, Shaw-Yeu; Hsieh, Jung-Hung; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Li, Hsin-Yang; Chien, Yueh; Chen, Szu-Yu; Chen, Liang-Kung; Huo, Teh-Ia
The only curative treatment for hepatic failure is liver transplantation. Unfortunately, this treatment has several major limitations, as for example donor organ shortage. A previous report demonstrated that transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells without reprogramming factor c-Myc (3-genes iPSCs) attenuates thioacetamide-induced hepatic failure with minimal incidence of tumorigenicity. In this study, we investigated whether 3-genes iPSC transplantation is capable of rescuing carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fulminant hepatic failure and hepatic encephalopathy in mice. Firstly, we demonstrated that 3-genes iPSCs possess the capacity to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (iPSC-Heps) that exhibit biological functions and express various hepatic specific markers. 3-genes iPSCs also exhibited several antioxidant enzymes that prevented CCl4-induced reactive oxygen species production and cell death. Intraperitoneal transplantation of either 3-genes iPSCs or 3-genes iPSC-Heps significantly reduced hepatic necrotic areas, improved hepatic functions, and survival rate in CCl4-treated mice. CCl4-induced hepatic encephalopathy was also improved by 3-genes iPSC transplantation. Hoechst staining confirmed the successful engraftment of both 3-genes iPSCs and 3-genes iPSC-Heps, indicating the homing properties of these cells. The most pronounced hepatoprotective effect of iPSCs appeared to originate from the highest antioxidant activity of 3-gene iPSCs among all transplanted cells. In summary, our findings demonstrated that 3-genes iPSCs serve as an available cell source for the treatment of an experimental model of acute liver diseases. PMID:22489170
McKenzie, Rebecca B; Berquist, William E; Nadeau, Kari C; Louie, Christine Y; Chen, Sharon F; Sibley, Richard K; Glader, Bertil E; Wong, Wendy B; Hofmann, Lawrence V; Esquivel, Carlos O; Cox, Kenneth L
In the majority of children with ALF, the etiology is unknown and liver transplantation is often needed for survival. A patient case prompted us to consider that immune dysregulation may be the cause of indeterminate acute hepatitis and liver failure in children. Our study includes nine pediatric patients treated under a multidisciplinary clinical protocol to identify and treat immune-mediated acute liver injury. Patients with evidence of inflammation and no active infection on biopsy received treatment with intravenous immune globulin and methylprednisolone. Seven patients had at least one positive immune marker before or after treatment. All patients had a CD8+ T-cell predominant liver injury that completely or partially responded to immune therapy. Five of the nine patients recovered liver function and did not require liver transplantation. Three of these patients subsequently developed bone marrow failure and were treated with either immunosuppression or stem cell transplant. This series highlights the importance of this tissue-based approach to diagnosis and treatment that may improve transplant-free survival. Further research is necessary to better characterize the immune injury and to predict the subset of patients at risk for bone marrow failure who may benefit from earlier and stronger immunosuppressive therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Hai; Chen, Liu-Ying; Zhang, Nan-nan; Li, Shu-Ting; Zeng, Bo; Pavesi, Marco; Amorós, Àlex; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P; Xia, Qian; Xue, Feng; Ma, Xiong; Hua, Jing; Sheng, Li; Qiu, De-kai; Xie, Qing; Foster, Graham R; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Moreau, Richard; Gines, Pere; Arroyo, Vicente; Jalan, Rajiv
The diagnostic and prognostic criteria of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) were developed in patients with no Hepatitis B virus (HBV) cirrhosis (CANONIC study). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether the diagnostic (CLIF-C organ failure score; CLIF-C OFs) criteria can be used to classify patients; and the prognostic score (CLIF-C ACLF score) could be used to provide prognostic information in HBV cirrhotic patients with ACLF. 890 HBV associated cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation (AD) were enrolled. Using the CLIF-C OFs, 33.7% (300 patients) were diagnosed as ACLF. ACLF was more common in the younger patients and in those with no previous history of decompensation. The most common organ failures were ‘hepatic’ and ‘coagulation’. As in the CANONIC study, 90-day mortality was extremely low in the non-ACLF patients compared with ACLF patients (4.6% vs 50%, p < 0.0001). ACLF grade and white cell count, were independent predictors of mortality. CLIF-C ACLFs accurately predicted short-term mortality, significantly better than the MELDs and a disease specific score generated for the HBV patients. Current study indicates that ACLF is a clinically and pathophysiology distinct even in HBV patients. Consequently, diagnostic criteria, prognostic scores and probably the management of ACLF should base on similar principles. PMID:27146801
Beinhardt, Sandra; Tomasits, Josef; Dienes, Hans Peter
We present a case of severe fatal hepatitis in a young patient presumably triggered by two ubiquitous viral diseases which occurred in close succession. This case is unusual because of the exceptional chronological sequence of primary Epstein–Barr virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 infection causing systemic immune dysregulation associated with rapidly developing liver failure and consecutive multiorgan failure. Clinical, laboratory and histopathological findings indicated the development of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis triggered by these closely succeeding viral primary infections. PMID:28356254
Yin, Yu-zhu; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Pei-zhen; Hou, Hong-ying
To explore the factors influencing failure of an immunization to interrupt perinatal (mother-to-child) transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Between June 2006 and March 2010, a total of 1355 pregnant women testing positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), at gestational weeks 20 to 42, and without use of antiviral or immunomodulatory drugs during the pregnancy were prospectively recruited to the study. The mothers were given a choice of receiving hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG; three 200 IU intramuscular injections give at four-week intervals starting from gestation week 28) or not. All neonates (1360, including five sets of twins) received hepatitis B vaccine (10 mug) plus HBIG (200 IU) combined immunization within 24 h of birth, as early as possible. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the neonates within 24 h of birth and at 7 and 12 months of age for detection of HBV markers, including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA. The infants were classified according to HBV perinatal transmission status (infection group and non-infection group) and various factors (maternal-related: age, gravidity, parity; pregnancy/birth-related: threatened premature labor, complications; neonate-related: sex, birth weight, apgar score) were compared between the two groups by using non-conditional logistic regression analysis to determine their potential influence on failure of immunization to inhibit transmission. After 12 months of follow-up, 1.54% (21/1360) of the neonates had presented with HBV infection. Analysis of the HBV-infected neonates revealed differences in infection rates between neonates born to mothers with HBIG injection (2.22% vs. without HBIG injection: 1.11%, P less than 0.05) and caesarean section (1.35% vs. vaginal delivery: 1.73%) but neither reached statistical significance (P less than 0.05); only the practice of breastfeeding showed a significant difference for infection rate, with neonates fed artificial formula having
Zhong, Yaogang; Guo, Yonghong; Liu, Xiawei; Zhang, Jiaxu; Ma, Tianran; Shu, Jian; Yang, Jiajun; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Zhansheng; Li, Zheng
Acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF) is an increasingly recognized distinct disease entity encompassing an acute deterioration of liver function in patients with cirrhosis, so little is known about the alterations of protein glycopatterns in serum with its development. We aimed to identify the alterations of serum glycopatterns in ACHBLF and probe the possibility of them as novel potential biomarkers for diagnosis of ACHBLF. As a result, there were 18 lectins (e.g., WFA, GSL-II, and PNA) to give significantly alterations of serum glycopatterns in ACHBLF compared with healthy controls (HC) (all p ≤ 0.0386). Meanwhile, among these lectins, there were 12 lectins (e.g., WFA, GAL-II, and EEL) also exhibited significantly alterations of serum glycopatterns in ACHBLF compared with HBV-infected chronic hepatitis (cHB) (all p ≤ 0.0252). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated there were 5 lectins (PHA-E + L, BS-I, ECA, ACA, and BPL) had the greatest discriminatory power for distinguishing ACHBLF and HC or cHB, respectively (all p ≤ 0.00136). We provided a new basic insight into serum glycopatterns in ACHBLF and investigated the correlation of alterations in serum glycopatterns as novel potential biomarkers for diagnosis of ACHBLF. PMID:28383031
Zoulim, Fabien; Białkowska-Warzecha, Jolanta; Diculescu, Mircea Mihai; Goldis, Adrian Eugen; Heyne, Renate; Mach, Tomasz; Marcellin, Patrick; Petersen, Jörg; Simon, Krzysztof; Bendahmane, Soumaya; Klauck, Isabelle; Wasiak, Wojciech; Janssen, Harry L A
In patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who have failed on other nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs), the combination of entecavir (ETV) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), two potent agents with non-overlapping resistance profiles, may provide a single rescue regimen. In this single-arm, open-label study, 92 CHB patients with a primary non-response, partial response, or virologic breakthrough on their current NUC were switched to ETV (1 mg) plus TDF (300 mg) and treated for 96 weeks. At baseline, 62 % of patients were HBeAg(+) and mean HBV DNA was 4.4 log10IU/mL. Patients had received ≥1 line of prior NUC therapy, with the latest regimen consisting of monotherapy with ETV (53 %), lamivudine (LVD 22 %), TDF (12 %), adefovir (ADV 4 %), or telbivudine (2 %), or combinations of these agents (7 %); 58 % had evidence of single- or multidrug resistance mutations (LVD 52 %, ETV 26 %; ADV 7 %). Response rates for HBV DNA <50 IU/mL were 76 % (70/92) at week 48 (primary endpoint), and 85 % (78/92) at week 96, including 80 % (16/20) in prior LVD failures, 100 % (4/4) in ADV failures, 82 % (9/11) in TDF failures, and 88 % (42/48) in ETV failures. No treatment-emergent resistance to ETV or ADV was observed. ETV/TDF was well tolerated, with no significant renal or additive toxicities observed. In NUC-experienced patients who have failed prior NUC therapy, ETV/TDF was well tolerated and effective, achieving virologic suppression through 96 weeks in the majority (85 %), irrespective of prior NUC exposure, without occurrence of treatment-emergent resistance to either agent.
van Leeuwen, P A; Hong, R W; Rounds, J D; Rodrick, M L; Wilmore, D
Despite significant improvements in the surgical care of patients, hepatic failure after extensive liver resection continues to be associated with a high morbidity and death. We postulated that hepatic failure after liver resection was related to gut-derived endotoxemia. Rats were randomized to receive oral gavage twice daily with one of the following preparations: (1) 0.9% saline; (2) neomycin sulfate and cefazolin; (3) cholestyramine; (4) lactulose. After 7 days of gavage, animals underwent either a two-thirds partial hepatectomy or sham operation. At time 0 (preresection), 10, 20, and 30 hours after resection, aortic blood was obtained for determination of ammonia, glutamine, and endotoxin levels. In selected animals, portal vein or inferior caval blood was obtained simultaneously with the aortic sample to evaluate the glutamine and ammonia exchange across the intestine and hind limb. Germ-free rats also underwent a partial hepatectomy or sham operation, and blood was obtained for glutamine and ammonia exchange at 0 and 20 hours after resection. Hepatectomy in the saline-pretreated rats resulted in a sixfold increase in plasma glutamine, increased uptake of glutamine and release of ammonia by the gut, increased release of glutamine by the hind-limb, and a high mortality rate. Pretreatment with agents that altered gut contents reduced the endotoxemia, maintained normal glutamine and ammonia levels, and reduced the mortality rate. Germ-free rats had a similar response to that seen in treated animals. Altering the gut contents in this model reduced the level of endotoxemia, blunted the catabolic response, and enhanced survival.
Ash, S R; Blake, D E; Carr, D J; Harker, K D
The BioLogic-DT (detoxifier) System is an extracorporeal blood treatment device that uses the membranes of a cellulosic plate dialyzer to propel blood in and out through a single lumen access (on a 12 sec cycle) and circulates a suspension of powdered charcoal and cation exchanger through the dialysate spaces to absorb many soluble toxins in the treatment of hepatic failure. The BioLogic-DTPF (detoxifier/plasma filter) System adds two Gambro plasma filters downstream from the plate dialyzer, which allows most of the blood plasma to pass out of the blood, contact powdered charcoal in a suspension, and then return to the blood during each 12 sec cycle (creating push-pull sorbent based pheresis). A roller pump exchanges charcoal suspension between the plasma filter case and a 700 ml bag of powdered charcoal suspension. At a blood flow rate of 150-200 ml/min, 100 ml/min of plasma moves bidirectionally through the plasma filter membranes. Direct contact of plasma with charcoal outside the plasma filter membranes removes creatinine with a clearance rate equal to plasma flow (100 ml/min); clearance of strongly protein bound toxins, such as unconjugated bilirubin, is lower (10-40 ml/min). In this article, the authors explain the mechanisms of operation of this system and present in vitro tests that define its chemical efficiency. Also described are potential problems, tests that indicate the severity of these problems, and monitors and algorithms to detect or avoid these problems in clinical use of the system. The results of the treatment of two patients with acute hepatic failure and coma using the BioLogic-DTPF System are reviewed.
Abdel-Rahman, Islam; Murphy, Christie
Polycythaemia vera is a recognised cause of ischaemic stroke. If not treated, this condition may result in recurrent strokes. This is a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian man presenting with the inability to ambulate for 3 days. Brain imaging revealed acute and chronic infarctions in the brain stem and the cerebrum. Polycythaemia vera was diagnosed and treated during the admission. The unique mechanisms and management issues of ischaemic stroke associated with polycythaemia vera are discussed. PMID:25754163
Aoyama, Tomonori; Ikejima, Kenichi; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Kyoko; Arai, Kumiko; Watanabe, Sumio
Pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome-related nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) involves abnormal tissue-repairing responses in the liver. We investigated the effect of pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione derivative (TZD), on hepatic regenerative responses in obese, diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Male KK-A(y) mice 9 weeks after birth underwent two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) after repeated intragastric injections of pioglitazone (25 mg/kg) for 5 days. Almost half of the KK-A(y) mice died within 48 hours of PH;however, mortality was completely prevented in mice pretreated with pioglitazone. In KK-A(y) mice, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation to hepatocyte nuclei 48 hours after PH reached only 1%; however, pioglitazone pretreatment significantly increased BrdU-positive cells to 8%. Cyclin D1 was barely detectable in KK-A(y) mice within 48 hours after PH. In contrast, overt expression of cyclin D1 was observed 24 hours after PH in KK-A(y) mice pretreated with pioglitazone. Hepatic tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) messenger RNA (mRNA) was tremendously increased 1 hour after PH in KK-A(y) mice, the levels reaching ninefold over C57Bl/6 given PH, whereas pioglitazone blunted this increase by almost three-fourths. Pioglitazone normalized hypoadiponectinemia in KK-A(y) mice almost completely. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin levels were elevated extensively 24 hours after PH in KK-A(y) mice, whereas the levels were largely decreased in KK-A(y) mice given pioglitazone. Indeed, pioglitazone prevented aberrant increases in signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)3 phosphorylation and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 mRNA in the liver in KK-A(y) mice. These findings indicated that pioglitazone improved hepatic regeneration failure in KK-A(y) mice. The mechanism underlying the effect of pioglitazone on regeneration failure most likely involves normalization of expression pattern of adipokines and subsequent cytokine responses during the early
Huang, Biao; Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Huang, Wenjing; la Ga Hu, Zha; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Huan; Xue, Zhenyi; Da, Yurong; Zhang, Ning; Hu, Yongcheng; Yao, Zhi; Qiao, Liang; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Rongxin
Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for liver failure but limited with shortage of available donor organs. Recent studies show promising results of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapies. We systematically investigate the therapeutic effects of MSCs or MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) in ameliorating fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and chronic liver fibrosis in mice. In addition, extensive flow cytometry analysis of spleens from vehicle and MSC- and MSC-CM-treated mice was applied to reveal the alteration of inflammatory state. In FHF model, MSCs treatment reduced remarkably the death incidents; the analysis of gross histopathology showed that control livers were soft and shrunken with extensive extravasated blood, which was gradually reduced at later time points, while MSC-treated livers showed gross pathological changes, even 24 h after MSC infusion, and hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed dramatical hepatocellular death with cytoplasmic vacuolization suppressed by MSCs treatment; flow cytometry analysis of total lymphocytes showed that macrophages (F4/80) infiltrated into control livers more than MSC-treated livers; by contrast, MSC-CM partially ameliorates FHF. In chronic liver injury model, MSC and MSC-CM both suppressed fibrogenesis and necroinflammatory, and the later was better; activation of hepatic stellate cells (α-SMA) was inhibited; glycogen synthesis and storage (indicated by periodic acid-Schiff -staining) was improved; liver regeneration (Ki67) was promoted while liver apoptosis (TUNEL) was reduced. In the in vitro, MSCs promote macrophage line RAW264.7 apoptosis and MSC-CM promotes apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of HSC line LX-2. We also found that MSCs and MSC-CM could improve spleen; MSC-CM increased levels of Th2 and Treg cells, and reduced levels of Th17 cells, whereas levels of Th1 cells were unchanged; comparatively, MSC treatment did not affect Th17 and Treg cells and only slightly alters
Zhao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiaojun; Li, Junfeng; Hu, Jingya; Yu, Hong; Chen, Yu; Song, Hongbin; Qiao, Fei; Xu, Guilian; Yang, Fei; Wu, Yuzhang; Tomlinson, Stephen; Duan, Zhongping; Zhou, Yusen
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a clinically severe type of liver injury with an extremely high mortality rate. Although the pathological mechanisms of FHF are not well understood, evidence suggests that the complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver disorders. In the present study, to investigate the role of complement in FHF, we examined groups of mice following intraperitoneal injection of LPS/D-GalN: wild-type C57BL/6 mice, wild-type mice treated with a C3aR antagonist, C5aR monoclonal antibody (C5aRmAb) or CR2-Factor H (CR2-fH, an inhibitor of the alternative pathway), and C3 deficient mice (C3−/− mice). The animals were euthanized and samples analyzed at specific times after LPS/D-GalN injection. The results show that intraperitoneal administration of LPS/D-GalN activated the complement pathway, as evidenced by the hepatic deposition of C3 and C5b-9 and elevated serum levels of the complement activation product C3a, the level of which was associated with the severity of the liver damage. C3a receptor (C3aR) and C5a receptor (C5aR) expression was also upregulated. Compared with wild-type mice, C3−/− mice survived significantly longer and displayed reduced liver inflammation and attenuated pathological damage following LPS/D-GalN injection. Similar levels of protection were seen in mice treated with C3aR antagonist,C5aRmAb or CR2-fH. These data indicate an important role for the C3a and C5a generated by the alternative pathway in LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF. The data further suggest that complement inhibition may be an effective strategy for the adjunctive treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:22069473
Bose, Somnath; Sonny, Abraham; Rahman, Nadeem
A teenager was admitted to an outside hospital ED following an episode of melena. He had been complaining of intermittent abdominal pain, nausea, malaise, and easy fatigability for 2 months, with significant worsening of symptoms 2 weeks prior to this episode. He had no significant medical, surgical, or family history. On presentation at the outside ED, he was found to be profoundly icteric and encephalopathic. Initial laboratories suggested anemia, acute kidney injury, and acute liver failure, leading to a presumptive diagnosis of acute fulminant liver failure necessitating transfer to our institution.
Borrego, F J; Viedma, G; Pérez del Barrio, P; Gil, J M; de Santis-Scoccia, C; Ramírez Huerta, J M; Alcalá, A; Pérez Bañasco, V
Acute renal failure following bone marrow transplantation is a frequent complication with an incidence ranging 15-30% and with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Numerous potential etiologies can be implicated as chemotherapy regimen, use of nephrotoxic antibiotics, sepsis-induced damage, cyclosporine toxicity and other especific pathologies as graft-v-host disease or veno-occlusive disease of the liver. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and developed and acute renal failure secondary to a fatal veno-occlusive disease of the liver. Incidence, potential predisposing factors, outcome and possibilities of treatment are reviewed.
Rangegowda, Devaraja; Vyas, Tanmay; Kulkarni, Anand; Grover, Shrruti; Mahiwall, Rakhi; Sarin, Shiv Kumar
Systemic amyloidosis of amyloid light chain associated protein (AL), also called primary amyloidosis, frequently involves the liver, but rarely causes clinically apparent liver disease. The more common presentation is with acute renal failure. Hepatomegaly and mild elevation of alkaline phosphatase are the most common clinical and biochemical findings, respectively. We report a case of systemic amyloidosis of AL that clinically presented as acute-on-chronic liver failure and resulted in a fatal clinical course in a 56-year-old man. PMID:28286788
Kuncio, Danica E; Newbern, E Claire; Johnson, Caroline C; Viner, Kendra M
Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common route of pediatric HCV infection. Approximately 5% of children born to HCV-infected mothers develop chronic infection. Recommendations employ risk-based HCV testing of pregnant women, and screening children at a young age. This study assesses testing rates of children born to mothers tested HCV-positive in a major US city with a high burden of HCV infection. HCV surveillance data reported to the Philadelphia Department of Public Health are housed in the Hepatitis Registry. Additional tests, including negative results, were retrospectively collected. HCV data were matched with 2011-2013 birth certificates of children aged ≥20 months to identify mothers tested HCV-positive and screened children. The observed perinatal HCV seropositivity rate was compared to the expected rate (5%). A total of 8119 females aged 12-54 years tested HCV-positive and in the Hepatitis Registry. Of these, 500 (5%) had delivered ≥1 child, accounting for 537 (1%) of the 55 623 children born in Philadelphia during the study period. Eighty-four (16%) of these children had HCV testing; 4 (1% of the total) were confirmed cases. Twenty-three additional children are expected to have chronic HCV infection, but were not identified by 20 months of age. These findings illustrate that a significant number of women giving birth in Philadelphia test positive for HCV and that most of their at-risk children remain untested. To successfully identify all HCV-infected children and integrate them into HCV-specific care, practices for HCV screening of pregnant women and their children should be improved. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Viertmann, Anne-Odette; Janßen, Claudia; Birklein, Frank; Thüroff, Joachim W.; Stein, Raimund
Intermittent hyperammonemic encephalopathy after ureterosigmoidostomy is a rare, but if unrecognized, potentially lethal condition. Ureterosigmoidostomy was performed in a male patient with bladder extrophy. After 35 years, he developed hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Diagnostic procedures did not reveal hepatic nor metabolic disorders. Despite administration of preventive medical treatment, several episodes recurred. A durable prevention was finally achieved by conversion into an ileal conduit. Intermittent hyperammonemic encephalopathy can occur decades after ureterosigmoidostomy. In the case of absence of metabolic disorders and resistance to medical treatment, conversion into a urinary diversion using an ileal segment constitutes an effective ultima ratio. PMID:25914851
Majumdar, Manasi; Ratho, Radhakanta; Chawla, Yogesh; Singh, Mini P
Viral hepatitis E clinically ranges between acute self-limiting hepatitis (AVH) and acute liver failure (ALF). The varied clinical course of the disease possibly thought to be immune-mediated. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone chromosomal nuclear protein with recently discovered pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action. Its presence in abundance within hepatocytes is thought provoking in patients with hepatitis. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of circulating HMGB1 and its gene expression in patients with viral hepatitis E. Blood samples were obtained from AVH (n = 38), ALF (n = 34) and healthy controls (HC, n = 30). The HMGB1 levels were estimated in serum by quantitative-micro-ELISA. Gene expression levels were studied in the patient's PBMCs by real-time PCR. Lymphocyte proliferation was estimated by colorimetric-MTT assay. Mean circulating HMGB1 levels in HC, AVH and ALF patients were found to be 12.04 ± 2.23, 112.6 ± 13.33 and 225.3 ± 15.04 ng/ml respectively. The levels were significantly higher in ALF than AVH and HC (P < 0.0001). Moreover, 88.2% of ALF patients with >250 ng/ml of circulating HMGB1 had a fatal outcome. The gene expression of HMGB1 in the PBMCs of ALF and AVH patients were comparable. A positive correlation was observed between HMGB1 level and INR. A significantly low lymphocyte proliferation was observed in ALF patients (P = 0.008). Massive necrosis of hepatocytes in ALF patients might predispose to excessive accumulation of extracellular HMGB1 leading to suppression of T-cell proliferation. Therefore, it is proposed that excessive circulating HMGB1 might play an important role in immunosuppression and fulminant course of the disease following HEV infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hasebe, Chitomi; Osaki, Yukio; Joko, Kouji; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Sakita, Shinya; Okushin, Hiroaki; Satou, Takashi; Hisai, Hiroyuki; Abe, Takehiko; Tsuji, Keiji; Tamada, Takashi; Kobashi, Haruhiko; Mitsuda, Akeri; Ide, Yasushi; Ogawa, Chikara; Tsuruta, Syotaro; Takaguchi, Kouichi; Murakawa, Miyako; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki
Backgrounds & Aims We aimed to clarify the characteristics of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) after treatment failure with NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir (DCV) in combination with NS3/4A inhibitor, asunaprevir (ASV), in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection. Methods This is a nationwide multicenter study conducted by the Japanese Red Cross Liver Study Group. The sera were obtained from 68 patients with virological failure after 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment. RASs in NS5A and NS3 were determined by population sequencing. Results The frequency of signature RASs at position D168 of NS3 was 68%, and at positions L31 and Y93 of NS5A was 79 and 76%, respectively. The frequency of dual signature RASs in NS5A (L31-RAS and Y93-RAS) was 63%. RASs at L28, R30, P32, Q54, P58, and A92 in addition to dual signature RAS were detected in 5, 5, 1, 22, 2, and 0 patients, respectively. In total, triple, quadruple, and quintuple RASs in combination with dual signature RAS were detected in 35, 10, and 1.5% patients, respectively. These RASs were detected in patients without baseline RASs or who prematurely discontinued therapy. Co-existence of D168 RAS in NS3 and L31 and/or Y93 RAS in NS5A was observed in 62% of patients. Conclusion Treatment-emergent RASs after failure with DCV/ASV combination therapy are highly complex in more than 50% of the patients. The identification of complex RAS patterns, which may indicate high levels of resistance to NS5A inhibitors, highlights the need for RAS sequencing when considering re-treatment with regimens including NS5A inhibitors. PMID:27776192
Bishi, Dillip Kumar; Mathapati, Santosh; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Guhathakurta, Soma; Verma, Rama Shanker
Cellular therapy for end-stage liver failures using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)-derived hepatocytes is a potential alternative to liver transplantation. Hepatic trans-differentiation of hMSCs is routinely accomplished by induction with commercially available recombinant growth factors, which is of limited clinical applications. In the present study, we have evaluated the potential of sera from cardiac-failure-associated congestive/ischemic liver patients for hepatic trans-differentiation of hMSCs. Results from such experiments were confirmed through morphological changes and expression of hepatocyte-specific markers at molecular and cellular level. Furthermore, the process of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition during hepatic trans-differentiation of hMSCs was confirmed by elevated expression of E-Cadherin and down-regulation of Snail. The functionality of hMSCs-derived hepatocytes was validated by various liver function tests such as albumin synthesis, urea release, glycogen accumulation and presence of a drug inducible cytochrome P450 system. Based on these findings, we conclude that sera from congestive/ischemic liver during cardiac failure support a liver specific microenvironment for effective hepatic trans-differentiation of hMSCs in vitro.
Wardlaw, J M; Zoppo, G; Yamaguchi, T; Berge, E
The majority of strokes are due to blockage of an artery in the brain by a blood clot. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow before major brain damage has occurred. Successful treatment could mean that the patient is more likely to make a good recovery from their stroke. Thrombolytic drugs however, can also cause serious bleeding in the brain which can be fatal. Thrombolytic therapy has now been evaluated in several randomised trials in acute ischaemic stroke. The objective of this review was to assess the safety and efficacy of thrombolytic agents in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched January 2003), MEDLINE (1966- January 2003) and EMBASE (1980-January 2003). In addition we contacted researchers and pharmaceutical companies, attended relevant conferences and handsearched four Japanese journals. Randomised trials of any thrombolytic agent compared with control in patients with definite ischaemic stroke. One reviewer applied the inclusion criteria and extracted the data. Trial quality was assessed. The extracted data were verified by the principal investigators of all major trials. Thus published and unpublished data were obtained where available. Eighteen trials including 5727 patients were included, but not all trials contributed data to each outcome examined in this review. Sixteen trials were double-blind. The trials tested urokinase, streptokinase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator or recombinant pro-urokinase. Two trials used intra-arterial administration but the rest used the intravenous route. About 50% of the data (patients and trials) come from trials testing intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. There are few data from patients aged over 80 years. Much of the data comes from trials conducted in the first half of the 1990s when, in an effort to reduce delays to trial drug administration, on site randomisation methods were used that, in consequence
Santos, Wilson JQ; Zanetta, Dirce MT; Pires, Antonio C; Lobo, Suzana MA; Lima, Emerson Q; Burdmann, Emmanuel A
Introduction Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is usually studied as a single entity, without distinguishing between ischaemic, nephrotoxic and mixed aetiologies. In the present study we evaluated the characteristics and outcomes of patients with ATN by aetiological group. Method We conducted a retrospective comparison of clinical features, mortality rates and risk factors for mortality for the three types of ATN in patients admitted to the general intensive care unit of a university hospital between 1997 and 2000. Results Of 593 patients with acute renal failure, 524 (88%) were classified as having ATN. Their mean age was 58 years, 68% were male and 52% were surgical patients. The overall mortality rate was 62%. A total of 265 patients (51%) had ischaemic ATN, 201 (38%) had mixed ATN, and 58 (11%) had nephrotoxic ATN. There were no differences among groups in terms of age, sex, APACHE II score and reason for ICU admission. Multiple organ failure was more frequent among patients with ischaemic (46%) and mixed ATN (55%) than in those with nephrotoxic ATN (7%; P < 0.0001). The complications of acute renal failure (such as, gastrointestinal bleeding, acidosis, oliguria and hypervolaemia) were more prevalent in ischaemic and mixed ATN patients. Mortality was higher for ischaemic (66%; P = 0.001) and mixed ATN (63%; P = 0.0001) than for nephrotoxic ATN (38%). When ischaemic ATN patients, mixed ATN patients and all patients combined were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression, the independent factors for mortality identified were different except for oliguria, which was the only variable universally associated with death (odds ratio [OR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64–5.49 [P = 0.0003] for ischaemic ATN; OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.04–3.68 [P = 0.036] for mixed ATN; and OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.60–3.76 [P < 0.001] for all patients combined]). Conclusion The frequency of isolated nephrotoxic ATN was low, with ischaemic and mixed ATN accounting for almost 90% of cases. The
Kang, Eun Jung; Kim, Dong Kyun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Choi, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Joon Seong; Uh, Soo Taek
After 4-months of alpha interferon (IFN-α), a 64-year old woman with chronic hepatitis C developed a cough and dyspnea and showed diffuse infiltrative opacities on her chest X-ray. Her symptoms persisted after stopping the IFN-α therapy. Pulmonary function testing revealed a reduced forced vital capacity. High-resolution computed tomography of the lung showed peripheral and peribronchovascular ground glass attenuation and consolidation associated with reticulation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed for further evaluation and showed a lymphocyte level of 8.2%, an uncommon finding in IFN-α-induced interstitial pneumonitis. We performed a lung biopsy to diagnose her disease and it suggested interstitial pneumonitis. This was considered to be due to the immunomodulatory effects of INF-α. Although rare, any sign of significant pulmonary involvement should be evaluated.
Fontenele, Andrea Martins Melo; Gainer, Juliana Braga Furtado; da Silva E Silva, Daniel Viana; Cruz Santos, Max Diego; Salgado, João Victor; Salgado Filho, Natalino; Ferreira, Adalgisa Sousa Paiva
Occult hepatitis B (OHB) is characterized by the presence of HBV-DNA in the absence of HBsAg in the serum of patients. Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for hepatitis B virus and there are few data on the prevalence of OHB in this population, mainly in Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OHB in patients undergoing hemodialysis. A cross-sectional study was performed, including 301 patients on chronic hemodialysis at two dialysis centers in São Luís (Maranhão), northeast Brazil. Serological tests were performed for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV using enzyme immunoassays (ELISA); HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA were studied by real-time PCR. The mean age was 49 ± 15 years, and 128 (42%) were female. Serological tests confirmed that all samples were HBsAg negative. Anti-HBc was positive in 114 (38%) patients, anti-HBc and anti-HBs were simultaneously positive in 104 (35%), and anti-HBc alone was positive in 10 (3%). Tests were negative for anti-HBc and anti-HBs in 55 patients (18%). Anti-HBs was the only positive marker in 132 (44%) patients. Anti-HCV was positive in 15 (5%) patients with HCV-RNA present in 14 of them (93%). HBV-DNA was positive in seven cases (2.3%). There was no association of HBV-DNA with age, gender, time on dialysis, previous kidney transplant, or HBV serological pattern, but there was a positive correlation with the presence of anti-HCV (P < 0.001). OHB in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis appears to be a relevant finding, suggesting that studying HBV-DNA in this population using sensitive molecular tests should be a recommended course of action, especially in candidates for renal transplant.
Maznyczka, Annette; Sen, Sayan; Cook, Christopher; Francis, Darrel P
The ischaemic cascade is the concept that progressive myocardial oxygen supply-demand mismatch causes a consistent sequence of events, starting with metabolic alterations and followed sequentially by myocardial perfusion abnormalities, wall motion abnormalities, ECG changes, and angina. This concept would suggest that investigations that detect expressions of ischaemia earlier in the cascade should be more sensitive tests of ischaemia than those that detect expressions appearing later in the cascade. However, careful review of the studies on which the ischaemic cascade is based suggests that the ischaemic cascade concept may be less well supported by the literature than assumed. In this review we explore this, discuss an alternative method for conceptualising ischaemia, and discuss the potential implications of this new approach to clinical studies and clinical practice.
Hong, Deok Man; Lee, Eun-Ho; Kim, Hyun Joo; Min, Jeong Jin; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Dae-Kee; Bahk, Jae-Hyon; Sim, Ji-Yeon; Choi, In-Cheol; Jeon, Yunseok
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) combined with remote ischaemic postconditioning (RIPostC) improves the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. From June 2009 to November 2010, 1280 patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery were randomized into the RIPC with RIPostC group or the control group in the morning of the surgery. In the RIPC with RIPostC group, four cycles of 5-min ischaemia and 5-min reperfusion were administered twice to the upper limb-before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or coronary anastomoses for RIPC and after CPB or coronary anastomoses for RIPostC. The primary endpoint was the composite of major adverse outcomes, including death, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, stroke, coma, renal failure or dysfunction, respiratory failure, cardiogenic shock, gastrointestinal complication, and multiorgan failure. Remote ischaemic preconditioning with RIPostC did not reduce the composite outcome compared with the control group (38.0 vs. 38.1%, respectively; P = 0.998) and there was no difference in each major adverse outcome. The intensive care unit and hospital stays were not different between the two groups. However, in the off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery subgroup, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that RIPC with RIPostC was related to increased composite outcome (odds ratio: 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.30; P = 0.038). Remote ischaemic preconditioning with RIPostC by transient upper limb ischaemia did not improve clinical outcome in patients who underwent cardiac surgery.
Ricci, S; Celani, M G; Cantisani, A T; Righetti, E
Piracetam has neuroprotective and antithrombotic effects which may help to reduce death and disability in people with acute stroke. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of piracetam in acute presumed ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 20 June 2005). In addition, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2005), EMBASE (1980 to April 2005), and ISI Science Citation Index (1981 to April 2005). We also contacted the manufacturer of piracetam to identify further published and unpublished studies. Randomised trials comparing piracetam with control, with at least mortality reported and entry to the trial within approximately 48 hours of stroke onset. Two authors extracted data and assessed trial quality and this was checked by the other two authors. Study authors were contacted for missing information. Three trials involving 1002 people were included, with one trial contributing 93% of the data. Participants' ages ranged from 40 to 85, and both sexes were equally represented. Piracetam was associated with a statistically non-significant increase in death at one month (approximately 31% increase, 95% confidence interval 81% increase to 5% reduction). This trend was no longer apparent in the large trial after correction for imbalance in stroke severity. Limited data showed no difference between the treatment and control groups for functional outcome, dependency or proportion of patients dead or dependent. Adverse effects were not reported. There is some suggestion (but no statistically significant result) of an unfavourable effect of piracetam on early death, but this may have been caused by baseline differences in stroke severity in the trials. There is not enough evidence to assess the effect of piracetam on dependency.
Ricci, Stefano; Celani, Maria Grazia; Cantisani, Teresa Anna; Righetti, Enrico
Piracetam has neuroprotective and antithrombotic effects that may help to reduce death and disability in people with acute stroke. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999, and previously updated in 2006 and 2009. To assess the effects of piracetam in acute, presumed ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 15 May 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011), EMBASE (1980 to May 2011), and ISI Science Citation Index (1981 to May 2011). We also contacted the manufacturer of piracetam to identify further published and unpublished studies. Randomised trials comparing piracetam with control, with at least mortality reported and entry to the trial within three days of stroke onset. Two review authors extracted data and assessed trial quality and this was checked by the other two review authors. We contacted study authors for missing information. We included three trials involving 1002 patients, with one trial contributing 93% of the data. Participants' ages ranged from 40 to 85 years, and both sexes were equally represented. Piracetam was associated with a statistically non-significant increase in death at one month (approximately 31% increase, 95% confidence interval 81% increase to 5% reduction). This trend was no longer apparent in the large trial after correction for imbalance in stroke severity. Limited data showed no difference between the treatment and control groups for functional outcome, dependence or proportion of patients dead or dependent. Adverse effects were not reported. There is some suggestion (but no statistically significant result) of an unfavourable effect of piracetam on early death, but this may have been caused by baseline differences in stroke severity in the trials. There is not enough evidence to assess the effect of piracetam on dependence.
