Science.gov

Sample records for ischemia fleqki psychometric

  1. Mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Joseph L

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the presentation, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of the various forms of mesenteric ischemia, including acute and chronic ischemia. In addition, nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and median arcuate ligament compressive syndrome are covered. The goals are to provide a structured and evidence-based framework for the evaluation and management of patients with these intestinal ischemia syndromes. Special attention is given to avoiding typical pitfalls in the diagnostic and treatment pathways. Operative techniques are also briefly discussed, including an evidence-based review of newer endovascular techniques.

  2. Psychometrics: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furr, Mike; Bacharach, Verne R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors center their presentation of material around a conceptual understanding of psychometric issues, such as validity and reliability, and on purpose rather than procedure, the "why" rather than the "how to." Their goal is to introduce psychometric principles at a level that is deeper and more focused than found in introductory…

  3. Future of Psychometrics: Ask What Psychometrics Can Do for Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    I address two issues that were inspired by my work on the Dutch Committee on Tests and Testing (COTAN). The first issue is the understanding of problems test constructors and researchers using tests have of psychometric knowledge. I argue that this understanding is important for a field, like psychometrics, for which the dissemination of…

  4. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  5. Silent myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gutterman, David D

    2009-05-01

    Although much progress has been made in reducing mortality from ischemic cardiovascular disease, this condition remains the leading cause of death throughout the world. This might in part be due to the fact that over half of patients have a catastrophic event (heart attack or sudden death) as their initial manifestation of coronary disease. Contributing to this statistic is the observation that the majority of myocardial ischemic episodes are silent, indicating an inability or failure to sense ischemic damage or stress on the heart. This review examines the clinical characteristics of silent myocardial ischemia, and explores mechanisms involved in the generation of angina pectoris. Possible mechanisms for the more common manifestation of injurious reductions in coronary flow; namely, silent ischemia, are also explored. A new theory for the mechanism of silent ischemia is proposed. Finally, the prognostic importance of silent ischemia and potential future directions for research are discussed.

  6. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  7. Neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Namura, Shobu; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Liu, Jialing; Yenari, Midori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia, a focal or global insufficiency of blood flow to the brain, can arise through multiple mechanisms, including thrombosis and arterial hemorrhage. Ischemia is a major driver of stroke, one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the general etiology of cerebral ischemia and stroke has been known for some time, the conditions have only recently been considered treatable. This report describes current research in this field seeking to fully understand the pathomechanisms underlying stroke; to characterize the brain’s intrinsic injury, survival, and repair mechanisms; to identify putative drug targets as well as cell-based therapies; and to optimize the delivery of therapeutic agents to the damaged cerebral tissue. PMID:23488559

  8. Psychometric Properties of IRT Proficiency Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Tong, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of item response theory proficiency estimates are considered in this paper. Proficiency estimators based on summed scores and pattern scores include non-Bayes maximum likelihood and test characteristic curve estimators and Bayesian estimators. The psychometric properties investigated include reliability, conditional…

  9. Digital ischemia in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, M; Ogino, T; Minami, A; Ishii, S

    1986-01-01

    Eight baseball players developed digital ischemia as a result of repetitive ball impact. Symptoms and signs were coolness, numbness, cyanosis, paleness, and a positive reaction to the digital Allen's test. Seven of the eight players developed digital ischemia between the ages of 16 and 17. Angiograms of four patients with an occluded index digital artery are presented. Thermograms of four patients with a cool area of the left index finger are also presented. We investigated the incidence of digital ischemia by administration of a questionnaire. The respondents were 578 players belonging to clubs in junior high schools, high schools, and colleges. No digital ischemia was found in 207 junior high school baseball players. The incidence increased in high school (66 of 299) and college (29 of 72). The probability of developing digital ischemia corresponded to the accumulated playing time. Digital ischemia occurred characteristically in the left index finger.

  10. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  11. Psychometric functions for informational masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfi, Robert A.; Kistler, Doris J.; Callahan, Michael R.; Wightman, Frederic L.

    2003-12-01

    The term informational masking has traditionally been used to refer to elevations in signal threshold resulting from masker uncertainty. In the present study, the method of constant stimuli was used to obtain complete psychometric functions (PFs) from 44 normal-hearing listeners in conditions known to produce varying amounts of informational masking. The listener's task was to detect a pure-tone signal in the presence of a broadband noise masker (low masker uncertainty) and in the presence of multitone maskers with frequencies and amplitudes that varied at random from one presentation to the next (high masker uncertainty). Relative to the broadband noise condition, significant reductions were observed in both the slope and the upper asymptote of the PF for multitone maskers producing large amounts of informational masking. Slope was affected more for some listeners and conditions while asymptote was affected more for others; consequently, neither parameter alone was highly predictive of individual thresholds or the amount of informational masking. Mean slopes and asymptotes varied nonmonotonically with the number of masker components in a manner similar to mean thresholds, particularly when the estimated effect of energetic masking on thresholds was subtracted out. As in past studies, the threshold data were well described by a model in which trial-by-trial judgments are based on a weighted sum of levels in dB at the output of independent auditory filters. The psychometric data, however, complicated the model's interpretation in two ways: First, they suggested that, depending on the listener and condition, the weights can either reflect a fixed influence of masker components on each trial or the effect of occasionally mistaking a masker component for the signal from trial to trial. Second, they indicated that in either case the variance of the underlying decision variable as estimated from PF slope is not by itself great enough to account for the observed changes

  12. Short ischemia induces rat kidney mitochondria dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Baniene, Rasa; Trumbeckas, Darius; Kincius, Marius; Pauziene, Neringa; Raudone, Lina; Jievaltas, Mindaugas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2016-02-01

    Renal artery clamping itself induces renal ischemia which subsequently causes renal cell injury and can lead to renal failure. The duration of warm ischemia that would be safe for postoperative kidney function during partial nephrectomy remains under investigations. Mitochondria play an important role in pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion induced kidney injury, however relation between ischemia time and mitochondrial dysfunction are not fully elucidated. Thus, the effects of renal ischemia (20 min, 40 min and 60 min) on mitochondrial functions were investigated by using in vitro rat ischemia model. Thus, electronmicroscopy showed that at short (20 min) ischemia mitochondria start to swell and the damage increases with the duration of ischemia. In accordance with this, a significant decrease in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity was observed already after 20 min of ischemia with both, complex I dependent substrate glutamate/malate (52%) and complex II dependent substrate succinate (44%) which further decreased with the prolonged time of ischemia. The diminished state 3 respiration rate was associated with the decrease in mitochondrial Complex I activity and the release of cytochrome c. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was diminished by 37-49% after 20-60 min of ischemia and caspase-3 activation increased by 1.15-2.32-fold as compared to control. LDH activity changed closely with increasing time of renal ischemia. In conclusion, even short time (20 min) of warm ischemia in vitro leads to renal mitochondrial injury which increases progressively with the duration of ischemia. PMID:26782060

  13. [Syndromes of venous mesenteric ischemia: infarction and transient ischemia].

    PubMed

    Cardot, F; Borg, J Y; Guédon, C; Lerebours, E; Colin, R

    1992-01-01

    The reports of 8 patients with acute or subacute abdominal pain related to venous mesenteric ischemia were reviewed. None of the patients presented local or regional predisposing factors for venous thrombosis. In 4 patients, a localized segment of ischemic small bowel (median length 125 cm; range: 30-350) was resected without immediate anastomosis and postoperative anticoagulation therapy was given. Two of these patients developed recurrent ischemia involving the bowel adjacent to the stoma, treated successfully in 1 case by a repeat resection. The 4 other patients hospitalized with intestinal obstructive symptoms (1 case) or abdominal angina (3 cases) were treated by long term anticoagulation in 3 cases and artificial nutrition in 2 cases. None of them developed mesenteric infarction with a median follow up of 34 months. In 7 of the 8 patients, a coagulopathy was found: primary myeloproliferative disorder (1 case), hypercoagulation state (5 cases), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (1 case). These observations suggest that venous mesenteric ischemia included two different entities on the basis of clinical and morphological criteria: mesenteric infarction and subacute transient ischemia without bowel infarction. Most of apparently idiopathic cases of acute or subacute venous mesenteric ischemia are related to hypercoagulation states requiring a long term anticoagulation.

  14. [Recurrent intestinal ischemia due to factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Monedero, Jesús Javier; Legaz Huidobro, María Luisa; Galindo Andugar, María Angeles; Rodríguez Pérez, Alvaro; Mantrana del Valle, José María

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose and can be caused by several etiologic processes. We report the case of a female patient with recurrent bowel ischemia due to small vessel thrombosis, which is caused by factor VIII, a procoagulant factor.

  15. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  16. Emotional Considerations in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Psychometric Quantification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannito, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…

  17. Psychometric Characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Information is presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, a measure of psychotropic drug effects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the checklist appeared very good. Interrater reliability was generally in the moderate range. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior…

  18. Psychometric Measurement Models and Artificial Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sese, Albert; Palmer, Alfonso L.; Montano, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of measurement models in psychometrics by means of dimensionality reduction techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a very common practice. In recent times, an upsurge of interest in the study of artificial neural networks apt to computing a principal component extraction has been observed. Despite this interest, the…

  19. The Psychometric Evaluation of Educational Intranets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaik, Paul Van; Ling, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A major determinant of the success of educational intranet sites is their usability. In addition to measures of task performance and navigation behavior, psychometric instruments are used to evaluate usability and the quality of human-computer interaction more generally. However, there is a lack of validated instruments for the evaluation of…

  20. What Is Embodiment? A Psychometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Matthew R.; Schuur, Friederike; Kammers, Marjolein P. M.; Tsakiris, Manos; Haggard, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    What is it like to have a body? The present study takes a psychometric approach to this question. We collected structured introspective reports of the rubber hand illusion, to systematically investigate the structure of bodily self-consciousness. Participants observed a rubber hand that was stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their…

  1. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  2. Psychometric Analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    The Appreciative Advising Inventory is an instrument created for use in academic advising. The inventory helps the advisor get to know and understand the student, which in turn allows the advisor to better assist the student. This research provides a psychometric analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory to measure its validity and…

  3. Psychometrics of the SDQ in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumert, Heather Marie

    2013-01-01

    With the recent influx of Latinos into the United States, it is essential to understand how their backgrounds and cultures will affect the way they view their children's emotional, social, and educational development. Researchers continue to evaluate the psychometrics of various screening instruments in order to ensure a reliable and valid…

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…

  5. Psychometric Intelligence Dissociates Implicit and Explicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Guido F.; Mackintosh, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that performance on implicit learning tasks is unrelated to psychometric intelligence was examined in a sample of 605 German pupils. Performance in artificial grammar learning, process control, and serial learning did not correlate with various measures of intelligence when participants were given standard implicit instructions.…

  6. General Mental Ability: From Psychometrics to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes empirical findings of research on a theory of general mental ability, based on laboratory studies of the relationship between measurements of individual differences on conventional psychometric tests and in speed and efficiency of information processes. The paper covers characteristics of "g" (general mental ability),…

  7. Controversies in cardiovascular care: silent myocardial ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective evidence of silent myocardial ischemia--ischemia in the absence of classical chest pain--includes ST-segment shifts (usually depression), momentary left ventricular failure, and perfusion defects on scintigraphic studies. Assessment of angina patients with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring may uncover episodes of silent ischemia, the existence of which may give important information regarding prognosis and may help structure a more effective therapeutic regimen. The emerging recognition of silent ischemia as a significant clinical entity may eventually result in an expansion of current therapy--not only to ameliorate chest pain, but to minimize or eliminate ischemia in the absence of chest pain.

  8. Fast adaptive estimation of multidimensional psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    DiMattina, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recently in vision science there has been great interest in understanding the perceptual representations of complex multidimensional stimuli. Therefore, it is becoming very important to develop methods for performing psychophysical experiments with multidimensional stimuli and efficiently estimating psychometric models that have multiple free parameters. In this methodological study, I analyze three efficient implementations of the popular Ψ method for adaptive data collection, two of which are novel approaches to psychophysical experiments. Although the standard implementation of the Ψ procedure is intractable in higher dimensions, I demonstrate that my implementations generalize well to complex psychometric models defined in multidimensional stimulus spaces and can be implemented very efficiently on standard laboratory computers. I show that my implementations may be of particular use for experiments studying how subjects combine multiple cues to estimate sensory quantities. I discuss strategies for speeding up experiments and suggest directions for future research in this rapidly growing area at the intersection of cognitive science, neuroscience, and machine learning.

  9. Fast adaptive estimation of multidimensional psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    DiMattina, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recently in vision science there has been great interest in understanding the perceptual representations of complex multidimensional stimuli. Therefore, it is becoming very important to develop methods for performing psychophysical experiments with multidimensional stimuli and efficiently estimating psychometric models that have multiple free parameters. In this methodological study, I analyze three efficient implementations of the popular Ψ method for adaptive data collection, two of which are novel approaches to psychophysical experiments. Although the standard implementation of the Ψ procedure is intractable in higher dimensions, I demonstrate that my implementations generalize well to complex psychometric models defined in multidimensional stimulus spaces and can be implemented very efficiently on standard laboratory computers. I show that my implementations may be of particular use for experiments studying how subjects combine multiple cues to estimate sensory quantities. I discuss strategies for speeding up experiments and suggest directions for future research in this rapidly growing area at the intersection of cognitive science, neuroscience, and machine learning. PMID:26200886

  10. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Heather E; Strong, David R

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia-the reduced capacity to experience pleasure-is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995 )-a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences-in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 585, M age = 14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that (a) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like "seeing smiling faces" or "smelling flowers") provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (b) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs, weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations.

  12. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Healther E.; Strong, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia—the reduced capacity to experience pleasure—is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995)—a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences—in adolescents. Adolescents (N=585; M age=14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that: (1) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like “seeing smiling faces” or “smelling flowers”) provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (2) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs; weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  13. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children

    PubMed Central

    JEICAN, IONUŢ ISAIA; ICHIM, GABRIELA; GHEBAN, DAN

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison’s disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis. PMID:27547054

  14. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Ichim, Gabriela; Gheban, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison's disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis. PMID:27547054

  15. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahbi, Abdullah M; Elmoukaied, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. PMID:27022305

  16. Murine Model of Hindlimb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Niiyama, Hiroshi; Huang, Ngan F.; Rollins, Mark D.; Cooke, John P.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects about 10 million individuals, and is also prevalent worldwide. Medical therapies for symptomatic relief are limited. Surgical or endovascular interventions are useful for some individuals, but long-term results are often disappointing. As a result, there is a need for developing new therapies to treat PAD. The murine hindlimb ischemia preparation is a model of PAD, and is useful for testing new therapies. When compared to other models of tissue ischemia such as coronary or cerebral artery ligation, femoral artery ligation provides for a simpler model of ischemic tissue. Other advantages of this model are the ease of access to the femoral artery and low mortality rate. In this video, we demonstrate the methodology for the murine model of unilateral hindimb ischemia. The specific materials and procedures for creating and evaluating the model will be described, including the assessment of limb perfusion by laser Doppler imaging. This protocol can also be utilized for the transplantation and non-invasive tracking of cells, which is demonstrated by Huang et al.1. PMID:19229179

  17. Predictive Modeling of Cardiac Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Gary T.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the Contextual Alarms Management System (CALMS) project is to develop sophisticated models to predict the onset of clinical cardiac ischemia before it occurs. The system will continuously monitor cardiac patients and set off an alarm when they appear about to suffer an ischemic episode. The models take as inputs information from patient history and combine it with continuously updated information extracted from blood pressure, oxygen saturation and ECG lines. Expert system, statistical, neural network and rough set methodologies are then used to forecast the onset of clinical ischemia before it transpires, thus allowing early intervention aimed at preventing morbid complications from occurring. The models will differ from previous attempts by including combinations of continuous and discrete inputs. A commercial medical instrumentation and software company has invested funds in the project with a goal of commercialization of the technology. The end product will be a system that analyzes physiologic parameters and produces an alarm when myocardial ischemia is present. If proven feasible, a CALMS-based system will be added to existing heart monitoring hardware.

  18. Challenges in diagnosing mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    van den Heijkant, Teun C; Aerts, Bart AC; Teijink, Joep A; Buurman, Wim A; Luyer, Misha DP

    2013-01-01

    Early identification of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is challenging. The wide variability in clinical presentation challenges providers to make an early accurate diagnosis. Despite major diagnostic and treatment advances over the past decades, mortality remains high. Arterial embolus and superior mesenteric artery thrombosis are common causes of AMI. Non-occlusive causes are less common, but vasculitis may be important, especially in younger people. Because of the unclear clinical presentation and non-specific laboratory findings, low clinical suspicion may lead to loss of valuable time. During this diagnostic delay, progression of ischemia to transmural bowel infarction with peritonitis and septicemia may further worsen patient outcomes. Several diagnostic modalities are used to assess possible AMI. Multi-detector row computed tomographic angiography is the current gold standard. Although computed tomographic angiography leads to an accurate diagnosis in many cases, early detection is a persistent problem. Because early diagnosis is vital to commence treatment, new diagnostic strategies are needed. A non-invasive simple biochemical test would be ideal to increase clinical suspicion of AMI and would improve patient selection for radiographic evaluation. Thus, AMI could be diagnosed earlier with follow-up computed tomographic angiography or high spatial magnetic resonance imaging. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies show promise for alpha glutathione S transferase and intestinal fatty acid binding protein as markers for AMI. Future research must confirm the clinical utility of these biochemical markers in the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia. PMID:23538325

  19. Acute limb ischemia: contemporary approach.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Chiyoya, Mari; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Wakako

    2015-10-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a critical condition with high mortality and morbidity even after surgical or endovascular intervention. Early recognition is important, but a delayed presentation is not uncommon. Viability of the limb is assessed by motor and sensory function and with interrogating Doppler flow signals in pedal arteries and popliteal veins as categorized by Rutherford. Category IIa indicates mild-to-moderate threat to limb salvage over a time frame without revascularization. Limb ischemia is critical without prompt revascularization in category IIb. Because the risk of reperfusion injury is high in this group of patients, perioperative management is important. In category III, reperfusion is not indicated except for embolism within several hours of onset. Intimal injury should be avoided by careful tactile control of a balloon with a smaller size catheter and under radiographic monitoring. Adjunctive treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis or bypass surgery is sometimes necessary. Endovascular treatment is a promising option for thrombotic occlusion of an atherosclerotic artery. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a serious problem. Controlled reperfusion with low-pressure perfusion at a reduced temperature and use of a leukocyte filter should be considered. The initial reperfusate is hyperosmolar, hypocalcemic, slightly alkaline, and contains free radical scavengers such as allopurinol. Immediate hemodialysis is necessary for acute renal injury caused by myoglobinemia. Compartment syndrome should be managed with assessment of intra-compartment pressure and fasciotomy.

  20. Measuring Mathematics Anxiety: Psychometric Analysis of a Bidimensional Affective Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan; Wang, LihShing; Pan, Wei; Frey, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretically and methodologically sound bidimensional affective scale measuring mathematics anxiety with high psychometric quality. The psychometric properties of a 14-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R) adapted from Betz's (1978) 10-item Mathematics Anxiety Scale were empirically analyzed on a…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Huberty, Jennifer; Pettee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychometric properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale (CPAS). Methods: Girls in third to fifth grades (n = 932) completed the CPAS before and after a physical activity intervention. Psychometric measures included internal consistency, factor analysis, and concurrent validity. Results: Three CPAS factors emerged:…

  2. Modified Test Administration Using Assistive Technology: Preliminary Psychometric Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschausky, Seth; Van Tubbergen, Marie; Asbell, Shana; Kaufman, Jacqueline; Ayyangar, Rita; Donders, Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of test presentation and response formats that were modified to be accessible with the use of assistive technology (AT). First, the stability of psychometric properties was examined in 60 children, ages 6 to 12, with no significant physical or communicative impairments. Population-specific…

  3. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the…

  4. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom performance and…

  5. Psychometric Evaluation and Discussions of English Language Learners' Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Daeryong; Taherbhai, Husein; Frantz, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The importance of listening in the context of English language acquisition is gaining acceptance, but its unique attributes in language performance, while substantively and qualitatively justifiable, are generally not psychometrically defined. This article psychometrically supports listening as a distinct domain among the three other domains of…

  6. Psychometric function of jittered rate pitch discrimination.

    PubMed

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The impact of jitter on rate pitch discrimination (JRPD) is still a matter of debate. Previous studies have used adaptive procedures to assess pitch discrimination abilities of jittered rate pulses (Dobie and Dillier, 1985; Chen et al., 2005) or have used jitter detection thresholds (Fearn, 2001). Previous studies were conducted in a relatively small number of subjects using either a single-electrode cochlear implant (Dobie and Dillier, 1985, n = 2) or the Nucleus multi-channel devices (Fearn, 2001, n = 3; Chen et al., 2005, n = 5). The successful application of an adaptive procedure requires a monotone psychometric function to achieve asymptotic results. The underlying psychometric function of rate jitter has not been investigated so far. In order to close this knowledge gap, the present study determines psychometric functions by measuring of JRPD with a fixed stimulus paradigm. A rather large range of temporal, Gaussian distributed jitter standard deviation 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ms was applied to electrical pulse patterns. Since the shape of the underlying probability density function (PDF) may also effect JRPD, a uniform PDF was alternatively applied. 7 CI users (8 ears, high-level performers with open-speech perception, MED-EL Pulsar/Sonata devices, Innsbruck, Austria) served as subjects for the experiment. JRPD was assessed with a two-stage forced choice procedure. Gross results showed decreasing JRPD with increasing amounts of jitter independent of the applied jitter distribution. In conclusion, pulse rate jitter affects JRPD and therefore should be considered in current coding strategies. PMID:24821551

  7. Psychometric tests for diagnosing minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Karin

    2013-06-01

    While it is consensus that minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) has significant impact on a patient's daily living, and thus should be diagnosed and treated, there is no consensus about the optimal diagnostic tools. At present the most frequently used psychometric methods for diagnosing minimal hepatic encephalopathy are the Inhibitory Control Test and the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score PHES. Another frequently used method is Critical Flicker Frequency. The PHES and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status have been recommended for diagnosing mHE by a working party commissioned by the International Society for Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism. Recently the Continuous Reaction Time Test, which has been used in the 1980ies, has gained new interest. Today, no data are available that allow to decide which of these methods is the most appropriate. In fact, even basic information such as dependence on age, sex and education or influence of diseases that frequently accompany liver cirrhosis upon test results is missing for most of them. Future studies must address these questions to improve diagnosis of mHE. PMID:22993201

  8. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  9. Bayesian Adaptive Estimation of Psychometric Functions in Noisy Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Takatsugu; Kitajo, Keiichi; Nozaki, Daichi; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-07-01

    We propose a new psychometric model incorporating noise as well as stimulus effects, based on recent findings that noise can improve human perception via a mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR). This model assumes that the psychometric function can be regarded as a bivariate function of noise and stimulus intensities. The algorithm of the Ψ Bayesian adaptive estimation method is modified so that it is applicable to our new model. In computer simulations, our new procedure successfully estimates the bivariate psychometric function within a few hundred trials. We also demonstrate several examples in which the procedure is applied to actual psychophysical experiments.

  10. Purkinje fibers after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    García Gómez-Heras, Soledad; Álvarez-Ayuso, Lourdes; Torralba Arranz, Amalia; Fernández-García, Héctor

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on Purkinje fibers, comparing them with the adjacent cardiomyocytes. In a model of heterotopic heart transplantation in pigs, the donor heart was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia (n=9), preserved in cold saline, and subjected to 24 hours of ischemia with preservation in Wisconsin solution, alone (n=6), or with an additive consisting of calcium (n=4), Nicorandil (n=6) or Trolox (n=7). After 2 hours of reperfusion, we evaluated the recovery of cardiac electrical activity and took samples of ventricular myocardium for morphological study. The prolonged ischemia significantly affected atrial automaticity and A-V conduction in all the groups subjected to 24 hours of ischemia, as compared to 2 hours. There were no significant differences among the groups that underwent prolonged ischemia. Changes in the electrical activity did not correlate with the morphological changes. In the Purkinje fibers, ischemia-reperfusion produced a marked decrease in the glycogen content in all the groups. In the gap junctions the immunolabeling of connexin-43 decreased significantly, adopting a dispersed distribution, and staining the sarcolemma adjacent to the connective tissue. These changes were less marked in the group preserved exclusively with Wisconsin solution, despite the prolonged ischemia. The addition of other substances did not improve the altered morphology. In all the groups, the injury appeared to be more prominent in the Purkinje fibers than in the neighboring cardiomyocytes, indicating the greater susceptibility of the former to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25648569

  11. Psychometric characteristics of the aberrant behavior checklist.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Stewart, A W; Field, C J

    1985-03-01

    Information was presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Checklist appeared to be very good. Interrater reliability tended to vary across raters and subscales and ranged from mediocre to good but was generally in the moderate range and acceptable for research purposes. Validity was assessed by comparing Checklist scores for residents presenting with attributes thought to reflect varying degrees of social adaptation. Validity was also evaluated by comparing Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores with ratings on adaptive behavior scales and with objective observations of behavior. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior Checklist subscales. Preliminary data from drug investigations suggested that the Checklist may provide a useful adjunct for the assessment of psychotropic drug effects.

  12. The claustrophobia scale: a psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ost, Lars-Göran

    2007-05-01

    This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.

  13. Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS): Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P.; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M.; García-Fernández, José M.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8–11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS. PMID:25072402

  14. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS): psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M; García-Fernández, José M

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test.

    PubMed

    Frankl, My; Philips, Björn; Berggraf, Lene; Ulvenes, Pål; Johansson, Robert; Wennberg, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to make the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test, using the Swedish translation - a test developed to screen the ability to experience, express and regulate emotions. Data was collected from a clinical sample (N = 82) of patients with depression and/or anxiety participating in randomized controlled trial of Internet-based affect-focused treatment, and a university student sample (N = 197). The internal consistency for the total score was satisfactory (Clinical sample α = 0.88/Student sample α = 0.84) as well as for all the affective domains, except Anger/Assertion (α = 0.44/0.36), Sadness/Grief (α = 0.24/0.46) and Attachment/Closeness (α = 0.67/0.69). Test retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC > 0.77) for the total score and for all the affective domains except for Sadness/Grief (ICC = 0.04). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a six-factor solution and did only moderately match the test's original affective domains. An empirical cut-off between the clinical and the university student sample were calculated and yielded a cut-off of 72 points. As expected, the Affect Phobia test showed negative significant correlations in the clinical group with measures on depression (rxy  = -0.229; p < 0.01) and anxiety (rxy  = -0.315; p < 0.05). The conclusion is that the psychometric properties are satisfactory for the total score of the Affect Phobia Test but not for some of the test's affective domains. Consequently the domains should not be used as subscales. The test can discriminate between individuals who seek help for psychological problems and those who do not. PMID:27461917

  16. Psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test.

    PubMed

    Frankl, My; Philips, Björn; Berggraf, Lene; Ulvenes, Pål; Johansson, Robert; Wennberg, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to make the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Affect Phobia Test, using the Swedish translation - a test developed to screen the ability to experience, express and regulate emotions. Data was collected from a clinical sample (N = 82) of patients with depression and/or anxiety participating in randomized controlled trial of Internet-based affect-focused treatment, and a university student sample (N = 197). The internal consistency for the total score was satisfactory (Clinical sample α = 0.88/Student sample α = 0.84) as well as for all the affective domains, except Anger/Assertion (α = 0.44/0.36), Sadness/Grief (α = 0.24/0.46) and Attachment/Closeness (α = 0.67/0.69). Test retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC > 0.77) for the total score and for all the affective domains except for Sadness/Grief (ICC = 0.04). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a six-factor solution and did only moderately match the test's original affective domains. An empirical cut-off between the clinical and the university student sample were calculated and yielded a cut-off of 72 points. As expected, the Affect Phobia test showed negative significant correlations in the clinical group with measures on depression (rxy  = -0.229; p < 0.01) and anxiety (rxy  = -0.315; p < 0.05). The conclusion is that the psychometric properties are satisfactory for the total score of the Affect Phobia Test but not for some of the test's affective domains. Consequently the domains should not be used as subscales. The test can discriminate between individuals who seek help for psychological problems and those who do not.

  17. Legal and Psychometric Criteria for Evaluating Teacher Certification Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Green, Preston C., III

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes conceptualizations of sound teacher certification practices espoused by the courts and psychometricians, compares these conceptualizations, and provides suggestions for teacher certification testing programs that are legally and psychometrically defensible. (SLD)

  18. [Ischemia-reperfusion myocardial injury].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Chávez, Edmundo

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we present some considerations on the myocardial damage due to a deficit of oxygen supply. In fact, this damage properly constitutes a partial diastolic depolarization or injury, i.e., a moderate reduction of the rest transmembrane potential. This phenomenon is characteristic of the acute phase of the myocardial infarction syndrome and is responsible for the main electrical manifestations appearing in this phase: disorders of rhythm and conduction, as well as a reduced contractility of the involved myocardial fibers. All the mentioned phenomena are due to a defect of the myocardial energetic mechanisms, owing to the mitochondrial alterations in myocytes: early reduction of the nicotinamide adenine nucleotides, accumulation of calcium ("calcium overload") into mitochondria, and a drop in oxidative phosphorylation. These changes can present again, more exaggerated, in a following phase of evolution of the myocardial infarction due to myocardial reperfusion. Its severity is related to the duration of the initial ischemia period. Moreover, consequences of the oxidative stress can add producing cellular damage by liberation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidant stress causes also alterations in the mitochondrial DNA, i.e., mutations due to oxidation of nitrogenous bases. During the initial ischemia phase, as well as during reperfusion, metabolic therapy can be very useful as, for example, glucose-insulin-potassium solutions (G-I-K). These could act as scavengers of the free radicals derived from oxygen and avoid or reduce the myocardial damage due to reperfused myocytes. Metabolic drugs, as for example trimetazidine, antioxidants, etc, can also be used in the myocardial reperfusion phase.

  19. Psychometric functions for detection and discrimination with and without flankers

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; Woods, Russell L.; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies reported that flanking stimuli broaden the psychometric function and lower detection thresholds. We measured psychometric functions for detection and discrimination with and without flankers to investigate whether these effects occur throughout the contrast continuum. Our results confirm that lower detection thresholds with flankers are accompanied by broader psychometric functions. Psychometric functions for discrimination reveal that discrimination thresholds with and without flankers are similar across standard levels, and that the broadening of psychometric functions with flankers disappears as standard contrast increases, to the point that psychometric functions at high standard levels are virtually identical with or without flankers. Threshold-versus-contrast (TvC) curves with flankers only differ from TvC curves without flankers in occasional shallower dippers and lower branches on the left of the dipper, but they run virtually superimposed at high standard levels. We discuss differences between our results and other results in the literature, and how they are likely attributed to the differential vulnerability of alternative psychophysical procedures to the effects of presentation order. We show that different models of flanker facilitation can fit the data equally well, which stresses that succeeding at fitting a model does not validate it in any sense. PMID:21264745

  20. Ischemia time and liver transplantation, today.

    PubMed

    Maggi, U; Fornoni, G; Centonze, L; Melada, E; Conte, G; Rossi, G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of ischemia time and other clinical factors on the development of liver allograft primary nonfunction (PNF). We enrolled 531 consecutive liver transplantations from 1998 to 2013, identifying 10 PNF (1.9%). PNF was found to be statistically related to 4 different variables: donor age>60 years (P=.01), female donor gender (P=.01), total ischemia time>10 hours (P=.03) and infusion of more than 30 fresh frozen plasma units during surgery (P=.02). The study focused on the clinical impact of total ischemia time. We grouped total ischemia time into 4 groups (Group 1: ≤7.5 hours; Group 2: between 7.5 and 10 hours; Group 3: between 10 and 12 hours; Group 4: >12 hours) and 2 groups (assigning a cut-off value of 10 hours): both these grouping systems significantly influenced the development of PNF and 1-year graft survival, with limited impact on long-term survival. We split total ischemia time in a "technical time," "hepatectomy time," and "warm ischemia time." Only the first 2 components were found to be statistically related to PNF development with P=.02 and P=.003, respectively. Further studies should focus on these aspects of PNF. PMID:25242773

  1. Digital Ischemia Associated With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le Besnerais, Maëlle; Miranda, Sébastien; Cailleux, Nicole; Girszyn, Nicolas; Marie, Isabelle; Lévesque, Hervé; Benhamou, Ygal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Digital ischemia associated with cancer (DIAC) is increasing in frequency and recent reports have suggested the concept of paraneoplastic manifestation. The aims of this study were to characterize the clinical presentation of DIAC and identify clinical features that could lead physicians to diagnose underlying cancer. From January 2004 to December 2011, 100 patients were hospitalized in the Department of Internal Medicine at Rouen University Hospital, France for a first episode of DI. Fifteen (15%) exhibited symptomatic or asymptomatic cancer during the year preceding or following vascular episode and constituted the DIAC group. Other patients without cancer made up the digital ischemia (DI) group. Median time between diagnosis of cancer and episode of digital necrosis was 2 months [0.25–9]. Diagnosis of DI and concomitant cancer was made in 7 of the 15 patients, while DI preceded the malignant disorder in 2 cases and followed it in 6 cases. Histological types were adenocarcinoma for 7 (46.7%), squamous cell carcinoma for 4 (26.7%), and lymphoid neoplasia for 3 patients (20%). Six patients (40%) had extensive cancer. Three patients were lost to follow-up and 5 patients died <1 year after diagnosis of cancer. Cancer treatment improved vascular symptoms in 6 patients (40%). Patients with DIAC, compared to patients with DI, were significantly older (56 years [33–79] vs 46 [17–83] P =0.005), and had significantly lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (12.7 g/dl vs 13.9 g/dl; P =0.003 and 38% vs 42%; P =0.003, respectively). Patients with DIAC had a higher platelet rate (420 vs 300 G/L P =0.01), and 6 patients with DIAC (40%) had thrombocytosis. There was no difference between groups either in C-reactive protein level (12 mg/L vs 5 mg/L; P =0.08) or regarding cardiovascular risk factors, presence of autoimmunity, or monoclonal protein. This retrospective study suggests that DIAC may be more prevalent than previously reported. Outcomes

  2. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users. PMID:24469338

  3. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.

  4. Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dworrak, Birgit; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Lucia, Alejandro; Buck, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, echocardiography has emerged as a dominant and indispensable technique for the detection and assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, we will describe and discuss this powerful tool of cardiology, especially in the hands of an experienced user, with a focus on myocardial ischemia. Technical development is still on-going, and various new ultrasound techniques have been established in the field of echocardiography in the last several years, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), contrast echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE), and speckle tracking echocardiography (i.e., strain/strain rate-echocardiography). High-end equipment with harmonic imaging, high frame rates and the opportunity to adjust mechanical indices has improved imaging quality. Like all new techniques, these techniques must first be subjected to comprehensive scientific assessment, and appropriate training that accounts for physical and physiological limits should be provided. These limits will constantly be redefined as echocardiographic techniques continue to change, which will present new challenges for the further development of ultrasound technology. PMID:27500160

  5. Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Dworrak, Birgit; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Lucia, Alejandro; Buck, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund

    2016-07-01

    Over the last 60 years, echocardiography has emerged as a dominant and indispensable technique for the detection and assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, we will describe and discuss this powerful tool of cardiology, especially in the hands of an experienced user, with a focus on myocardial ischemia. Technical development is still on-going, and various new ultrasound techniques have been established in the field of echocardiography in the last several years, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), contrast echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE), and speckle tracking echocardiography (i.e., strain/strain rate-echocardiography). High-end equipment with harmonic imaging, high frame rates and the opportunity to adjust mechanical indices has improved imaging quality. Like all new techniques, these techniques must first be subjected to comprehensive scientific assessment, and appropriate training that accounts for physical and physiological limits should be provided. These limits will constantly be redefined as echocardiographic techniques continue to change, which will present new challenges for the further development of ultrasound technology. PMID:27500160

  6. Preclinical Models to Investigate Retinal Ischemia: Advances and Drawbacks

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Gillipsie; Morishita, Ryuichi; Anand, Akshay

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ischemia is a major cause of blindness worldwide. It is associated with various disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, optic neuropathies, stroke, and other retinopathies. Retinal ischemia is a clinical condition that occurs due to lack of appropriate supply of blood to the retina. As the retina has a higher metabolic demand, any hindrance in the blood supply to it can lead to decreased supply of oxygen, thus causing retinal ischemia. The pathology of retinal ischemia is still not clearly known. To get a better insight into the pathophysiology of retinal ischemia, the role of animal models is indispensable. The standard treatment care for retinal ischemia has limited potential. Transplantation of stem cells provide neuroprotection and to replenish damaged cells is an emerging therapeutic approach to treat retinal ischemia. In this review we provide an overview of major animal models of retinal ischemia along with the current and preclinical treatments in use. PMID:22593752

  7. Assessment of Renal Ischemia By Optical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J T; Demos, S; Michalopoulou, A; Pierce, J L; Troppmann, C

    2004-01-07

    Introduction: No reliable method currently exists for quantifying the degree of warm ischemia in kidney grafts prior to transplantation. We describe a method for evaluating pretransplant warm ischemia time using optical spectroscopic methods. Methods: Lewis rat kidney vascular pedicles were clamped unilaterally in vivo for 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 or 120 minutes; 8 animals were studied at each time point. Injured and contra-lateral control kidneys were then flushed with Euro-Collins solution, resected and placed on ice. 335 nm excitation autofluorescence as well as cross polarized light scattering images were taken of each injured and control kidney using filters of various wavelengths. The intensity ratio of the injured to normal kidneys was compared to ischemia time. Results: Autofluorescence intensity ratios through a 450 nm filter and light scattering intensity ratios through an 800 nm filter both decreased significantly with increasing ischemia time (p < 0.0001 for each method, one-way ANOVA). All adjacent and non-adjacent time points between 0 and 90 minutes were distinguishable using one of these two modalities by Fisher's PLSD. Conclusions: Optical spectroscopic methods can accurately quantify warm ischemia time in kidneys that have been subsequently hypothermically preserved. Further studies are needed to correlate results with physiological damage and posttransplant performance.

