Science.gov

Sample records for ischemia research group

  1. Perioperative sympatholysis. Beneficial effects of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist mivazerol on hemodynamic stability and myocardial ischemia. McSPI--Europe Research Group.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    Mivazerol hydrochloride is a new alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated both sympatholytic and antiischemic properties. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of mivazerol in patients during perioperative stress, this multicenter phase II clinical trial studied hemodynamic stability and myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. Three hundred patients, from twenty-three European medical institutions, participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group trial. Ninety-eight were given high-dose mivazerol (1.5 micrograms.kg-1.h-1); 99, low-dose mivazerol (0.75 microgram.kg-1.h-1); and 103, placebo, continuously intraoperatively and for 72 h postoperatively. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored for 96 h. Myocardial ischemia was assessed by Holter electrocardiography for at least 8 h before induction of anesthesia until 96 h after surgery. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms and creatine kinase myocardial band isoenzyme levels were obtained before and serially after surgery. Adverse cardiac events were assessed for the intraoperative, early postoperative (0-24 h), and late postoperative (24-72 h) periods. The incidence of tachycardia was significantly lower with high-dose mivazerol (vs. placebo) during the intraoperative (30% vs. 51%; P = 0.002), early postoperative (29% vs. 50%; P = 0.002), and late postoperative periods (46% vs. 70%; P = 0.001). Also, the percentage of patients treated for tachycardia was significantly lower with the high dose (vs. placebo) during the early (10% vs. 20%; P = 0.043) and late (6% vs. 15%; P = 0.024) postoperative periods. The incidence of hypertension was significantly lower with both high and low doses (vs. placebo) during the intraoperative period (46% and 43%, respectively, vs. 63%; P = 0.010); treatment was similar at both high and low doses (33% and 34%, respectively, vs. 46%; P = 0.066). The incidence of bradycardia

  2. Definition of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as an outcome event in clinical trials and observational studies: proposal of a multidisciplinary research group.

    PubMed

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Wijdicks, Eelco F; Muizelaar, J Paul; Mendelow, A David; Juvela, Seppo; Yonas, Howard; Terbrugge, Karel G; Macdonald, R Loch; Diringer, Michael N; Broderick, Joseph P; Dreier, Jens P; Roos, Yvo B W E M

    2010-10-01

    In clinical trials and observational studies there is considerable inconsistency in the use of definitions to describe delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A major cause for this inconsistency is the combining of radiographic evidence of vasospasm with clinical features of cerebral ischemia, although multiple factors may contribute to DCI. The second issue is the variability and overlap of terms used to describe each phenomenon. This makes comparisons among studies difficult. An international ad hoc panel of experts involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage research developed and proposed a definition of DCI to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies. We used a consensus-building approach. It is proposed that in observational studies and clinical trials aiming to investigate strategies to prevent DCI, the 2 main outcome measures should be: (1) cerebral infarction identified on CT or MRI or proven at autopsy, after exclusion of procedure-related infarctions; and (2) functional outcome. Secondary outcome measure should be clinical deterioration caused by DCI, after exclusion of other potential causes of clinical deterioration. Vasospasm on angiography or transcranial Doppler can also be used as an outcome measure to investigate proof of concept but should be interpreted in conjunction with DCI or functional outcome. The proposed measures reflect the most relevant morphological and clinical features of DCI without regard to pathogenesis to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies.

  3. Dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test. A reexamination of its predictive potential. Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Mangano, D.T.; London, M.J.; Tubau, J.F.; Browner, W.S.; Hollenberg, M.; Krupski, W.; Layug, E.L.; Massie, B. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors examined the value of dipyridamole thallium-201 (201Tl) scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test for perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. They prospectively studied 60 patients undergoing elective vascular surgery. They performed 201Tl scintigraphy preoperatively and blinded all treating physicians to the results. Historical, clinical, laboratory, and physiological data were gathered throughout hospitalization. Myocardial ischemia was assessed during the intraoperative period using continuous 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and during the postoperative period using continuous two-lead ambulatory ECG. Adverse cardiac outcomes (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, severe ischemia, or congestive heart failure) were assessed daily throughout hospitalization. Twenty-two patients (37%) had defects that improved or reversed on delayed scintigrams (redistribution defects), 18 (30%) had persistent defects, and 20 (33%) had no defects on 201Tl scintigraphy. There was no association between redistribution defects and adverse cardiac outcomes: 54% (seven of 13) of adverse outcomes occurred in patients without redistribution defects, and the risk of an adverse outcome was not significantly increased in patients with redistribution defects. Consistent with these findings, there was also no association between redistribution defects and perioperative ischemia: 54% (19 of all 35) of perioperative ECG and TEE ischemic episodes and 58% (14 of 24) of severe ischemic episodes occurred in patients without redistribution defects. The sensitivity of 201Tl scintigraphy for perioperative ischemia and adverse outcomes ranged from 40% to 54%, specificity from 65% to 71%, positive predictive value from 27% to 47% and negative predictive value from 61% to 82%.

  4. Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Suk Ho; Kim, Min; Kwon, Oh Woong

    "Ischemia" implies a tissue damage derived from perfusion insufficiency, not just an inadequate blood supply. Mild thickening and increased reflectivity of inner retina and prominent inner part of synaptic portion of outer plexiform layer are "acute retinal ischemic changes" visible on OCT. Over time, retina becomes thinner, especially in the inner portion. Choroidal perfusion supplies the outer portion of retina; thus, choroidal ischemia causes predominant change in the corresponding tissue.

  5. An Evidence-Based Review of Related Metabolites and Metabolic Network Research on Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengting; Tang, Liying; Liu, Xin; Fang, Jing; Zhan, Hao; Wu, Hongwei; Yang, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, metabolomics analyses have been widely applied to cerebral ischemia research. This paper introduces the latest proceedings of metabolomics research on cerebral ischemia. The main techniques, models, animals, and biomarkers of cerebral ischemia will be discussed. With analysis help from the MBRole website and the KEGG database, the altered metabolites in rat cerebral ischemia were used for metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. Our results identify the main metabolic pathways that are related to cerebral ischemia and further construct a metabolic network. These results will provide useful information for elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, as well as the discovery of cerebral ischemia biomarkers. PMID:27274780

  6. Tumor Cold Ischemia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  7. Tumor Cold Ischemia | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  8. Focus group research.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Michael

    2015-05-13

    A focus group is usually understood as a group of people brought together by a researcher to interact as a group. Focus group research explicitly uses interaction as part of its methodology. This article summarises the practice of running focus groups, explores the nature of focus group data and provides an example of focus group analysis.

  9. Small Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  10. Animal models of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury: progress and promise for translational research.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Liara M; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2015-01-15

    Research in the field of ischemia-reperfusion injury continues to be plagued by the inability to translate research findings to clinically useful therapies. This may in part relate to the complexity of disease processes that result in intestinal ischemia but may also result from inappropriate research model selection. Research animal models have been integral to the study of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury. However, the clinical conditions that compromise intestinal blood flow in clinical patients ranges widely from primary intestinal disease to processes secondary to distant organ failure and generalized systemic disease. Thus models that closely resemble human pathology in clinical conditions as disparate as volvulus, shock, and necrotizing enterocolitis are likely to give the greatest opportunity to understand mechanisms of ischemia that may ultimately translate to patient care. Furthermore, conditions that result in varying levels of ischemia may be further complicated by the reperfusion of blood to tissues that, in some cases, further exacerbates injury. This review assesses animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the knowledge that has been derived from each to aid selection of appropriate research models. In addition, a discussion of the future of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion research is provided to place some context on the areas likely to provide the greatest benefit from continued research of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. National Melon Research Group

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  12. A novel laser-Doppler flowmetry assisted murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion for free flap research.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Al-Sawaf, Othman; Brandacher, Gerald; Kanzler, Isabella; Tuchscheerer, Nancy; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Kanatas, Anastasios; Knobe, Matthias; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Tolba, René; Mitchell, David; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan; Hölzle, Frank; Liehn, Elisa Anamaria

    2013-01-01

    Suitable and reproducible experimental models of translational research in reconstructive surgery that allow in-vivo investigation of diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms are still limited. To this end we created a novel murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion to mimic a microsurgical free flap procedure. Thirty-six C57BL6 mice (n = 6/group) were assigned to one control and five experimental groups (subject to 6, 12, 96, 120 hours and 14 days of reperfusion, respectively) following 4 hours of complete hindlimb ischemia. Ischemia and reperfusion were monitored using Laser-Doppler Flowmetry. Hindlimb tissue components (skin and muscle) were investigated using histopathology, quantitative immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Despite massive initial tissue damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, the structure of the skin component was restored after 96 hours. During the same time, muscle cells were replaced by young myotubes. In addition, initial neuromuscular dysfunction, edema and swelling resolved by day 4. After two weeks, no functional or neuromuscular deficits were detectable. Furthermore, upregulation of VEGF and tissue infiltration with CD34-positive stem cells led to new capillary formation, which peaked with significantly higher values after two weeks. These data indicate that our model is suitable to investigate cellular and molecular tissue alterations from ischemia-reperfusion such as occur during free flap procedures.