Ridgley, Joanne; Raison, Nicholas; Sheikh, M. Iqbal; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, M. Shamim; Ahmed, Kamran
Objective Ischaemic priapism is a rare condition characterised by little or no cavernosal blood flow, pain and rigidity of the penis. Immediate intervention is required to restore blood flow, prevent necrosis and erectile dysfunction. This review was conducted to determine the best course of treatment and identify areas in current guidelines to which improvements could be made. Material and methods PubMed, Ovid, MEDLINE (1946–December 2016) and the Cochrane Library were searched as sources for literature. Key studies in each of the areas of management were identified and analysed. Results A total of 45 articles were reviewed. The first step in treatment should be aspiration of corporeal blood. Further studies are needed to make firm recommendations as to whether irrigation should follow, as currently literature is inconclusive. If this fails to cause detumescence, sympathomimetics should be injected. The sympathomimetic of choice is phenylephrine as it is effective, specific and causes minimal cardiovascular side effects. It should be injected at a concentration of 100–500 μg/mL, with 1 mL being injected every 3–5 minutes for up to an hour (maximum 1mg in an hour). Surgical shunting is the next step, except in the cases of delayed priapism (48–72 hours duration) where immediate penile prosthesis insertion may be considered more appropriate. Distal shunts should be performed first, followed by proximal ones to minimise damage leading to erectile dysfunction. There exists little evidence recommending one shunting procedure over another. The final intervention is insertion of a penile prosthesis. Literature suggests that an inflatable prosthesis inserted immediately will yield the greatest patient satisfaction. Conclusion A review of the literature has highlighted areas in which further research needs to be done to make conclusive recommendations, including whether irrigation should accompany aspiration and efficacy of shunting procedures. Further studies are
Wardlaw, Joanna M; Murray, Veronica; Berge, Eivind; del Zoppo, Gregory J
Most strokes are due to blockage of an artery in the brain by a blood clot. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow before major brain damage has occurred and improve recovery after stroke in some people. Thrombolytic drugs, however, can also cause serious bleeding in the brain, which can be fatal. One drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), is licensed for use in selected patients within 4.5 hours of stroke in Europe and within three hours in the USA. There is an upper age limit of 80 years in some countries, and a limitation to mainly non-severe stroke in others. Forty per cent more data are available since this review was last updated in 2009. To determine whether, and in what circumstances, thrombolytic therapy might be an effective and safe treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched November 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2013) and EMBASE (1980 to November 2013). We also handsearched conference proceedings and journals, searched reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies and trialists. Randomised trials of any thrombolytic agent compared with control in people with definite ischaemic stroke. Two review authors applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We verified the extracted data with investigators of all major trials, obtaining additional unpublished data if available. We included 27 trials, involving 10,187 participants, testing urokinase, streptokinase, rt-PA, recombinant pro-urokinase or desmoteplase. Four trials used intra-arterial administration, while the rest used the intravenous route. Most data come from trials that started treatment up to six hours after stroke. About 44% of the trials (about 70% of the participants) were testing intravenous rt-PA. In earlier studies very few of the participants (0.5%) were aged over 80 years; in this update, 16% of participants are over 80 years of age due to the
Wardlaw, Joanna M; Murray, Veronica; Berge, Eivind; del Zoppo, Gregory J
Background Most strokes are due to blockage of an artery in the brain by a blood clot. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow before major brain damage has occurred and improve recovery after stroke in some people. Thrombolytic drugs, however, can also cause serious bleeding in the brain, which can be fatal. One drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), is licensed for use in selected patients within 4.5 hours of stroke in Europe and within three hours in the USA. There is an upper age limit of 80 years in some countries, and a limitation to mainly non-severe stroke in others. Forty per cent more data are available since this review was last updated in 2009. Objectives To determine whether, and in what circumstances, thrombolytic therapy might be an effective and safe treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched November 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2013) and EMBASE (1980 to November 2013).We also handsearched conference proceedings and journals, searched reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies and trialists. Selection criteria Randomised trials of any thrombolytic agent compared with control in people with definite ischaemic stroke. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We verified the extracted data with investigators of all major trials, obtaining additional unpublished data if available. Main results We included 27 trials, involving 10,187 participants, testing urokinase, streptokinase, rt-PA, recombinant pro-urokinase or desmoteplase. Four trials used intra-arterial administration, while the rest used the intravenous route. Most data come from trials that started treatment up to six hours after stroke. About 44% of the trials (about 70% of the participants) were testing intravenous rt-PA. In earlier studies very few of the participants (0
Schneider, Jaime L; Villarroya, Joan; Diaz-Carretero, Antonio; Patel, Bindi; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Thi, Mia M; Villarroya, Francesc; Santambrogio, Laura; Cuervo, Ana Maria
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a cellular process that contributes to protein quality control through targeting of a subset of cytosolic proteins to lysosomes for degradation, undergoes a functional decline with age. We have used a mouse model with liver-specific defective CMA to identify changes in proteostasis attributable to reduced CMA activity in this organ with age. We have found that other proteolytic systems compensate for CMA loss in young mice which helps to preserve proteostasis. However, these compensatory responses are not sufficient for protection against proteotoxicity induced by stress (oxidative stress, lipid challenges) or associated with aging. Livers from old mice with CMA blockage exhibit altered protein homeostasis, enhanced susceptibility to oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction manifested by a diminished ability to metabolize drugs, and a worsening of the metabolic dysregulation identified in young mice. Our study reveals that while the regulatory function of CMA cannot be compensated for in young organisms, its contribution to protein homeostasis can be handled by other proteolytic systems. However, the decline in the compensatory ability identified with age explains the more severe consequences of CMA impairment in older organisms and the contribution of CMA malfunction to the gradual decline in proteostasis and stress resistance observed during aging. PMID:25620427
Maitta, Robert W; Choate, Jacquelyn; Emre, Sukru H; Luczycki, Stephen M; Wu, Yanyun
The increasing demand for solid organ transplants has brought to light the need to utilize organs in critical situations despite ABO-incompatibility. However, these transplantations are complicated by pre-existing ABO antibodies which may be potentially dangerous and makes the transplantation prone to failure due to rejection with resulting necrosis or intrahepatic biliary complications. We report the clinical outcome of an emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant (due to fulminant hepatic failure with sudden and rapidly deteriorating mental status) using a modified therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) protocol. The recipient was O-positive with an initial anti-B titer of 64 and the cadaveric organ was from a B-positive donor. The patient underwent initial TPE during the peri-operative period, followed by a series of postoperative daily TPE, and later a third series of TPE for presumptive antibody-mediated rejection. The latter two were performed in conjunction with the use of IVIg and rituximab. The recipient's anti-B titer was reduced and maintained at 8 or less 8 months post-op. However, an elevation of transaminases 3 months post-transplant triggered a biopsy which was consistent with cellular rejection and with weak C4d positive staining suggestive of antibody mediated rejection. Additional plasma exchange procedures were performed. The patient improved rapidly after modification of her immunosuppression regimen and treatment with plasma exchange. This case illustrates that prompt and aggressive plasma exchange, in conjunction with immunosuppression, is a viable approach to prevent and treat antibody mediated transplant rejection in emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant.
Pereira, L M; Langley, P G; Hayllar, K M; Tredger, J M; Williams, R
The value of coagulation factor V and VIII/V levels as prognostic indicators was assessed in 27 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and compared with other predictive indices. Admission factor V levels were significantly reduced in 22 patients with paracetamol induced hepatic failure compared with a healthy control group (median 9.5% v 103%, respectively; p less than 0.001) and with lower values in non-A non-B hepatitis (median 2.7%). Values in the seven patients who died after paracetamol overdose, considered together with the four who underwent liver transplantation (group median 5.1%), were significantly lower than in the 11 who survived (median 11.8%; p less than 0.01). Median admission factor VIII was higher in those who died or received a transplant than in those who survived (298% v 162%; p less than 0.05), with both results higher than in healthy volunteers (median 104%; p less than 0.01) but lower than in non-A non-B hepatitis (median 340%). The ratio of factor VIII/V on admission was less than 30 in all patients who survived paracetamol overdose (median 17) with corresponding values greater than 30 in 10 of 11 of those who died (median 39). A factor V result less than or equal to 10% on admission predicted an adverse outcome in 10 of 11 fatal cases, a 91% sensitivity which was greater than for the previously defined indicator of an arterial blood pH less than 7.30 on admission (sensitivity 82%). Prothrombin time at admission or on day 4 did not usefully predict outcome in our series. Predictive accuracy was 73% and 82% for factor V and admission acidosis respectively and 95% for factor V in conjunction with admission coma grade III or IV and factor VIII (ratio > 30). These criteria may be useful in selecting patients with paracetamol induced fulminant hepatic failure for transplantation. PMID:1740285
Isaguliants, Maria G
Infection with human hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a result of a bilateral process of host-virus interactions. There are factors on both sides that contribute to clearance and to chronicity. Virus strategy to survive is built on several basic features. The first, recently recognized, is a wide cell tropism. HCV can infect not only hepatocytes, but also cells of immune system (B-cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells), epithelium, and immunologically privileged sites such as the central nervous system. Dendritic cells and platelets can also be passive virus carriers. Possibilities of virus clearance or abortive inapparent HCV infection at the stage of adsorption are considered. The second feature is rapid error-prone replication that leads to accumulation within one host of multiple virus variants (quasispecies). Viral heterogeneity could be multiplied by recombination of HCV genomic/subgenomic RNA molecules. Quasispecies nature gives virus an advantage in adaptation to varying host environment including availability of permissive cells, the presence of innate and adaptive immune response, and antiviral treatment. Analysis of HCV polymorphisms and their evolution rates may pinpoint the molecular (sequence) correlates of HCV clearance. The third feature is the capacity to modify or adapt host milieu. HCV core, envelope E2 and nonstructural NS2, NS3, NS5A proteins seem to hold a grip over the host cellular functions by down-regulating processes unfavorable and up-regulating processes favorable for virus replication and persistence. The relevance of the latter interactions to HCV infection outcome remains to be demonstrated. This review discusses recent developments in this area of HCV research.
Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Martinez-Perez, Yoalli; Lezama-Palacios, Ruth; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio
The aim of this study was to investigate if a protective effect from hypothyroidism in acute liver failure resulted from reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in four groups: (1) euthyroid (sham surgery), (2) hypothyroid, (3) euthyroid (sham surgery)+thioacetamide and (4) hypothyroid+thioacetamide. Hypothyroidism was confirmed two weeks after thyroidectomy, and thioacetamide (TAA) (400mg/kg, ip) was administrated to the appropriate groups for three days with supportive therapy. Grades of encephalopathy in all animals were determined using behavioral tests. Animals were decapitated and their blood was obtained to assess liver function. The liver was dissected: the left lobe was used for histology and the right lobe was frozen for biochemical assays. Body weight, rectal temperature and T4 concentration were lower in hypothyroid groups. When measurements of oxidative stress markers, redox environment, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined, we observed that hypothyroid animals with TAA compensated better with oxidative damage than euthyroid animals treated with TAA. Furthermore, we measured reduced expressions of GADD34, caspase-12 and GRP78 and subsequently less hypothyroidism-induced cellular damage in hypothyroid animals. We conclude that hypothyroidism protects against hepatic damage caused by TAA because it reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment.
Costa, A F; Tremblay St-Germain, A; Abdolell, M; Smoot, R L; Cleary, S; Jhaveri, K S
To determine whether a combination of clinical factors, the future liver remnant (FLR) ratio, and hepatic uptake of gadoxetic acid can be used to predict post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) and other major complications (OMC). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent pre-hepatectomy gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between October 2010 and December 2013 were included. The relative liver enhancement (RLE) of gadoxetic acid was calculated from regions of interest on MRI, and FLR ratios were obtained from computed tomography (CT). PHLF and OMC were defined by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery criteria and Clavien-Dindo grade of ≥3, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify predictors of PHLF and OMC, including RLE, FLR ratio, age, sex, chemotherapy history, intra-operative blood loss, and intra-operative transfusion. Nine patients experienced PHLF and another nine patients experienced OMC. RLE was comparable to the FLR ratio in predicting PHLF (areas under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC] curves, 0.665 and 0.705), but performed poorly in predicting OMCs (AUROCs, 0.556 and 0.702). Combining all clinical and imaging parameters as predictors yielded the best performing predictive models (AUROCs, 0.875 and 0.742 for PHLF and OMC, respectively). A model based on clinical parameters, the FLR ratio, and RLE of gadoxetic acid may improve pre-hepatectomy risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Jain, Piyush; Rajpal, Surender; Agarwal, Mukul P
The association of acute hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to extensive intravascular haemolysis is a very rare clinical entity. Here we discuss such a patient, who presented with acute HEV illness, developed severe intravascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of bilirubin, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF), and was later on found to have a deficiency of G6PD. The patient recovered completely with haemodialysis and supportive management.
Estela Caldera, Elisa; Reyes Dorantes, Angel Andrés; González Ortiz, Julio Alberto
To know the patients' progress with distinct stages of hepatic failure, according to the Child Pugh classification, who underwent esophageal varices eradication with the use of endoscopic band ligation. Descriptive, longitudinal, prospective and comparative study. CENTRE: Endoscopy Department of the Central Military Hospital, Mexico, D.F. One-hundred twenty-four patients with esophageal varices and a history of bleeding, were submitted to various band ligation sessions every 4 weeks until the varices were eradicated and control sessions every 3 months. A total of 425 endoscopy sessions were performed of which 239 were ligature applications and 187 control sessions. Eradication of varices was achieved in 100% of the patients. Of the Child A, 2/3 of them were eradicated in one session and the other 1/3 with 2 sessions. The patients of the Child B class, 66% of varices were effaced in one session, 22% in two and 12% in three sessions. In the Child C group, 50% were obliterated in two sessions, 47% with three, 2% needed 4 sessions. The follow-up period was from 4 months being the minimum and 13 months the maximum (mean of 7 months). In 15% of the patients varices recurred. None were from the Child A group. Those pertaining to the Child B group varices reappeared in 7.3% of which 2/3 required another ligation session to eradicate them once again and the other 1/3 were removed in two sessions. In the Child C group the incidence of recidivation was 28%, 43% of these needing one session to eliminate them once again, 50% two sessions and 7% three sessions for complete eradication. Rebleeding appeared in 7.7% of the sample, all of them were from the Child C class. The occurrence of congestive gastropathy before ligature was 42%, and 73% at the conclusion of the follow-up period. Congestive gastropathy developed in 11% of the Child A patients after eradication, 34% of the Child B group and 38.5% of the Child C group. The incidence of gastric varices was 21% before ligature
Downs, Isaac; Aw, Tak Yee; Liu, Jianfeng; Adegboyega, Patrick; Ajuebor, Maureen N
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is widely regarded as a major cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Intentional or accidental overdose of APAP in man or rodent elicits direct hepatocellular injury that is accompanied by hepatic depletion of the antioxidant, glutathione (GSH). In recent years, the innate immune response has also been shown to promote the development of APAP hepatotoxicity via indirect liver damage. In the present study, we demonstrate that Jα18(-/-) mice, which are selectively deficient in the innate immune T cell, Vα14iNKT cells, were resistant to APAP hepatotoxicity relative to WT mice as reflected by biochemical and histological liver injury markers. In parallel, improvement in the biochemical and histological parameters of liver injury in Jα18(-/-) mice was associated with a significant increase in hepatic levels of GSH, which detoxified APAP metabolites to attenuate hepatic oxidative stress, liver injury and necrosis. Notably, the protective effect of hepatic GSH during Vα14iNKT cells deficiency was demonstrated by its depletion in Jα18(-/-) mice using dl-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine which exacerbated hepatic oxidative and nitrosative stress as well as liver necrosis and caused mice mortality. Extraordinarily, APAP metabolism in Jα18(-/-) mice was altered in favor of hepatic GSH conjugates and decreased glucuronide conjugates. In summary, we reveal a novel finding establishing a unique association between hepatic innate immunity and GSH levels in altering APAP metabolism to suppress liver injury and necrosis during Vα14iNKT cells deficiency in Jα18(-/-) mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung-Hwa; Heo, Jeong-Haing; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Sun-Mee
This study examined the effects of daidzin, a major isoflavone from Puerariae Radix, on D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver failure. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of daidzin (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) 1 h before receiving an injection of D-GalN (700 mg/kg)/LPS (10 microg/kg). Daidzin markedly reduced the elevated serum aminotransferase activity and the levels of lipid peroxidation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The glutathione content was lower in the D-GalN/LPS group, which was attenuated by daidzin. The daidzin pretreatment attenuated the swollen mitochondria observed in the d-GalN/LPS group. Daidzin attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, which was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling method and a caspase-3 assay. Overall, these results suggest that the liver protection of daidzin is due to reduced oxidative stress and its antiapoptotic activity.
Masoud, Waleed G.T.; Abo Al-Rob, Osama; Yang, Yang; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Clanachan, Alexander S.
Aims Post-infarction remodelled failing hearts have reduced metabolic efficiency. Paradoxically, they have increased tolerance to further ischaemic injury. This study was designed to investigate the metabolic mechanisms that may contribute to this phenomenon and to examine the relationship between ischaemic tolerance and metabolic efficiency during post-ischaemic reperfusion. Methods and results Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to coronary artery ligation (CAL) or SHAM surgery. After 4 weeks, in vivo mechanical function was assessed by echocardiography, and then isolated working hearts were perfused in this sequence: 45 min aerobic, 15 min global no-flow ischaemia, and 30 min aerobic reperfusion. Left ventricular (LV) function, metabolic rates, and metabolic efficiency were measured. Relative to SHAM, both in vivo and in vitro CAL hearts had depressed cardiac function under aerobic conditions (45 and 36%, respectively), but they had a greater recovery of LV function during post-ischaemic reperfusion (67 vs. 49%, P < 0.05). While metabolic efficiency (LV work per ATP produced) was 50% lower during reperfusion of SHAM hearts, metabolic efficiency in CAL hearts did not decrease. During ischaemia, glycogenolysis was 28% lower in CAL hearts, indicative of lower ischaemic proton production. There were no differences in mitochondrial abundance, calcium handling proteins, or key metabolic enzymes. Conclusion Compared with SHAM, remodelled CAL hearts are more tolerant to ischaemic injury and undergo no further deterioration of metabolic efficiency during reperfusion. Less glycogen utilization in CAL hearts during ischaemia may contribute to increased ischaemic tolerance by limiting ischaemic proton production that may improve ion homeostasis during early reperfusion. PMID:26150203
Zielińska, Magdalena; Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Hilgier, Wojciech; Albrecht, Jan
L-citrulline (Cit) is a co-product of NO synthesis and a direct L-arginine (Arg) precursor for de novo NO synthesis. Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with increased nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) synthesis in the brain, indirectly implicating a role for active transport of Cit. In the present study we characterized [(3)H]Cit uptake to the cortical brain slices obtained from control rats and rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced ALF ("TAA slices"). In both control and TAA slices the uptake was partially Na(+)-dependent and markedly inhibited by substrates of systems L and N, including L-glutamine (Gln), which accumulates in excess in brain during ALF. Cit uptake was not affected by Arg, the y(+)/y(+)L transport system substrate, nor by amino acids taken up by systems A, xc (-)or XAG. The Vmax of the uptake in TAA slices was ~60 % higher than in control slices. Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis revealed a ~30 % increase of Cit concentration in the cerebral cortical homogenates of TAA rats. The activity of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), the two enzymes of Cit-NO cycle catalyzing synthesis of Arg, showed an increase in TAA rats, consistent with increased ASS and ASL protein expression, by ~30 and ~20 %, respectively. The increased Cit-NO cycle activity was paralleled by increased expression of mRNA coding for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Taken together, the results suggest a role for Cit in the activation of cerebral NO synthesis during ALF.
Nadarajan, V; Perry, R J; Johnson, J; Werring, D J
Suspected transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is a common diagnostic challenge for physicians in neurology, stroke, general medicine and primary care. It is essential to identify TIAs promptly because of the very high early risk of ischaemic stroke, requiring urgent investigation and preventive treatment. On the other hand, it is also important to identify TIA ‘mimics’, to avoid unnecessary and expensive investigations, incorrect diagnostic labelling and inappropriate long-term prevention treatment. Although the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke and TIA is identical, and both require rapid and accurate diagnosis, the differential diagnosis differs for TIA owing to the transience of symptoms. For TIA the diagnostic challenge is greater, and the ‘mimic’ rate higher (and more varied), because there is no definitive diagnostic test. TIA heralds a high risk of early ischaemic stroke, and in many cases the stroke can be prevented if the cause is identified, hence the widespread dissemination of guidelines including rapid assessment and risk tools like the ABCD2 score. However, these guidelines do not emphasise the substantial challenges in making the correct diagnosis in patients with transient neurological symptoms. In this article we will mainly consider the common TIA mimics, but also briefly mention the rather less common situations where TIAs can look like something else (‘chameleons’). PMID:24453269
Yedavalli, Vivek; Nyberg, Eric M; Chow, Daniel S; Thaker, Ashesh A
Given the rapid evolution and technological advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), including the proliferation of comprehensive stroke centres and increasing emphasis on interventional stroke therapies, the need for prompt recognition of stroke due to acute large vessel occlusion has received significant attention in the recent literature. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke, as images appear positive within minutes of ischaemic injury, and a high signal-to-noise ratio enables even punctate infarcts to be readily detected. DWI lesions resulting from a single arterial embolic occlusion or steno-occlusive lesion classically lateralise and conform to a specific arterial territory. When there is a central embolic source (e.g. left atrial thrombus), embolic infarcts are often found in multiple vascular territories. However, ischaemic disease arising from aetiologies other than arterial occlusion will often not conform to an arterial territory. Furthermore, there are several important entities unrelated to ischaemic disease that can present with abnormal DWI and which should not be confused with infarct. This pictorial review explores the scope and typical DWI findings of select neurologic conditions beyond acute arterial occlusion, which should not be missed or misinterpreted. • DWI abnormalities due to acute arterial occlusion must be promptly identified. • DWI abnormalities not due to arterial occlusion will often not conform to an arterial territory. • Several important non-ischaemic entities can present on DWI and should not be confused with infarct.
Sandercock, Peter A G; Counsell, Carl; Tseng, Mei-Chiun; Cecconi, Emanuela
In people with acute ischaemic stroke, platelets become activated and can cause blood clots to form and block an artery in the brain, resulting in damage to part of the brain. Such damage gives rise to the symptoms of stroke. Antiplatelet therapy might reduce the volume of brain damaged by ischaemia and also reduce the risk of early recurrent ischaemic stroke, thereby reducing the risk of early death and improving long-term outcomes in survivors. However, antiplatelet therapy might also increase the risk of fatal or disabling intracranial haemorrhage. To assess the efficacy and safety of immediate oral antiplatelet therapy (that is started as soon as possible and no later than two weeks after stroke onset) in people with acute presumed ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 16 October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2013), MEDLINE (June 1998 to May 2013), and EMBASE (June 1998 to May 2013). In 1998, for a previous version of this review, we searched the register of the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration, MedStrategy and contacted relevant drug companies. Randomised trials comparing oral antiplatelet therapy (started within 14 days of the stroke) with control in people with definite or presumed ischaemic stroke. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria and assessed trial quality. For the included trials, they extracted and cross-checked the data. We included eight trials involving 41,483 participants. No new trials have been added since the last update.Two trials testing aspirin 160 mg to 300 mg once daily, started within 48 hours of onset, contributed 98% of the data. The risk of bias was low. The maximum follow-up was six months. With treatment, there was a significant decrease in death or dependency at the end of follow-up (odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 0.99). For every 1000 people treated with
Roberts, Lara N.; Patel, Raj; Pathansali, Rohan; Kalra, Lalit; Arya, Roopen
Introduction. Stroke remains a global leading cause of death and disability. Traditional description of plasma biology in the aftermath of acute ischaemic stroke favours development of hypercoagulability, resulting from complex interplay between plasma and endothelial factors. However, no single assay measures the overall global coagulation process. We postulate that thrombin generation would assist in identifying coagulation abnormalities after acute stroke. Aim. To investigate the coagulation abnormalities after acute ischaemic stroke using thrombin generation. Methods. We evaluated thrombin generation, measured with calibrated automated thrombography in stroke of different aetiological types (n = 170) within 48 hours of symptoms onset (baseline) and in the second week (time 2) and in normal healthy volunteers (n = 71). Results. Two-point thrombin generation assays showed prolonged lag time and time to peak at baseline (3.3 (2.9, 4.0) versus 3.6 (3.2, 4.7); p = 0.005) and (3.3 (2.9, 4.0) versus 3.6 (3.2, 4.7); p = 0.002), respectively, and at time 2 (3.5 (2.9, 4.2) versus 4.0 (3.1, 4.9); p = 0.004) and (5.9 (5.3, 6.6) versus 6.8 (5.8, 7.7) p = 0.05), respectively, in cardioembolic stroke (n = 39), when compared to noncardioembolic stroke (n = 117). The result was reproduced in multiple comparisons between acute ischaemic stroke subgroups and normal healthy volunteers. Endogenous thrombin potential and peak thrombin did not indicate hypercoagulability after acute ischaemic stroke, and thrombolytic therapy did not affect thrombin generation assays. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that thrombin generation in platelet poor plasma is not useful in defining hypercoagulability in acute ischaemic stroke. This is similar to observed trend in coronary artery disease and contrary to other hypercoagulable states. PMID:28116215
Seki, Hiroshi; Ohi, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Toshirou; Yabusaki, Hiroshi
For patients with liver metastases from gastric cancer (LMGC), combination chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines and platinum agents has been recognized as standard treatment. However, the prognosis of hepatic progression after first-line treatment failure remains poor. When hepatic progression occurs, hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy may be helpful for preventing disease progression. To retrospectively assess the feasibility and efficacy of HAI chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and mitomycin C (FEM) for patients with LMGC after failure of systemic S-1 plus cisplatin. We reviewed the records of patients who received HAI chemotherapy using FEM for LMGC that progressed during systemic S-1 plus cisplatin treatment while extrahepatic disease was decreased or did not appear. HAI chemotherapy was given as second-line therapy using 5-fluorouracil (330 mg/m(2) weekly), epirubicin (30 or 40 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks), and mitomycin C (2.7 mg/m(2) biweekly). Fourteen patients were analyzed. Toxicity of HAI chemotherapy was generally mild. The objective response rate was 42.9%, including a complete response rate of 14.3%. Median times to hepatic and extrahepatic progression were 9.2 and 7.4 months, respectively. Of 12 patients with documented progression after HAI chemotherapy, 10 patients (83.3%) received additional treatment, including irinotecan or taxanes. Overall, median survival was 12.7 months. Our findings suggest that HAI chemotherapy using FEM is a feasible and effective treatment for patients with LMGC after failure of systemic S-1 plus cisplatin. HAI chemotherapy employed in the second-line setting is useful for achieving long-term disease control of LMGC. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.
Sayed, Rabab H; Khalil, Wagdy K B; Salem, Hesham A; Kenawy, Sanaa A; El-Sayeh, Bahia M
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome, with liver transplantation being the only effective therapy. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural compound that is extracted from cruciferous vegetables and possesses potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that SFN (3 mg/kg) may protect against FHF induced in rats by administering a combination of D-galactosamine (GalN; 300 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 30 μg/kg). The rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of SFN, 1 hour before the FHF induction. Sulforaphane reduced the mortality and alleviated the pathological liver injury. In addition, SFN significantly reduced the increase in serum aminotransferase activities and lipid peroxidation. The glutathione content decreased in the GalN/LPS group, and this decrease was attenuated by SFN. Increases in serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10, which were observed in GalN/LPS-treated rats, were significantly reduced after using SFN. The GalN/LPS treatment increased the expression of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase 2, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 genes. Sulforaphane inhibited the induction of reactive oxygen species scavenging proteins. Moreover, SFN inhibited GalN/LPS-induced caspase-3 activation and suppressed FAS and FASL expression. These findings suggest that SFN alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury, possibly by exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects and modulating certain antioxidant defense enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feng, Bo; Wu, Sheng Ming; Lv, Sa; Liu, Feng; Chen, Hong Song; Gao, Yan; Dong, Fang Ting; Wei, Lai
It is frequently important to identify the prognosis of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) patients as this will influence patient management and candidacy for liver transplantation. Therefore, a novel scoring system based on metabonomics combining with multivariate logistic regression was developed to predict the prognosis of FHF mouse model. BALB/c mice were used to construct FHF model. Parts of plasma were collected at 4, 5, and 6-h time points after treatment, respectively, and detected using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS). The acquired data were processed using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The metabolic markers identified were used to construct a scoring system by multivariate regression analysis. 28 mice of survival group and 28 of dead group were randomly selected and analyzed. PLS regression analysis showed that both the PLS models of 5 h and 6 h after d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide treatment demonstrated good performances. Loadings plot suggested that phosphate, beta-hydroxybutyrate (HB), urea, glucose and lactate concentrations in plasma had the highest weightings on the clustering differences at the three time points. By the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the death/survival index (DSI) was constructed based on relative concentrations of HB, urea and phosphate. It provided general accurate rate of prediction of 93.3% in the independent samples. The novel scoring system based on metabonomics combining with multivariate logistic regression is accurate in predicting the prognosis of FHF mouse model and may be referred in clinical practice as a more useful prognostic tool with other available information.
Shi, K-Q; Zhou, Y-Y; Yan, H-D; Li, H; Wu, F-L; Xie, Y-Y; Braddock, M; Lin, X-Y; Zheng, M-H
At present, there is no ideal model for predicting the short-term outcome of patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). This study aimed to establish and validate a prognostic model by using the classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. A total of 1047 patients from two separate medical centres with suspected ACHBLF were screened in the study, which were recognized as derivation cohort and validation cohort, respectively. CART analysis was applied to predict the 3-month mortality of patients with ACHBLF. The accuracy of the CART model was tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, which was compared with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and a new logistic regression model. CART analysis identified four variables as prognostic factors of ACHBLF: total bilirubin, age, serum sodium and INR, and three distinct risk groups: low risk (4.2%), intermediate risk (30.2%-53.2%) and high risk (81.4%-96.9%). The new logistic regression model was constructed with four independent factors, including age, total bilirubin, serum sodium and prothrombin activity by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The performances of the CART model (0.896), similar to the logistic regression model (0.914, P=.382), exceeded that of MELD score (0.667, P<.001). The results were confirmed in the validation cohort. We have developed and validated a novel CART model superior to MELD for predicting three-month mortality of patients with ACHBLF. Thus, the CART model could facilitate medical decision-making and provide clinicians with a validated practical bedside tool for ACHBLF risk stratification.
Vaughan, Gilberto; Forbi, Joseph C; Xia, Guo-Liang; Fonseca-Ford, Maureen; Vazquez, Roberto; Khudyakov, Yury E; Montiel, Sonia; Waterman, Steve; Alpuche, Celia; Gonçalves Rossi, Livia Maria; Luna, Norma
Clinical infection by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is generally self-limited but in some cases can progress to liver failure. Here, an HAV outbreak investigation among children with acute liver failure in a highly endemic country is presented. In addition, a sensitive method for HAV whole genome amplification and sequencing suitable for analysis of clinical samples is described. In this setting, two fatal cases attributed to acute liver failure and two asymptomatic cases living in the same household were identified. In a second household, one HAV case was observed with jaundice which resolved spontaneously. Partial molecular characterization showed that both households were infected by HAV subtype IA; however, the infecting strains in the two households were different. The HAV outbreak strains recovered from all cases grouped together within cluster IA1, which contains closely related HAV strains from the United States commonly associated with international travelers. Full-genome HAV sequences obtained from the household with the acute liver failure cases were related (genetic distances ranging from 0.01% to 0.04%), indicating a common-source infection. Interestingly, the strain recovered from the asymptomatic household contact was nearly identical to the strain causing acute liver failure. The whole genome sequence from the case in the second household was distinctly different from the strains associated with acute liver failure. Thus, infection with almost identical HAV strains resulted in drastically different clinical outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chen, Hui; Zhang, Ji; Cao, Guang; Liu, Peng; Xu, Haifeng; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xu; Gao, Song; Guo, Jianhai; Zhu, Linzhong; Zhang, Pengjun
Colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM) is a refractory disease after failure of first-line or second-line chemotherapy. Bevacizumab is recommended as first-line therapy for advanced colorectal cancer, but is unproven in CRLM through the hepatic artery. We report favorable outcomes with targeted vessel regional chemotherapy (TVRC) for liver metastatic gastric cancer. TVRC with FOLFOX and bevacizumab perfusion through the hepatic artery was attempted for CRLM for efficacy and safety evaluation. In a single-institution retrospective observational study, 246 patients with CRLM after at least first-line or second-line failure of systemic chemotherapy received TVRC with FOLFOX (i.e. oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil). Of 246 patients, 63 were enrolled into two groups: group 1 (n=30) received bevacizumab and TVRC following tumor progression during previous TVRC treatments; group 2 (n=33) received TVRC plus bevacizumab for CRLM on initiating TVRC. There were no significant differences in the median survival time (14.7 vs. 13.2 months, P=0.367), although the median time to progression was significant (3.3 vs. 5.5 months, P=0.026) between groups. No severe adverse events related to TVRC plus bevacizumab perfusion occurred. Target vessel regional chemotherapy with FOLFOX plus bevacizumab perfusion through the hepatic artery was effective and safe in CRLM. The optimal combination of TVRC and bevacizumab needs further confirmation in future phase II-III clinical trials.
Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Gómez Huelgas, Ricardo; Abu-Assi, Emad; Calderón, Alberto; Vidán, María Teresa
It is the aim of this manuscript to take into account the peculiarities and specific characteristics of elderly patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease from a multidisciplinary perspective, with the participation of the Spanish Society of Cardiology (sections of Geriatric Cardiology and Ischaemic Heart Disease/Acute Cardiovascular Care), the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology. This consensus document shows that in order to adequately address these elderly patients a comprehensive assessment is needed, which includes comorbidity, frailty, functional status, polypharmacy and drug interactions. We conclude that in most patients medical treatment is the best option and that this treatment must take into account the above factors and the biological changes associated with aging.
Martínez-Sellés, M; Gómez Huelgas, R; Abu-Assi, E; Calderón, A; Vidán, M T
It is the aim of this manuscript to take into account the peculiarities and specific characteristics of elderly patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease from a multidisciplinary perspective, with the participation of the Spanish Society of Cardiology (sections of Geriatric Cardiology and Ischaemic Heart Disease/Acute Cardiovascular Care), the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology. This consensus document shows that in order to adequately address these elderly patients a comprehensive assessment is needed, which includes comorbidity, frailty, functional status, polypharmacy and drug interactions. We conclude that in most patients medical treatment is the best option and that this treatment must take into account the above factors and the biological changes associated with aging.
Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Gómez Huelgas, Ricardo; Abu-Assi, Emad; Calderón, Alberto; Vidán, María Teresa
It is the aim of this manuscript to take into account the peculiarities and specific characteristics of elderly patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease from a multidisciplinary perspective, with the participation of the Spanish Society of Cardiology (sections of Geriatric Cardiology and Ischaemic Heart Disease/Acute Cardiovascular Care), the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians and the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology. This consensus document shows that in order to adequately address these elderly patients a comprehensive assessment is needed, which includes comorbidity, frailty, functional status, polypharmacy and drug interactions. We conclude that in most patients medical treatment is the best option and that this treatment must take into account the above factors and the biological changes associated with aging.
Gleadle, Jonathan M.; Mazzone, Annette
Brief periods of ischaemia followed by reperfusion of one tissue such as skeletal muscle can confer subsequent protection against ischaemia-induced injury in other organs such as the heart. Substantial evidence of this effect has been accrued in experimental animal models. However, the translation of this phenomenon to its use as a therapy in ischaemic disease has been largely disappointing without clear evidence of benefit in humans. Recently, innovative experimental observations have suggested that remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) may be largely mediated through hypoxic inhibition of the oxygen-sensing enzyme PHD2, leading to enhanced levels of alpha-ketoglutarate and subsequent increases in circulating kynurenic acid (KYNA). These observations provide vital insights into the likely mechanisms of RIPC and a route to manipulating this mechanism towards therapeutic benefit by direct alteration of KYNA, alpha-ketoglutarate levels, PHD inhibition, or pharmacological targeting of the incompletely understood cardioprotective mechanism activated by KYNA. PMID:28163901
Talukder, M.A. Hassan; Zweier, Jay L.; Periasamy, Muthu
Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While timely reperfusion of acutely ischaemic myocardium is essential for myocardial salvage, it leads to a unique type of injury known as ‘myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury’. Growing evidence suggests that a defect in myocardial Ca2+ transport system with cytosolic Ca2+ overload is a major contributor to myocardial I/R injury. Progress in molecular genetics and medicine in past years has clearly demonstrated that modulation of Ca2+ handling pathways in IHD could be cardioprotective. The potential benefits of these strategies in limiting I/R injury are vast, and the time is right for challenging in vivo systemic work both at pre-clinical and clinical levels. PMID:19640931
Shimakawa, Y; Njai, H F; Takahashi, K; Berg, L; Ndow, G; Jeng-Barry, A; Ceesay, A; Tamba, S; Opoku, E; Taal, M; Akbar, S M F; Arai, M; D'Alessandro, U; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Njie, R; Mishiro, S; Thursz, M R; Lemoine, M
In sub-Saharan Africa, it is unknown whether hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common precipitating event of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). To estimate the prevalence of HEV infection in general population and assess whether HEV is a common trigger of ACLF in cirrhotic patients in The Gambia, West Africa. We first conducted an HEV sero-survey in healthy volunteers. We then tested cirrhotic patients with ACLF (cases) and compensated cirrhosis (controls) for anti-HEV IgG as a marker of exposure to HEV, and anti-HEV IgA and HEV RNA as a marker of recent infection. We also described the characteristics and survival of the ACLF cases and controls. In the healthy volunteers (n = 204), 13.7% (95% CI: 9.6-19.2) were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and none had positive HEV viraemia. After adjusting for age and sex, the following were associated with positive anti-HEV IgG: being a Christian, a farmer, drinking water from wells, handling pigs and eating pork. In 40 cases (median age: 45 years, 72.5% male) and 71 controls (39 years, 74.6% male), ≥70% were infected with hepatitis B virus. Although hepatitis B flare and sepsis were important precipitating events of ACLF, none had marker of acute HEV. ACLF cases had high (70.0%) 28-day mortality. Hepatitis E virus infection is endemic in The Gambia, where both faecal-oral route (contaminated water) and zoonotic transmission (pigs/pork meat) may be important. However, acute HEV was not a common cause of acute-on-chronic liver failure in The Gambia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goksu Erol, Azize Yasemin; Gokcimen, Alpaslan; Ozdemir, Oner
Trimethobenzamide (TMB) has a pregnancy category C labeling. Tardive dyskinesia and gastrointestinal involvement in neonates were not described earlier. We aimed to investigate neurological, developmental, and hepatic effects of TMB. Ten 10 pregnant rats were divided into two groups. During pregnancy, Group I (control) were injected with saline; Group II with TMB (5 mg/kg/day). After delivery, two experiments were planned: experiment 1 (neuro) and Experiment 2 (hepatic). Control groups contained offsprings delivered from Group I mothers: Group I-offsp-neuro (n = 15) and Group I-offsp-hepatic (n = 15). Thirty offsprings delivered from Group II mothers formed Group II-offsp-neuro (n = 15) and Group II-offsp-hepatic (n = 15). Neuro group offsprings were followed-up to observe neurological symptoms and assessed for normal growth. Hepatic group livers were excised for histological evaluation. The body weight between neuro groups showed significant differences (p < 0.05). In Group II-offsp-neuro low body weight, poor hair growth, tardive dyskinesia and megacolon were observed. Some alterations of liver histology were noticed in Group II-offsp-hepatic (p < 0.001). In utero TMB exposure may cause growth retardation, neurological damage in the developing brain and intestine, and hepatic damage. Despite recent publications reporting safety of TMB, we suggest that obstetricians and pediatricians should make a good risk-benefit assessment before prescribing TMB.