  8. [The developing profile of cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Martí-Vilalta, J L; Martí-Fábregas, J

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia, which may be silently manifested as transitory ischemia attacks or cerebral infarction, is not a stable, but rather, a moving process. In cerebral infarctions the initial ischemic area may change or move in a high percentage of patients and may involve a significant volume (mean of 32%) of neuronal tissue. The negative changes of initial cerebral ischemia which produce a worsening of the same may be due to the progression of the thrombus, appearance of new embolisms, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, blood reperfusion and systemias causes. These changes may determine the conversion of the shaded ischemic area into a definitive, irreversible infarction. The negative changes may also be produced some distance from the initial ischemic area, either because of microthromboembolisms or diaschisis. The positive changes of initial cerebral ischemia which produce as improvement of the same, may be due to collateral circulation, lysis or fragmentation of the embolism and a decrease in cerebral edema. Clinical changes with no evident clinical manifestations may also be produced and may be diagnosed with the use of clinical scales, imaging techniques, ultrasound and hematological and biochemical markers. Acknowledgement of these cerebral ischemia changes in the acute phase may determine the salvation of a part of the brain, and thereby modify the future clinical situation of the patient.

  9. Infrared laser hemotherapy in cerebral ischemia modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musienko, Julia I.; Nechipurenko, Natalia I.

    2003-10-01

    Use of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) is considered to be the most effective method of laser therapy and its application is expedient pathogenetically in the ischemic disturbances. The aim of this study is to investigate ILIB influence with infrared laser (IL) with 860 nm wavelength on hemostasis, acid-base status (ABS) of blood in normal rabbits and after modeling of local ischemia of brain (LIB). Experimental cerebral ischemia is characterized by development of hypercoagulation syndrom and metabolic acidosis. ILIB with infrared radiation of 2.0 mW power provokes hypocoagulation in intact animals. Application of ILIB in rabbits after LIB contributes for hemostasis and acid-base status normalizing compared to operated animals. IL radiation with 8,5 mW power results in marked hemostatic activation in all animals. Therefore, beneficial effect of low power laser radiation (LPLR) manifests in narrow power diapason in experimental brain ischemia.

  10. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings.

  11. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. PMID:25462882

  12. Spinal ischemia following abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Bergan, J J; Conn, J; Yao, J S

    1975-03-01

    Serious spinal cord ischemia may follow infrarenal abdominal aortic surgery. Five cases are summarized and added to the 23 previously published cases in order to identify this syndrome, emphasize its importance, and draw attention to the possibility of spontaneous recovery which may occur. The multifactorial complex which comprises each patient's clinical picture clouds a precise and specific cause for paraplegia in these cases. However, neither hypotension, steal phenomena nor emboli are necessary for completion of the syndrome. The relevant spinal cord arterial anatomy indicates that the common anomalies which occur favor development of spinal cord ischemia in the arteriosclerotic population which requires aortic surgery. No means of prevention is possible at this time.

  13. Pre- and Perinatal Ischemia-Hypoxia, the Ischemia-Hypoxia Response Pathway, and ADHD Risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Taylor F; Schmidt-Kastner, Rainald; McGeary, John E; Kaczorowski, Jessica A; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on how measured pre- and perinatal environmental and (epi)genetic risk factors are interrelated and potentially influence one, of many, common developmental pathway towards ADHD. Consistent with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis, lower birth weight is associated with increased ADHD risk. Prenatal ischemia-hypoxia (insufficient blood and oxygen supply in utero) is a primary pathway to lower birth weight and produces neurodevelopmental risk for ADHD. To promote tissue survival in the context of ischemia-hypoxia, ischemia-hypoxia response (IHR) pathway gene expression is altered in the developing brain and peripheral tissues. Although altered IHR gene expression is adaptive in the context of ischemia-hypoxia, lasting IHR epigenetic modifications may lead to increased ADHD risk. Taken together, IHR genetic vulnerability to ischemia-hypoxia and IHR epigenetic alterations following prenatal ischemia-hypoxia may result in neurodevelopmental vulnerability for ADHD. Limitations of the extant literature and future directions for genetically-informed research are discussed. PMID:26920003

  14. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF AN ACUTE MESENTERIAL ISCHEMIA].

    PubMed

    Shepehtko, E N; Garmash, D A; Kurbanov, A K; Marchenko, V O; Kozak, Yu S

    2016-04-01

    Experience of surgical treatment of 143 patients, suffering an acute mesenterial ischemia, was summarized. Isolated intestinal resection was performed in 41 patients (lethality 65.9%), intestinal resection with the mesenterial vessels thrombembolectomy--in 9 (lethality 33.3%). After performance of the combined intervention postoperative lethality was in two times lower, than after isolated intestinal resection. PMID:27434952

  15. Intracoronary Levosimendan during Ischemia Prevents Myocardial Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Markus; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Saraste, Antti; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Pärkkä, Jussi P.; Leino, Kari; Laitio, Timo; Stark, Christoffer; Heikkilä, Aira; Saukko, Pekka; Savunen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer that has been shown to prevent myocardial contractile depression in patients post cardiac surgery. This drug exhibits an anti-apoptotic property; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this report, we characterized the myocardial protective of levosimendan in preventing cardiomyocyte apoptosis and post-operative stunning in an experimental ischemia–reperfusion model. Methods: Three groups of pigs (n = 8 per group) were subjected to 40 min of global, cardioplegic ischemia followed by 240 min of reperfusion. Levosimendan (65 μg/kg body weight) was given to pigs by intravenous infusion (L-IV) before ischemia or intracoronary administration during ischemia (L-IC). The Control group did not receive any levosimendan. Echocardiography was used to monitor cardiac function in all groups. Apoptosis levels were assessed from the left ventricle using the terminal transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunocytochemical detection of Caspase-3. Results: Pigs after ischemia–reperfusion had a much higher TUNEL%, suggesting that our treatment protocol was effective. Levels of apoptosis were significantly increased in Control pigs that did not receive any levosimendan (0.062 ± 0.044%) relative to those received levosimendan either before (0.02 ± 0.017%, p = 0.03) or during (0.02 ± 0.017%, p = 0.03) the ischemia phase. Longitudinal left ventricular contraction in pigs that received levosimendan before ischemia (0.75 ± 0.12 mm) was significantly higher than those received levosimendan during ischemia (0.53 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.003) or Control pigs (0.54 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggested that pigs received levosimendan displayed a markedly improved cell survival post I–R. The effect on cardiac contractility was only significant in our perfusion heart model when levosimendan was delivered intravenously before

  16. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  17. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-01-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…

  18. Psychometric Properties of Measures of Team Diversity with Likert Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lifang; Marcoulides, George A.; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Certain diversity among team members is beneficial to the growth of an organization. Multiple measures have been proposed to quantify diversity, although little is known about their psychometric properties. This article proposes several methods to evaluate the unidimensionality and reliability of three measures of diversity. To approximate the…

  19. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Measure of Intuitive Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive eating is characterized by eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues and is associated with psychological well-being. This study reports on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) with data collected in 4 studies from 1,260 college…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Teachers' Attitude toward Inclusion Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…

  1. The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, R. Lindsey; Keller, Melody L.; Piacentini, John; Bergman, Andrea J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on selective mutism (SM) has been limited by the absence of standardized, psychometrically sound assessment measures. The purpose of our investigation was to present two studies that examined the factor structure and initial reliability and validity of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a 17-item parent report measure of failure to…

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Simplified Chinese Version of Flourishing Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Wang, Zhizhang; Liu, Tianyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Flourishing Scale (FS) was developed to measure psychological well-being from the eudaimonic perspective, highlighting the flourishing of human functioning. This article evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the simplified Chinese version of FS among a Chinese community population. Method: A total of 433 participants from…

  3. Psychometric Properties of an Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Although research has been conducted to support the psychometric properties of rating scales used to assess ADHD in adults, little work has been published examining semi-structured interviews to assess ADHD in adults. The present study examined the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the HOME Inventory Using Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glad, Johan; Kottorp, Anders; Jergeby, Ulla; Gustafsson, Carina; Sonnander, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to explore psychometric properties of two versions of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory in a Swedish social service sample. Method: Social workers employed at 22 Swedish child protections agencies participated in the data collection. Both classic test theory approaches and…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale in Polio Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…

  6. The Construct of Psychophysiological Reactivity: Statistical and Psychometric Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Keith B.; Obradovic, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review major statistical and psychometric issues impacting the study of psychophysiological reactivity and discuss their implications for applied developmental researchers. We first cover traditional approaches such as the observed difference score (DS) and the observed residual score (RS), including a review of…

  7. Psychometric Characteristics of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca G.; Wilson, Janie H.; Pugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Professor-Student Rapport Scale, the first scale to measure professor-student rapport. The scale was found to have adequate test-retest and internal-consistency reliability. In addition to these findings, measures used to determine convergent validity included the Working…

  8. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMand, Alexandra; Johnson, Cynthia; Foldes, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Brief Autism Mealtime Behaviors Inventory (BAMBI). In a sample of 273 well-characterized children with ASD, we explored the factor structure of the BAMBI, determined the internal consistency of a newly derived factor structure and provide an empirically derived cut-off for…

  10. Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument: Development and Psychometric Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, H. Liesel; Hewson, Mariana

    This report describes the development and psychometric qualities of a new instrument to assess clinical teaching effectiveness in medical education. The strength of the instrument is seen to lie in the qualitative development process involving iterative checking with key stakeholders; its high reliability, validity, and feasibility; and its ease…

  11. A Psychometric Evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carrie H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric evaluation of Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (SWVI-R), an instrument comprised of 12 scales measuring the relative importance placed on the following work-related value dimensions: Achievement, Coworkers, Creativity, Income, Independence, Lifestyle, Mental Challenge, Prestige, Security, Supervision,…

  12. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  14. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Gabriel, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Self-Presentational Efficacy Scale (SPES) developed by Gammage, Hall, and Martin Ginis (2004). University students (196 men and 269 women) completed the SPES and measures of social physique anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and physical activity. Participants also completed the SPES a…

  15. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the scores on the Epistemic Belief Inventory were examined using an exploratory factor analysis (principal axis factor) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on a total sample of 1,242 elementary school teachers. Results of the EFA supported the hypothesized five-factor model but the items had loaded on different…

  16. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  17. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Saving Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Muroff, Jordana; Lewin, Adam B.; Geller, Daniel; Ross, Abigail; McCarthy, Katherine; Morgan, Jessica; Murphy, Tanya K.; Frost, Randy; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Children's Saving Inventory (CSI), a parent-rated measure designed to assess child hoarding behaviors. Subjects included 123 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and their parents. Trained clinicians administered the…

  18. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.; Horowitz, June A.; Carlson, Karen L.; Duffy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article presents the psychometric evaluation of the Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale (CATS), an instrument to be used as a screening measure with middle school students. Methods: A 70-item scale was initially derived from qualitative data obtained from focus groups comprised of middle school students. A diverse sample of…

  1. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  2. Psychometric Properties of Characteristics of Teacher Professional Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soine, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    This primary purpose of the study was to expand the work of Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, and Yoon (2001) by creating and psychometrically testing an instrument designed to measure teachers' perceptions of characteristics of professional development. Elementary teachers (n = 406) from five school districts in Washington State participating in a…

  3. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Core Bereavement Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jason M.; Nam, Ilsung; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a routinely administered assessment of grieving, few studies have empirically examined the psychometric properties of the Core Bereavement Items (CBI). The present study investigated the factor structure, internal reliability, and concurrent validity of the CBI in a large, diverse sample of bereaved young adults (N = 1,366).…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Leadership Practices Inventory--Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.; Kouzes, James M.

    1993-01-01

    In follow-up studies using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), data from over 36,000 business managers and their subordinates were used to reexamine psychometric properties of the instrument and to explore gender, functional field, ethnic, and cross-cultural differences. Factor analysis supports a five-factor scale, with gender differences…

  5. The Revised Commitment Inventory: Psychometrics and Use with Unmarried Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    The Commitment Inventory measures interpersonal commitment (dedication) and constraint commitment. Since it was first published, substantial revisions have been made, but there are no published data on the psychometric properties of the new version. Furthermore, little information is available on measuring commitment for unmarried couples. This…

  6. Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence: Psychometric g and Executive Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crinella, Francis M.; Yu, Jen

    1999-01-01

    Presents three lines of evidence that fail to support R. Sternberg's theory of general intelligence ("g"): (1) animal problem solving studies; (2) studies of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; and (3) studies of patients with frontal lobe damage. Discusses differences between psychometric "g" and practical intelligence. (SLD)

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Denchik, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS). Data from 576 college women were collected in three studies. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered two factors: Body Evaluation and Unwanted Explicit Sexual Advances; confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor…

  8. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  9. Homework Emotion Regulation Scale: Psychometric Properties for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Homework Emotion Regulation Scale (HERS) using 796 middle school students in China. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) supported the existence of two distinct yet related subscales for the HERS: Emotion Management and Cognitive Reappraisal. Concerning the…

  10. The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphry, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the role of the unit in physics in order to clarify the role of the unit in psychometrics. Based on this examination, metrological conventions are used to formulate the relationship between discrimination and the unit of a scale in item response theory. Seminal literature in two lines of item response…

  11. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for Children: A Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Roy, Amy K.; Furr, Jami M.; Gotimer, Kristin; Beidas, Rinad S.; Dugas, Michel J.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has contributed to our understanding of excessive worry and adult anxiety disorders, but there is a paucity of research on IU in child samples. This gap is due to the absence of a psychometrically sound measure of IU in youth. The present study adapted parallel child- and parent-report forms of the Intolerance of…

  12. Childhood Career Development Scale: Scale Construction and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino; Stead, Graham B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to construct a theoretically driven and psychometrically sound childhood career development scale to measure career progress in fourth-through sixth-grade children. Super's nine dimensions (i.e., curiosity, exploration, information, key figures, interests, locus of control, time perspective, self-concept, and…

  13. Development and Initial Psychometrics of Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…

  14. Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

    2010-01-01

    School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

  15. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  16. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakley, Tanya M.; Orme, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The psychometric properties of a new measure of foster parents' openness toward participating in activities that promote children's cultural development are evaluated. The measure is titled the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale (CRFS). Method: Data from 304 foster mothers who completed the CRFS and a battery of measures on…

  17. Psychometric Properties of Maze Tasks in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolar, Tammy D.; Barth, Amy E.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Maze tasks have appealing properties as progress-monitoring tools, but there is a need for a thorough examination of the psychometric properties of Maze tasks among middle school students. We evaluated form effects, reliability, validity, and practice effects of Maze among students in Grades 6 through 8. We administered the same (familiar) and…

  18. Implications of Psychometric Laboratories for Training Interns in Psychological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ronald E.

    Changes have occurred in the training of interns and the functioning of psychologists at Ohio State University Medical School, some of which was effected by their psychometric laboratory. The number of tests administered by interns has decreased markedly. The existence of the laboratory changed training experiences and opportunities. Psychologists…

  19. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Volunteer Functions Inventory with Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Joseph; Lo, T. Wing; Liu, Elaine S. C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report an evaluation of the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Volunteer Functions Inventory on a sample of university student volunteers. Reliabilities were high for four out of the six scales of the Inventory (Values, Career, Social, and Understanding) in terms of internal consistency. Items in these four scales also…

  1. Effects of pulmonary ischemia on lung morphology.

    PubMed

    Fields, Michael J; Bishai, John M; Mitzner, Wayne; Wagner, Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    Pulmonary ischemia resulting from chronic pulmonary embolism leads to proliferation of the systemic circulation within and surrounding the lung. However, it is not clear how well alveolar tissue is sustained during the time of complete pulmonary ischemia. In the present study, we investigated how pulmonary ischemia after left pulmonary artery ligation (LPAL) would alter lung mechanical properties and morphology. In this established mouse model of lung angiogenesis after chronic LPAL (10), we evaluated lung function and structure before (3 days) and after (14 days) a functional systemic circulation to the left lung is established. Age-matched naïve and sham-operated C57Bl/6 mice and mice undergoing chronic LPAL were studied. Left and right lung pressure-volume relationships were determined. Next, lungs were inflated in situ with warmed agarose (25-30 cmH(2)O) and fixed, and mean chord lengths (MCL) of histological sections were quantified. MCL of naïve mice averaged 43.9 +/- 1.8 mum. No significant changes in MCL were observed at either time point after LPAL. Left lung volumes and specific compliances were significantly reduced 3 days after LPAL. However, by 14 days after LPAL, lung pressure-volume relationships were not different from controls. These results suggest that severe pulmonary ischemia causes changes in lung mechanics early after LPAL that are reversed by the time a new systemic vasculature is known to perfuse pulmonary capillaries. The LPAL model thus affords a unique opportunity to study lung functional responses to tissue ischemia and subsequent recovery. PMID:17449796

  2. Role of Endothelial Cells in Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Arun K.; Symons, J. David; Boudina, Sihem; Jaishy, Bharat; Shiu, Yan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury has broad clinical implications and is a critical mediator of cardiac surgical outcomes. “Ischemic injury” results from a restriction in blood supply leading to a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand of a sufficient intensity and/or duration that leads to cell necrosis, whereas ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs when blood supply is restored after a period of ischemia and is usually associated with apoptosis (i.e. programmed cell death). Compared to vascular endothelial cells, cardiac myocytes are more sensitive to ischemic injury and have received the most attention in preventing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Many comprehensive reviews exist on various aspects of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of vascular endothelial cells in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to stimulate further research in this exciting and clinically relevant area. Two specific areas that are addressed include: 1) data suggesting that coronary endothelial cells are critical mediators of myocardial dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion injury; and 2) the involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in endothelial cell death as a result of an ischemia-reperfusion insult. Elucidating the cellular signaling pathway(s) that leads to endothelial cell injury and/or death in response to ischemia-reperfusion is a key component to developing clinically applicable strategies that might minimize myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25558187

  3. Protein-energy malnutrition impairs functional outcome in global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, P Joan; Corbett, Dale; Saucier, Deborah M; Noyan-Ashraf, M Hossein; Juurlink, Bernhard H J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2005-12-01

    We investigated whether protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) exacerbates brain injury in global ischemia. It was hypothesized that PEM would increase secondary brain damage by worsening ischemia-induced depletion of glutathione (GSH) and increasing oxidative stress. Adult male gerbils were fed an adequate protein (12.5%; C) or low protein (2%; PEM) diet for 4 weeks and subjected to 5 min of bilateral carotid artery occlusion (Ischemia) or sham surgery (Sham). At 12 h post-ischemia, GSH and markers of oxidative stress were measured in hippocampus and neocortex. The remaining gerbils were tested in the open field on days 3, 7, and 10, with viable hippocampal CA1 neurons assessed on day 10. Although the habituation of C-Ischemia gerbils in the open field was normal by day 7, PEM-Ischemia gerbils failed to habituate even by day 10 and spent greater time in the outer zone (P < 0.05). Mean (+/-SEM) total number of viable CA1 neurons at 10 days post-ischemia were C-Sham = 713 (13), C-Ischemia = 264 (48), PEM-Sham = 716 (12), and PEM-Ischemia = 286 (66). Although PEM did not increase CA1 neuron loss caused by ischemia, a subset (4/12) of PEM-Ischemia gerbils showed dramatic reactive gliosis accompanied by extensive neuronal loss. Hippocampal protein thiols were decreased by PEM and ischemia. Although the mechanism is yet to be established, the finding that PEM worsens functional outcome following global ischemia is clinically relevant since 16% of elderly are nutritionally compromised at the time of admission for stroke.

  4. Ischemia detection using Isoelectric Energy Function.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been proposed for the detection of ischemia using an isoelectric energy function (IEEF) resulting from ST segment deviations in ECG signals. The method consists of five stages: pre-processing, delineation, measurement of isoelectric energy, a beat characterization algorithm and detection of ischemia. The isoelectric energy threshold is used to differentiate ischemic beats from normal beats for ischemic episode detection. Then, ischemic episodes are classified as transmural or subendocardial. The method is validated for recordings of the annotated European ST-T database (EDB). The results show 98.12% average sensitivity (SE) and 98.16% average specificity (SP). These results are significantly better than those of existing methods cited in the literature. The advantage of the proposed method includes simplicity, ruggedness and automatic discarding of noisy beats. PMID:26623944

  5. Ischemia detection using Isoelectric Energy Function.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been proposed for the detection of ischemia using an isoelectric energy function (IEEF) resulting from ST segment deviations in ECG signals. The method consists of five stages: pre-processing, delineation, measurement of isoelectric energy, a beat characterization algorithm and detection of ischemia. The isoelectric energy threshold is used to differentiate ischemic beats from normal beats for ischemic episode detection. Then, ischemic episodes are classified as transmural or subendocardial. The method is validated for recordings of the annotated European ST-T database (EDB). The results show 98.12% average sensitivity (SE) and 98.16% average specificity (SP). These results are significantly better than those of existing methods cited in the literature. The advantage of the proposed method includes simplicity, ruggedness and automatic discarding of noisy beats.

  6. Caffeine reduces dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, P.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Corstens, F.H.; Thien, T. )

    1989-10-01

    The mechanism of action of coronary vasodilation after dipyridamole may be based on inhibition of cellular uptake of circulating endogenous adenosine. Since caffeine has been reported to be a competitive antagonist of adenosine we studied the effect of caffeine on the outcome of dipiridamole-{sup 201}Tl cardiac imaging in one patient. During caffeine abstinence dipyridamole induced myocardial ischemia with down-slope ST depressions on the ECG, and reversible perfusion defects on the scintigrams. When the test was repeated 1 wk later on similar conditions, but now shortly after infusion of caffeine (4 mg/kg), the ECG showed nodepressions, and the scintigrams only slight signs of ischemia. We conclude that when caffeine abstinence is not sufficient, the widespread use of coffee and related products may be responsible for false-negative findings in dipyridamole-201Tl cardiac imaging.

  7. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Naoum, Joseph J.; Arbid, Elias J.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of chronic limb ischemia involves the restoration of pulsatile blood flow to the distal extremity. Some patients cannot be treated with endovascular means or with open surgery; some may have medical comorbidities that render them unfit for surgery, while others may have persistent ischemia or pain even in the face of previous attempts at reperfusion. In spinal cord stimulation (SCS), a device with electrodes is implanted in the epidural space to stimulate sensory fibers. This activates cell-signaling molecules that in turn cause the release of vasodilatory molecules, a decrease in vascular resistance, and relaxation of smooth muscle cells. SCS also suppresses sympathetic vasoconstriction and pain transmission. When patient selection is based on microcirculatory parameters, SCS therapy can significantly improve pain relief, halt the progression of ulcers, and potentially achieve limb salvage. PMID:23805343

  8. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  9. Modeling Molecular Pathways of Neuronal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Taxin, Zachary H.; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Mohan, Ashutosh; Lipton, Peter; Lytton, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal ischemia, the consequence of a stroke (cerebrovascular accident), is a condition of reduced delivery of nutrients to brain neurons. The brain consumes more energy per gram of tissue than any other organ, making continuous blood flow critical. Loss of nutrients, most critically glucose and O2, triggers a large number of interacting molecular pathways in neurons and astrocytes. The dynamics of these pathways take place over multiple temporal scales and occur in multiple interacting cytosolic and organelle compartments: in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus. The complexity of these relationships suggests the use of computer simulation to understand the interplay between pathways leading to reversible or irreversible damage, the forms of damage, and interventions that could reduce damage at different stages of stroke. We describe a number of models and simulation methods that can be used to further our understanding of ischemia. PMID:24560148

  10. Renal acid-base metabolism after ischemia.

    PubMed

    Holloway, J C; Phifer, T; Henderson, R; Welbourne, T C

    1986-05-01

    The response of the kidney to ischemia-induced cellular acidosis was followed over the immediate one hr post-ischemia reflow period. Clearance and extraction experiments as well as measurement of cortical intracellular pH (pHi) were performed on Inactin-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Arteriovenous concentration differences and para-aminohippurate extraction were obtained by cannulating the left renal vein. Base production was monitored as bicarbonate released into the renal vein and urine; net base production was related to the renal handling of glutamine and ammonia as well as to renal oxygen consumption and pHi. After a 15 min control period, the left renal artery was snared for one-half hr followed by release and four consecutive 15 min reflow periods. During the control period, cortical cell pHi measured by [14C]-5,5-Dimethyl-2,4-Oxazolidinedione distribution was 7.07 +/- 0.08, and Q-O2 was 14.1 +/- 2.2 micromoles/min; neither net glutamine utilization nor net bicarbonate generation occurred. After 30 min of ischemia, renal tissue pH fell to 6.6 +/- 0.15. However, within 45 min of reflow, cortical cell pH returned and exceeded the control value, 7.33 +/- 0.06 vs. 7.15 +/- 0.08. This increase in pHi was associated with a significant rise in cellular metabolic rate, Q-O2 increased to 20.3 +/- 6.4 micromoles/min. Corresponding with cellular alkalosis was a net production of bicarbonate and a net ammonia uptake and glutamine release; urinary acidification was abolished. These results are consistent with a nonexcretory renal metabolic base generating mechanism governing cellular acid base homeostasis following ischemia. PMID:3723929

  11. Urticarial Vasculitis-Associated Intestinal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Uni; Yfantis, Harris; Xie, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis (UV) is a rare small vessel vasculitis. UV is often idiopathic but can also present in the context of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, drug reactions, infections, or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Extracutaneous complications include intestinal ischemic injuries, in UV patients with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Prompt recognition and treatment can minimize morbidity and mortality. This paper describes a case of urticarial vasculitis-associated intestinal ischemia. PMID:27190661

  12. Multiple molecular penumbras after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sharp, F R; Lu, A; Tang, Y; Millhorn, D E

    2000-07-01

    Though the ischemic penumbra has been classically described on the basis of blood flow and physiologic parameters, a variety of ischemic penumbras can be described in molecular terms. Apoptosis-related genes induced after focal ischemia may contribute to cell death in the core and the selective cell death adjacent to an infarct. The HSP70 heat shock protein is induced in glia at the edges of an infarct and in neurons often at some distance from the infarct. HSP70 proteins are induced in cells in response to denatured proteins that occur as a result of temporary energy failure. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is also induced after focal ischemia in regions that can extend beyond the HSP70 induction. The region of HIF induction is proposed to represent the areas of decreased cerebral blood flow and decreased oxygen delivery. Immediate early genes are induced in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and other brain regions. These distant changes in gene expression occur because of ischemia-induced spreading depression or depolarization and could contribute to plastic changes in brain after stroke. PMID:10908035

  13. A psychometric evaluation of the digital logic concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    Concept inventories hold tremendous promise for promoting the rigorous evaluation of teaching methods that might remedy common student misconceptions and promote deep learning. The measurements from concept inventories can be trusted only if the concept inventories are evaluated both by expert feedback and statistical scrutiny (psychometric evaluation). Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory provide two psychometric frameworks for evaluating the quality of assessment tools. We discuss how these theories can be applied to assessment tools generally and then apply them to the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI). We demonstrate that the DLCI is sufficiently reliable for research purposes when used in its entirety and as a post-course assessment of students' conceptual understanding of digital logic. The DLCI can also discriminate between students across a wide range of ability levels, providing the most information about weaker students' ability levels.

  14. Psychometric properties of the STAT for early autism screening.

    PubMed

    Stone, Wendy L; Coonrod, Elaine E; Turner, Lauren M; Pozdol, Stacie L

    2004-12-01

    The STAT is an interactive screening measure for autism that assesses behaviors in the areas of play, communication, and imitation skills. In Study 1, signal detection procedures were employed to identify a cutoff score for the STAT using developmentally matched groups of 2-year-old children with autism and with nonspectrum disorders. The resulting cutoff yielded high sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the development sample as well as for an independent validation sample. Study 2 examined psychometric properties of the STAT and revealed acceptable levels of interrater agreement, test-retest reliability, and agreement between STAT risk category and ADOS-G classification. The STAT demonstrates strong psychometric properties and shows promising utility as a Level 2 screening measure for autism.

  15. QuickEval: a web application for psychometric scaling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Ngo, Khai; Storvik, Jehans J.; Dokkeberg, Christopher A.; Farup, Ivar; Pedersen, Marius

    2015-01-01

    QuickEval is a web application for carrying out psychometric scaling experiments. It offers the possibility of running controlled experiments in a laboratory, or large scale experiment over the web for people all over the world. It is a unique one of a kind web application, and it is a software needed in the image quality field. It is also, to the best of knowledge, the first software that supports the three most common scaling methods; paired comparison, rank order, and category judgement. It is also the first software to support rank order. Hopefully, a side effect of this newly created software is that it will lower the threshold to perform psychometric experiments, improve the quality of the experiments being carried out, make it easier to reproduce experiments, and increase research on image quality both in academia and industry. The web application is available at www.colourlab.no/quickeval.

  16. Psychometric Comparison of Self- and Informant-Reports of Personality.

    PubMed

    Olino, Thomas M; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-12-01

    Self-reports are the most relied on assessment method in psychology. In the area of personality, informant-reports are a reasonable alternative assessment strategy. However, agreement between self- and informant-reports of personality is only moderately good. A portion of the observed discrepancies between self- and informant-reports of personality may come from differences in psychometric measurement across raters. That is, it is unknown whether the constructs assessed via self- and informant-reports are psychometrically identical. We examined four key personality scales--Well-Being, Social Closeness, Stress Reaction, and Harm Avoidance--in male and female dyads who provided self- and informant-reports for their partner. Similarities in self- and informant-reports of personality were evaluated by testing measurement invariance. Overall, models supported configural, metric, and scalar invariance for each of the four personality dimensions. These results suggest that the same psychometric constructs are assessed via self- and informant-reports of these personality dimensions. Informant-reports can be used in studies to avoid biases from relying solely on self-reports.

  17. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian G; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S; Andersen, Emil; Back, Silja K; Lansner, Jon; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Nielsen, Anna P; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2016-10-01

    We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non-taboo words. Second, we studied the test's psychometric properties in healthy adults. Finally, we investigated whether individuals diagnosed with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) differed from healthy controls on seasonal changes in affective recall. Recall rates were internally consistent and reliable and converged satisfactorily with established non-affective verbal tests. Immediate recall (IMR) for positive words exceeded IMR for negative words in the healthy sample. Relatedly, individuals with SAD showed a significantly larger decrease in positive recall from summer to winter than healthy controls. Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory.

  18. Digital Ischemia in Scleroderma Spectrum of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schiopu, Elena; Impens, Ann J.; Phillips, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma, SSc) is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by widespread vasculopathy and extracellular matrix deposition leading to fibrosis and autoimmune processes. Digital ischemia (digital ulcers (DUs)) is the hallmark of SSc-related vasculopathy and is characterized by endothelial dysfunction leading to intimal proliferation and thrombosis. It happens frequently (30% of the patients each year) and it is associated with significant morbidity. This paper summarizes the current information regarding pathogenesis, definitions, management, and exploratory therapies in DUs associated with SSc. PMID:20862342

  19. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in a…

  20. Psychometric Comparisons of Three Measures for Assessing Motor Functions in Preschoolers with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Y-P.; Su, C-Y.; Huang, M-H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficit in motor performance is common in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). A motor function measure with sound psychometric properties is indispensable for clinical and research use. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of three commonly used clinical measures for assessing motor function in…

  1. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  2. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  3. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian Version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryadoust, Vahid; Akbarzadeh, Sanaz; Akbarzedeh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) is a measurement tool to evaluate high school students' anger. Its psychometric features have been tested in the USA, Australia, Japan, Guatemala, and Italy. This study investigates the factor structure and psychometric quality of the Persian version of the MSAI-R using data from an…

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Collaborative Computer-Intensive Projects in an Undergraduate Psychometrics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchard, Kimberly A.; Pace, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate psychometrics classes often use computer-intensive active learning projects. However, little research has examined active learning or computer-intensive projects in psychometrics courses. We describe two computer-intensive collaborative learning projects used to teach the design and evaluation of psychological tests. Course…

  5. Psychometrics and Its Discontents: An Historical Perspective on the Discourse of the Measurement Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be…

  6. Effects of cerebral ischemia on neuronal hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    He, Yangdong; Hua, Ya; Liu, Wenquan; Hu, Haitao; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Summary The present study examined whether or not neuronal hemoglobin (Hb) is present in rats. It then examined whether cerebral ischemia or ischemic preconditioning (IPC) affects neuronal Hb levels in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either 15 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with 24 hours of reperfusion, an IPC stimulus, or 24 hours of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), or IPC followed three days later by 24 hours of pMCAO. In vitro, primary cultured neurons were exposed to 2 hours of oxygen-glucose deprivation with 22 hours of reoxygenation. Results showed that Hb is widely expressed in rat cerebral neurons but not astrocytes. Hb expression was significantly upregulated in the ipsilateral caudate and the cortical core of the middle cerebral artery territory after IPC. Hb levels also increased in more penumbral cortex and the contralateral hemisphere 24 hours after pMCAO, but expression in the ipsilateral caudate and cortical core area were decreased. Ischemic preconditioning modified pMCAO-induced brain Hb changes. Neuronal Hb levels in vitro were increased by 2 hours of oxygen-glucose deprivation and 22 hours of reoxygenation. These results indicate that Hb is synthesized in neurons and can be upregulated by ischemia. PMID:19066615

  7. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  8. Ischemia detection from morphological QRS angle changes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Laguna, Pablo; Pueyo, Esther

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ischemia detector is presented based on the analysis of QRS-derived angles. The detector has been developed by modeling ischemic effects on the QRS angles as a gradual change with a certain transition time and assuming a Laplacian additive modeling error contaminating the angle series. Both standard and non-standard leads were used for analysis. Non-standard leads were obtained by applying the PCA technique over specific lead subsets to represent different potential locations of the ischemic zone. The performance of the proposed detector was tested over a population of 79 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in one of the major coronary arteries (LAD (n  =  25), RCA (n  =  16) and LCX (n  =  38)). The best detection performance, obtained for standard ECG leads, was achieved in the LAD group with values of sensitivity and specificity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], followed by the RCA group with [Formula: see text], Sp  =  94.4 and the LCX group with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], notably outperforming detection based on the ST series in all cases, with the same detector structure. The timing of the detected ischemic events ranged from 30 s up to 150 s (mean  =  66.8 s) following the start of occlusion. We conclude that changes in the QRS angles can be used to detect acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:27243441

  9. Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, E.N.; Pagano, M. ); Bleecker, E.R.; Walden, S.M. ); Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E. ); Hackney, J.D.; Selvester, R.H. ); Warren, J. ); Gottlieb, S.O.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre-versus postexposure exercise test at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Razan; Holm, Margo B

    2013-03-01

    The Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable assessment tool that was created to assess Participation. It has been translated to several languages and adapted to different international cultures. The most recent version of this tool is the Arabic Heritage Activity Card Sort (A-ACS). The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Arabic version in Jordanian adults. Forty three Jordanian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 62 healthy adults were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the tool. The A-ACS correlated moderately with the participation index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p < 0.00) (concurrent validity), was able to discriminate between patients and healthy participants on the current and retained levels of participation (F = 5.09, p < 0.03; F = 6.01, p < 0.02, respectively) (discriminative validity), and correlated moderately with the total scores of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p < 0.00) and the total score on the Arabic version of the self-report Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills (r = 0.581, p < 0.00) (convergent validity). The tool also showed good test-retest reliability (r = 0.80, p < 0.00) and excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90). The Arabic Heritage of the Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable tool for Arabic-speaking occupational therapists to use when assessing participation in Jordanian patients with MS or healthy adults. Limitations of this study include using only one diagnostic group from Jordan and examining only the Recovery and Community Versions of the tool. Future studies are needed to examine further psychometric properties for patients with different diagnoses and from different countries in the Arabic region for all three versions of the A-ACS.