  13. Increased acetyl group availability enhances contractile function of canine skeletal muscle during ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, J A; Poucher, S M; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Worrall, V; Macdonald, I A; Greenhaff, P L

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile function is impaired during acute ischemia such as that experienced by peripheral vascular disease patients. We therefore, examined the effects of dichloroacetate, which can alter resting metabolism, on canine gracilis muscle contractile function during constant flow ischemia. Pretreatment with dichloroacetate increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and resting acetylcarnitine concentration by approximately 4- and approximately 10-fold, respectively. After 20-min contraction the control group had demonstrated an approximately 40% reduction in isomeric tension whereas the dichloroacetate group had fatigued by approximately 25% (P < 0.05). Dichloroacetate resulted in less lactate accumulation (10.3 +/- 3.0 vs 58.9 +/- 10.5 mmol.kg-1 dry muscle [dm], P < 0.05) and phosphocreatine hydrolysis (15.6 +/- 6.3 vs 33.8 +/- 9.0 mmol.kg-1 dm, P < 0.05) during contraction. Acetylcarnitine concentration fell during contraction by 5.4 +/- 1.8 mmol.kg-1 dm in the dichloroacetate group but increased by 10.0 +/- 1.9 mmol.kg-1 dm in the control group. In conclusion, dichloroacetate enhanced contractile function during ischemia, independently of blood flow, such that it appears oxidative ATP regeneration is limited by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and acetyl group availability. PMID:8609248

  14. High-Mobility Group Box-1 Protein Promotes Angiogenesis After Peripheral Ischemia in Diabetic Mice Through a VEGF-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Biscetti, Federico; Straface, Giuseppe; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Lancellotti, Stefano; Rizzo, Paola; Arena, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Egidio; Pecorini, Giovanni; Egashira, Kensuke; De Angelis, Giulia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Flex, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is a nuclear DNA-binding protein released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses and promoting tissue repair and angiogenesis. Diabetic human and mouse tissues contain lower levels of HMGB1 than their normoglycemic counterparts. Deficient angiogenesis after ischemia contributes to worse outcomes of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes. To test the hypothesis that HMGB1 enhances ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetes, we administered HMGB1 protein in a mouse hind limb ischemia model using diabetic mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin, we studied ischemia-induced neovascularization in the ischemic hind limb of normoglycemic, diabetic, and HMGB1-treated diabetic mice. RESULTS We found that the perfusion recovery was significantly attenuated in diabetic mice compared with normoglycemic control mice. Interestingly, HMGB1 protein expression was lower in the ischemic tissue of diabetic mice than in normoglycemic mice. Furthermore, we observed that HMGB1 administration restored the blood flow recovery and capillary density in the ischemic muscle of diabetic mice, that this process was associated with the increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and that HMGB1-induced angiogenesis was significantly reduced by inhibiting VEGF activity. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study show that endogenous HMGB1 is crucial for ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice and that HMGB1 protein administration enhances collateral blood flow in the ischemic hind limbs of diabetic mice through a VEGF-dependent mechanism. PMID:20200317

  15. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  16. Group Designs in Clinical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Gerald M.; Young, Martin A.

    1987-01-01

    Despite the similarity between single-subject research sessions and clinical sessions, single-subject research designs are not intrinsically more appropriate than group designs for clinical research concerning the communication disordered. (Author/CB)

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia: A research report.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luis Gustavo Campos; Dalio, Marcelo Bellini; Joviliano, Edwaldo Edner; Feres, Omar; Piccinato, Carlos Eli

    2015-01-01

    Determine the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in skeletal muscle of rats submitted to total acute left hindlimb ischemia. An experimental study was designed using 48 Wistar rats divided into four groups (n = 12): Control; Ischemia (I)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes; Hyperbaric oxygen treatment during ischemia (HBO2)--total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes and hyperbaric oxygen during the first 90 minutes; Pre-treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (PHBO2)--90 minutes of hyperbaric oxygen treatment before total hindlimb ischemia for 270 minutes. Skeletal muscle injury was evaluated by measuring levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK); muscular malondialdehyde (MDA), muscular glycogen, and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA). AST was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2 compared with control (P = .001). There was no difference in LDH. CPK was significantly higher in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p = .014). MDA was significantly higher in PHBO2, compared with other groups (p = .042). Glycogen was significantly decreased in I, HBO2 and PHBO2, compared with control (p < .001). Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in acute total hindlimb ischemia exerted no protective effect on muscle injury, regardless of time of application. When applied prior to installation of total ischemia, hyperbaric oxygen treatment aggravated muscle injury.

  18. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  19. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  20. High-mobility group box-1 in ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart.

    PubMed

    Andrassy, Martin; Volz, Hans C; Igwe, John C; Funke, Benjamin; Eichberger, Sebastian N; Kaya, Ziya; Buss, Sebastian; Autschbach, Frank; Pleger, Sven T; Lukic, Ivan K; Bea, Florian; Hardt, Stefan E; Humpert, Per M; Bianchi, Marco E; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Nawroth, Peter P; Remppis, Andrew; Katus, Hugo A; Bierhaus, Angelika

    2008-06-24

    High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor released by necrotic cells and by activated immune cells. HMGB1 signals via members of the toll-like receptor family and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Although HMGB1 has been implicated in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the liver and lung, its role in I/R injury of the heart remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HMGB1 acts as an early mediator of inflammation and organ damage in I/R injury of the heart. HMGB1 levels were already elevated 30 minutes after hypoxia in vitro and in ischemic injury of the heart in vivo. Treatment of mice with recombinant HMGB1 worsened I/R injury, whereas treatment with HMGB1 box A significantly reduced infarct size and markers of tissue damage. In addition, HMGB1 inhibition with recombinant HMGB1 box A suggested an involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinases jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, as well as the nuclear transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB in I/R injury. Interestingly, infarct size and markers of tissue damage were not affected by administration of recombinant HMGB1 or HMGB1 antagonists in RAGE(-/-) mice, which demonstrated significantly reduced damage in reperfused hearts compared with wild-type mice. Coincubation studies using recombinant HMGB1 in vitro induced an inflammatory response in isolated macrophages from wild-type mice but not in macrophages from RAGE(-/-) mice. HMGB1 plays a major role in the early event of I/R injury by binding to RAGE, resulting in the activation of proinflammatory pathways and enhanced myocardial injury. Therefore, blockage of HMGB1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy in I/R injury.

  1. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  2. Identification of Proteins Interacting with Cytoplasmic High-Mobility Group Box 1 during the Hepatocellular Response to Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianjiao; Wei, Weiwei; Dirsch, Olaf; Krüger, Thomas; Kan, Chunyi; Xie, Chichi; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Fang, Haoshu; Settmacher, Utz; Dahmen, Uta

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs inevitably in liver transplantations and frequently during major resections, and can lead to liver dysfunction as well as systemic disorders. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a pathogenic role in hepatic IRI. In the normal liver, HMGB1 is located in the nucleus of hepatocytes; after ischemia reperfusion, it translocates to the cytoplasm and it is further released to the extracellular space. Unlike the well-explored functions of nuclear and extracellular HMGB1, the role of cytoplasmic HMGB1 in hepatic IRI remains elusive. We hypothesized that cytoplasmic HMGB1 interacts with binding proteins involved in the hepatocellular response to IRI. In this study, binding proteins of cytoplasmic HMGB1 during hepatic IRI were identified. Liver tissues from rats with warm ischemia reperfusion (WI/R) injury and from normal rats were subjected to cytoplasmic protein extraction. Co-immunoprecipitation using these protein extracts was performed to enrich HMGB1-protein complexes. To separate and identify the immunoprecipitated proteins in eluates, 2-dimensional electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry detection were performed. Two of the identified proteins were verified using Western blotting: betaine–homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH). Therefore, our results revealed the binding of HMGB1 to BHMT and CTH in cytoplasm during hepatic WI/R. This finding may help to better understand the cellular response to IRI in the liver and to identify novel molecular targets for reducing ischemic injury. PMID:28275217

  3. Geranylgeranylacetone protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by inhibiting high-mobility group box 1 protein in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng; Min, Xinwen; Li, Dongfeng; He, Peigen; Zhao, Libin

    2012-02-01

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein plays an important role in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a heat shock protein 72 inducer, has been reported to reduce myocardial I/R injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective mechanism of GGA during myocardial I/R injury in rats. Anesthetized male rats were treated once with GGA (200 mg/kg, p.o.) 24 h before ischemia, and subjected to ischemia for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 4 h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and infarct size were measured. HMGB1 expression was assessed by immunoblotting. The results showed that pre-treatment with GGA (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct size and the levels of LDH and CK after 4 h of reperfusion (all P<0.05). GGA also significantly inhibited the increase in MDA levels and the decrease in SOD levels (both P<0.05). Meanwhile, GGA considerably suppressed the expression of HMGB1 induced by I/R. The present study suggests that GGA is capable of attenuating myocardial I/R injury by inhibiting HMGB1 expression.