Jusufovic, Mirza; Thomassen, Lars; Skjelland, Mona
There is no sound scientific documentation of current guidelines for the treatment of cerebral infarction assumed to be due to patent foramen ovale. In this article, we present a young patient with this condition. In addition, we provide a general overview of the prevalence, recommended assessment and indications for treatment of patent foramen ovale in ischaemic stroke patients. The article is based on a non-systematic search in PubMed. We emphasise three recently published randomised trials on the subject. Transoesophageal echocardiography with saline contrast is the gold standard for detecting patent foramen ovale. Just who will benefit from the diagnosis and treatment of this condition remains unclear, however. None of the three randomised studies of antithrombotic treatment versus transcatheter closure in patients who have suffered ischaemic stroke show a difference in outcomes, but subgroup analyses indicate that closure in young patients (age <50 years) with a large foramen ovale reduces the number of recurrent ischaemic events. Two other randomised studies of antithrombotic treatment alone versus closure are presently ongoing. For stroke patients with patent foramen ovale, the choice between lifelong antithrombotic therapy alone and transcatheter closure is a difficult one. Treatment with antiplatelet agents remains the first choice in most cases. Well-designed studies are needed to identify which patients will benefit most from closure.
Rahman, Attiya Sabeen; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Jamal, Qaiser; Sultana, Nuzhat; Siddiqui, Muhammad Asadullah; Hassan, Ziaul
To determine the frequency of atherosclerosis by ankle brachial index in patients with an ischaemic stroke and to assess the association of carotid artery stenosis and ankle brachial index in ischaemic stroke. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi, from July 2011 to May 2014, and comprised patients with ischaemic stroke. The patients were classified according to the Asian stroke criteria for classification of brain infarction. Primary outcome measures included carotid artery stenosis and ankle brachial index. The other independent variables were age, gender, body mass index and waist circumference. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. A total of 327 patients were enrolled. The overall mean age was 57.6±12.8 years. Besides, 168(51.3%) participants were males. Peripheral artery disease was found in 60(18.3%) patients. Mild carotid artery stenosis was found in 182(55.6%) patients, moderate in 140(42.8%), severe in 3(0.9%) and complete occlusion in 2(0.6%) patients. In patients having mild carotid artery stenosis, 32(17.5%) had peripheral artery disease, whereas in patients with moderate carotid artery stenosis, 25(17.8%) had peripheral artery disease. Abnormally low ankle brachial index suggesting subclinical peripheral artery disease was 18%.
Singri, Naveen; Gleason, Briana; Flamm, Steve L; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Ghossein, Cybele
Patients with end-stage liver disease are prone to hemodynamic and immunologic renal injury, the latter at times manifesting as glomerulonephritis. Elevated serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels and mesangial IgG-IgA deposits are common in these patients, but are often clinically silent. We report a patient with autoimmune hepatitis and secondary IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who presented with nephrotic syndrome, acute renal failure (ARF), with 30% of the renal glomeruli having undergone crescentic change, and with IgA2 deposits in the glomerular mesangium. This article discusses secondary IgAN pathogenesis and its therapeutic management.
Curative Effects of Thiacremonone against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Hepatic Failure via Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines Production and Infiltration of Cytotoxic Immune Cells and Kupffer Cells
Kim, Yu Ri; Ban, Jung Ok; Yoo, Hwan Soo; Lee, Yong Moon; Yoon, Yeo Pyo; Eum, So Young; Jeong, Heon Sang; Yoon, Do-young; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae
High doses of acetaminophen (APAP; N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) cause severe hepatotoxicity after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 2E1. This study was undertaken to examine the preventive effects of thiacremonone, a compound extracted from garlic, on APAP-induced acute hepatic failure in male C57BL/6J. Mice received with 500 mg/kg APAP after a 7-day pretreatment with thiacremonone (10–50 mg/kg). Thiacremonone inhibited the APAP-induced serum ALT and AST levels in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly reduced the restricted area of necrosis and inflammation by administration of APAP. Thiacremonone also inhibited the APAP-induced depletion of intracellular GSH, induction of nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation as well as expression of P450 2E1. After APAP injection, the numbers of Kupffer cells, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T cells were elevated, but the elevated cell numbers in the liver were reduced in thiacremonone pretreated mice. The expression levels of I-309, M-CSF, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-7, and IL-17 were increased by APAP treatment, which were inhibited in thiacremonone pretreated mice. These data indicate that thiacremonone could be a useful agent for the treatment of drug-induced hepatic failure and that the reduction of cytotoxic immune cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine production may be critical for the prevention of APAP-induced acute liver toxicity. PMID:23935693
Mendizabal, Manuel; Rowe, Carlos; Piñero, Federico; Gonzalez-Campaña, Ariel; Fauda, Martín; Tomás Arufe, Diego; Pía Raffa, María; Barreiro, Mariano; Keller, Rodolfo; Cacheiro, Fernando; Beruti, Ernesto; Andriani, Oscar; Oscar Silva, Marcelo; Podestá, Luis Gustavo
Severe liver dysfunction during pregnancy implies a serious risk for both mother and fetus, and represents a technical and ethical challenge for treating physicians. We report a case of a previously healthy 32-year old woman who was admitted to our hospital with idiopathic fulminant hepatic failure and underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) at gestation week 21. Patient's and fetus' immediate postoperative course were relatively uneventful until week six after OLT, when the mother developed oligohydramnios and preeclampsia. At pregnancy week 27, after inducing baby's lung maturation, a cesarean section was performed with the delivery of an otherwise healthy girl. After 3 years of follow-up, mother and child are leading normal lives with no complications related either to pregnancy or to OLT. We describe the case of a successful emergency liver transplant in a woman during the second trimester of pregnancy, demonstrating that OLT can be a viable option to preserve the life of the mother and an otherwise unviable fetus. Intrauterine baby's growths until the attainment of a viable gestational age was feasible despite the mother's fulminant hepatic failure and liver transplant surgery.
Park, Eun-Jeon; Nan, Ji-Xing; Zhao, Yu-Zhe; Lee, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Ho; Nam, Jeong Bum; Lee, Jung Joon; Sohn, Dong Hwan
The aim of this study was to investigate whether Eleutherococcus senticosus stems could attenuate D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure in mice. E. senticosus, known as Siberian ginseng, is a popular folk medicine used as a tonic in Asia. Preparations of E. senticosus used in this study were as follows; (i) 70% ethanol extract (ii) water extract (iii) ethanol-soluble part of the water extract (iv) polysaccharide obtained as an 80% ethanol insoluble of the water extract. Preparations were given by intraperitoneal (300 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) or oral (300 mg/kg) injection at 12 hr and 1 hr before a D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide injection. The intraperitoneal injection of water extract and polysaccharide significantly lowered serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, improved the histologic changes in liver, inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling method and DNA fragmentation assay, and suppressed the lethality induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide. The oral administration of water extract and polysaccharide also reduced serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels. In contrast 70% ethanol extract and ethanol-soluble part of the water extract had no protective effect when treated intraperitoneally or orally. These results indicate E. senticosus stems attenuate fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide in mice and the protective effect is due to water-soluble polysaccharides in E. senticosus stems.
Elwood, P C; Pickering, J E; Hughes, J; Fehily, A M; Ness, A R
Milk consumption is considered a risk factor for vascular disease on the basis of relevant biological mechanisms and data from ecological studies. The aim was to identify published prospective studies of milk drinking and vascular disease, and conduct an overview. The literature was searched for cohort studies, in which an estimate of the consumption of milk, or the intake of calcium from dairy sources, has been related to incident vascular disease. Ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke. In total, 10 studies were identified. Their results show a high degree of consistency in the reported risk for heart disease and stroke, all but one study suggesting a relative risk of less than one in subjects with the highest intakes of milk. A pooled estimate of relative odds in these subjects, relative to the risk in subjects with the lowest consumption, is 0.87 (95% CI 0.74-1.03) for ischaemic heart disease and 0.83 (0.77-0.90) for ischaemic stroke. The odds ratio for any vascular event is 0.84 (0.78-0.90). Cohort studies provide no convincing evidence that milk is harmful. While there still could be residual confounding from unidentified factors, the studies, taken together, suggest that milk drinking may be associated with a small but worthwhile reduction in heart disease and stroke risk. The University of Wales College of Medicine and Bristol University. Current support is from the Food Standards Agency.
Chiang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Wai-Wah; Li, Hsin-Yang; Chien, Yueh; Sun, Cho-Chin; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Huang, Chi-Shuan; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Hung, Shuen-Iu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Liu, Dean-Mo; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Huo, Teh-Ia; Lee, Shou-Dong; Wang, Chien-Ying
Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is a severe liver injury leading to sustained damage and complications. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be an alternative option for the treatment of AHF. In this study, we reprogrammed human dental pulp-derived fibroblasts into iPSCs, which exhibited pluripotency and the capacity to differentiate into tridermal lineages, including hepatocyte-like cells (iPSC-Heps). These iPSC-Heps resembled human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells in gene signature and hepatic markers/functions. To improve iPSC-Heps engraftment, we next developed an injectable carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan hydrogel (CHC) with sustained hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) release (HGF-CHC) and investigated the hepatoprotective activity of HGF-CHC-delivered iPSC-Heps in vitro and in an immunocompromised AHF mouse model induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Intrahepatic delivery of HGF-CHC-iPSC-Heps reduced the TAA-induced hepatic necrotic area and rescued liver function and recipient viability. Compared with PBS-delivered iPSC-Heps, the HGF-CHC-delivered iPSC-Heps exhibited higher antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities that reduced hepatic necrotic area. Importantly, these HGF-CHC-mediated responses could be abolished by administering anti-HGF neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that HGF mediated the enhancement of iPSC-Hep antioxidant/antiapoptotic capacities and hepatoprotection and that HGF-CHC is as an excellent vehicle for iPSC-Hep engraftment in iPSC-based therapy against AHF.
Elwood, P C; Pickering, J E; Fehily, A M; Hughes, J; Ness, A R
To test the hypothesis that milk drinking increases the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and ischaemic stroke in a prospective study. In the Caerphilly Cohort Study dietary data, including milk consumption, were collected by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1979-1983. The cohort has been followed for 20-24 y and incident IHD and stroke events identified. A representative population sample in South Wales, of 2512 men, aged 45-59 y at recruitment. In total, 493 men had an IHD event and 185 an ischaemic stroke during follow-up. After adjustment, the hazard ratio in men with a milk consumption of one pint (0.57 l) or more per day, relative to men who stated that they consumed no milk, is 0.71 (0.40-1.26) for IHD and 0.66 (0.24-1.81) for ischaemic stroke. At baseline, 606 men had had clinical or ECG evidence of vascular disease, and in these the vascular risk was even lower (0.37; 0.15-0.90). The hazard ratio for IHD and ischaemic stroke combined is 0.64 (0.39-1.06) in all men and 0.37 (0.15-0.90) in those who had had a prior vascular event. The data provide no convincing evidence that milk consumption is associated with an increase in vascular disease risk. Evidence from an overview of all published cohort studies on this topic should be informative. : The Medical Research Council, the University of Wales College of Medicine and Bristol University. Current support is from the Food Standards Agency.
Ward, Paul W; Shaneyfelt, Terrence M; Roan, Ronald M
In this case, the authors have presented for the first time that ischaemic colitis may be associated with phenylephrine use. Since phenylephrine is the more common active ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) cold medications, other presentations may follow this case. A MEDLINE search was performed for all case reports or case series of ischaemic colitis secondary to pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine use published between 1966 and 2013. The search resulted in four case reports and one case series describing patients with acute onset ischaemic colitis with exposure to pseudoephedrine immediately prior to onset. However, we found no case reports of ischaemic colitis associated with phenylephrine use. We present this case as an unexpected clinical outcome of phenylephrine, which has not been associated with ischaemic colitis in the literature. Also, this case serves as a reminder of the important clinical lesson to question all patients' use of OTC and prescribed medications.
Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Stoll, Guido
Abstract Ischaemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The complex cellular interactions leading from thromboembolic vessel occlusion to infarct development within the brain parenchyma in acute stroke are poorly understood, which translates into only one approved effective treatment, thrombolysis. Importantly, however, patients can develop progressive stroke despite reperfusion of previously occluded major intracranial arteries, a process referred to as ‘reperfusion injury’ which can be reproduced in the mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Although pathological platelet and coagulant activity have long been recognized to be involved in the initiation of ischaemic stroke, their contribution to infarct maturation remained elusive. Experimental evidence now suggests that early platelet adhesion/activation mechanisms involving the von Willebrand factor (vWF) receptor glycoprotein (GP) Ib, its ligand vWF, and the collagen receptor GPVI are critical pathogenic factors in infarct development following tMCAO, whereas platelet aggregation through GPIIb/IIIa is not. Further experimental work indicates that these pathways in conjunction with coagulation factor XII (FXII)-driven processes orchestrate a ‘thrombo-inflammatory’ cascade in acute stroke that results in infarct growth. This review summarizes these recent developments and briefly discusses their potential clinical impact. PMID:21768262
Nuñez, Antonio; Benavente, Isabel; Blanco, Dorotea; Boix, Héctor; Cabañas, Fernando; Chaffanel, Mercedes; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; Fernández-Lorenzo, José Ramón; Loureiro, Begoña; Moral, María Teresa; Pavón, Antonio; Tofé, Inés; Valverde, Eva; Vento, Máximo
Birth asphyxia is one of the principal causes of early neonatal death. In survivors it may evolve to hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and major long-term neurological morbidity. Prolonged and intense asphyxia will lead to energy exhaustion in tissues exclusively dependent on aerobic metabolism, such as the central nervous system. Energy deficit leads to ATP-dependent pumps blockage, with the subsequent loss of neuronal transmembrane potential. The most sensitive areas of the brain will die due to necrosis. In more resistant areas, neuronal hyper-excitability, massive entrance of ionic calcium, activation of NO-synthase, free radical generation, and alteration in mitochondrial metabolism will lead to a secondary energy failure and programmed neuronal death by means of the activation of the caspase pathways. A third phase has recently been described that includes persistent inflammation and epigenetic changes that would lead to a blockage of oligodendrocyte maturation, alteration of neurogenesis, axonal maturation, and synaptogenesis. In this scenario, oxidative stress plays a critical role causing direct damage to the central nervous system and activating metabolic cascades leading to apoptosis and inflammation. Moderate whole body hypothermia to preserve energy stores and to reduce the formation of oxygen reactive species attenuates the mechanisms that lead to the amplification of cerebral damage upon resuscitation. The combination of hypothermia with coadjuvant therapies may contribute to improve the prognosis. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Andalib, Sasan; Divani, Afshin A; Michel, Tanja M; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F; Vafaee, Manouchehr S; Gjedde, Albert
Ischaemic heart disease and stroke are vascular events with serious health consequences worldwide. Recent genetic and epigenetic techniques have revealed many genetic determinants of these vascular events and simplified the approaches to research focused on ischaemic heart disease and stroke. The pathogenetic mechanisms of ischaemic heart disease and stroke are complex, with mitochondrial involvement (partially or entirely) recently gaining substantial support. Not only can mitochondrial reactive oxygen species give rise to ischaemic heart disease and stroke by production of oxidised low-density lipoprotein and induction of apoptosis, but the impact on pericytes contributes directly to the pathogenesis. Over the past two decades, publications implicate the causative role of nuclear genes in the development of ischaemic heart disease and stroke, in contrast to the potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the pathophysiology of the disorders, which is much less understood, although recent studies do demonstrate that the involvement of mitochondria and mtDNA in the development of ischaemic heart disease and stroke is likely to be larger than originally thought, with the novel discovery of links among mitochondria, mtDNA and vascular events. Here we explore the molecular events and mtDNA alterations in relation to the role of mitochondria in ischaemic heart disease and stroke.
Bathla, L; Grant, W J; Mercer, D F; Vargas, L M; Gebhart, C L; Langnas, A N
Aplastic anemia (AA) has been observed in nearly a third of patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) for non-A-E fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Few of these patients have been successfully managed with sequential LT and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). No causative agent has been identified for the FHF or AA in these reported cases. At our center, two patients, aged 15 years and 7 years, respectively, underwent sequential living-related LT and living-unrelated BMT. These patients are 10/9 years and 5/4 years post-LT/BMT. Human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) was established as the causative agent for FHF in both these patients by polymerase chain reaction. This report presents the first two cases associating HPV-B19 with FHF and AA who underwent sequential LT and BMT with excellent outcomes. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Unzu, Carmen; Sampedro, Ana; Sardh, Eliane; Mauleón, Itsaso; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Prieto, Jesús
Chronic kidney disease is a long-term complication in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). The pathophysiological significance of hepatic overproduction of the porphyrin precursors aminolevulinate acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) in chronic kidney disease is unclear. We have investigated the effect of repetitive acute attacks on renal function and the effect of total or five-sixth nephrectomy causing renal insufficiency on hepatic heme synthesis in the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD)-deficient (AIP) mouse. Phenobarbital challenge in the AIP-mice increased urinary porphyrin precursor excretion. Successive attacks throughout 14 weeks led to minor renal lesions with no impact on renal function. In the liver of wild type and AIP mice, 5/6 nephrectomy enhanced transcription of the first and rate-limiting ALA synthase. As a consequence, urinary PBG excretion increased in AIP mice. The PBG/ALA ratio increased from 1 in sham operated AIP animals to over 5 (males) and over 13 (females) in the 5/6 nephrectomized mice. Total nephrectomy caused a rapid decrease in PBGD activity without changes in enzyme protein level in the AIP mice but not in the wild type animals. In conclusion, high concentration of porphyrin precursors had little impact on renal function. However, progressive renal insufficiency aggravates porphyria attacks and increases the PBG/ALA ratio, which should be considered a warning sign for potentially life-threatening impairment in AIP patients with signs of renal failure. PMID:22412963
Thölen, H; Bianchi, L; Ulrich, J; Heierli, C; Ritz, R
The clinical course of a 26 year old female patient with acute liver necrosis and coma due to hepatitis B is reported. The disturbances of conciousness had improved. The patient survived 41 days after the beginning of the coma and developed liver cell regeneration and an acute post-hepatitic liver cirrhosis. As a grave complication a septicemia with aspergillus was observed. The patient died because of gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. At autopsy there were no signs of brain edema. The treatment consisted in: daily infusions with coenzyme A, nicotinamid-adenin-dinucleotide, alpha lipoic acid and cocarboxylase to improve the metabolic disorders and the clinical picture; mannitol intravenously to prevent and to treat cerebral edema; 33 charcoal-hemoperfusions to remove toxic substances of acute liver failure. Treatment of the aspergillus infection with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericine B and infusion of concentrated ascites led to a decompensation of liver functions. From this observation the following conclusions can be drawn: after an acute viral hepatic necrosis, new synthetic functions and improvements of the disturbed intermediary metabolism in regenerated liver-cells can eventually be seen only after twenty-four to thirty days. With systematically applicated mannitol infusions it is possible to treat cerebral edema effectively.
Xu, Ruonan; Bao, Chunmei; Huang, Huihuang; Lin, Fang; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Siyu; Jin, Lei; Yang, Tao; Shi, Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fu-Sheng
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). But the utility of CXC chemokine receptor expression on PMNs as a biomarker for prediction of disease severity is still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 on neutrophils, and found that patients with hepatitis B virus-related ACLF displayed low expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 on peripheral neutrophils compared with healthy subjects and patients with chronic hepatitis B. This expression pattern was correlated with disease severity. Additionally, increased production of IL-8 in peripheral blood was significantly associated with reduced CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression, as shown by the decreased CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression on neutrophils after treating neutrophils with plasma from ACLF patients. This effect could be overcomed through IL-8 blockage with an anti-IL-8 antibody. We also found that IL-8 production and neutrophil infiltration were coordinately increased in the liver tissue of HBV-ACLF patients, and this increase was associated with liver inflammation. Overall, increased production of IL-8 associated with neutrophils infiltration into the liver and decreased CXCR1/2 expression on peripheral neutrophils. CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression levels could be served as early markers to predict the severity of ACLF. PMID:27974825
Cheng, Zhuo; Yue, Ling; Zhao, Wenhao; Yang, Xinzhou; Shu, Guangwen
Here, we explored protective effects of protostemonine (PSN), on mouse acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). PSN dose-dependently declined LPS/GalN-induced lethality of mice as well as increase of ALT/AST activities in their serum. Hepatoprotective effects of PSN were also supported by liver histopathological examinations. After LPS/GalN treatment, severe oxidative stresses in the liver could be detected by boosted MDA and ROS as well as decreased GSH. Moreover, hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, were sharply elevated. These symptoms were dose-dependently ameliorated by PSN. Mechanistically, PSN promoted the transcription and translation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in hepatocytes and liver Kupffer cells. Nrf2 is a master transcription factor contributing to the expression of HO-1. PSN elevated Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and enhanced Nrf2/HO-1 promoter interaction. Suppressing enzyme activity of HO-1 by co-treating mice with HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP abolished protective effects of PSN. ZnPP also abrogated alleviative impacts of PSN on LPS/GalN-mediated hepatic oxidative stresses and inflammatory responses. Finally, we showed that PSN exhibited undetectable toxic effects on vital organs of mice. Our findings suggested that PSN is able to attenuate LPS/GalN-induced acute liver failure and upregulating HO-1 expression is implicated in its hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena
Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.
Gallagher, Kara Lee
An 81-year-old man with a medical history significant for diverticulosis and irritable bowel syndrome presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of periumbilical pain that woke him from sleep and ultimately localised to his right lower quadrant. He reported nausea, anorexia and chills but denied vomiting, diarrhoea, melena, hematochezia or fever. His physical exam was notable for focal tenderness at McBurney's point. Diagnostic information included a normal white blood cell count and an abdominal CT scan that demonstrated a normal appendix with no other pathology noted. The patient opted to proceed with laparoscopy where a normal appendix was found. The caecum, however, contained a large ischaemic diverticulum not noted on CT scan. Following laparoscopic ileocecectomy, pathology demonstrated haemorrhage, inflammation, oedema and full thickness necrosis of the caecal wall. Recovery was uneventful; the patient was discharged from the hospital 3 days following surgery. PMID:23893271
Loh, Victor Weng Keong; Soon, Derek Tuck Loong; Yeo, Leonard Leong Litt
Stroke is a significant cause of death and disability in Singapore; in 2014, it was the fourth most common cause of death. Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is defined as a transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord or retinal ischaemia without evidence of acute infarction. The diagnosis of TIA/acute stroke needs to be considered in all patients who present with sudden focal neurological dysfunction. Prompt referral for assessment, neuroimaging and intervention provides the best chance for neurological recovery and/or minimising further neurological damage. Primary care physicians have a crucial role in TIA/stroke prevention and management. This includes referring patients with suspected acute TIA/stroke to hospitals with stroke treatment facilities immediately; managing the modifiable risk factors of cerebral ischaemia; continuing prescription of antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulation where indicated; and teaching patients to recognise and respond to suspected cerebral ischaemia using the FAST (face, arm, speech, time) acronym. PMID:27995263
Pinato, D J; Yen, C; Bettinger, D; Ramaswami, R; Arizumi, T; Ward, C; Pirisi, M; Burlone, M E; Thimme, R; Kudo, M; Sharma, R
Drug development in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited by disease heterogeneity, with hepatic reserve being a major source of variation in survival outcomes. The albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade is a validated index of liver function in patients with HCC. To test the accuracy of the ALBI grade in predicting post-sorafenib overall survival (PSOS) in patients who permanently discontinued treatment. From a prospectively maintained international database of 447 consecutive referrals, we derived 386 eligible patients treated with sorafenib within Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer C stage (62%), 75% of whom were of Child class A at initiation. Clinical variables at sorafenib discontinuation were analysed for their impact on post-sorafenib overall survival using uni- and multivariable analyses. Median post-sorafenib overall survival of the 386 eligible patients was 3.4 months and median sorafenib duration was 2.9 months, with commonest causes of cessation being disease progression (68%) and toxicity (24%). At discontinuation, 92 patients (24%) progressed to terminal stage, due to worsening Child class to C in 40 (10%). Median post-sorafenib overall survival in patients eligible for second-line therapies (n = 294) was 17.5, 7.5 and 1.9 months according respectively to ALBI grade 1, 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). The ALBI grade at sorafenib discontinuation identifies a subset of patients with prolonged stability of hepatic reserve and superior survival. This may allow improved patient selection for second-line therapies in advanced HCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Di, L; Restuccia, D; Oliviero, A; Profice, P; Nardone, R; Valeriani, M; Colosimo, C; Tartaglione, T; Della, C; Pennisi, M; Tonali, P
Two patients with spinal infarction and one patient with the previously unreported complication of spinal transient ischaemic attack associated with cocaine misuse are reported. Spinal MRI documented an infarction in the territory of the anterior spinal artery in the first two patients and was completely normal in the patient with a transient ischaemic attack. Motor evoked potentials were abnormal in all three patients. PMID:9343140
Nakazawa, Atsuko; Nakano, Natsuko; Fukuda, Akinari; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Kudo, Toyoichiro; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Kasahara, Mureo
The decision to perform liver transplantation (LT) in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) relies on a precise assessment of laboratory and pathological findings. In this study, we analyzed clinical and laboratory data as well as the pathological features of the liver in order to evaluate the pathogenesis and the need for LT in 5 patients with EBV-induced FHF. According to the King's College criteria, the Acute Liver Failure Early Dynamic (ALFED) model, and the Japanese criteria (from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group of Japan), only 1 patient was considered to be a candidate for LT. However, explanted liver tissues in 3 cases exhibited massive hepatocellular necrosis together with diffuse CD8-positive T cell infiltration in both the portal area and the sinusoid. EBV was detected in the liver, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). In 2 cases indicated to be at moderate risk by the ALFED model, liver biopsy showed CD8-positive and EBV-encoded RNA signal-positive lymphocytic infiltration predominantly in the portal area, but massive hepatocellular necrosis was not observed. These patients were treated with immunosuppressants and etoposide under the diagnosis of EBV-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or systemic EBV-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood. EBV DNA was detected at a high level in PBMNCs, although it was negative in plasma. On the basis of the pathological analysis of the explanted liver tissues, LT was proposed for the restoration of liver function and the removal of the EBV-infected lymphocytes concentrated in the liver. Detecting EBV DNA by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in plasma and PBMNCs was informative. An accurate evaluation of the underlying pathogenesis is essential for developing a treatment strategy in patients with EBV-induced FHF. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Remme, W J
In addition to being accepted therapy in hypertension and heart failure, ACE inhibitors may well offer a new dimension in anti-ischaemic therapy. Currently, anti-ischaemic properties have been demonstrated by ACE inhibitors in selected patient groups, including patients with left ventricular dysfunction with or without a direct temporal relationship with myocardial infarction. Anti-ischaemic effects of ACE inhibitors become apparent late after initiation of treatment and suggest a structural rather than a functional effect. Underlying mechanisms may include a reduction in ventricular dilatation and (abnormal) cardiac hypertrophy, leading to less myocardial oxygen demand and, possibly, improved subendocardial blood supply, and vasculoprotective effects, i.e. anti-atherosclerotic and antiremodelling properties, a beneficial effect on the fibrinolytic system and an improvement in abnormal endothelial vasodilator function. The latter aspect is most probably the pivotal mode of action where the anti-ischaemic profile of ACE inhibition is concerned. An improvement in endothelial dysfunction has been shown in patients with mild to moderate coronary artery disease [Trial on Reversing ENdothelial Dysfunction (TREND)]. It is of importance that, in both clinical experiments and human studies, the role of bradykinin appears central in the structural and functional cardiovascular effects of ACE inhibition. This is particularly true for the improvement of impaired endothelial function. Myocardial ischaemia evokes vasoconstrictor neurohormonal activation, which may lead to coronary vasoconstriction in diseased coronary segments. The subsequent abnormal endothelial function leads to diminished coronary flow and also increases systemic vasotone and afterload, thus unfavourably altering the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. Under laboratory conditions, acute ACE inhibition counteracts this activation in humans. However, it is speculated that this anti-ischaemic mechanism may
Jacobs, Susan E; Berg, Marie; Hunt, Rod; Tarnow-Mordi, William O; Inder, Terrie E; Davis, Peter G
Newborn animal studies and pilot studies in humans suggest that mild hypothermia following peripartum hypoxia-ischaemia in newborn infants may reduce neurological sequelae without adverse effects. To determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic asphyxiated newborn infants on mortality, long-term neurodevelopmental disability and clinically important side effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group as outlined in The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2007). Randomised controlled trials evaluating therapeutic hypothermia in term and late preterm newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were identified by searching the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2007), previous reviews including cross-references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching. We updated this search in May 2012. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the use of therapeutic hypothermia with standard care in encephalopathic term or late preterm infants with evidence of peripartum asphyxia and without recognisable major congenital anomalies. The primary outcome measure was death or long-term major neurodevelopmental disability. Other outcomes included adverse effects of cooling and 'early' indicators of neurodevelopmental outcome. Four review authors independently selected, assessed the quality of and extracted data from the included studies. Study authors were contacted for further information. Meta-analyses were performed using risk ratios (RR) and risk differences (RD) for dichotomous data, and weighted mean difference for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 11 randomised controlled trials in this updated review, comprising 1505 term and late preterm infants with moderate/severe encephalopathy and evidence of intrapartum asphyxia
Zheng, Zhen; Li, Xu; Li, Zhiliang; Ma, Xiaochun
Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems (LSSs) appear to be safe and effective in the treatment of acute and acute-on-chronic hepatic failure (AHF and AOCHF); however, individually published studies and previous meta-analyses have revealed inconclusive results. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to derive a more precise estimation of the benefits and disadvantages of artificial and bioartificial LSSs for patients with AHF and AOCHF. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical (CBM) databases for publications prior to March 1, 2013. Crude relative risks (RRs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using either the fixed effects or random effects models. Nineteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included, which comprised a total of 566 patients with AHF and 371 patients with AOCHF. The meta-analysis showed that artificial LSS therapy significantly reduced mortality in patients with AOCHF; however, it had no apparent effect on total mortality in patients with AHF. The results also indicated that the use of bioartificial LSSs was correlated with decreased mortality in patients with AHF. A significant reduction in the bridging to liver transplantation was observed in patients with AOCHF following artificial LSS therapy; however, similar results were not observed in patients with AHF. Patients with AHF and those with AOCHF showed significant reductions in total bilirubin levels following artificial LSS therapy. There were no significantly increased risks of hepatic encephalopathy or bleeding in either the patients with AHF or AOCHF following artificial or bioartificial LSS therapies. Univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses confirmed that none of the factors explained the heterogeneity. The present meta-analysis indicated that artificial LSSs reduce mortality in patients with AOCHF, while the use of bioartificial LSSs was
ZHENG, ZHEN; LI, XU; LI, ZHILIANG; MA, XIAOCHUN
Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems (LSSs) appear to be safe and effective in the treatment of acute and acute-on-chronic hepatic failure (AHF and AOCHF); however, individually published studies and previous meta-analyses have revealed inconclusive results. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to derive a more precise estimation of the benefits and disadvantages of artificial and bioartificial LSSs for patients with AHF and AOCHF. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical (CBM) databases for publications prior to March 1, 2013. Crude relative risks (RRs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using either the fixed effects or random effects models. Nineteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included, which comprised a total of 566 patients with AHF and 371 patients with AOCHF. The meta-analysis showed that artificial LSS therapy significantly reduced mortality in patients with AOCHF; however, it had no apparent effect on total mortality in patients with AHF. The results also indicated that the use of bioartificial LSSs was correlated with decreased mortality in patients with AHF. A significant reduction in the bridging to liver transplantation was observed in patients with AOCHF following artificial LSS therapy; however, similar results were not observed in patients with AHF. Patients with AHF and those with AOCHF showed significant reductions in total bilirubin levels following artificial LSS therapy. There were no significantly increased risks of hepatic encephalopathy or bleeding in either the patients with AHF or AOCHF following artificial or bioartificial LSS therapies. Univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses confirmed that none of the factors explained the heterogeneity. The present meta-analysis indicated that artificial LSSs reduce mortality in patients with AOCHF, while the use of bioartificial LSSs was
Zagoura, Dimitra S; Roubelakis, Maria G; Bitsika, Vasiliki; Trohatou, Ourania; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Antsaklis, Aristidis; Anagnou, Nicholas P
There is increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), especially in diseases such as acute hepatic failure (AHF) that are predominantly caused by a variety of drugs and viruses. In previous studies, a distinct population termed human spindle-shaped MSCs were isolated and expanded from second trimester amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) and characterised based on their phenotype, pluripotency and differentiation potential. AF-MSCs, hepatic progenitor-like (HPL) cells and hepatocyte-like (HL) cells derived from AF-MSCs were transplanted into CCl₄-injured NOD/SCID mice with the AHF phenotype in order to evaluate their therapeutic potential. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from AF-MSCs or HPL cells was then delivered intrahepatically in order to determine whether the engraftment of the cells or their secreted molecules are the most important agents for liver repair. Both HPL cells and AF-MSCs were incorporated into CCl(4)-injured livers; HPL cell transplantation had a greater therapeutic effect. In contrast, HL cells failed to engraft and contribute to recovery. In addition, HPL-CM was found to be more efficient than CM derived from AF-MSCs in treatment of the liver. Proteome profile analysis of HPL-CM indicated the presence of anti-inflammatory factors such as interleukins IL-10, IL-1ra, IL-13 and IL-27 which may induce liver recovery. Blocking studies of IL-10 secretion from HPL cells confirmed the therapeutic significance of this cytokine in the AHF mouse model. Human spindle-shaped AF-MSCs or HPL cells might be valuable tools to induce liver repair and support liver function by cell transplantation. More importantly, the factors they release may also play an important role in cell treatment in diseases of the liver.
Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz
Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223
Lai, Jinglan; Liu, Yuming; Pan, Chen; Lin, Chun; Sun, Fang; Huang, Zuxiong; Lin, Yong; Zhou, Rui; Lin, Yuanbao; Zhou, Yuanping
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory antagonist of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1, a critical factor in many inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IL-1ra in hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HB-ACLF). Serum cytokine concentrations were measured using a Q-Plex array in 31 patients with HB-ACLF, 28 patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB), 31 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 15 healthy control patients (HCs). Additionally, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with HB-ACLF were incubated with PBS or lipopolysaccharide and/or different concentrations of recombinant human IL-1ra (rhIL-1ra) in vitro. Cytokines in the supernatant were measured using a Q-Plex array. The median serum IL-1ra level in patients with HB-ACLF was 186.46 (350.22) pg/ml, which was significantly higher than all other groups (AHB, P=0.012; CHB, P<0.001; HCs, P<0.001). However, the ratio of IL-1ra/IL-1β was significantly lower in the HB-ACLF group compared with the AHB group (P=0.048). Median serum IL-1ra levels in patients with AHB were also significantly increased compared with those in the CHB (P<0.001) and HC (P<0.001) groups. Patients who succumbed to mortality within 3 months of the study were found to have significantly lower IL-1ra concentrations (P=0.02) and IL-1ra/IL-1β ratios (P=0.007) compared with surviving patients with HB-ACLF. Furthermore, serum IL-1ra concentrations were negatively associated with the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score (r=−0.870; P<0.001). Cytokine secretion by PBMCs in vitro was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by rhIL-1ra (125–500 ng/ml; all P<0.05). These results suggest that IL-1ra is associated with the development of liver inflammation, which is reduced in patients with HB-ACLF and inversely associated with disease severity. PMID:28587352
Papavasileiou, V; Milionis, H; Cordier, M; Eskandari, A; Ntaios, G; Michel, P
To highlight meningoencephalitis as a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) mimic and suggest clinical clues for differential diagnosis. This was an observational study of consecutively admitted patients over a 9.75-year period presenting as TIAs at a stroke unit. A total of 790 patients with TIAs and seven with TIA-like symptoms but a final diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis were recognised. The most frequent presentations of meningoencephalitis patients were acute sensory hemisyndrome (6) and cognitive deficits (5). Signs of meningeal irritation were minor or absent on presentation. Predominantly lymphocytic pleocytosis, hyperproteinorachia and a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum glucose index (in 5 out of 6 documented patients) were present. Meningeal thickening on a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was the only abnormal imaging finding. Six patients received initial vascular treatment; one thrombolysed. Finally, six patients were treated with antivirals and/or antibiotics. Although neither bacterial nor viral agents were identified on extensive testing, viral meningoencephalitis was the best explanation for all clinical and laboratory findings. Aseptic meningoencephalitis should be part of the differential diagnosis in patients presenting as TIA. The threshold for a lumbar puncture in such patients should be set individually and take into account the presence of mild meningeal symptoms, age and other risk factors for vascular disease, the results of brain imaging and the basic diagnostic work-up for a stroke source.