  11. Anatomical and psychometric relationships of behavioral neglect in daily living.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Marc; Allart, Etienne; Bernati, Thérèse; Saj, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Spatial neglect has been related to both cortical (predominantly at the temporal-parietal junction) and subcortical (predominantly of the superior longitudinal fasciculus) lesions. The objectives of this observational study were to specify the anatomical relationships of behavioral neglect in activities of daily living (N-ADLs), and the anatomical and psychometric relationships of N-ADLs on one hand and components of neglect (peripersonal neglect and personal neglect) and anosognosia on the other. Forty five patients were analyzed for behavioral difficulties in daily living (on the Catherine Bergego scale) and the main components of neglect (using conventional clinical assessments) during the first months post right hemisphere stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify brain areas within which lesions explained the severity of bias in each assessment (non-parametric permutation test; p<0.01, one tailed). N-ADLs was associated with lesions centered on the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and extending to the temporo-parietal junction, temporo-occipital junction and subcortical white matter (including the superior longitudinal fasciculus). Peripersonal neglect resulted from extended cortical lesions centered on the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus, with subcortical extension. Personal neglect resulted predominantly from lesions centered on the somatosensory cortex and at a lesser degree on the superior temporal sulcus. Anosognosia resulted from lesions of the posterior inferior temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. In anatomic terms, N-ADLs was strongly related to peripersonal neglect, and those relationships were also shown by the psychometric analysis. In conclusions, superior temporal gyrus and superior longitudinal fasciculus lesions have a pivotal role in N-ADLs. N-ADLs is principally related (anatomically and psychometrically) to peripersonal neglect, and at a lesser degree to anosognosia and

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyon; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Durbin, C. Emily

    2012-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire (BIQ), a rating scale for children’s behavioral inhibition (BI). Parent and teacher ratings, parent interviews, and laboratory observations were obtained for 495 preschoolers. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded six factors, each reflecting the BIQ’s subscales, and all loading onto a second-order general dimension. Model fit was acceptable for parent ratings, but only marginal for teacher ratings. The convergent and discriminant validity of the BIQ was examined by using a multitrait multimethod approach. Results indicate that the BIQ displays evidence of reliability and validity that can complement observational paradigms. PMID:21999378

  13. Psychometric properties of Frustration Discomfort Scale in a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population.

  14. Psychometric evaluation of the Greek Physical Self-Description Questionniare.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the psychometric properties of the Physical Self-description Questionnaire for deaf high school students, a Greek version was administered to 125 deaf soccer layers and 108 nonexercisers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate factorial structure for the original 11-factor model. Internal consistency and temporal stability were satisfactory for this sample. Also, the construct, discriminant, and predictive validity indices were adequate. These findings supported the use of the Greek version of the Physical Self-description Questionnaire for the assessment of the self-concept of deaf high school students.

  15. Psychometric properties of Frustration Discomfort Scale in a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population. PMID:23045854

  16. The Chinese Mental Resilience Scale and its psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin-Yang; Kong, Ling-Ming; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Tao, Feng-Yan; Ma, Ai-Guo; Liu, Yun; Gao, Yu-Fang; Tu, De-Hua; Bai, Xiang-Hui; Su, Wei-Ji; Wang, Li-Jie; Lu, Fang; Song, Wen-Dang; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Meng, Xin-Zhen; Wang, Yi-Niu; Xie, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Li-Yi

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a Chinese Mental Resilience Scale. A total of 2500 healthy participants, in two representative samples of the Chinese population, were administered the scale. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlation analysis were used to obtain the relevant coefficients and verify the reliability and validity of the scale. Five factors were extracted: willpower, family support, optimism and self-confidence, problem solving, and interpersonal interaction, plus a lying subscale, which together accounted for 54 percent of the total variance. The Chinese Mental Resilience Scale demonstrated good psychometric properties. It can be used to evaluate the mental resilience level of general Chinese population. PMID:27357924

  17. Psychometrics of an internalized homophobia instrument for men.

    PubMed

    Theodore, John L; Shidlo, Ariel; Zemon, Vance; Foley, Frederick W; Dorfman, David; Dahlman, Karen L; Hamid, Sahira

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Axial Gay Men's Inventory-Men's Short Version (MAGI-MSV) assesses internalized homophobia via 20 items and 3 dimensions. This study extended the psychometric examination of the MAGI-MSV. The instrument was administered to 228 ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay men seeking counseling in New York City (mean age = 35, age range = 16-70). Following principal axis factoring and parallel analyses, 4 factors emerged and 14 items were retained. The descriptive labels for factors included gay self-assurance and worth, public appearance of homosexuality, and impact of HIV/AIDS on homosexuality. The new, fourth factor was named maladaptive measures to eliminate homosexuality.

  18. Beliefs about research and social work practice: a systematic psychometric review of scales.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Virgil L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the author in this systematic psychometric review includes: providing social work researchers, educators, and administrators with a summary of descriptive psychometric information pertaining to scales which measure social workers' beliefs about research and social work practice, evaluating chronological changes in psychometric/statistical methodology, and summarizing the role current and future scale development efforts have in improving the use of evidence-based social work practice. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic databases and reference lists of included studies were reviewed and coded for methodological and psychometric properties. Seventeen studies satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eleven unique scales measuring social worker beliefs regarding research and social work practice were identified. The majority of scales and subscales had Cronbach's alphas that exceeded .70. Most of the scales had evidence of content, factorial, construct, and/or criterion validity. Strategies for improving psychometric research and implications for evidence-based social work practice are discussed.

  19. Psychometrics and its discontents: an historical perspective on the discourse of the measurement tradition.

    PubMed

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be presently underway. We argue for caution, in that the psychometrics approach and the quantitative account of competencies that it reflects is based on a rich discussion regarding measurement and scaling that led to the establishment of this paradigm. Rather than reflecting a homogeneous discipline focused on core competencies devoid of consideration of context, the psychometric community has a history of discourse and debate within the field, with an acknowledgement that the techniques and instruments developed within psychometrics are heuristics that must be used pragmatically.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale in a Hong Kong Chinese community sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Johnson Ching-hong; Lau, Wai-yee; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a widely used self-report anxiety scale-the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the associated parent-report version (PSCAS)-in a Hong Kong Chinese community sample. While good psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS had been documented in Western cultural contexts (e.g., Australia), no systematic psychometric evaluation of the Chinese-translated SCAS and PSCAS has been published. In this study, psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS were examined with respect to four criteria: (a) factor structure, (b) descriptive statistics, (c) convergent validity with an anxiety cognition measure, and (d) internal consistency. Psychometric properties of SCAS and PSCAS for a Chinese community sample were found to be highly comparable with those published on Australian samples, thus providing a solid conceptual foundation for use of the Chinese version of SCAS and PSCAS. PMID:21353457

  1. An Evidence-Based Review of Related Metabolites and Metabolic Network Research on Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengting; Tang, Liying; Liu, Xin; Fang, Jing; Zhan, Hao; Wu, Hongwei; Yang, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, metabolomics analyses have been widely applied to cerebral ischemia research. This paper introduces the latest proceedings of metabolomics research on cerebral ischemia. The main techniques, models, animals, and biomarkers of cerebral ischemia will be discussed. With analysis help from the MBRole website and the KEGG database, the altered metabolites in rat cerebral ischemia were used for metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. Our results identify the main metabolic pathways that are related to cerebral ischemia and further construct a metabolic network. These results will provide useful information for elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, as well as the discovery of cerebral ischemia biomarkers. PMID:27274780

  2. 20-HETE contributes to ischemia-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Joseph, Gregory; Zhang, Frank F; Nguyen, Huyen; Jiang, Houli; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Falck, John R; Yang, Jing; Schwartzman, Michal L; Guo, Austin M

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is an important adaptation for recovery from peripheral ischemia. Here, we determined whether 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) contributes to ischemia-induced angiogenesis and assessed its underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms using a mouse hindlimb-ischemia angiogenesis model. Hindlimb blood flow was measured by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and microvessel density was determined by CD31 and tomato lectin staining. We found that systemic and local administration of a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor, DDMS, or a 20-HETE antagonist, 6,15-20-HEDGE significantly reduced blood flow recovery and microvessel formation in response to ischemia. 20-HETE production, measured by LC/MS/MS, was markedly increased in ischemic muscles (91±11 vs. 8±2pg/mg in controls), which was associated with prominent upregulation of the 20-HETE synthase, CYP4A12. Immunofluorescence co-localized increased CYP4A12 expression in response to ischemia to CD31-positive EC in the ischemic hindlimb microvessels. We further showed that ischemia increased HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR2 expression in gracilis muscles and that these increases were negated by DDMS and 6,15-20-HEDGE. Lastly, we showed that ERK1/2 of MAPK is a component of 20-HETE regulated ischemic angiogenesis. Taken together, these data indicate that 20-HETE is a critical contributor of ischemia-induced angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:27084395

  3. Activation-flow coupling during graded cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark G; Detre, John A; Greenberg, Joel H

    2005-06-14

    Most functional neuroimaging techniques rely on activation-flow coupling (AFC) to detect changes in regional brain function, but AFC responses may also be altered during pathophysiological conditions such as ischemia. To define the relationship between progressive ischemia and the AFC response, graded levels of cerebral blood flow reduction were produced using a rat compression ischemia model, and the cerebral hemodynamic response to forepaw stimulation was measured. Graded levels of cortical ischemia of the somatosensory cortex were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 16) by compressing the intact dura with a 4-mm-diameter cylinder equipped with a laser-Doppler probe, combined with ipsilateral common carotid artery occlusion. At each level of CBF reduction, electric forepaw stimulation was conducted, and signal-averaged laser Doppler and evoked potential responses were recorded. A visible AFC response was present at all levels of CBF reduction (0-90% reduction from baseline), and the temporal characteristics of the response appeared largely preserved. However, the amplitude of the AFC response began to decline at levels of mild ischemia (10% flow reduction) and progressively decreased with further CBF reduction. The amplitude of the evoked response appeared to decrease in concert with the AFC amplitude and appeared to be equally sensitive to ischemia. AFC appears to be a sensitive marker for cerebral ischemia, and alterations in the AFC response occur at CBF reductions above the accepted thresholds for infarction. However, the AFC response is also preserved when flow is reduced below ischemic thresholds. PMID:15893740

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Myocardial Ischemia Using the Blood of Rat.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jincai; Fu, Jianhua; Li, Dan; Han, Xiao; Li, Lei; Song, Wenting; Yao, Mingjiang; Liu, Jianxun

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia is a pathological state of heart with reduced blood flow to heart and abnormal myocardial energy metabolism. This disease occurs commonly in middle aged and elderly people. Several studies have indicated that the rat was an appropriate animal model used to study myocardial ischemia. In this study, in order to gain insights into the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia, we sequenced the transcriptomes of three normal rats as control and the same number of myocardial ischemia rats. We sequenced the genomes of 6 rats, including 3 cases (myocardial ischemia) and 3 controls using Illumina HiSeq 2000. Then we calculated the gene expression values and identified differentially expressed genes based on reads per kilobase transcriptome per million (RPKM). Meanwhile we performed a GO enrichment analysis and predicted novel transcripts. In our study, we found that 707 genes were up-regulated and 21 genes were down-regulated in myocardial ischemia rats by at least 2-fold compared with controls. By the distribution of reads and the annotation of reference genes, we found 1,703 and 1,552 novel transcripts in cases and controls, respectively. At the same time, we refined the structure of 9,587 genes in controls and 10,301 in cases. According to the results of GO term and pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes, we found that the immune response, stimulus response, response to stress and some diseases may be associated with myocardial ischemia. Since many diseases, especially immune diseases, are associated with myocardial ischemia, we should pay more attention to the complications which might result from myocardial ischemia.

  5. Panretinal photocoagulation for radiation-induced ocular ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Augsburger, J.J.; Roth, S.E.; Magargal, L.E.; Shields, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    We present preliminary findings on the effectiveness of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma in eyes with radiation-induced ocular ischemia. Our study group consisted of 20 patients who developed radiation-induced ocular ischemia following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy for a choroidal or ciliary body melanoma. Eleven of the 20 patients were treated by panretinal photocoagulation shortly after the diagnosis of ocular ischemia, but nine patients were left untreated. In this non-randomized study, the rate of development of neovascular glaucoma was significantly lower (p = 0.024) for the 11 photocoagulated patients than for the nine who were left untreated.

  6. Met-enkephalin levels during PTCA-induced myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Tonnarini, G; Giancaspro, G; Pizzuto, F; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Vincentelli, G M; Alegiani, F; Negri, M

    2001-07-01

    Met-enkephalin (Met-enk) has been demonstrated to modulate myocardial-ischemia mechanisms via the opioid receptors, but no studies are now available on Met-enk levels in the coronary circulation. In this experience Met-enk levels were evaluated in aortic root and in coronary sinus at baseline (T0), during PTCA induced transient ischemia (T1) and during reperfusion (T2). No significant differences were found at any time. Thus, it appears that there is no Met-enk extraction from the coronary circulation during provoked myocardial ischemia and no Met-enk release from the ischemic heart. PMID:11445249

  7. The psychometric testing of the Nursing Teamwork Survey in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Bragadóttir, Helga; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Smáradóttir, Sigríður Bríet; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Teamwork Survey-Icelandic (NTS-Icelandic), which was translated from US English to Icelandic. The Nursing Teamwork Survey, with 33 items, measures overall teamwork and five factors of teamwork: trust, team orientation, backup, shared mental models, and team leadership. The psychometric testing of the NTS-Icelandic was carried out on data from a pilot study and a national study. The sample for a pilot study included 123 nursing staff from five units, and the sample for a national study included 925 nursing staff from 27 inpatient units. The overall test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient in the pilot study was 0.693 (lower bound = 0.498, upper bound = 0.821) (p < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha reliability for the total scale and subscales ranged from 0.737 to 0.911. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the data from the national study with the five-factor model for nursing teamwork. The NTS-Icelandic tested valid and reliable in this study. Study findings support further use of the Nursing Teamwork Survey internationally.

  8. The Cancer Message Literacy Tests: Psychometric Analyses and Validity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Kathleen M.; Rogers, H. Jane; Williams, Andrew E.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Gaglio, Bridget; Field, Terry S.; Greene, Sarah M.; Han, Paul K. J.; Costanza, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the psychometric properties of two new health literacy tests, and to evaluate score validity. Methods Adults aged 40 to 71 completed the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening (CMLT- Listening), the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Reading (CMLT-Reading), the REALM, the Lipkus numeracy test, a brief knowledge test (developed for this study) and five brief cognitive tests. Participants also self-reported educational achievement, current health, reading ability, ability to understand spoken information, and language spoken at home. Results Score reliabilities were good (CMLT-Listening: alpha = .84) to adequate (CMLT-Reading: alpha =.75). Scores on both CMLT tests were positively and significantly correlated with scores on the REALM, numeracy, cancer knowledge and the cognitive tests. Mean CMLT scores varied as predicted according to educational level, language spoken at home, self-rated health, self-reported reading, and self-rated ability to comprehend spoken information. Conclusions The psychometric findings for both tests are promising. Scores appear to be valid indicators of comprehension of spoken and written health messages about cancer prevention and screening. Practice Implications The CMLT-Listening will facilitate research into comprehension of spoken health messages, and together with the CMLT-Reading will allow researchers to examine the unique contributions of listening and reading comprehension to health-related decisions and behaviors. PMID:22789147

  9. PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT INVENTORY: PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSES OF ITS ARGENTINEAN VERSION.

    PubMed

    Stover, Juliana B; Solano, Alejandro Castro; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2015-12-01

    This psychometric analysis of the Argentinean version of the Personality Assessment Inventory employed a convenience sample of 998 non-clinical adults from Buenos Aires, Argentina, stratified by sex and age (50% men; M age = 40.4 yr., SD = 16.8; 50% women; M age = 40.7 yr., SD = 17.4; 69% were employed). For a criterion validity study, a second sample of 394 students at the University of Buenos Aires was selected (47% men; M age = 24 yr., SD = 3.7; 53% women; M age = 23.6 yr., SD = 3.4). Cronbach's αs ranged from .60 to .86, indicating adequate internal consistency. Following American, German, and Spanish studies, a first analysis on the 22 scales obtained a five-factor solution (65.3% of total variance), and a second analysis on 11 clinical scales isolated a two-factor solution (69.3% of total variance). Correlations with the Symptom Checklist-90-R provided support for criterion validity. Most of the scales and subscales showed sex differences and differences between American and Argentinean samples. Future research must add other psychometric indicators. PMID:26595301

  10. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised: psychometric replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Dallas A; Cohen, Alex S; Matthews, Russell A; Dinzeo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric screening and detection of schizotypy through the use of concise self-report assessment instruments such as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised (SPQ-BR; Cohen, Matthews, Najolia, & Brown, 2010) enables an expeditious identification of individuals at putatively elevated risk to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Using 2 large, culturally diverse, independent samples, this study expanded the psychometric evaluation of this instrument by presenting a series of confirmatory factor analyses; reviewing internal consistency reliabilities; and evaluating the construct validity of the scale by way of examining group differences in SPQ-BR scores between individuals with and without self-reported family histories of schizophrenia. The results indicate a 2-tier factor solution of the measure and indicate strong internal reliability for the scale. Findings regarding construct validity of the SPQ-BR are more variable with the Cognitive-Perceptual Deficits superordinate factor receiving the strongest evidentiary support. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. A psychometric reanalysis of the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy A; White, Kamila S; Barlow, David H

    2005-03-01

    The psychometric properties of the 27-item Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ) were evaluated in 1930 outpatients with DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders. Although prior findings of a 3-factor latent structure were upheld in several replications (Social Phobia, Agoraphobia, Interoceptive), three items failed to load on their predicted factor (Interoceptive). Multiple-groups CFAs indicated that the measurement properties of the APPQ were invariant in male and female patients, with the exception of an intercept of one item from the Agoraphobia scale which evidenced bias against females. The three APPQ dimensions were consistently associated with high levels of scale reliability and factor determinacy. Strong evidence of concurrent validity of the Social Phobia and Agoraphobia factors was obtained in relation to interview and questionnaire measures. Although the Interoceptive factor was more strongly related to criterion measures of anxiety sensitivity and fear of panic than Social Phobia, the Agoraphobia factor had the strongest relationships with these validity indices. The results are discussed in regard to psychometric implications for the APPQ and conceptual issues pertaining to the discriminant validity of fear of agoraphobic situations and fear of sensation-producing activities.

  12. Psychometric properties of the modified fatigue impact scale.

    PubMed

    Larson, Rebecca D

    2013-01-01

    Psychometric assessments are tests or questionnaires that have been designed to measure constructs of interest in an individual or a target population. A goal of many of these self-report instruments is to provide researchers with the ability to gather subjective information in a manner that might allow for quantitative analysis and interpretation of these results. This requires the instrument of choice to have adequate psychometric properties of reliability and validity. Much research has been conducted on creating self-report quality of life questionnaires for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). This article focuses on one in particular, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). The article starts with a brief description of the rationale, construction, and scoring of the inventory. Next, the best available reliability and validity data on the MFIS are presented. The article concludes with a brief discussion on the interpretation of scores, followed by suggestions for future research. This summative analysis is intended to examine whether the instrument is adequately measuring the impact of fatigue and whether the scores allow for meaningful interpretations.

  13. Psychometric evaluation of Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire: Spanish version.

    PubMed

    Wells, J N; Bush, H A; Marshall, D

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of a culturally sensitive and theory-based instrument: the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire. This instrument was translated into Spanish and back-translated at a third- to fourth-grade reading level. The pilot group consisted of 70 Hispanic women who attended a class at a local church. Subsequent to pilot testing, another 40 Hispanic women who attended a class at the local health department comprised the study sample. The participants responded to the 15-item questionnaire, which is formatted as a Likert scale. Content validity of the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire was determined by a panel of experts. A factor analysis of this instrument showed five separate dimensions accounting for 71.82% of the instrument's variance. The three major components of self-regulation theory (schema, coping, and appraisal criteria) were found clustered within the first three dimensions after three items were discarded. The Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire demonstrated an internal consistency reliability coefficient of .7172. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of this questionnaire warrant further research. The instrument may support a better understanding of the Hispanic woman's practice of breast health behavior. Eventually, the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire may assist nurses in the formulation of culturally grounded interventions. PMID:11502042

  14. Post-conditioning through lower limb ischemia-reperfusion can alleviate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shi-Qiu; Gan, Hui-Li; Zhang, Jian-Qun; Feng, Lei; Sun, Jian-Chao; Wang, Sheng-Xun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Operation on the infrarenal aorta could cause ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury in local tissues and remote organs (e.g. the lung). We aim to explore the method of reducing lung ischemia-reperfusion damage after lower limb IR with post conditioning (LIPC). Methods: Bilateral lower limb ischemia was performed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and then animals were divided into 4 groups: IR-Sham-operated, IR, post conditioned-IR (LIPC) and bilateral lower limb ischemia (LIR). The serum free radical, histological changes, Wet/Dry (W/D) ratio, levels of TNF-α, IL-6, cytokines and chemokines were tested and compared. Results: Post-conditioning could ameliorate histological injuries in the lung when compared to IR group. The serum free radical is significantly lower in LIPC group than IR groups. W/D ratio in LIPC groups is significantly lower. LIPC also could reduce the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Conclusion: post conditioning could reduce long-term damages of the lung after lower limb ischemic-reperfusion injury. PMID:26628977

  15. Succinate Accumulation and Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Of Mice but Not Men, a Study in Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Wijermars, L G M; Schaapherder, A F; Kostidis, S; Wüst, R C I; Lindeman, J H

    2016-09-01

    A recent seminal paper implicated ischemia-related succinate accumulation followed by succinate-driven reactive oxygen species formation as a key driver of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the data show that the mechanism is universal for all organs tested (kidney, liver, heart, and brain), a remaining question is to what extent these observations in mice translate to humans. We showed in this study that succinate accumulation is not a universal event during ischemia and does not occur during renal graft procurement; in fact, tissue succinate content progressively decreased with increasing graft ischemia time (p < 0.007). Contrasting responses were also found with respect to mitochondrial susceptibility toward ischemia and reperfusion, with rodent mitochondria robustly resistant toward warm ischemia but human and pig mitochondria highly susceptible to warm ischemia (p < 0.05). These observations suggest that succinate-driven reactive oxygen formation does not occur in the context of kidney transplantation. Moreover, absent allantoin release from the reperfused grafts suggests minimal oxidative stress during clinical reperfusion. PMID:26999803

  16. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival.

  17. Vitreal Ocygenation in Retinal Ischemia Reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallab, Walid; AmeriMD, Hossein; Barron, Ernesto; ChaderPhD, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias; Hinton, David E; Humayun, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To study the feasibility of anterior vitreal oxygenation for the treatment of acute retinal ischemia. METHODS. Twenty rabbits were randomized into an oxygenation group, a sham treatment group, and a no treatment group. Baseline electroretinography (ERG) and preretinal oxygen (PO2) measurements were obtained 3 to 5 days before surgery. Intraocular pressure was raised to 100 mm Hg for 90 minutes and then normalized. The oxygenation group underwent vitreal oxygenation for 30 minutes using intravitreal electrodes. The sham treatment group received inactive electrodes for 30 minutes while there was no intervention for the no treatment group. Preretinal PO2 in the posterior vitreous was measured 30 minutes after intervention or 30 minutes after reperfusion (no treatment group) and on postoperative days (d) 3, 6, 9, and 12. On d14, rabbits underwent ERG and were euthanatized.

  18. Therapeutic Angiogenesis in Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ouma, Geoffrey O.; Zafrir, Barak; Mohler, Emile R.; Flugelman, Moshe Y.

    2013-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe form of peripheral artery disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. The primary therapeutic goals in treating CLI are to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, relieve ischemic pain, heal ulcers, prevent major amputation, and improve quality of life (QoL) and survival. These goals may be achieved by medical therapy, endovascular intervention, open surgery, or amputation and require a multidisciplinary approach including pain management, wound care, risk factors reduction, and treatment of comorbidities. No-option patients are potential candidates for the novel angiogenic therapies. The application of genetic, molecular, and cellular-based modalities, the so-called therapeutic angiogenesis, in the treatment of arterial obstructive diseases has not shown consistent efficacy. This article summarizes the current status related to the management of patients with CLI and discusses the current findings of the emerging modalities for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:23129733

  19. Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Chrien, Thomas D. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A real-time display of tissue ischemia which comprises three CCD video cameras, each with a narrow bandwidth filter at the correct wavelength is discussed. The cameras simultaneously view an area of tissue suspected of having ischemic areas through beamsplitters. The output from each camera is adjusted to give the correct signal intensity for combining with, the others into an image for display. If necessary a digital signal processor (DSP) can implement algorithms for image enhancement prior to display. Current DSP engines are fast enough to give real-time display. Measurement at three, wavelengths, combined into a real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) video display with a digital signal processing (DSP) board to implement image algorithms, provides direct visualization of ischemic areas.

  20. Cell Biology of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeris, Theodore; Baines, Christopher P.; Krenz, Maike; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Disorders characterized by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, continue to be among the most frequent causes of debilitating disease and death. Tissue injury and/or death occur as a result of the initial ischemic insult, which is determined primarily by the magnitude and duration of the interruption in the blood supply, and then subsequent damage induced by reperfusion. During prolonged ischemia, ATP levels and intracellular pH decrease as a result of anaerobic metabolism and lactate accumulation. As a consequence, ATPase-dependent ion transport mechanisms become dysfunctional, contributing to increased intracellular and mitochondrial calcium levels (calcium overload), cell swelling and rupture, and cell death by necrotic, necroptotic, apoptotic, and autophagic mechanisms. Although oxygen levels are restored upon reperfusion, a surge in the generation of reactive oxygen species occurs and proinflammatory neutrophils infiltrate ischemic tissues to exacerbate ischemic injury. The pathologic events induced by I/R orchestrate the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which appears to represent a common end-effector of the pathologic events initiated by I/R. The aim of this treatise is to provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms underlying the development of I/R injury, from which it should be apparent that a combination of molecular and cellular approaches targeting multiple pathologic processes to limit the extent of I/R injury must be adopted to enhance resistance to cell death and increase regenerative capacity in order to effect long-lasting repair of ischemic tissues. PMID:22878108

  1. Vitreal Oxygenation in Retinal Ischemia Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Walid; Ameri, Hossein; Barron, Ernesto; Chader, Gerald J.; Greenbaum, Elias; Hinton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To study the feasibility of anterior vitreal oxygenation for the treatment of acute retinal ischemia. Methods. Twenty rabbits were randomized into an oxygenation group, a sham treatment group, and a no treatment group. Baseline electroretinography (ERG) and preretinal oxygen (Po2) measurements were obtained 3 to 5 days before surgery. Intraocular pressure was raised to 100 mm Hg for 90 minutes and then normalized. The oxygenation group underwent vitreal oxygenation for 30 minutes using intravitreal electrodes. The sham treatment group received inactive electrodes for 30 minutes while there was no intervention for the no treatment group. Preretinal Po2 in the posterior vitreous was measured 30 minutes after intervention or 30 minutes after reperfusion (no treatment group) and on postoperative days (d) 3, 6, 9, and 12. On d14, rabbits underwent ERG and were euthanatized. Results. Mean final (d12) Po2 was 10.64 ± 0.77 mm Hg for the oxygenation group, 2.14 ± 0.61 mm Hg for the sham group, and 1.98 ± 0.63 mm Hg for the no treatment group. On ERG, scotopic b-wave amplitude was significantly preserved in the oxygenation group compared with the other two groups. Superoxide dismutase assay showed higher activity in the operated eyes than in the nonoperated control eyes in the sham treatment group and no treatment group only. Histopathology showed preservation of retinal architecture and choroidal vasculature in the oxygenation group, whereas the sham-treated and nontreated groups showed retinal thinning and choroidal atrophy. Conclusions. In severe total ocular ischemia, anterior vitreal oxygenation supplies enough oxygen to penetrate the retinal thickness, resulting in rescue of the RPE/choriocapillaris that continues to perfuse, hence sparing the retinal tissue from damage. PMID:21051734

  2. Sildenafil attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    George, Eric M; Palei, Ana C; Dent, Edward A; Granger, Joey P

    2013-08-15

    Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy that is marked by hypertension, proteinuria, and maternal endothelial dysfunction. A central factor in the etiology of the disease is the development of placental hypoxia/ischemia, which releases pathogenic soluble factors. There is currently no effective treatment for preeclampsia, but the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor sildenafil has been suggested, as PDE-5 is enriched in the uterus, and its antagonism could improve uteroplacental function. Here, we report in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model that administration of oral sildenafil is effective in attenuating placental ischemia-induced hypertension during gestation. RUPP animals have significantly elevated arterial pressure compared with control animals (132 ± 3 vs. 100 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Administration of oral sildenafil (45 mg·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹) had no effect on blood pressure in control rats but decreased pressure in RUPP rats (115 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05). RUPP induced changes in placental sFlt-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was unaffected by sildenafil administration, as was the decrease in free plasma VEGF. RUPP animals had a significant increase in medullary PDE-5/β-actin ratio (1 ± 0.14 vs. 1.63 ± 0.18; P < 0.05) expression with a resulting reduction in renal medullary cGMP (1.5 ± 0.15 vs. 0.99 ± 0.1 pmol/μg protein, P < 0.05) compared with controls. Although sildenafil had no effect on renal medullary cGMP in control animals, it significantly increased cGMP in RUPP animals (1.3 ± 0.1 pmol/μg protein; P < 0.05). These data suggest that sildenafil might provide an effective therapeutic option for the management of hypertension during preeclampsia. PMID:23785075

  3. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the new model of global cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisel, A. A.; Chernysheva, G. A.; Smol'yakova, V. I.; Savchenko, R. R.; Plotnikov, M. B.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis in a new model of global transient cerebral ischemia which was performed by the occlusion of the three main vessels (tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sinistra, and a. carotis communis sinistra) branching from the aortic arch and supplying the brain. Global transitory cerebral ischemia was modeled on male rats (weight = 250-300 g) under chloral hydrate with artificial lung ventilation. Animals after the same surgical operation without vessel occlusion served as sham-operated controls. The number of DCX-positive (doublecortin, the marker of immature neurons) cells in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1-CA3 fields of hippocampus was counted at the 31st day after ischemia modeling. It was revealed that global cerebral ischemia decreased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus in comparison with the sham-operated group (P<0.05) while neurogenesis in CA1-CA3 fields was increased as compared to the control (P<0.05).

  4. Ischemia and reperfusion—from mechanism to translation

    PubMed Central

    Eltzschig, Holger K; Eckle, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion–elicited tissue injury contributes to morbidity and mortality in a wide range of pathologies, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute kidney injury, trauma, circulatory arrest, sickle cell disease and sleep apnea. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is also a major challenge during organ transplantation and cardiothoracic, vascular and general surgery. An imbalance in metabolic supply and demand within the ischemic organ results in profound tissue hypoxia and microvascular dysfunction. Subsequent reperfusion further enhances the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and cell death programs. Recent advances in understanding the molecular and immunological consequences of ischemia and reperfusion may lead to innovative therapeutic strategies for treating patients with ischemia and reperfusion–associated tissue inflammation and organ dysfunction. PMID:22064429

  5. Multiple coronary arterial loops as a cause of myocardial ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashour, Tali T.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Lee, Damon

    1993-01-01

    A case of long-standing angina with ischemia documented by exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in a patient who had multiple proximal loops in all three major coronary arteries in the absence of luminal stenosis, is reported.

  6. Outpatient follow-up for critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Watch, Libby

    2014-09-01

    Outpatient follow-Up for critical limb ischemia offers the clinician the opportunity to monitor the patient for risk factor modification and wound healing. Routine surveillance following intervention will improve long-term patency.

  7. The complement system in ischemia-reperfusion injuries.

    PubMed

    Gorsuch, William B; Chrysanthou, Elvina; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Stahl, Gregory L

    2012-11-01

    Tissue injury and inflammation following ischemia and reperfusion of various organs have been recognized for many years. Many reviews have been written over the last several decades outlining the role of complement in ischemia/reperfusion injury. This short review provides a current state of the art knowledge on the complement pathways activated, complement components involved and a review of the clinical biologics/inhibitors used in the clinical setting of ischemia/reperfusion. This is not a complete review of the complement system in ischemia and reperfusion injury but will give the reader an updated view point of the field, potential clinical use of complement inhibitors, and the future studies needed to advance the field.

  8. Evaluating the Psychometric Quality of Social Skills Measures: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ted; Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impairments in social functioning are associated with an array of adverse outcomes. Social skills measures are commonly used by health professionals to assess and plan the treatment of social skills difficulties. There is a need to comprehensively evaluate the quality of psychometric properties reported across these measures to guide assessment and treatment planning. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours measures for both children and adults. Methods A systematic search was performed using four electronic databases: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed; the Health and Psychosocial Instruments database; and grey literature using PsycExtra and Google Scholar. The psychometric properties of the social skills measures were evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties using pre-set psychometric criteria. Results Thirty-Six studies and nine manuals were included to assess the psychometric properties of thirteen social skills measures that met the inclusion criteria. Most measures obtained excellent overall methodological quality scores for internal consistency and reliability. However, eight measures did not report measurement error, nine measures did not report cross-cultural validity and eleven measures did not report criterion validity. Conclusions The overall quality of the psychometric properties of most measures was satisfactory. The SSBS-2, HCSBS and PKBS-2 were the three measures with the most robust evidence of sound psychometric quality in at least seven of the eight psychometric properties that were appraised. A universal working definition of social functioning as an overarching construct is recommended. There is a need for ongoing research in the area of the psychometric properties of social skills and behaviours instruments. PMID:26151362

  9. Association between Anger and Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Kelley, Mary; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with adverse prognosis in coronary artery disease patients. Anger is thought to be a trigger of acute coronary syndromes and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk; however, little direct evidence exists for a link between anger and myocardial ischemia. Methods [99mTc]sestamibi single-photon emission tomography was performed at rest, after mental stress (a social stressor with a speech task), and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Summed scores of perfusion abnormalities were obtained by observer-independent software. A summed difference score, the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory was used to assess different anger dimensions. Results The mean age was 50 years, 50% were female and 60% were non-white. After adjusting for demographic factors, smoking, coronary artery disease severity, depressive and anxiety symptoms, each interquartile range increment in state-anger score was associated with 0.36 units adjusted increase in ischemia as measured by the summed difference score (95% CI: 0.14-0.59); the corresponding association for trait-anger was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.21-1.69). Anger expression scales were not associated ischemia. None of the anger dimensions were related to ischemia during exercise/pharmacological stress. Conclusion Anger, both as an emotional state and as a personality trait, is significantly associated with propensity to develop myocardial ischemia during mental stress, but not during exercise/pharmacological stress. Patients with this psychological profile may be at increased risk for silent ischemia induced by emotional stress and this may translate into worse prognosis. PMID:25497256

  10. Short-term memory and cerebral ischemia: pharmacological application.

    PubMed

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, M; Grosdemouge, C; Billon, C R; Duterte, D; Pontrat, P; Lespinasse, P; Rapin, J R

    1981-01-01

    Transient ischemia results in changes in the cerebral blood flow at the level of microinfarcts, enzymatic and metabolic changes and the development of a cerebral edema; all these disorders regress in the week following ischemia. Besides, the observed functional disorders disappear as the cerebral edema regresses. The brain functional activity is protected by the use of treatments which reduce the development of the cerebral edema and/or a quicker regression of the edema. PMID:7262126

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Pregabalin on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Aşcı, Sanem; Demirci, Serpil; Aşcı, Halil; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Onaran, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and the leading cause of disability in adults. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury causes cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and neuronal death. Aims: In post-ischemic reperfusion, free radical production causes brain tissue damage by oxidative stress. Pregabalin, an antiepileptic agent was shown to have antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of pregabalin on ischemia and reperfusion in rat brain injury. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing (250–300 g) were randomly divided into six groups, each consisting of 6 rats: control (C), pregabalin (P), ischemia (I), pregabalin + ischemia (PI), ischemia + reperfusion (IR) and ischemia + reperfusion + pregabalin (PIR). Rats were initially pre-treated with 50 mg/kg/d pregabalin orally for two days. Then, animals that applied ischemia in I, PI, IR and PIR groups were exposed to carotid clamping for 30 minutes and 20 minutes reperfusion was performed in the relevant reperfusion groups. Results: NR2B receptor levels were significantly lower in the PIR group in comparison to the IR group. In the PIR group, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level had statistically significant decrease compared with IR group. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels were also significantly increased in the PIR group compared with I, IR and control groups. In the PI and PIR groups, catalase (CAT) levels were also significantly increased compared with I and IR groups (p=0.03 and p=0.07, respectively). Conclusion: Pregabalin may protect the damage of oxidative stress after ischemia + reperfusion. This result would illuminate clinical studies in the future. PMID:27403394

  12. Retino-choroidal ischemia in central retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazimul; Hussain, Anjli

    2014-01-01

    A 41-year-old gentleman with insulin dependent diabetes had decreased vision in the right eye due to non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. One month following intravitreal ranibizumab, he developed retino-choroidal ischemia with further loss of vision. Authors show the fluorescein angiographic transition from non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion to retino-choroidal ischemia. PMID:25473353

  13. Clinical acumen but psychometric naivete in neuropsychological assessment of educational disorders.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C R

    1986-01-01

    Many advances in clinical neuropsychology have resulted from the excellent clinical, observational skills developed in the field. In the development of assessment tools for clinical practice, advances in the field have not paralleled advances in applied psychometrics, especially in the assessment of educationally handicapped children. The Boder Test of Reading Spelling Patterns is examined as a detailed example of outstanding clinical acumen leading to a valuable heuristic that failed when translated into a practical assessment tool, primarily due to a lack of attention to the psychometric aspects of the scale. Implications of the failure to apply modern psychometric standards to test development in clinical neuropsychology are discussed. PMID:14589646

  14. Zinc translocation accelerates infarction after mild transient focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-M; Zipfel, G J; Park, K H; He, Y Y; Hsu, C Y; Choi, D W

    2002-01-01

    Excess release of chelatable zinc (Zn(2+)) from central synaptic vesicles may contribute to the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia, but a role in neurodegeneration after focal ischemia has not been defined. Adult male Long-Evans rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min followed by reperfusion developed delayed cerebral infarction reaching completion 3 days after the insult. One day after the insult, many degenerating cerebral neurons exhibited increased intracellular Zn(2+), and some labeled with the antibody against activated caspase-3. I.c.v. administration of the Zn(2+) chelator, EDTA saturated with equimolar Ca(2+) (CaEDTA), 15 min prior to ischemia attenuated subsequent Zn(2+) translocation into cortical neurons, and reduced infarct volume measured 3 days after ischemia. Although the protective effect of CaEDTA at this endpoint was substantial (about 70% infarct reduction), it was lost when insult severity was increased (from 30 to 60 min MCAO), or when infarct volume was measured at a much later time point (14 days instead of 3 days after ischemia). These data suggest that toxic Zn(2+) translocation, from presynaptic terminals to post-synaptic cell bodies, may accelerate the development of cerebral infarction following mild transient focal ischemia.