  4. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  5. Effects of various timings and concentrations of inhaled nitric oxide in lung ischemia-reperfusion. The Paris-Sud University Lung Transplantation Group.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Bacha, E A; Mazmanian, G M; Détruit, H; Chapelier, A; Dartevelle, P; Hervé, P

    1997-08-01

    Experimental studies reveal that inhaled nitric oxide (NO) can prevent, worsen, or have no effect on lung injury in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). We tested the hypothesis that these disparate effects could be related to differences in the timing of administration and/or concentration of inhaled NO during I-R. Isolated rat lungs were subjected to 1-h periods of ischemia followed by 1-h periods of blood reperfusion. We investigated the effects of NO (30 ppm) given during ischemia, NO (30 or 80 ppm) begun immediately at reperfusion, or NO (30 ppm) given 15 min after the beginning of reperfusion, on total pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), the coefficient of filtration (Kfc), the lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of lung tissue, and lung myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). A control group did not receive NO. NO given during ischemia had no effect on Kfc or MPO, but decreased PVR. NO (30 ppm) during reperfusion (early or delayed) decreased PVR, W/D, Kfc and MPO. NO at 80 ppm decreased PVR and MPO but not W/D or Kfc. In conclusion, NO at 30 ppm, given immediately or in a delayed fashion during reperfusion, attenuates I-R-induced lung injury. NO at 30 ppm given during ischemia or at 80 ppm during reperfusion is not protective.

  6. Genistein exerts neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Alacam, Hasan; Kalkan, Yildiray; Silan, Coskun; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Brain ischemia and treatment are one of the important topics in neurological science. Free oxygen radicals and inflammation formed after ischemia are accepted as the most important causes of damage. Currently, there are studies on many chemopreventive agents to prevent cerebral ischemia damage. Our aim is to research the preventive effect of the active ingredient in genistein, previously unstudied, on oxidative damage in cerebral ischemia. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), ischemia group, and artery ischemia+genistein group, sacrificed at 24 h after ischemia. The harvested brain tissue from the right hemisphere was investigated histopathologically and for tissue biochemistry. Superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor 1 values decreased after ischemia and they increased after genistein treatment, while increased malondialdehyde levels after ischemia reduced after treatment. Apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase caspase-3 and caspase-9 values increased after ischemia, but reduced after treatment. Our study revealed that genistein treatment in cerebral ischemia reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration. We believe that genistein treatment may be an alternative treatment method.

  7. Virology Interest Group | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Virology Interest Group comprises researchers at NIH and in the local area who are interested in virology. The group organizes activities designed to promote interactions and exchange of information.

  8. Multilevel Modeling for Research in Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, James P.; Trott, Arianna; Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in group counseling often encounter complex data from individual clients who are members of a group. Clients in the same group may be more similar than clients from different groups and this can lead to violations of statistical assumptions. The complexity of the data also means that predictors and outcomes can be measured at both the…

  9. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  10. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  11. Mixed Methodology in Group Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannonhouse, Laura R.; Barden, Sejal M.; McDonald, C. Peeper

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is a useful paradigm for group work as it allows exploration of both participant outcomes and "how" or "why" such changes occur. Unfortunately, the group counseling literature is not replete with MMR studies. This article reviews the application of MMR to group contexts and summarizes the corpus of…

  12. Mixed Methodology in Group Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannonhouse, Laura R.; Barden, Sejal M.; McDonald, C. Peeper

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is a useful paradigm for group work as it allows exploration of both participant outcomes and "how" or "why" such changes occur. Unfortunately, the group counseling literature is not replete with MMR studies. This article reviews the application of MMR to group contexts and summarizes the corpus of…

  13. Learning from Older Citizens' Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn-Giddings, Carol; McVicar, Andy; Boyce, Melanie; O'Brien, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to an ongoing conversation in gerontology about the importance of training and involving older people in research. Currently, the literature rarely distinguishes between the one-off involvement of older citizens in research projects and the development of research groups led by older people that sustain over time as well as the…

  14. Learning from Older Citizens' Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn-Giddings, Carol; McVicar, Andy; Boyce, Melanie; O'Brien, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to an ongoing conversation in gerontology about the importance of training and involving older people in research. Currently, the literature rarely distinguishes between the one-off involvement of older citizens in research projects and the development of research groups led by older people that sustain over time as well as the…

  15. Rodent Hypoxia–Ischemia Models for Cerebral Palsy Research: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rumajogee, Prakasham; Bregman, Tatiana; Miller, Steven P.; Yager, Jerome Y.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complex multifactorial disorder, affecting approximately 2.5–3/1000 live term births, and up to 22/1000 prematurely born babies. CP results from injury to the developing brain incurred before, during, or after birth. The most common form of this condition, spastic CP, is primarily associated with injury to the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter as well as the deep gray matter. The major etiological factors of spastic CP are hypoxia/ischemia (HI), occurring during the last third of pregnancy and around birth age. In addition, inflammation has been found to be an important factor contributing to brain injury, especially in term infants. Other factors, including genetics, are gaining importance. The classic Rice–Vannucci HI model (in which 7-day-old rat pups undergo unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery followed by exposure to 8% oxygen hypoxic air) is a model of neonatal stroke that has greatly contributed to CP research. In this model, brain damage resembles that observed in severe CP cases. This model, and its numerous adaptations, allows one to finely tune the injury parameters to mimic, and therefore study, many of the pathophysiological processes and conditions observed in human patients. Investigators can recreate the HI and inflammation, which cause brain damage and subsequent motor and cognitive deficits. This model further enables the examination of potential approaches to achieve neural repair and regeneration. In the present review, we compare and discuss the advantages, limitations, and the translational value for CP research of HI models of perinatal brain injury. PMID:27199883

  16. Myocardial Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... pectoris: Chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015. Deedwania PC. Silent myocardial ischemia: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015. Mann DL, ...

  17. [Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Ricardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  18. [Nursing education research groups in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Lino, Mônica Motta; Ferraz, Fabiane; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Canever, Bruna Pedroso

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the organization of nursing education research groups in Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive and documentary study. Census data for 2006 were collected from the CNPq database website. Brazil has 47 education research groups, comprised of 412 researchers, of whom 91% have masters, doctoral or postdoctoral degrees. There are 307 students, of whom 92% are nursing undergraduates. However, only 9% are recipients of young investigator grants. There are also 112 technicians, of whom 75% are nursing professionals; 46% have a masters or doctoral degree. In Brazil, there are a considerable number of nursing education research groups, which contribute significantly to scientific production of nursing knowledge in Latin America. In this scenario, there are many challenges to be overcome: poor interdisciplinary cooperation; limited integration between education and practice; low number of grants awarded to young investigators and significant inequalities between the country's geographic regions in terms of access to research development.