Examples of single gene disorders have been described for all major subtypes of ischaemic stroke: accelerated atherosclerosis and subsequent thrombo-embolism (e.g. homocysteinuria), weakening of connective tissue resulting in arterial dissections (e.g. Ehler-Danlos type IV), disorders of cerebral small vessels (e.g. cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy and the collagen COL4A1 mutation), disorders increasing the thrombogenic potential of the heart through affecting the myocardium or the heart valves or through disturbance of the heart rhythm (e.g. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), mitochondrial cytopathies increasing cerebral tissue susceptibility to insults (e.g. mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes), and finally disorders of coagulation that can either directly cause stroke or act synergistically with the aforementioned abnormalities (e.g. sickle cell disease). Most of these disorders are rare but they are important to consider particularly in young patients with stroke, those with a family history or those who have other characteristics of a particular syndrome.
Schmedt Auf der Günne, Wenke; Zhao, Yi; Hedderich, Jürgen; Gohlke, Peter; Culman, Juraj
Omapatrilat (OMA), which simultaneously inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin (NEP)), is widely used in experimental protocols related to hypertension and heart failure. The penetration of OMA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the effects of ACE/NEP inhibition on the recovery from ischaemic stroke have not yet been investigated. Angiotensin (Ang) I injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) or intravenously (IV) is converted to Ang II by ACE and induces an immediate increase in blood pressure. The pressor responses to OMA administered ICV, orally or IV were studied in male Wistar rats instrumented with an ICV and arterial and venous catheters. OMA infused ICV rapidly appeared in the systemic circulation and more effectively attenuated the systemic than the central pressor responses to Ang I. OMA administered orally (5, 25, 100 μmol/kg body weight) or IV (0.5, 1, 5, 25 μmol/kg body weight) completely abolished increases in blood pressure to IV Ang I up to 2 h after treatment. The pressor responses to ICV Ang I were not altered, indicating that systemically administered OMA does not cross the BBB. To study the effects of ACE and NEP inhibition in the brain on the recovery from ischaemic stroke, OMA was infused ICV over a 5-day period before and 24 h after the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90 min. ICV application of OMA had no effect on infarction volume and marginally improved neurological outcome. We demonstrate for the first time that simultaneous inhibition of ACE and NEP in the brain tissue does not alter the recovery from ischaemic stroke.
Cento, Valeria; Tontodonati, Monica; Di Maio, Velia Chiara; Bellocchi, Maria Concetta; Valenti, Fabrizio; Manunta, Alessandra; Fortuna, Serena; Armenia, Daniele; Carioti, Luca; Antonucci, Francesco Paolo; Bertoli, Ada; Trave, Francesca; Cacciatore, Pierluigi; Angelico, Mario; Navarra, Pierluigi; Neumann, Avidan U; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Parruti, Giustino; Babudieri, Sergio; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca
The used first generation protease inhibitors may be hampered by virological failure in partially interferon-sensitive patients. To investigate early hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA decay and quasispecies modifications, and disclose viral dynamics underlying failure. Viraemia decay at early time-points during telaprevir treatment was modelled according to Neumann et al. (1998). NS3-sequences were obtained by population-sequencing and ultradeep-454-pyrosequencing. 13 treatment-experienced (8 non-responders, 5 relapsers), and two cirrhotic naïve patients, received telaprevir+pegylated-interferon-α+ribavirin. Viraemia decay was biphasic. In all patients, first-phase was rapid and consistent, with a median [interquartile-range] viraemia decay of 2.8 [2.6-3.2]logIU/ml within 48h. Second-phase decay was slower, especially in failing patients: 3/3 showed <1logIU/ml decay between 48h and 2 weeks, and HCV-RNA >100IU/ml at week 2. Only one patient experiencing sustained viral response showed similar kinetics. By pyrosequencing, mutational freeze was observed in all 15 patients within the first 24h, but only in patients with sustained response afterwards. Indeed, 2/2 failing patients showed early resistance, as minor (V36A-T54A: prevalence <26% at 48h) or major (V36M/A-R155K: prevalence, 99.8% at week 2) variants. Following telaprevir administration, first-phase HCV-RNA decay is consistent with mutational freeze and limited/no viral replication, while second-phase is significantly slower in failing patients (with appearance of resistance), suggesting the usefulness of early HCV-RNA monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ovesen, Christian; Abild, Annemette; Christensen, Anders Fogh; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Hansen, Christine Krarup; Havsteen, Inger; Nielsen, Jens Kellberg; Christensen, Hanne
Objectives We investigated the prevalence and long-term risk associated with intracranial atherosclerosis identified during routine evaluation. Design This study presents data from a prospective cohort of patients admitted to our stroke unit for thrombolysis evaluation. Setting and participants We included 652 with a final diagnosis of ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) from April 2009 to December 2011. All patients were acutely evaluated with cerebral CT and CT angiography (CTA). Acute radiological examinations were screened for intracranial arterial stenosis (IAS) or intracranial arterial calcifications (IAC). Intracranial stenosis was grouped into 30–50%, 50–70% and >70% lumen reduction. The extent of IAC was graded as number of vessels affected. Primary and secondary outcome measure Patients were followed until July 2013. Recurrence of an ischaemic event (stroke, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and TIA) was documented through the national chart system. Poor outcome was defined as death or recurrence of ischaemic event. Results 101 (15.5%) patients showed IAS (70: 30–50%, 29: 50–70% and 16: >70%). Two-hundred and fifteen (33%) patients had no IAC, 339 (52%) in 1–2 vessels and 102 (16%) in >2 vessels. During follow-up, 53 strokes, 20 TIA and 14 IHD occurred, and 95 patients died. The risk of poor outcome was significantly different among different extents of IAS as well as IAC (log-rank test p<0.01 for both). In unadjusted analysis IAS and IAC predicted poor outcome and recurrent ischaemic event. When adjusted, IAS and IAC independently increased the risk of a recurrent ischaemic event (IAS: HR 1.67; CI 1.04 to 2.64 and IAC: HR 1.22; CI 1.02 to 1.47). Conclusions Intracranial atherosclerosis detected during acute evaluation predicts an increased risk of recurrent stroke. PMID:24148214
Shi, Dan; Xie, Duanyang; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Hong; Huang, Jian; Li, Changming; Liu, Yi; Lv, Fei; The, Erlinda; Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Tianyou; Wang, Shiyi; Chen, Jinjin; Pan, Lei; Yu, Zuoren; Liang, Dandan; Zhu, Weidong; Zhang, Yuzhen; Li, Li; Peng, Luying; Li, Jun; Chen, Yi-Han
Ischaemic cardiac arrhythmias cause a large proportion of sudden cardiac deaths worldwide. The ischaemic arrhythmogenesis is primarily because of the dysfunction and adverse remodelling of sarcolemma ion channels. However, the potential regulators of sarcolemma ion channel turnover and function in ischaemic cardiac arrhythmias remains unknown. Our previous studies indicate that dynamin-2 (DNM2), a cardiac membrane-remodelling GTPase, modulates ion channels membrane trafficking in the cardiomyocytes. Here, we have found that DNM2 plays an important role in acute ischaemic arrhythmias. In rat ventricular tissues and primary cardiomyocytes subjected to acute ischaemic stress, the DNM2 protein and transcription levels were markedly down-regulated. This DNM2 reduction was coupled with severe ventricular arrhythmias. Moreover, we identified that the down-regulation of DNM2 within cardiomyocytes increases the action potential amplitude and prolongs the re-polarization duration by depressing the retrograde trafficking of Nav1.5 and Kir2.1 channels. These effects are likely to account for the DNM2 defect-induced arrhythmogenic potentials. These results suggest that DNM2, with its multi-ion channel targeting properties, could be a promising target for novel antiarrhythmic therapies.
Shi, Dan; Xie, Duanyang; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Hong; Huang, Jian; Li, Changming; Liu, Yi; Lv, Fei; The, Erlinda; Liu, Yuan; Yuan, Tianyou; Wang, Shiyi; Chen, Jinjin; Pan, Lei; Yu, Zuoren; Liang, Dandan; Zhu, Weidong; Zhang, Yuzhen; Li, Li; Peng, Luying; Li, Jun; Chen, Yi-Han
Ischaemic cardiac arrhythmias cause a large proportion of sudden cardiac deaths worldwide. The ischaemic arrhythmogenesis is primarily because of the dysfunction and adverse remodelling of sarcolemma ion channels. However, the potential regulators of sarcolemma ion channel turnover and function in ischaemic cardiac arrhythmias remains unknown. Our previous studies indicate that dynamin-2 (DNM2), a cardiac membrane-remodelling GTPase, modulates ion channels membrane trafficking in the cardiomyocytes. Here, we have found that DNM2 plays an important role in acute ischaemic arrhythmias. In rat ventricular tissues and primary cardiomyocytes subjected to acute ischaemic stress, the DNM2 protein and transcription levels were markedly down-regulated. This DNM2 reduction was coupled with severe ventricular arrhythmias. Moreover, we identified that the down-regulation of DNM2 within cardiomyocytes increases the action potential amplitude and prolongs the re-polarization duration by depressing the retrograde trafficking of Nav1.5 and Kir2.1 channels. These effects are likely to account for the DNM2 defect-induced arrhythmogenic potentials. These results suggest that DNM2, with its multi-ion channel targeting properties, could be a promising target for novel antiarrhythmic therapies. PMID:25092467
Salman, Ibrahim M; Ameer, Omar Z; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdullah, Nor A; Yam, Mun F; Najim, Hafsa S; Khan, Abdul Hye; Johns, Edward J
We investigated the role of renal sympathetic innervation in the deterioration of renal haemodynamic and excretory functions during the early post-ischaemic phase of renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral renal ischaemia by clamping the left renal artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion. Following acute renal denervation clearance experiments were performed. In a different set of experiments, the renal nerves were electrically stimulated at increasing frequencies and responses in renal blood flow and renal vascular resistance were recorded. Denervated post-ischaemic acute renal failure (ARF) rats showed higher urine flow rate, absolute and fractional sodium excretions, urinary sodium to urinary potassium, glomerular filtration rate and basal renal blood flow but lower basal renal vascular resistance (all p < 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats). Potassium excretion was significantly lower in denervated group as per fractional (p < 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats) but not absolute potassium excretion (p > 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats). The rise in mean arterial pressure and renal vasoconstrictor response to renal nerve stimulation were blunted in denervated ischaemic ARF rats (all p < 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats). Renal histopathology in denervated ARF rats manifested a significantly lower medullary congestion, inflammation and tubular injury compared to innervated counterparts (p < 0.05 vs innervated ARF rats). The findings strongly suggest the involvement of renal sympathetic tone in the post-ischaemic events of ischaemic ARF, as the removal of its action to a degree ameliorated the post-ischaemic renal dysfunctions.
Ma, Li; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Chen, Rongchun; Wan, Jingyuan
Sesamin has been described to exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In present study, we investigated the potential effects and mechanisms of sesamin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in d-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice. Our results showed that pretreatment with sesamin dose-dependently improved LPS/D-GalN-induced mortality and liver injury as indicated by reduced serum levels of aminotransferases and alleviated pathological damage as well as hepatocyte apoptosis in mice. Additionally, sesamin markedly attenuated LPS/D-GalN-induced adhesion molecules expression, and decreased neutrophils recruitment. Furthermore, sesamin inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and NF-κB activation, and Toll like receptor (TLR) 4 expression in mice and in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that sesamin protects mice from LPS-induced FHF and the molecular mechanisms may down-regulate the expression of TLR4, block MAPK and NF-κB activation, decrease the production of TNF-α.
Kim, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kang, Sam Sik; Bae, Kihwan; Hung, Tran Manh; Lee, Sun-Mee
This study examined the effects of gomisin A, a lignan compound from Schisandra fructus, on D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic apoptosis and liver failure. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of GalN (700 mg/kg) / LPS (10 microg/kg). Gomisin A (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before the GalN/LPS injection. The liver injury was assessed biochemically and histologically. GalN/LPS increased the serum aminotransferase levels and lipid peroxidation but decreased the reduced glutathione level. The pretreatment with gomisin A attenuated these changes in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rate of the gomisin A group was significantly higher than that of the control. The mitochondria isolated after the mice had been injected with GalN/LPS were swollen, which was attenuated by the gomisin A pretreatment. The elevation of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and activation of caspase-3 were observed in the GalN/LPS group, which was attenuated by gomisin A. The gomisin A-pretreated groups showed significantly fewer apoptotic (TUNEL-positive) cells and DNA fragmentation as compared with the GalN/LPS mice. The liver protection afforded by gomisin A is the result of the reduced oxidative stress and its anti-apoptotic activity.
Chronic active hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infection, drug ingestion, metabolic or autoimmune disorders. Necrosis (death) of liver cells, inflammation and fibrosis may lead to liver failure. Death within 5 years of onset occurs in ...
Gariballa, S; Ullegaddi, R
There is experimental evidence that riboflavin (vitamin B2) supplementation reduces oxidative damage and cerebral oedema following acute stroke. To measure riboflavin levels in acute stroke before and after supplementation with this vitamin. Ninety-six acute ischaemic stroke patients had their riboflavin status measured at baseline and then randomly assigned to receive 5 mg of oral riboflavin and other B-group vitamins within 12 h of the stroke onset and then daily or no B-vitamins for 14 days. Non-fasting venous blood was obtained at baseline, days 7 and 14 post-randomization for measurement of riboflavin status using erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC). EGRAC is a measure of riboflavin tissue saturation. This assay has the advantage of being extremely stable and sensitive. EGRAC values are inversely proportional to riboflavin status, so that values greater than 1.3 indicate biochemical deficiency. Fifty-one per cent of patients studied were riboflavin deficient at baseline. Fourteen days of riboflavin supplementation significantly improved the measure of B2 status compared with the control group. Seven out of 37 patients in the supplement group (19%) were riboflavin deficient compared with 22 out of 39 patients (56%) in the control group at the end of the treatment period (P=0.035 for the differences in cumulative changes between groups over 2 weeks). A high proportion of acute stroke patients were biochemically deficient of riboflavin immediately post-infarct. Supplementation with 5 mg of riboflavin for 2 weeks significantly improved riboflavin status; however, the clinical significance of these findings is not yet known.
Brown, M D; Davies, M K; Hudlicka, O
Angiogenesis and improved left ventricular function as a consequence of long-term bradycardia were first demonstrated in normal hearts, either electrically paced (rabbits, pigs) or treated with a selective sinus blocking drug alinidine (rats). Here we review the evidence that chronic heart rate reduction can have similar effects in the heart with compromised vascular supply, due to either hypertensive or haemodynamic overload hypertrophy (rats, rabbits) or ischaemic damage (rats, rabbits, pigs). Bradycardia induced over several weeks increased capillarity in all hypertrophied hearts, and in border and remote left ventricular myocardium of infarcted hearts. In some, but not all cases, coronary blood flow was improved by heart rate reduction, suggesting enlargement of the resistance vasculature in some circumstances. Cardiac or left ventricular function indices, which were depressed by hypertrophy or ischaemic damage, were preserved or even enhanced by chronic heart rate reduction. The expansion of the capillary bed in the vascularly compromised heart induced by bradycardia may be stimulated by mechanical stretch of the endothelium and/or VEGF activated by chamber dilation and myocyte stretch. The increased number of capillaries and more homogeneous distribution of capillary perfusion would support the better pump function, even in the absence of higher coronary flow. The beneficial impact of chronic heart rate reduction on myocardial angiogenesis and function in cardiac hypertrophy and infarction may be major factor in the success of beta-blockers in treatment of human heart failure.
Harky, Amer; Balmforth, Damian; Goli, Giridhara; Wong, Kit
Ischaemic optic neuropathy is a rare but serious complication post cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery patients. It presents with visual loss either unilaterally or bilaterally, and it can be anterior or posterior in type depending on the segment of the optic nerve involved. In non-ocular surgery patients, the most common type is called non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy. We report a case of bilateral non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy following coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve surgeries and review the published literature for the aetiology, management and prognosis of this rare complication. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Martínez-Biarge, M; Blanco, D; García-Alix, A; Salas, S
Hypothermia treatment for newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy reduces the number of neonates who die or have permanent neurological deficits. Although this therapy is now standard of care, neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy still has a significant impact on the child's neurodevelopment and quality of life. Infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy should be enrolled in multidisciplinary follow-up programs in order to detect impairments, to initiate early intervention, and to provide counselling and support for families. This article describes the main neurodevelopmental outcomes after term neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. We offer recommendations for follow-up based on the infant's clinical condition and other prognostic indicators, mainly neonatal neuroimaging. Other aspects, such as palliative care and medico-legal issues, are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Wader, Jyotsna; Gajbi, Neha; Kumbhar, Sujata
We are reporting a case of ischaemic fasciitis which occurred in a 55-year-old female with no debilitating or long bed ridden history. She presented with a large swelling over left gluteal region. On evaluation, swelling was found to be of size, 5x5 cm, slightly tender and with induration. The operative findings led to a probable diagnosis of a calcified lesion, due to its hard consistency. However, the microscopic picture was typical of ischaemic fasciitis, because of its characteristic central necrosis, vascular and atypical fibroblastic proliferations. Also seen was presence of foreign body giant cell reactions, inflammatory cells and extravasated RBCs. Ischaemic fasciitis is a very rare pseudo sarcomatous proliferation of atypical fibroblasts, which has been described to be located over bony protuberances and said to develop most often in immobile elderly or debilitated patients. Recognition of this distinct entity as a reactive process, mostly associated with debilitation is rare in occurrence.
Slivka, A; Levy, D E; Lapinski, R H
Intravenous heparin is frequently used to treat thromboembolic disease, but the consequences of stopping heparin have not been studied systematically. To determine whether discontinuing heparin poses a clinical risk, we examined the charts of 378 patients treated with heparin for transient ischaemic attack (TIA), reversible ischaemic neurological deficit, or ischaemic stroke from October 1979 to June 1985. Clinical deterioration, or a new TIA or stroke was more likely (p = 0.01) during the 24 hours after heparin was stopped in patients not already on aspirin or warfarin (10/143, 7%) than in patients receiving aspirin or warfarin before heparin withdrawal (3/215, 1%). Stopping heparin in patients not receiving aspirin or warfarin appears to expose them to an increased risk for TIA, stroke, or clinical deterioration. PMID:2614427
Lotfinia, Majid; Kadivar, Mehdi; Piryaei, Abbas; Pournasr, Behshad; Sardari, Soroush; Sodeifi, Niloofar; Sayahpour, Forugh-Azam; Baharvand, Hossein
Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show tremendous promise for a wide array of therapeutic applications predominantly through paracrine activity. Recent reports showed that human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived MSCs are an alternative for regenerative cellular therapy due to manufacturing large quantities of MSCs from a single donor. However, no study has been reported to uncover the secretome of human ESC-MSCs as treatment of an acute liver failure (ALF) mouse model. We demonstrated that human ESC-MSCs showed similar morphology and cell surface markers compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs. ESC-MSCs exhibited a higher growth rate during early in vitro expansion, along with adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. Treatment with ESC-MSC-conditioned medium (CM) led to statistically significant enhancement of primary hepatocyte viability and increased immunomodulatory interleukin-10 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-induced human blood mononuclear cells. Analysis of the MSCs secretome by a protein array screen showed an association between higher frequencies of secretory proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and regulation of cell proliferation, cell migration, the development process, immune system process, and apoptosis. In this thioacetamide-induced mouse model of acute liver injury, we observed that systemic infusion of VEGF led to significant survival. These data have provided the first experimental evidence of the therapeutic potential of human ESC-MSC-derived molecules. These molecules show trophic support to hepatocytes, which potentially creates new avenues for the treatment of ALF, as an inflammatory condition.
Power, Albert; Moser, Steven; Duncan, Neill
Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity in survivors. Early thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke has been shown to dramatically improve patient outcomes. Although the age-adjusted incidence of stroke is 5-10 times greater in haemodialysis patients, the use of thrombolysis for this indication in this group of patients has not been described to date. We present a case where alteplase was used successfully for acute ischaemic stroke in a patient established on maintenance haemodialysis in the setting of an international randomized controlled trial and advocate caution with the use of systemic thrombolytics despite the favourable outcome seen with this case.
Labal, S.E.; Pola, J.L.; Seeber, A. Martinez; Taquini, A.C.
The re-establishment of blood flow to an ischaemic kidney produced an elevation of blood pressure in the rat. This response did not occur in animals with a pithed spinal cord or in rats with low blood pressure produced by haemorrhage. When the blood pressure was raised in rats with pithed spinal cords, by the intravenous infusion of noradrenaline, the response was restored. Occlusion of the subclavian arteries did not prevent the response. It is considered that the increase in blood pressure, produced by renin release, after re-establishment of the blood flow in an ischaemic kidney is a 'washout' phenomenon independent of the integrity of the nervous system. PMID:4447861
Defterevos, Georgios; Nastos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Margelos, Vassileios; Fragulidis, George; Pafiti, Agathi; Mikrovas, Aggeliki; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos
Artificial liver support gained considerable interest in recent years due to the development of various albumin dialysis systems, which prolong survival of some patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Τhis study aims to examine the role of peritoneal albumin dialysis in a postoperative ALF model. ALF was induced in 14 female Landrace pigs by a combination of major liver resection (70-75% of total parenchyma) and ischemic-reperfusion injury on the liver remnant. Animals were randomly divided in two groups (n = 7 each). Both were monitored for 12 h of reperfusion and received peritoneal dialysis for 6 h, beginning 6 h after reperfusion. The albumin group received an albumin-rich solution and the control group received albumin-free solution. The control group gradually developed intracranial hypertension, whereas, in the albumin group, rise in the intracranial pressure was substantially attenuated (P < 0.01, t = 12 h). Albumin-treated animals had significantly lower levels of ammonia (P < 0.01), total bile acids (P < 0.01), free fatty acids (P < 0.05), lactate (P < 0.01), and total bilirubin (P < 0.05). Liver malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl were significantly reduced (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001 at t = 12 h) after albumin dialysis. Results suggest that this method may become a useful adjunct in the management of ALF, thus, justifying further study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.
Díaz, Juan J; Gura, Kathleen M.; Roda, Juliamna; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Duggan, Christopher; Jaksic, Tom; Lo, Clifford W.
Patients with Intestinal failure (IF) require parenteral nutrition (PN) support to obtain enough nutrients to sustain growth. long-term PN use is associated with significant liver damage. Objective To analyze the utility of a non-invasive test, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), in the diagnosis of liver disease in pediatric patients with IF. Methods Medical records of all Boston Children’s Hospital patients who received PN and underwent a liver biopsy from January 2006 until November 2010 were reviewed. Patients with a clinical diagnosis with IF were selected. APRI was calculated as follows (AST (U/L)/ upper normal limit) × 100/ platelets (109/L). Presence of fibrosis and cirrhosis was estimated using the METAVIR score in liver biopsies. Results 62 liver biopsies from 48 patients (22 female) were studied. Mean APRI values in the different METAVIR categories (0-1; 2-3; 4) were: 1.80, 1.17, and 4.24 respectively (ANOVA; P=0.053; Bonferroni test for cirrhosis versus fibrosis P=0.048). APRI could significantly predict cirrhosis (OR 1.2.; 95% CI 1.001-1.43) but not significant fibrosis (METAVIR 2-3, OR 1.00; 95% CI =0.86-1.18). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for cirrhosis was 0.67 (95% CI= 0.45-0.89; p=0.13). Conclusion APRI, a non invasive, easy to obtain bedside test significantly predicts cirrhosis but not fibrosis in pediatric patients with IFALD. As the clinicians need a non invasive test to differentiate among different stages of liver fibrosis rather than differentiating cirrhosis from normal, we cannot recommend the use of this test in pediatric patients with IFALD for this purpose. PMID:23666459
Wu, Sheng-Jie; Yan, Hua-Dong; Zheng, Zai-Xing; Shi, Ke-Qing; Wu, Fa-Ling; Xie, Yao-Yao; Fan, Yu-Chen; Ye, Bo-Zhi; Huang, Wei-Jian; Chen, Yong-Ping; Zheng, Ming-Hua
Abstract Currently, there are no robust models for predicting the outcome of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). We aimed to establish and validate a new prognostic scoring system, named ALPH-Q, that integrates electrocardiography parameters that may be used to predict short-term mortality of patients with ACHBLF. Two hundred fourteen patients were included in this study. The APLH-Q score was constructed by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and was validated in an independent patient cohort. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to compare the performance of different models, including APLH-Q, Child–Pugh score (CPS), model of end-stage liver disease (MELD), and a previously reported logistic regression model (LRM). The APLH-Q score was constructed with 5 independent risk factors, including age (HR = 1.034, 95% CI: 1.007–1.061), liver cirrhosis (HR = 2.753, 95% CI: 1.366–5.548), prothrombin time (HR = 1.031, 95% CI: 1.002–1.062), hepatic encephalopathy (HR = 2.703, 95% CI: 1.630–4.480), and QTc (HR = 1.008, 95% CI: 1.001–1.016). The performance of the ALPH-Q score was significantly better than that of MELD and CPS in both the training (0.896 vs 0.712, 0.896 vs 0.738, respectively, both P < 0.05) and validation cohorts (0.837 vs 0.689, 0.837 vs 0.585, respectively, both P < 0.05). Compared with LRM, APLH-Q also showed a better performance (0.896 vs 0.825, 0.837 vs 0.818, respectively). We have developed a novel APLH-Q score with greater performance than CPS, MELD, and LRM for predicting short-term mortality of patients with ACHBLF. PMID:25590846
Zheng, Su-Jun; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Mei; McCrae, Malcolm A; Li, Jun-Feng; Han, Yuan-Ping; Xu, Chun-Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhong-Ping
AIM: To determine the prognostic value of circulating indicators of cell death in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as the single etiology. METHODS: Full length and caspase cleaved cytokeratin 18 (detected as M65 and M30 antigens) represent circulating indicators of necrosis and apoptosis. M65 and M30 were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 169 subjects including healthy controls (n = 33), patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 55) and patients with ACLF (n = 81). According to the 3-mo survival period, ACLF patients were defined as having spontaneous recovery (n = 33) and non-spontaneous recovery which included deceased patients and those who required liver transplantation (n = 48). RESULTS: Both biomarker levels significantly increased gradually as liver disease progressed (for M65: P < 0.001 for all; for M30: control vs CHB, P = 0.072; others: P < 0.001 for all). In contrast, the M30/M65 ratio was significantly higher in controls compared with CHB patients (P = 0.010) or ACLF patients (P < 0.001). In addition, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis demonstrated that both biomarkers had diagnostic value (AUC ≥ 0.80) in identifying ACLF from CHB patients. Interestingly, it is worth noting that the M30/M65 ratio was significantly different between spontaneous and non-spontaneous recovery in ACLF patients (P = 0.032). The prognostic value of the M30/M65 ratio was compared with the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Child-Pugh scores at the 3-mo survival period, the AUC of the M30/M65 ratio was 0.66 with a sensitivity of 52.9% and the highest specificity of 92.6% (MELD:AUC = 0.71; sensitivity, 79.4%; specificity, 63.0%; Child-Pugh: AUC = 0.77; sensitivity, 61.8%; specificity, 88.9%). CONCLUSION: M65 and M30 are strongly associated with liver disease severity. The M30/M65 ratio may be a potential prognostic marker for spontaneous recovery in
Zheng, Su-Jun; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Mei; McCrae, Malcolm A; Li, Jun-Feng; Han, Yuan-Ping; Xu, Chun-Hui; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhong-Ping
To determine the prognostic value of circulating indicators of cell death in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as the single etiology. Full length and caspase cleaved cytokeratin 18 (detected as M65 and M30 antigens) represent circulating indicators of necrosis and apoptosis. M65 and M30 were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 169 subjects including healthy controls (n = 33), patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 55) and patients with ACLF (n = 81). According to the 3-mo survival period, ACLF patients were defined as having spontaneous recovery (n = 33) and non-spontaneous recovery which included deceased patients and those who required liver transplantation (n = 48). Both biomarker levels significantly increased gradually as liver disease progressed (for M65: P < 0.001 for all; for M30: control vs CHB, P = 0.072; others: P < 0.001 for all). In contrast, the M30/M65 ratio was significantly higher in controls compared with CHB patients (P = 0.010) or ACLF patients (P < 0.001). In addition, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis demonstrated that both biomarkers had diagnostic value (AUC ≥ 0.80) in identifying ACLF from CHB patients. Interestingly, it is worth noting that the M30/M65 ratio was significantly different between spontaneous and non-spontaneous recovery in ACLF patients (P = 0.032). The prognostic value of the M30/M65 ratio was compared with the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Child-Pugh scores at the 3-mo survival period, the AUC of the M30/M65 ratio was 0.66 with a sensitivity of 52.9% and the highest specificity of 92.6% (MELD:AUC = 0.71; sensitivity, 79.4%; specificity, 63.0%; Child-Pugh: AUC = 0.77; sensitivity, 61.8%; specificity, 88.9%). M65 and M30 are strongly associated with liver disease severity. The M30/M65 ratio may be a potential prognostic marker for spontaneous recovery in patients with HBV-related ACLF.
Renoux, Christel; Dell'Aniello, Sophie; Saarela, Olli; Filion, Kristian B; Boivin, Jean-François
Objectives Hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increase serum lipid levels and other atherogenic markers via the induction of cytochrome P450 and may therefore increase the risk of vascular events. We sought to assess the risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) according to AED enzymatic properties. Design Population-based cohort study with nested case–control analysis. Setting 650 general practices in the UK contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants A cohort of 252 407 incident AED users aged 18 or older between January 1990 and April 2013. For each case of ischaemic stroke or MI, up to 10 controls were randomly selected among the cohort members in the risk sets defined by the case and matched on age, sex, indication for AED, calendar time and duration of follow-up. Interventions Current use of enzyme-inducing and enzyme-inhibiting AEDs compared with non-inducing AEDs. Primary outcome measures Incidence rate ratios (RRs) of ischaemic stroke and MI. Results 5069 strokes and 3636 MIs were identified during follow-up. Inducing AEDs use was associated with a small increased risk of ischaemic stroke (RR=1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33) relative to non-inducing AEDs, most likely due to residual confounding. However, current use of inducing AEDs for ≥24 months was associated with a 46% increased risk of MI (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.85) compared with the same duration of non-inducing AED, corresponding to a risk difference of 1.39/1000 (95% CI 0.33 to 2.45) persons per year. Current use of inhibiting AED was associated with a decreased risk of MI (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.00). Conclusions The use of enzyme-inducing AEDs was not associated with an increased risk of ischaemic stroke; a small increase of MI with prolonged use was observed. In contrast, use of inhibiting AEDs was associated with a decreased risk of MI. PMID:26270948
Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is a contagious viral infection that can easily affect children and adults. It is one of the most common types of hepatitis virus. Often when you hear about hepatitis A ...
Ren, F; Shi, H; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Wen, T; Xie, B; Zheng, S; Chen, Y; Li, L; Chen, D; Duan, Z
Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is critical in various liver diseases, its role in acute-on-chronic liver failure (AoCLF) caused by acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is still elusive. This study aimed to analyse ER stress responses in the progression of HBV-related AoCLF. Normal liver tissues (n = 10), liver tissues of CHB (n = 12) and HBV-related patients with AoCLF (n = 19) were used. Electron microscopy of the ultrastructure of the ER was carried out on liver specimens. The gene and protein expression levels of ER stress-related genes were measured. We further analysed the correlation between the expression levels of ER stress-related molecules and liver injury. Electron microscopy identified typical features of the ER microstructure in AoCLF subjects. Among the three pathways of unfolded protein responses, the PKR-like ER kinase and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 signalling pathway were activated in CHB subjects and inactivated in AoCLF subjects, while the activating transcription factor 6 signalling pathway was sustained in the activated form during the progression of AoCLF; the expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp)78 and Grp94 was gradually decreased in AoCLF subjects compared to healthy individuals and CHB subjects, showing a negative correlation with serum ALT, AST and TBIL; moreover, the ER stress-related apoptosis molecules were activated in the progression of acute exacerbation of CHB. The dysregulated ER stress response may play a complicated role in the pathogenesis of AoCLF, and a severe ER stress response may predict the occurrence of AoCLF caused by acute exacerbation of CHB.
Duan, Xue-Zhang; Liu, Fang-Fang; Tong, Jing-Jing; Yang, Hao-Zhen; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Mao, Yuan-Li; Xin, Shao-Jie; Hu, Jin-Hua
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODS: Fifty-five patients with HBV-associated ACLF were randomized into two groups: the treatment group and the control group. Twenty-seven patients in the treatment group received G-CSF (5 μg/kg per day, six doses) treatment plus standard therapy, and 28 patients in the control group received standard therapy only. The peripheral CD34+ cell count was measured consecutively by flow cytometry. Circulating white blood cell count, biochemical parameters, and other clinical data of these patients were recorded and analyzed. All patients were followed up for a period of 3 mo to evaluate the changes in liver function and survival rate. RESULTS: The peripheral neutrophil and CD34+ cell counts in the G-CSF group increased on day 3 from the onset of therapy, continued to rise on day 7, and remained elevated on day 15 compared to those of the control group. Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of patients in the treatment group was improved on day 30 from the onset of G-CSF therapy, compared to that in the controls (P = 0.041). Model for End-Stage of Liver Disease score of patients in the treatment group was improved on day 7 (P = 0.004) and remained high on day 30 from the onset of G-CSF therapy (P < 0.001) compared to that in controls. After 3 mo of follow-up observation, the survival rate in the treatment group (48.1%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (21.4%) (P = 0.0181). CONCLUSION: G-CSF therapy promoted CD34+ cell mobilization in patients with HBV-associated ACLF, and improved the liver function and the survival rate of these patients. PMID:23467275
Duan, Xue-Zhang; Liu, Fang-Fang; Tong, Jing-Jing; Yang, Hao-Zhen; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Mao, Yuan-Li; Xin, Shao-Jie; Hu, Jin-Hua
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Fifty-five patients with HBV-associated ACLF were randomized into two groups: the treatment group and the control group. Twenty-seven patients in the treatment group received G-CSF (5 μg/kg per day, six doses) treatment plus standard therapy, and 28 patients in the control group received standard therapy only. The peripheral CD34(+) cell count was measured consecutively by flow cytometry. Circulating white blood cell count, biochemical parameters, and other clinical data of these patients were recorded and analyzed. All patients were followed up for a period of 3 mo to evaluate the changes in liver function and survival rate. The peripheral neutrophil and CD34(+) cell counts in the G-CSF group increased on day 3 from the onset of therapy, continued to rise on day 7, and remained elevated on day 15 compared to those of the control group. Child-Turcotte-Pugh score of patients in the treatment group was improved on day 30 from the onset of G-CSF therapy, compared to that in the controls (P = 0.041). Model for End-Stage of Liver Disease score of patients in the treatment group was improved on day 7 (P = 0.004) and remained high on day 30 from the onset of G-CSF therapy (P < 0.001) compared to that in controls. After 3 mo of follow-up observation, the survival rate in the treatment group (48.1%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (21.4%) (P = 0.0181). G-CSF therapy promoted CD34(+) cell mobilization in patients with HBV-associated ACLF, and improved the liver function and the survival rate of these patients.
Chen, En-Qiang; Wang, Meng-Lan; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Shi, Ying; Wu, Do-Bo; Yan, Li-Bo; Du, Ling-Yao; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Tang, Hong
Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a life-threatening condition, and the lipid metabolism disorder is common in the development of this disease. This prospective observational study aimed to define the characteristics of plasma apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) in long-term outcome prediction of HBV-ACLF, and a total of 330 HBV-ACLF patients were included and followed for more than 12 months. In this cohort, the 4-week, 12-week, 24-week and 48-week cumulative mortality of HBV-ACLF was 18.2%(60/330), 50.9%(168/330), 59.7%(197/330) and 63.3%(209/330), respectively. As compared to survivors, the non-survivors had significantly lower concentrations of plasma apoA-V on admission. Plasma apoA-V concentrations were positively correlated with prothrombin time activity (PTA), and negatively correlated with interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and iMELD scores. Though plasma apoA-V, PTA, total bilirubin(TBil) and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) were all independent factors to predict one-year outcomes of HBV-ACLF, plasma apoA-V had the highest prediction accuracy. And its optimal cutoff value for one-year survival prediction was 480.00 ng/mL, which had a positive predictive value of 84.68% and a negative predictive value of 92.23%. In summary, plasma apoA-V decreases significantly in non-survivors of HBV-ACLF, and it may be regarded as a new predictive marker for the prognosis of patients with HBV-ACLF. PMID:28358016
Zhang, Yingying; Bauersachs, Johann; Langer, Harald F
Elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure (HF) correlate with disease severity and prognosis. Experimental studies have shown activation of immune response mechanisms in the heart to provoke cardiac adverse remodelling and cause left ventricular dysfunction. Consequently, most of the clinical trials targeting elements of the immune response in HF attempted to modulate the inflammatory response. Surprisingly, clinical studies targeting immune effectors were either neutral or even increased pre-specified clinical endpoints, and some studies resulted in worsening of HF. This review discusses immune mediators involved in the pathogenesis and progression of HF and potential therapeutic applications targeting inflammation in HF. Besides more obvious settings featuring immune activation such as inflammatory or ischaemic cardiomyopathy, the relevance of immune activation in acute or chronic HF of other origins, including volume overload or valvular heart disease, is highlighted. Understanding how cell-specific and molecular mechanisms of the immune response interfere with cardiac remodelling in HF may open new avenues to design biomarkers or druggable targets. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.
Shamloul, Reham Mohammed; Aborayah, Ahmed Fathy; Hashad, Assem; Abd-Allah, Foad
We report a case of a 37-year-old man presented with acute stroke and hepatorenal impairment which were associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse over 2 years. Despite the absence of apparent symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at presentation, an AAS-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with multiple thrombi in the left ventricle was attributed to be the underlying cause of his condition. Awareness of the complications of AAS led to the prompt treatment of the initially unrecognised dilated cardiomyopathy, and improved the liver and kidney functions. However, the patient was exposed to a second severe ischaemic event, which led to his death. This unique and complex presentation of AAS complications opens for better recognition and treatment of their potentially fatal effects.