  15. [Myocardial serotonin metabolism after local ischemia and ischemic precondition].

    PubMed

    Naumenko, S E; Latysheva, T V; Gilinskiĭ, M A

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of ischemic preconditioning upon myocardial serotonin and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) dynamic in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. 28 male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the control group (n = 13) rats were subjected to 30 min coronary occlusion and subsequent 120 min reperfusion. In the ex- perimental group (n = 15) ischemic preconditioning (3 x 3 min ischemia + 3 x 3 min reperfusion) before prolonged ischemia was used. Myocardial interstitial serotonin and 5-HIAA were measured using a microdialysis technique. Myocardial serotonin and 5-HIAA significantly increased af- ter ischemic preconditioning (p = 0.00298; p = 0.00187). In prolonged ischemia interstitial serotonin level was lower in the experimental group vs. control up to 20 min of ischemia (p < 0.05). We conclude that ischemic preconditioning increases interstitial myocardial serotonin, but inhibit serotonin increase in subsequent prolonged myocardial ischemia. After 20 minutes of reperfusion the lack of correlation between serotonin and 5-HIAA levels appeared which may be the evidence of serotonin uptake activation.

  16. Role of Histamine and Its Receptors in Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Histamine is recognized as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain, and it plays a major role in the pathogenic progression after cerebral ischemia. Extracellular histamine increases gradually after ischemia, and this may come from histaminergic neurons or mast cells. Histamine alleviates neuronal damage and infarct volume, and it promotes recovery of neurological function after ischemia; the H1, H2, and H3 receptors are all involved. Further studies suggest that histamine alleviates excitotoxicity, suppresses the release of glutamate and dopamine, and inhibits inflammation and glial scar formation. Histamine may also affect cerebral blood flow by targeting to vascular smooth muscle cells, and promote neurogenesis. Moreover, endogenous histamine is an essential mediator in the cerebral ischemic tolerance. Due to its multiple actions, affecting neurons, glia, vascular cells, and inflammatory cells, histamine is likely to be an important target in cerebral ischemia. But due to its low penetration of the blood-brain barrier and its wide actions in the periphery, histamine-related agents, like H3 antagonists and carnosine, show potential for cerebral ischemia therapy. However, important questions about the molecular aspects and pathophysiology of histamine and related agents in cerebral ischemia remain to be answered to form a solid scientific basis for therapeutic application. PMID:22860191

  17. Methods for Acute and Subacute Murine Hindlimb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Michael E; McCord, Timothy J; McClung, Joseph M; Kontos, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developed countries, and animal models that reliably reproduce the human disease are necessary to develop new therapies for this disease. The mouse hindlimb ischemia model has been widely used for this purpose, but the standard practice of inducing acute limb ischemia by ligation of the femoral artery can result in substantial tissue necrosis, compromising investigators' ability to study the vascular and skeletal muscle tissue responses to ischemia. An alternative approach to femoral artery ligation is the induction of gradual femoral artery occlusion through the use of ameroid constrictors. When placed around the femoral artery in the same or different locations as the sites of femoral artery ligation, these devices occlude the artery over 1 - 3 days, resulting in more gradual, subacute ischemia. This results in less substantial skeletal muscle tissue necrosis, which may more closely mimic the responses seen in human PAD. Because genetic background influences outcomes in both the acute and subacute ischemia models, consideration of the mouse strain being studied is important in choosing the best model. This paper describes the proper procedure and anatomical placement of ligatures or ameroid constrictors on the mouse femoral artery to induce subacute or acute hindlimb ischemia in the mouse. PMID:27403963

  18. Anticerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Activity of Synthesized Puerarin Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yubin; Yan, Xinjia

    2016-01-01

    When cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury happened in patients, multiple pathological processes occur, such as leukocyte infiltration, platelet, and complement activation, which would result in cognitive dysfunction and inflammation. Puerarin has shown protective effect on injury of neural cell. In order to enhance this protective effect of puerarin, puerarin derivatives with different log⁡P values were designed and synthesized. The original phenolic hydroxyl in the puerarin molecules was substituted in order to change the blood-brain barrier permeability and thus enhance the efficacy for preventing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. And the structure of the newly synthesized molecules was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The mouse model of cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion injury was established to test the anticerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury activity of the puerarin derivatives. The assays of the water maze, Y maze, brain cortex Ca2+-Mg2+-ATP enzyme, and iNOS enzyme activity were performed in this mouse model. The results showed that puerarin derivative P1-EA and P2-EA were resulting in an increased lipophilicity that enabled the derivatives to pass more efficiently through the blood-brain barrier, thus, improving the protective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, derivatives of puerarin may serve as promising approach to improve neuron function in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders. PMID:27807543

  19. A Program for Solving the Brain Ischemia Problem

    PubMed Central

    DeGracia, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Our recently described nonlinear dynamical model of cell injury is here applied to the problems of brain ischemia and neuroprotection. We discuss measurement of global brain ischemia injury dynamics by time course analysis. Solutions to proposed experiments are simulated using hypothetical values for the model parameters. The solutions solve the global brain ischemia problem in terms of “master bifurcation diagrams” that show all possible outcomes for arbitrary durations of all lethal cerebral blood flow (CBF) decrements. The global ischemia master bifurcation diagrams: (1) can map to a single focal ischemia insult, and (2) reveal all CBF decrements susceptible to neuroprotection. We simulate measuring a neuroprotectant by time course analysis, which revealed emergent nonlinear effects that set dynamical limits on neuroprotection. Using over-simplified stroke geometry, we calculate a theoretical maximum protection of approximately 50% recovery. We also calculate what is likely to be obtained in practice and obtain 38% recovery; a number close to that often reported in the literature. The hypothetical examples studied here illustrate the use of the nonlinear cell injury model as a fresh avenue of approach that has the potential, not only to solve the brain ischemia problem, but also to advance the technology of neuroprotection. PMID:24961411

  20. Methods for Acute and Subacute Murine Hindlimb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Michael E.; McCord, Timothy J.; McClung, Joseph M.; Kontos, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developed countries, and animal models that reliably reproduce the human disease are necessary to develop new therapies for this disease. The mouse hindlimb ischemia model has been widely used for this purpose, but the standard practice of inducing acute limb ischemia by ligation of the femoral artery can result in substantial tissue necrosis, compromising investigators' ability to study the vascular and skeletal muscle tissue responses to ischemia. An alternative approach to femoral artery ligation is the induction of gradual femoral artery occlusion through the use of ameroid constrictors. When placed around the femoral artery in the same or different locations as the sites of femoral artery ligation, these devices occlude the artery over 1-3 days, resulting in more gradual, subacute ischemia. This results in less substantial skeletal muscle tissue necrosis, which may more closely mimic the responses seen in human PAD. Because genetic background influences outcomes in both the acute and subacute ischemia models, consideration of the mouse strain being studied is important in choosing the best model. This paper describes the proper procedure and anatomical placement of ligatures or ameroid constrictors on the mouse femoral artery to induce subacute or acute hindlimb ischemia in the mouse. PMID:27403963

  1. Exercise-induced Myocardial Ischemia Detected by Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Arena, Ross; Wasserman, Karlman; Hansen, James E.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Myers, Jonathan; Chronos, Nicolas; Boden, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a well-accepted physiologic evaluation technique in patients diagnosed with heart failure and in individuals presenting with unexplained dyspnea on exertion. Several variables obtained during CPET, including oxygen consumption relative to heart rate (VO2/HR or O2-pulse) and work rate (VO2/Watt) provide consistent, quantitative patterns of abnormal physiologic responses to graded exercise when left ventricular dysfunction is caused by myocardial ischemia. This concept paper describes both the methodology and clinical application of CPET associated with myocardial ischemia. Initial evidence indicates left ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial ischemia may be accurately detected by an abnormal CPET response. CPET testing may complement current non-invasive testing modalities that elicit inducible ischemia. It provides a physiologic quantification of the work rate, heart rate and O2 uptake at which myocardial ischemia develops. In conclusion, the potential value of adding CPET with gas exchange measurements is likely to be of great value in diagnosing and quantifying both overt and occult myocardial ischemia and its reversibility with treatment. PMID:19231322

  2. Improved renal ischemia tolerance in females influences kidney transplantation outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Aufhauser, David D.; Wang, Zhonglin; Murken, Douglas R.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Wang, Yanfeng; Ge, Guanghui; Redfield, Robert R.; Abt, Peter L.; Wang, Liqing; Reese, Peter P.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Levine, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Experimentally, females show an improved ability to recover from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) compared with males; however, this sex-dependent response is less established in humans. Here, we developed a series of murine renal ischemia and transplant models to investigate sex-specific effects on recovery after IRI. We found that IRI tolerance is profoundly increased in female mice compared with that observed in male mice and discovered an intermediate phenotype after neutering of either sex. Transplantation of adult kidneys from either sex into a recipient of the opposite sex followed by ischemia at a remote time resulted in ischemia recovery that reflected the sex of the recipient, not the donor, revealing that the host sex determines recovery. Likewise, renal IRI was exacerbated in female estrogen receptor α–KO mice, while female mice receiving supplemental estrogen before ischemia were protected. We examined data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to determine whether there is an association between sex and delayed graft function (DGF) in patients who received deceased donor renal transplants. A multivariable logistic regression analysis determined that there was a greater association with DGF in male recipients than in female recipients. Together, our results demonstrate that sex affects renal IRI tolerance in mice and humans and indicate that estrogen administration has potential as a therapeutic intervention to clinically improve ischemia tolerance. PMID:27088798

  3. Psychometric data for the NFL neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Mark R; Solomon, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    As part of a comprehensive league-wide study of concussion, the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury sponsored a neuropsychological testing program from 1996 through 2001. Nearly 1,000 athletes participated voluntarily in the study. Traditional paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests were used for baseline assessment. Neuropsychological tests used in the study included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Trail-Making Tests (Parts A and B), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. We present a factor analysis of these baseline data on 513 athletes who completed all of the neuropsychological tests and present normative psychometric data on the multiple baseline tests employed.

  4. [Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexism Detection (ASD) scale].

    PubMed

    Recio, Patricia; Cuadrado, Isabel; Ramos, Esther

    2007-08-01

    In this article, it is assumed that gender violence, or violence against women, has mainly a sociocultural basis. A scale (Adolescent Sexism Detection; ASD) to detect sexism in adolescents was developed and its psychometric properties were analysed. 245 adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age participated in the study. As a result of the factor analyses carried out, the hostile and benevolent dimensions of sexism were clearly differentiated. Convergent validity of the scale was confirmed by its high correlations with the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Participants scored higher in benevolent than in hostile sexism, an effect even stronger in female participants. These findings suggest that the ASD scale is a valid instrument to measure sexism among adolescents. The main findings of this study are compared to those obtained in other studies using the ASI. The potential of this scale to appropriately detect sexism among adolescents is discussed.

  5. The psychometric properties of the Bortner Type A Scale.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J R; Baglioni, A J; Cooper, C L

    1990-08-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the relationship between Type A behaviour pattern (TABP) and coronary heart disease (CHD) is dependent upon the method of measuring TABP. This suggests that the psychometric properties of TABP measures should be carefully investigated. This article examines one widely used TABP measure, the Bortner Scale, using data from 1320 working adults divided into three random samples. The reliability of the Bortner Scale as an overall TABP index is unacceptably low. However, further analyses indicate that, rather than reflecting a single dimension, the Bortner Scale contains two independent dimensions, one reflecting speed and the other reflecting competitiveness. The speed dimension was negatively related to job satisfaction and, to a lesser extent, positively related to anxiety and somatic symptoms, whereas the competitiveness dimension was positively related to job satisfaction. Implications for the use of the Bortner Scale are discussed. PMID:2224394

  6. Computational Psychometrics in Communication and Implications in Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Cipresso, Pietro; Villani, Daniela; Repetto, Claudia; Bosone, Lucia; Balgera, Anna; Mauri, Maurizio; Villamira, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal). In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants' perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process. PMID:26339285

  7. The Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire (SSQ): Psychometrics, validation and norms.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Dirk

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) and validity (relationship with various self-report measures and SPEM dysfunction) of the SSQ or Schizotypic Syndrome Questionnaire, a 108-item inventory for the measurement of 12 prodromal or schizotypic symptoms present in Van Kampen's model of schizophrenic prodromal unfolding. This paper also provides normative data for the SSQ. The SSQ demonstrates adequate reliability and breaks down into three correlated factors: negative schizotypy, asocial schizotypy and positive schizotypy. Results further attest the construct validity of the instrument. Because of the implications of the SSQ model for the definition of schizophrenia, the instrument's three-dimensional factor structure and the nature of one of the factors are discussed in more detail.

  8. Computational Psychometrics in Communication and Implications in Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Cipresso, Pietro; Villani, Daniela; Repetto, Claudia; Bosone, Lucia; Balgera, Anna; Mauri, Maurizio; Villamira, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal). In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants' perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process. PMID:26339285

  9. Computational Psychometrics in Communication and Implications in Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Cipresso, Pietro; Villani, Daniela; Repetto, Claudia; Bosone, Lucia; Balgera, Anna; Mauri, Maurizio; Villamira, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations emphasized the role of communication features on behavioral trust and reciprocity in economic decision making but no studies have been focused on the effect of communication on affective states in such a context. Thanks to advanced methods of computational psychometrics, in this study, affective states were deeply examined using simultaneous and synchronized recordings of gazes and psychophysiological signals in 28 female students during an investment game. Results showed that participants experienced different affective states according to the type of communication (personal versus impersonal). In particular, participants involved in personal communication felt more relaxed than participants involved in impersonal communication. Moreover, personal communication influenced reciprocity and participants' perceptions about trust and reciprocity. Findings were interpreted in the light of the Arousal/Valence Model and self-disclosure process.

  10. Psychometric data for the NFL neuropsychological test battery.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Mark R; Solomon, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    As part of a comprehensive league-wide study of concussion, the National Football League's Committee on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury sponsored a neuropsychological testing program from 1996 through 2001. Nearly 1,000 athletes participated voluntarily in the study. Traditional paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests were used for baseline assessment. Neuropsychological tests used in the study included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Trail-Making Tests (Parts A and B), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. We present a factor analysis of these baseline data on 513 athletes who completed all of the neuropsychological tests and present normative psychometric data on the multiple baseline tests employed. PMID:21846219

  11. A conceptual and psychometric framework for distinguishing categories and dimensions.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or dimension-like. Being dimension-like requires (a) within-category heterogeneity and (b) between-category quantitative differences. Being category-like requires (a) within-category homogeneity and (b) between-category qualitative differences. The relation between this classification and abrupt versus smooth differences is discussed. Hybrid structures are possible. Being category-like is itself a matter of degree; the authors offer a formalized framework to determine this degree. Empirical applications to personality disorders, attitudes toward capital punishment, and stages of cognitive development illustrate the approach.

  12. Emotion processing deficits in the different dimensions of psychometric schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Giakoumaki, Stella G

    2016-06-01

    Schizotypy refers to a personality structure indicating "proneness" to schizophrenia. Around 10% of the general population has increased schizotypal traits, they also share other core features with schizophrenia and are thus at heightened risk for developing schizophrenia and spectrum disorders. A key aspect in schizophrenia-spectrum pathology is the impairment observed in emotion-related processes. This review summarizes findings on impairments related to central aspects of emotional processes, such as emotional disposition, alexithymia, facial affect recognition and speech prosody, in high schizotypal individuals in the general population. Although the studies in the field are not numerous, the current findings indicate that all these aspects of emotional processing are deficient in psychometric schizotypy, in accordance to the schizophrenia-spectrum literature. A disturbed frontotemporal neural network seems to be the critical link between these impairments, schizotypy and schizophrenia. The limitations of the current studies and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27119257

  13. Psychometric properties of a hurricane coping self-efficacy measure.

    PubMed

    Benight, C C; Ironson, G; Durham, R L

    1999-04-01

    This brief report describes the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure Hurricane Coping Self-Efficacy (HCSE). Survivors of Hurricane Andrew (n = 165) and Hurricane Opal (n = 63) completed the HCSE and assessments of optimism, social support, distress, and resource loss. Principal components factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure for the HCSE. Internal consistency of the HCSE was strong. In both samples, HCSE was positively associated with optimism and social support, but negatively associated with general psychological distress, trauma related distress, and resource loss. Finally, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that the HCSE explained a significant amount of experimental variance for intrusive thoughts and avoidance after controlling for social support, lost resources, and optimism.

  14. Psychometric evaluation of the HIV symptom distress scale.

    PubMed

    Marc, Linda G; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to psychometrically validate the HIV symptom distress scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research US Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency, and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 - 0.06]; Satorra Bentler scaled, C (2) =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p<0.001) and CD4 (p<0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p<0.001), race/ethnicity (p<0.05), and educational attainment (p<0.001). Hence, the HIV SDS is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms.

  15. Psychometric properties of the modified Symptom Severity Index (SSI)

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; John, Mike T.; Wall, Melanie M.; Fricton, James R.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the modified Symptom Severity Index were investigated to assess the relationships among dimensions of pain in temporomandibular disorders. The 15-item instrument is composed of ordinal scales assessing five pain dimensions (intensity, frequency, duration, unpleasantness, and difficulty to endure) as experienced in three locations (temple, temporomandibular joint, masseter). In 108 closed-lock subjects, Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure internal consistency resulting in 31 of the 105 pair-wise comparisons ≥0.71. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis was used to assess dimensionality between items. Two factors emerged, termed temple pain and jaw pain. The jaw pain factor comprised the temporomandibular joint and masseter locations, indicating that subjects did not differentiate between these two locations. With further analysis, the jaw pain factor could be separated into temporal aspects of pain (frequency, duration) and affective dimensions (intensity, unpleasantness, endurability). Temple pain could not be further reduced; this may have been influenced by concurrent orofacial pains such as headache. Internal consistency was high, with alphas ≥0.92 for scales associated with all factors. Excellent test-retest reliability was found for repeat testing at 2–48 hours in 55 subjects (ICC=0.97, 95%CI 0.96–0.99). In conclusion, the modified Symptom Severity Index has excellent psychometric properties for use as an instrument to measure pain in subjects with temporomandibular disorders. The most important characteristic of this pain is location, while the temporal dimensions are important for jaw pain. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and assess relationships between dimensions of pain as experienced in other chronic pain disorders. PMID:19889036

  16. Which kind of psychometrics is adequate for patient satisfaction questionnaires?

    PubMed Central

    Konerding, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The construction and psychometric analysis of patient satisfaction questionnaires are discussed. The discussion is based upon the classification of multi-item questionnaires into scales or indices. Scales consist of items that describe the effects of the latent psychological variable to be measured, and indices consist of items that describe the causes of this variable. Whether patient satisfaction questionnaires should be constructed and analyzed as scales or as indices depends upon the purpose for which these questionnaires are required. If the final aim is improving care with regard to patients’ preferences, then these questionnaires should be constructed and analyzed as indices. This implies two requirements: 1) items for patient satisfaction questionnaires should be selected in such a way that the universe of possible causes of patient satisfaction is covered optimally and 2) Cronbach’s alpha, principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and analyses with models from item response theory, such as the Rasch Model, should not be applied for psychometric analyses. Instead, multivariate regression analyses with a direct rating of patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and the individual questionnaire items as independent variables should be performed. The coefficients produced by such an analysis can be applied for selecting the best items and for weighting the selected items when a sum score is determined. The lower boundaries of the validity of the unweighted and the weighted sum scores can be estimated by their correlations with the direct satisfaction rating. While the first requirement is fulfilled in the majority of the previous patient satisfaction questionnaires, the second one deviates from previous practice. Hence, if patient satisfaction is actually measured with the final aim of improving care with regard to patients’ preferences, then future practice should be changed so that the second

  17. Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Allred, E N; Bleecker, E R; Chaitman, B R; Dahms, T E; Gottlieb, S O; Hackney, J D; Pagano, M; Selvester, R H; Walden, S M; Warren, J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. The exposures resulted in postexercise carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 0.6% +/- 0.3%, 2.0% +/- 0.1%, and 3.9% +/- 0.1%. The results obtained on the 2%-COHb day and 3.9%-COHb day were compared to those on the room air day. There were 5.1% (p = 0.01) and 12.1% (p less than or equal to 0.0001) decreases in the time to development of ischemic ST-segment changes after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. In addition, there were 4.2% (p = 0.027) and 7.1% (p = 0.002) decreases in time to the onset of angina after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre- versus postexposure exercise tests at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease. PMID:2040254

  18. How useful are psychometric scores in predicting recidivism for treated sex offenders?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Georgia D; Wakeling, Helen C; Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Rakestrow, Janine

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychometric test scores, psychometric test profiles, and sexual and/or violent reconviction. A sample of 3,402 convicted sexual offenders who attended a probation service-run sexual offender treatment programme in the community completed a battery of psychometric tests pre- and posttreatment. Using Cox regression, posttreatment scores on measures of self-esteem, an ability to relate to fictional characters, and recognition of risk factors were, individually, predictive of recidivism. When psychometric tests were grouped into dynamic risk domains, only the pretreatment scores of the domain labelled socioaffective functioning (SAF) predicted recidivism and added predictive power to a static risk assessment. The number of risk domains that were dysfunctional pretreatment also predicted recidivism outcome; however, this did not add predictive power to a static risk assessment tool. Possible explanations for the superiority of pre- over posttreatment scores in predicting reconviction are discussed, and directions for further research considered.

  19. Understanding the State of the Art for Measurement in Chemistry Education Research: Examining the Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arjoon, Janelle A.; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    education community are relatively new. Because psychometric evidence dictates the validity of interpretations made from test scores, gathering and reporting validity and reliability evidence is of utmost importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate what…

  20. Endogenous Protease Nexin-1 Protects against Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Price, Melanie; Puentes, Wilfredo; Castillo, Ximena; Benakis, Corinne; Thevenet, Jonathan; Monard, Denis; Hirt, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin plays a role in signalling ischemic neuronal death in the brain. Paradoxically, endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms can be triggered by preconditioning with thrombin (thrombin preconditioning, TPC), leading to tolerance to cerebral ischemia. Here we studied the role of thrombin’s endogenous potent inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1), in ischemia and in tolerance to cerebral ischemia induced by TPC. Cerebral ischemia was modelled in vitro in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats or genetically engineered mice lacking PN-1 or with the reporter gene lacZ knocked into the PN-1 locus PN-1HAPN-1-lacZ/HAPN-1-lacZ (PN-1 KI) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed increased thrombin enzyme activity in culture homogenates 24 h after OGD. Lack of PN-1 increased neuronal death in the CA1, suggesting that endogenous PN-1 inhibits thrombin-induced neuronal damage after ischemia. OGD enhanced β-galactosidase activity, reflecting PN-1 expression, at one and 24 h, most strikingly in the stratum radiatum, a glial cell layer adjacent to the CA1 layer of ischemia sensitive neurons. TPC, 24 h before OGD, additionally increased PN-1 expression 1 h after OGD, compared to OGD alone. TPC failed to induce tolerance in cultures from PN-1−/− mice confirming PN-1 as an important TPC target. PN-1 upregulation after TPC was blocked by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, L-JNKI1, known to block TPC. This work suggests that PN-1 is an endogenous neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia and a potential target for neuroprotection. PMID:23949634

  1. Endogenous protease nexin-1 protects against cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Price, Melanie; Puentes, Wilfredo; Castillo, Ximena; Benakis, Corinne; Thevenet, Jonathan; Monard, Denis; Hirt, Lorenz

    2013-08-14

    The serine protease thrombin plays a role in signalling ischemic neuronal death in the brain. Paradoxically, endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms can be triggered by preconditioning with thrombin (thrombin preconditioning, TPC), leading to tolerance to cerebral ischemia. Here we studied the role of thrombin's endogenous potent inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1), in ischemia and in tolerance to cerebral ischemia induced by TPC. Cerebral ischemia was modelled in vitro in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats or genetically engineered mice lacking PN-1 or with the reporter gene lacZ knocked into the PN-1 locus PN-1HAPN-1-lacZ/HAPN-1-lacZ (PN-1 KI) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed increased thrombin enzyme activity in culture homogenates 24 h after OGD. Lack of PN-1 increased neuronal death in the CA1, suggesting that endogenous PN-1 inhibits thrombin-induced neuronal damage after ischemia. OGD enhanced β-galactosidase activity, reflecting PN-1 expression, at one and 24 h, most strikingly in the stratum radiatum, a glial cell layer adjacent to the CA1 layer of ischemia sensitive neurons. TPC, 24 h before OGD, additionally increased PN-1 expression 1 h after OGD, compared to OGD alone. TPC failed to induce tolerance in cultures from PN-1(-/-) mice confirming PN-1 as an important TPC target. PN-1 upregulation after TPC was blocked by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, L-JNKI1, known to block TPC. This work suggests that PN-1 is an endogenous neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia and a potential target for neuroprotection.

  2. Endogenous protease nexin-1 protects against cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mirante, Osvaldo; Price, Melanie; Puentes, Wilfredo; Castillo, Ximena; Benakis, Corinne; Thevenet, Jonathan; Monard, Denis; Hirt, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin plays a role in signalling ischemic neuronal death in the brain. Paradoxically, endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms can be triggered by preconditioning with thrombin (thrombin preconditioning, TPC), leading to tolerance to cerebral ischemia. Here we studied the role of thrombin's endogenous potent inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1), in ischemia and in tolerance to cerebral ischemia induced by TPC. Cerebral ischemia was modelled in vitro in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from rats or genetically engineered mice lacking PN-1 or with the reporter gene lacZ knocked into the PN-1 locus PN-1HAPN-1-lacZ/HAPN-1-lacZ (PN-1 KI) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed increased thrombin enzyme activity in culture homogenates 24 h after OGD. Lack of PN-1 increased neuronal death in the CA1, suggesting that endogenous PN-1 inhibits thrombin-induced neuronal damage after ischemia. OGD enhanced β-galactosidase activity, reflecting PN-1 expression, at one and 24 h, most strikingly in the stratum radiatum, a glial cell layer adjacent to the CA1 layer of ischemia sensitive neurons. TPC, 24 h before OGD, additionally increased PN-1 expression 1 h after OGD, compared to OGD alone. TPC failed to induce tolerance in cultures from PN-1(-/-) mice confirming PN-1 as an important TPC target. PN-1 upregulation after TPC was blocked by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, L-JNKI1, known to block TPC. This work suggests that PN-1 is an endogenous neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia and a potential target for neuroprotection. PMID:23949634

  3. Novel Biomarkers of Arterial and Venous Ischemia in Microvascular Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Gerard K.; Monahan, John F. W.; Davis, Gabrielle B.; Lee, Yong Suk; Ragina, Neli P.; Wang, Charles; Zhou, Zhao Y.; Hong, Young Kwon; Spivak, Ryan M.; Wong, Alex K.

    2013-01-01

    The field of reconstructive microsurgery is experiencing tremendous growth, as evidenced by recent advances in face and hand transplantation, lower limb salvage after trauma, and breast reconstruction. Common to all of these procedures is the creation of a nutrient vascular supply by microsurgical anastomosis between a single artery and vein. Complications related to occluded arterial inflow and obstructed venous outflow are not uncommon, and can result in irreversible tissue injury, necrosis, and flap loss. At times, these complications are challenging to clinically determine. Since early intervention with return to the operating room to re-establish arterial inflow or venous outflow is key to flap salvage, the accurate diagnosis of early stage complications is essential. To date, there are no biochemical markers or serum assays that can predict these complications. In this study, we utilized a rat model of flap ischemia in order to identify the transcriptional signatures of venous congestion and arterial ischemia. We found that the critical ischemia time for the superficial inferior epigastric fasciocutaneus flap was four hours and therefore performed detailed analyses at this time point. Histolgical analysis confirmed significant differences between arterial and venous ischemia. The transcriptome of ischemic, congested, and control flap tissues was deciphered by performing Affymetrix microarray analysis and verified by qRT-PCR. Principal component analysis revealed that arterial ischemia and venous congestion were characterized by distinct transcriptomes. Arterial ischemia and venous congestion was characterized by 408 and 1536>2-fold differentially expressed genes, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to identify five candidate genes Prol1, Muc1, Fcnb, Il1b, and Vcsa1 to serve as biomarkers for flap failure in both arterial ischemia and venous congestion. Our data suggests that Prol1 and Vcsa1 may be specific indicators of venous congestion and allow clinicians to

  4. [Non-cardiac causes of acute ischemia in the arms].

    PubMed

    d'Addato, M; Pedrini, L

    1996-01-01

    Among a series of 286 cases of acute ischemia of the upper limb, we analyzed the files of 176 patients (61.5%) with noncardiac ischemia in order to identify the causes and treatment. Trauma was the most frequent cause (126 cases) including trauma of the forearm especially due to stab wounds. Lesions with a subclavian-axillary localization were predominantly due to tear wounds or blunt trauma. We analyzed two groups among the trauma cases: iatrogenic lesions (9 cases) usually resulted from orthopedic surgery (5 cases) or vascular catheterization (3 cases) as well as near-total limb amputations (13) cases. Thrombosis of the subclavian artery occurred in 33 patients; 9 had acute ischemia including 3 due to a cervical rib and 6 due to compression by the rib and the clavicle. Only 4 of these 33 patients suffered ischemia of the hand due to embolization. Acute ischemia was caused by arteriopathy of the hand in 8 patients including 2 volley ball players, 1 baseball player and 3 subjects with occupational microtrauma and 1 with thrombosis of the palmar arch. Finally 1 patient had thrombosis after intravenous drug injection. These files demonstrated the variety of non-cardiac causes of acute ischemia of the upper limb. During the acute phase, we propose locoregional thrombolysis in case of thrombosis and embolectomy for emboli followed by treatment of the casual lesion. An arteriography is essential for correct diagnosis and should include the subclavian artery in the hyperabduction position and the hand. Duplex scanning of the subclavian artery is indicated in case of ischemia of the hand using the Adson, McGowan and Wright maneuvers in order to guide the radiologist for invasive radiography before initiating appropriate treatment.

  5. Mechanisms of Mechanically Induced Spontaneous Arrhythmias in Acute Regional Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Xiao; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Trayanova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Although ventricular premature beats (VPBs) during acute regional ischemia have been linked to mechanical stretch of ischemic tissue, whether and how ischemia-induced mechanical dysfunction can induce VPBs and facilitate their degradation into reentrant arrhythmias has not been yet addressed. Objective This study used a novel multiscale electromechanical model of the rabbit ventricles to investigate the origin of and the substrate for spontaneous arrhythmias arising from ischemia-induced electrophysiological and mechanical changes. Methods and Results Two stages of ischemia were simulated. Dynamic mechanoelectrical feedback was modeled as spatially and temporally nonuniform membrane currents through mechanosensitive channels, the conductances of which depended on local strain rate. Our results reveal that both strains and strain rates were significantly larger in the central ischemic zone than in the border zone. However, in both ischemia stages, a VPB originated from the ischemic border in the left ventricular apical endocardium because of mechanically induced suprathreshold depolarizations. It then traveled fully intramurally until emerging from the ischemic border on the anterior epicardium. Reentry was formed only in the advanced ischemia stage as the result of a widened temporal excitable gap. Mechanically induced delayed afterdepolarization-like events contributed to the formation of reentry by further decreasing the already reduced-by-hyperkalemia local excitability, causing extended conduction block lines and slowed conduction in the ischemic region. Conclusions Mechanically induced membrane depolarizations in the ischemic region are the mechanism by which mechanical activity contributes to both the origin of and substrate for spontaneous arrhythmias under the conditions of acute regional ischemia. PMID:19893011

  6. CERAMIDE AND MITOCHONDRIA IN ISCHEMIA/REPERFUSION

    PubMed Central

    Novgorodov, Sergei A.; Gudz, Tatyana I.

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark of tissue injury in various models of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is mitochondrial dysfunction and the release of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins leading to cell death. Although IR-induced mitochondrial injury has been extensively studied and key mitochondrial functions affected by IR are chiefly characterized, the nature of the molecule that causes loss of mitochondrial integrity and function remains obscure. It has become increasingly clear that ceramide, a membrane sphingolipid and a key mediator of cell-stress responses could play a critical role in IR-induced mitochondrial damage. Emerging data point to excessive ceramide accumulation in tissue and, specifically, in mitochondria after IR. Exogenously added to isolated mitochondria, ceramide could mimic some of the mitochondrial dysfunctions occurring in IR. The recent identification and characterization of major enzymes in ceramide synthesis is expected to contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of ceramide involvement in mitochondrial damage in IR. This review will examine the experimental evidence supporting the important role of ceramide in mitochondrial dysfunction in IR in order to highlight potential targets for pharmacological manipulation of ceramide levels. PMID:19247196

  7. Oxytocin mediates social neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Karelina, Kate; Stuller, Kathleen A.; Jarrett, Brant; Zhang, Ning; Wells, Jackie; Norman, Greg J.; DeVries, A. Courtney

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose The reduced incidence, morbidity and mortality of stroke among humans with strong social support have been well-documented; however, the mechanisms underlying this socially mediated phenomenon remain unknown, but may involve oxytocin (OT), a hormone that modulates some aspects of social behavior in humans and other animals. Methods In the present study, adult male mice were socially isolated (housed individually) or socially paired (housed with an ovariectomized female); social pairing increased hypothalamic OT gene expression. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between increased OT and improved stroke outcome, mice were treated with exogenous OT or OT receptor antagonist (OTA) beginning one week prior to induction of experimental stroke via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Results Relative to social isolation, social housing attenuated infarct size, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress following experimental stroke; the neuroprotective effect of social housing was eliminated by OTA treatment. In contrast, administration of OT to socially isolated mice reproduced the neuroprotection conferred by social housing. We further report evidence for a direct suppressive action of OT on cultured microglia, which is a key instigator in the development of neuroinflammation after cerebral ischemia. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that OT mediates the neuroprotective effect of social interaction on stroke outcome. PMID:21960564

  8. Vascular Protection Following Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Palomares, Sara Morales; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research that has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of stroke, translation of this knowledge into effective therapies has largely failed. The only effective treatment for ischemic stroke is rapid recanalization of an occluded vessel by dissolving the clot with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, stroke adversely affects vascular function as well that can cause secondary brain injury and limit treatment that depends on a patent vasculature. In middle cerebral arteries (MCA), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) cause loss of myogenic tone, vascular paralysis, and endothelial dysfunction that can lead to loss of autoregulation. In contrast, brain parenchymal arterioles retain considerable tone during I/R that likely contributes to expansion of the infarct into the penumbra. Microvascular dysregulation also occurs during ischemic stroke that causes edema and hemorrhage, exacerbating the primary insult. Ischemic injury of vasculature is progressive with longer duration of I/R. Early postischemic reperfusion has beneficial effects on stroke outcome but can impair vascular function and exacerbate ischemic injury after longer durations of I/R. This review focuses on current knowledge on the effects of I/R on the structure and function of different vascular segments in the brain and highlight some of the more promising targets for vascular protection. PMID:22102980

  9. Reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide during ischemia protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Andrew; Bond, Richard; McLean, Peter; Uppal, Rakesh; Benjamin, Nigel; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2004-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to protect against the damaging effects of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, whereas xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) normally causes damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In the heart, inorganic nitrite has the potential to act as an endogenous store of NO, liberated specifically during ischemia. Using a detection method that we developed, we report that under ischemic conditions both rat and human homogenized myocardium and the isolated perfused rat heart (Langendorff preparation) generate NO from in a reaction that depends on XOR activity. Functional studies of rat hearts in the Langendorff apparatus showed that nitrite (10 and 100 µM) reduced infarct size from 47.3 ± 2.8% (mean percent of control ± SEM) to 17.9 ± 4.2% and 17.4 ± 1.0%, respectively (P < 0.001), and was associated with comparable improvements in recovery of left ventricular function. This protective effect was completely blocked by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazole-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO). In summary, the generation of NO from •, rather than damaging.