  19. Researching Group Assessment: Jazz in the Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Elisabeth; Moore, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into methods and scorings for jazz assessment in Trinity College of Music, London, focusing on the possibility of introducing group assessment. It considers the advantages of group assessment methods, contrasting these with the more traditional approach, firmly established in conservatoires, of…

  20. Researching Group Assessment: Jazz in the Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Elisabeth; Moore, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into methods and scorings for jazz assessment in Trinity College of Music, London, focusing on the possibility of introducing group assessment. It considers the advantages of group assessment methods, contrasting these with the more traditional approach, firmly established in conservatoires, of…

  1. Development and Management of University Research Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert V.

    Guidelines for managers of university research groups cover securing resources, personnel, and services and choosing collaborators, as well as organizing, supervising, and controlling research activities. Attention is directed to: orientation of personnel; reporting mechanisms; boosting morale; the needs of different personnel; handling travel,…

  2. Development and Management of University Research Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert V.

    Guidelines for managers of university research groups cover securing resources, personnel, and services and choosing collaborators, as well as organizing, supervising, and controlling research activities. Attention is directed to: orientation of personnel; reporting mechanisms; boosting morale; the needs of different personnel; handling travel,…

  3. Research Assistant Training Manual: Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This manual is a practical training guide for graduate and undergraduate research assistants (RAs) working in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary. It may also be applicable to research assistants working in other fields or institutions. The purpose of this manual is to train RAs on how to plan and conduct focus groups for…

  4. The Research Libraries Group: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalko, James; Haeger, John

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the Research Libraries Group (RLG) discusses historical background, collaboration, new needs and expectations, the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN), the CitaDel service, the ARIEL service, the Eureka service, the Zephyr server, and JACKPHY-Plus Script Development, and preservation. (JLB)

  5. [Clinical research of electroacupuncture at acupoints of qijie area combined with spine balance-regulating massage on posterior circulation ischemia].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-xiong; Jing, Li-jun; Yu, Jian-chun; Han, Jing-xian

    2014-09-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy difference between electroacupuncture (EA) at qijie area combined with spine balance-regulating massage and medication for posterior circulation ischemia (PCI). One hundred cases of PCI were randomly divided into a treatment group (50 cases) and a medication group (50 cases). The treatment group was treated with EA at Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Fengchi (GB 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Danzhong (CV 17), etc. in qijie area combined with spine muscle-relieving massage and comprehensive chiropractic. The medication group was treated with oral administration of nimodipine (30 mg per time, three treatments per day) and vinpocetine injection with 500 mL of glucose injection or intravenous drip of 500 mL 0.9% sodium chloride injection, once a day. Ten treatments were taken as one course in both groups, and two courses were given. The symptom score, mean resistance index (RI) of vertebral artery (VA) and basilar artery (BA), mean velocity of blood flow (Vm) and comprehensive clinical efficacy were compared before and after treatment in two groups. The cured and markedly effective rate was 79.6% (39/49) in the treatment group, which was superior to 54.7% (23/42) in the medication group (P<0.05). The symptom score was both significantly improved after treatment in two groups (both P<0.05), which was more obvious in the treatment group (P<0.05). The RI of VA and BA, Vm of VA and BA were significantly improved after treatment in two groups (all P<0.05), which were more obvious in the treatment group (all P<0.05). The electroacupuncture combined with spine balance-regulating massage has superior effect on improving mean velocity of blood flow and resistance index of vertebral artery and basilar artery as well as symptom score to medication, and is believed to be a safe and effective treatment for posterior circulation ischemia.

  6. Physics Education Research with the SUPER Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula Devi

    2005-10-01

    The Sydney University Physics Education Research group (SUPER) has an active program offering (a) PhDs by research for students and (b) research projects for visiting scholars. So why do we need to undertake such projects within a physics school rather than in education schools and faculties? The prime reason is that adequate domain knowledge and skills are required to work in areas such as conceptual change, subject-specific cognitive theories, expert/novice modeling, and multiple representations. In addition, a decrease in student motivation for studying physics has captured the interest of research-based university departments who are now interested in reversing the trend. The areas under investigation by the SUPER group include student understandings of gravity, collaborative learning environments for large first-year classes, and the transfer of mathematics skills and knowledge.

  7. The Research Libraries Group's Multilingual Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Russell G.

    1984-01-01

    The Research Libraries group (headquartered at Stanford University) has a computer terminal that can be used to create and retrieve bibliographic information in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean vernacular scripts as well as in roman alphabet languages. The development, operation, and future of the system is described. (JN)

  8. [Research on the changes of IL-1 receptor and TNF-alpha receptor in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion and the chronergy of acupuncture intervention].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Kui; Ni, Guang-Xia; Liu, Kun; Xiao, Zhen-Xin; Yang, Bao-Wang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shu

    2012-11-01

    To explore the intervention timing of acupuncture in treatment of cerebral infarction and the relationship of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury with inflammatory cytokine receptor. One hundred and ten male healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normal group (n=10), a sham operation group (n=10), a model group (n=10), an acupuncture at non-acupoint group (non-acupoint group, n=40), an acupuncture with regaining consciousness method group (regaining consciousness group, n=40). Four subgroups were set up 1 h ischemia reperfusion in 1 h group, 3 h group, 6 h group, 12 h group in the two acupuncture groups, 10 rats in each subgroup. Two acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at four time points (1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 12 h after ischemia reperfusion), and "Shuigou" (GV 26) and "Neiguan" (PC 6) were selected in regaining consciousness group, and the non-acupoints below the bilateral costal region were selected in non-acupoint group. At the corresponding time point, the tissues of the brain were removed and interleukin1 receptor (IL-1RI) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-I) mRNA and protein changes were detected by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot assay. The expression of IL-1RI and TNFR-I mRNA and protein in the model group were significantly higher than that in normal group, sham operation group, regaining consciousness group and non-acupoint group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The expression of IL-1RI and TNFR-I mRNA and protein in regaining consciousness group was weakest at 3 h after reperfusion followed successively by 6 h, 1 h, 12 h, and there was no significantly change of IL-1RI and TNFR-I mRNA and protein expression in non-acupoint group among different timing points, but which was decreased as compared with those in the model group at the same time point (all P<0.05). Acupuncture can reduce the expression of IL-1RI and TNFR-I mRNA and protein in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion, inhibit the excessive

  9. Crafting the group: Care in research management.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah R; Horst, Maja

    2015-06-01

    This article reports findings from an interview study with group leaders and principal investigators in Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Taking as our starting point current interest in the need to enhance 'responsible research and innovation', we suggest that these debates can be developed through attention to the talk and practices of scientists. Specifically, we chart the ways in which interview talk represented research management and leadership as processes of caring craftwork. Interviewees framed the group as the primary focus of their attention (and responsibilities), and as something to be tended and crafted; further, this process required a set of affective skills deployed flexibly in response to the needs of individuals. Through exploring the presence of notions of care in the talk of principal investigators and group leaders, we discuss the relation between care and craft, reflect on the potential implications of the promotion of a culture of care and suggest how mundane scientific understandings of responsibility might relate to a wider discussion of responsible research and innovation.

  10. [Research progress of acupuncture for cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in recent 10 years].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Hua

    2015-07-01

    By searching relevant data from the PubMed database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database and Wanfang database, a comprehensive analysis and review regarding acupuncture for cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) in recent 10 years were performed. The results showed that acupuncture could inhibit the inflammatory reaction, reduce oxidative stress injury, restrain brain edema formation, inhibit apoptosis, promote neural and vascular regeneration, etc. Acupuncture methods used included electroacupuncture, scalp acupuncture, eye acupuncture and "consciousness-restoring resuscitation needling", etc. The existing problem was that the intervention action of acupuncture was mainly focused on inhibiting inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress injury, and the study on apoptosis and neural and vascular regeneration was needed. It is suggested that from the aspect of multiple target points, the intervention mechanism of acupuncture for CIRI should be systemically studied in the future, which could provide new idea for clinical diagnosis and treatment on ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.

  11. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood or oxygen, causing injury to liver cells. Causes Low blood pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. ... liver's blood vessels Treatment Treatment depends on the cause. Low blood pressure and blood clots must be treated right away. ...

  12. Intestinal Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hormone medications, such as estrogen Cocaine or methamphetamine use Vigorous exercise, such as long-distance running ... anti-phospholipid syndrome. Illegal drug use. Cocaine and methamphetamine use have been linked to intestinal ischemia. Complications ...

  13. Silent Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be used to diagnose silent ischemia: An exercise stress test can show blood flow through your coronary arteries in response to exercise. Holter monitoring records your heart rate and rhythm ...

  14. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  15. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  16. Groups in Geological Education, Research, and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, William D.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different methods of instruction, such as the Keller Plan, audio-visual-tutorial methods, contract systems, and group seminars. Also discusses the role of groups in professional associations, particularly the National Association of Geology Teachers. (MLH)

  17. A new classification system for ischemia using a combination of deep and periventricular white matter hyperintensities.