Shamloul, Reham Mohammed; Aborayah, Ahmed Fathy; Hashad, Assem; Abd-Allah, Foad
We report a case of a 37-year-old man presented with acute stroke and hepatorenal impairment which were associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse over 2 years. Despite the absence of apparent symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at presentation, an AAS-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with multiple thrombi in the left ventricle was attributed to be the underlying cause of his condition. Awareness of the complications of AAS led to the prompt treatment of the initially unrecognised dilated cardiomyopathy, and improved the liver and kidney functions. However, the patient was exposed to a second severe ischaemic event, which led to his death. This unique and complex presentation of AAS complications opens for better recognition and treatment of their potentially fatal effects. PMID:24574525
Mauri-Capdevila, Gerard; Jove, Mariona; Suarez-Luis, Idalmis; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Purroy, Francisco
The study of biomarkers related with ischaemic stroke is becoming increasingly more important as a way to further our knowledge of the pathophysiological changes that occur in cerebrovascular disease and to make it easier to reach an early diagnosis. Within this field, metabolomics offers a novel approach. The field is defined as the study of the small-molecule metabolites derived from cell metabolism. Its interest lies in the fact that, using a biological sample, it offers a snapshot of the cellular changes that are taking place. Today, the application of metabolomics requires a complex methodology that includes the application of laboratory separation techniques, multivariant statistical analyses and the use of bioinformatic tools. A number of studies conducted within the field of cardiovascular disease have focused on the application of this approach. In recent years there has been a steady growth in the number of publications referring to the metabolic changes related with ischaemic stroke, both in animal models and in patients. Metabolomics makes it possible to obtain the profiles of metabolites that identify patients who have suffered an ischaemic stroke. Furthermore, since studies have been carried out that relate certain metabolites with the most common causations of ischaemic stroke, metabolomics may eventually play a significant role in the study of cryptogenic stroke. The most exhaustive knowledge of the changes in the metabolic pathways involved in cerebrovascular disease could lay the foundations for the development of new neuroprotector strategies.
Paterson, H M; Holdsworth, R J
Crescendo transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) should be regarded as a medical emergency. Patients require hospitalisation with urgent assessment and symptom control with anticoagulant therapy. We report on three patients, all of whom had atherosclerotic aneurysmal disease of the extracranial arterial circulation who presented with crescendo TIAs. The possibility of extracranial aneurysmal disease should always be considered and excluded.
Murao, K; Bombois, S; Cordonnier, C; Hénon, H; Bordet, R; Pasquier, F; Leys, D
Because of ageing of the population, it is more and more frequent to treat ischaemic stroke patients with pre-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). Currently, there is no specific recommendation on ischaemic stroke management in these patients, both at the acute stage and in secondary prevention. However, these patients are less likely to receive treatments proven effective in randomised controlled trials, even in the absence of contra-indication. To review the literature to assess efficacy and safety of validated therapies for acute ischaemic stroke and secondary prevention in PSCI patients. Most randomised trials did not take into account the pre-stroke cognitive status. The few observational studies conducted at the acute stage or in secondary prevention, did not provide any information that the benefit could be either lost or replaced by harm in the presence of PSCI. There is no reason not to treat ischaemic stroke patients with PSCI according to the currently available recommendations for acute management and secondary prevention. Further observational studies are needed and pre-stroke cognition should be taken into account in future stroke trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Holmstrup, Palle; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Køllgaard, Tania; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Givskov, Michael; Hansen, Peter Riis
Periodontitis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial biofilm in the dental pocket resulting in destruction of the periodontal tissues. Periodontitis is associated with ischaemic heart disease and we here provide a summary of the current evidence linking these two disorders.
Gan, Desmond C C; Huilgol, Ravi L; Westcott, Mark J
A 76-year-old woman reported a fishbone stuck in her throat, but no foreign body was identified. Eight weeks later, she experienced a transient ischaemic attack, and a stingray barb was subsequently removed from the right common carotid artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the migration of an ingested stingray barb.
Ashraf, Tariq; Memon, Muhammad Anis; Talpur, Muhammad Saeed; Panhwar, Ziauddin; Rasool, Syed Ishtiaq
To evaluate the frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease. This was a cross sectional observational study. Patients with a first time cardiac event arriving in emergency room during the period October 2009 to April 2010, were included. Five components of Metabolic syndrome were defined according to criteria set by International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association & National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute which had abdominal obesity (waist circumference) as an integral part of the syndrome. Blood sugar, triglycerides, HDL-C were measured within 24 hrs of cardiac insult. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 130/85 mmHg. Variables were integrated for descriptive statistics. A total of 477 patients diagnosed with Ischaemic Heart Disease were inducted in the study. There were 355 (74%) males and 122 (26%) females. Frequency of metabolic syndrome in Ischaemic heart disease was seen in 195 (54.95%) males and 96 (78.7%) females (p < 0.001). According to recent criteria abdominal obesity was observed in 91 (81.1%) females as compared to males 219 (61.7%) (p < 0.001) Similarly, low HDL and Hypertension were high in frequency in females. No significant difference in triglycerides levels was found in either gender. Frequency of metabolic syndrome with Ischaemic heart disease was high in females as compared to males. This could be attributed to the increased prevalence of abdominal obesity.
Lake, Evelyn M. R.; Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; Stefanovic, Bojana
Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Effective rehabilitation is hindered by uncertainty surrounding the underlying mechanisms that govern long-term ischaemic injury progression. Despite its potential as a sensitive non-invasive in vivo marker of brain function that may aid in the development of new treatments, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has found limited application in the clinical research on chronic stage stroke progression. Stroke affects each of the physiological parameters underlying the BOLD contrast, markedly complicating the interpretation of BOLD fMRI data. This review summarizes current progress on application of BOLD fMRI in the chronic stage of ischaemic injury progression and discusses means by which more information may be gained from such BOLD fMRI measurements. Concomitant measurements of vascular reactivity, neuronal activity and metabolism in preclinical models of stroke are reviewed along with illustrative examples of post-ischaemic evolution in neuronal, glial and vascular function. The realization of the BOLD fMRI potential to propel stroke research is predicated on the carefully designed preclinical research establishing an ischaemia-specific quantitative model of BOLD signal contrast to provide the framework for interpretation of fMRI findings in clinical populations. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574307
Lake, Evelyn M R; Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; Stefanovic, Bojana
Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Effective rehabilitation is hindered by uncertainty surrounding the underlying mechanisms that govern long-term ischaemic injury progression. Despite its potential as a sensitive non-invasive in vivo marker of brain function that may aid in the development of new treatments, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has found limited application in the clinical research on chronic stage stroke progression. Stroke affects each of the physiological parameters underlying the BOLD contrast, markedly complicating the interpretation of BOLD fMRI data. This review summarizes current progress on application of BOLD fMRI in the chronic stage of ischaemic injury progression and discusses means by which more information may be gained from such BOLD fMRI measurements. Concomitant measurements of vascular reactivity, neuronal activity and metabolism in preclinical models of stroke are reviewed along with illustrative examples of post-ischaemic evolution in neuronal, glial and vascular function. The realization of the BOLD fMRI potential to propel stroke research is predicated on the carefully designed preclinical research establishing an ischaemia-specific quantitative model of BOLD signal contrast to provide the framework for interpretation of fMRI findings in clinical populations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Martínez-Jardón, C S; Meza-de Regil, A; Dalma-Weiszhausz, J; Leizaola-Fernández, C; Morales-Cantón, V; Guerrero-Naranjo, J L; Quiroz-Mercado, H
Background/aims: Ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) accounts for 20–50% of all CRVO. No treatment has been proved to be effective. The efficacy of radial optic neurotomy (RON) was evaluated in eyes with ischaemic CRVO. Methods: 10 patients with ischaemic CRVO underwent RON. After pars plana vitrectomy, a microvitreoretinal blade was used to incise the scleral ring, cribriform plate, and adjacent sclera at the nasal edge of the optic disc. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), fluorescein angiography (FA), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were measured preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: No visual improvement was noted in the eyes that underwent RON. FA and mfERG showed no increase in retinal perfusion or retinal function postoperatively. Mean macular central thickness changed from 841 (SD 170) μm preoperatively to 162 (SD 34) μm at the sixth postoperative month. One patient had retinal central artery perforation intraoperatively. One patient developed neovascular glaucoma. Conclusion: RON in ischaemic CRVO did not improve visual function (by mfERG) or visual acuity although macular thickness did improve. This technique may be associated with potential risks. Randomised studies are needed to corroborate these results. PMID:15834084
Ryti, Niilo R I; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Antikainen, Harri; Junttila, M Juhani; Hookana, Eeva; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Huikuri, Heikki V; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death. The current paradigm in SCD requires the presence of an abnormal myocardial substrate and an internal or external transient factor that triggers cardiac arrest. Based on prior mechanistic evidence, we hypothesized that an unusually cold weather event (a cold spell) could act as an external factor triggering SCD. We tested potential effect modification of prior diagnoses and select pharmacological agents disrupting pathological pathways between cold exposure and death. The home coordinates of 2572 autopsy-verified cases of ischaemic SCD aged ≥35 in the Province of Oulu, Finland, were linked to 51 years of home-specific weather data. Based on conditional logistic regression, an increased risk of ischaemic SCD associated with a cold spell preceding death (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06-2.09). Cases without a prior diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease seemed more susceptible to the effects of cold spells (OR 1.70; 95% CI: 1.13-2.56) than cases who had been diagnosed during lifetime (OR 1.14; 95% CI: 0.61-2.10). The use of aspirin, β-blockers, and/or nitrates, independently and in combinations decreased the risk of ischaemic SCD during cold spells. The findings open up new lines of research in mitigating the adverse health effects of weather.
Ryti, Niilo R. I.; Mäkikyrö, Elina M. S.; Antikainen, Harri; Junttila, M. Juhani; Hookana, Eeva; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death. The current paradigm in SCD requires the presence of an abnormal myocardial substrate and an internal or external transient factor that triggers cardiac arrest. Based on prior mechanistic evidence, we hypothesized that an unusually cold weather event (a cold spell) could act as an external factor triggering SCD. We tested potential effect modification of prior diagnoses and select pharmacological agents disrupting pathological pathways between cold exposure and death. The home coordinates of 2572 autopsy-verified cases of ischaemic SCD aged ≥35 in the Province of Oulu, Finland, were linked to 51 years of home-specific weather data. Based on conditional logistic regression, an increased risk of ischaemic SCD associated with a cold spell preceding death (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06–2.09). Cases without a prior diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease seemed more susceptible to the effects of cold spells (OR 1.70; 95% CI: 1.13–2.56) than cases who had been diagnosed during lifetime (OR 1.14; 95% CI: 0.61–2.10). The use of aspirin, β-blockers, and/or nitrates, independently and in combinations decreased the risk of ischaemic SCD during cold spells. The findings open up new lines of research in mitigating the adverse health effects of weather. PMID:28106161
Nickelsen, M N; Snoer, A; Ali, A M; Wienecke, T
Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is often asymptomatic and increases the risk of ischaemic stroke. Detection of PAF is challenging but crucial because a change of treatment decreases the risk of ischaemic stroke. Post-stroke investigations recommend at least 24-h continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring. Extended monitoring detects more PAF but is limited by costs due to manual analysis. Interpretive software might be a reasonable screening tool. The aim was to validate the performance and utility of Pathfinder SL software compared to manual analysis. In all, 135 ischaemic stroke patients with no prior history of PAF or atrial fibrillation and who had done a 7-day continuous electrocardiogram monitoring (Holter) were included. Manual analysis was compared with Pathfinder SL software including a systematic control of registered events. Seventeen (12.6%) patients were diagnosed with PAF (atrial fibrillation > 30 s). Pathfinder SL software including a systematic control of events registered 16 (94.1%) patients with PAF. Manually 15 (88.2%) patients were detected with PAF. Pathfinder SL had a negative predictive value of 99% and sensitivity of 94%. Pathfinder SL software including a systematic evaluation of events is an acceptable alternative compared to manual analysis in PAF detection following ischaemic stroke. It is less time consuming and therefore a reliable, cheaper alternative compared to manual analysis. © 2016 EAN.
Muir, Keith W; Ford, Gary A; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Ford, Ian; Murray, Alicia; Clifton, Andrew; Brown, Martin M; Madigan, Jeremy; Lenthall, Rob; Robertson, Fergus; Dixit, Anand; Cloud, Geoffrey C; Wardlaw, Joanna; Freeman, Janet; White, Philip
Objective The Pragmatic Ischaemic Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) trial was a multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial comparing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone with IVT and adjunctive intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in patients who had acute ischaemic stroke with large artery occlusive anterior circulation stroke confirmed on CT angiography (CTA). Design Eligible patients had IVT started within 4.5 hours of stroke symptom onset. Those randomised to additional MT underwent thrombectomy using any Conformité Européene (CE)-marked device, with target interval times for IVT start to arterial puncture of <90 min. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving independence defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–2 at day 90. Results Ten UK centres enrolled 65 patients between April 2013 and April 2015. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 16 (IQR 13–21). Median stroke onset to IVT start was 120 min. In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in disability-free survival at day 90 with MT (absolute difference 11%, adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 0.65 to 6.94, p=0.20). Secondary analyses showed significantly greater likelihood of full neurological recovery (mRS 0–1) at day 90 (OR 7.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 37.2, p=0.010). In the per-protocol population (n=58), the primary and most secondary clinical outcomes significantly favoured MT (absolute difference in mRS 0–2 of 22% and adjusted OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 19.7, p=0.021). Conclusions The trial did not find a significant difference between treatment groups for the primary end point. However, the effect size was consistent with published data and across primary and secondary end points. Proceeding as fast as possible to MT after CTA confirmation of large artery occlusion on a background of intravenous alteplase is safe, improves excellent clinical outcomes and, in the per-protocol population, improves disability
Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Lip, Gregory Y H
Ischaemic stroke risk rises with the increasing cardiovascular risk factors. How atrial fibrillation (AF) incrementally contributes to the risk for ischaemic stroke with increasing age and multiple cardiovascular risk factors is unclear. In an individual patient with AF the mechanism of ischaemic stroke may be related directly to AF itself or to risk factors associated with AF. It was this study's objective to investigate incident ischaemic stroke in relation to age and increasing cardiovascular risk factor(s), and the incremental impact of AF on stroke rates. We studied a 5% random sampling from Chinese medical insurance data covering more than 10 million individuals, for the years 2001 to 2012. The rate of ischaemic stroke was calculated amongst the individuals with no prior history of ischaemic stroke, in relation to age groups (aged < 65, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old; n = 348,431, n = 56,952, n = 20,217, respectively), and increasing risk factors using the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Among the randomly sampled 425,600 individuals with total follow-up of 1,864,232 patient-years [63.8% male, mean age 60 years; 880 with AF, vs 424,720 non-AF], there were 13,242 (3.1%) ischaemic strokes after 64,834 person-years follow-up. Overall, ischaemic stroke incidence (per 100 person-years) was 0.35 (95%CI 0.34-0.35) in the non-AF population and 1.11 (0.84-1.45) with AF. The AF population age < 65 and 65-74 had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores than the non-AF population (p< 0.001), but this was non-significant between the non-AF and AF population age ≥ 75 (p=0.086). For the population age ≥ 75 years, incident stroke rates were 2.07 (0.86-4.76) and 4.29 (4.08-4.51) in non-AF and AF populations, respectively. The non-AF population age ≥ 65 years with ≥ 2 additional comorbidities (hypertension, vascular disease, diabetic, or heart failure) had ischaemic stroke rates similar to an AF population with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 4. In both non-AF and AF populations, those with CHA2DS2
Li, Peng; Robertson, Thomas A; Zhang, Qian; Fletcher, Linda M; Crawford, Darrell H G; Weiss, Michael; Roberts, Michael S
To explore how liver damage arising from cardio-hepatic syndromes in RHF affect the hepatic pharmacokinetics of basic drugs. The hepatic pharmacokinetics of five selected basic drugs with different physicochemical properties were studied in IPRL from control rats and rats with RHF. Hepatic pharmacokinetic modelling was performed with a two-phase physiologically-based organ pharmacokinetic model with the vascular space and dispersion evaluated with the MID technique. The liver damage arising from RHF was assessed by changes in liver biochemistry and histopathology. The expression of various CYP isoforms was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Four of the five basic drugs had a significantly lower E in RHF rat livers compared to the control rat livers. Hepatic pharmacokinetic analysis showed that both the CL int and PS were significantly decreased in the RHF rat livers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the alterations in the pharmacokinetic parameters (E, CL int and PS) can be correlated to the observed histopathological changes (NI, CYP concentration and FI) as well as to the lipophilicity of the basic drugs (logP app). Serious hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis induced by RHF affects both hepatic microsomal activity and hepatocyte wall permeability, leading to significant impairment in the hepatic pharmacokinetics of basic drugs.
D'Andrea, Antonello; Caso, Pio; Romano, Silvio; Scarafile, Raffaella; Riegler, Lucia; Salerno, Gemma; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Calabrò, Paolo; Del Viscovo, Luca; Romano, Gianpaolo; Maiello, Ciro; Santangelo, Lucio; Severino, Sergio; Cuomo, Sergio; Cotrufo, Maurizio; Calabrò, Raffaele
only independent determinants of LA lateral wall systolic strain. Two-dimensional strain represents a promising non-invasive technique to assess LA atrial myocardial function in patients with DCM. LA pump and reservoir function at baseline and after CRT are more depressed in idiopathic compared with ischaemic DCM patients. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to understand further the natural history of LA myocardial function, the extent of reversibility of LA dysfunction with CRT, and the possible prognostic impact of such indexes in patients with congestive heart failure.
Kappelle, L J; van Latum, J C; van Swieten, J C; Algra, A; Koudstaal, P J; van Gijn, J
The incidence and vascular type of recurrent ischaemic stroke was studied in patients with supratentorial transient ischaemic attacks or non-disabling ischaemic strokes, who were treated with aspirin (30 or 283 mg). Patients were divided into groups with small vessel disease (SVD) (n = 1216) or large vessel disease (LVD) (n = 1221) on the grounds of their clinical features and CT at baseline. Patients with evidence of both SVD and LVD (n = 180) were excluded from further analyses. During follow up (mean 2.6 years) annual stroke rate was 3.6% in both groups. Of the 107 patients with SVD at baseline who had recurrent strokes, 83 proved to have an identifiable infarct: 30 (28%) again had a small vessel infarct, 39 (36%) had a large vessel ischaemic stroke and in 14 (13%) the recurrent ischaemic stroke was in the posterior fossa. Of the 110 patients with LVD at baseline and recurrent stroke, 91 had an identifiable infarct: 67 (61%) again had a large vessel ischaemic stroke, 16 (15%) had a small vessel ischaemic stroke, and eight (7%) had the recurrent ischaemic stroke in the posterior fossa. Thus patients with a transient ischaemic attack or non-disabling ischaemic stroke caused by LVD were more likely to have an ischaemic stroke of the same vessel type during follow up than patients with SVD (relative risk 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.4). Possible explanations for this difference are: (1) patients with a small vessel ischaemic stroke at baseline had both SVD and LVD or were misdiagnosed; (2) recurrent small vessel ischaemic stroke may have occurred more often than reported, because they were silent or only minimally disabling; (3) recurring large vessel ischaemic strokes occurring in patients initially diagnosed as having SVD might have been related to potential cardiac sources of emboli that had not been previously recognized; (4) the antiplatelet drug aspirin (30 or 283 mg) prescribed in this patient group may have prevented thrombosis in small vessels better
Darma, Angeliki; Nedios, Sotirios; Kosiuk, Jedrzej; Richter, Sergio; Doering, Michael; Arya, Arash; Rolf, Sascha; Sommer, Philipp; Hindricks, Gerhard; Bollmann, Andreas
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been shown to reduce mortality in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy by terminating life-threatening arrhythmias. However, such arrhythmic events are unequally distributed among different patient subgroups. We aimed to evaluate predictors of appropriate ICD therapies as a step towards risk stratification in a real-world cohort. The prevalence and predictors of appropriate ICD therapies were analysed in 330 consecutive patients (mean age 65 ± 11, 81% male) with implanted ICDs due to ischaemic (n = 204) or dilated (n = 126) cardiomyopathy. During a mean follow-up of 19 ± 9 months, 1545 appropriate ICD therapies (antitachycardia pacing and shocks) were detected in 94 patients (29%). In multivariate analysis applied on the whole cohort, the presence of atrial fibrillation [AF: odds ratio (OR) = 1.906, confidence interval (CI) = 1.143-3.177, P = 0.013] and secondary prevention indication (OR = 1.963, CI = 1.123-3.432, P = 0.018) was associated with ICD therapy. The presence of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) had a protective value (OR = 0.563, CI = 0.327-0.968, P = 0.038). Moreover, the predictors were different depending on the aetiology of the cardiomyopathy: in the ischaemic group, only secondary prevention indication (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.029-3.891, P = 0.041) and the presence of a biventricular system (OR = 0.359, CI = 0.163-0.794, P = 0.011) remained significant, while in the non-ischaemic group, an association with AF was observed (OR = 4.281, CI = 1.632-11.231, P = 0.003). The aetiology of cardiomyopathy should be taken into consideration for the therapy of ICD patients. The protective role of CRT devices should be pointed out in ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and a more rigorous antiarrhythmic treatment should be considered for ICM patients with secondary prevention or for dilated cardiomyopathy patients with AF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All
Caldwell, James; Heran, Manraj K S; McGuinness, Ben; Barber, P Alan
Prompt and accurate diagnosis is the foundation of acute ischaemic stroke care. Multiple positive endovascular thrombectomy trials in ischaemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusions have further emphasised this but also added complexity to treatment decisions. CT angiography is now routine for patients who present with an acute stroke syndrome around the world. Members of the neurology and stroke teams (rather than radiologists) are often the first doctors to lay eyes on the CT images and are best equipped to integrate the clinical picture with the imaging findings. A sound understanding of acute stroke imaging is therefore essential for clinicians who work with acute stroke patients. This review describes some pearls we have gleaned from our own experience in acute stroke imaging as well as some potential follies to be avoided. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Hisham, Nur Fatirul; Bayraktutan, Ulvi
Stroke continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are 2 main types of stroke: ischaemic strokes, which are caused by obstruction of the blood vessels leading to or within the brain, and haemorrhagic strokes, which are induced by the disruption of blood vessels. Stroke is a disease of multifactorial aetiology that may develop as an end state in patients with serious vascular conditions--most notably, uncontrolled arterial hypertension--thereby necessitating the effective control of this risk factor to prevent stroke or its recurrence. This paper focuses specifically on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke mainly in chronically hypertensive patients and pays particular attention to the efficacy of a select group of routinely used major antihypertensive drugs (i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers) in the treatment of strokes. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amin, Osama S M
Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (BICAO) is a rare disease that carries a gloomy prognosis. We report a case of a 52-year-old man who developed ischaemic infarction at the region of the right middle cerebral artery; he was found to have atherosclerotic occlusion of both internal carotid arteries on Doppler-duplex examination. He received medical treatment only. After 1 year, he developed a new infarction at the region of the left middle cerebral artery. Conventional angiography revealed bilateral occlusion of internal carotid arteries at their origin, approximately 50% stenosis of the common carotid bulbs and mild stenosis of the origin of external carotid arteries. The patient did not undergo any form of surgical revascularisation procedures and died of severe aspiration pneumonia approximately 2 months after the second stroke. BICAO portends a poor outcome and carries a risk of recurrent ischaemic events. The best management strategy for this vascular occlusion remains unclear.
Pre-existing disease in the form of hypertension or ischaemic heart disease may increase morbidity and mortality in patients presenting for anaesthesia and surgery. The interaction of these two cardiovascular conditions in relation to anaesthesia has been studied in a series of 115 patients. The results did not support the view that antihypertensive drugs and beta-receptor blocking agents should be withdrawn before anaesthesia and surgery. The main cause for concern in providing anaesthesia for these patients is that sympathetic nervous activation induced either by anaesthetic manoeuvres or by surgical stimulation may lead to reflex cardiovascular responses which, by increasing myocardial oxygen demand, lead to episodes of myocardial ischaemia. In this respect beta-receptor blocking drugs appear to have a protective effect on the ischaemic myocardium. PMID:10825
Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y.; Robb, Ellen L.; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Ord, Emily N. J.; Smith, Anthony C.; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J.; James, Andrew M.; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C.; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S.H.; Brookes, Paul S.; Davidson, Sean M.; Duchen, Michael R.; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J.; Robinson, Alan J.; Work, Lorraine M.; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P.
Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death, and aberrant immune responses through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)1-5. Although mitochondrial ROS production in IR is established, it has generally been considered a non-specific response to reperfusion1,3. Here, we developed a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis and unexpectedly identified widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during IR. We showed that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. Upon reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidised by SDH, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport (RET) at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo IR injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of IR injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation upon subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease IR injury in a range of pathologies. PMID:25383517
Jürgensen, Jan Steffen; Kettritz, Ralf; Schneider, Wolfgang; Koop, Herbert; Hildebrand, Thorsten Sven; Frei, Ulrich; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe
We describe a young woman whose initial presentation was dominated by acute diarrhoea. Life-threatening multiorgan failure rapidly ensued and necessitated mechanical ventilation and dialysis treatment. An initially elongated activated partial thromboplastin time prompted further coagulation tests that led to the detection of positive lupus anticoagulant, a highly elevated IgG-anticardiolipin (aCL) antibody titre, and prolonged dilute Russell's viper venom time. Histological examination of samples obtained during endoscopy revealed widespread intestinal thrombotic microangiopathy. In view of these serologic and histologic features, a diagnosis of the malignant variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), also termed 'catastrophic APS', was established. In spite of this syndrome's grim prognosis, the patient recovered following intensive anticoagulation and adjunct treatment with steroids and immunoglobulins.
Faganeli Pucer, Jana; Demšar, Janez; Kukar, Matjaž
Coronary artery disease is the developed world's premier cause of mortality and the most probable cause of myocardial ischaemia. More advanced diagnostic tests aside, in electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis it manifests itself as a ST segment deviation, targeted by both exercise ECG and ambulatory ECG. In ambulatory ECG, besides ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes there are also non-ischaemic heart rate related episodes which aggravate real ischaemia detection. We present methods to transform the features developed for the heart rate adjustment of ST segment depression in exercise ECG for use in ambulatory ECG. We use annotations provided by the Long-Term ST Database to plot the ST/HR diagrams and then estimate the overall and maximal slopes of the diagrams in the exercise and recovery phase for each ST segment deviation episode. We also estimate the angle at the extrema of the ST/HR diagrams. Statistical analysis shows that ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes have significantly steeper overall and maximal slopes than heart rate related episodes, which indicates the explored features' utility for distinguishing between the two types of episodes. This makes the proposed features very useful in automated ECG analysis.
Munuera, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Hernández-Pérez, María; Daunis-I-Estadella, Pepus; Dávalos, Antoni; Liebeskind, David S; Wintermark, Max; Demchuk, Andrew; Menon, Bijoy K; Thomalla, Götz; Nael, Kambiz; Pedraza, Salvador; Puig, Josep
Vascular neuroimaging plays a decisive role in selecting the best therapy in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. However, compared with the arterial system, the role of veins has not been thoroughly studied. In this review, we present the major venous imaging-based biomarkers in ischaemic stroke. First, the presence of hypodense veins in the monophasic CT angiography ipsilateral to the arterial occlusion. Second, the asymmetry of venous drainage in the pathological cerebral hemisphere on CT and MRI dynamic angiography. Finally, the presence of hypodense veins on T2* -based MRI. From the physiological point of view, the venous imaging-based biomarkers would detect the alteration of brain perfusion (flow), as well as the optimisation of extraction oxygen mechanisms (misery perfusion). Several studies have correlated the venous imaging-based biomarkers with grade of collateral circulation, the ischaemic penumbra and clinical functional outcome. Although venous imaging-based biomarkers still have to be validated, growing evidence highlights a potential complementary role in the acute stroke clinical decision-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Elevated serum cholesterol concentrations are known to be predictive of ischaemic heart disease. It remained to be proven, however, whether reduction of clinically manifest ischaemic heart disease could be achieved by the lowering of elevated serum-cholesterol levels. In order to create a clear and simple unifactorial study design, a lipid-lowering substance (clofibrate) was administered to this effect in a double-blind trial to middle-aged male volunteers whose serum cholesterol levels were within the upper third of the distribution in their respective populations (Budapest, Edinburgh, Prague). After an average of 5.3 years of observation, and with a reduction of some 9% of the initial serum cholesterol levels, the incidence of ischaemic heart disease was reduced by 20% in the intervention group as compared with the placebo group, thus demonstrating the preventive value of lowering this plasma lipid. There was, however, a significant increase in total mortality and in non-cardiovascular mortality in the clofibrate group, precluding the community-wide use of this drug for reduction of serum cholesterol. The explanation of this is not clear, but possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:317255
Moretti, Antonio; Ferrari, Federica; Villa, Roberto F
Acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Its incidence and prevalence increase considerably with age and numbers will grow with an ageing population. Consequently, the impact of AIS on costs is soaring. AIS is caused by the abrupt occlusion of an intracranial vessel resulting in reduced blood flow to the brain region supplied. The ischaemic core (which is irreversibly lesioned) is surrounded by the penumbra region with less severe flow reduction, lower functional impairment and potential recovery. Therefore, the fundamental treatment of AIS relies on prompt recanalisation and reperfusion of the threatened, but potentially salvageable, ischaemic penumbra. With this aim, intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the current strategy. However, thrombolysis is underused, owing to various exclusion criteria that limit the number of treated patients. Other thrombolytics are under investigation. Endovascular therapy with mechanical recanalisation devices is also increasingly applied, though definite evidence of its benefit is lacking. Moreover, hypertension and hyperglycaemia are acute complications to be treated in AIS. This review analyses the current status, the problems, the perspectives and the cost-effectiveness of the pharmacological therapy for AIS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iadecola, Costantino; Kahles, Timo; Gallo, Eduardo F; Anrather, Josef
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key mediator in the mechanisms of ischaemic tolerance induced by a wide variety of preconditioning stimuli. NO is involved in the brain protection that develops either early (minutes–hours) or late (days–weeks) after the preconditioning stimulus. However, the sources of NO and the mechanisms underlying the protective effects differ substantially. While in early preconditioning NO is produced by the endothelial and neuronal isoform of NO synthase, in delayed preconditioning NO is synthesized by the inducible or ‘immunological’ isoform of NO synthase. Furthermore, in early preconditioning, NO acts through the canonical cGMP pathway, possibly through protein kinase G and opening of mitochondrial KATP channels. In late preconditioning, the protection is mediated by peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide derived from the enzyme NADPH oxidase. The mechanisms by which peroxynitrite exerts its protective effect may include improvement of post-ischaemic cerebrovascular function, leading to enhancement of blood flow to the ischaemic territory, and expression of prosurvival genes resulting in cytoprotection. The evidence suggests that NO can engage highly effective and multifunctional prosurvival pathways, which could be exploited for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular pathologies. PMID:21746790
Vázquez-López, M; Castro-de Castro, P; Barredo-Valderrama, E; Miranda-Herrero, M C; Gil-Villanueva, N; Alcaraz-Romero, A J; Jiménez-de Domingo, A; Pascual-Pascual, S I
Ischaemic stroke is rare during childhood. Congenital and acquired heart diseases are one of the most important risk factors for arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) in children. We conducted a retrospective study of all children with AIS and heart disease diagnosed between 2000 and 2014. We included 74 children with heart disease who were eligible for inclusion. 60% were boys with a mean stroke age of 11 months. 20% of the patients died during the study period. 90% of the patients had a congenital heart disease, while cyanotic heart disease was identified in 60%. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome was the most frequent heart disease. In 70% of patients AIS was directly associated with heart surgery, catheterisation or ventricular assist devices. Most patients with AIS were in the hospital. Seizures and motor deficit were the most frequent symptoms. Most patient diagnoses were confirmed by brain CT. The AIS consisted of multiple infarcts in 33% of the cases, affected both hemispheres in 27%, and involved the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation in 10%. Arterial ischaemic strokes were mainly associated with complex congenital heart diseases, and heart procedures and surgery (catheterisation). AIS presented when patients were in-hospital and most of the patients were diagnosed in the first 24hours. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...
Torok, Natalie J
Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.
Lopez, Annette M; Hendrickson, Robert G
Toxins such as pharmaceuticals, herbals, foods, and supplements may lead to hepatic damage. This damage may range from nonspecific symptoms in the setting of liver test abnormalities to acute hepatic failure. The majority of severe cases of toxin-induced hepatic injury are caused by acetaminophen and ethanol. The most important step in the patient evaluation is to gather an extensive history that includes toxin exposure and exclude common causes of liver dysfunction. Patients whose hepatic dysfunction progresses to acute liver failure may benefit from transfer to a transplant service for further management. Currently, the mainstay in management for most exposures is discontinuing the offending agent. This manuscript will review the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of the different forms of toxin-induced hepatic injury and exam in-depth the most common hepatic toxins.
Backx, M; Lewszuk, A; White, J R; Cole, J; Sreedharan, A; van Sanden, S; Diels, J; Lawson, A; Neal, K R; Wiselka, M J; Ito, T; Irving, W L
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection places a considerable economic burden on health services. Cost-effectiveness analyses of antiviral treatment for patients with chronic HCV infection are dependent on assumptions about cost reductions following sustained virological response (SVR) to therapy. This study quantified the medium-term difference in health resource usage and costs depending on treatment outcome. Retrospective chart review of patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had received at least 2 months pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy, with known treatment outcome was conducted. Disease status was categorized as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or decompensated liver disease. Health resource use was documented for each patient in each disease state. Unit costs were from the NHS 'Payment by Results' database and the British National Formulary. One hundred and ninety three patients (108 SVR, 85 non-SVR) with mean follow-up of 3.5 (SVR) and 4.9 (non-SVR) years were enrolled. No SVR patient progressed to a more severe liver disease state. Annual transition rates for non-SVR patients were 7.4% (chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis) and 4.9% (cirrhosis to decompensated liver disease). By extrapolation of modelled data over a 5-year post-treatment period, failure of patients with chronic hepatitis to achieve SVR was associated with a 13-fold increase (roughly £2300) in costs, whilst for patients who were retreated, the increase was 56-fold, equating to more than £10 000. Achievement of an SVR has significant effects on health service usage and costs. This work provides real-life data for future cost-effectiveness analyses related to the treatment for chronic HCV infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gimson, A E; Tedder, R S; White, Y S; Eddleston, A L; Williams, R
Serological markers for hepatitis B virus infection have been examined in 34 patients with acute hepatitis B, 17 of whom developed fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatitis B surface antigen concentrations were significantly lower and hepatitis Be antigen was less frequently detectable in patients with fulminant hepatic failure compared with those with acute hepatitis (median 0.64 micrograms, range 16-0 and median 32 micrograms and range 100-4 micrograms respectively, p less than 0.001; HBeAg detected in 12% and 88% respectively, p less than 0.001). The IgM component of hepatitis B core antibody was significantly higher in the patients with fulminant hepatic failure with median values of 500 IU/ml compared with those with uncomplicated hepatitis (median 202 IU/ml, p less than 0.05 Wilcoxon's rank test). Three patients who developed a fulminant course had detectable levels of either anti-HBs or anti-HBe. These results are consistent with enhanced antibody responses to all three hepatitis B virus antigens and more rapid clearance of the latter during fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:6862284
Di Mauro, M; Papalia, G; Le Moli, R; Nativo, B; Nicoletti, F; Lunetta, M
Aim of this study was to investigate whether octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analogue that inhibits growth hormone, insulin and glucagon secretion and improves glycaemic control in insulin dependent diabetic patients was able to exert similar effects in insulin treated type 2 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure who have high plasma glucagon levels. For this purpose saline or octreotide was randomly administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion (100 mcg/daily) in addition to usual insulin treatment for 5 days to six type 2 insulin treated diabetic patients with chronic renal failure and to six type 2 patients with normal renal function, as a control group. At day 3 of insulin plus saline or insulin plus octreotide treatment, total glucose uptake and hepatic glucose production (HGP) were investigated during an euglycemic clamp; at day 5 GH, glucagon and C-peptide plasma levels were evaluated. Octreotide treatment lowered endogenous insulin secretion (evaluated by C-Peptide levels assay), GH and glucagon in all patients, but caused a significant reduction of daily insulin requirement (32 +/- 14 I.U. vs 41 +/- 19 I.U., P<0.02) only in patients with renal failure. HGP was significantly (P<0.05) lowered in patients with renal failure but glucose uptake remained unchanged. The lowering effect of octreotide on insulin requirement in diabetic patients with renal failure in spite of the contemporaneous inhibition on insulin secretion could be explained on the basis of the greater reduction of glucagon levels which are very elevated in these patients as compared to patients with normal renal function. The lowering of glucagon could decrease HGP and, consequently, insulin requirement.
Rilvén, Sandra; Torp, Thomas Lee; Grauslund, Jakob
The retinal oximeter is a new tool for non-invasive measurement of retinal oxygen saturation in humans. Several studies have investigated the associations between retinal oxygen saturation and retinal diseases. In the present systematic review, we examine whether there are associations between retinal oxygen saturation and retinal ischaemic diseases. We used PubMed and Embase to search for retinal oxygen saturation and retinal ischaemic diseases. Three separate searches identified a total of 79 publications. After two levels of manual screening, 10 studies were included: six about diabetic retinopathy (DR) and four about retinal vein occlusion. No studies about retinal artery occlusion were included. In diabetes, all studies found that increases in retinal venous oxygen saturation (rvSatO2 ) were associated with present as well as increasing levels of DR. Four of six studies also found increased retinal arterial oxygen saturation (raSatO2 ) in patients with DR. In patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), all studies found that rvSatO2 was reduced, but raSatO2 remained unchanged. Branch retinal vein occlusion was not associated with changes in retinal oxygen saturation, but this was based on a single study. In conclusion, DR is associated with increased rvSatO2 and might also be related to increased raSatO2 . Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is correlated with increased rvSatO2 but unrelated to raSatO2 . Prospective studies are needed to expand these findings. These would tell whether retinal oximetry could be a potential tool for screening or a biomarker of treatment outcome in patients with ischaemic retinal diseases.
... your doctor may want you to get the hepatitis B vaccine (and maybe the hepatitis A vaccine, too), if you don't already have these viruses. If you have hepatitis C, you are more likely to catch hepatitis A or hepatitis B, which would cause more damage to your liver. ...