  10. Myocardial functional preservation during ischemia: influence of beta blocking agents.

    PubMed

    Toleikis, P M; Tomlinson, C W

    1997-11-01

    To determine whether prior acute Beta blockade protects the heart against the deleterious effects of normothermic low flow global ischemia on myocardial function, aortic pressure, developed pressure, dP/dtmax and end diastolic pressure were monitored in isolated perfused rabbit hearts prior to, during and following 30 and 60 min ischemia, during which either Krebs-Henseleit (control) or Beta blocking agents. Bevantolol (cardioselective) or Propranolol (non-selective) were perfused through the heart. Control hearts made ischemic for 30 min and then reperfused had significantly elevated end diastolic (p < .01) and aortic pressures (p < .01) and reduced developed pressure relative to baseline (p < .05). Hearts treated with Bevantolol or Propranolol (3 x 10(-5) m/l) 5 min prior to and during 30 min ischemia recovered preischemic developed pressure and dP/dtmax (p > 0.05), while end diastolic pressure was elevated (p < .01, p < .05 respectively). Aortic pressure was unchanged relative to baseline (p > .05). Comparison of indices from hearts under Beta blockade with controls showed that following 30 min ischemia and recovery, the Bevantolol treated group had reduced aortic pressure (p < .01) and end diastolic pressure (p < .05) and increased percent developed pressure and percent dP/dtmax (p < .001) relative to control. In the propranolol treated group, end diastolic pressure was reduced and percent developed pressure (p < .01) and percent dP/dtmax (p < .001) were increased relative to unblocked hearts. Following 60 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion, reduction in all functional indices occurred, however dP/dtmax was unchanged from baseline in the Propranolol and Bevantolol treated groups. Comparison between groups showed that the Bevantolol treated group had significantly better dP/dtmax and developed pressure (p < .05), whereas the Propranolol group shows no significant difference from baseline (p > .05) (K-H). We conclude that following short periods of ischemia

  11. Modulation of ischemia-induced NMDAR1 activation by environmental enrichment decreases oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Briones, Teresita L; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined whether enriched environment (EE) housing has direct neuroprotective effects on oxidative damage following transient global cerebral ischemia. Fifty-two adult male Wistar rats were included in the study and received either ischemia or sham surgery. Once fully awake, rats in each group were randomly assigned to either: EE housing or socially paired housing (CON). Animals remained in their assigned environment for 7 days, and then were killed. Our data showed that glutamate receptor expression was significantly higher in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group than in the ischemia EE group. Furthermore, the oxidative DNA damage, protein oxidation, and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group were significantly increased compared to the ischemia EE group. These results suggest that EE housing possibly modulated the ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity, which then attenuated the oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in the ischemia EE rats.

  12. Magnesium sulfate protects fetal skin from intrauterine ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli F; Arca, Turkan; Kilinc, Kamer

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in fetus occurs with multifactorial pathogenesis and results with multiorgan injury including skin. Magnesium has widespread use in obstetric practice. Inn addition to magnesium's tocolytic and neuroprotective properties, it also has free radical reducing effects. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether magnesium sulfate could have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fetal skin ischemia was induced by clamping the utero-ovarian arteries bilaterally for 30 min, and reperfusion was achieved by removing the clamps for 60 min in 19-day pregnant rats. Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO(4)) was given to pregnant rats 20 min before I/R injury at the dose of 600 mg/kg in magnesium treatment group. No ischemia reperfusion was applied to control and sham-operated groups. Lipid peroxidation from the skin tissues was determined as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined for neutrophil activation. The results showed that the levels of TBARS and MPO increased significantly in the fetal rat skin after I/R injury compared to control group. Levels of TBARS and MPO were significantly lower than those of I/R group in Magnesium-treated group. In conclusion, intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion may produce considerable fetal skin injury. Increased TBARS and MPO activity can be inhibited by magnesium treatment. This suggests that magnesium treatment may have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine I/R injury.

  13. Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Neher, Jonas J; Emmrich, Julius V; Fricker, Michael; Mander, Palwinder K; Théry, Clotilde; Brown, Guy C

    2013-10-22

    Delayed neuronal loss and brain atrophy after cerebral ischemia contribute to stroke and dementia pathology, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Phagocytic removal of neurons is generally assumed to be beneficial and to occur only after neuronal death. However, we report herein that inhibition of phagocytosis can prevent delayed loss and death of functional neurons after transient brain ischemia. Two phagocytic proteins, Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and Milk fat globule EGF-like factor 8 (MFG-E8), were transiently up-regulated by macrophages/microglia after focal brain ischemia in vivo. Strikingly, deficiency in either protein completely prevented long-term functional motor deficits after cerebral ischemia and strongly reduced brain atrophy as a result of inhibiting phagocytosis of neurons. Correspondingly, in vitro glutamate-stressed neurons reversibly exposed the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine, leading to their phagocytosis by microglia; this neuronal loss was prevented in the absence of microglia and reduced if microglia were genetically deficient in MerTK or MFG-E8, both of which mediate phosphatidylserine-recognition. Thus, phagocytosis of viable neurons contributes to brain pathology and, surprisingly, blocking this process is strongly beneficial. Therefore, inhibition of specific phagocytic pathways may present therapeutic targets for preventing delayed neuronal loss after transient cerebral ischemia.

  14. Fluorometry of ischemia reperfusion injury in rat lungs in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, R.; Staniszewski, K.; Jacobs, E. R.; Audi, S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated the utility of optical fluorometry to evaluate lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused rats lungs under various chemically-induced respiratory states. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute ischemia on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in vivo using optical fluorometry. Under ischemic conditions, insufficient oxygen supply to the mitochondrial chain should reduce the mitochondrial redox state calculated from the ratio of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavoprotein Adenine Dinucleotide). The chest of anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rat was opened to induce acute ischemia by clamping the left hilum to block both blood flow and ventilation to one lung for approximately 10 minutes. NADH and FAD fluorescent signals were recorded continuously in a dark room via a fluorometer probe placed on the pleural surface of the left lung. Acute ischemia caused a decrease in FAD and an increase in NADH, which resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial redox ratio (RR=NADH/FAD). Restoration of blood flow and ventilation by unclamping the left hilum returned the RR back to its baseline. These results (increase in RR under ischemia) show promise for the fluorometer to be used in a clinical setting for evaluating the effect of pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in real time.

  15. Optical Monitoring and Detection of Spinal Cord Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rickson C.; D’Souza, Angela; Bilfinger, Thomas V.; Galler, Robert M.; Emanuel, Asher; Schenkel, Steven S.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord ischemia can lead to paralysis or paraparesis, but if detected early it may be amenable to treatment. Current methods use evoked potentials for detection of spinal cord ischemia, a decades old technology whose warning signs are indirect and significantly delayed from the onset of ischemia. Here we introduce and demonstrate a prototype fiber optic device that directly measures spinal cord blood flow and oxygenation. This technical advance in neurological monitoring promises a new standard of care for detection of spinal cord ischemia and the opportunity for early intervention. We demonstrate the probe in an adult Dorset sheep model. Both open and percutaneous approaches were evaluated during pharmacologic, physiological, and mechanical interventions designed to induce variations in spinal cord blood flow and oxygenation. The induced variations were rapidly and reproducibly detected, demonstrating direct measurement of spinal cord ischemia in real-time. In the future, this form of hemodynamic spinal cord diagnosis could significantly improve monitoring and management in a broad range of patients, including those undergoing thoracic and abdominal aortic revascularization, spine stabilization procedures for scoliosis and trauma, spinal cord tumor resection, and those requiring management of spinal cord injury in intensive care settings. PMID:24358279

  16. An experimental model of ischemia in rabbit hindlimb.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J. H.; Bahk, Y. W.; Suh, J. S.; Kwak, B. K.; Shim, H. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, H. S.; Moon, Y. H.; Kim, S. J.; Chung, J. W.; Park, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to establish an experimental model of ischemia for the investigation of new treatment modality of limb-threatening ischemia. We produced ischemia in the hindlimbs of 8 New Zealand white rabbits. Under general anesthesia, the left femoral artery was exposed, freed, and excised from distal external iliac artery to proximal popliteal and saphenous arteries. And then both hindlimbs were serially examined to assess the ischemia according to the time table until postoperative 6 weeks. We assessed clinical observation, blood pressure, radioisotopic perfusion scan, and angiography. Clinical ischemic changes of the operated feet were observed in 63%. The blood pressure of left calves was measurable on postoperative day 3 (p<0.05, vs preoperative day 2) and then gradually increased to reach a plateau in postoperative week 6. Radioisotopic arterial perfusion showed similar profiles as in blood pressure. Angiography of ischemic hindlimbs demonstrated a few collateral vessels arising from the internal iliac artery with the reconstitution of the posterior tibial artery in postoperative week 2. In postoperative week 6, collaterals remained the same in number. However, these became dilated and tortuous and showed reconstitution in distal hindleg. In conclusion, this is a reproducible, measurable, and economical animal model of hind limb ischemia. PMID:11641535

  17. Cytoprotective Effect of Ferritin H in Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major contributor to kidney injury following ischemia reperfusion. Ferritin, a highly conserved iron-binding protein, is a key protein in the maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis and protection from oxidative stress. Ferritin mitigates oxidant stress by sequestering iron and preventing its participation in reactions that generate reactive oxygen species. Ferritin is composed of two subunit types, ferritin H and ferritin L. Using an in vivo model that enables conditional tissue-specific doxycycline-inducible expression of ferritin H in the mouse kidney, we tested the hypothesis that an increased level of H-rich ferritin is renoprotective in ischemic acute renal failure. Prior to induction of ischemia, doxycycline increased ferritin H in the kidneys of the transgenic mice nearly 6.5-fold. Following reperfusion for 24 hours, induction of neutrophil gelatinous-associated lipocalin (NGAL, a urine marker of renal dysfunction) was reduced in the ferritin H overexpressers compared to controls. Histopathologic examination following ischemia reperfusion revealed that ferritin H overexpression increased intact nuclei in renal tubules, reduced the frequency of tubular profiles with luminal cast materials, and reduced activated caspase-3 in the kidney. In addition, generation of 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal protein adducts, a measurement of oxidant stress, was decreased in ischemia-reperfused kidneys of ferritin H overexpressers. These studies demonstrate that ferritin H can inhibit apoptotic cell death, enhance tubular epithelial viability, and preserve renal function by limiting oxidative stress following ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:26379029

  18. Focal cerebral ischemia activates neurovascular restorative dynamics in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chu, Min; Hu, Xiaoming; Lu, Shiduo; Gan, Yu; Li, Peiying; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Jia; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yanqin

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia triggers regeneration of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs), which are associated with neovascularization and white matter repair in the brain. This study analyzed the dynamics of neurogenesis, neovascularization, and white matter injury/repair after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and elucidated their temporal association. Mice were subjected to MCAO for 60 minutes and sacrificed up to 28 days after reperfusion. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis, as measured by double staining of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) with DCX or tomato lectin, respectively, were substantially activated soon after ischemia and persisted for 4 weeks. Despite the moderate recovery of functional vessels in infarct margin from 7 days post-ischemia, a significant decrease in vascular density remained over time. Clusters of immature neurons localized proximal to angiogenic blood vessels beginning 14 days after ischemia, suggesting interplay between neurogenesis and revascularization. Progenitors of oligodendrocytes (NG2+) constitutively presented in the normal brain and proliferated soon after ischemia. However, axon damage and the loss of white matter integrity after ischemic stroke were almost irreversible, as revealed by sustained decreases of myelin basic protein (MBP) and neurofilament-200 expression. PMID:22202008

  19. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    PubMed Central

    Coolidge, Trilby; Chambers, Mark A; Garcia, Laura J; Heaton, Lisa J; Coldwell, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS), as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS). Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability), and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations) for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish versions of the DFS and NS

  20. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA): Development and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Shahla; Ramezankhani, Ali; Montazeri, Ali; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA). Methods This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012–2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15–18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13) and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16). In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and factor analysis were assessed. Results An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15–18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93). The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy. Conclusion The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA) is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15

  1. The psychometric refinement of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corkins, James

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI) and then recommend revisions. The MCI was administered to a sample of 303 undergraduate engineering students enrolled in a materials engineering course taught by an instructor unrelated to this study. The MCI demonstrated adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha was .73) and strong discriminatory power (Ferguson's delta was 0.96). A pretest MCI was given only two days into the course and was able to predict the final course grade (r = .30, p < .001). Convergent validity was also established by significantly correlating a post-test version of the MCI with the final course grade (r = .50, p < .001). Nineteen of the thirty items on the MCI met the criterion for index of item congruency, demonstrating somewhat mixed reviews by content experts. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the initial MCI structure failed to support a six-factor model. A revision was made to the structure of the MCI, whereby an exploratory and subsequent confirmatory factor analysis yielded a refined six-factor structure that did provide a strong fit by the empirical data [chi-squared (194) = 196.03, p = .426; and root mean square error approximation (RMSEA) was .007; and comparative fit index (CFI) was .996]. The Cronbach's alpha of the refined-MCI was 0.75, suggesting 'good' reliability. The six factors could only be interpreted by an integration of cognitive processes with content. Those six factors were labeled: (1) compare and contrast ductile and brittle material, (2) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from stretching, (3) understand and analyze the structure and properties of glass, (4) analyze structure and how it changes due to defects arising from bending, (5) understand and analyze the structure and properties of metals, and (6) synthesize and apply graphs and proportions with relation to various materials engineering concepts. Results related to

  2. Effect of brain microdialysis on aminergic transmitter levels in repeated cerebral global transient ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Thaminy, S; Bellissant, E; Maginn, M; Decombe, R; Allain, H; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    1996-12-28

    The effect of repeated transient global ischemia and microdialysis on changes in aminergic neurotransmitter release was investigated using the rat four-vessel occlusion model of global ischemia. To examine the possible transient or permanent changes in neurotransmitter release, ischemia was induced at varying time points in 5 groups of rats. The first ischemia occurred either 24 h (groups I, II, IV, V) or 96 h (group III) following vertebral artery electro-coagulation and guide probe implantation(s), and the second ischemia was induced either 48 h (groups I, IV, V) or 72 h (group II) following the first ischemia. To assess the consequence of repeated microdialysis on the results, one group of rats (group IV) was not dialysed during the first ischemia and another group (group V) was bilaterally dialysed during the second ischemia. Finally, amphetamine-induced neurotransmitter release was also studied in rats submitted to ischemia and compared with that in normal rats. In each case, dopamine, serotonin and their main metabolites were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Monoamine release was inhibited during the second episode of transient ischemia; this non-release was linked to the repeated microdialysis and not to the repeated ischemia. Although the results of chronic studies using brain microdialysis have been widely recognized as valid, the findings presented here indicate that combined with ischemia, probe reinsertion modifies the level of neurotransmitter release. PMID:9007758

  3. Electrocardiography as a tool for validating myocardial ischemia-reperfusion procedures in mice.

    PubMed

    Preda, Mihai B; Burlacu, Alexandrina

    2010-12-01

    This paper evaluates the modifications induced by ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion in mice after permanent or transient, respectively, ligation of the left coronary artery and establishes a correlation among the extent of ischemia, electrocardiograph features, and infarct size. The left coronary artery was ligated 1 mm distal from the tip of the left auricle. Histologic analysis revealed that 30-min ischemia (n = 9) led to infarction involving 9.7% ± 0.5% of the left ventricle, whereas 1-h ischemia (n = 9) resulted in transmural infarction of 16.1% ± 4.6% of the left ventricle. In contrast, 24-h ischemia (n = 8) and permanent ischemia (n = 8) induced similarly sized infarcts (33% ± 2% and 31.8% ± 0.7%, respectively), suggesting ineffective reperfusion after 24-h ischemia. Electrocardiography revealed that ligation of the left coronary artery led to ST height elevation (204 compared with 14 μV) and QTc prolongation (136 compared with 76 ms). Both parameters rapidly normalized on reperfusion, demonstrating that electrocardiography was important for validating correct ligation and reperfusion. In addition, electrocardiography predicted the severity of the myocardial damage induced by ischemia. Our results show that electrocardiographic changes present after 30-min ischemia were reversed on reperfusion; however, prolonged ischemia induced pathologic electrocardiographic patterns that remained even after reperfusion. The mouse model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion can be improved by using electrocardiography to validate ligation and reperfusion during surgery and to predict the severity of infarction.

  4. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Nabi; Khaksari, Mehdi; Erfani, Sohaila; Rajabi, Hamid; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral ischemic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction through occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic exercise significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration. PMID:26487851

  5. Effect of brain microdialysis on aminergic transmitter levels in repeated cerebral global transient ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Thaminy, S; Bellissant, E; Maginn, M; Decombe, R; Allain, H; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    1996-12-28

    The effect of repeated transient global ischemia and microdialysis on changes in aminergic neurotransmitter release was investigated using the rat four-vessel occlusion model of global ischemia. To examine the possible transient or permanent changes in neurotransmitter release, ischemia was induced at varying time points in 5 groups of rats. The first ischemia occurred either 24 h (groups I, II, IV, V) or 96 h (group III) following vertebral artery electro-coagulation and guide probe implantation(s), and the second ischemia was induced either 48 h (groups I, IV, V) or 72 h (group II) following the first ischemia. To assess the consequence of repeated microdialysis on the results, one group of rats (group IV) was not dialysed during the first ischemia and another group (group V) was bilaterally dialysed during the second ischemia. Finally, amphetamine-induced neurotransmitter release was also studied in rats submitted to ischemia and compared with that in normal rats. In each case, dopamine, serotonin and their main metabolites were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Monoamine release was inhibited during the second episode of transient ischemia; this non-release was linked to the repeated microdialysis and not to the repeated ischemia. Although the results of chronic studies using brain microdialysis have been widely recognized as valid, the findings presented here indicate that combined with ischemia, probe reinsertion modifies the level of neurotransmitter release.

  6. Ischemia-induced mitochondrial apoptosis is significantly attenuated by ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Racay, Peter; Chomova, Maria; Tatarkova, Zuzana; Kaplan, Peter; Hatok, Jozef; Dobrota, Dusan

    2009-09-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) represents an important adaptation of CNS to sub-lethal ischemia, which results in increased tolerance of CNS to the lethal ischemia. Ischemia-induced mitochondrial apoptosis is considered to be an important event leading to neuronal cell death after cerebral blood flow arrest. In presented study, we have determined the effect of IPC on ischemia/reperfusion-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. Global brain ischemia was induced by permanent occlusion of vertebral arteries and temporal occlusion of carotid arteries for 15 min. Rats were preconditioned by 5 min of sub-lethal ischemia and 2 days later 15 min of lethal ischemia was induced. With respect to mitochondrial apoptosis initiation, translocation of p53 to mitochondria was observed in hippocampus but not in cerebral cortex. However, level of both apoptotic bax and anti-apoptotic bcl-xl in both hippocampal and cortical mitochondria was unchanged after global brain ischemia. Detection of genomic DNA fragmentation as well as Fluoro-Jade C staining showed that ischemia induces apoptosis in vulnerable CA1 layer of rat hippocampus. IPC abolished completely ischemia-induced translocation of p53 to mitochondria and had significant protective effect on ischemia-induced DNA fragmentation. In addition, significant decrease of Fluoro-Jade C positive cells was observed as well. Our results indicate that IPC abolished almost completely both initiation and execution of mitochondrial apoptosis induced by global brain ischemia. PMID:19283470

  7. Pure midbrain ischemia and hypoplastic vertebrobasilar circulation.

    PubMed

    Gilberti, Nicola; Gamba, Massimo; Costa, Angelo; Vergani, Veronica; Spezi, Raffaella; Pezzini, Alessandro; Volonghi, Irene; Mardighian, Dikran; Gasparotti, Roberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Magoni, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Isolated midbrain infarction is rare and little is known about etiology and patient's long-term follow up. We aimed to describe the clinical features, the causative diseases and the outcome of patients with isolated midbrain infarction who were admitted to our center, focusing on vascular abnormalities of posterior circulation. All patients with first acute ischemic stroke limited to the midbrain were included and their demographic features, neurological symptoms, neuroimaging data, and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Functional outcome, using modified Rankin scale, was assessed at discharge and at the 3 month follow up evaluation. We found nine patients with acute isolated midbrain infarction, representing 0.61 % of all ischemic stroke admitted to our center. The most common cause of stroke was small-vessel disease (88.8 %). At stroke onset, none of the patients had consciousness disturbances, and four patients (44.4 %) had gait impairment, five patients (55.5 %) presented with diplopia due to involvement of the third nerve or fascicular type of third-nerve palsy, seven patients (77.7 %) had vascular anomalies of vertebrobasilar circulation: the most frequent was vertebral artery hypoplasia [four patients (44.4 %)]. At follow up evaluation, seven patients (77.7 %) had a good functional outcome and no patients experienced recurrence of cerebrovascular events. As isolated midbrain infarction is uncommon, specific ocular motor signs, mainly third-nerve palsy, may help to identify and localize the mesencephalic infarct. Abnormalities in vertebrobasilar circulation, such as hypoplastic basilar or vertebral artery, are frequently associated with isolated midbrain ischemia. The hypoplastic vertebrobasilar system may predispose to posterior ischemic stroke.

  8. Evaluation and treatment of chronic digital ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Wilgis, E F

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two patients were evaluated and treated during the past five years at the Union Memorial Hospital Hand Center with the diagnosis of chronic digital ischemia. These patients with this syndrome, manifested by pain, severe cold intolerance and occasional tip ulceration, all were failures of conventional conservative treatment of vasodilators, tobacco abstinence and beta blocking agents. The evaluation consisted of first ruling out large vessel disease by noninvasive techniques of angiography. The patients underwent a variety of noninvasive diagnostic tests including Doppler examination, pulse volume recordings with cold stress, radioisotope scanning of the digital circulation and peripheral sympathetic block of the digital nerves. Treatment included direct microvascular reconstruction of the distal ulnar or radial artery and palmar arch, in ten patients, thermal biofeedback, in 22 patients and a new surgical procedure-digital sympathectomy, in ten patients, involving 18 digits. Eight of ten patients with palmar arch reconstruction improved with seven of ten having patent vein grafts. Thermal biofeedback has been helpful in 20 patients. Testing shows that an increase in digital perfusion can be initiated by all patients. However, only 70% can achieve this improvement. Digital sympathectomy consists of isolating the terminal branches of the sympathetic nerves which travel with the peripheral nerves, dividing these branches and stripping the adventitia of the digital arteries. Eight of nine patients have the experienced improvement in digital circulation, as manifested by pulse volume recordings after operation and radioisotope studies. Pain is substantially alleviated and the ulcers healed. All of these patients responded before operation to the digital nerve block with measured increased in digital perfusion. PMID:7247519

  9. Thrombin exacerbates brain edema in focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hua, Y; Wu, J; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Xi, G

    2003-01-01

    Thrombin contributes to edema formation after intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent studies suggest that thrombin may also play a role in ischemic brain damage. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded using the suture method. We found that brain thrombin activity was elevated after permanent MCA occlusion as was prothrombin messenger RNA expression. Intracerebral injection of a thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, reduced neurological deficits following cerebral ischemia. In contrast, intracerebral administration of exogenous thrombin (at a dose that is non-toxic to normal brain), markedly exacerbated brain edema after transient focal cerebral ischemia. These results indicate that extravascular thrombin inhibition may be a new therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia.

  10. Myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of silent myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, G.A.

    1988-04-21

    Despite the widespread use of the exercise stress test in diagnosing asymptomatic myocardial ischemia, exercise radionuclide imaging remains useful for detecting silent ischemia in numerous patient populations, including those who are totally asymptomatic, those who have chronic stable angina, those who have recovered from an episode of unstable angina or an uncomplicated myocardial infarction, and those who have undergone angioplasty or received thrombolytic therapy. Studies show that thallium scintigraphy is more sensitive than exercise electrocardiography in detecting ischemia, i.e., in part, because perfusion defects occur more frequently than ST depression and before angina in the ischemic cascade. Thallium-201 scintigraphy can be performed to differentiate a true- from a false-positive exercise electrocardiographic test in patients with exercise-induced ST depression and no angina. The development of technetium-labeled isonitriles may improve the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging. 11 references.

  11. Glutamate transporters in brain ischemia: to modulate or not?

    PubMed Central

    Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Pomierny, Bartosz; Filip, Małgorzata; Pera, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we briefly describe glutamate (Glu) metabolism and its specific transports and receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). Thereafter, we focus on excitatory amino acid transporters, cystine/glutamate antiporters (system xc-) and vesicular glutamate transporters, specifically addressing their location and roles in CNS and the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Glu transporters. We provide evidence from in vitro or in vivo studies concerning alterations in Glu transporter expression in response to hypoxia or ischemia, including limited human data that supports the role of Glu transporters in stroke patients. Moreover, the potential to induce brain tolerance to ischemia through modulation of the expression and/or activities of Glu transporters is also discussed. Finally we present strategies involving the application of ischemic preconditioning and pharmacological agents, eg β-lactam antibiotics, amitriptyline, riluzole and N-acetylcysteine, which result in the significant protection of nervous tissues against ischemia. PMID:24681894

  12. Metabolomic markers for intestinal ischemia in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Fahrner, René; Beyoğlu, Diren; Beldi, Guido; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of intestinal ischemia remains a clinical challenge. The aim of the present study was to use a metabolomic protocol to identify upregulated and downregulated small molecules (Mr < 500) in the serum of mice with intestinal ischemia. Such molecules could have clinical utility when evaluated as biomarkers in human studies. Methods A mouse model for intestinal ischemia was established and validated using histology and serum tumor necrosis factor α concentrations. A second mouse model of peritoneal sepsis was used as a positive control. Serial serum samples were collected from these and from sham-operated animals. Sera were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for 40 small molecules as their trimethylsilyl and O-methyloxime derivatives. Peak areas were normalized against an internal standard and resultant peak area ratios subjected to multivariate data analysis using unsupervised principal components analysis and supervised orthogonal projection to latent structures–discriminant analysis. Upregulated and downregulated serum molecules were identified from their correlation to the orthogonal projection to latent structures–discriminant analysis model. Results Three highly significantly upregulated (fold-change) serum molecules in intestinal ischemia were inorganic phosphate (2.4), urea (4.3), and threonic acid (2.9). Five highly significantly downregulated (fold-change) serum molecules were stearic acid (1.7), arabinose (2.7), xylose (1.6), glucose (1.4), and ribose (2.2). Lactic acid remained unchanged in intestinal ischemia. Conclusions Distinct molecular changes are reported here for the first time in intestinal ischemia. They reveal impairments of gut microbiota metabolism, intestinal absorption, and renal function, together with increased oxidative stress. In contrast to other reports, lactic acid was not significantly changed. These molecular signatures may now be evaluated in clinical studies. PMID:22947700

  13. Extracorporeal Free Flap Perfusion in Case of Prolonged Ischemia Time

    PubMed Central

    Präbst, K.; Beier, J. P.; Meyer, A.; Horch, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In free flap surgery, a clinically established concept still has to be found for the reduction of ischemia-related cell damage in the case of prolonged ischemia. Although promising results using extracorporeal free flap perfusion in the laboratory have been published in the past, until now this concept has not yet paved its way into clinical routine. This might be due to the complexity of perfusion systems and a lack of standardized tools. Here, we want to present the results of the first extracorporeal free flap perfusion in a clinical setting using a simple approach without the application of a complex perfusion machinery. PMID:27200244

  14. Hand Ischemia in a Patient With an Arteriovenous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Yevzlin, Alexander S; Chan, Micah R; Asif, Arif

    2016-03-01

    An ischemic digit causes significant morbidity due to its associated discomfort and potential for tissue necrosis. Historically, when this phenomenon was peripheral to an ipsilateral arteriovenous access in a hemodialysis patient, it was called "steal syndrome" and was usually treated with access ligation, resulting in loss of the access. We present a dialysis patient with hand pain due to ischemia that was referred for access ligation. Instead, a minimally invasive banding procedure was performed that resulted in access salvage and resolution of symptoms. We present images and a discussion of the diagnosis and treatment of distal hypoperfusion ischemia syndrome in this Imaging Teaching Case. PMID:26612279

  15. Creatine kinase reaction rates in rat brain during chronic ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mlynárik, V; Kasparová, S; Liptaj, T; Dobrota, D; Horecký, J; Belan, V

    1998-12-01

    Creatine kinase reaction rates were measured by magnetisation transfer technique in the brain of healthy adult and aged rats and in the rats with mild or severe chronic cerebral ischemia. These measurements indicated that the rate constant of the creatine kinase reaction is significantly reduced in the case of chronic brain ischemia in aged rats. In contrast, occlusion of both carotid arteries in adult rats produced a slight increase in the reaction rate 4 weeks after occlusion. At the same time, corresponding conventional phosphorus magnetic resonance spectra showed negligible changes in signal intensities. PMID:10050942

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale.

    PubMed

    Koukounari, Artemis; Pickles, Andrew; Hill, Jonathan; Sharp, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS) and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks). When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions). Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy. PMID:26696945

  17. Psycho-informatics: Big Data shaping modern psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Markowetz, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Montag, Christian; Switala, Christina; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2014-04-01

    For the first time in history, it is possible to study human behavior on great scale and in fine detail simultaneously. Online services and ubiquitous computational devices, such as smartphones and modern cars, record our everyday activity. The resulting Big Data offers unprecedented opportunities for tracking and analyzing behavior. This paper hypothesizes the applicability and impact of Big Data technologies in the context of psychometrics both for research and clinical applications. It first outlines the state of the art, including the severe shortcomings with respect to quality and quantity of the resulting data. It then presents a technological vision, comprised of (i) numerous data sources such as mobile devices and sensors, (ii) a central data store, and (iii) an analytical platform, employing techniques from data mining and machine learning. To further illustrate the dramatic benefits of the proposed methodologies, the paper then outlines two current projects, logging and analyzing smartphone usage. One such study attempts to thereby quantify severity of major depression dynamically; the other investigates (mobile) Internet Addiction. Finally, the paper addresses some of the ethical issues inherent to Big Data technologies. In summary, the proposed approach is about to induce the single biggest methodological shift since the beginning of psychology or psychiatry. The resulting range of applications will dramatically shape the daily routines of researches and medical practitioners alike. Indeed, transferring techniques from computer science to psychiatry and psychology is about to establish Psycho-Informatics, an entire research direction of its own. PMID:24529915

  18. Fear the serpent: A psychometric study of snake phobia.

    PubMed

    Polák, Jakub; Sedláčková, Kristýna; Nácar, David; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2016-08-30

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from specific phobias. Almost any stimulus may trigger a phobic reaction, but snakes are among the most feared objects. Half of the population feel anxious about snakes and 2-3% meet the diagnostic criteria for snake phobia. Despite such a high ratio, only one instrument is commonly used, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ). The aim of this study was to develop a standardized Czech translation, describe its psychometric properties and analyze the distribution of snake fears. In a counter-balanced design 755 respondents were asked to complete the English and Czech SNAQ (first or last) with a 2-3 month delay; 300 of them completed both instruments. We found excellent test-retest reliability (0.94), although the total scores differed significantly when the English version was administered first. The mean score was 5.80 and Generalized Linear Models revealed significant effects of sex and field of study (women and people with no biology education scored higher than men and biologists). A cut-off point for snake phobia as derived from a previous study identified 2.6% of the subjects as phobic. Finally, the score distribution was similar to other countries supporting the view that fear of snakes is universal. PMID:27280527

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale.

    PubMed

    Koukounari, Artemis; Pickles, Andrew; Hill, Jonathan; Sharp, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS) and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks). When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions). Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.

  20. A multidimensional assessment of social cognition in psychometrically defined schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Sean C; Brown, Laura A; Cohen, Alex S

    2013-12-30

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in multiple social cognitive domains. There is evidence that these impairments may be trait-related vulnerability markers for schizophrenia. However, the literature focusing on individuals vulnerable to developing schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, referred to as schizotypy, has produced inconsistent findings. This study's primary aim was to provide a more comprehensive understanding of social cognitive functioning within schizotypy than previous studies by employing a broad array of measures to assess multiple social cognitive domains, and examine how these domains relate to specific schizotypy traits (i.e., positive, negative, and disorganized) and Quality of Life (QOL). Facial emotion recognition, Theory of Mind (ToM), and aspects of emotional intelligence related to regulating one's own emotions (emotion management) and other's emotions (social management) were measured. Individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy (n=36) and controls (n=26) were examined. The schizotypy group performed significantly worse than controls on facial emotion recognition, ToM, and emotion management, but not social management. Generally speaking, poorer social cognition performance was not a function of specific schizotypy traits. However, negative traits were associated with poorer facial emotion recognition, and disorganized traits were associated with better social management. Facial emotion recognition was associated with QOL in the schizotypy group. PMID:24001586

  1. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the workaholism battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Chieh; Hu, Changya; Wu, Tzong-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The authors designed the current study to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the workaholism battery (J. T. Spence & A. S. Robbins, 1992). Using the back-translation strategy recommended by R. Brislin (1980), the authors translated the original scale developed by Spence and Robbins. Factor analyses of responses from 1,235 full-time workers in Taiwan revealed a 5-factor solution. The reliability coefficients of the factors ranged from .58 to .88. Significant correlations between the 5 factors, the work-addiction risk test, career commitment, and job involvement provided evidence for convergent validity. Significant correlations between the 5 factors and criterion variables (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and hours worked per week) provided evidence of concurrent criterion validity. Overall, the findings suggest that the Taiwanese workers conceptualize workaholism as 5 dimensions rather than the 2 or 3 dimensions that previous empirical studies (A. Kanai, M. Wakabayashi, & S. Fling, 1996; L. H. W. McMillan, E. C. Brady, M. P. Driscoll, & N. V. Marsh, 2002; J. T. Spence & A. S. Robbins, 1992) have suggested. The authors discussed implications and limitations of their findings. PMID:20307021

  2. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Psychometric Validity of Individual Variables.

    PubMed

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed. PMID:27153465

  3. [Psychometric evaluation of the Body Change Questionnaire for adolescents].

    PubMed

    Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Amaral, Ana Carolina Soares; Neves, Clara Mockdece; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to examine construct validity, internal consistency, and reproducibility of the Body Change Questionnaire (BCQ). A total of 439 female and male adolescents (13-22 years of age) were evaluated. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis and correlation between the scores of the BCQ and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Scale Silhouettes (SS). Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and reproducibility using test-retest and intra-class correlation. The scale presented a six-factor structure that almost entirely accounted for the instrument's subscales. Correlations for the total sample between BCQ and scores of the other questionnaires ranged from 0.37 to 0.46. Internal consistency varied from 0.78 to 0.96 for each of the factors, and intra-class correlation was consistent with good reproducibility. The test-retest scores showed no statistically significant differences for the total sample or according to sex. The BCQ showed good psychometric qualities for Brazilian adolescents. PMID:26840810

  4. Adolescent Reasons for Quitting Smoking: Initial Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; MacPherson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Most adolescent smokers report intentions to quit and the majority attempt cessation. Yet, little is known regarding the relationship between adolescent motives for cessation and smoking cessation efforts. To this end, the present study describes an initial evaluation of the psychometric characteristics of the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale (ARFQ), a measure of adolescent motives for smoking cessation. Participants were 109 current smoking high school students assessed at baseline and 6-month follow up. The ARFQ item content and format was developed in a separate qualitative study with 36 high school students who had previously attempted to quit smoking. Exploratory factor analyses of ARFQ items yielded three subscales: short-term consequences, social disapproval, and long-term concerns. Validation analyses were conducted in relation to concurrent intentions to stop smoking and prospective smoking cessation attempts, providing evidence of concurrent, predictive and discriminant validity. In particular, the social disapproval and long-term concern subscales significantly predicted subsequent cessation attempts. As such, the ARFQ may prove valuable for informing interventions to encourage adolescent smoking cessation. PMID:18298239

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale

    PubMed Central

    Koukounari, Artemis; Pickles, Andrew; Hill, Jonathan; Sharp, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS) and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks). When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions). Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy. PMID:26696945

  6. Psycho-informatics: Big Data shaping modern psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Markowetz, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Montag, Christian; Switala, Christina; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2014-04-01

    For the first time in history, it is possible to study human behavior on great scale and in fine detail simultaneously. Online services and ubiquitous computational devices, such as smartphones and modern cars, record our everyday activity. The resulting Big Data offers unprecedented opportunities for tracking and analyzing behavior. This paper hypothesizes the applicability and impact of Big Data technologies in the context of psychometrics both for research and clinical applications. It first outlines the state of the art, including the severe shortcomings with respect to quality and quantity of the resulting data. It then presents a technological vision, comprised of (i) numerous data sources such as mobile devices and sensors, (ii) a central data store, and (iii) an analytical platform, employing techniques from data mining and machine learning. To further illustrate the dramatic benefits of the proposed methodologies, the paper then outlines two current projects, logging and analyzing smartphone usage. One such study attempts to thereby quantify severity of major depression dynamically; the other investigates (mobile) Internet Addiction. Finally, the paper addresses some of the ethical issues inherent to Big Data technologies. In summary, the proposed approach is about to induce the single biggest methodological shift since the beginning of psychology or psychiatry. The resulting range of applications will dramatically shape the daily routines of researches and medical practitioners alike. Indeed, transferring techniques from computer science to psychiatry and psychology is about to establish Psycho-Informatics, an entire research direction of its own.