    PubMed

    Noh, Young; Lee, Yunhwan; Seo, Sang Won; Jeong, Jee H; Choi, Seong Hye; Back, Joung Hwan; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Geon Ha; Shin, Ji Soo; Kim, Chi Hun; Cho, Hanna; Park, Joon Sung; Lee, Jong-Min; Hong, Chang Hyung; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae-Hong; Kim, Seong Yoon; Park, Kee Hyung; Han, Seol-Heui; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) group developed a new classification system for ischemia using a combination of deep and periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the CREDOS ischemia classification system. A total of 352 patients with cognitive impairments were included. Their WMH scores were rated using the CREDOS WMH visual rating scale. These patients were divided into 3 groups according to the CREDOS ischemia classification system. The volume of WMH was also automatically measured. The number of lacunes and microbleeds (MBs) were counted. The CREDOS ischemia classification system was revised with factor analysis using vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) markers (WMH volume, lacunes, and MBs). External validation was performed in another group of patients with cognitive impairment using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The CREDOS WMH visual rating scale showed excellent correlation with the automatically measured volume of WMH. The factor analysis showed that the severe group was expanded to D3P1 and D3P2 in the revised CREDOS ischemia classification system. In the validation group, the presence of vascular risk factors and the severity of CVD markers could be distinguished according to the revised CREDOS ischemia classification. We validated a newly developed classification system for ischemia. This simple visual classification system was capable of providing information on vascular risk factors and CVD markers by simply rating WMH on magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  19. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  20. Groups That Work: Student Achievement in Group Research Projects and Effects on Individual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Renee

    2017-01-01

    Group research projects frequently are used to teach undergraduate research methods. This study uses multivariate analyses to examine the characteristics of higher-achieving groups (those that earn higher grades on group research projects) and to estimate the effects of participating in higher-achieving groups on subsequent individual learning…

  1. Controlled oxygen reperfusion protects the lung against early ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypasses by downregulating high mobility group box 1.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian; Ye, Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Kai; Chen, Guang-Xian; Liang, Meng-Ya; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Jin-Xin; Huang, Wei-Ming

    2012-05-01

    Restricting oxygen delivery during the reperfusion phase of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) protects the heart, but effects on lung ischemia reperfusion (IR) in CPB are unknown. We examined whether extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation during early lung IR injury in CPB. Fourteen healthy canines received CPB with 60 minutes of aortic clamping and cardioplegic arrest, followed by 90 minutes reperfusion. Following surgery, the animals were randomized into control (n = 7) or test (n = 7) groups. Control animals received a constant level of 80% FiO(2) during the entire procedure, and the test group received a gradual increase in FiO(2) during the first 25 minutes of reperfusion. In the test group, the FiO(2) was initiated at 40% and increased by 10% every 5 minutes, to 80%. Histology, lung injury variables, HMGB1 expression, and inflammatory responses were assessed at baseline (T1) and at 25 minutes (T2) and 90 minutes (T3) after starting reperfusion. Treatment with controlled oxygen significantly suppressed lung pathologies, lung injury variables, and inflammatory responses (all P < .001). After lung IR injury, HMGB1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in the controlled oxygen group (all P < .001). Controlled oxygen reperfusion is protective in the early stages of lung IR injury in a canine CPB model, and this protection is linked to HMGB1 downregulation.

  2. Highlights from "Research on Ability Grouping."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Chen-Lin C.; Kulik, James A.

    1982-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Except for high-ability students in honors classes, ability grouping has little significant effect on learning outcomes, student attitudes toward subject matter and school, and self-concept. The differences that are found in grouped classes are all positive, however slight, and there is no evidence…

  3. Productive Group Work for Students. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    There is clear evidence that students who are involved in productive collaborative groups outperform their peers. Cooperative group work also results in improved self-esteem, improved relationships and enhanced social and decision-making skills. Johnson and Johnson (1993) identified the elements of a successful collaborative activity. They include…

  4. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  5. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  6. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  7. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  8. Population genomics and research ethics with socially identifable groups.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Joan L

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author questions whether the research ethics guidelines and procedures are robust enough to protect groups when conducting genetics research with socially identifiable populations, particularly with Native American groups. The author argues for a change in the federal guidelines in substance and procedures of conducting genetic research with socially identifiable groups.

  9. Protective effects of Echium amoenum Fisch. and C.A. Mey. against cerebral ischemia in the rats

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Tameh, Abolfazl Azami; Ghannadi, Alireza; Naghani, Elmira Akbari; Tavazoei, Hamed; Alavi, Samaneh Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Echium amoenum total anthocyanin extract (ETAE) on partial/transient cerebral ischemia in the rats. Materials and Methods: Rats received ETAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the induction of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 30 min, followed by 72 h reperfusion. The neurological deficit, brain performance, and sensory motor function were assessed 48 h and 72 h after surgery. After sacrification, the brains were evaluated for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathological changes. Results: Our results showed that motor function significantly decreased in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group as compared to the sham group. Histopathological analysis exhibited the shrinkage and atrophy of the neurons in I/R group. ETAE at the dose of 200 mg/kg improved spontaneous activity and memory induced by cerebral ischemia compared to the control group and also decreased brain MPO activity following cerebral ischemia. However, it could not affect the ability to climbing, body proprioception, vibrissae touch and brain water content. In addition, pretreatment with ETAE at higher doses significantly reduced ischemia-induced neuronal loss of the brain. Conclusion: The anthocyanin rich fraction from E. amoenum was found to have protective effects against some brain damages postischemic reperfusion. However, further researches are required for investigating the exact mechanisms of the effect of this plant in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in human. PMID:26261809

  10. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  11. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  12. Research Possibilities on Group Bilingualism: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloss, Heinz

    This report examines the problems involved in researching institutional and socio-cultural bilingualism and contains suggestions for about 60 projects and related case studies. These projects are presented under the following headings: (1) The Service, Methodological and Geographical Aspects, (2) Inventories, (3) Problems of Conceptualization and…

  13. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  14. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  15. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  16. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  17. Whitby Research Group: A Pioneering Concept in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rosalin; Lewis, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Years of meticulous research work can be lost when projects are discontinued. Institutional support can make all the difference. The Whitby Research Group coordinates projects, provides access to computers, and enables researchers to share their work in seminars. (JOW)

  18. Summary of Research 1997, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Some countries may exploit overhead system vulnerabilities in order to enhance their own denial and deception programs. With multiattribute utility ...alternatives were examined through a number of trade-off studies in order to identify a preferred configuration. Multiple Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT...as well as with the private sector in defense-related technologies. The sponsored program utilizes Cooperative Research and Development Agreements

  19. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  20. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  1. Purkinje fibers after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    García Gómez-Heras, Soledad; Álvarez-Ayuso, Lourdes; Torralba Arranz, Amalia; Fernández-García, Héctor

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on Purkinje fibers, comparing them with the adjacent cardiomyocytes. In a model of heterotopic heart transplantation in pigs, the donor heart was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia (n=9), preserved in cold saline, and subjected to 24 hours of ischemia with preservation in Wisconsin solution, alone (n=6), or with an additive consisting of calcium (n=4), Nicorandil (n=6) or Trolox (n=7). After 2 hours of reperfusion, we evaluated the recovery of cardiac electrical activity and took samples of ventricular myocardium for morphological study. The prolonged ischemia significantly affected atrial automaticity and A-V conduction in all the groups subjected to 24 hours of ischemia, as compared to 2 hours. There were no significant differences among the groups that underwent prolonged ischemia. Changes in the electrical activity did not correlate with the morphological changes. In the Purkinje fibers, ischemia-reperfusion produced a marked decrease in the glycogen content in all the groups. In the gap junctions the immunolabeling of connexin-43 decreased significantly, adopting a dispersed distribution, and staining the sarcolemma adjacent to the connective tissue. These changes were less marked in the group preserved exclusively with Wisconsin solution, despite the prolonged ischemia. The addition of other substances did not improve the altered morphology. In all the groups, the injury appeared to be more prominent in the Purkinje fibers than in the neighboring cardiomyocytes, indicating the greater susceptibility of the former to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  2. Investigation of ischemia modified albumin, oxidant and antioxidant markers in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hazini, Ahmet; Işıldak, İbrahim; Alpdağtaş, Saadet; Önül, Abdullah; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Tuba; Dur, Ali; Iraz, Mustafa; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still one of the most common causes of death worldwide. In recent years, for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, a new parameter, called ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which is thought to be more advantageous than common methods, has been researched. Aim In this study, systematic analysis of parameters considered to be related to myocardial ischemia has been performed, comparing between control and myocardial ischemia groups. Material and methods We selected 40 patients with AMI and 25 healthy controls for this study. Ischemia modified albumin levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid levels were investigated in both groups. Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, which are indicators of oxidative stress, were compared between patient and control groups. Results Ischemia modified albumin levels were found significantly higher in the AMI diagnosed group when compared with controls. The MDA level was elevated in the patient group, whereas the GSH level was decreased. SOD, GPx and CAT enzyme levels were decreased in the patient group, where it could be presumed that oxidative stress causes the cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Due to the increased oxidative stress, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacity was affected. Systematic investigation of parameters related to myocardial infarction has been performed, and it is believed that such parameters can contribute to protection and early diagnosis of AMI and understanding the mechanism of development of the disease. PMID:26677379