Verma, Rajesh; Praharaj, Heramba Narayan
Reflex or stimulus-sensitive epilepsies are uncommon epileptic syndromes triggered by exogenous-specific sensory stimulus or endogenous various mental activities. Gelastic-dacrystic seizures are rare epileptic manifestations characterised by ictal laughter and crying. Gelastic-dacrystic seizures are commonly caused by hypothalamic hamartoma but rarely described due to cortical dysplasia, lesions of frontal and temporal lobes, tumours and vascular malformations. We report a young woman who presented with somatosensory-evoked gelastic-dacrystic seizures. This patient had a positive history of perinatal insult substantiated by MRI findings. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy as the cause of gelastic-dacrystic seizures has not been reported so far in the literature.
Striano, P; Elefante, Andrea; Coppola, Antonietta; Tortora, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo
Holmes’ tremor refers to an unusual combination of rest, postural and kinetic tremor of extremities. Common causes of Holmes’ tremor include stroke, trauma, vascular malformations and multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the thalamus, brain stem or cerebellum. Although some drugs (eg, levodopa and dopaminergic drugs, clonazepam and propranolol) have been occasionally reported to give some benefit, medical treatment of Holmes’ tremor is unsatisfactory, and many patients require thalamic surgery to achieve satisfactory control. We report a patient in whom post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor dramatically responded to levetiracetam treatment. PMID:21686707
Steventon, D M; John, P R
Following neonatal ischaemic brain injury, irregular vessels increase in size owing to luxury perfusion. These may be demonstrated by conventional colour flow Doppler (CFD) imaging at the periphery of the infarcted area. We present a case in which power Doppler imaging (PDI) was performed in addition to CFD in a neonate with unexplained seizures and which proved more sensitive than CFD in demonstrating luxury perfusion. Ultrasound appearances were compared with those seen on cranial CT. PDI can be a useful adjunct to conventional CFD examination of the neonatal brain in cerebral infarction.
Ross, A H; Haider, S; Bailey, C C
To report three cases of Nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAAION) in patients with Addison's disease. We present a retrospective review of patients presenting with NAAION with underlying Addison's disease. Three eyes of two young patients presented with NAAION. Both patients had underlying Addison's disease with episodes of prolonged hypotension. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of NAAION associated with Addison's disease. As hypotension may be one of the few situations, in which NAAION may be treatable and the visual loss reversible, it is important to recognize and treat sustained episodes of hypotension in these individuals.
Hepatitis C Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated ...
... receive the hepatitis B vaccine. Since then, the rate of new hepatitis B infections has gone down ... 1 Asian Americans and African Americans have higher rates of chronic hepatitis B. 2 Many people in ...
Epigenomic and transcriptomic approaches in the post-genomic era: path to novel targets for diagnosis and therapy of the ischaemic heart? Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart.
Perrino, Cinzia; Barabási, Albert-Laszló; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Davidson, Sean Michael; De Windt, Leon; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Engel, Felix Benedikt; Hausenloy, Derek John; Hill, Joseph Addison; Van Laake, Linda Wilhelmina; Lecour, Sandrine; Leor, Jonathan; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mayr, Manuel; Prunier, Fabrice; Sluijter, Joost Petrus Geradus; Schulz, Rainer; Thum, Thomas; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Ferdinandy, Péter
Despite advances in myocardial reperfusion therapies, acute myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and consequent ischaemic heart failure represent the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized societies. Although different therapeutic interventions have been shown beneficial in preclinical settings, an effective cardioprotective or regenerative therapy has yet to be successfully introduced in the clinical arena. Given the complex pathophysiology of the ischaemic heart, large scale, unbiased, global approaches capable of identifying multiple branches of the signalling networks activated in the ischaemic/reperfused heart might be more successful in the search for novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets. High-throughput techniques allow high-resolution, genome-wide investigation of genetic variants, epigenetic modifications, and associated gene expression profiles. Platforms such as proteomics and metabolomics (not described here in detail) also offer simultaneous readouts of hundreds of proteins and metabolites. Isolated omics analyses usually provide Big Data requiring large data storage, advanced computational resources and complex bioinformatics tools. The possibility of integrating different omics approaches gives new hope to better understand the molecular circuitry activated by myocardial ischaemia, putting it in the context of the human 'diseasome'. Since modifications of cardiac gene expression have been consistently linked to pathophysiology of the ischaemic heart, the integration of epigenomic and transcriptomic data seems a promising approach to identify crucial disease networks. Thus, the scope of this Position Paper will be to highlight potentials and limitations of these approaches, and to provide recommendations to optimize the search for novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets for acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury and ischaemic heart failure in the post-genomic era. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on
Yin, Xinru; Gong, Xia; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Rong; Kuang, Ge; Wang, Bin; Chen, Xinyu; Wan, Jingyuan
Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main active ingredient of licorice, reportedly has anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, but its molecular mechanisms remain be elusive. In the present study, Balb/c mice were pretreated with GA (10, 30, or 100mg/kg) 1h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-GalN) administration. In other in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were pretreated with GA before LPS exposure. The mortality, hepatic tissue histology, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs), activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB, and production of TNF-α were assessed by flow cytometry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Our results showed that pretreatment with GA protected mice against LPS/D-GalN-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), including a dose-dependent alleviation of mortality and ALT/AST elevation, ameliorating hepatic pathological damage, and decreasing TNF-α release. Moreover, GA inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB in response to LPS, but the expression of TLR4 was not affected in vivo and in vitro. Notably, GA pretreatment in vivo suppressed IRAK-1 activity while inducing IRAK-M expression. Silencing of IRAK-M expression with siRNA blocked these beneficial effects of GA on the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB as well as TNF-α production in LPS-primed macrophages. Taken together, we conclude that GA could prevent LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF. The underlying mechanisms may be related to up-regulation of IRAK-M, which in turn caused deactivation of IRAK-1 and subsequent MAPKs and NF-κB, resulting in inhibiting TNF-α production.
Hypoxic-ischaemic damage to the developing brain is a leading cause of child death, with high mortality and morbidity, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. The developmental stage of the brain and the severity of the insult influence the selective regional vulnerability and the subsequent clinical manifestations. The increased susceptibility to hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) of periventricular white matter in preterm infants predisposes the immature brain to motor, cognitive, and sensory deficits, with cognitive impairment associated with earlier gestational age. In term infants HI causes selective damage to sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. Even though the immature brain is more malleable to external stimuli compared to the adult one, a hypoxic-ischaemic event to the neonate interrupts the shaping of central motor pathways and can affect normal developmental plasticity through altering neurotransmission, changes in cellular signalling, neural connectivity and function, wrong targeted innervation, and interruption of developmental apoptosis. Models of neonatal HI demonstrate three morphologically different types of cell death, that is, apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy, which crosstalk and can exist as a continuum in the same cell. In the present review we discuss the mechanisms of HI injury to the immature brain and the way they affect plasticity. PMID:27047695
Arroja, Mariana Moreira Coutinho; Reid, Emma; McCabe, Christopher
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)). An imbalance of these two opposing axes is thought to exist between genders and is thought to contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, a stroke co-morbidity. Ischaemic stroke pathophysiology has been shown to be influenced by components of the RAS with specific RAS receptor antagonists and agonists improving outcome in experimental models of stroke. Manipulation of the two opposing axes following acute ischaemic stroke may provide an opportunity for protection of the neurovascular unit, particularly in the presence of pre-existing co-morbidities where the balance may be shifted. In the present review we will give an overview of the experimental stroke studies that have investigated pharmacological interventions of the RAS.
Frank, B; Fulton, R L; Weimar, C; Lees, K R; Sanders, R D
Paracetamol is frequently prescribed for pain and fever control in acute stroke patients, but its effect on stroke outcome is unclear. The aim was to investigate the safety and benefit of paracetamol administration in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke. We analysed the impact of paracetamol exposure on functional outcome at 90 days among ischaemic stroke patients registered in a clinical trials archive. We used an adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to test for significance (P) followed by proportional odds logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for more favourable modified Rankin Scale score. Data were available for 6015 patients, of whom 2435 had received paracetamol. No association of paracetamol-use with overall stroke outcome could be detected among those patients who experienced pain and/or fever (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.20, P = 0.931). In patients without recorded pain and/or fever events and a baseline temperature below 37°C, in whom paracetamol was started within 3 days of stroke, paracetamol was associated with worse outcome (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.72, P = <0.001). This retrospective analysis is discouraging for prophylactic use of paracetamol in acute stroke patients, but underlines the need for a sufficiently powered randomized controlled trial. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Szolnoki, Z; Somogyvari, F; Kondacs, A; Szabo, M; Fodor, L; Bene, J; Melegh, B
Objectives: Ischaemic stroke is a frequent heterogeneous multifactorial disease that is affected by a number of genetic mutations and environmental factors. We hypothesised the clinical importance of the interactions between common, unfavourable genetic mutations and clinical risk factors in the development of ischaemic stroke. Methods: The Factor V Leiden G1691A (Leiden V), the prothrombin G20210A, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) mutations, the angiotensin converting enzyme I/D (ACE I/D), and apolipoprotein allele e4 (APO e4) genotypes were examined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in 867 ischaemic stroke patients and 743 healthy controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the roles of the co-occurrences of the clinical risk factors and common genetic mutations in ischaemic stroke. Results: The Leiden V mutation in combination with hypertension or diabetes mellitus increased the risk of ischaemic stroke. We found synergistic effects between the ACE D/D and MTHFR 677TT genotypes and drinking or smoking. The presence of the APO e4 greatly facilitated the unfavourable effects of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, or drinking on the incidence of ischaemic stroke. Conclusion: In certain combinations, pairing of common unfavourable genetic factors, which alone confer only minor or non-significant risk, with clinical risk factors can greatly increase the susceptibility to ischaemic stroke. PMID:14638877
Clinical trial with traditional Chinese medicine intervention ''tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment'' for chronic hepatitis B-associated liver failure.
Li, Han-Min; Ye, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Yan-Ming; Yao, Xin; Gu, Jian-Xun; Zhan, Lei; Ji, Yang; Xu, Jian-Liang; Zeng, Ying-He; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Lin; Sheng, Guo-Guang; Xin, Wei; Long, Qi; Zhu, Qing-Jing; Shi, Zhao-Hong; Ruan, Lian-Guo; Yang, Jia-Yao; Li, Chang-Chun; Wu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Sheng-Duo; Luo, Xin-La
To study the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) intervention "tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment" ("TTK") for treating liver failure due to chronic hepatitis B. We designed the study as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Registration number of Chinese Clinical Trial Registry is ChiCTR-TRC-12002961. A total of 144 patients with liver failure due to infection with chronic hepatitis B virus were enrolled in this randomized controlled clinical study. Participants were randomly assigned to the following three groups: (1) a modern medicine control group (MMC group, 36 patients); (2) a "tonifying qi and detoxification" ("TQD") group (72 patients); and (3) a "tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment" ("TTK") group (36 patients). Patients in the MMC group received general internal medicine treatment; patients in the "TQD" group were given a TCM formula "tonifying qi and detoxification" and general internal medicine treatment; patients in the "TTK" group were given a TCM formula of "TTK" and general internal medicine treatment. All participants were treated for 8 wk and then followed at 48 wk following their final treatment. The primary efficacy end point was the patient fatality rate in each group. Measurements of various virological and biochemical indicators served as secondary endpoints. The one-way analysis of variance and the t-test were used to compare patient outcomes in the different treatment groups. At the 48-wk post-treatment time point, the patient fatality rates in the MMC, "TQD", and "TTK" groups were 51.61%, 35.38%, and 16.67%, respectively, and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the levels of hepatitis B virus DNA or prothrombin activity among the three groups (P > 0.05). Patients in the "TTK
Clinical trial with traditional Chinese medicine intervention ''tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment'' for chronic hepatitis B-associated liver failure
Li, Han-Min; Ye, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Yan-Ming; Yao, Xin; Gu, Jian-Xun; Zhan, Lei; Ji, Yang; Xu, Jian-Liang; Zeng, Ying-He; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Lin; Sheng, Guo-Guang; Xin, Wei; Long, Qi; Zhu, Qing-Jing; Shi, Zhao-Hong; Ruan, Lian-Guo; Yang, Jia-Yao; Li, Chang-Chun; Wu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Sheng-Duo; Luo, Xin-La
AIM: To study the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) intervention “tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment” (“TTK”) for treating liver failure due to chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: We designed the study as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Registration number of Chinese Clinical Trial Registry is ChiCTR-TRC-12002961. A total of 144 patients with liver failure due to infection with chronic hepatitis B virus were enrolled in this randomized controlled clinical study. Participants were randomly assigned to the following three groups: (1) a modern medicine control group (MMC group, 36 patients); (2) a “tonifying qi and detoxification” (“TQD”) group (72 patients); and (3) a “tonifying the kidney to promote liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment” (“TTK”) group (36 patients). Patients in the MMC group received general internal medicine treatment; patients in the “TQD” group were given a TCM formula “tonifying qi and detoxification” and general internal medicine treatment; patients in the “TTK” group were given a TCM formula of “TTK” and general internal medicine treatment. All participants were treated for 8 wk and then followed at 48 wk following their final treatment. The primary efficacy end point was the patient fatality rate in each group. Measurements of various virological and biochemical indicators served as secondary endpoints. The one-way analysis of variance and the t-test were used to compare patient outcomes in the different treatment groups. RESULTS: At the 48-wk post-treatment time point, the patient fatality rates in the MMC, “TQD”, and “TTK” groups were 51.61%, 35.38%, and 16.67%, respectively, and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the levels of hepatitis B virus DNA or prothrombin
... of the liver), liver cancer, and even death.Hepatitis A can cause varying symptoms, but most often causes fever, tiredness, ... important? The hepatitis B vaccine prevents infection with hepatitis B virus, which causes liver cancer. The hepatitis B virus is 100 ...
... transaminase enzyme levels Treatment There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. You should rest when the symptoms are ... and have not had hepatitis A or the hepatitis A vaccine. Common reasons for getting one or both of these treatments include: You live with someone who has hepatitis ...
Afzal, Hasnain; Umair, Syed Farrukh
Haemoglobin-D, Los Angeles or Haemoglobin D-Punjab is not a rare variant of haemoglobin worldwide especially in Punjab, North western India, and South Asian continent. It can be inherited rarely as homozygous causing no symptoms or heterozygous with Haemoglobin A, commonly not related to clinical symptomatology. However, these variants can co-exist rarely with other haemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia or haemoglobin-S. We describe the case of doubly heterozygous Hb-SD Punjab in a 8 year old girl who presented with ischaemic stroke. Before this case, only one case has been reported but it was with reversible hyperbilirubinaemia in Hb-SD from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. This case images the propensity for occurrence of rare phenotype within our population and underlines the importance of genotyping to avoid erroneous management and poor counseling hence preventing life altering complications which our case developed.
Bertram, Kelly L; Madan, Anoop; Frayne, Judith
Young onset stroke is uncommon, and may be due to conditions other than traditional vascular risk factors. A 42-year-old woman with an ischaemic stroke was found to have left atrial bubble study positivity on transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) suggestive of patent foramen ovale, however she also had low peripheral oxygen saturation. Investigation revealed an isolated pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM), visible on admission chest radiograph. This can cause embolic stroke and is an alternate cause of the TTE findings. The PAVM was able to be closed via endovascular intervention, removing the shunt and therefore removing her risk of recurrent stroke events. This is a rare cause of embolic stroke in young people which can be easily missed on investigation yet is amenable to treatment.
Verma, Rajesh; Praharaj, Heramba Narayan
Reflex or stimulus-sensitive epilepsies are uncommon epileptic syndromes triggered by exogenous-specific sensory stimulus or endogenous various mental activities. Gelastic–dacrystic seizures are rare epileptic manifestations characterised by ictal laughter and crying. Gelastic–dacrystic seizures are commonly caused by hypothalamic hamartoma but rarely described due to cortical dysplasia, lesions of frontal and temporal lobes, tumours and vascular malformations. We report a young woman who presented with somatosensory-evoked gelastic–dacrystic seizures. This patient had a positive history of perinatal insult substantiated by MRI findings. Hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy as the cause of gelastic–dacrystic seizures has not been reported so far in the literature. PMID:23853086
Franco, Daniela; Alves, Daniela; Almeida, Ana Cristina; Almeida, Carlos Costa; Moreno, Cecília; Freixo, Joâo
The spontaneous non-ischaemic blue finger is a rare and benign disorder, characterized by purple discoloration of a finger, with complete resolution. This article reports the case of a woman of 88 years, which after a few hours of stay in the emergency department developed without associated trauma, a purplish color of the 3rd finger of the right hand, with a palpable pulse and without temperature changes or pain. The etiological investigation was negative. The patient was assessed one week after the event and showed completeresolution. There are several diseases that share the same signs and symptoms, as such the diagnosis is based on the spontaneous violaceous color sparing the finger tip, and fast resolution without treatment. Though being a harmless phenomenon, it requires early assessment for timely differential diagnosis with severe pathologies.
Armstrong, Christopher W L; Bosio, Erika; Neil, Claire; Brown, Simon G A; Hankey, Graeme J; Fatovich, Daniel M
We previously reported on a 26-year-old patient who presented early during a large and eventually fatal cerebral infarct. Microarray analysis of blood samples from this patient demonstrated initially up-regulated and subsequently down-regulated Granzyme B (GzmB) expression, along with progressive up-regulation of genes for S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100A12) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). To confirm these findings, we investigated these parameters in patients with suspected stroke presenting within 6h of symptom onset to a single centre. Blood samples were taken at enrolment, then 1h, 3h and 24h post-enrolment for the examination of cellular, protein and genetic changes. Patients with subsequently confirmed ischaemic (n=18) or haemorrhagic stroke (n=11) showed increased intracellular concentrations of GzmB in all cell populations investigated (CD8(+), CD8(-) and Natural Killer [NK] cells). Infarct patients, however, demonstrated significantly reduced GzmB gene expression and increased circulating MMP-9 and S100A12 levels in contrast to transient ischaemic attack (TIA) patients or healthy controls. Furthermore, a pronounced neutrophilia was noted in the infarct and haemorrhage groups, while TIA patients (n=9) reflected healthy controls (n=10). These findings suggest a spectrum of immune response during stroke. TIA showed few immunological changes in comparison to infarct and haemorrhage, which demonstrated inhibition of GzmB production and a rise in neutrophil numbers and neutrophil-associated mediators. This implies a greater role of the innate immune system. These markers may provide novel targets for inhibition and reduction of secondary injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alonso de Leciñana, M; Egido, J A; Casado, I; Ribó, M; Dávalos, A; Masjuan, J; Caniego, J L; Martínez Vila, E; Díez Tejedor, E; Fuentes, B; Álvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Castellanos, M; Castillo, J; Díaz-Otero, F; López-Fernández, J C; Freijo, M; Gállego, J; García-Pastor, A; Gil-Núñez, A; Gilo, F; Irimia, P; Lago, A; Maestre, J; Martí-Fábregas, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Molina, C; Morales, A; Nombela, F; Purroy, F; Rodríguez-Yañez, M; Roquer, J; Rubio, F; Segura, T; Serena, J; Simal, P; Tejada, J; Vivancos, J
Update of Acute Ischaemic Stroke Treatment Guidelines of the Spanish Neurological Society based on a critical review of the literature. Recommendations are made based on levels of evidence from published data and studies. Organized systems of care should be implemented to ensure access to the optimal management of all acute stroke patients in stroke units. Standard of care should include treatment of blood pressure (should only be treated if values are over 185/105 mmHg), treatment of hyperglycaemia over 155 mg/dl, and treatment of body temperature with antipyretic drugs if it rises above 37.5 °C. Neurological and systemic complications must be prevented and promptly treated. Decompressive hemicraniectomy should be considered in cases of malignant cerebral oedema. Intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA should be administered within 4.5 hours from symptom onset, except when there are contraindications. Intra-arterial pharmacological thrombolysis can be considered within 6 hours, and mechanical thrombectomy within 8 hours from onset, for anterior circulation strokes, while a wider window of opportunity up to 12-24 hours is feasible for posterior strokes. There is not enough evidence to recommend routine use of the so called neuroprotective drugs. Anticoagulation should be administered to patients with cerebral vein thrombosis. Rehabilitation should be started as early as possible. Treatment of acute ischaemic stroke includes management of patients in stroke units. Systemic thrombolysis should be considered within 4.5 hours from symptom onset. Intra-arterial approaches with a wider window of opportunity can be an option in certain cases. Protective and restorative therapies are being investigated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Subic, A; Cermakova, P; Norrving, B; Winblad, B; von Euler, M; Kramberger, M G; Eriksdotter, M; Garcia-Ptacek, S
An estimated 10% of stroke patients have an underlying dementia. As a consequence, health professionals often face the challenge of managing patients with dementia presenting with an acute stroke. Patients with dementia are less likely to receive thrombolysis (0.56-10% vs. 1-16% thrombolysis rates in the general population), be admitted to a stroke unit or receive some types of care. Anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention is sometimes withheld, despite dementia not being listed as an exclusion criterion in current guidelines. Studies in this population are scarce, and results have been contradictory. Three observational studies have examined intravenous thrombolysis for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke in patients with dementia. In the two largest matched case-control studies, there were no significant differences between patients with and without dementia in the risks of intracerebral haemorrhage or mortality. The risk of intracerebral haemorrhage ranged between 14% and 19% for patients with dementia. Studies of other interventions for stroke are lacking for this population. Patients with dementia are less likely to be discharged home compared with controls (19% vs. 41%) and more likely to be disabled (64% vs. 59%) or die during hospitalization (22% vs. 11%). The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge about the management of ischaemic stroke in patients with pre-existing dementia, including organizational aspects of stroke care, intravenous thrombolysis, access to stroke unit care and use of supportive treatment. Evidence to support anticoagulation for secondary prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and antiplatelet therapy in nonembolic stroke will be discussed, as well as rehabilitation and how these factors influence patient outcomes. Finally, ethical issues, knowledge gaps and pathways for future research will be considered. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Cano, L M; Cardona, P; Quesada, H; Lara, B; Rubio, F
Cardioembolic stroke is associated with poorer outcomes. Prevention is based on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. Haemorrhage is the main complication of OACs, which are sometimes ineffective. We retrospectively reviewed 1014 consecutive patients who suffered an ischaemic stroke between 2011 and 2013, analysing those who were receiving OAC treatment at stroke onset (107 patients in total) with special attention to aetiology, outcomes, and INR value in the acute phase. The mean age (SD) was 71.9 (10) years. Patients had been treated with OACs for 5.9 (5.5) years; 98.1% of them were being treated for heart disease. INR was <2 in 77 patients (72%), and 30 patients (28%) had an INR≥2. Nine patients (8.4%) had INR values within the therapeutic range. According to TOAST classification criteria, 88.8% of strokes were cardioembolic and 1.9% were atherothrombotic. Anticoagulation therapy was discontinued in 48 patients (44.9%) due to haemorrhagic transformation (24 patients), extensive infarction (23), or endarterectomy (1). Therapy was resumed in 24 patients (50%) after a mean lapse of 36 days. This was not possible in the remaining patients because of death or severe sequelae. New OACs (NOACs) were prescribed to 9 patients (18.7% of all potential candidates). At 3 months, patients with INR>1.7 in the acute phase exhibited better outcomes than patients with INR≤1.7 (mRS 0-2 in 62% vs 30.8%; death in 10% vs 38.4%; P=.0004). Some patients taking OACs suffer ischaemic strokes that are usually cardioembolic, especially if INR is below the therapeutic range. OACs can be resumed without complications, and NOACs are still underused. Despite cases in which treatment is ineffective, outcomes are better when INR is above 1.7 at stroke onset. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) is a severe and rare disease, characterized by hematopoietic bone marrow failure and peripheral cytopenia. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, activated T1 lymphocytes have been identified as effector cells. The disease can be successfully treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a syndrome of bone marrow failure following the development of acute seronegative hepatitis. HAA syndrome most often affects young males who presented severe pancytopenia two to three months after an episode of acute hepatitis. The clinical course of hepatitis is more frequently benign but a fulminant severe course is also described. The bone marrow failure can be explosive and severe and it is usually fatal if untreated, no correlations have been observed between severity of hepatitis and AA. In none of the studies a specific virus could be identified and most cases are seronegative for known hepatitis viruses. The clinical characteristics and response to immunotherapy indicate a central role for immune-mediated mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAA. The initial target organ of the immune response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure. Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic and blood lymphocytes with T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia. PMID:21415960
Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) is a severe and rare disease, characterized by hematopoietic bone marrow failure and peripheral cytopenia. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, activated T1 lymphocytes have been identified as effector cells. The disease can be successfully treated with combined immunosuppressive therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a syndrome of bone marrow failure following the development of acute seronegative hepatitis. HAA syndrome most often affects young males who presented severe pancytopenia two to three months after an episode of acute hepatitis. The clinical course of hepatitis is more frequently benign but a fulminant severe course is also described. The bone marrow failure can be explosive and severe and it is usually fatal if untreated, no correlations have been observed between severity of hepatitis and AA. In none of the studies a specific virus could be identified and most cases are seronegative for known hepatitis viruses. The clinical characteristics and response to immunotherapy indicate a central role for immune-mediated mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAA. The initial target organ of the immune response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure. Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic and blood lymphocytes with T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.
Abdurrachim, Desiree; Luiken, Joost J F P; Nicolay, Klaas; Glatz, Jan F C; Prompers, Jeanine J; Nabben, Miranda
The shift in substrate preference away from fatty acid oxidation (FAO) towards increased glucose utilization in heart failure has long been interpreted as an oxygen-sparing mechanism. Inhibition of FAO has therefore evolved as an accepted approach to treat heart failure. However, recent data indicate that increased reliance on glucose might be detrimental rather than beneficial for the failing heart. This review discusses new insights into metabolic adaptations in heart failure. A particular focus lies on data obtained from mouse models with modulations of cardiac FA metabolism at different levels of the FA metabolic pathway and how these differently affect cardiac function. Based on studies in which these mouse models were exposed to ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure, we discuss whether and when modulations in FA metabolism are protective against heart failure.
Jayakumar, Saumya; Chowdhury, Raiyan; Ye, Carrie; Karvellas, Constantine J
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition wherein the previously healthy liver rapidly deteriorates, resulting in jaundice, encephalopathy, and coagulopathy. There are approximately 2000 cases per year of ALF in the United States. Viral causes (fulminant viral hepatitis [FVH]) are the predominant cause of ALF in developing countries. Given the ease of spread of viral hepatitis and the high morbidity and mortality associated with ALF, a systematic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of FVH is required. In this review, the authors describe the viral causes of ALF and review the intensive care unit management of patients with FVH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cajone, F.; Schiaffonati, L.
The effects of liver ischaemia on protein synthesis have been studied in tissue slices from ischaemic livers, incubated in vitro. There is a rapid decrease in protein synthesis after the onset of ischaemia, which is more severe in slices than in any cell-free preparation. Liver slices from ischaemic livers do not respond to the presence of a full complement of amino acids with an increase in protein synthesis. The presence of amino acids in the incubation medium does not protect the state of aggregation of the polysomes in the slices from ischaemic livers, as occurs in normal liver slices. Isolated ribosomes, obtained from ischaemic livers and incubated with normal purified factors, show a reduced—but still evident—increase in their protein synthesis in the presence of a full complement of amino acids. This suggests that the decay of cell sap factors also plays a role in the impairment of protein synthesis caused by ischaemia. PMID:4447791
van Wijk, I; Lindeman, E; Kappelle, L J; van Gijn, J; Koudstaal, P J; Gorter, J W; Algra, A
Background Stroke may have a major effect on survivors and on the healthcare system. Aims To study the functional status and use of healthcare facilities in long‐term survivors of a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor ischaemic stroke (MIS) and evaluate associations with baseline and follow‐up characteristics. Methods Follow‐up of patients who had participated in the Dutch TIA Trial or the European Atrial Fibrillation Trial was extended to a mean period of 15.6 years. Patients were interviewed through a postal questionnaire (n = 468) and a sample of this group was also interviewed at home (n = 198). Demographic data, information on comorbidity, functional status (Barthel Index, Frenchay Activities Index and modified Rankin Scale) and use of healthcare facilities were recorded. Results About one third of the survivors interviewed at home experienced any residual disability and 26% were moderately to severely handicapped. Factors associated with poor functional status were advanced age and the presence of any infarct on a baseline computed tomography scan, the recurrence of a new major stroke or the presence of comorbidity of locomotion. One third of survivors used any kind of professional care, which was predominantly related to the functional status at follow‐up. Conclusions Recurrent stroke and the presence of comorbidity of locomotion are important determinants of long‐term disability of survivors of a TIA or an MIS, which, in turn, is strongly associated with the long‐term use of professional care. The need for measuring comorbidity with regard to functional status is recommended in research on stroke outcome. PMID:16735396
Kleinman, Jonathan T; Mlynash, Michael; Zaharchuk, Greg; Ogdie, Alyshia A; Straka, Matus; Lansberg, Maarten G; Schwartz, Neil E; Singh, Paul; Kemp, Stephanie; Bammer, Roland; Albers, Gregory W; Olivot, Jean-Marc
Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging are able to identify ischaemic 'footprints' in transient ischaemic attack. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) may be useful for patient triage and subsequent management. To date, less than 100 cases have been reported, and none have compared computed tomography perfusion to perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI). We sought to define the yield of computed tomography perfusion for the evaluation of transient ischaemic attack. Consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of possible or definite transient ischaemic event who underwent computed tomography perfusion were included in this study. The presence of an ischaemic lesion was assessed on noncontrast computed tomography, automatically deconvolved CTPTMax (Time till the residue function reaches its maximum), and when available on diffusion-weighted imaging and PWITMax maps. Thirty-four patients were included and 17 underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Median delay between onset and computed tomography perfusion was 4·4 h (Interquartile range [IQR]: 1·9-9·6), and between computed tomography perfusion and magnetic resonance imaging was 11 h (Interquartile range: 3·8-22). Noncontrast computed tomography was negative in all cases, while CTPTMax identified an ischaemic lesion in 12/34 patients (35%). In the subgroup of patients with multimodal magnetic resonance imaging, an ischaemic lesion was found in six (35%) patients using CTPTMax versus nine (53%) on magnetic resonance imaging (five diffusion-weighted imaging, nine perfusion-weighted imaging). The additional yield of CTPTMax over computed tomography angiography was significant in the evaluation of transient ischaemic attack (12 vs. 3, McNemar, P = 0·004). CTPTMax found an ischaemic lesion in one-third of acute transient ischaemic attack patients. Computed tomography perfusion may be an acceptable substitute when magnetic resonance imaging is unavailable or contraindicated, and
Ganai, Ajaz A; Khan, Athar A; Malik, Zainul A; Farooqi, Humaira
Genistein is an isoflavanoid abundantly found in soy. It has been found to play an important role in the prevention of various chronic diseases including cancer. In this study, we evaluated potential therapeutic properties of Genistein against d-Galactosamine (d-GalN) induced inflammation and hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of d-GalN (700mg/kgBW). Genistein (5mg/kgBW/day) was given as pre-treatment for 30days via intra-gastric route followed by d-GalN (700mg/kgBW) injection. The hepatoprotective and curative effects of Genistein were evident from a significant decrease in the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as well as prevention of histological damage by pre-treatment of Genistein. Genistein pre-treatment significantly inhibited the increased protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby reducing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE) levels, respectively. In addition Genistein significantly suppressed the production of d-GalN-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) activation, IKKα/β and Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation by Genistein in d-GalN-treated animals. In conclusion, our results suggest that Genistein may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention of hepatic and inflammatory diseases. Furthermore Genistein is able to maintain the redox potential and strengthens the antioxidant defense system of a cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio
Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.
Pais, Christopher C.
Introduction Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Stroke accounts for the second leading cause of death, about 11.13% of total deaths worldwide. Microalbuminuria is known to be associated with increased risk of mortality in ischaemic stroke patients. But there have been no studies to assess whether microalbuminuria affects the early clinical outcome of patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Aim This study aims to investigate whether microalbuminuria affects the early clinical outcome of patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Materials and Methods This is a prospective study of patients with ischaemic stroke (who presented within 24 hours of symptom onset) who were consecutively admitted in three tertiary care centres during the time period from November 2013 to June 2015. Early clinical outcomes in patients were assessed by investigating the presence of Early Neurological Deterioration (END) using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Urine albumin creatinine ratio was divided into two categories – Normal (less than 30mg/g of creatinine) or Urine Microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/g of creatinine). Results Total 42 out of 70 patients (60%) were found to have microalbuminuria. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, microalbuminuria was found to be independently associated with END in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (p=0.044). Conclusion In the early periods following acute ischaemic stroke, patients with microalbuminuria have worse clinical outcome. PMID:27790489
Morrison, B F; Thompson, E B; Shah, S D; Wharfe, G H
Ischaemic priapism is a devastating urological condition that has the potential to cause permanent erectile dysfunction. The disorder has been associated with numerous medical conditions and the use of pharmacotherapeutic agents. The aetiology is idiopathic in a number of cases. There are two prior case reports of the association of ischaemic priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We report on a third case of priapism associated with G6PD deficiency and review recently described molecular mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of ischaemic priapism. The case report of a 32-year old Afro-Caribbean male with his first episode of major ischaemic priapism is described. Screening for common causes of ischaemic priapism, including sickle cell disease was negative. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was discovered on evaluation for priapism. Penile aspiration was performed and erectile function was good post treatment.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is a cause for ischaemic priapism and should be a part of the screening process in idiopathic causes of the disorder. Increased oxidative stress occurs in G6PD deficiency and may lead to priapism.
Nisbet, Bruce C; O'Connor, Robert E
Herbal products are widely used by American consumers. Herbal remedies are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, but they are not immune from serious medication side-effects. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with fatigue and right upper quadrant pain. The patient had begun the popular postmenopausal herbal remedy black cohosh two weeks prior to presentation. Laboratory results revealed acute hepatitis. After other causes of liver failure were ruled out, the patient was diagnosed with black cohosh-induced hepatitis. She recovered uneventfully following withdrawal of the herb. There are five prior reports of hepatitis or hepatic failure likely caused by the herbal remedy black cohosh in the English literature. This case illustrates the importance of a broad differential diagnosis for abdominal pain and highlights the importance of a complete medication list, including herbs.
Grazoprevir, Elbasvir, and Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection After Failure of Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin With an Earlier-Generation Protease Inhibitor: Final 24-Week Results From C-SALVAGE.
Buti, Maria; Gordon, Stuart C; Zuckerman, Eli; Lawitz, Eric; Calleja, Jose L; Hofer, Harald; Gilbert, Christopher; Palcza, John; Howe, Anita Y M; DiNubile, Mark J; Robertson, Michael N; Wahl, Janice; Barr, Eliav; Forns, Xavier
The phase 2 C-SALVAGE study (Hepatitis C-Salvage Study for Patients who Failed DAA/PR Therapy) demonstrated a 96.2% sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12) rate using the NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir and the NS5A inhibitor elbasvir together with ribavirin in treatment-experienced patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. C-SALVAGE was a prospective open-label trial of grazoprevir 100 mg once daily and elbasvir 50 mg once daily coadministered with weight-based ribavirin twice daily for 12 weeks in genotype 1-infected cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients who had failed treatment with ≥ 4 weeks of pegylated interferon and ribavirin plus either boceprevir, telaprevir, or simeprevir. Although the primary efficacy outcome was SVR12, patients were also evaluated 24 weeks after cessation of study therapy. Population sequencing was performed at baseline and periodically in virologic failures throughout the 24-week posttherapy follow-up period. SVR24 rates were 76 of 79 (96.2%) overall, with all 3 relapses occurring by posttherapy week 8. Every NS3 and NS5A variant detected at baseline reappeared at the time of relapse and persisted throughout the available follow-up period. NS3_A156T emerged in virus from each patient at relapse, but rapidly disappeared over the ensuing 2 weeks in 2 patients. NS5A_Y93H emerged in virus from 2 patients at relapse and persisted for the entire follow-up period. Grazoprevir and elbasvir with ribavirin for 12 weeks maintained HCV suppression for at least 24 weeks posttherapy without late relapses. Baseline resistance-associated variants (RAVs) stably reappeared at relapse in all 3 patients with virologic failure. NS5A_RAVs emerging at relapse persisted for the full 24-week follow-up period. If confirmed, this finding could complicate retreatment of the small number of patients failing regimens containing an NS5A inhibitor. NCT02105454. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the
Smolis Bąk, Edyta; Rymuza, Hanna; Zera, Tymoteusz; Kraska, Alicja; Dąbrowski, Rafał
The case of patient with advanced congestive heart failure, NYHA III, of ischaemic and valvular aetiology and concomitant diseases is presented. Introduction of 6-month, controlled physical training resulted in improvement of health status, exercise performance, ventilation and left ventricular function. Quality of life got significantly better. This aspect of treatment should be considered in majority of patients with heart failure.
Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves
This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255
Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves
This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.
When the heart contracts, it compresses its own arteries, so that blood flow in the coronary circulation comes to a standstill during systole. The heart must be supplied with blood from an auxiliary supply during diastole. The auxiliary pump is the aorta and its branches. When the stroke volume is injected into the aorta, it is overfilled and distended, storing energy in stretched elastic tissues. During diastole the contraction of these tissues maintains diastolic pressure. The hardest working organ in the body, the heart, therefore is supplied with blood only intermittently and only at diastolic pressure. In addition a layer of calcium tends to accumulate in the aorta, deteriorating its elasticity. It is suggested that this auxiliary pump is the weakest link in the circulatory system. If it fails, the heart dies of ischaemia. The calcium requirements of the body vary greatly in various age groups; 99% of the calcium content of the adult body is in the skeleton, which is complete by the age of 32 years. After that calcium requirements decrease. Catering for such varying calcium needs the gut to be impermeable to calcium. A special substance, 1,25,-dihydroxycholecalciferol, secreted by the liver and kidneys is needed to transfer calcium through the intestinal wall. When calcium needs are satisfied, the synthesis of cholecalciferol is discontinued, and the calcium in food in the intestines is excreted. To cater for the other extreme, when the calcification of the infant skeleton needs much calcium, nature produces a special nutrient, milk, not only rich in calcium, but containing a substance promoting its transference through the intestinal wall. The human habit of consuming the milk of another species is harmful because it invalidates the natural expedient of limiting calcium intake when it is not needed. The calcium excess resulting from milk consumption tends to calcify the aorta, deteriorating its elasticity, resulting in lower diastolic pressure. When that becomes inadequate, the heart dies of ischaemia.