  7. The inventory of dyadic heterosexual preferences: development and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1996-04-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed. PMID:8871371

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of Modified RHAQWRA Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani Bilandi, Roghaieh; Khalajabadi Farahamni, Farideh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Mohamadi, Reza; Amiri, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examin the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of Reproductive Health Assessment Questionnaire for Women of Reproductive Age (RHAQWRA). Materials and methods: This study was a cross sectional study. We selected 150 women aged 18- 45 years based on convenience sampling method who lived in the Quake-hit areas in eastern part of Iran in 2013. Some previously recognized and established instructions were undertaken in translating and adapting the RHAQWRA questionnaire culturally. We sought help and feedback from teenagers and experts in the fields of midwifery, sociology, and epidemiology to establish the face and content validity of the questionnaire. To examine the test-retest reliability indices of all the items, we used Kappa and McNemar tests. Results: The Content Validity Index (CVI) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR) scores for RHAQWRA were above 0.70. Results from Kappa and McNemar tests indicated a high degree of test-retest reliability. In order to evaluate the construct validity, known- group comparison (women with and without unwanted pregnancy) was used. The internal consistency reliability indexes for the subscales obtained through Cronbach’s alpha were between 0.68 and 0.87. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Iranian version of RHAQWRA is a valid and reliable questionnaire which can be used for measuring reproductive health needs during disasters. PMID:27047565

  9. Psychometric validation of the State Scale of Dissociation (SSD).

    PubMed

    Krüger, Christa; Mace, Chris J

    2002-03-01

    Although dissociative phenomena are often transient features of mental states, existing measures of dissociation are designed to measure enduring traits. A new present-state self-report measure, sensitive to changes in dissociative states, was therefore developed and psychometrically validated. Fifty-six items were formulated to measure state features, and sorted according to seven subscales: derealization, depersonalization, identity confusion, identity alteration, conversion, amnesia and hypermnesia. The State Scale of Dissociation (SSD) was administered with other psychiatric scales (DES, BDI, BAI, SCI-PANSS) to 130 participants with DSM-IV major depressive disorder schizophrenia, alcohol withdrawal, dissociative disorders and controls. In these sample populations, the SSD was demonstrated as a valid and reliable measure of changes in and the severity of dissociative states. Discriminant validity, content, concurrent, predictive, internal criterion-related, internal construct and convergent validities, and internal consistency and split-half reliability were confirmed statistically. Clinical observations of dissociative states, and their comorbidity with symptoms of depression and psychotic illness, were confirmed empirically. The SSD, an acceptable, valid and reliable scale measuring state features of dissociation at the time of completion, was obtained. This is a prerequisite for further investigation of correlations between changes in dissociative states and concurrent physiological parameters.

  10. Turkish Version of the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Batmaz, Sedat; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Yuncu, Ozgur Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are interrelated with all layers of cognitions, and they may be part of the treatment once they are accessed, identified, labeled, and changed. From both a research and a clinical perspective, it is of utmost importance to disentangle cognitive distortions from similar constructs. Recently, the Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest), a brief and comprehensive measure, was developed to assess both the frequency and the intensity of cognitive distortions. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CD-Quest in a psychiatric outpatient sample. Demographic and clinical data of the participants were analyzed by descriptive statistics. For group comparisons, Student's t-test was applied. An exploratory principal components factor analysis was performed, followed by an oblique rotation. To assess the internal consistency of the scale Cronbach's α was computed. The correlation coefficient was calculated for test-retest reliability over a 4-week period. For concurrent validity, bivariate Pearson correlation analyses were conducted with the measures of mood severity and negatively biased cognitions. The results revealed that the scale had excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, unidimensional factor structure, and evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity.

  11. Effect of antioxidant treatment in global ischemia and ischemic postconditioning in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Domoráková, Iveta; Mechírová, Eva; Danková, Marianna; Danielisová, Viera; Burda, Jozef

    2009-09-01

    Ischemic postconditioning is a very effective way how to prevent delayed neuronal death. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761; 40 mg/kg) posttreatment was studied on the rat model of transient forebrain ischemia and ischemia/postconditioning. Global ischemia was produced by four-vessel occlusion in Wistar male rats. Two experimental protocols were used: (a) 10 min of ischemia/7 days of reperfusion with or without EGb 761 treatment or (b) 10 min of ischemia/2 days of reperfusion/5 min of ischemia (postconditioning), following 5 days of reperfusion. EGb 761 was applied as follows: 30 min before 10 min of ischemia then 5 h, 1 and 2 days after 10 min of ischemia. Fluoro Jade B, marker for neuronal degeneration, was used for quantitative analysis of the most vulnerable hippocampal CA1 neurons. Cognitive and memory functions were tested by Morris water maze, as well. Administration of EGb 761 30 min before 10 min of ischemia or 5 h after ischemia has rather no protective effect on neuronal survival in CA1 region. Ten minutes of ischemia following ischemic postconditioning after 2 days of reperfusion trigger a significant neuroprotection of CA1 neurons, but it is abolished by EGb 761 posttreatment. Ischemia/postconditioning group showed a significant improvement of learning and memory on the seventh day of reperfusion. Protection of the most vulnerable CA1 neurons after ischemia/postconditioning is abolished by exogenous antioxidant treatment used in different time intervals after initial ischemia. Moreover, combination of EGb 761 administration with repeated stress (5 min ischemia used as postconditioning) causes cumulative injury of CA1 neurons.

  12. The Effects of Soy Extract on Spatial Learning and Memory Damage Induced by Global Ischemia in Ovariectomised Rats

    PubMed Central

    VAFAEE, Farzaneh; HOSSEINI, Mahmoud; SADEGHINIA, Hamid Reza; HADJZADEH, Mosa Al-reza; SOUKHTANLOO, Mohammad; RAHIMI, Motaharah

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects of soy extract on memory as well as the oxidative damage to brain tissue induced by ischemia was investigated in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. Methods: The rats were divided into: 1) Sham; 2) OVX; 3) Sham‑Ischemia; 4) OVX‑Ischemia; 5) OVX-Ischemia-S 20; and 6) OVX-Ischemia-S 60. The common carotid artery was occluded (30 minutes), and it was then re-perfused. The OVX-Ischemia-S 20 and OVX-Ischemia-S 60 groups received 20 or 60 mg/kg of soy extract for eight weeks before the ischemia. Results: The Sham-Ischemia and OVX-Ischemia groups took a longer time to reach the platform while, spent a shorter time in the target quadrant (Q1) than the Sham and OVX. The escape latencies in the OVX-Ischemia-S 20 and OVX-Ischemia-S 60 groups were lower while, time spent in the Q1 was higher than that of the OVX-Ischemia. In the rotarod test, there were no significant differences between the groups. The hippocampal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the Sham-Ischemia and OVX-Ischemia groups were higher than the Sham and OVX. Pre-treatment by 20 and 60 mg/kg of the extract reduced the MDA. Conclusion: It is suggested that soy prevents memory impairment and brain tissue oxidative damage due to ischemia in OVX rats. PMID:25246832

  13. Psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people.

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Olivares Faúndez, Víctor E

    2011-05-01

    While the most commonly employed burnout measure has been the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), researchers have been troubled by some of the psychometric limitations of this instrument. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" (SBI). The psychometric properties were analysed with data from a sample of 277 Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The psychometric properties of the SBI were examined through the following analyses: confirmatory factor analysis, reliability Cronbach's alpha, and concurrent validity with the MBI. The hypothesized four factor model obtained an adequate data fit for the sample (chi2(164) = 285.32, p < .001, GFI = .96, RMSEA = .052, NNFI .93, CFI = .94). Results confirmed the hypothesis formulated. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was higher than .70 for the four scales of the instruments. Results supported the concurrent validity with the MBI. As a whole, the results of these study provided evidence on the adequate psychometric properties of the SBI for the study of burnout in the Chilean cultural context.

  14. Psychometric precision in phenotype definition is a useful step in molecular genetic investigation of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M K; Gaysina, D; Barnett, J H; Scoriels, L; van de Lagemaat, L N; Wong, A; Richards, M; Croudace, T J; Jones, P B

    2015-01-01

    Affective disorders are highly heritable, but few genetic risk variants have been consistently replicated in molecular genetic association studies. The common method of defining psychiatric phenotypes in molecular genetic research is either a summation of symptom scores or binary threshold score representing the risk of diagnosis. Psychometric latent variable methods can improve the precision of psychiatric phenotypes, especially when the data structure is not straightforward. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, we compared summary scores with psychometric modeling based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) scale for affective symptoms in an association analysis of 27 candidate genes (249 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)). The psychometric method utilized a bi-factor model that partitioned the phenotype variances into five orthogonal latent variable factors, in accordance with the multidimensional data structure of the GHQ-28 involving somatic, social, anxiety and depression domains. Results showed that, compared with the summation approach, the affective symptoms defined by the bi-factor psychometric model had a higher number of associated SNPs of larger effect sizes. These results suggest that psychometrically defined mental health phenotypes can reflect the dimensions of complex phenotypes better than summation scores, and therefore offer a useful approach in genetic association investigations. PMID:26125156

  15. Genistein exerts neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Alacam, Hasan; Kalkan, Yildiray; Silan, Coskun; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Brain ischemia and treatment are one of the important topics in neurological science. Free oxygen radicals and inflammation formed after ischemia are accepted as the most important causes of damage. Currently, there are studies on many chemopreventive agents to prevent cerebral ischemia damage. Our aim is to research the preventive effect of the active ingredient in genistein, previously unstudied, on oxidative damage in cerebral ischemia. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), ischemia group, and artery ischemia+genistein group, sacrificed at 24 h after ischemia. The harvested brain tissue from the right hemisphere was investigated histopathologically and for tissue biochemistry. Superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor 1 values decreased after ischemia and they increased after genistein treatment, while increased malondialdehyde levels after ischemia reduced after treatment. Apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase caspase-3 and caspase-9 values increased after ischemia, but reduced after treatment. Our study revealed that genistein treatment in cerebral ischemia reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration. We believe that genistein treatment may be an alternative treatment method.

  16. Improving mitochondrial bioenergetics under ischemic conditions increases warm ischemia tolerance in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Hazel H; Liu, Shaoyi; Soong, Yi; Birk, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia time during partial nephrectomy is strongly associated with acute and chronic renal injury. ATP depletion during warm ischemia inhibits ATP-dependent processes, resulting in cell swelling, cytoskeletal breakdown, and cell death. The duration of ischemia tolerated by the kidney depends on the amount of ATP that can be produced with residual substrates and oxygen in the tissue to sustain cell function. We previously reported that the rat can tolerate 30-min ischemia quite well but 45-min ischemia results in acute kidney injury and progressive interstitial fibrosis. Here, we report that pretreatment with SS-20 30 min before warm ischemia in the rat increased ischemia tolerance from 30 to 45 min. Histological examination of kidney tissues revealed that SS-20 reduced cytoskeletal breakdown and cell swelling after 45-min ischemia. Electron microscopy showed that SS-20 reduced mitochondrial matrix swelling and preserved cristae membranes, suggesting that SS-20 enhanced mitochondrial ATP synthesis under ischemic conditions. Studies with isolated kidney mitochondria showed dramatic reduction in state 3 respiration and respiratory control ratio after 45-min ischemia, and this was significantly improved by SS-20 treatment. These results suggest that SS-20 increases efficiency of the electron transport chain and improves coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. SS-20 treatment after ischemia also significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis. These new findings reveal that enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics may be an important target for improving ischemia tolerance, and SS-20 may serve well for minimizing acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease following surgical procedures such as partial nephrectomy and transplantation.

  17. [Practical value of the detection of silent myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary disease using Holters].

    PubMed

    Jan, F; Monin, J L; Leichter, S; Pochmalicki, G

    1994-02-01

    The prognosis of painless myocardial ischemia is similar to that of symptomatic ischemia. The Holter technique (and solid memory Holter in particular) is a simple method of detection which, taken together with exercise testing, enables the identification among coronary disease patients of a high risk group in whom effort ischemia is accompanied by episodes of ischemia under everyday conditions and in whom additional investigations (exercise thallium scan then coronary arteriography) and appropriate treatment, including transluminal angioplasty and aorto-coronary bypass if necessary, may be required. The role of drug treatment in silent ischemia has not yet been clearly defined. While electrical ischemia regresses significantly with the majority of standard drug regimens, and beta-blockers in particular, none has yet been confirmed as having a preventive effect against serious events following on from silent myocardial ischemia.

  18. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted.

  19. Hyperinsulinism in a child presenting with cardiac ischemia and bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayyadh, Majid; Bulbul, Ziad; Al Maneea, Waleed; Abbas, Bassam Bin

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy referred to our service with suspected sinus node dysfunction. In addition to the arrhythmia, he had moderate mitral valve regurgitation and depressed ventricular function during a hypoglycemic episode. Cardiac abnormalities resolved with glucose infusion. We believe that hypoglycemia was responsible for the cardiac manifestations and it should be considered in unexplained rhythm disturbances or ischemia.

  20. Ligustrazine monomer against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Jun; Liu, Peng-Fei; Li, Pei-Wen; Huang, Zhuo-Yan; Yu, Feng-Bo; Lei, Ting; Chen, Yong; Cheng, Ye; Mu, Qing-Chun; Huang, Hai-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Ligustrazine (2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine) is a major active ingredient of the Szechwan lovage rhizome and is extensively used in treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanism of action of ligustrazine use against ischemic cerebrovascular diseases remains unclear at present. This study summarizes its protective effect, the optimum time window of administration, and the most effective mode of administration for clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We examine the effects of ligustrazine on suppressing excitatory amino acid release, promoting migration, differentiation and proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells. We also looked at its effects on angiogenesis and how it inhibits thrombosis, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. We consider that ligustrazine gives noticeable protection from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The time window of ligustrazine administration is limited. The protective effect and time window of a series of derivative monomers of ligustrazine such as 2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]methyl]-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, CXC137 and CXC195 after cerebral ischemia were better than ligustrazine. PMID:26109963

  1. Effect of taurine on ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant β-amino acid that regulates several events that dramatically influence the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. One of these events is the extrusion of taurine and Na+ from the cell via the taurine/Na+ symport. The loss of Na+ during the ischemia-reperfusion insult limits the amount of available Na+ for Na+/Ca2+ exchange, an important process in the development of Ca2+ overload and the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition, a key process in ischemia-reperfusion mediated cell death. Taurine also prevents excessive generation of reactive oxygen species by the respiratory chain, an event that also limits the activation of the MPT. Because taurine is an osmoregulator, changes in taurine concentration trigger "osmotic preconditioning," a process that activates an Akt-dependent cytoprotective signaling pathway that inhibits MPT pore formation. These effects of taurine have clinical implications, as experimental evidence reveals potential promise of taurine therapy in preventing cardiac damage during bypass surgery, heart transplantation and myocardial infarction. Moreover, severe loss of taurine from the heart during an ischemia-reperfusion insult may increase the risk of ventricular remodeling and development of heart failure. PMID:22936072

  2. Ischemia independent lesion evolution during focal stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Woitzik, Johannes; Lassel, Elke; Hecht, Nils; Schneider, Ulf C; Schroeck, Helmut; Vajkoczy, Peter; Graf, Rudolf

    2009-07-01

    Lesion evolution during focal cerebral ischemia may depend on flow restrictions or on accumulation of toxic mediators within the infarct and expansion of these factors to the periinfarct region. So far, the precise contribution of flow dependent versus spreading-mediated impairment of viable periinfarct tissue has not been determined. Therefore, we measured lesion expansion, flow restrictions and glutamate distribution on serial brain sections at different time points after experimental focal ischemia. Permanent focal ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in male rats and the flow reduction was subsequently measured at 1, 12 and 24 h using iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography. Additionally, the necrotic volume was determined on serial brain sections and the glutamate content was measured in tissue samples from adjacent microdissections. Twelve hours after focal ischemia no noteworthy viable areas with blood flow restrictions of 20-40 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1) existed but at 24 h the necrotic tissue exceeded the hemodynamically compromised region by 40 +/- 21 mm3 (24%). Furthermore, at 12 and 24 h the glutamate content was elevated in areas surrounding the infarct. Relevant flow restrictions are detectable only during early stages of infarct maturation, whereas the propagation of secondary factors may be the predominant mechanism for delayed infarct evolution.

  3. Brain polyphosphoinositide metabolism during focal ischemia in rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.N.; Liu, T.H.; Xu, J.; Hsu, C.Y.; Sun, G.Y. )

    1991-04-01

    Using a rat model of stroke, we examined the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the metabolism of polyphosphoinositides by injecting {sup 32}Pi into both the left and right cortices. After equilibration of the label for 2-3 hours, ischemia induced a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) in the concentrations of labeled phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphates (66-78%) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (64-67%) in the right middle cerebral artery cortex of four rats. The phospholipid labeling pattern in the left middle cerebral artery cortex, which sustained only mild ischemia and no permanent tissue damage, was not different from that of two sham-operated controls. However, when {sup 32}Pi was injected 1 hour after the ischemic insult, there was a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in the incorporation of label into the phospholipids in both cortices of four ischemic rats compared with four sham-operated controls. Furthermore, differences in the phospholipid labeling pattern were observed in the left cortex compared with the sham-operated controls. The change in labeling pattern was attributed to the partial reduction in blood flow following ligation of the common carotid arteries. We provide a sensitive procedure for probing the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the polyphosphoinositide signaling pathway in the brain, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury.

  4. [Management of mesenteric ischemia and mesenteric vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Keck, T

    2014-07-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is secondary to acute embolic disease or thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery. Further pathologies that manifest themselves with the same clinical presentation are thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein and non-occlusive disease. The patients are admitted to the emergency room with an acute abdomen. Most patients are more than 70 years old. Known risk factors for mesenteric ischemia are cardiac diseases as atrial fibrillation, aneurysms of the aorta and the visceral arteries, occlusive arterial diseases, tumorigenic compression of the vessel and several diseases that result in a reduction of the flow and intravascular volume in the superior mesenteric artery. The golden standard in the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia is CT-angiography of the abdominal vessels with 3 D reconstruction. The therapy is different and dependent from the underlying pathology. A statistically significantly elevated mortality of more than 95% is associated with a delay of surgical or interventional therapy of more than 12 hours after the initial symptoms and non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. Because of the advanced age of the patients and the co-morbidities a non-surgical interventional re-canalisation of the superior mesenteric vessels is recommended. A laparotomy is necessary in all patients with peritonitis and/or bowel necrosis or perforation.

  5. [Dynamics of structural change of ovarian tissue under ischemia].

    PubMed

    Bozhkova, Iu O; Kiroshka, V V; Havas, A A; Bondarenko, V A

    2014-01-01

    In this work it was investigated the dependence of the correlation of folliculogenesis and endocrine function of ovarian tissue on the degree of structural damage and oocyte volume changes during ischemia. It was shown that after 2 hours of ischemia at 37 °C the morphological transformation of the structural components of the ovarian tissue were reversible. In case of restoration of blood flow conditions by heterotopic transplantation estradiol level of animals was 25,9 ± 5,18 pg/ml, progesterone--18,48 ± 3,69 ng/ml, significantly higher than the castrated animals-recipients. Supplement of the incubation medium by the fetal bovine serum lead to decreasing by 5-7% in the volume of oocytes of growing follicles during in ischemia and reduced steroidogenic function of ovarian tissue after perfusion. Increased time of the ischemia up to 4 hours was founded in irreversible morphological transformation, reduce the volume of oocytes by 40% and the formation of sclerosed tissue after transplantation of the ischemic fragments of ovarian tissue.

  6. [Neuroprotection of herbs promoting EPO on cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Bai, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Fei-yan; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2015-06-01

    Amounts of researches show that EPO is characterized with neurotrophic and neuroprotective manner, especially in brain stroke, which attracts a large numbers of researchers to study it. With the accumulating researches on its neuroprotection, many related mechanisms were revealed, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, which suggests a multiple targets role of EPO on brain stroke. However, because of the high risk of thromboembolism in clinical administration of rhEPO and its analogs, the herbs are potential to be a replacer for its less side effects. Many researchers suggested that a larger of herbs were founded having the action of increasing the endogenous EPO in the model of anemia and cerebral ischemia. At the same time, there herbs were also proved that they had the action of against cerebral ischemia while some without considering the role of EPO in the reports. Considering of the action of promoting EPO of these herbs and the neural protection of EPO, this essay mainly summarizes the studies of herbs promoting EPO in the cerebral ischemia and discusses the mechanism of regulating the EPO of these herbs, for the aim of finding the potential drugs against cerebral ischemia. PMID:26591507

  7. microRNAs: innovative targets for cerebral ischemia and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Stary, Creed M.; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Giffard, Rona

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Because stroke is a multifactorial disease with a short therapeutic window many clinical stroke trials have failed and the only currently approved therapy is thrombolysis. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenously expressed noncoding short single-stranded RNAs that play a role in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, via degradation or translational inhibition of their target mRNAs. The study of miRNAs is rapidly growing and recent studies have revealed a significant role of miRNAs in ischemic disease. miRNAs are especially important candidates for stroke therapeutics because of their ability to simultaneously regulate many target genes and since to date targeting single genes for therapeutic intervention has not yet succeeded in the clinic. Although there are already quite a few review articles about miRNA in ischemic heart disease, much less is currently known about miRNAs in cerebral ischemia. This review summarizes current knowledge about miRNAs and cerebral ischemia, focusing on the role of miRNAs in ischemia, both changes in expression and identification of potential targets, as well as the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cerebral ischemia. PMID:23170800

  8. Energy Drinks and Myocardial Ischemia: A Review of Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The use and abuse of energy drinks (EDs) is constantly increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic search in Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence about the potential link between these beverages and myocardial ischemia. Overall, 8 case reports could be detected, all of which described a realistic association between large intake of EDs and episodes of myocardial ischemia. Interestingly, no additional triggers of myocardial ischemia other than energy drinks could be identified in the vast majority of cases. Some plausible explanations can be brought in support of this association. Most of the biological effects of EDs are seemingly mediated by a positive inotropic effect on cardiac function, which entails increase in heart rate, cardiac output and contractility, stroke volume and arterial blood pressure. Additional biological abnormalities reported after EDs intake include increased platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction, hyperglycemia as well as an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although a causal relationship between large consumption of EDs and myocardial ischemia cannot be definitely established so far, concerns about the cardiovascular risk of excessive consumption of these beverages are seemingly justified.

  9. Energy Drinks and Myocardial Ischemia: A Review of Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The use and abuse of energy drinks (EDs) is constantly increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic search in Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence about the potential link between these beverages and myocardial ischemia. Overall, 8 case reports could be detected, all of which described a realistic association between large intake of EDs and episodes of myocardial ischemia. Interestingly, no additional triggers of myocardial ischemia other than energy drinks could be identified in the vast majority of cases. Some plausible explanations can be brought in support of this association. Most of the biological effects of EDs are seemingly mediated by a positive inotropic effect on cardiac function, which entails increase in heart rate, cardiac output and contractility, stroke volume and arterial blood pressure. Additional biological abnormalities reported after EDs intake include increased platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction, hyperglycemia as well as an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although a causal relationship between large consumption of EDs and myocardial ischemia cannot be definitely established so far, concerns about the cardiovascular risk of excessive consumption of these beverages are seemingly justified. PMID:26320007

  10. Tumor Cold Ischemia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  11. Compartment syndrome presenting as ischemia following extravasation of contrast material

    PubMed Central

    Grand, Aaron; Yeager, Brian; Wollstein, Ronit

    2008-01-01

    A case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm, resulting from contrast dye extravasation that presented as upper extremity ischemia, is described. Timely surgical intervention resulted in an excellent outcome. When extravasation of dye occurs, the patient should be evaluated for compartment syndrome despite the possible lack of typical symptoms. PMID:19721799

  12. [Neuroprotection of herbs promoting EPO on cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Bai, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Fei-yan; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2015-06-01

    Amounts of researches show that EPO is characterized with neurotrophic and neuroprotective manner, especially in brain stroke, which attracts a large numbers of researchers to study it. With the accumulating researches on its neuroprotection, many related mechanisms were revealed, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, which suggests a multiple targets role of EPO on brain stroke. However, because of the high risk of thromboembolism in clinical administration of rhEPO and its analogs, the herbs are potential to be a replacer for its less side effects. Many researchers suggested that a larger of herbs were founded having the action of increasing the endogenous EPO in the model of anemia and cerebral ischemia. At the same time, there herbs were also proved that they had the action of against cerebral ischemia while some without considering the role of EPO in the reports. Considering of the action of promoting EPO of these herbs and the neural protection of EPO, this essay mainly summarizes the studies of herbs promoting EPO in the cerebral ischemia and discusses the mechanism of regulating the EPO of these herbs, for the aim of finding the potential drugs against cerebral ischemia.

  13. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described. PMID:24975870

  14. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Julia L.; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A.

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described. PMID:24975870

  15. Percutaneous isolated limb perfusion with thrombolytics for severe limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahsan T; Kalapatapu, Venkat R; Bledsoe, Shelly; Moursi, Mohammed M; Eidt, John F

    2005-01-01

    Patients with severe tibioperoneal disease are poor candidates for a distal bypass. Absence of a distal target, lack of conduit, or multiple medical problems can make these patients a prohibitive risk for revascularization. Acute on chronic ischemia in this group poses a greater challenge. Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemia can be prolonged and carries a significant risk of bleeding if continued beyond 24 hours. However, if the ischemic limbs can be isolated from the systemic circulation, a higher dose of the lytic agent can be given with lower risk. These are the initial results of a series of 10 patients who underwent percutaneous isolated limb perfusion with a high dose of thrombolytics for severe ischemia. Ten patients (lower extremity 8 and upper extremity 2) presented with severe limb-threatening ischemia. Mean ankle/brachial index (ABI) was 0.15 for the lower extremity, and there were no recordable digital pressures in patients with upper extremity ischemia. No distal target was visible on the initial arteriogram. These patients were then taken to the operating room, and under anesthesia, catheters were placed in an antegrade fashion via femoral approach in the popliteal artery and vein percutaneously. For upper extremity, the catheters were placed in the brachial artery and vein. A proximal tourniquet was then applied. This isolated the limb from the systemic circulation. Heparinized saline was infused through the arterial catheter while the venous catheter was left open. A closed loop or an isolated limb perfusion was confirmed when effluent became clear coming out of the venous port. A high dose of thrombolytic agent (urokinase 500,000 to 1,000,000 U) was infused into the isolated limb via the arterial catheter and drained out of the venous catheter. After 45 minutes, arterial flow was reestablished. In 4 patients, Reopro((R)) was used in addition to thrombolytics. Postprocedure angiograms showed minimal changes, but patients exhibited marked

  16. Being Playful and Smart? The Relations of Adult Playfulness with Psychometric and Self-Estimated Intelligence and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, Rene T.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the relation between subjectively assessed adult playfulness and psychometric and self-estimated intelligence in a sample of 254 students. As expected, playfulness existed widely independently from psychometric intelligence. Correlations pointed in the direction of higher expressive playfulness and numeric intelligence and lower…

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale among Turkish University Students, Correctional Officers, and Elderly Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…

  18. The Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form: Psychometric Properties and Association with Social Anxiety in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…

  19. Oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of ischemia and reperfusion injuries.

    PubMed

    Halladin, Natalie Løvland

    2015-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injuries occur when the blood supply to an organ or tissue is temporarily cut-off and then restored. Even though the restoration of blood flow is absolutely essential in preventing tissue death, the reperfusion of oxygenated blood to the oxygen-deprived areas may in itself augment the tissue damage in excess of that produced by the ischemia alone. The process of ischemia-reperfusion is multifactorial and there are several mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. Ample evidence shows that the injury is in part caused by an excessive generation of reactive oxygen species or free radicals. The free radicals consequently initiate an inflammatory response, which in some cases may affect distant organs, thus causing remote organ injuries. Ischemia-reperfusion injuries are a common complication in many diseases (acute myocardial infarctions, stroke) or surgical settings (transplantations, tourniquet-related surgery) and they have potential detrimental and disabling consequences. The tolerance of ischemia-reperfusion has proven to be time-of-day-dependent and the size of myocardial infarctions has proven to be significantly higher when occurring in the dark-to-light period. This period is characterized by and coincides with a rapid decrease in the plasma levels of the hormone melatonin. Melatonin is the body's most potent antioxidant and is capable of both direct free radical scavenging and indirect optimization of other anti-oxidant enzymes. It also possesses anti-inflammatory properties and is known to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore during reperfusion. This inhibiting property has been shown to be of great importance in reducing ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Furthermore, melatonin is a relatively non-toxic molecule, which has proven to be safe for use in clinical trials. Thus, there is compelling evidence of melatonin's effect in reducing ischemia-reperfusion injuries in many experimental studies, but the number of human

  20. A psychometric study of information technology risks in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Coles, Robert; Hodgkinson, Gerard P

    2008-02-01

    As organizations become increasingly reliant on information technology (IT) they are exposed to a growing number of risks. Surprisingly, however, very few studies to date have investigated the psychometric representation of IT risks, and none have been undertaken in the workplace. Accordingly, the present study was designed to map the judgments of a representative group of workplace IT users. Fifty-seven participants evaluated 18 IT risk scenarios by means of 13 bipolar attribute-rating scales. Profile proximities derived from the raw data were submitted to a weighted multidimensional scaling analysis. The results indicated that a six-dimensional solution was required on both statistical and conceptual grounds to represent adequately the participants' judgments. The dimensions reflected the extent to which the various risk scenarios were perceived as: (1) serious or minor in nature; (2) having a high or low probability of occurrence; (3) causing a high or low degree of stress; (4) deliberate or accidental; (5) having an impact on the organization or on individuals; and (6) the product of human or technological causes. The data were also submitted to a series of hierarchical cluster analyses, using a variety of agglomeration techniques. This second approach revealed a robust structure in which the risk scenarios were grouped into two broad categories, based on whether the events depicted would be likely to have a major or minor impact. The major impact category broke down further, into two subcategories, based on whether the scenarios were seen to arise from deliberate causes or through negligence. In conclusion, we consider the implications of our findings for future research, the refinement of IT risk assessment frameworks and tools, and the training of risk management professionals.

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Two Measures of Speed of Information Processing and Their Relation to Psychometric Intelligence: Evidence from the German Observational Study of Adult Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Alioscha C.; Spinath, Frank M.; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Borkenau, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Administered 2 elementary cognitive task (ECT) tests and 2 psychometric intelligence tests to 169 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs of twins in Germany. Reaction times correlated negatively with psychometric intelligence, and habitability estimates were substantial for both psychometric intelligence and reaction times on the ECTs. Multivariate…

  2. On the similarity between exchangeable profiles: A psychometric model, analytic strategy, and empirical illustration

    PubMed Central

    Furr, R. Michael; Wood, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of profile similarity are widespread in personality psychology, but their apparent simplicity masks difficult psychometric and statistical issues. We present a psychometric framework that addresses an important challenge (i.e., profile normativeness) in examinations of dyadic exchangeable profiles. In addition, we present an analytic strategy accounting for non-independence that often arises in analyses of profile similarity, facilitating integrated examinations of variables at dyadic and individual levels. An empirical analysis of personality similarity and relationship quality demonstrates that the model and analytic strategy can reveal novel psychological insights. These are important advances, as previous work has ignored exchangeable profiles and has failed to present an integrated psychometric and statistical framework for profile similarity. PMID:24039314

  3. An evaluation of the HM prison service "thinking skills programme" using psychometric assessments.

    PubMed

    Gobbett, Matthew J; Sellen, Joselyn L

    2014-04-01

    The most widely implemented offending behaviour programme in the United Kingdom was Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS), a cognitive-behavioural group intervention that aimed to develop participant's general cognitive skills. A new offending behaviour programme has been developed to replace ETS: the Thinking Skills Programme (TSP). This study reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of TSP using psychometric assessments. Phasing of the two programmes created an opportunity to compare the two programmes consecutively. Forty participants, 20 from each programme, completed a range of psychometric measures to examine cognition, attitudes, and thinking styles. Analysis of pre- and post-programme psychometric results indicated that participants of TSP demonstrated improvements on 14 of the 15 scales, 9 of which were statistically significant. Effect sizes between pre-post results were generally greater for TSP than ETS, demonstrating that TSP had a more positive impact on the thinking styles and attitudes of participants than the ETS programme.

  4. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Atari, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Tylka and Wood-Barcalow (2015b) developed the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) as a psychometrically robust measure that is conceptually consistent with recent findings on positive body image. The present study aimed to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the BAS-2 in Iran. Participants were 568 men and 525 women from seven universities in Tehran, Iran. Two exploratory factor analyses were performed on data from women and men separately. Similar to the original English version, the Persian BAS-2 had a one-factor solution. Persian BAS-2 scores had satisfactory convergent validity (indexed by significantly correlations with self-esteem and life satisfaction) and internal consistency. Men had significantly higher scores on BAS-2 compared to women. The present study suggests that the Persian BAS-2 has adequate psychometric properties to assess body appreciation. PMID:27236470

  5. Perceived stress in survivors of suicide: psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ann M; Crane, Patricia A; Kim, Yookyung

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of three versions of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; American Sociological Association) in adults who had survived the death of a family member or significant other by suicide. Reliability and validity were examined. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to assess dimensionality of the underlying constructs. All three versions of the PSS demonstrated acceptable reliability. Two shorter versions retained good psychometric properties and demonstrated convergent and concurrent validity with measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms and mental health quality of life. Factor analysis provided further evidence of their usefulness as brief and valid measures of perceived stress in acutely bereaved adult survivors of suicide. In a sub-sample of closely related survivors, the psychometric properties of the 4-item version of the PSS were retained.

  6. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  7. ST monitoring for myocardial ischemia during and after coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, M; Ben Freedman, S; Barns, E; Ogasawara, S; Bailey, B P; Bernstein, L

    1990-08-15

    We performed 12-lead electrocardiographic monitoring in 97 patients during coronary angioplasty (PTCA) of a single vessel to correlate ischemic ST changes with clinical, angiographic and coronary hemodynamic variables and to determine the optimum lead or combination of leads for their detection. Ischemia (chest pain or ST change, group A) occurred in 79 patients (80%), but in only 15 of 23 patients (65%) with collaterals (p less than 0.05). Ischemia occurred more often in left anterior descending and left circumflex PTCA than right coronary PTCA, but pain was the only manifestation more often in left circumflex and right coronary PTCA. Ischemic ST change was silent in 16% and this proportion did not differ in clinical or angiographic groups except for diabetes with 3 of 5 (60%) having silent ischemia (p less than 0.05). Patients in group A (ischemia) compared to group B (no ischemia) had less severe lesions (85 +/- 9 vs 91 +/- 7%, p less than 0.01), higher transstenotic gradients (62 +/- 19 vs 53 +/- 9 mm Hg, p less than 0.05) and lower distal occluded pressures (24 +/- 11 vs 33 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.01), suggesting less collateral flow. Compared with a 12-lead electrocardiogram, the best single lead for detecting ST change during PTCA in each artery had a sensitivity of 80% and this increased to 93% using the best 2 leads. The best 3 leads (V3/III/V5 for left anterior descending and III/V2/V5 for right coronary and left circumflex) increased sensitivity to 100%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Levosimendan Administration in Limb Ischemia: Multicomponent Signaling Serving Kidney Protection

    PubMed Central

    Onody, Peter; Aranyi, Peter; Turoczi, Zsolt; Stangl, Rita; Fulop, Andras; Dudas, Emese; Lotz, Gabor; Szijarto, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives Acute renal failure is a severe complication of lower extremity major arterial reconstructions, which could even be fatal. Levosimendan is a dual-acting positive inotropic and vasodilatory agent, which is suspected to have protective effects against cardiac ischemia. However, there is no data available on lower limb or remote organ ischemic injuries therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on lower limb ischemia-reperfusion injury and the corollary renal dysfunction. Methods Male Wistar rats underwent 180 min bilateral lower limb ischemia followed by 4 or 24 hours of reperfusion. Intravenous Levosimendan was administered continuously (0.2μg/bwkg/min) throughout the whole course of ischemia and the first 3h of reperfusion. Results were compared with sham-operated and ischemia-reperfusion groups. Hemodynamic monitoring was performed by invasive arterial blood pressure measurement. Kidney and lower limb muscle microcirculation was registered by a laser Doppler flowmeter. After 4h and 24h of reperfusion, serum, urine and histological samples were collected. Results Systemic hemodynamic parameters and microcirculation of kidney and the lower limb significantly improved in the Levosimendan treated group. Muscle viability was significantly preserved 4 and 24 hours after reperfusion. At the same time, renal functional laboratory tests and kidney histology demonstrated significantly less expressive kidney injury in Levosimendan groups. TNF-α levels were significantly less elevated in the Levosimendan group 4 hours after reperfusion. Conclusion The results claim a protective role for Levosimendan administration during major vascular surgeries to prevent renal complications. PMID:27684548

  9. Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Charlotte TJ; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers’ outcomes is a common problem. Aim: To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures’ psychometric properties. Design: A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. Data sources: The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Results: Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. Conclusion: A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. PMID:26407683

  10. Psychometric characteristics of health-related quality-of-life questionnaires in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Angelique A; Speyer, Renée; Heijnen, Bas J; Klijn-Zwijnenberg, Iris R

    2014-04-01

    Dysphagia can have severe consequences for the patient's health, influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Sound psychometric properties of HRQoL questionnaires are a precondition for assessing the impact of dysphagia, the focus of this study, resulting in recommendations for the appropriate use of these questionnaires in both clinical practice and research contexts. We performed a systematic review starting with a search for and retrieval of all full-text articles on the development of HRQoL questionnaires related to oropharyngeal dysphagia and/or their psychometric validation from the electronic databases PubMed and Embase published up to June 2011. Psychometric properties were judged according to quality criteria proposed for health status questionnaires. Eight questionnaires were included in this study. Four are aimed solely at HRQoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia: the deglutition handicap index (DHI), dysphagia handicap index (DHI'), M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), and SWAL-QOL, while the EDGQ, EORTC QLQ-STO 22, EORTC QLQ-OG 25 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 focus on other primary diseases resulting in dysphagia. The psychometric properties of the DHI, DHI', MDADI, and SWAL-QOL were evaluated. For appropriate applicability of HRQoL questionnaires, strong scores on the psychometric criteria face validity, criterion validity, and interpretability are prerequisites. The SWAL-QOL has the strongest ratings for these criteria, while the DHI' is the most easy to apply given its 25 items and the use of a uniform scoring format. For optimal use of HRQoL questionnaires in diverse settings, it is necessary to combine psychometric and utility approaches.