  3. Practices for caring in nursing: Brazilian research groups.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, A L; de Andrade, S R; de Mello, A L Ferreira; Klock, P; do Nascimento, K C; Koerich, M Santos; Backes, D Stein

    2011-09-01

    The present study considers the production of knowledge and the interactions in the environment of research and their relationships in the system of caring in nursing and health. To elaborate a theoretical model of the organization of the practices used for caring, based on the experiences made by the research groups of administration and management in nursing, in Brazil. The study is based on grounded theory. Twelve leaders of research groups, working as professors in public universities in the south and the south-east of Brazil, distributed in sample groups, were interviewed. The core phenomenon 'research groups of administration and management in nursing: arrangements and interactions in the system of caring in nursing' was derived from the categories: conceptual bases and contexts of the research groups; experiencing interactions in the research groups; functionality of the research groups; and outputs of the research groups. The research groups are integrated in the system of caring in nursing. The activities of the Brazilian administration and management in nursing research groups are process oriented and in a process of constant renovation, socially relevant, operate in a complex scenario and contribute to the advancement of the organizations of the system of caring in nursing through strengthening the connection among academia, service and community. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  4. Focus Group Research: A Tool for the Student Affairs Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Maryann

    1991-01-01

    Explores limits of quantitative research methods and introduces qualitative approach, focus groups, as alternative information-collection tool for student personnel administrators. Presents two research projects where focus groups were used. Maintains that focus group approach has several advantages, including cost effectiveness, emphasis on…

  5. Directions of Small Group Research for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Samuel L.

    Speech communicators need to return to applied research, developing theoretical statements about how groups might work better and testing the validity of those statements. Among the tasks that group communication researchers might take up are determining the range of applicability of generalizations concerning different kinds of groups, studying…

  6. [Cell energetic loading in experimental renal transplant with different periods of warm ischemia].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vijande, R; Luque Gálvez, P; Alcaraz Asensio, A

    2008-01-01

    Renal procurement after a period of heart st op demands a previous knowledge of ischemia-reperfusion injuries means. To study cell injury mechanisms an experimental study has been designed in pigs, with different rangres of warm ischemia (0-30-45 and 90 min). The main goal was to research on the basis of ischemic injury. Biochemical parameters (creatinine, urine output), energetic loading (ATP, ADP, AMP and global energetic loading) and pathological studies as long as survival analysis by 5th day were completed. Animal survival and graft viability range from 100% at 5th day in control and 30 min warm ischemia groups to 60% in 90 min warm ischemia group. Creatinine levels rises at 1st, 3rd and 5th day, especially in those non-viable organs. ATP levels decrease after warm ischemia period, increases ADP and AMP levels after reperfusion in those viable organs. Prolonged periods of warm ischemia do not result necessarily in non-viable kidneys. Viable organs recover nucleotide levels early. Study of energetic cell loading levels is a good way to get on better in the knowledge of injury mechanisms after ischemia-reperfusion.

  7. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  8. (Re)searching Methods: Reading Fiction in Literary Response Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    The trouble with education research is that the research is burdened with trouble before it begins. Working as a poststructural education researcher and engaged in a recent research project that sought to engage with questions of teacher identity, I employed an alternative data elicitation method of literary response groups--similar to that of…

  9. (Re)searching Methods: Reading Fiction in Literary Response Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    The trouble with education research is that the research is burdened with trouble before it begins. Working as a poststructural education researcher and engaged in a recent research project that sought to engage with questions of teacher identity, I employed an alternative data elicitation method of literary response groups--similar to that of…

  10. Dynamics of Change in Research Work: Constructing a New Research Area in a Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, Eveliina; Miettinen, Reijo

    2001-01-01

    Studies how an aerosol technology research group constructed a research agenda for itself and how its activity was changed in the process. Analyzes the development of the production of ultrafine particles and employs the concept of mediated activity. (Contains 29 references.) (DDR)

  11. Grappling with groups: protecting collective interests in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Foster, Morris W

    2007-01-01

    Strategies for protecting historically disadvantaged groups have been extensively debated in the context of genetic variation research, making this a useful starting point in examining the protection of social groups from harm resulting from biomedical research. We analyze research practices developed in response to concerns about the involvement of indigenous communities in studies of genetic variation and consider their potential application in other contexts. We highlight several conceptual ambiguities and practical challenges associated with the protection of group interests and argue that protectionist strategies developed in the context of genetic research will not be easily adapted to other types of research in which social groups are placed at risk. We suggest that it is this set of conceptual and practical issues that philosophers, ethicists, and others should focus on in their efforts to protect identifiable social groups from harm resulting from biomedical research.

  12. High-mobility group box-1 release into fetal circulation from umbilical cord tissue and amniotic epithelium in fetal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshihiko; Yoshioka, Toshirou; Yamada, Shingo; Miyasho, Taku; Sakakibara, Nana; Hatanaka, Daishuke

    2016-07-01

    We report the case of a baby with low birthweight born by emergency caesarean section at 33 weeks 2 days' gestation due to placental abruption. High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) and interleukin-17 concentration in the umbilical cord blood were high at 55.7 ng/mL and 50.7 pg/mL, respectively. On immunostaining of umbilical cord and amniotic epithelium, HMGB-1 was identified in the nuclei of vascular endothelial cells and cytoplasm of the surrounding cells in the umbilical cord. This suggests that, in the present case of placental abruption and subsequent ischemic placenta and fetus, the high level of HMGB-1 observed was due to the release of HMGB-1 into the umbilical cord blood from the vascular endothelial cells of the umbilical cord. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  14. Comparative effectiveness of peripheral vascular intervention versus surgical bypass for critical limb ischemia in the Vascular Study Group of Greater New York.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Andrew J; Sedrakyan, Art; Isaacs, Abby; Connolly, Peter H; Schneider, Darren B

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) was compared with surgical bypass grafting (BPG) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in the Vascular Study Group of Greater New York (VSGGNY). Patients undergoing BPG or PVI for CLI at VSGGNY centers (2011-2013) were included. The Society for Vascular Surgery objective performance goals for CLI were used to directly compare the safety and effectiveness of PVI and BPG. Propensity score matching was used for risk-adjusted comparisons of PVI with BPG. A total of 414 patients (268 PVI, 146 BPG) were treated for tissue loss (69%) or rest pain (31%). Patients undergoing PVI were more likely to have tissue loss (74.6% vs 57.5%; P < .001) and comorbidities such as diabetes (69.3% vs 57.5%; P = .02), heart failure (22% vs 13.7%; P = .04), and severe renal disease (13.1% vs 4.1%; P = .004). No significant differences were found between the groups across a panel of safety objective performance goals. In unadjusted analyses at 1 year, BPG was associated with higher rates of freedom from reintervention, amputation, or restenosis (90.4% vs 81.7%; P = .02) and freedom from reintervention or amputation (92.5% vs 85.8%, P = .045). After propensity score matching, PVI was associated with improved freedom from major adverse limb events and postoperative death at 1 year (95.6% vs 88.5%; P < .05). By unadjusted comparison, early reintervention and restenosis are more prevalent with PVI. However, risk-adjusted comparison underscores the safety and effectiveness of PVI in the treatment of CLI. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  16. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  17. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibits high-mobility group box 1 and attenuates cardiac dysfunction post-myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Lei; Shenoy, Vinayak; Krause, Eric; Oh, S. Paul; Pepine, Carl J; Katovich, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) triggers and amplifies inflammation cascade following ischemic injury, and its elevated levels are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a key member of vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), regulates cardiovascular functions and exerts beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. However, the association between HMGB1 and ACE2 has not been studied. We hypothesized that overexpression of ACE2 provides cardioprotective effects against MI via inhibiting HMGB1 and inflammation. ACE2 knock-in (KI) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls were subjected to either sham or coronary artery ligation surgery to induce MI. Heart function was assessed 4 weeks after surgery using echocardiography and Millar catheterization. Tissues were collected for histology and analysis of the expression of HMGB1, RAS components, and inflammatory cytokines. ACE2 in the heart of the ACE2 KI mice was 58-fold higher than WT controls. ACE2-MI mice exhibited a remarkable preservation of cardiac function and reduction of infarct size in comparison to WT-MI mice. Notably, ACE2 overexpression significantly reduced the MI-induced increase in apoptosis, macrophage infiltration, and HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNF-α and IL-6). Moreover, in an in vitro study, ACE2 activation prevented the hypoxia-induced cell death and upregulation of HMGB1 in adult cardiomyocytes. This protective effect is correlated with downregulation of HMGB1 and downstream pro-inflammatory cascades, which could be useful for the development of novel treatment for ischemic heart disease. PMID:26498282