... them. Causes This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference ... inflammation, or hepatitis, may occur along with other autoimmune diseases. These include: Graves disease Inflammatory bowel disease Rheumatoid ...
... Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business Congressional Affairs Jobs Benefits Booklet Data & Statistics National ... with hepatitis B need to be on treatment. Choosing the right time for hepatitis B treatment is ...
... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. HCV nearly always recurs in liver-transplanted patients, and 10 to 25% of them develop cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years. One of the strategies suggested to limit virological HCV recurrence is pretransplant antiviral treatment, but studies are warranted on the pharmacokinetics of antiviral drugs in cirrhotic patients, the benefits of fixed or escalating antiviral drug dosage schedules, the duration of the treatment, and the indications for using growth factors. Several risk factors are associated with a more aggressive recurrent HCV and early allograft failure, such as an older donor age. The relationship between immunosuppression and fibrosis progression in HCV recurrence remains uncertain. Concerning the antiviral treatment, treating established recurrent disease with a combination of interferon and ribavirin has been the mainstay of management to date, but when it is best to start and how to manage the side effects are still controversial issues. Antiviral treatment should be started once the disease has been confirmed by a biopsy when the fibrosis develops, providing that ongoing acute or chronic rejection, biliary obstruction, vascular damage, autoimmune diseases and sepsis, and any other standard contraindications for antiviral therapy, have been excluded. HCV recurrence after liver transplantation may well lead to graft failure and become an indication for retransplantation, but this is done in a relatively small number of cases, accounting for only 3 to 5% of retransplanted patients, since retransplantation is associated with much worse results than primary liver transplant procedures. We must be prepared for the fact that increasing numbers of HCV-positive recipients with allografts failing due to recurrent HCV will be asking to be retransplanted-and we do not know yet how to respond to this
Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Dambinova, S A; Raevskiy, K S; Alekseev, A A; Bashkatova, V G; Kovalenko, A V; Kudrin, V S; Yakovleva, E V
The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to assess the safety and the efficacy of the pharmaceutic drug glycine in 200 patients with acute (<6 h) ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory. Fifty patients received placebo, 49 glycine 0.5 g/day, 51 glycine 1.0 g/day and 50 glycine 2.0 g/day for 5 days in each group. The efficacy of glycine was assessed by clinical analysis, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of levels of blood serum autoantibodies to NMDA-binding proteines, by detection of excitatory (glutamate, aspartate) and inhibitory (glycine, GABA) amino acid concentrations and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) in CSF. The trial confirmed the safety profile of the glycine treatment. Slight sedation was observed in 9 patients (4. 5%) as a side-effect. Other marked side-effects or adverse events were absent. The glycine treatment at the dose of 1.0-2.0 g/day was accompanied by a tendency to a decreased 30-day mortality (5.9% in 1. 0 g/day glycine and 10% in 2.0 g/day glycine groups vs. 14% in the placebo and 14.3% in 0.5 g/day glycine groups), to an improved clinical outcome on the Orgogozo Stroke Scale (p < 0.01) and the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (p < 0.01) and to a favourable functional outcome on the Barthel index (p < 0.01 in 1.0 g/day glycine vs. placebo group in patients with no or mild disability). An early normalization of autoantibody titres to NMDA-binding proteins in serum was found (p < 0.01 vs. placebo), a reduction of glutamate and aspartate levels (p < 0.05 vs. placebo), an increase in GABA concentrations (p < 0.01 vs. placebo in severe stroke patients) and also a reduction of TBARS levels (p < 0.05 vs. placebo) in CSF by day 3. Thus, the trial suggests that sublingual application of 1.0-2. 0 g/day glycine started within 6 h after the onset of acute ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory is safe and can exert favourable clinical effects. These results will be verified in further trials with a
Cornberg, M; Manns, M P
Infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to acute hepatitis with the risk of developing liver failure. Chronic viral hepatitis may evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis and its sequels is essential. Vaccination against hepatitis A is successful in almost all individuals. Protective antibodies maintain for at least 20 years. Booster vaccinations are not necessary. Since the introduction of hepatitis A vaccines, the incidence of new HAV-infections has declined significantly. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and highly effective. Special populations such as dialysis patients or immunocompromised patients require special vaccine schedules. New vaccines with improved adjuvants are currently being tested in clinical trials. So far there is no hepatitis C vaccine on the horizon. Prophylaxis of HCV-infections relies primarily on hygiene measures. Early therapy of acute hepatitis C can prevent chronic hepatitis C. HDV-infection can only be established if HBsAg is present. Thus, prevention of hepatitis B or elimination of HBsAg means prevention of hepatitis delta. Hepatitis E vaccines have been evaluated in phase III studies. The development of HEV vaccines becomes more relevant since chronic HEV infections have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals.
Ferramosca, Emiliana; Serra, Carla; Di Felice, Antonio; Mandreoli, Marcora; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Santoro, Antonio
A patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the right renal artery underwent treatment with percutaneous approach. No complications were observed. Based on the experience described in this report, a percutaneous ultrasound guided approach can be proposed in selected patients. Renal insufficiency and allergic reactions are potential contraindications to angiography with conventional ionic iodinated contrast dye in patients who need endovascular stent-graft placement. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guided endovascular procedures may provide an alternative to overcome these limitations. We report an endovascular renal artery repair in a solitary kidney patient with an asymptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm and renal insufficiency due to phenacetin abuse. The precise placement of the stent-graft was performed with CEUS and intraprocedural angiographic fluoroscopy without the use of any nephrotoxic contrast dye. During follow-up, CEUS was used to exclude endoleaks, stent-graft failure or malposition.
... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...
Umemura, Takeji; Joshita, Satoru; Yoneda, Suguru; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Ichijo, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Ota, Masao; Tanaka, Eiji
Both IL28B gene polymorphisms and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p40 and IL-18 have been reported to affect the outcome of natural and pegylated interferon and ribavirin-treated HCV infection. To clarify their association and predictive value in treatment outcome of genotype 1 HCV-infected patients, we measured pretreatment serum IL-10, IL-12p40 and IL-18 levels using multiplex assays and determined IL28B gene polymorphisms (rs 8099917) in 52 cases with chronic hepatitis C. High baseline levels of IL-10 (P<0.001) and low levels of IL-12p40 (P<0.001) were significantly associated with a non-virological response (NVR) in our cohort. The IL28B polymorphism was tested and TT, TG or GG genotypes were found in 60%, 38% and 2% of patients, respectively, with corresponding NVR rates of 10%, 60% and 100% (P<0.001). Serum cytokine levels were significantly correlated with IL28B gene polymorphisms. When serum IL-10 levels were stratified at 5.0 pg/ml, NVR rates were 50% versus 0% (P=0.004) for the TT genotype and 87% versus 0% (P=0.001) for the TG or GG genotypes. Similarly, low IL-12p40 levels were associated with an NVR in patients with TG or GG genotypes (P=0.006). In multivariate analysis, high IL-10, low IL-12p40 and IL28B TG or GG genotypes were independently associated with an NVR. Serum IL-10 and IL-12p40 levels in combination with IL28B genotype, especially G-allele carriage, are strong predictive markers of an NVR to HCV treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin.
Vogt, B; Frey, F J
The introduction of lactulose as a new therapeutic agent for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy was a major breakthrough in this field. It was hypothesized that lactulose might prevent postoperative renal impairment after biliary surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The presumable mechanism purported was the diminished endotoxinemia by lactulose. Unfortunately, such a reno-protective effect has not been shown conclusively until now in clinical studies. In chronic renal failure lactulose is known to promote fecal excretion of water, sodium, potassium, amonium, urea, creatinine and protons. Thus, lactulose could be useful for the treatment of chronic renal failure. However, compliance to the therapy represents a major problem.
Beggs, Simon A S; Jhund, Pardeep S; Jackson, Colette E; McMurray, John J V; Gardner, Roy S
The recent Danish Study to Assess the Efficacy of ICDs in Patients with Non-ischemic Systolic Heart Failure on Mortality (DANISH) trial suggested that implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) do not reduce overall mortality in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), despite reducing sudden cardiac death. We performed an updated meta-analysis to examine the impact of ICD therapy on mortality in NICM patients. A systematic search for studies that examined the effect of ICDs on outcomes in NICM was performed. Our analysis compared patients randomised to an ICD with those randomised to no ICD, and examined the endpoint of overall mortality. Six primary prevention trials and two secondary prevention trials were identified that met the pre-specified search criteria. Using a fixed-effects model, analysis of primary prevention trials revealed a reduction in overall mortality with ICD therapy (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91). Although our updated meta-analysis demonstrates a survival benefit of ICD therapy, the effect is substantively weakened by the inclusion of the DANISH trial-which is both the largest and most recent of the analysed trials-indicating that the residual pooled benefit of ICDs may reflect the risk of sudden death in older trials which included patients treated sub-optimally by contemporary standards. As such, these data must be interpreted cautiously. The results of the DANISH trial emphasise that there is no 'one size fits all' indication for primary prevention ICDs in NICM patients, and clinicians must consider age and comorbidity on an individual basis when determining whether a defibrillator is appropriate. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Alonso de Leciñana, M; Fuentes, B; Ximénez-Carrillo, Á; Vivancos, J; Masjuan, J; Gil-Nuñez, A; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Zapata-Wainberg, G; Cruz-Culebras, A; García-Pastor, A; Díaz-Otero, F; Fandiño, E; Frutos, R; Caniego, J-L; Méndez, J-C; Fernández-Prieto, A; Bárcena-Ruiz, E; Díez-Tejedor, E
The complexity and expense of endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) can present difficulties in bringing this approach closer to the patients. A collaborative node was implemented involving three stroke centres (SCs) within the Madrid Stroke Network to provide round-the-clock access to EVT for AIS. A weekly schedule was established to ensure that at least one SC was 'on-call' to provide EVT for all those with moderate to severe AIS due to large vessel occlusion, >4.5 h from symptom onset, or within this time-window but with contraindication to, or failure of, systemic thrombolysis. The time-window for treatment was 8 h for anterior circulation stroke and <24 h in posterior stroke. Outcomes measured were re-canalization rates, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months, mortality and symptomatic intra-cranial haemorrhage (SICH). Over a 2-year period (2012-2013), 303 candidate patients with AIS were considered for EVT as per protocol, and 196 (65%) received treatment. Reasons for non-treatment were significant improvement (14%), spontaneous re-canalization (26%), clinical worsening (9%) or radiological criteria of established infarction (31%). Re-canalization rate amongst treated patients was 80%. Median delay from symptom onset to re-canalization was 323 min (p25; p75 percentiles 255; 430). Mortality was 11%; independence (mRS 0-2) was 58%; SICH was 3%. Implementation of a collaborative network to provide EVT for AIS is feasible and effective. Results are good in terms of re-canalization rates and clinical outcomes. © 2015 EAN.
Di Piero, V; Chollet, F M; MacCarthy, P; Lenzi, G L; Frackowiak, R S
The metabolic changes occurring after ischaemic stroke were measured to investigate the functional anatomy of clinical motor recovery. Positron emission tomography (PET) and the steady-state 15O technique was used to compare resting relative metabolic distributions at the onset of functional deficit with those following recovery. Ten patients were studied with repeat scans. Motor recovery was associated in some patients with an increase of relative oxygen metabolism in anatomical structures normally involved in motor function in the affected hemisphere, particularly in the cortical motor areas. In those patients without such metabolic changes in the cortex of the diseased hemisphere, relative increases in cortical metabolism in the contralateral hemisphere were associated with better motor recovery than in patients with no relative cortical metabolic increase in either hemisphere. There was no correlation between the degree of improvement in motor function and the severity of motor deficit at onset, the size and site of the lesion and the metabolic changes in the infarcted zone. No particular pattern of global metabolic changes was observed after recovery. Thus different relative patterns of metabolic recovery were seen in patients with different lesions and evidence was found for the participation of contralateral structures in the recovery process in some patients. Images PMID:1469418
Medcalf, Robert L
Nature has provided a vast array of bioactive compounds that have been exploited for either diagnostic or therapeutic use. The field of thrombosis and haemostasis in particular has enjoyed much benefit from compounds derived from nature, notably from snakes and blood-feeding animals. Indeed, the likelihood that blood-feeding animals would harbour reagents with relevant pharmacology and with potential pharmaceutical benefit in haemostasis was not too far-fetched. Blood-feeding animals including leeches and ticks have evolved a means to keep blood from clotting or to at least maintain the liquid state, and some of these have been the subject of clinical development. A more recent example of this has been the saliva of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which has proven to harbour a veritable treasure trove of novel regulatory molecules. Among the bioactive compounds present is a fibrinolytic compound that was shown over 40 years ago to be a potent plasminogen activator. Studies of this vampire bat-derived plasminogen activator, more recently referred to as desmoteplase, revealed that this protease shared a number of structural and functional similarities to the human fibrinolytic protease, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) yet harboured critically important differences that have rendered this molecule attractive for clinical development for patients with ischaemic stroke. PMID:21627637
Medcalf, Robert L
Nature has provided a vast array of bioactive compounds that have been exploited for either diagnostic or therapeutic use. The field of thrombosis and haemostasis in particular has enjoyed much benefit from compounds derived from nature, notably from snakes and blood-feeding animals. Indeed, the likelihood that blood-feeding animals would harbour reagents with relevant pharmacology and with potential pharmaceutical benefit in haemostasis was not too far-fetched. Blood-feeding animals including leeches and ticks have evolved a means to keep blood from clotting or to at least maintain the liquid state, and some of these have been the subject of clinical development. A more recent example of this has been the saliva of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which has proven to harbour a veritable treasure trove of novel regulatory molecules. Among the bioactive compounds present is a fibrinolytic compound that was shown over 40 years ago to be a potent plasminogen activator. Studies of this vampire bat-derived plasminogen activator, more recently referred to as desmoteplase, revealed that this protease shared a number of structural and functional similarities to the human fibrinolytic protease, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) yet harboured critically important differences that have rendered this molecule attractive for clinical development for patients with ischaemic stroke.
Sjogren, B; Weiner, J; Larsson, K
Aims: To compare the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) among male and female livestock and agricultural workers with gainfully employed men and women in Sweden. Methods: Male and female livestock and agricultural workers were identified in the Swedish National Censuses of 1970 and 1990 and were followed until the end of 1995. The IHD mortality among the livestock and agricultural workers was compared with that of gainfully employed men and women. Information of smoking habits was gathered from a previous national survey. Results: Male as well as female livestock workers had slightly higher standardised mortality ratios (SMR) regarding IHD compared with all gainfully employed men and women in Sweden. The SMR for male workers was 1.06 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.18). The SMR for female workers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.23). Agricultural workers had lower SMRs. Adjustments for smoking habits would further increase the SMRs by about 9% in male workers and about 5% in female workers. Conclusion: The present data suggest a slightly increased risk for IHD among both male and female livestock workers, which may be the result of organic dust exposure. PMID:12883028
Law, M. R.; Morris, J. K.; Wald, N. J.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of ischaemic heart disease caused by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and to explain why the associated excess risk is almost half that of smoking 20 cigarettes per day when the exposure is only about 1% that of smoking. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of all 19 acceptable published studies of risk of ischaemic heart disease in lifelong non-smokers who live with a smoker and in those who live with a non-smoker, five large prospective studies of smoking and ischaemic heart disease, and studies of platelet aggregation and studies of diet according to exposure to tobacco smoke. RESULTS: The relative risk of ischaemic heart disease associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was 1.30 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.38) at age 65. At the same age the estimated relative risk associated with smoking one cigarette per day was similar (1.39 (1.18 to 1.64)), while for 20 per day it was 1.78 (1.31 to 2.44). Two separate analyses indicated that non-smokers who live with smokers eat a diet that places them at a 6% higher risk of ischaemic heart disease, so the direct effect of environmental tobacco smoke is to increase risk by 23% (14% to 33%), since 1.30/1.06 = 1.23. Platelet aggregation provides a plausible and quantitatively consistent mechanism for the low dose effect. The increase in platelet aggregation produced experimentally by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke would be expected to have acute effects increasing the risk of ischaemic heart disease by 34%. CONCLUSION: Breathing other people's smoke is an important and avoidable cause of ischaemic heart disease, increasing a person's risk by a quarter. PMID:9365294
Dreier, Jens P; Woitzik, Johannes; Fabricius, Martin; Bhatia, Robin; Major, Sebastian; Drenckhahn, Chistoph; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Sarrafzadeh, Asita; Willumsen, Lisette; Hartings, Jed A; Sakowitz, Oliver W; Seemann, Jörg H; Thieme, Anja; Lauritzen, Martin; Strong, Anthony J
Progressive ischaemic damage in animals is associated with spreading mass depolarizations of neurons and astrocytes, detected as spreading negative slow voltage variations. Speculation on whether spreading depolarizations occur in human ischaemic stroke has continued for the past 60 years. Therefore, we performed a prospective multicentre study assessing incidence and timing of spreading depolarizations and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit (DIND) in patients with major subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) requiring aneurysm surgery. Spreading depolarizations were recorded by electrocorticography with a subdural electrode strip placed on cerebral cortex for up to 10 days. A total of 2110 h recording time was analysed. The clinical state was monitored every 6 h. Delayed infarcts after SAH were verified by serial CT scans and/or MRI. Electrocorticography revealed 298 spreading depolarizations in 13 of the 18 patients (72%). A clinical DIND was observed in seven patients 7.8 days (7.3, 8.2) after SAH. DIND was time-locked to a sequence of recurrent spreading depolarizations in every single case (positive and negative predictive values: 86 and 100%, respectively). In four patients delayed infarcts developed in the recording area. As in the ischaemic penumbra of animals, delayed infarction was preceded by progressive prolongation of the electrocorticographic depression periods associated with spreading depolarizations to >60 min in each case. This study demonstrates that spreading depolarizations have a high incidence in major SAH and occur in ischaemic stroke. Repeated spreading depolarizations with prolonged depression periods are an early indicator of delayed ischaemic brain damage after SAH. In view of experimental evidence and the present clinical results, we suggest that spreading depolarizations with prolonged depressions are a promising target for treatment development in SAH and ischaemic stroke.
Gozal, Y; Raphael, J; Rivo, J; Berenshtein, E; Chevion, M; Drenger, B
Reactive oxygen species are an important mediator in isoflurane-induced myocardial preconditioning. However, hydroxyl radicals are also released during reperfusion after regional ischaemia. The purpose of the present study was to test whether ischaemic preconditioning and isoflurane would influence the production of hydroxyl radicals during reperfusion. After i.v. administration of salicylate 100 mg kg(-1) and a 30 min stabilization period, New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to 40 min of regional myocardial ischaemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Ischaemic preconditioning was elicited by 5 min ischaemia followed by 10 min reperfusion (before the 40 min ischaemia). In another group, isoflurane (2.1%) was administered for 30 min, followed by 15 min washout, before the long ischaemia. Area at risk and infarct size were assessed by blue dye injection and tetrazolium chloride staining. We quantified the level of OH-mediated conversion of salicylate to its dihydrobenzoate derivatives (2,3- and 2,5-DHBAs). Normalized values of the DHBAs (ng DHBA per mg salicylate) were calculated. Mean (se) infarct size was 57 (6)% of the risk area in the untreated controls. This was significantly smaller in the ischaemic preconditioning and isoflurane groups: 22 (5) and 23 (6)% respectively. At 10 min of reperfusion, ischaemic preconditioning limited the mean increase in 2,3-DHBA to 24% from baseline, compared with 81% in control and 74% in the isoflurane group. Normalized 2,5-DHBA was maximally increased by 75% in the untreated group, 4 min after reperfusion. Ischaemic preconditioning significantly inhibited this increase (24% increase from baseline, P<0.01). However, the increase observed in the isoflurane group was not different from control (71%). As already known, ischaemic preconditioning and isoflurane markedly reduced infarct size. However, only ischaemic preconditioning decreased postischaemic production of hydroxyl radicals. These different effects suggest different protective
Harriott, A M; Heckman, M G; Rayaprolu, S; Soto-Ortolaza, A I; Diehl, N N; Kanekiyo, T; Liu, C-C; Bu, G; Malik, R; Cole, J W; Meschia, J F; Ross, O A
Low density lipoprotein receptor related proteins (LRPs) 1 and 6 have been implicated in cerebral ischaemia. In addition, genetic variation in LRP1 and LRP6 has been linked with various factors that are related to risk of ischaemic stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the association of LRP1 and LRP6 gene variants with risk of ischaemic stroke as part of the Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS). A Caucasian series (434 stroke patients, 319 controls) and an African American series (161 stroke patients, 116 controls) were included. Fourteen LRP6 variants and three LRP1 variants were genotyped and assessed for association with ischaemic stroke. In the Caucasian series, significant associations with ischaemic stroke were observed for LRP6 rs2075241 [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, P = 0.023], rs2302685 (OR 0.44, P = 0.049), rs7975614 (OR 0.07, P = 0.017), rs10492120 (OR 0.62, P = 0.036) and rs10743980 (OR 0.66, P = 0.037). Risk of ischaemic stroke was significantly lower for carriers of any of these five protective LRP6 variants (24.0% of subjects) compared to non-carriers (OR 0.57, P = 0.003). The protective association for LRP6 rs2075241 was observed at a similar magnitude across ischaemic stroke subtypes, whilst the effects of rs23022685, rs10492120 and rs10743980 were most apparent for cardioembolic and large vessel stroke. In the African American series, LRP1 rs11172113 was associated with an increased risk of stroke (OR 1.89, P = 0.006). The results of our preliminary study provide evidence that LRP6 and LRP1 variants may be associated with risk of ischaemic stroke. Validation in larger studies is warranted. © 2015 EAN.
Thijssen, Dick H J; Maxwell, Joseph; Green, Daniel J; Cable, N Timothy; Jones, Helen
What is the topic of this review? This review discusses the effects of repeated exposure of tissue to ischaemic preconditioning on cardiovascular function, the attendant adaptations and their potential clinical relevance. What advances does it highlight? We discuss the effects of episodic exposure to ischaemic preconditioning to prevent and/or attenuate ischaemic injury and summarize evidence pertaining to improvements in cardiovascular function and structure. Discussion is provided regarding the potential mechanisms that contribute to both local and systemic adaptation. Findings suggest that clinical benefits result from both the prevention of ischaemic events and the attenuation of their consequences. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) refers to the phenomenon whereby short periods of cyclical tissue ischaemia confer subsequent protection against ischaemia-induced injury. As a consequence, IPC can ameliorate the myocardial damage following infarction and can reduce infarct size. The ability of IPC to confer remote protection makes IPC a potentially feasible cardioprotective strategy. In this review, we discuss the concept that repeated exposure of tissue to IPC may increase the 'dose' of protection and subsequently lead to enhanced protection against ischaemia-induced myocardial injury. This may be relevant for clinical populations, who demonstrate attenuated efficacy of IPC to prevent or attenuate ischaemic injury (and therefore myocardial infarct size). Furthermore, episodic IPC facilitates repeated exposure to local (e.g. shear stress) and systemic stimuli (e.g. hormones, cytokines, blood-borne substances), which may induce improvement in vascular function and health. Such adaptation may contribute to prevention of cardio- and cerebrovascular events. The clinical benefits of repeated IPC may, therefore, result from both the prevention of ischaemic events and the attenuation of their consequences. We provide an overview of the literature pertaining to the impact
Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Siegel, M.E.; Harley, H.; Lee, K.
This study was designed to identify abnormalities in the hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram (SA) in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SA's were performed in 35 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), 8; acute alcoholic hepatitis superimposed on cirrhosis (A/C), 14; and cirrhosis (C), 13. Posterior flows were done with a bolus of 10 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid with computer time-activity curves over the liver and left kidney. Curves were analyzed for per cent of hepatic arterial (HA) and portal venous contribution using the slope ratio method. Hepatic arterialization was estimated from the angle of the HA component of the curve. Reversal of the relative contribution of the hepatic and portal components of total flow were seen in all groups. Although quite severe in AH, the degree of reversal could not be used to differentiate among the groups. The average HA angle in AAH was 48.3 +- 8.1, in A/C 41.5 +- 10.6, and in C 30.4 +- 12.1. In reviewing the data of only those in the acute clinical phase of AH and not the recovery phase (1 AAH, 3 A/C) and those without other causes of alteration in hepatic arterialization (1 hepatoma, 1 portalcaval shunt, 6 renal failure), the average HA angle in AAH was 50.1 +- 6.6, 45.4 +- 8.2 in A/C, and 23.2 +- 4.2 in C. In 6 with renal failure (2 C, 2AAH, 2 A/C) the HA angle ws 52.7 +- 5.7. In all cases cirrhosis could be differentiated from both A/C (P=.05) and AAH (P<.01) using the HA angle. In absence of renal failure, portal shunt, or hepatoma, P was <.01 in both comparisons.
Morrow, David A.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Brennan, Marie-Luise; de Lemos, James A.; Murphy, Sabina A.; Ruff, Christian T.; Rifai, Nader; Cannon, Christopher P.; Hazen, Stanley L.
Aims We investigated the prognostic performance of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) along with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) for non-fatal recurrent ischaemic events in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods and results We measured plasma MPO and sCD40L in 1524 patients with ACS treated with tirofiban and randomized to early invasive vs. conservative management in the TACTICS-TIMI 18 trial who survived to 180 days. Patients with elevated baseline MPO (>884 pM) were at higher risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction or rehospitalization for ACS at 30 days (9.3 vs. 4.6%, P < 0.001). In contrast, no difference was observed with higher sCD40L (>989 pg/mL, 7.6 vs. 6.3%, P = 0.31). MPO remained associated with recurrent ischaemic events after adjustment for age, ST-deviation, diabetes, prior coronary artery disease, heart failure, cTnI, hsCRP, and sCD40L (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.36–3.23, P = 0.001). This association was attenuated by 180 days (OR 1.26; 0.95–1.68). Stratification using baseline MPO, BNP, and cTnI identified a >3-fold gradient of risk. Conclusion MPO adds to BNP and cTnI for short-term risk assessment for recurrent ischaemic events in non-ST elevation ACS. sCD40L was not associated with risk in this population treated with a platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist. PMID:18339606
Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Stevens, Susanna R.; White, Harvey D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hacke, Werner; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Califf, Robert M.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Breithardt, Günter
Aims We investigated the prevalence of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and incidence of ischaemic cardiovascular (CV) events among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and results In ROCKET AF, 14 264 patients with nonvalvular AF were randomized to rivaroxaban or warfarin. The key efficacy outcome for these analyses was CV death, MI, and unstable angina (UA). This pre-specified analysis was performed on patients while on treatment. Rates are per 100 patient-years. Overall, 2468 (17%) patients had prior MI at enrollment. Compared with patients without prior MI, these patients were more likely to be male (75 vs. 57%), on aspirin at baseline (47 vs. 34%), have prior congestive heart failure (78 vs. 59%), diabetes (47 vs. 39%), hypertension (94 vs. 90%), higher mean CHADS2 score (3.64 vs. 3.43), and fewer prior strokes or transient ischaemic attacks (46 vs. 54%). CV death, MI, or UA rates tended to be lower in patients assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin [2.70 vs. 3.15; hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.00; P = 0.0509]. CV death, MI, or UA rates were higher in those with prior MI compared with no prior MI (6.68 vs. 2.19; HR 3.04, 95% CI 2.59–3.56) with consistent results for CV death, MI, or UA for rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in prior MI compared with no prior MI (P interaction = 0.10). Conclusion Prior MI was common and associated with substantial risk for subsequent cardiac events. Patients with prior MI assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin had a non-significant 14% reduction of ischaemic cardiac events. PMID:24132190
Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Stevens, Susanna R; White, Harvey D; Nessel, Christopher C; Goodman, Shaun G; Piccini, Jonathan P; Patel, Manesh R; Becker, Richard C; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hacke, Werner; Singer, Daniel E; Hankey, Graeme J; Califf, Robert M; Fox, Keith A A; Breithardt, Günter
We investigated the prevalence of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and incidence of ischaemic cardiovascular (CV) events among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. In ROCKET AF, 14 264 patients with nonvalvular AF were randomized to rivaroxaban or warfarin. The key efficacy outcome for these analyses was CV death, MI, and unstable angina (UA). This pre-specified analysis was performed on patients while on treatment. Rates are per 100 patient-years. Overall, 2468 (17%) patients had prior MI at enrollment. Compared with patients without prior MI, these patients were more likely to be male (75 vs. 57%), on aspirin at baseline (47 vs. 34%), have prior congestive heart failure (78 vs. 59%), diabetes (47 vs. 39%), hypertension (94 vs. 90%), higher mean CHADS2 score (3.64 vs. 3.43), and fewer prior strokes or transient ischaemic attacks (46 vs. 54%). CV death, MI, or UA rates tended to be lower in patients assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin [2.70 vs. 3.15; hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-1.00; P = 0.0509]. CV death, MI, or UA rates were higher in those with prior MI compared with no prior MI (6.68 vs. 2.19; HR 3.04, 95% CI 2.59-3.56) with consistent results for CV death, MI, or UA for rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in prior MI compared with no prior MI (P interaction = 0.10). Prior MI was common and associated with substantial risk for subsequent cardiac events. Patients with prior MI assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin had a non-significant 14% reduction of ischaemic cardiac events.
Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok
The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Does inflammation predispose to recurrent vascular events after recent transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke? The North West of England transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke (NORTHSTAR) study.
Selvarajah, Johann R; Smith, Craig J; Hulme, Sharon; Georgiou, Rachel; Sherrington, Charles; Staniland, John; Illingworth, Karen J; Jury, Francine; Payton, Antony; Ollier, William E; Vail, Andy; Rothwell, Nancy J; Hopkins, Stephen J; Tyrrell, Philippa J
Inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis and outcome of ischaemic injury. Poststroke inflammation is associated with outcome but it remains unclear whether such inflammation precedes or results from ischaemic injury. We hypothesised that inflammatory markers are associated with an increased risk of recurrent vascular events soon after transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke. This was a multicentre, prospective, nested case-control study. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-1-receptor antagonist and fibrinogen, leucocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and inflammatory gene allele frequencies were analysed in 711 patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke. Cases were defined by the incidence of one or more recurrent vascular events during the three-month follow-up. Association of inflammatory markers with case-status was determined using conditional logistic regression. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin-1-receptor antagonist and interleukin-6 were not associated with case-status. In secondary analyses, only erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly associated with case-status (odds ratio 1·39, 95% confidence interval 1·03-1·85; P=0·03), but this effect did not persist after adjustment for smoking and past history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in four inflammatory genes (interleukin-6, fibrinogen, P-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) were nominally associated with case-status. Circulating inflammatory markers were not associated with recurrent vascular events. Nominally significant associations between genetic markers and case-status will require replication. These data provide little evidence for an inflammatory state predisposing to stroke and other vascular events in a susceptible population. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.
Heloury, Y; Valayer, J; Hay, J M; Gauthier, F; Alagille, D
88 porto systemic shunts were performed between 1977-1985; 14 failures were observed. These failures occurred in ten children with extra-hepatic portal obstruction and in four with intra-hepatic obstruction. The treatment of these failures was different in these two groups: 7 reoperations in the extra-hepatic obstruction, none in the intra-hepatic. That reoperation is often not suitable in the intrahepatic obstruction because of the hepatic failure. The use of sclerotherapy or the beta receptor blocking agents is discussed in this group.
Harston, George W. J.; Tee, Yee Kai; Blockley, Nicholas; Okell, Thomas W.; Thandeswaran, Sivarajan; Shaya, Gabriel; Sheerin, Fintan; Cellerini, Martino; Payne, Stephen; Jezzard, Peter; Chappell, Michael
The original concept of the ischaemic penumbra suggested imaging of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism would be required to identify tissue that may benefit from intervention. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging, a chemical exchange saturation transfer technique, has been used to derive cerebral intracellular pH in preclinical stroke models and has been proposed as a metabolic marker of ischaemic penumbra. In this proof of principle clinical study, we explored the potential of this pH-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique at tissue-level. Detailed voxel-wise analysis was performed on data from a prospective cohort of 12 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Voxels within ischaemic core had a more severe intracellular acidosis than hypoperfused tissue recruited to the final infarct (P < 0.0001), which in turn was more acidotic than hypoperfused tissue that survived (P < 0.0001). In addition, when confined to the grey matter perfusion deficit, intracellular pH (P < 0.0001), but not cerebral blood flow (P = 0.31), differed between tissue that infarcted and tissue that survived. Within the presenting apparent diffusion coefficient lesion, intracellular pH differed between tissue with early apparent diffusion lesion pseudonormalization and tissue with true radiographic recovery. These findings support the need for further investigation of pH-weighted imaging in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. PMID:25564491
Harston, George W J; Tee, Yee Kai; Blockley, Nicholas; Okell, Thomas W; Thandeswaran, Sivarajan; Shaya, Gabriel; Sheerin, Fintan; Cellerini, Martino; Payne, Stephen; Jezzard, Peter; Chappell, Michael; Kennedy, James
The original concept of the ischaemic penumbra suggested imaging of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism would be required to identify tissue that may benefit from intervention. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging, a chemical exchange saturation transfer technique, has been used to derive cerebral intracellular pH in preclinical stroke models and has been proposed as a metabolic marker of ischaemic penumbra. In this proof of principle clinical study, we explored the potential of this pH-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique at tissue-level. Detailed voxel-wise analysis was performed on data from a prospective cohort of 12 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Voxels within ischaemic core had a more severe intracellular acidosis than hypoperfused tissue recruited to the final infarct (P < 0.0001), which in turn was more acidotic than hypoperfused tissue that survived (P < 0.0001). In addition, when confined to the grey matter perfusion deficit, intracellular pH (P < 0.0001), but not cerebral blood flow (P = 0.31), differed between tissue that infarcted and tissue that survived. Within the presenting apparent diffusion coefficient lesion, intracellular pH differed between tissue with early apparent diffusion lesion pseudonormalization and tissue with true radiographic recovery. These findings support the need for further investigation of pH-weighted imaging in patients with acute ischaemic stroke.
Yamada, Yohei; Hoshino, Ken; Irie, Rie; Tomita, Hirofumi; Kato, Mototoshi; Shimojima, Naoki; Fujino, Akihiro; Hibi, Taizo; Shinoda, Masahiro; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Tanabe, Minoru; Sakamoto, Michiie; Kitagawa, Yuko; Kuroda, Tatsuo
The outcome of LTx in pediatric patients with FHF of unknown etiology remains inferior to that of LTx in pediatric patients with cholestatic diseases. A higher incidence of steroid-resistant severe rejection has been increasingly recognized among the responsible factors. We assessed the efficacy of the administration of steroids and PGE1 via PVI in the management of LTx for FHF in pediatric patients. In our early cohort (1995-2007), seven patients who underwent LTx for FHF of unknown etiology were treated with conventional immunosuppressive therapy (calcineurin inhibitor and a steroid). Seven of eight grafts (one patient underwent re-LTx) sustained CV and/or CPV associated with ACR, and four patients died of a graft failure or infectious complications that were associated with the treatment for rejection. Of note, the pathological incidence of CV/CPV was significantly higher in recipients with FHF of unknown etiology than in recipients with biliary cholestatic disease during the same study period (87.5% vs. 13.7%, p < 0.00001). From 2008, three patients underwent LTx for cryptogenic FHF with PVI and conventional IS. PVI was well tolerated, and no relevant severe complications were observed. More strikingly, the patients who received PVI overcame biopsy-proven immunological events and are all currently doing well with excellent graft function after more than five yr. We conclude that PVI is technically safe and effective for preventing severe rejection in pediatric patients who undergo LTx for FHF of unknown etiology and that it does not increase the risk of fatal infectious complications. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ganai, Ajaz A. Khan, Athar A. Malik, Zainul A. Farooqi, Humaira
Genistein is an isoflavanoid abundantly found in soy. It has been found to play an important role in the prevention of various chronic diseases including cancer. In this study, we evaluated potential therapeutic properties of Genistein against D-Galactosamine (D-GalN) induced inflammation and hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN (700 mg/kgBW). Genistein (5 mg/kgBW/day) was given as pre-treatment for 30 days via intra-gastric route followed by D-GalN (700 mg/kgBW) injection. The hepatoprotective and curative effects of Genistein were evident from a significant decrease in the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as well as prevention of histological damage by pre-treatment of Genistein. Genistein pre-treatment significantly inhibited the increased protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby reducing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE) levels, respectively. In addition Genistein significantly suppressed the production of D-GalN-induced proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β. These inhibitory effects were associated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) activation, IKKα/β and Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation by Genistein in D-GalN-treated animals. In conclusion, our results suggest that Genistein may serve as a potential supplement in the prevention of hepatic and inflammatory diseases. Furthermore Genistein is able to maintain the redox potential and strengthens the antioxidant defense system of a cell. - Highlights: • First study to evaluate hepatoprotective effect of Genistein against D-GalN • Genistein prevents oxidative damage induced by D-GalN. • Genistein blunts iNOS, COX-2, NF-ĸB, IKKα/β and MAPK expression. • Genistein prevents D-GalN induced apoptosis and
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406
Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, B; Nadziakiewicz, P; Zakliczynski, M; Szczurek, W; Chraponski, J; Zembala, M; Gasior, M
The evaluation of prognosis and determination of a long-term treatment strategy is an important element of management in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic value of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and its modifications, MELD and serum sodium (MELD-Na) and MELD excluding the international normalized ratio (MELD-XI), as well as other independent risk factors for death during a 4-year follow-up. We analyzed retrospectively 143 patients with advanced HF, evaluated for heart transplant between 2009 and 2011. Patients using warfarin were excluded from the study. The long-term follow-up data were obtained during follow-up visits and/or phone contact with the patients or their families. The age of the patients was 54 (48-59) years and 88.1% of patients were male. Mortality rate during the follow-up period was 49%. The MELD scores (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; P < .001), as well as serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; HR, 1.01; P < .01) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; HR, 1.01; P < .05) levels, were independent risk factors for death. Receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated that a MELD cutoff of 10 (area under the curve [AUC], 0.756; P < .0001], MELD-XI cutoff of 13.0 (AUC, 0.720; P < .0001), MELD-Na cutoff of 13.0 (AUC, 0.813; P < .0001), hs-CRP cutoff of 4.02 (AUC, 0.686; P < .001), and NT-proBNP cutoff of 1055 (AUC, 0.722; P < .001) were the best predictive values as predictors of death. MELD, MELD-Na, and MELD-XI scores are prognostic factors for death during a 4-year follow-up. A high MELD score is an independent prognostic factor for death. NT-proBNP and hs-CRP serum concentrations are other independent factors influencing death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To test the hypothesis that alcohol consumption is inversely related to ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality at the population level. Most individual-level studies find a reduced risk of IHD with a moderate level of alcohol consumption, but it is as yet unknown whether this association also exists at the aggregate level. The study period was approximately 1950 to 1995; 14 EU countries and Norway were included. Time series analyses on different data were utilized, and age-standardized IHD mortality for men and women in the age groups 30-44, 45-59, 60-74 and 30-74 years was measured. The effects of alcohol (sales per capita) were controlled for a weighted lag of per capita sales of cigarettes. There was a random distribution of insignificant negative and positive alcohol effect estimates. A slight indication of a cardioprotective effect of alcohol among 30- to 44-year-old women in high consumption countries could be observed (significant for Italy). Mean alcohol effect estimates were nearly exactly zero (absent alcohol effect) among men and weakly positive among women. Because changes in cigarette consumption were often significantly and positively related to subsequent changes in IHD mortality, poor validity in the IHD time series cannot explain the unsystematic findings. Including a 6-year weighted lag of alcohol consumption changed the weak positive effect among women to an absent alcohol effect. A brief analysis of abstinence rates indicated no particular relationship to IHD mortality. The alleged cardioprotective alcohol effect is absent at the population level, and great caution should be taken concerning alcohol policies for cardioprotective purposes.