  11. Neuroprotective effect of L-kynurenine sulfate administered before focal cerebral ischemia in mice and global cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gigler, Gábor; Szénási, Gábor; Simó, Annamária; Lévay, György; Hársing, László Gábor; Sas, Katalin; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József

    2007-06-14

    Excessive stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during ischemia contributes to apoptotic and excitotoxic nerve cell death. Kynurenic acid is a selective antagonist at the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor complex at low concentration, and it is a broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor blocker at high concentration. Kynurenic acid provides neuroprotection in animal models of cerebral ischemia only at very high doses as it hardly crosses the blood-brain barrier. The neuroprotective effect of L-kynurenine sulfate, a precursor of kynurenic acid, was therefore studied because L-kynurenine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. L-kynurenine sulfate was administered 15 min before permanent focal cerebral ischemia produced by electrocoagulation of the distal middle cerebral artery in mice. L-kynurenine sulfate induced a small decrease in the surface area of the brain infarction (10%, P<0.05) at 30 mg/kg i.p., and it caused strong reductions in infarct size (24-25%, P<0.01) at 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p. Treatment of gerbils with L-kynurenine sulfate at 300 mg/kg i.p. 2 h before a 3-min bilateral carotid occlusion decreased (40%, P<0.01) the pyramidal cell loss in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Furthermore, L-kynurenine sulfate inhibited the ischemia-induced hypermotility (77%, P<0.001), and decreased (50%, P<0.01) the ischemia-induced deterioration of spontaneous alternation, a measure of spatial memory, without altering the rectal temperature. In conclusion, the administration of L-kynurenine can elevate the brain concentration of kynurenic acid to neuroprotective levels, suggesting the potential clinical usefulness of L-kynurenine for the prevention of neuronal loss.

  12. Prognostic significance of early ischemia after acute myocardial infarction in low-risk patients. IRES (Ischemia Residua) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Galli, M; Campolo, L

    1993-05-15

    Early postinfarction angina is generally believed to imply an unfavorable prognosis. However, most of the published information devices from data collected in the prethrombolytic era, with widely differing populations and definitions of early angina, and very little data pertinent to low-risk patients are available. This collaborative study prospectively assessed the incidence of early recurrent ischemia after thrombolysis, as well as its prognostic significance, in 453 consecutive patients aged < or = 70 years with an uncomplicated course in the first 24 hours of a first myocardial infarction participating in the second Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI-2) trial. Early recurrent ischemia (spontaneous, transient ST depression or elevation of > 1 mm and/or T-wave inversion), assessed in the coronary care unit with continuous clinical and electrocardiographic monitoring, was documented in 35 of 453 patients (8%) and was unrelated to sex, age, electrocardiographic location, Q-wave or non-Q-wave infarction, thrombolytic agent and time to its administration. In-hospital cardiac events (7 deaths, 19 nonfatal reinfarctions and 8 urgent revascularizations) occurred in 15 of 35 patients (43%) with versus 19 of 418 without (4.5%) recurrent ischemia (p < 0.001). At the 6-month follow-up of 352 medically treated patients who did not have in-hospital events, the incidence of death, reinfarction and recurrent angina was comparable between patients with (2 of 18, 11%) and without (62 of 334, 19%) early ischemia (p = NS). With use of stepwise multivariate analysis, early ischemia was the only significant predictor of in-hospital cardiac events (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The Dichotomy of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haomming; Zhu, Jianjun; Yue, Shi; Lu, Ling; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). As ER stress triggers an adaptive cellular response, the question of what determines its functional outcome in liver IRI remains to be defined. In a murine liver partial warm ischemia model, we studied how transient (30 minutes) or prolonged (90 minutes) liver ischemia regulated local ER stress response and autophagy activities and their relationship with liver IRI. Effects of chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were evaluated. Our results showed that although the activating transcription factor 6 branch of ER stress response was induced in livers by both types of ischemia, liver autophagy was activated by transient, but inhibited by prolonged, ischemia. Although 3-MA had no effects on liver IRI after prolonged ischemia, it significantly increased liver IRI after transient ischemia. The 4-PBA treatment protected livers from IRI after prolonged ischemia by restoring autophagy flux, and the adjunctive 3-MA treatment abrogated its liver protective effect. The same 4-PBA treatment, however, increased liver IRI and disrupted autophagy flux after transient ischemia. Although both types of ischemia activated 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and inactivated protein kinase B (Akt), prolonged ischemia also resulted in downregulations of autophagy-related gene 3 and autophagy-related gene 5 in ischemic livers. These results indicate a functional dichotomy of ER stress response in liver IRI via its regulation of autophagy. Transient ischemia activates autophagy to protect livers from IRI, whereas prolonged ischemia inhibits autophagy to promote the development of liver IRI.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide Pretreatment Protects from Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heemann, Uwe; Szabo, Attila; Hamar, Peter; Müller, Veronika; Witzke, Oliver; Lutz, Jens; Philipp, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In vivo administration of low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rodents can protect these animals from subsequently administrated, usually lethal doses of endotoxin or LPS. In this study we tested the effects of LPS pretreatment on ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. Male C57/B1 mice were pretreated with different doses of LPS or phosphate-buffered saline on days −4 and −3. The right kidney was removed, and the vessels of the left kidney were clamped for 30 or 45 minutes on day 0. Creatinine levels and survival of animals were monitored. To test the involvement of cytokines, additional animals were harvested before (“time 0”) and 15 minutes, 1, 2, 8, and 16 hours after reperfusion for histology, immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interferon (IFN)-γ messenger RNA (mRNA)). In controls, renal ischemia of 30 minutes was nonlethal, whereas 73% of the animals died within 48 ± 18 hours, after 45 minutes of ischemia. All different doses of LPS protected the animals from lethal renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Starting at similar levels, serum creatinine increased significantly in controls but not in LPS-pretreated animals over time. As early as 2 hours after reperfusion, tubular cell damage was significantly more pronounced in controls than in LPS-treated mice. In controls, tubules deteriorated progressively until 8 hours of reperfusion. At this time, more than 50% of tubular cells were destroyed. This destruction was accompanied by a pronounced leukocytic infiltration, predominantly by macrophages. In contrast, LPS pretreatment prevented the destruction of kidney tissue and infiltration by leukocytes. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay revealed significantly more apoptotic cells in

  15. Psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – Short form

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmsen, Kjersti; Strand, Liv Inger; Nordahl, Stein Helge G; Eide, Geir Egil; Ljunggren, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – short form (VSS-SF), a condition-specific measure of dizziness, following translation of the scale into Norwegian. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used to examine the factor structure, internal consistency and discriminative ability (sample I, n = 503). A cross-sectional pre-intervention design was used to examine the construct validity (sample II, n = 36) of the measure and a test-retest design was used to examine reliability (sub-sample of sample II, n = 28). Results The scree plot indicated a two factor structure accounting respectively for 41% and 12% of the variance prior to rotation. The factors were related to vertigo-balance (VSS-V) and autonomic-anxiety (VSS-A). Twelve of the items loaded clearly on either of the two dimensions, while three items cross-loaded. Internal consistency of the VSS-SF was high (alpha = 0.90). Construct validity was indicated by correlation between path length registered by platform posturography and the VSS-V (r = 0.52), but not with the VSS-A. The ability to discriminate between dizzy and not dizzy patients was excellent for the VSS-SF and sub-dimension VSS-V (area under the curve 0.87 and 0.91, respectively), and acceptable for the sub-dimension VSS-A (area under the curve 0.77). High test-retest reliability was demonstrated (ICC VSS-SF: 0.88, VSS-V: 0.90, VSS-A: 0.90) and no systematic change was observed in the scores from test to retest after 2 days. Conclusion Using a Norwegian translated version of the VSS-SF, this is the first study to provide evidence of the construct validity of this instrument demonstrating a stable two factor structure of the scale, and the identified sub-dimensions of dizziness were related to vertigo-balance and autonomic-anxiety, respectively. Evidence regarding a physical construct underlying the vertigo-balance sub-scale was provided. Satisfactory internal consistency was

  16. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  17. The Structure of Perceived Emotional Control: Psychometric Properties of a Revised Anxiety Control Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy A.; White, Kamila S.; Forsyth, John P.; Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were evaluated in 1,550 outpatients with DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders and 360 nonclinical participants. Counter to prior findings, exploratory factor analyses produced a 3-factor solution (Emotion Control, Threat Control, Stress Control) based on 15 of the ACQ's original…

  18. Psychometric Reanalysis of Happiness, Temperament, and Spirituality Scales with Children in Faith-Based Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation performed an investigation of the psychometric properties of six instruments used in the 2012 Happiness Project research study. The project revisited the 2010 study conducted by Holder, Coleman, and Wallace. Holder et al. (2010) investigated the relationships among variables relating to student happiness and spirituality while…

  19. Psychometric Analysis of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire in Taiwanese Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Lung Hung; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ; Peterson et al. in "J Happiness Stud" 6(1):25-41, 2005) in Taiwanese students. The participants were 578 undergraduate students (M[subscript age] = 18.64, SD = 1.02) and completed the OHQ, satisfaction with life scale (Diener et…

  20. Psychometric Characteristics of the California Preschool Social Competence Scale in a Spanish Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Maria; Ribas-Fito, Nuria; Mazon, Carlos; Torrent, Maties; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Few rating scales measure social competence in very young Spanish or Catalan children. We aimed to analyze the psychometric characteristics of the California Preschool Social Competence Scale (CPSCS) when applied to a Spanish- and Catalan-speaking population. Children were rated by their respective teachers within 6 months…

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form, in Hungarian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, Bernadette; Urban, Robert; Paksi, Borbala; Csobor, Lujza Vargane; Olah, Attila; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychometric characteristics, including factor structure, of measures assessing emotional intelligence improve our understanding of the manifest and latent dimensions of the construct. The factor structure of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997), despite the popularity of the measure, has been the subject of only…

  2. Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised: Scale Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for…

  3. Investigating the Psychometric Properties of School Counselor Self-Advocacy Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Shipp, Adria; Kimbel, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and the exploration of the underlying psychometric properties of the School Counselor Self-Advocacy Questionnaire, a measure of skills school counselors can use to advocate for their roles and programs. An exploratory factor analysis (N = 188) suggested a unidimensional model, and a confirmatory factor…

  4. Methods for Examining the Psychometric Quality of Subscores: A Review and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, Jonathan; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2015-01-01

    When subscores on a test are reported to the test taker, the appropriateness of reporting them depends on whether they provide useful information above what is provided by the total score. Subscores that fail to do so lack adequate psychometric quality and should not be reported. There are several methods for examining the quality of subscores,…

  5. Estimation and Psychometric Analysis of Component Profile Scores via Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grochowalski, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Component Universe Score Profile analysis (CUSP) is introduced in this paper as a psychometric alternative to multivariate profile analysis. The theoretical foundations of CUSP analysis are reviewed, which include multivariate generalizability theory and constrained principal components analysis. Because CUSP is a combination of generalizability…

  6. Psychometric Analysis of the Life Perspectives Inventory and Implications for Assessing Characteristics of Adolescent Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.; Bultsma, Shawn A.

    2014-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Life Perspectives Inventory (LPI-English language version), a new instrument designed to assess characteristics associated with nonreligious spirituality in high school-age adolescents, were examined in two phases. Phase 1 demonstrated the survey's factorial validity and internal consistency and the…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire for Adults and the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Isabelle; Adoul, Linda; Holl, Delphine; Kaddour, Joel; Gana, Kamel

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a French version of the Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) (Troyer & Rich, 2002). The MMQ, which is suited to clinical and research purposes, evaluates subjective memory functioning (i.e., affect related to memory abilities, frequency of problems remembering in different…

  8. Attitudes toward Violence Scale: Psychometric Properties with a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, M. Meghan; Canivez, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Youth violence represents a serious problem affecting individuals, communities, and the larger society. Greater efforts aimed at the eradication of youth violence are necessary, and work in this field could be enhanced by psychometrically strong measures. The present study examined the factor structure of the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATV)…

  9. Assessing Cultural Adaptation: Psychometric Properties of the Cultural Adaptation Pain Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores psychometric properties of the Cultural Adaptation Pain Scale designed to assess subjective pain, social distance, and discouragement that may be related to cultural adaptation. Subjects were 192 college students (53% female, 75% non-Hispanic White). Discusses implications for multicultural counseling. (SNR)

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Student Authorship Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  12. Psychometrics of a Brief Measure of Emotional Self-Efficacy among Adolescents from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preliminary data were collected to evaluate the psychometric properties of an emotional self-efficacy (ESE) measure in a sample of 3836 public high school adolescents who completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Survey in South Carolina. Methods: Principal axis factor analysis was followed by a…

  13. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of the Dutch Version of the Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire (MIPQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Katja; Kuppens, Sofie; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several instruments have been developed to measure the subjective component of the quality of life (QOL) of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). A next step, however, must be the further validation of these instruments. The present study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of one of these…

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOL-Q)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque, Cristina P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOL-Q; Quality of Life Questionnaire Manual--1993 Manual and 2004 Revision. 2004, IDS Publishing Company, Worthington, OH; Schalock & Keith 2004). Method: The analysis of the factorial structure was carried out on a sample of…

  16. The Treatment Motivation Scales for Forensic Outpatient Treatment (TMS-F): Construction and Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F) is a Dutch 85-item self-report questionnaire for the motivation of forensic outpatients to engage in their treatment and six cognitive and affective determinants of this motivation. Following descriptions of the conceptual basis and construction, the psychometric properties…

  17. A Comparison of Domain-Referenced and Classic Psychometric Test Construction Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Lee; And Others

    This study compared a domain referenced approach with a traditional psychometric approach in the construction of a test. Results of the December, 1975 Quarterly Profile Exam (QPE) administered to 400 examinees at a university were the source of data. The 400 item QPE is a five alternative multiple choice test of information a "safe" physician…

  18. Experiences with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Convergence Assessment in Two Psychometric Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing use of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for fitting statistical models in psychometrics, especially in situations where the traditional estimation techniques are very difficult to apply. One of the disadvantages of using an MCMC algorithm is that it is not straightforward to determine the convergence of the…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…

  20. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Homework Management Scale for High School Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fuyi; Xu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Homework Management Scale (HMS). The HMS was designed to assess students' homework management strategies. Based on a randomized split of 884 high school students in China, we conducted exploratory factor analysis on Group 1 (n = 442) and confirmatory factor analysis on…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Miao-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been widely used for measuring autistic characteristics in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nonetheless, its psychometric validity is yet to be justified. This study tested the factor structure of the AQ by means of principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using,…

  2. Psychometric Properties of a Youth Self-Report Measure of Neglectful Behavior by Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Howard; Villodas, Miguel T.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Pitts, Steven C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Thompson, Richard; Black, Maureen M.; Runyan, Desmond

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to empirically assess psychometric properties of a multi-dimensional youth self-report measure of neglectful behavior by parents. Method: Data were gathered from 593 12-year-old youth participating in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) consortium; 272 also had data at age 14. Youth responded…

  3. Psychometric Qualities of the UCLA Loneliness Scale-Version 3 as Applied in a Turkish Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre

    2010-01-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale-Version 3 (UCLA LS3) is the most frequently used loneliness assessment tool. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the UCLA LS3 by utilizing two separate and independent samples: Turkish university students (n = 481) and elderly (n = 284). The results demonstrate that…

  4. The Psychometric Properties of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Theresa C.; Fry, Mary D.; Little, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Given the potential benefits of understanding how climate may influence individuals' motivational outcomes, there exists a need for instrumentation measuring exercise setting climates. The purpose of this study was to validate further the psychometric properties of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (Huddleston, Fry &…

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) Using Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshouei, Mahdieh Sadat

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The CD-RISC was completed by a sample of 323 Isfahan university students (168 females, 155 males) aged 19-34 years. A maximum likelihood method with an oblique solution resulted in four factors…

  6. Classroom Community Scale in the Blended Learning Environment: A Psychometric Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Shiu, William

    2010-01-01

    The Classroom Community Scale (CCS) has been utilized in previous research to measure sense of community of learners including those learners in blended learning environments. In the current study, the CCS was examined with respect to its psychometric properties in the blended learning environment. Reliability analyses indicate an acceptable level…

  7. Measuring Gratitude in Youth: Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Adult Gratitude Scales in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Fan, Jinyan; Emmons, Robert A.; Bono, Giacomo; Huebner, E. Scott; Watkins, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Before the developmental trajectory, outcomes, and related interventions of gratitude can be accurately and confidently studied among the youth, researchers must ensure that they have psychometrically sound measures of gratitude that are suitable for this population. Thus, considering that no known scales were specifically designed to measure…

  8. Psychometric features of temporomandibular disorders patients in relation to pain diffusion, location, intensity and duration.

    PubMed

    Guarda-Nardini, L; Pavan, C; Arveda, N; Ferronato, G; Manfredini, D

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to assess the psychological profile of a sample of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to compare the psychometric scores between patients with pain of different diffusion, location, intensity and duration. One hundred and ten (N = 110) patients with painful TMD fulfilled three psychometric instruments. Pain features were assessed as categorical variables as concerns its diffusion, viz., diffuse or localised, duration, viz., more or <6 months, and location, viz., joint and/or muscles. Pain intensity was scored on a 0-100 Visual Analog Scale (VAS) rating. Patients with diffuse pain showed higher psychometric scores than patients with localised pain. No significant differences were detected between patients with pain lasting from more or equal than 6 months and those with pain lasting from <6 months as well as between patients with pain localised in the jaw muscles, joints or both, even if a trend for lower scores for patients with joint pain alone was observed. Pain intensity was significantly related with anxiety (ANX), depression (DEP) and somatisation(SOM) scores. In conclusion, pain diffusion and intensity were strongly related with high levels of SOM, ANX and DEP, while no differences in psychometric scores were detected between patients with pain of different duration and location. PMID:22631608

  9. The Development and Psychometric Assessment of the Adolescent Sexual Coercion Risk Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Elklit, Ask; Koss, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a psychometric measure of risk for sexual victimization from adolescent peers. Items were generated on the basis of the literature and on consultations with a multidisciplinary group of key informants. The items were administered to a sample of 327 female Grade-9 students and examined using exploratory…

  10. Korean Version of the Life Perspectives Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Implications for High School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Mi; Sink, Christopher A.; Cho, Han-Ik

    2011-01-01

    This psychometric study validated the "easy-to-use" Life Perspectives Inventory (LPI) for deployment with Korean high school-age students (N = 1223, ages 15-19). Using the conceptual research underpinnings derived from the positive psychology and spirituality literature, the LPI assesses qualities of nonsectarian adolescent spirituality. Item and…

  11. Psychometric Reevaluation of Parental Press for Academic Achievement and Postsecondary Planning Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Samantha; Ball, Annahita; Wilks, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychometric details of the Parental Press for Academic Achievement and Postsecondary Planning Scale (PPS), developed by Chicago Consortium of Chicago School Research, are scarce. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the properties of this 7-item measure. Method: The study utilized cross-sectional, self-reported data from 100…

  12. The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the EB Process Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyström, Siv; Åhsberg, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether the psychometric properties of the short version of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS) remain satisfactory when translated and transferred to the context of Swedish welfare services. Method: The Swedish version of EBPPAS was tested on a sample of community-based professionals in…

  13. Item-Based Psychometrics of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (PreBERS) is an assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in preschoolers with well-established reliability and validity for educational and clinical application in children with and without disabilities. The present study provides further evidence of psychometric rigor for items and…

  14. The Semistructured Interview for Consideration of Ethnic Culture in Therapy Scale: Initial Psychometric and Outcome Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Strada, Marilyn J.; Rosales, Rocio; Taylor-Caldwell, Aundrea; Hise, Dortha; Ahman, Sarah; Lefforge, Noelle L.; Kopof, Monique; Devore, Greg; Soares, Bruno; Radkovich, Ben; Laino, Rowena

    2006-01-01

    There has been recent pressure for practitioners to consider cultural variables when implementing evidence-based interventions. Therefore, the Semistructured Interview for Consideration of Ethnic Culture in Therapy Scale (SSICECTS) was empirically developed to address this issue. First, psychometric properties of a 6-item scale were evaluated in…

  15. Measuring patient engagement: development and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Scale.

    PubMed

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Lozza, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the rhetorical call for increasing patients' engagement, policy makers recognize the urgency to have an evidence-based measure of patients' engagement and capture its effect when planning and implementing initiatives aimed at sustaining the engagement of consumers in their health. In this paper, authors describe the Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-scale), a measure of patient engagement that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods. The scale was developed based on our previous conceptualization of patient engagement (the PHE-model). In particular, the items of the PHE-scale were developed based on the findings from the literature review and from interviews with chronic patients. Initial psychometric analysis was performed to pilot test a preliminary version of the items. The items were then refined and administered to a national sample of chronic patients (N = 382) to assess the measure's psychometric performance. A final phase of test-retest reliability was performed. The analysis showed that the PHE Scale has good psychometric properties with good correlation with concurrent measures and solid reliability. Having a valid and reliable measure to assess patient engagement is the first step in understanding patient engagement and its role in health care quality, outcomes, and cost containment. The PHE Scale shows a promising clinical relevance, indicating that it can be used to tailor intervention and assess changes after patient engagement interventions.

  16. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability…

  17. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Icelandic Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…

  18. Psychometric Characteristics of Single-Word Tests of Children's Speech Sound Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flipsen, Peter, Jr.; Ogiela, Diane A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our understanding of test construction has improved since the now-classic review by McCauley and Swisher (1984) . The current review article examines the psychometric characteristics of current single-word tests of speech sound production in an attempt to determine whether our tests have improved since then. It also provides a resource…

  19. Psychometric Properties of a Suicide Screen for Adjudicated Youth in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Hudson, Kenneth; Lamis, Dorian A.; Carr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to efficiently and effectively screen adjudicated youth residing within the juvenile justice system for suicide proneness. Accordingly, in the current study, the psychometric properties of the Life Attitude Schedule: Short Form (LAS:S), a 24-item risk assessment for suicide proneness, were assessed using data from adjudicated youth…

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of the Serbian Version of the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Veljko; Zuljevic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS). The research was carried out on a sample of 408 high school students (250 females, 158 males), with the mean age 16.6. The Serbian version of the MSLSS has demonstrated good psychometric…

  1. The Psychometric Properties of the Invitational School Survey (ISS): An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth H.; Barnard, John

    2004-01-01

    This study provides psychometric data on the Inviting School Survey (Purkey & Fuller, 1995) using a rating scale analysis within the framework of the Rasch measurement philosophy (Bond & Fox, 2001; Rasch, 1980). The Inviting School Survey's factor structure and internal consistency are examined and compared with the Invitational Education Model…

  2. Psychometric Reevaluation of the Women in Science Scale (WiSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Steven V.; Toepperwein, Mary Anne; Pruski, Linda A.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The Women in Science Scale (WiSS) was first developed in 1984, and is still being used in contemporary studies, yet its psychometric properties have not been evaluated with current statistical methods. In this study, the WiSS was administered in its original 27-item form to 1,439 middle and high school students. Confirmatory factor analysis based…

  3. Finding Pearls: Psychometric Reevaluation of the Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire (STAQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Steven V.; Toepperwein, Mary Anne; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Pruski, Linda A.; Grimes, Kandi

    2008-01-01

    The Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire (STAQ) was developed as part of a study to assess adolescent commitment to and achievement in science. For this psychometric reappraisal of the 57-item STAQ, data were analyzed from a convenience sample of 1,754 secondary students. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were applied, and results…

  4. Professor-Student Rapport Scale: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The original Professor-Student Rapport Scale contained 34 items and predicted several single-item student outcomes. A high level of internal consistency encouraged the development of a shorter measure in order to address apparent redundancy. Our goals in the current study were to provide psychometric data for the brief version of the scale and to…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Affect Intensity and Reactivity Measure Adapted for Youth (AIR-Y)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel E.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Reardon, Laura E.; Hawks, Erin

    2009-01-01

    A valid and reliable instrument for measuring affect intensity does not exist for adolescents; such a measure may help to refine understanding of emotion among youths. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical relevance of a measure of affect intensity adapted for youths. Two hundred five community…

  6. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Price, Lawrence H.; Larson, Michael J.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS; Goodman, Price, Rasmussen, Mazure, Delgado, et al., 1989) is acknowledged as the gold standard measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom severity. A number of areas where the Y-BOCS may benefit from revision have emerged in past psychometric studies of the Severity Scale and Symptom…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Mandarin Version of the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Norton, Samuel; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Limited studies have investigated the latent autistic traits in the mainland Chinese population for autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This study explored the psychometric properties of a Mandarin Chinese version of the CAST in a sample consisting of 737 children in mainstream schools and 50 autistic cases. A combination of categorical data factor…

  8. The Personal Wellbeing Index: Psychometric Equivalence for Adults and School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomyn, Adrian J.; Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D. Fuller; Cummins, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the wealth of accumulated research evaluating subjective wellbeing (SWB) in children and adults, the validity of scores from parallel forms of SWB measures for each age group has yet to be empirically tested. This study examines the psychometric equivalence of the child and adult forms of the personal wellbeing index (PWI) using…

  9. Psychometric Properties on Lecturers' Beliefs on Teaching Function: Rasch Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofreh, Samah Ali Mohsen; Ghafar, Mohammed Najib Abdul; Omar, Abdul Hafiz Hj; Mosaku, Monsurat; Ma'ruf, Amar

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the psychometric analysis of lecturers' beliefs on teaching function (LBTF) survey using Rasch Model analysis. The sample comprised 34 Community Colleges' lecturers. The Rasch Model is applied to produce specific measurements on the lecturers' beliefs on teaching function in order to generalize results and inferential…

  10. Measuring Implicit and Explicit Knowledge of a Second Language: A Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    A problem facing investigations of implicit and explicit learning is the lack of valid measures of second language implicit and explicit knowledge. This paper attempts to establish operational definitions of these two constructs and reports a psychometric study of a battery of tests designed to provide relatively independent measures of them.…

  11. Behavioral and Emotional Strength-Based Assessment of Finnish Elementary Students: Psychometrics of the BERS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sointu, Erkko Tapio; Savolainen, Hannu; Lambert, Matthew C.; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    When rating scales are used in different countries, thorough investigation of the psychometric properties is needed. We examined the internal structure of the Finnish translated Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2) using Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis approaches with a sample of youth, parents, and teachers. The results…

  12. Instructionally Sensitive Psychometrics: Applications to the Second International Mathematics Study. Rough Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthen, Bengt

    This paper discusses new psychometric analyses that improve capabilities for relating performance on achievement test items to instruction received by examinees. The modeling discussion is closely tied to data for eighth graders in the United States provided by the Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS), comprising not only responses to a…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task: An Italian Multicentre Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Lavinia; Del Giudice, Marco; Fossati, Andrea; Manaresi, Francesca; Perinetti, Barbara Actis; Colle, Livia; Veglia, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a multicentre study of the psychometric properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task in a sample of 230 Italian children aged 4 to 8 years. The task's internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were investigated; in addition, multiple discriminant analysis was used to explore the contribution of individual…

  14. Psychometric Characteristics of the Duke Social Support Index in a Young Rural Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale within the Greek Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Koustelios, Athanasios; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2010-01-01

    Many concerns have been raised about the validity of the existing instruments measuring teachers' efficacy. Recently, a new instrument to measure teachers' perceived efficacy has been presented, namely, the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of the TSES in the Greek…

  16. Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of a Resilience Measure in Greek Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nearchou, Finiki A.; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to adapt the Resilience Youth Development Module (RYDM) and assess its psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency and convergent validity in Greek elementary students. Participants (N = 346) completed a battery of self-report questionnaires, including the RYDM, School Connectedness Scale, and Strengths and…

  17. Existential Measurement: A Factor Analytic Study of Some Current Psychometric Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thauberger, Patrick C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Research in existentialism and ontology has given rise to several psychometric instruments. Used both exploratory and confirmatory principal-factor analyses to study relationships among 16 existential scales. Exploratory factor analysis provided some support of the theory that the avoidance of existential confrontation is a central function of…

  18. Psychometric Analysis of Critical Reading and Critical Thinking Tests--Twelfth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; And Others

    Psychometric characteristics and factor structure of the Reading Comprehension Test (CR) and the Test of Critical Thinking, Form G (CT) were studied in an effort to determine basic dimensions of critical reading and critical thinking and to discover the relationship between these two. The two tests were administered to 57 Florida high-school…

  19. Psychometrics and African-American Reality: A Question of Cultural Antimony .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Wade W.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of mental functioning is problematic, especially when Blacks are being assessed. Eurocentric paradigms and expectations are being used to assess Africentric psychology and behavior. Traditional psychometric instruments attempt to reaffirm a belief in the superiority of European culture. Scholars must search for universals in mental…

  20. Measuring the Youth Bullying Experience: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Available Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…

  1. Psychometric Testing of the Chinese Version of the Decisional Balance Scale (CDBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Huey-Shys; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chen, W. William

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct psychometric testing on the Chinese version of the decisional balance scale (CDBS) with Taiwanese seventh, eighth, and ninth graders who were recruited from the Taipei metropolitan area. A random cluster sampling method was used with 554 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Factor analysis…

  2. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  3. A tutorial on aphasia test development in any language: Key substantive and psychometric considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Maria V.; Hallowell, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a limited number of aphasia language tests in the majority of the world's commonly spoken languages. Furthermore, few aphasia tests in languages other than English have been standardized and normed, and few have supportive psychometric data pertaining to reliability and validity. The lack of standardized assessment tools across many of the world's languages poses serious challenges to clinical practice and research in aphasia. Aims The current review addresses this lack of assessment tools by providing conceptual and statistical guidance for the development of aphasia assessment tools and establishment of their psychometric properties. Main Contribution A list of aphasia tests in the 20 most widely spoken languages is included. The pitfalls of translating an existing test into a new language versus creating a new test are outlined. Factors to consider in determining test content are discussed. Further, a description of test items corresponding to different language functions is provided, with special emphasis on implementing important controls in test design. Next, a broad review of principal psychometric properties relevant to aphasia tests is presented, with specific statistical guidance for establishing psychometric properties of standardized assessment tools. Conclusions This article may be used to help guide future work on developing, standardizing and validating aphasia language tests. The considerations discussed are also applicable to the development of standardized tests of other cognitive functions. PMID:23976813

  4. Methodological and Epistemological Issues on Linear Regression Applied to Psychometric Variables in Problem Solving: Rethinking Variance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is two-fold. First, it attempts to support previous findings on the role of some psychometric variables, such as, M-capacity, the degree of field dependence-independence, logical thinking and the mobility-fixity dimension, on students' achievement in chemistry problem solving. Second, the paper aims to raise some…

  5. A Psychometric Measurement Model for Adult English Language Learners: Pearson Test of English Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply Rasch modeling to an examination of the psychometric properties of the "Pearson Test of English Academic" (PTE Academic). Analyzed were 140 test-takers' scores derived from the PTE Academic database. The mean age of the participants was 26.45 (SD = 5.82), ranging from 17 to 46. Conformity of the participants'…

  6. TH-SCORE: A Program for Obtaining Ability Estimates under Different Psychometric Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo, Urbano

    1998-01-01

    A program for obtaining ability estimates and their standard errors under a variety of psychometric models is documented. The general models considered are (1) classical test theory; (2) item factor analysis for continuous censored responses; and (3) unidimensional and multidimensional item response theory graded response models. (SLD)

  7. A Psychometric Evaluation of the SASSI-3 in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Salyers, Kathleen M.; Kotova, Ekaterina

    2005-01-01

    Although the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3; F. G. Miller & L. E. Lazowski, 1999) is widely used with college students (L. Myerholtz & H. Rosenberg, 1998), it is unclear whether the SASSI-3 is appropriate for use with this population. The authors investigated the SASSI-3's psychometric capabilities in a college student…

  8. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Kayoko C.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Using graduate social work students' data ("n" = 481) in the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) in the United States, the study examined psychometric properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz (KASW), a revision of the Facts on Aging Quiz, to evaluate biopsychosocial knowledge relevant to social…

  9. Psychometric Properties of a Korean Translation of the "Scales of Independent Behavior--Revised"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Su-Je; Paik, Eunhee; Lee, Byoung-In; Yi, Joonsuk

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric properties of data drawn from the Korean translation of the full "Scales of Independent Behavior--Revised" (SIB-R). In addition, semantic, content, conceptual, and technical equivalence are examined. The participants include 2,763 typically developing children and 406 children with intellectual disabilities…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in Cypriot Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Munoz, Luna C.

    2011-01-01

    The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a 38-item self-report questionnaire which measures symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of SCAS in a large community sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,072), aged 12-17 years, in the…

  11. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  12. Measuring Urban Teachers' Beliefs about African American Students: A Psychometric Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natesan, Prathiba; Kieftenbeld, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Understanding urban teachers' beliefs about African American students has become important because (a) many teachers are reluctant to teach students from other cultures, and (b) most teachers are European American. To construct a psychometrically sound measure of teacher beliefs, the authors investigate the measurement properties of a teacher…

  13. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Environmental School Transition Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Stephen W.; Lowe, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Environmental School Transition Anxiety Scale (E-STAS) with a sample of 220 fourth- to sixth-grade students who were about to or had completed their school transition. The results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the students' responses on the E-STAS produced…

  14. Psychometric Structure of a Comprehensive Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Factor Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin; Simon, Steven R.; Baker, Harley; Todres, I. David

    2004-01-01

    Problem Statement and Background: While the psychometric properties of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have been studied, their latent structures have not been well characterized. This study examines a factor analytic model of a comprehensive OSCE and addresses implications for measurement of clinical performance. Methods: An…

  15. The Affect and Arousal Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11…

  16. FIRO-BC Normative and Psychometric Data on 9- through 13-year-old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Stephen A.; Goggin, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the need to provide normative and psychometric data for the FIRO-BC questionnaire. Reported are the means, standard deviations, test-retest reliability coefficients, and interscale correlation coefficients. Data are reported separately for boys and girls (N=282). In addition, techniques of FIRO-BC data analyses are reviewed and…

  17. FIRO-BC normative and psychometric data on 9- through 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Burton, S A; Goggin, W C

    1984-05-01

    Study concerned principally with the need to provide normative and psychometric data for the FIRO-BC questionnaire. Reported are the means, standard deviations, test-retest reliability coefficients, and interscale correlation coefficients. Data are reported separately for boys and girls (N = 282). In addition, techniques of FIRO-BC data analyses are reviewed and alternatives are discussed.

  18. Support for Alzheimer's Caregivers: Psychometric Evaluation of Familial and Friend Support Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Information on the shortened, 20-item version of the Perceived Social Support Scale (S-PSSS) is scarce. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the S-PSSS Family (SSfa) and Friends (SSfr) subscales. Method: Because of their common coping method of social support, a cross-sectional sample of Alzheimer's…

  19. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…

  20. Measuring Attentional Ability in Older Adults: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of DriverScan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lesa; Yang, Xiangdong; Bovaird, James A.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Although deficits in visual attention are often postulated as an important component of many declines in cognitive processing and functional outcomes in older adults, surprisingly little emphasis has been placed on evaluating psychometric instruments with which individual differences in visual attention ability can be assessed. This article…

  1. The Influence of Temporal Resolution Power and Working Memory Capacity on Psychometric Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troche, Stefan J.; Rammsayer, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    According to the temporal resolution power (TRP) hypothesis, higher TRP as reflected by better performance on psychophysical timing tasks accounts for faster speed of information processing and increased efficiency of information processing leading to better performance on tests of psychometric intelligence. An alternative explanation of…

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) among Caregivers of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Rahul; Madhavan, S. Suresh; Smith, Michael J.; Tworek, Cindy; Patrick, Julie H.; Becker-Cottrill, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ) among caregivers of children with autism. The CGSQ was originally developed to assess burden experienced by parents of children and adolescents with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. Study data was collected from 304 primary…

  3. Spanish Version of the Savings Inventory-Revised: Adaptation, Psychometric Properties, and Relationship to Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Fullana, Miquel A.; Caseras, Xavier; Andion, Oscar; Torrubia, Rafael; Mataix-Cols, David

    2006-01-01

    The factor structure, psychometric properties, and relationship with personality variables of a Spanish version of the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R) are investigated in a sample of 381 undergraduate students. A maximum likelihood factor analysis suggests a three-factor structure, which is similar but not identical to that of the original…

  4. A Psychometric Study of the Infant and Toddler Intervals of the Social Emotional Assessment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Jane K.; Waddell, Misti L.; Clifford, Jantina R.; Funk, Kristin; Hoselton, Robert M.; Chen, Ching-I

    2013-01-01

    Psychometric and utility studies on Social Emotional Assessment Measure (SEAM), an innovative tool for assessing and monitoring social-emotional and behavioral development in infants and toddlers with disabilities, were conducted. The Infant and Toddler SEAM intervals were the study focus, using mixed methods, including item response theory…

  5. A Comparison of Psychometric Functions for Detection in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arehart, Kathryn Hoberg; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Psychometric functions (PFD) for the detection of pure tones were obtained from 10 adolescent and young adult listeners with normal hearing and 10 adult listeners with sensorineural impairments of presumed cochlear origin. The slopes of the PFDs were abnormally steep in some of the hearing-impaired listeners but were statistically significant only…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Texas Primary Reading Inventory for Early Reading Screening in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the kindergarten Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI; Texas Education Agency and the University of Texas System, 2004-2006) Mid-Year screeners with a sample of 180 students. The TPRI screeners were designed to determine which students are not at risk for later reading failure. Results…

  7. A Psychometric Evaluation of the CDRS and MADRS in Assessing Depressive Symptoms in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Shailesh; Carmody, Thomas J.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Hughes, Carroll; Bernstein, Ira H.; Morris, David W.; Emslie, Graham J.; Rush, A. John

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the psychometric properties of the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in children with major depressive disorder. Method: Children (N = 96; ages 8 to 11 years inclusive) with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder were enrolled. Participants…

  8. Psychometric and Evidentiary Advances, Opportunities, and Challenges for Simulation-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy

    2013-01-01

    This article characterizes the advances, opportunities, and challenges for psychometrics of simulation-based assessments through a lens that views assessment as evidentiary reasoning. Simulation-based tasks offer the prospect for student experiences that differ from traditional assessment. Such tasks may be used to support evidentiary arguments…

  9. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…

  10. Psychometric Support for the Ownership in Exercise and Empowerment in Exercise Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. Whitney G.; Fry, Mary D.