  18. Chick Embryo Partial Ischemia Model: A New Approach to Study Ischemia Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Syamantak; Ilayaraja, M.; Seerapu, Himabindu Reddy; Sinha, Swaraj; Siamwala, Jamila H.; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemia is a pathophysiological condition due to blockade in blood supply to a specific tissue thus damaging the physiological activity of the tissue. Different in vivo models are presently available to study ischemia in heart and other tissues. However, no ex vivo ischemia model has been available to date for routine ischemia research and for faster screening of anti-ischemia drugs. In the present study, we took the opportunity to develop an ex vivo model of partial ischemia using the vascular bed of 4th day incubated chick embryo. Methodology/Principal Findings Ischemia was created in chick embryo by ligating the right vitelline artery using sterile surgical suture. Hypoxia inducible factor- 1 alpha (HIF-1α), creatine phospho kinase-MB and reactive oxygen species in animal tissues and cells were measured to confirm ischemia in chick embryo. Additionally, ranolazine, N-acetyl cysteine and trimetazidine were administered as an anti-ischemic drug to validate the present model. Results from the present study depicted that blocking blood flow elevates HIF-1α, lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite level in ischemic vessels while ranolazine administration partially attenuates ischemia driven HIF-1α expression. Endothelial cell incubated on ischemic blood vessels elucidated a higher level of HIF-1α expression with time while ranolazine treatment reduced HIF-1α in ischemic cells. Incubation of caprine heart strip on chick embryo ischemia model depicted an elevated creatine phospho kinase-MB activity under ischemic condition while histology of the treated heart sections evoked edema and disruption of myofibril structures. Conclusions/Significance The present study concluded that chick embryo partial ischemia model can be used as a novel ex vivo model of ischemia. Therefore, the present model can be used parallel with the known in vivo ischemia models in understanding the mechanistic insight of ischemia development and in evaluating the activity of anti

  19. Using Comparison Groups in School Counseling Research: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Sheri

    2006-01-01

    This article describes comparison group research designs and discusses how such designs can be used in school counseling research to demonstrate the effectiveness of school counselors and school counseling interventions. The article includes a review of internal and external validity constructs as they relate to this approach to research. Examples…

  20. Managerial Women in Mixed Groups: Implications of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Constance M.

    Research on the problems faced by women in managerial positions is reviewed in this paper. Work in the area of tokenism is presented first, followed by similar research documenting the fact that females participating in mixed groups operate at a disadvantage. Research on the problems of women in leadership roles is presented next. Other…

  1. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    DOE PAGES

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; ...

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form,more » or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.« less

  2. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; Schluenzen, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form, or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.

  3. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  4. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  5. Research agenda for understanding Alzheimer disease in diverse populations: work group on cultural diversity, Alzheimer's association.

    PubMed

    Shadlen, Marie-Florence; McCormick, Wayne C; Larson, Eric B

    2002-01-01

    The emerging evidence of ethnic variations in apolipoprotein polymorphism and Alzheimer disease risk shows that one cannot generalize findings based on a single cultural group too broadly ( Tang et al., 2001). Presence of one apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele is a stronger risk factor for Alzheimer disease in whites and Asians than in blacks ( Farrer et al., 1997). Environmental or genetic cofactors may modulate the effects of epsilon 4 on beta-amyloid metabolism differently in different subpopulations ( Shadlen, 1998). Recognizing this, the Alzheimer's Association has extended its goals to strengthen the scientific information base on the interactions of population diversity and Alzheimer disease heterogeneity ( NIA, 1998). This new focus is timely since minority elderly are the most rapidly increasing segment of the elderly population ( Lilienfeld and Perl, 1994, Brookmeyer et al., 1998). In this article, the authors highlight recent progress in research on Alzheimer disease among culturally diverse populations with a special emphasis on gaps in the knowledge base. The authors recommend four priorities for future Alzheimer disease research: (1) determine whether genetic causative factors interact differently in different populations; (2) reexamine the nature and role of cerebral ischemia and infarction and variations in symptom severity of Alzheimer disease; (3) explore the interaction of genes and environmental influences that are protective against Alzheimer disease; and (4) recruit and enroll ethnically diverse subjects in Alzheimer disease clinical trials.

  6. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  7. Gender Issues in Addictions Research: The Report of the Task Group on Gender-Focused Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto (Ontario).

    The Task Group on Gender-Focused Research was established to raise awareness and interest in gender as a variable in addictions research at the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Ontario (Canada). Recognizing that much of the research on substance abuse has focused on males, the Task Group was charged with providing a basis for the development…

  8. Formal Group Communication with Older Adults: A Research Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…

  9. Interpreting Outcomes: Using Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansay, Sylvia J.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Nelson, John

    2004-01-01

    Although focus groups continue to gain popularity in marketing and social science research, their use in program evaluation has been limited. Here we demonstrate how focus groups can benefit evaluators, program staff, policy makers and administrators by providing an in-depth understanding of program effectiveness from the perspective of…

  10. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  11. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  12. Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap in group psychotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mark A; Ogrodniczuk, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Sochting, Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap requires a different clinical research paradigm: participatory research that encourages community agency-academic partnerships. In this context, clinicians help define priorities, determine the type of evidence that will have an impact on their practice (affecting the methods that are used to produce the evidence), and develop strategies for translating, implementing, and disseminating their findings into evidence-based practice. Within this paradigm, different roles are assumed by the partners, and sometimes these roles are blended. This paper will consider the perspectives of people who assume these different roles (clinician, researcher, and clinician-researcher) with group psychotherapy as the specific focus. Finally, the establishment of a practice-research network will be discussed as a potentially promising way to better engage group therapists in research.

  13. [Research for the antiapoptotic mechanisms of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of brain ischemia stroke].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yamei; Li, Shujian; Li, Gang; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Qianlin; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-08-04

    To evaluate the anti-apoptosis role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMCs) transplantation to cell cerebral brain ischemia mice. BMMCs were separated through Ficoll from bone marrow, after amplified in vitro, flow cytometry was used to identify the surface markers. Then cells were transplanted into Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO) mice, in situ cell death detection kit and Western blot were used to examine the cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to detect the expression of eNOS, ICAM-1, CD31 which are related to the repair of vascular endothelial cells. After BMMCs transplantation, the number of apoptosis cells was decreased from (78.2±1.4) to (12.8±3.0), P<0.05. The expression of eNOS (80.0±6.2 vs 31.2±1.6, P<0.01) and CD31 (85±3 vs 45±5, P<0.01), were higher than MACO, while ICAM-1 was lower than MACO (34.1±2.2 vs 85.2±2.8, P<0.01). BMMCs reduce the cell apoptosis of ischemia mice through regulate the expression of vascular endothelial cells relate genes.

  14. Meeting report from the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research. Protecting the cardiovascular system from ischemia: between bench and bedside.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Alba-Alba, Corina; Aragones, Julian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Boisvert, William A; Bøtker, Hans E; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Fleming, Ingrid; Garcia-Dorado, David; Lecour, Sandrine; Liehn, Elisa; Marber, Michael S; Marina, Nephtali; Mayr, Manuel; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Miura, Tetsuji; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Salinas-Estefanon, Eduardo M; Ong, Sang-Bing; Schnittler, Hans J; Sanchez-Vega, Jose T; Sumoza-Toledo, Adriana; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Yarullina, Dina; Yellon, Derek M; Preissner, Klaus T; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in basic cardiovascular research as well as their translation into the clinical situation were the focus at the last "New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research meeting". Major topics included the characterization of new targets and procedures in cardioprotection, deciphering new players and inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic heart disease as well as uncovering microRNAs and other biomarkers as versatile and possibly causal factors in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Although a number of pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion injury or atherosclerosis can be simulated and manipulated in diverse animal models, also to challenge new drugs for intervention, patient studies are the ultimate litmus test to obtain unequivocal information about the validity of biomedical concepts and their application in the clinics. Thus, the open and bidirectional exchange between bench and bedside is crucial to advance the field of ischemic heart disease with a particular emphasis of understanding long-lasting approaches in cardioprotection.

  15. Group-based trajectory modeling in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Nagin, Daniel S; Odgers, Candice L

    2010-01-01

    Group-based trajectory models are increasingly being applied in clinical research to map the developmental course of symptoms and assess heterogeneity in response to clinical interventions. In this review, we provide a nontechnical overview of group-based trajectory and growth mixture modeling alongside a sampling of how these models have been applied in clinical research. We discuss the challenges associated with the application of both types of group-based models and propose a set of preliminary guidelines for applied researchers to follow when reporting model results. Future directions in group-based modeling applications are discussed, including the use of trajectory models to facilitate causal inference when random assignment to treatment condition is not possible.