Cucchiara, B; Kasner, S; Wolk, D; Lyden, P; Knappertz, V; Ashwood, T; Odergren, T; Nordlund, A
Background: Previous reports have suggested left hemispheric dominance for maintaining consciousness, although there is controversy over this claim. Objective: To compare early impairment of level of consciousness between patients with right and left hemispheric stroke. Methods: Data from 564 patients with ischaemic stroke enrolled in the placebo arm of a trial of a putative neuroprotectant were analysed. All patients had major hemispheric stroke with cortical dysfunction, visual field deficit, and limb weakness, with symptom onset within 12 hours of enrolment. Patients were prospectively evaluated on a predefined scale (1–6; 1 = fully awake, higher scores representing greater impairment) to measure level of consciousness at multiple time points over the initial 24 hours after presentation. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) stroke scale score at presentation and infarct volume at 30 days were determined. Results: Some degree of impairment in level of consciousness was observed in 409 of the 564 patients (73%). Median maximum sedation score was 2 for both right and left hemispheric stroke (p = 0.91). Mean sedation score over 24 hours was 1.5 for both right and left stroke (p = 0.75). There was no difference between level of consciousness scores in right and left stroke at any individual time point during the 24 hour monitoring period. No association between side and impairment in level of consciousness was seen after adjustment for stroke severity and infarct volume. Conclusions: In contrast to previous reports, there was no evidence for hemispheric dominance for consciousness in the setting of a major hemispheric stroke. PMID:12810773
Kristiansen, Jacobina; Grove, Erik L; Rise, Nina; Neergaard-Petersen, Søs; Würtz, Morten; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Hvas, Anne-Mette
Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) reduces infarct size and may improve prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To explore the potential mechanisms, we investigated the effects of RIC on coagulation and fibrinolysis. Interventional crossover study including 30 healthy drug-naïve males. Participants were exposed to a sham intervention (visit 1) and to RIC (visit 2 and 3) induced by intermittent arm ischaemia through four cycles of 5-min inflation of a blood pressure cuff followed by 5-min deflation. Prior to visit 3, all participants received aspirin 75mg daily for seven days. Blood samples were obtained at baseline as well as 5 and 45min after intervention. Whole blood coagulation was assessed by thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombin generation. Fibrinolysis was evaluated by clot turbidity-lysis, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). No differences were found in clot initiation, clot propagation or clot strength evaluated by ROTEM® (all p-values≥0.98). During aspirin treatment, clot initiation and clot propagation decreased after RIC evaluated by ROTEM® EXTEM® clotting time (p=0.04) and ROTEM® EXTEM® maximum velocity (p=0.03). After sham and RIC, thrombin generation declined as evaluated by reduced endogenous thrombin potential (RIC: p=0.001) and peak (RIC: p=0.01). After RIC during aspirin treatment, changes in thrombin generation were inconsistent; increased peak (p=0.04) and time to peak (p<0.001) and a decrease in lag-time (p<0.001). Clot lysis time was prolonged both after sham and after RIC (p<0.001). After RIC, PAI-1 levels declined (p=0.03), but t-PA levels also declined after all interventions (p-values≤0.04). RIC did not have substantial effects on coagulation or fibrinolysis compared to sham. Overall, aspirin did not influence the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kawaguchi, Y; Nomura, Y; Nagai, M; Koike, D; Sakuraoka, Y; Ishida, T; Ishizawa, T; Kokudo, N; Tanaka, N
Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has facilitated liver resection with excision of hepatic veins by estimating the liver volume of portal and hepatic venous territories. However, 3D imaging cannot be used for real-time navigation to determine the liver transection line. This study assessed the value of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging with hepatic vein clamping for navigation during liver transection. Consecutive patients who underwent liver resection with excision of major hepatic veins between 2012 and 2013 were evaluated using ICG fluorescence imaging after clamping veins and injecting ICG. Regional fluorescence intensity (FI) values of non-veno-occlusive regions (FINon ), veno-occlusive regions (FIVO ) and ischaemic regions (FIIS ) were calculated using luminance analysing software. Of the 21 patients, ten, four and seven underwent limited resection, monosegmentectomy/sectionectomy and hemihepatectomy respectively, with excision of major hepatic veins. Median veno-occlusive liver volume was 80 (range 30-458) ml. Fluorescence imaging visualized veno-occlusive regions as territories with lower FI compared with non-veno-occlusive regions, and ischaemic regions as territories with no fluorescence after intravenous ICG injection. Median FIIS /FINon was lower than median FIVO /FINon (0·22 versus 0·59; P = 0·002). There were no deaths in hospital or within 30 days, and only one major complication. ICG fluorescence imaging with hepatic vein clamping visualized non-veno-occlusive, veno-occlusive and ischaemic regions. This technique may guide liver transection by intraoperative navigation, enhancing the safety and accuracy of liver resection. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Sakata, Hiroyuki; Narasimhan, Purnima; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Maier, Carolina M; Wakai, Takuma; Chan, Pak H
Transplantation of neural stem cells provides a promising therapy for stroke. Its efficacy, however, might be limited because of massive grafted-cell death after transplantation, and its insufficient capability for tissue repair. Interleukin 6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders. Paradoxically, interleukin 6 promotes a pro-survival signalling pathway through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. In this study, we investigated whether cellular reprogramming of neural stem cells with interleukin 6 facilitates the effectiveness of cell transplantation therapy in ischaemic stroke. Neural stem cells harvested from the subventricular zone of foetal mice were preconditioned with interleukin 6 in vitro and transplanted into mouse brains 6 h or 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Interleukin 6 preconditioning protected the grafted neural stem cells from ischaemic reperfusion injury through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-mediated upregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase, a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme. In addition, interleukin 6 preconditioning induced secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor from the neural stem cells through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis in the ischaemic brain. Furthermore, transplantation of interleukin 6-preconditioned neural stem cells significantly attenuated infarct size and improved neurological performance compared with non-preconditioned neural stem cells. This interleukin 6-induced amelioration of ischaemic insults was abolished by transfecting the neural stem cells with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 small interfering RNA before transplantation. These results indicate that preconditioning with interleukin 6, which reprograms neural stem cells to tolerate oxidative stress after ischaemic reperfusion
Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Pannicke, Thomas; Karl, Anett; Bringmann, Andreas; Reichenbach, Andreas; Szeliga, Monika; Hilgier, Wojciech; Wrzosek, Antoni; Szewczyk, Adam; Albrecht, Jan
Brain edema in acute hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is due mainly to swelling of astrocytes. Efflux of potassium is implicated in the prevention of glial swelling under hypoosmotic conditions. We investigated whether pathogenic factors of HE, glutamine (Gln) and/or ammonia, induce alterations in the expression of glial potassium channels (Kir4.1, Kir2.1) and Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) in rat cerebral cortex and cultured rat cortical astrocytes and whether these alterations have consequences for potassium efflux and astrocytic swelling. Thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure in rats resulted in significant decreases in the Kir4.1 mRNA and protein contents of cerebral cortex, whereas expression of Kir2.1 and NKCC1 remained unaltered. Incubation of primary cortical astrocytes for 72 hr in the presence of Gln (5 mM), but not of ammonia (5 mM or 10 mM), induced a decrease in the levels of Kir4.1 mRNA and protein. Similarly to incubation with Gln, reduction of Kir4.1 mRNA expression by RNA interference caused swelling of astrocytes as shown by confocal imaging followed by 3D computational analysis. Gln reduced the astrocytic uptake of D-[(3) H]aspartate, but, in contrast to the earlier reported effect of ammonia, this reduction was not accompanied by decreased expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 mRNA. Both Gln and ammonia decreased hypoosmolarity-induced (86) Rb efflux from the cells, but the effect was more pronounced with Gln. The results indicate that down-regulation of Kir4.1 may mediate distinct aspects of Gln-induced astrocytic dysfunction in HE.
Guo, Yu-Ming; Li, Feng-Yi; Gong, Man; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He; Li, Jun; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Li-Fu; Zhang, Xiao-Feng
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Yinchen Zhufu Decoction (, YCZFD) in the treatment of acute-on-chronic liver failure caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV-ACLF) with cold pattern in Chinese medicine (CM). This is a multi-center randomized controlled trial of integrative treatment of CM and Western medicine (WM) for the management of HBV-ACLF patients. A total of 200 HBV-ACLF patients with cold pattern were equally randomly assigned to receive YCZFD and WM (integrative treatment) or WM conventional therapy alone respectively for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the mortality for HBV-ACLF patients. Secondary outcome measures included Model for End-Stage Liver disease (MELD) score, liver biochemical function, coagulation function and complications. Adverse events during treatment were reported. The mortality was decreased 14.28% in the integrative treatment group compared with WM group (χ(2) =6.156, P=0.013). The integrative treatment was found to signifificantly improve the MELD score (t=2.353, P=0.020). There were statistically signifificant differences in aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin and prothrombin time between the two groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The complications of ascites (χ(2)=9.033, P=0.003) and spontaneous bacteria peritonitis (χ(2)=4.194, P=0.041) were improved signifificantly in the integrative treatment group. No serious adverse event was reported. The integrative treatment of CM and WM was effective and safe for HBV-ACLF patients with cold pattern in CM. The Chinese therapeutic principle "treating cold pattern with hot herbs" remains valuable to the clinical therapy. (Trial registration No. ChiCTR-TRC-10000766).
Yu, Jian-Wu; Sun, Li-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Hua; Li, Shu-Chen
We used the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system to predict the 3-month prognosis of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) after plasma exchange (PE) and lamivudine treatment, and studied the predictive factors on the prognosis of patients. A total of 280 patients treated with lamivudine were randomly divided into PE and control groups. The relationship between mortality and influential factors of patients was studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. The mortality (49.4%) of patients in the PE group with a MELD score from 30 to 40 was lower than that (86.1%) of the control group (chi(2) = 24.546, P < 0.01). The total bilirubin (TBIL) rebound rate of the dead group was significantly higher than that of the survival group (P < 0.01). Univariate analysis showed that mortality was significantly related to age (P = 0.003), treatment method (P = 0.000), TBIL (P = 0.010), MELD score (P = 0.001), international normalised ratio (P = 0.014), pretreatment HBV-DNA load (P = 0.000), decline of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA load during therapy (P = 0.013), encephalopathy (P = 0.019), and hepatorenal syndrome (P = 0.026). In multivariate analysis, MELD scores of 30-40, treatment method (P = 0.003), pretreatment HBV-DNA load (P = 0.009), decline of HBV-DNA load during therapy (P = 0.016), and encephalopathy (P = 0.015) were independent predictors of mortality; for MELD scores above 40, only the MELD score (P = 0.012) was an independent predictive. PE significantly decreased the mortality of patients with a MELD score of 30-40. For ACLF patients with a MELD score of 30-40, a low viral load pretreatment and quick decline of HBV-DNA load are good predictors for the survival with PE and lamivudine treatment.
Mihalache, Carmen; Dumitrache, Dana
Hemangiomatosis of the liver is growing in the last decades, because of the abdominal imaging progresses: brain CT scan, MRI. In the presented case, the onset was with symptoms and biochemical disorders characteristic for acute viral hepatitis, with negative serological markers for the A and B hepatitis viruses. The persistence of the clinical symptoms and of the hepatic and biliary retention tests, determined the abdominal echography; which orient the diagnosis to vascular tumour with liver metastasis. Intraoperatively was found: diffuse hemangiomatosis of the liver. The patient didn't benefit from liver transplantation and died due to subfulminant hepatic failure.
Kahn, S Lowell; McClain, Jonathan; Kaufman, Jeffrey L
A 66-year-old man, with an abnormal porta hepatis, consistent with tumor or inflammation, developed massive bleeding from one of numerous hepatic artery aneurysms, and coil embolization achieved control of bleeding. He died of subsequent multisystem organ failure, and the most likely diagnosis was either polyarteritis nodosa or segmental arterial mediolysis. Although the dual hepatic blood supply allows a degree of arterial embolization, this case demonstrates the risks associated with large territory hepatic arterial embolization in the presence of hemodynamic instability. We discuss the management issues related to massive hepatic bleeding when no surgical approach is possible.
Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Doughty, Robert N; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian A; Earle, Nikki; Tribouilloy, Christophe; McMurray, John J V; Swedberg, Karl; Køber, Lars; Berry, Colin; Squire, Iain
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender and survival of patients with heart failure, using data from both randomized trials and observational studies, and the relative contribution of age, left ventricular systolic function, aetiology, and diabetes to differences in prognosis between men and women. Data from 31 studies (41 949 patients; 28 052 men, 13 897 women) from the Meta-Analysis Global Group In Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC) individual patient meta-analysis were used. We performed survival analysis to assess the association of gender with mortality, adjusting for predictors of mortality, including age, reduced or preserved ejection fraction (EF), and ischaemic or non-ischaemic aetiology. Women were older [70.5 ( standard deviation 12.1) vs. 65.6 (standard deviation 11.6) years], more likely to have a history of hypertension (49.9% vs. 40.0%), and less likely to have a history of ischaemic heart disease (46.3% vs. 58.7%) and reduced EF (62.6% vs. 81.6%) compared with men. During 3 years follow-up, 3521 (25%) women and 7232 (26%) men died. After adjustment, male gender was an independent predictor of mortality, and the better prognosis associated with female gender was more marked in patients with heart failure of non-ischaemic, compared with ischaemic, aetiology (P-value for interaction = 0.03) and in patients without, compared with those with, diabetes (P-value for interaction <0.0001). This large, individual patient data meta-analysis has demonstrated that survival is better for women with heart failure compared with men, irrespective of EF. This survival benefit is slightly more marked in non-ischaemic heart failure but is attenuated by concomitant diabetes.
Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tao, Tao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Chen, Yundai; Lip, Gregory Y. H.
Background The clinical epidemiology of stroke has been widely investigated in Caucasian populations, but the changes over time in the proportion of ischaemic to haemorrhagic strokes is less clear, especially in the Chinese population. Aims Our objective was to study the determinants and time trends for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, in relation to age, in a large Chinese population cohort. Methods Using a medical insurance database in the southwest of China from 2001 to 2012, time trends in age-adjusted ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidence and the contributing risk factors associated with age were investigated. Results Among 425,901 individuals without prior stroke (52.4% male, median age 54), the rate of ischaemic stroke (per 1000 patient-years) decreased between 2002–2007, then remained broadly similar between 2008–2012. The rate of haemorrhagic stroke showed a similar trend, being approximately 1.3–1.9 from 2008–2012. Compared to patients age<65, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke incidences (rate, 95% confidential interval, CI) were higher in the elderly population (age <65 versus age ≥65: ischaemic: 3.64, 3.33–4.00, vs 14.33, 14.01–14.60; haemorrhagic: 1.09, 1.00–1.10 vs 2.52,2.40–2.70, respectively, both p<0.001). There were no significant differences in haemorrhagic stroke rates between the elderly and the very elderly population. Ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke shared similar risk factors (age, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), vascular disease, and diabetes mellitus) (all p<0.05). In subjects age<75 years, CAD (7.17, 4.14–12.37) and diabetes mellitus (3.27, 2.42–4.42) contributed most to the developing of haemorrhagic stroke (all p<0.001). Amongst the very elderly, vascular disease (2.24, 1.49–3.37) was an additional major risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke, together with CAD and diabetes mellitus (all p<0.001). Conclusion In this large Chinese cohort, there was an increased risk of ischaemic stroke compared
Ray, Shuvanan; Chattopadhyay, Bhabani Prasad; Ghosh, A K; Ray, Shilanjan; Kundu, Subhas; Deb, Pradip; Bannerjee, Amal
Sucessful reperfusion therapy in AMI improves LV systolic function. Success in thrombolytic therapy is directly related to the ischaemic time. Our aim in the present study was to observe the importance of ischaemic time as a predictor of left ventricular systolic function in patients undergoing PPCI. In addition, the contribution of presentation delay in determining the ischaemic time in the Indian scenario was also observed. The present pilot study was carried out on 48 Indian patients (Male-40) of STEMI (Killip class I & II) undergoing primary PCI in last 2 yrs. Suggestive chest pain, ECG evidence of STEMI coming within 12 hrs were the inclusion criteria. Patients coming after 12 hours without ongoing chest pain, Killip class III & IV, the patients who were thrombolysed outside and the patients with prior PCland/or CABG were excluded from the study. Cardiac echodoppler study was done in every patient during followup at one month.Every patient received pre and peri procedural abciximab infusion and thrombosuction was done in all before deployment of BMS during the transfemoral primary PCI. Data analysis revealed mean age was 57.6 yrs, male preponderance (80%),diabetes (35%),hypertension (61%), Smoking (61%), average total ischaemic time 7.6 +/- 3.78 hours, average presentation delay 6.26 +/- 3.77 hrs, average door to balloon time 60 +/- 14 mins, SVD (69%), LAD involvement(60%). Multivariate regression analysis without considering any other factor showed predicted LV Systolic function one month post PPCI to be 74.08%. Mean LVEF: 58.2%. Most interesting observation is 0.63% reduction of predicted LVEF for each hour increment of ischaemic time. Also LAD occlusion is associated with 4.91% reduction of predicted LVEF compared to other vessel(s) involvement. All the 48 patients who underwent PPCI not only survived but also had good LV Systolic function one month post PPCI. Ischaemic time is an important predictor of LV Systolic function even after PPCI. lncrease in
Emdin, M; Taddei, A; Varanini, M; Raciti, M; Pola, S; Marchesi, C; L'Abbate, A
The current role of ECG and signal monitoring in the diagnosis of Ischaemic Heart Disease is outlined in relation to imaging techniques giving accurate information on myocardial anatomy and function. ECG monitoring during stress testing remains the first step non-invasive method providing pathophysiological information. Long term continuous monitoring of the ECG and of other signals (e.g. arterial blood pressure and respiration) is commonly used to control patients with suspected or ascertained IHD. Progress of technology and of signal processing methods are driving the exploitation of signal information for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy control of ischaemic patients.
Gove, C D; Wardle, E N; Williams, R
The activities of the lysosomal enzymes acid and neutral protease, N-acetylglucosaminidase, and acid phosphatase were measured in the serum of patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Acid protease (cathepsin D) activity was increased about tenfold in patients who died and nearly fourfold in those who survived fulminant hepatic failure after paracetamol overdose, whereas activities were increased equally in patients with fulminant hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis whether or not they survived. A correlation was found between serum acid protease activity and prothrombin time, and the increase in cathepsin D activity was sustained over several days compared with aspartate aminotransferase, which showed a sharp early peak and then a fall. Circulating lysosomal proteases can damage other organs, and measurement of their activity may therefore be of added value in assessing prognosis in this condition. PMID:7007443
Fonseca, Paulo; Dias, Adelaide; Gonçalves, Helena; Albuquerque, Aníbal; Gama, Vasco
Acute hepatitis is a very rare, but potentially fatal, adverse effect of intravenous amiodarone. We present a case of an 88-year-old man with history of ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and severely depressed left ventricular function that was admitted to our coronary care unit with diagnosis of decompensated heart failure and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. A few hours after the beginning of intravenous amiodarone he developed an acute hepatitis. There was a completely recovery within the next days after amiodarone withdrawn and other causes of acute hepatitis have been ruled out. This case highlights the need for close monitoring of hepatic function during amiodarone infusion in order to identify any potential hepatotoxicity and prevent a fatal outcome. Oral amiodarone is, apparently, a safe option in these patients.
Neri, S; Pulvirenti, D; Patamia, I; Zoccolo, A; Castellino, P
We report an unusual case of transfusion-transmitted malaria which remained undiagnosed for several months in an Italian woman splenectomised and polytransfused for thalassaemia major. The infecting species was Plasmodium malariae, and the patient developed acute renal failure, severe thrombocytopenia, and hepatic failure. Treatment with chlorochine was followed by a slow, but complete recovery of renal function.
Lerner, Susan M
Hepatitis C is a widespread problem, and the prevalence is higher in patients on hemodialysis than in the general population. In addition, hepatitis C reduces survival in dialysis patients and renal-transplant recipients. Kidney transplantation offers a survival advantage to those patients with chronic hepatitis C infection faced with the alternative of remaining on dialysis. Kidney transplantation should therefore be considered the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease and hepatitis C infection. However, these patients need to be chosen appropriately, and there are no well-established guidelines for the workup or selection of these of these patients. Liver biopsy is an essential tool to determine the degree of fibrosis in these patients and also will prove useful in the management of the patients after transplantation. Transplantation of kidneys from hepatitis C-positive donors to hepatitis C-positive recipients has been shown to be safe and confers a significant advantage in terms of waiting time in this population where death on the waiting list is significant. Treatment prior to transplantation should be considered by the hepatology team, although it is often more difficult to treat given the constraints of a patient in renal failure. Although interferon treatment in hepatitis C-positive kidney-transplant candidates is recommended, treatment posttransplant remains controversial. Simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation should be considered for those candidates with evidence of portal hypertension or decompensated cirrhosis. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.
Åberg, N David; Stanne, Tara M; Jood, Katarina; Schiöler, Linus; Blomstrand, Christian; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Isgaard, Jörgen; Jern, Christina; Svensson, Johan
Objectives Erythropoietin (EPO), which is inversely associated with blood haemoglobin (Hb), exerts neuroprotective effects in experimental ischaemic stroke (IS). However, clinical treatment trials have so far been negative. Here, in patients with IS, we analysed whether serum EPO is associated with (1) initial stroke severity, (2) recovery and (3) functional outcome. Design Prospective. Controls available at baseline. Setting A Swedish hospital-initiated study with outpatient follow-up after 3 months. Participants Patients (n=600; 64% males, mean age 56 years, controls n=600) were included from the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on IS (SAHLSIS). Primary and secondary outcome measures In addition to EPO and Hb, initial stroke severity was assessed by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) and compared with SSS after 3 months (follow-up) as a measure of recovery. Functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at follow-up. Serum EPO and SSS were divided into quintiles in the multivariate regression analyses. Results Serum EPO was 21% and 31% higher than in controls at the acute phase of IS and follow-up, respectively. In patients, acute serum EPO was 19.5% higher in severe versus mild IS. The highest acute EPO quintile adjusted for sex, age and Hb was associated with worse stroke severity quintile (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.87), better stroke recovery quintile (OR 1.93, CI 1.09 to 3.41) and unfavourable mRS 3–6 (OR 2.59, CI 1.15 to 5.80). However, the fourth quintile of EPO increase (from acute to follow-up) was associated with favourable mRS 0–2 (OR 3.42, CI 1.46 to 8.03). Only the last association withstood full adjustment. Conclusions The crude associations between EPO and worse stroke severity and outcome lost significance after multivariate modelling. However, in patients in whom EPO increased, the association with favourable outcome remained after adjustment for multiple covariates. PMID:26916692
Li, Xia; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Si, Jiahui; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Ren, Xiaolan; Jiang, Ge; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming
To prospectively examine the association between tea consumption and the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Prospective study using the China Kadoorie Biobank; participants from 10 areas across China were enrolled during 2004-2008 and followed up until 31 December 2013. After excluding participants with cancer, heart disease and stroke at baseline, the present study included 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30-79 years at baseline. Information on IHD incidence was collected through disease registries and the new national health insurance databases. During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, we documented 24 665 (7.19 cases/1000 person-years) incident IHD cases and 3959 (1.13 cases/1000 person-years) major coronary events (MCEs). Tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of IHD and MCE. In the whole cohort, compared with participants who never consumed tea during the past 12 months, the multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for less than daily and daily tea consumers were 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00) and 0.92 (0.88 to 0.95) for IHD, 0.92 (0.85 to 1.00) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.99) for MCE. No linear trends in the HRs across the amount of tea were observed in daily consumers for IHD and MCE (PLinear >0.05). The inverse association between tea consumption and IHD was stronger in rural (PInteraction 0.006 for IHD, <0.001 for MCE), non-obese (PInteraction 0.012 for MCE) and non-diabetes participants (PInteraction 0.004 for IHD). In this large prospective study, daily tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of IHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...
... MW, Sheffield JS. Prevention and management of viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America . 2014;41(4):573–592.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chapter 9: Hepatitis A. In Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S, eds. ...
Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%–95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. PMID:25732034
Riviello, J J; Halligan, G E; Dunn, S P; Widzer, S J; Foley, C M; Breningstall, G N; Grover, W D
Plasmapheresis is used for treating the complications of liver failure. We performed plasmapheresis on 6 children with hepatic encephalopathy resulting from acute hepatic failure and prospectively assessed its effects on neurologic and electrophysiologic (electroencephalography and evoked potentials) function. Clinical improvement was observed in 3 of 6 patients; changes in the serum ammonia value or the results of initial electrophysiologic tests did not predict the patient response. Two patients underwent transplantation after neurologic improvement was produced by plasmapheresis; however, despite plasmapheresis, 4 patients progressed to brain death. Our data demonstrate that plasmapheresis may transiently improve the encephalopathy of acute hepatic failure but is not curative alone. Therefore, plasmapheresis may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of liver failure, potentially improving the pretransplantation status of the patient.
Milocco, I; Schlossman, D; William-Olsson, G; Appelgren, L K
Haemodynamic stability and left ventricular function (LVF) during induction of anaesthesia and sternotomy were compared in three groups of patients with ischaemic heart disease, angiographically classified as having good, poor and depressed LVF. Anaesthesia was given with fentanyl-droperidol and nitrous oxide. The group with good LVF showed large variations in arterial pressure and heart rate between stimulated and unstimulated states with a reasonable preservation of LVF, expressed as stroke volume, through the whole observation period. The group with poor LVF showed monotonously falling arterial pressure, and no heart rate response to tracheal intubation. These patients maintained remarkably stable stroke volumes in connection with low afterloads. After nitrous oxide, additional volume loading was required because of profound hypotension. The majority of the patients in the intermediate group, labelled "depressed LVF", reacted to intubation and sternotomy with signs of left ventricular failure in connection with tachycardia and increased afterloads. The individual variations between patients with different degrees of left ventricular impairment were considerable, and these haemodynamic patterns need to be confirmed with a larger material.
Antunes-Correa, Ligia M; Ueno-Pardi, Linda M; Trevizan, Patricia F; Santos, Marcelo R; da Silva, Carlos Henrique P; Franco, Fábio Gm; Alves, Maria Janieire Nn; Rondon, Maria Urbana Pb; Negrao, Carlos E
Background Exercise training improves neurovascular control and functional capacity in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the influence of the aetiology on these benefits is unknown. We compared the effects of exercise training on neurovascular control and functional capacity in idiopathic, ischaemic and hypertensive HF patients. Design Subjects consisted of 45 exercise-trained HF patients from our database (2000-2015), aged 40-70 years old, functional class II/III and ejection fraction ≤40%, and they were divided into three groups: idiopathic ( n = 11), ischaemic ( n = 18) and hypertensive ( n = 16). Methods Functional capacity was determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Results Four months of exercise training significantly reduced MSNA and significantly increased FBF in all groups. However, the relative reduction in MSNA was greater in hypertensive patients compared with that in idiopathic patients (frequency: -34% vs . -15%, p = 0.01; incidence: -31% vs . -12%, p = 0.02). No differences were found between hypertensive patients and ischaemic patients. The relative increase in FBF was greater in hypertensive patients than in ischaemic and idiopathic patients (42% vs. 15% and 17%, respectively, p = 0.02). The relative increase in forearm vascular conductance was greater in hypertensive patients compared with those in ischaemic and idiopathic patients (57% vs . 13% and 26%, respectively, p = 0.001). Exercise training significantly and similarly increased peak oxygen consumption in all groups. Conclusion The exercise-induced improvement in neurovascular control is more pronounced in hypertensive HF patients than in idiopathic and ischaemic HF patients. The increase in functional capacity is independent of aetiology.
Albucher, J; Ferrieres, J; Ruidavets, J; Guiraud-Chaumeil, B; Perret, B; Chollet, F
OBJECTIVES—The relation betweem serum lipids and ischaemic stroke remains controversial. Studies of lipid related risk factors in cerebrovascular disease have varied greatly in their findings and also in their definition of the cerebrovascular end points. Serum lipids are thought to interact with the pathogenesis of stroke through an atherosclerosis mechanism. Stroke in young patients have been shown to be related to non-atherosclerotic causes most of the time. The aim was to determine the serum lipid profile and the vascular risk factors for ischaemic stroke in a series of patients under 45 with an ischaemic stroke and to compare them with a series of controls of the same age. METHODS—Ninety four consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke were compared with 111 controls of the same age recruited from a regional electoral list. Vascular risk factors were recorded and serum lipid profile was determined in all of them. RESULTS—Multivariate analyses showed that low HDL cholesterol, male sex, smoking, hypertension, and oral contraceptives were risk factors for intracerebral arterial occlusion. CONCLUSION—Low HDL cholesterol was the only serum lipid index to be associated to an increased risk of stroke in this population. Low HDL cholesterol must be considered in the care management of young patients regardless of the detectable presence of atherosclerosis. PMID:10864600
Braun, K. P. J.; Bulder, M. M. M.; Chabrier, S.; Kirkham, F. J.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P.; Tardieu, M.; Sebire, G.
Arteriopathies are the commonest cause of arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) in children. Repeated vascular imaging in children with AIS demonstrated the existence of a "transient cerebral arteriopathy" (TCA), characterized by lenticulostriate infarction due to non-progressive unilateral arterial disease affecting the supraclinoid internal…
Xue, Qin; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Chen, Man; Zhang, Lubo
Aims Hypoxia is a common stress to the foetus and results in increased cardiac vulnerability to adult ischaemic injury. This study tested the hypothesis that foetal hypoxia causes programming of increased AT2 receptor (AT2R) expression in the heart, resulting in the heightened cardiac susceptibility to adult ischaemic injury. Methods and results Time-dated pregnant rats were divided between normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from days 15 to 21 of gestation) groups. Hypoxia resulted in significantly increased AT2R in the heart of adult offspring. Multiple glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) were identified at the AT2R promoter, deletion of which increased the promoter activity. Consistently, ex vivo treatment of isolated foetal hearts with dexamethasone for 48 h decreased AT2R expression, which was inhibited by RU 486. Hypoxia decreased glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hearts of foetal, 3-week-old and 3-month-old offspring, resulting in decreased GR binding to the GREs at the AT2R promoter. The inhibition of AT2R improved postischaemic recovery of left ventricular function and rescued the foetal hypoxia-induced cardiac ischaemic vulnerability in male adult animals. In contrast, the inhibition of AT1 receptors decreased the postischaemic recovery. Conclusion The results demonstrate that in utero hypoxia causes programming of increased AT2R gene expression in the heart by downregulating GR, which contributes to the increased cardiac vulnerability to adult ischaemic injury caused by prenatal hypoxic exposure. PMID:20870653
Wanigasinghe, Jithangi; Reid, Susan M.; Mackay, Mark T.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Harvey, A. Simon; Freeman, Jeremy L.
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, risk factors, manifestations, and outcome of epilepsy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) due to perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). Method: The study group comprised 63 participants (41 males, 22 females) from a population-based CP register whose brain imaging showed…
Braun, K. P. J.; Bulder, M. M. M.; Chabrier, S.; Kirkham, F. J.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P.; Tardieu, M.; Sebire, G.
Arteriopathies are the commonest cause of arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) in children. Repeated vascular imaging in children with AIS demonstrated the existence of a "transient cerebral arteriopathy" (TCA), characterized by lenticulostriate infarction due to non-progressive unilateral arterial disease affecting the supraclinoid internal…
Wanigasinghe, Jithangi; Reid, Susan M.; Mackay, Mark T.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Harvey, A. Simon; Freeman, Jeremy L.
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, risk factors, manifestations, and outcome of epilepsy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) due to perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). Method: The study group comprised 63 participants (41 males, 22 females) from a population-based CP register whose brain imaging showed…
Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula A; Herrmann, Nathan; Lee, Philip E; Sykora, Kathy; Gunraj, Nadia; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Marras, Connie; Wodchis, Walter P; Mamdani, Muhammad
Objective To compare the incidence of admissions to hospital for stroke among older adults with dementia receiving atypical or typical antipsychotics. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Patients 32 710 older adults (≤ 65 years) with dementia (17 845 dispensed an atypical antipsychotic and 14 865 dispensed a typical antipsychotic). Main outcome measures Admission to hospital with the most responsible diagnosis (single most important condition responsible for the patient's admission) of ischaemic stroke. Observation of patients until they were either admitted to hospital with ischaemic stroke, stopped taking antipsychotics, died, or the study ended. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, participants receiving atypical antipsychotics showed no significant increase in risk of ischaemic stroke compared with those receiving typical antipsychotics (adjusted hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.26). This finding was consistent in a series of subgroup analyses, including ones of individual atypical antipsychotic drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine) and selected subpopulations of the main cohorts. Conclusion Older adults with dementia who take atypical antipsychotics have a similar risk of ischaemic stroke to those taking typical antipsychotics. PMID:15668211
Akahori, Hirokuni; Karmali, Vinit; Polavarapu, Rohini; Lyle, Alicia N; Weiss, Daiana; Shin, Eric; Husain, Ahsan; Naqvi, Nawazish; Van Dam, Richard; Habib, Anwer; Choi, Cheol Ung; King, Adrienne L; Pachura, Kimberly; Taylor, W Robert; Lefer, David J; Finn, Aloke V
Macrophages are an essential component of the immune response to ischaemic injury and play an important role in promoting inflammation and its resolution, which is necessary for tissue repair. The type I transmembrane glycoprotein CD163 is exclusively expressed on macrophages, where it acts as a receptor for haemoglobin:haptoglobin complexes. An extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in the blood as a soluble protein, for which no physiological function has so far been described. Here we show that during ischaemia, soluble CD163 functions as a decoy receptor for TWEAK, a secreted pro-inflammatory cytokine of the tumour necrosis factor family, to regulate TWEAK-induced activation of canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Notch signalling necessary for myogenic progenitor cell proliferation. Mice with deletion of CD163 have transiently elevated levels of TWEAK, which stimulate muscle satellite cell proliferation and tissue regeneration in their ischaemic and non-ischaemic limbs. These results reveal a role for soluble CD163 in regulating muscle regeneration after ischaemic injury.
Akahori, Hirokuni; Karmali, Vinit; Polavarapu, Rohini; Lyle, Alicia N.; Weiss, Daiana; Shin, Eric; Husain, Ahsan; Naqvi, Nawazish; Van Dam, Richard; Habib, Anwer; Choi, Cheol Ung; King, Adrienne L.; Pachura, Kimberly; Taylor, W. Robert; Lefer, David J.; Finn, Aloke V.
Macrophages are an essential component of the immune response to ischaemic injury and play an important role in promoting inflammation and its resolution, which is necessary for tissue repair. The type I transmembrane glycoprotein CD163 is exclusively expressed on macrophages, where it acts as a receptor for haemoglobin:haptoglobin complexes. An extracellular portion of CD163 circulates in the blood as a soluble protein, for which no physiological function has so far been described. Here we show that during ischaemia, soluble CD163 functions as a decoy receptor for TWEAK, a secreted pro-inflammatory cytokine of the tumour necrosis factor family, to regulate TWEAK-induced activation of canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and Notch signalling necessary for myogenic progenitor cell proliferation. Mice with deletion of CD163 have transiently elevated levels of TWEAK, which stimulate muscle satellite cell proliferation and tissue regeneration in their ischaemic and non-ischaemic limbs. These results reveal a role for soluble CD163 in regulating muscle regeneration after ischaemic injury. PMID:26242746
Yaghi, Shadi; Liberman, Ava L; Atalay, Michael; Song, Christopher; Furie, Karen L; Kamel, Hooman; Bernstein, Richard A
Stroke of undetermined aetiology or 'cryptogenic' stroke accounts for 30-40% of ischaemic strokes despite extensive diagnostic evaluation. The role and yield of cardiac imaging is controversial. Cardiac MRI (CMR) has been used for cardiac disorders, but its use in cryptogenic stroke is not well established. We reviewed the literature (randomised trials, exploratory comparative studies and case series) on the use of CMR in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with ischaemic stroke. The literature on the use of CMR in the diagnostic evaluation of ischaemic stroke is sparse. However, studies have demonstrated a potential role for CMR in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with cryptogenic stroke to identify potential aetiologies such as cardiac thrombi, cardiac tumours, aortic arch disease and other rare cardiac anomalies. CMR can also provide data on certain functional and structural parameters of the left atrium and the left atrial appendage which have been shown to be associated with ischaemic stroke risk. CMR is a non-invasive modality that can help identify potential mechanisms in cryptogenic stroke and patients who may be targeted for enrolment into clinical trials comparing anticoagulation to antiplatelet therapy in secondary stroke prevention. Prospective studies are needed to compare the value of CMR as compared to transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnostic evaluation of cryptogenic stroke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://