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the psychometric properties of two new scales developed to quantitatively measure participants' ownership in exercise classes and empowerment, with respect to exercise. These two outcome measures will compliment Achievement Goal Perspective Theory (AGPT) grounded research to better understand…

  11. Psychometric Qualities of the German Version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesel, Dorothee; Wessa, Michele; Flor, Herta

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the psychometric properties of the German version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS; A. Ehlers, R. Steil, H. Winter, & E. B. Foa, 1996) were evaluated in a sample of 143 trauma survivors. To investigate convergent and discriminant validity of this questionnaire, the authors assessed posttraumatic stress disorder…

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings on the psychometric properties of the FPES have been highly encouraging, only 1 previous study has examined the…

  13. Forging Harmony in the Social Organism: Industry and the Power of Psychometric Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the initiating role of the steel industry in educational selection by means of psychometric techniques used in the psycho-physiological laboratory associated with a vocational school in Luxembourg founded in 1914. It first considers the origins of, and initial meanings bestowed upon, this first (and perhaps also last)…

  14. Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

  15. A Psychometric Investigation of the Academic Self-Concept of Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Patel, Nima

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties of scores from the Academic Self-Concept Scale are examined in a group of 198 Asian American college students. Using parallel analysis, a four-factor solution accounting for 46% of the variance was found. In a test of construct validity, academic self-concept was found to be negatively related to adherence to Asian…

  16. Development of a Psychometric Typology of Child Molesters: Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville-Norden, Rebecca; Beech, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Cluster analysis of psychometric data measuring offense-specific and socioadequacy problems from a sample of 437 untreated child molesters was carried out. This analysis identified three clusters: Cluster 1 contained men who reported low levels of self-esteem and intimacy and an inability to deal with negative emotions, Cluster 2 contained men who…

  17. Stochastic and Historical Resonances of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William P., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Humphry's article, "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics," offers fundamental clarifications of measurement concepts that Fisher hopes will find a wide audience. In particular, parameterizing discrimination while preserving statistical sufficiency will indeed provide greater flexibility in accounting "for the effects of empirical…

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire with Turkish Adolescents: A Generalizability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports on the first investigation of the generalizability of the psychometric properties of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SSWQ) beyond the original development and replication studies. Previous studies tested an English version of the SSWQ with urban, mostly Black/African American, low socioeconomic status,…

  19. Comparative Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of Three Tests of Logical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlawat, Kapur S.; Billeh, Victor Y.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of the psychometric properties of three group tests of logical thinking used in science education research. Findings dealing with Longeot's Test of Logical Thinking, Lawson's Test of Formal Reasoning, and Tobin and Capie's Test of Logical Thinking demonstrate a lack of concurrent validity. Includes recommendations.…

  20. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  1. The Early Intervention Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale (EIPSES): Scale Construction and Initial Psychometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Amy B.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Lamorey, Suzanne G.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure parenting efficacy within the context of early intervention, the Early Intervention Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale (EIPSES), were explored. One hundred seventeen caregivers of children receiving early intervention services completed the 20-item EIPSES. The scale was reduced to 16…

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality in a PTSD Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Erika J.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Miller, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1996) in 280 individuals who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The SNAP validity, trait, temperament, and personality disorder (PD) scales were compared with scales on the Brief Form of the…

  4. Psychometric Profile of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Anxious, and Healthy Vietnam Veterans: Correlations with Psychophysiologic Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Scott P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Vietnam combat veterans who had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, N=25), were anxious (N=7), or were healthy (N=18) completed psychometric test battery. PTSD subjects differed significantly from healthy subjects on almost all measures but showed fewer differences from anxious subjects. Typical PTSD subject was characterized as anxious,…

  5. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansone, Stephanie M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.; Hessl, David

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3-25) with FXS using…

  6. Internet Administration of Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires Used in Couple Research: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Rebecca L.; Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Dey, Jodi; Rolffs, Jaci

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnaires assessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits,…

  7. Psychometric Analysis of a Measure of Socio-Emotional Development in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Rolf; Kimber, Birgitta; Andersson, Marie; Elg, Mattias; Fharm, Linus; Gustafsson, Niklas; Soderbaum, Wendela

    2012-01-01

    This is a psychometric analysis of an instrument to assess the socio-emotional development of school students, How I Feel (HIF), developed as a situational judgment test, with scoring based on expert judgments. The HIF test was administered in grades 4-9, 1999-2005. Internal consistency, retest reliability, and year-to-year stability were…

  8. The Importance of the Assumption of Uncorrelated Errors in Psychometric Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Patelis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    A critical discussion of the assumption of uncorrelated errors in classical psychometric theory and its applications is provided. It is pointed out that this assumption is essential for a number of fundamental results and underlies the concept of parallel tests, the Spearman-Brown's prophecy and the correction for attenuation formulas as well as…

  9. A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Psychometric Properties of Responses to the Achievement Goal Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties of scores from the Achievement Goal Questionnaire were examined in samples of Japanese (N = 326) and Canadian (N = 307) postsecondary students. Previous research found evidence of a four-factor structure of achievement goals in U.S. samples. Using confirmatory factor-analytic techniques, the authors found strong…

  10. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Parents' Proxy MPAQ-C in Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Ka Man; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Gao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We examined psychometric properties of a Modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (MPAQ-C). Thirty-two parents (Study 1), 40 students (6-9 years) and one of each student's parents (Study 2), and 625 parents (Study 3) completed the MPAQ-C. The MPAQ-C (six items) measured children's physical activity (PA) after school, and during…

  11. College Students' Perceptions of Professor/Instructor Bullying: Questionnaire Development and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marraccini, Marisa E.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Rossi, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study developed and examined the psychometric properties of a newly formed measure designed to assess professor/instructor bullying, as well as teacher bullying occurring prior to college. Additionally, prevalence of instructor bullying and characteristics related to victims of instructor bullying were examined. Participants:…

  12. Psychometric Properties of a Sleep Questionnaire for Use in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Braam, Wiebe; Collin, Philippe; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of one part of the Sleep Questionnaire developed by Simonds and Parraga (SQ-SP; 1982), a questionnaire that is frequently used to explore sleep problems and behaviors related to sleep in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). The SQ-SP was completed for 345 individuals with ID (sleep clinic n = 146;…

  13. A Canadian Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Student Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Troy; Cormier, Damien C.; Hetherington, Jay; Mrazik, Martin; Mousavi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Student Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) were examined using a sample of 404 Grade 6 students from an urban Canadian school system. Students completed the SMALSI and school factors included final school grades, attendance records, and language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  14. The Separation Anxiety Daily Diary: Child Version--Feasibility and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the feasibility and psychometric properties of the child version of the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD-C) in 125 children (ages 7-14 years) from German-speaking areas of Switzerland. Children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 58), "other" anxiety disorders (n = 36), and healthy controls (n = 31) recorded the…

  15. School Bonding in Early Adolescence: Psychometrics of the Brief Survey of School Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Weber, Judith L.; Moore, Page C.; Johnson, Danya; Williams, Ed R.; Ward, Wendy L.; Robbins, James M.; Phillips, B. Allyson

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of middle school student bonding is important for basic research and to evaluate interventions. In this study, the psychometric properties of three assessment tools found in the literature were examined individually and then combined to create a shorter survey. With minor modifications, the tools were found to be…

  16. Further Psychometric Support for the 10-Item Version of the Perceived Stress Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Harrington, Lisa N.; Storch, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Because of increased stress conditions in college students, updated psychometrics of the Perceived Stress Scale, 10-item version (PSS-10; S. Cohen & G. Williamson, 1988) are necessary. Participants were 281 undergraduates at 3 public universities. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a 2-factor structure measuring Perceived Helplessness and…

  17. The Psychometric Properties of The Religious Status Inventory--"Being Ethical" Subscale among Northern Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Mary; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2007-01-01

    There are few self-report measures of morality. The Religious Status Inventory--"Being Ethical" subscale represents one approach. However, at present there is limited information on the psychometric properties of either the original 20-item version (RSInv-20) or the shortened embedded 10-item version (RSInv-S10). The aim of the present study was…

  18. The Psychometric Properties of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in an Undergraduate Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Branch, Jessica; Hagman, Brett; Graham, Nicole; Miller, Cailey

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the psychometric properties and factor structure of the 24-item Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) were tested in a sample of 687 college students. Results support a similar 3-factor structure to that identified in samples of youths, in whom this measure was previously validated. Correlations with external…

  19. One-week temporal stability of hyperactivity in preschoolers with ADHD during psychometric assessment

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Motohide; Healey, Dione M.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the usefulness of temporal measures of motor activity during psychometric assessment on two different assessment days over a week with a scope to help identifying early onsets of hyperactivity. Methods We compared actigraph measures at the ankle and the waist on the first and the second days of psychometric assessment in a total of 169 children (93 children with ADHD and 76 children without ADHD) aged 3 years and 4 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect between group and time on the activity level at the waist. Whereas the activity levels of the waist in the children with ADHD did not significantly differ between Day 1 and Day 2, the activity levels of the children without ADHD declined significantly from Day 1 to 2. 70% of children were correctly classified into ADHD or non-ADHD groups only based on the activity data at the waist on Day 2. Conclusion These results confirm the temporal consistency of hyperactivity in young children with ADHD during psychometric assessment, and indicate that objective measures of motor activity at the waist over different days of psychometric assessment can provide additional information for the stability of hyperactivity. PMID:24552632

  20. Psychometric Properties of the "Reminiscence Functions Scale" for the Portuguese Population: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Daniela C.; Guedes, Joana Martins; Fonseca, Antonio M.; Martin, Inacio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of a version in Portuguese of the "Reminiscence Functions Scale." Total sample was composed of 628 participants aged between 18 and 92 years, divided into three groups according to their age (18-24 years, "n" = 249; 26-54 years, "n" = 174; 55 and older, "n" = 205). Results…

  1. Modeling the Development of Vocational Competence: A Psychometric Model for Economic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Viola Katharina; Winther, Esther; Festner, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development of vocational competence through economic vocational educational training (VET) from a theoretical and psychometric perspective. Most assessment and competence models tend to adopt a state perspective toward assessments of competence and carve out different structures of competence for diverse vocational…

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Exercise Identity Scale among Greek Adults and Cross-Cultural Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Kaperoni, Maria; Moustaka, Frederiki C.; Anderson, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study reported on translating the Exercise Identity Scale (EIS: Anderson & Cychosz, 1994) into Greek and examining its psychometric properties and cross-cultural validity based on U.S. individuals' EIS responses. Using four samples comprising 33, 103, and 647 Greek individuals, including exercisers and nonexercisers, and a similar…

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale with a Kindergarten Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a group-administered early literacy measure, the Mountain Shadows Phonemic Awareness Scale (MS-PAS), using a kindergarten sample (N = 213). The MS-PAS was compared to the "Test of Phonological Awareness-Second Edition: Plus" (TOPA-2+). Results indicated excellent internal consistency for the…

  4. Psychometric Challenges in Assessing English Language Learners and Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Suzanne; Leventhal, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the psychometric challenges in assessing English language learners (ELLs) and students with disabilities (SWDs). The first section addresses some general considerations in the assessment of ELLs and SWDs, including the prevalence of ELLs and SWDs in the student population, federal and state legislation that requires the…

  5. Decision-Making Theories and Career Assessment: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Decision Making Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Erin E.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2004-01-01

    To address criticisms that the empirical literature on assessment of career decision making has tended to lack a theoretical base, the present study explored the relevance of a general theory of decision making to career decision making by assessing the psychometric properties of the Decision Making Inventory (DMI), designed to measure Johnson's…

  6. Brief Report: Initial Psychometric Properties of the Everyday Discrimination Scale in Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rodney; Coleman, Apollonia P.; Novak, J. D. Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored select psychometric properties of the Everyday Discrimination Scale in 120 Black adolescents (65 males and 55 females). Youth completed the Everyday Discrimination Scale and the Child Behaviour Checklist-Youth Self-Report Form. A t-test analysis revealed that Everyday Discrimination Scale scores were not significantly different…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Social Communication Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Huang, Ya-Fen; Kao, Jen-Der; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). We assessed 736 participants (male, 80.1%) aged 2-18, who were clinically diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorders, not…

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Social Responsiveness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Liu, Li-Ting; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (Chinese SRS). We assessed 1419 grade 1 to grade 8 students from northern Taiwan and 401 clinic-based participants (aged 3-20, male 90.3%). All clinic-based participants were clinically diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs),…

  9. The Psychometric Properties of the Difficult Behavior Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to estimate the psychometric properties of Hastings and Brown's (2002a) Difficult Behavior Self-efficacy Scale. Participants were two samples of physical educators teaching in Korea (n = 229) and the United States (U.S.; n = 139). An initial translation of the questionnaire to Korean and pilot study were conducted along with…

  10. Parent Ratings of Children's Social Skills: Longitudinal Psychometric Analyses of the Social Skills Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Karlin, Emilie; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Snyder, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of children's social skills is an important task for school psychologists in both applied and research settings. The present study examines the psychometric properties of parent ratings of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), in kindergarten through third grades, testing for measurement differences between boys and girls, between…

  11. Psychometric Properties of the "Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments" with a Juvenile Justice Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Naomi E. Sevin; Romaine, Christina L. Riggs; Zelle, Heather; Kalbeitzer, Rachel; Mesiarik, Constance; Wolbransky, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the psychometric properties of the "Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments", the revised version of Grisso's "Miranda" instruments. The original instruments demonstrated good reliability and validity in a normative sample. The revised instruments updated the content of the original instruments and were administered to a…

  12. Psychometric Data for Teacher Judgments Regarding the Learning Behaviors of Primary Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Edward G.; French, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    Study analyzed the psychometric properties of the Classroom Performance Profile (CPP), a teacher rating scale, using economically-disadvantaged students as they progressed from kindergarten to third grade. Results suggest that the CPP ratings were positively correlated with measures of academic achievement, academic competence, and social skills,…

  13. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire across Task Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.

    2012-01-01

    A program of research is necessary to examine the psychometric properties of instruments designed to measure individuals' achievement goal orientations. Recently, research on achievement goal orientation has examined the stability of achievement goals to assess how context might influence individuals' achievement goals. Accordingly, studies are…

  14. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  16. Investigating Key Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurie, Robert; Sloat, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates key psychometric properties of the French Early Years Evaluation-Teacher Assessment measure designed to systematically assess kindergarten children across five social and academic developmental domains: awareness of self and environment, social skills and behaviour, cognitive abilities, language and communication, and…

  17. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Independent School Teacher Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the author examined the psychometrics of an instrument, the Independent School Teacher Development Inventory, designed to assess the professional learning opportunities in U.S. independent schools. The inventory was sent to 3,422 independent school administrators and of these, 2,474 returned completed surveys. Exploratory factor…

  18. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Dogs and WalkinG Survey (DAWGS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Elizabeth A.; McDonough, Meghan H.; Edwards, Nancy E.; Lyle, Roseann M.; Troped, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Dog owners represent 40% of the population, a promising audience to increase population levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a new instrument to assess social-cognitive theory constructs related to dog walking. Method: Dog owners ("N" = 431) completed the…

  19. Psychometric Assessment of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) among Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David S.; Sussman, Steve; Johnson, C. Anderson; Milam, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) has the longest empirical track record as a valid measure of trait mindfulness. Most of what is understood about trait mindfulness comes from administering the MAAS to relatively homogenous samples of Caucasian adults. This study rigorously evaluates the psychometric properties of the MAAS among Chinese…

  20. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns: Take One Giant Step Backwards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.

    1984-01-01

    The Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns is designed as an assessment of reading and spelling skills that allows specific diagnosis of the source and typology of reading problems. From a purely psychometric perspective, the BTRSP fails on virtually every characteristic examined. (BW)

  2. Was Pre-Modern Man a Child? The Quintessence of the Psychometric and Developmental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.

    2012-01-01

    The essay integrates the psychometric intelligence approach with the cognitive-developmental approach or the stage theory erected by Piaget and his disciples. The latter led to Piagetian Cross-Cultural Psychology and the accumulation of an immense body of data. It shows that different IQ levels are indicative of the peculiar stages of cognitive…

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of the Comprehensive Early Evaluation and Programming System (CEEPS). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bailey, Earletta

    The study examined psychometric properties of the Comprehensive Early Evaluation and Programming System (CEEPS), a criterion-referenced instrument designed for handicapped children birth to 3 years old. The instrument was intended to provide specific information to develop program objectives across a range of developmental areas and to assess…

  4. A Psychometric Assessment of the Alcohol Behavior, Attitude, and Awareness Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; And Others

    Psychometric properties of the Alcohol Behavior, Attitude, and Awareness Inventory (ABAA Inventory) were assessed using data collected in 1987 from 799 university students. Results suggested that the ABAA Inventory was internally-consistent (alpha = .82) and stable over time (test-retest coefficient = .77). Subscale alphas ranged from .45 to .92,…

  5. A Psychometric Analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist for Elementary School Children in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha; Keller, Clayton; Cloninger, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist for children 6 to 18 (CBCL/6-18) is a widely used, standardized parent rating scale. However, few studies have tested the psychometric properties of this instrument in the Arab world despite the great need for such instruments to support the identification and education of children with emotional, behavioral, and…

  6. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  7. Preliminary Psychometric Evidence of the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Fred W.; DiStefano, Christine A.; Liu, Jin; Cain, Leia K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric evidence related to the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool" form's (BESS TRS-P) ability to identify emerging problems in preschool children. Reliability and validity associated with screener scores were compared by analyzing teacher ratings of…

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the Restructured Clinical Scales of the MMPI-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Leonard J.; Casillas, Alex; Clark, Lee Anna; Watson, David; Doebbeling, Bradley N.

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual overlap and heterogeneity have long been noted as weaknesses of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory's clinical scales. Restructured clinical (RC) scales recently were developed to address these concerns (A. Tellegen et al., 2003). The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the RC scales in psychology clinic clients…

  9. Conceptualizing Sex Offender Denial from a Multifaceted Framework: Investigating the Psychometric Qualities of a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sandy; Daniels, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of a clinician-rated measure of sex offender denial. Convergent and discriminant validity for the measure was supported, and given its relationship to treatment attitudes, the measure demonstrated utility for assessing treatment change and readiness. (Contains 3 tables.)

  10. A Psychometric Revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans Using the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Wolfe, Maren M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P. H. Yang, E. C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch, 1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European American Values Scale for Asian…

  11. A Korean Language Translation of the Questions about Behavior Function: Initial Psychometric Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Dennis R.; Jang, Jina; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Jung, Woo Hyun; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the function of behavior is crucial in formulating functionally-based treatment programs for people with challenging behaviors. The Questions About Behavior Function (QABF) is a well-established instrument with sound psychometric properties. The present study describes the development process for a Korean version of the QABF. The…

  12. The Quantitative Ethology of the Zebra Finch: A Study in Comparative Psychometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative ethogram was developed for the zebra finch, using one-zero focal animal sampling on an ethologically comprehensive checklist of 52 behavioral items, and it was assessed for interobserver reliability and construct validity. Applying the quantitative methods of psychometrics allows verification of ethological theory and testing of…

  13. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the High School Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Yesim Capa; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale assessing high school students' self-efficacy beliefs in chemistry-related tasks and to assess psychometric properties of scores on this scale. A pilot study with a sample of 150 high school students provided initial evidence for two-factor structure of 16-item scale, named High School Chemistry…

  14. IQs Are Very Strong but Imperfect Indicators of Psychometric "g": Results from Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…

  15. Assessing Student Perceptions of School Victimization and School Safety: A Psychometric Assessment of Relevant Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Irina R.; Elrod, Preston

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to assess students' perceptions of victimization in their schools, as well as their schools' safety, over 1,900 students from elementary, middle, high, and alternative schools were administered a 154-item questionnaire. The responses on the items were used to establish the psychometric properties of 19 theoretically driven scales and…

  16. The Career Transition Inventory: A Psychometric Evaluation of a French Version (CTI-F)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Anne; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Heppner, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    The Career Transition Inventory (CTI) is a well-known measure for assessing perceptions of psychological resources when adults undergo a career change. The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric evaluation of a French version of the CTI (CTI-F). A total of 1,042 French volunteer participants completed the CTI-F. The procedure used…

  17. Assessing Protection from Suicidal Risk: Psychometric Properties of the Suicide Resilience Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Philip A.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Osman, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated psychometric properties of the Suicide Resilience Inventory-25 (SRI-25) in a diverse sample of 239 college students. Participants completed the SRI-25, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Confirmatory factor analysis supported…

  18. Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness: Construct Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Witte, Tracy K.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of scores derived from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) using latent variable modeling with 5 independent samples varying in age and level of psychopathology. The INQ was derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide and was developed to measure thwarted…

  19. The Psychometric Properties of the Physical Education Lesson Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Erman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Physical Education Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers (PEAS-PCT). The study was conducted on 561 Turkish preservice classroom teachers at the end of the 2011-2012 Fall Semester. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to ascertain the…

  20. Teaching Psychometrics in South Korea through a Reunification Attitude Scale Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Sandra K.

    The introduction of a team term project into a Korean psychometrics class is described. Students developed an item pool of attitude statements regarding the reunification of South Korea and North Korea. Then teams of students used the item pool to develop attitude questionnaires, survey other students, analyze the results, and recommend which…

  1. Stereotype Threat Vulnerability: A Psychometric Investigation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann V.; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale developed by Picho and Brown, which captures an individual's vulnerability to Stereotype Threat effects. Confirmatory factor analyses and group invariance tests conducted on a diverse sample of 516 college students revealed adequate reliability and…

  2. Further Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fledderus, Martine; Oude Voshaar, Martijn A. H.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2012-01-01

    The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) is a self-report measure designed to assess experiential avoidance as conceptualized in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The current study is the first to evaluate the psychometric properties of the AAQ-II in a large sample of adults (N = 376) with mild to moderate levels of depression…

  3. The Psychometric Evaluation of a Questionnaire to Measure Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Anke; Timmerman, Marieke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, there has been a development towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs in regular education. Over the past decade, this has resulted in an increased interest in attitudes towards this educational change of those directly involved. This current study aims at the development, psychometric evaluation, and…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Kirk, Emily R.; Brown, Katherine Sager; Fuller, Emily J.; Scott, Katrinda W.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric integrity of the "Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey" for college students was investigated. Two hundred and seventy-eight college students were administered a modified version of the survey (FLAPS-C). Internal consistency reliabilities, as determined by Cronbach's alpha, were 0.74, attitudes; 0.80, perceptions; and…

  5. Measuring Grief Following Miscarriage: Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Perinatal Grief Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Chung, Tony K. H.; Lee, Dominic T. S.; Kong, Grace W. S.; Lok, Ingrid H.

    2013-01-01

    Grief following miscarriage is a complex psychological response. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS). A total of 280 Chinese women completed the PGS immediately following a diagnosis of miscarriage (baseline) and were reassessed at 12 months follow-up. The factor…

  6. Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Jin, Lily; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Tang, Qinggong; Guo, Hengchang; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We observed in vivo kidney dysfunction with various ischemia times at 30, 75, 90, and 120 min using multi-modality optical imaging: optical coherence tomography (OCT), Doppler OCT (DOCT), and two-photon microscopy (TPM). We imaged the renal tubule lumens and glomerulus at several areas of each kidney before, during, and after ischemia of 5-month-old female Munich-Wistar rats. For animals with 30 and 75 min ischemia times, we observed that all areas were recovered after ischemia, that tubule lumens were re-opened and the blood flow of the glomerulus was re-established. For animals with 90 and 120 min ischemia times, we observed unrecovered areas, and that tubule lumens remained close after ischemia. TPM imaging verified the results of OCT and provided higher resolution images than OCT to visualize renal tubule lumens and glomerulus blood flow at the cellular level. PMID:27526162

  7. Multi-modality Optical Imaging of Rat Kidney Dysfunction: In Vivo Response to Various Ischemia Times.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Jin, Lily; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Tang, Qinggong; Guo, Hengchang; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We observed in vivo kidney dysfunction with various ischemia times at 30, 75, 90, and 120 min using multi-modality optical imaging: optical coherence tomography (OCT), Doppler OCT (DOCT), and two-photon microscopy (TPM). We imaged the renal tubule lumens and glomerulus at several areas of each kidney before, during, and after ischemia of 5-month-old female Munich-Wistar rats. For animals with 30 and 75 min ischemia times, we observed that all areas were recovered after ischemia, that tubule lumens were re-opened and the blood flow of the glomerulus was re-established. For animals with 90 and 120 min ischemia times, we observed unrecovered areas, and that tubule lumens remained close after ischemia. TPM imaging verified the results of OCT and provided higher resolution images than OCT to visualize renal tubule lumens and glomerulus blood flow at the cellular level.

  8. Chronic mesenteric ischemia: efficacy and outcome of endovascular therapy.

    PubMed

    Loffroy, Romaric; Guiu, Boris; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Krausé, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia is a rare condition caused by occlusive disease of the mesenteric vessels and manifested most commonly as abdominal pain. While the traditional therapy in symptomatic patients has been surgery, recent improvements in interventional devices and refinement in techniques have increased the popularity of endovascular treatment. The high procedural success and the low complication rate make the catheter-based approach an interesting alternative to surgery. Percutaneous angioplasty and stenting is now recognized as a minimally invasive means of obtaining good long-term results and is consequently suggested for the primary treatment of chronic mesenteric ischemia. This article presents a review of the literature on indications and technical aspects of endovascular treatment, with emphasis on short- and long-term outcomes.

  9. Achieving zero ischemia in minimally invasive partial nephrectomy surgery.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weibin; Ji, Zhigang

    2015-06-01

    Widespread application of the minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN) techniques like laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy, has been limited by concerns about prolonged warm ischemia. So techniques aiming at performing have been actively explored. A systemic review of literatures on the MIPN without hilar clamping was performed and related methods were summarized. There are mainly seven methods including selective/segmental renal artery clamping technique, selective renal parenchymal clamping technique, targeted renal blood flow interruption technique, laser supported MIPN, radio frequency assisted MIPN, hydro-jet assisted MIPN, and sequential preplaced suture renorrhaphy technique that have been undergoing enthusiastic investigation for achieving MINP without hilar clamping. All of these emerging techniques represent the exploring work to achieve a zero ischemia MIPN for small renal tumors of different characteristics. Though not perfect for any of the technique, they deserve a further assessment during their future experimental and clinical applications.

  10. One of the most urgent vascular circumstances: Acute limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Muslum; Kirma, Cevat

    2013-01-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a sudden decrease in limb perfusion that threatens limb viability and requires urgent evaluation and management. Most of the causes of acute limb ischemia are thrombosis of a limb artery or bypass graft, embolism from the heart or a disease artery, dissection, and trauma. Assessment determines whether the limb is viable or irreversibly damaged. Prompt diagnosis and revascularization by means of catheter-based thrombolysis or thrombectomy and by surgery reduce the risk of limb loss and mortality. Amputation is performed in patients with irreversible damage. Despite urgent revascularization, amputation rate is 10%–15% in patients during hospitalization, mostly above the knee, and mortality within 1 year is 10%–15% due to the coexisting conditions. PMID:26770694

  11. Angiogenic response following renal ischemia reperfusion injury: new players.

    PubMed

    Pallet, N; Thervet, E; Timsit, M-O

    2014-06-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury can negatively influence the short- and long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation because it promotes acute tubular necrosis and tissue scarring and activates innate alloimmunity. The adaptive responses to IR are centrally involved in reducing tissue damage but can also be deleterious when they activate programmed cell death and inflammation. The HIF-1α-mediated angiogenic responses following IR at early and late stages are complex and poorly understood. The early stages of IR seem to be associated with an antiangiogenic response, whereas the hypoxia that follows IR at later stages may activate angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and may be beneficial by stabilizing the microvasculature and favoring local blood supply. In addition to HIF-1α, new players in angiogenesis, including mTOR and the unfolded protein response, may lead to innovative therapeutic strategies for treating patients with ischemia- and reperfusion-associated tissue inflammation and organ dysfunction. PMID:24950928

  12. Mapping tissue chromophore changes in cerebral ischemia: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Mathews, Marlon S.; Lay, Christopher; Cuccia, David J.; Frostig, Ron D.; Linskey, Mark E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2007-02-01

    We describe the projection of spatially modulated light for quantitatively mapping changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and oxygen saturation in two pilot studies in the rat barrel cortex during both permanent and temporary cerebral ischemia. The approach is based on the projection of spatial modulation of white light onto the brain. The reflected light is captured on a CCD camera, which is then processed to obtain the concentration and distribution of chromophores over a wide field. Preliminary results confirm a measurable and quantifiable increase in tissue molecular concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin and decrease in hemoglobin oxygen concentration in both experimental settings. Our preliminary data from our pilot studies demonstrate that spatial modulation of light can provide quantitative chromophore mapping of the brain and has a potential role in monitoring the course and severity of cerebral ischemia in cerebrovascular disease patients.

  13. Progressive multicystic encephalopathy: is there more than hypoxia-ischemia?

    PubMed

    Garten, Lars; Hueseman, Dieter; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Weizsaecker, Katharina; Scheer, Ianina; Boltshauser, Eugen; Obladen, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Progressive multicystic encephalopathy following prenatal or perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a well-described phenomenon in the literature. The authors report on a term infant with a devastating encephalopathy and severe neuronal dysfunction immediately after delivery without a known antecedent of prenatal or perinatal hypoxia or distress. Clinical and paraclinical findings in the patient are compared with those described in the literature. The authors focus on the specific results guiding to the final diagnosis of progressive multicystic encephalopathy and the timing of morphologic changes. As in this case, if the criteria of an acute hypoxic event sufficient to cause neonatal encephalopathy are not met, then factors other than hypoxia-ischemia may be leading to progressive multicystic encephalopathy.

  14. Alzheimer disease: primary ischemia concept and promising therapy.

    PubMed

    Niedermeyer, E; Mazza, M; Mazza, S

    2008-01-01

    The important role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in Alzheimer disease (AD) has been increasingly recognized in recent years. An abundance of data (The Rotterdam Study, see text) has shown the decline of CBF velocity with transcranial Doppler, confirming earlier data obtained with the xenon133 method. In spite of these data, AD is still considered a neurodegenerative disorder with secondary CBF changes. This work is a critical evaluation of earlier literature because of cogent reasons for the adoption of a new concept of AD as a primary ischemic disorder. Reports of lacking correlation between severity of CBF defi cit and degree of tissue damage or clinical fi ndings serve as evidence for primary ischemia because of the incompatibility with the concept of secondary ischemia.The CBF defi cit is thought to be due to the human upright gait in here dopredisposed individuals. As to therapy and prevention, a very simple, cheap and promising treatment is suggested (head-down-therapy).

  15. Three-Dimensional Paper-Based Model for Cardiac Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Dabiri, Borna E.; Lockett, Matthew R.; Derda, Ratmir; Campbell, Patrick; Parker, Kevin Kit; Whitesides, George M.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro models of ischemia have not historically recapitulated the cellular interactions and gradients of molecules that occur in a 3D tissue. This work demonstrates a paper-based 3D culture system that mimics some of the interactions that occur among populations of cells in the heart during ischemia. Multiple layers of paper containing cells, suspended in hydrogels, are stacked to form a layered 3D model of a tissue. Mass transport of oxygen and glucose into this 3D system can be modulated to induce an ischemic environment in the bottom layers of the stack. This ischemic stress induces cardiomyocytes at the bottom of the stack to secrete chemokines that subsequently trigger fibroblasts residing in adjacent layers to migrate toward the ischemic region. This work demonstrates the usefulness of patterned, stacked paper for performing in vitro mechanistic studies of cellular motility and viability within a model of the laminar ventricle tissue of the heart. PMID:24574054

  16. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-1α and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  17. Placental ischemia induces changes in gene expression in chorionic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Michael R.; Granger, Joey P.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious and common hypertensive complication of pregnancy, affecting ~5 to 8 % of pregnancies. The underlying cause of preeclampsia is believed to be placental ischemia, which causes secretion of pathogenic factors into the maternal circulation. While a number of these factors have been identified, it is likely that others remain to be elucidated. Here, we have utilized a relevant preclinical rodent model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension, the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model, to determine the effect of chronic placental ischemia on the underlying chorionic tissue and placental villi. Tissue from control and RUPP rats were isolated on gestational day 19 and mRNA from these tissues was subjected to microarray analysis to determine differential gene expression. At a statistical cutoff of p <0.05, some 2,557 genes were differentially regulated between the two groups. Interestingly, only a small subset (22) of these genes exhibited changes of greater than 50 % versus control, a large proportion of which were subsequently confirmed using qRT-PCR analysis. Network analysis indicated a strong effect on inflammatory pathways, including those involving NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. Of the most differentially expressed genes, the predominant gene classes were extracellular remodeling proteins, pro-inflammatory proteins, and a coordinated upregulation of the prolactin genes. The functional implications of these novel factors are discussed. PMID:24668059

  18. Functional muscle ischemia in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) comprise a spectrum of devastating X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. DMD/BMD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that stabilizes the muscle membrane and also targets other proteins to the sarcolemma. Among these is the muscle-specific isoform of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ) which binds spectrin-like repeats within dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin. Dystrophin deficiency causes loss of sarcolemmal nNOSμ and reduces paracrine signaling of muscle-derived nitric oxide (NO) to the microvasculature, which renders the diseased muscle fibers susceptible to functional muscle ischemia during exercise. Repeated bouts of functional ischemia superimposed on muscle fibers already weakened by dystrophin deficiency result in use-dependent focal muscle injury. Genetic and pharmacologic strategies to boost nNOSμ-NO signaling in dystrophic muscle alleviate functional muscle ischemia and show promise as novel therapeutic interventions for the treatment of DMD/BMD. PMID:24391598

  19. Transluminal coronary angioplasty in the treatment of silent ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, P.; Myler, R.K.; Shaw, R.E.; Stertzer, S.H.; Clark, D.A.; Ryan, C.; Murphy, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-four asymptomatic patients with positive thallium exercise tests underwent coronary angiography followed by coronary angioplasty (PTCA), as the primary therapy for silent ischemia. The procedure was technically successful in 89% of these patients. Emergency bypass graft surgery was necessary in 2 (3.6%) and q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 1 (1.8%) of these. All fifty-four patients have been followed for a mean of 35 months since angioplasty. Of the 48 patients with initially successful PTCA, 12 had either clinical restenosis (9/14 or 19%) or a new lesion (3/48 or 6%) during follow-up, which required a repeat PTCA. At the longest follow-up, 46 (85%) had been successfully treated with on or more PTCA procedures. Two patients (3.6%) had sustained late q-wave myocardial infarction and two additional patients reported angina pectoris. There were no deaths. Angioplasty as a primary therapy for silent ischemia appears efficacious, with success and restenosis rates comparable to those in the symptomatic population. Event-free survival is improved, compared with natural history data for patients with silent ischemia from other studies. Prudent risk/benefit analysis may help to define subgroups most likely to benefit from this intervention.

  20. [Perioperative myocardial ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive diseases].

    PubMed

    Rapp, H J; Buselmeier, P; Gasteiger, P; Hoberg, E; Striebel, J P

    1990-04-01

    Patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) often have coronary artery disease (CAD) which means an increased risk during anesthesia. The prevalence of CAD is nearly 50% among such patients. Owing to claudication, diagnostic stress tests can rarely be performed in PVD patients. In order to evaluate the frequency of transient perioperative myocardial ischemia, Holter monitoring was performed in 30 consecutive PVD patients with ASA II-III and AVK scale (Fontaine) II-IV who were undergoing femoropopliteal bypass surgery. Patients who had left bundle branch block and left ventricular hypertrophy or were taking digitalis medication were excluded from Holter monitoring. The ST-segment analysis of the frequency modulated recordings (n = 19) revealed episodes of myocardial ischemia in 26% of the patients. Most (75%) of the episodes occurred preoperatively, and 25%, during or after the anesthesia or during preparation for it. Risk factors for CAD were more often found in patients with ST segment alterations than in patients without ST segment deviations, even though the preoperative antianginal medication administered was comparable in the two subgroups. It is concluded that in a considerable subset of PVD patients silent myocardial ischemia occurs, which can be related to the different perioperative intervals by means of ST segment analyses of Holter recordings. The ST segment may allow a better insight into the cardiac state of PVD patients. Further studies are necessary in larger populations to test our suspicion.