  16. Using consensus group methods such as Delphi and Nominal Group in medical education research().

    PubMed

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Varpio, Lara; Gonsalves, Carol; Wood, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Consensus group methods are widely used in research to identify and measure areas where incomplete evidence exists for decision-making. Despite their widespread use, these methods are often inconsistently used and reported. Using examples from the three most commonly used methods, the Delphi, Nominal Group and RAND/UCLA; this paper and associated Guide aim to describe these methods and to highlight common weaknesses in methodology and reporting. The paper outlines a series of recommendations to assist researchers using consensus group methods in providing a comprehensive description and justification of the steps taken in their study.

  17. [Ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gennai, Stéphane; Pison, Christophe; Briot, Raphaël

    2014-09-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage arising from the first hours after transplantation. The first etiology of the primary graft dysfunction in lung is ischemia-reperfusion. It is burdened by an important morbi-mortality. Lung ischemia-reperfusion increases the oxidative stress, inactivates the sodium pump, increases the intracellular calcium, leads to cellular death and the liberation of pro-inflammatory mediators. Researches relative to the reduction of the lung ischemia-reperfusion injuries are numerous but few of them found a place in common clinical practice, because of an insufficient level of proofs. Ex vivolung evaluation is a suitable technique in order to evaluate therapeutics supposed to limit lung ischemia-reperfusion injuries.

  18. Electroacupuncture pretreatment attenuates spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury via inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 production in a LXA4 receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Xin; Wang, Wei; Li, Xu; Huo, Jia; Wang, Yu; Min, Yu-Yuan; Su, Bin-Xiao; Pei, Jian-Ming

    2017-03-15

    Paraplegia caused by spinal cord ischemia is a severe complication following surgeries in the thoracic aneurysm. HMGB1 has been recognized as a key mediator in spinal inflammatory response after spinal cord injury. Electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment could provide neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of HMGB1 release. Therefore, the present study aims to test the hypothesis that EA pretreatment protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury via inhibition of HMGB1 release. Animals were pre-treated with EA stimulations 30min daily for 4 successive days, followed by 20-min spinal cord ischemia induced by using a balloon catheter placed into the aorta. We found that spinal I/R significantly increased mRNA and cytosolic protein levels of HMGB1 after reperfusion in the spinal cord. The EA-pretreated animals displayed better motor performance after reperfusion along with the decrease of apoptosis, HMGB1, TNF-α and IL-1β expressions in the spinal cord, whereas these effects by EA pretreatment was reversed by rHMGB1 administration. Furthermore, EA pretreatment attenuated the down-regulation of LXA4 receptor (ALX) expression induced by I/R injury, while the decrease of HMGB1 release in EA-pretreated rats was reversed by the combined BOC-2 (an inhibitor of LXA4 receptor) treatment. In conclusion, EA pretreatment may promote spinal I/R injury through the inhibition of HMGB1 release in a LXA4 receptor-dependent manner. Our data may represent a new therapeutic technique for treating spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  19. Functional Recovery From Extended Warm Ischemia Associated With Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiling; Zhao, Juping; Velet, Lily; Ercole, Cesar E; Remer, Erick M; Mir, Carme M; Li, Jianbo; Takagi, Toshio; Demirjian, Sevag; Campbell, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of extended warm ischemia on incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and ultimate functional recovery after partial nephrectomy (PN), incorporating rigorous control for loss of parenchymal mass, and embedded within comparison to cohorts of patients managed with hypothermia or limited warm ischemia. From 2007 to 2014, 277 patients managed with PN had appropriate studies to evaluate changes in function/mass specifically within the operated kidney. Recovery from ischemia was defined as %function saved/%parenchymal mass saved. AKI was based on global renal function and defined as a ≥1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine above the preoperative level. Hypothermia was utilized in 112 patients (median = 27 minutes) and warm ischemia in 165 (median = 21 minutes). AKI strongly correlated with solitary kidney (P < .001) and duration (P < .001) but not type (P = .49) of ischemia. Median recovery from ischemia in the operated kidney was 100% (interquartile range [IQR] = 88%-109%) for cold ischemia, with 6 (5%) noted to have <80% recovery from ischemia. For the warm ischemia group, median recovery from ischemia was 91% (IQR = 82%-101%, P < .001 compared with hypothermia), and 34 (21%) had recovery from ischemia <80% (P < .001). For warm ischemia subgrouped by duration <25 minutes (n = 114), 25-35 minutes (n = 35), and >35 minutes (n = 16), median recovery from ischemia was 92% (IQR = 86%-100%), 90% (IQR = 78%-104%), and 91% (IQR = 80%-96%), respectively (P = .77). Our results suggest that AKI after PN correlates with duration but not with type of ischemia. However, subsequent recovery, which ultimately defines the new baseline glomerular filtration rate, is most reliable with hypothermia. However, most patients undergoing PN with warm ischemia still recover relatively strongly from ischemia, even if extended to 35-45 minutes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Group analytic psychotherapy (im)possibilities to research

    PubMed Central

    Vlastelica, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    In the course of group analytic psychotherapy, where we discovered the power of the therapeutic effects, there occurred the need of group analytic psychotherapy researches. Psychotherapeutic work in general, and group psychotherapy in particular, are hard to measure and put into some objective frames. Researches, i. e. measuring of changes in psychotherapy is a complex task, and there are large disagreements. For a long time, the empirical-descriptive method was the only way of research in the field of group psychotherapy. Problems of researches in group psychotherapy in general, and particularly in group analytic psychotherapy can be reviewed as methodology problems at first, especially due to unrepeatability of the therapeutic process. The basic polemics about measuring of changes in psychotherapy is based on the question whether a change is to be measured by means of open measuring of behaviour or whether it should be evaluated more finely by monitoring inner psychological dimensions. Following the therapy results up, besides providing additional information on the patient's improvement, strengthens the psychotherapist's self-respect, as well as his respectability and credibility as a scientist. PMID:25478094

  1. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  2. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    PubMed

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  3. Studies of Typing from the LNR Typing Research Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    transient signals having identical energy spectra. February, 1970. 11. Donald A. Norman. Remembrance of things past. June, 1970. 12. Norman I. Anderson...Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation Donald R. Gentner F-’ Jonathan Grudin Serge Larochelle __ Donald A. Norman...Group: The Role of Context, Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation The LNI Typing Research Group: Donald R

  4. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    PubMed

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.

  5. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  6. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  7. [Progress of researches on mechanisms of acupuncture therapy underlying improving myocardial ischemia and the future approach for in-depth study on its mechanisms from epigenetics].

    PubMed

    He, Su-Yun; Lu, Sheng-Feng; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2014-02-01

    As an important content of alternative and complementary medicine, acupuncture therapy has been proved to be effective in relieving myocardial ischemia (MI). Authors of the present paper review recent progress of researches on acupuncture therapy in resisting MI from 1) improving cardiovascular function and promoting angiogenesis, and 2) protecting myocardial cells from further injury and reducing cellular apoptosis at different pathological stages of MI. Moreover, the authors discuss the characteristics of epigenetic regulation in the process of MI and cardiac repair including the methylating of DNA, modification of histone, remodeling of the chromatin, and micro-RNA expression, mediating cellular apoptosis, regeneration of myocardial blood vessels, etc. The authors hold that future studies on the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture therapy in the prevention and treatment of MI from epigenetics may be a new approach and a new direction.

  8. Tenoxicam exerts a neuroprotective action after cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Rita I M; Diógenes, João P L; Maia, Graziela C L; Filho, Emídio A S; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M; de Menezes, Dalgimar B; Cunha, Geanne M A; Viana, Glauce S B

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of Tenoxicam, a type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitor, on brain damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion. Male Wistar rats (18-month old average) were anesthetized and submitted to ischemia occlusion of both common carotid arteries (BCAO) for 45 min. After 24 h of reperfusion, rats were decapitated and hippocampi removed for further assays. Animals were divided into sham-operated, ischemia, ischemia + Tenoxicam 2.5 mg/kg, and ischemia + Tenoxicam 10 mg/kg groups. Tenoxicam was administered intraperitoneally immediately after BCAO. Histological analyses show that ischemia produced significant striatal as well as hippocampal lesions which were reversed by the Tenoxicam treatment. Tenoxicam also significantly reduced, to control levels, the increased myeloperoxidase activity in hippocampus homogenates observed after ischemia. However, nitrite concentrations showed only a tendency to decrease in the ischemia + Tenoxicam groups, as compared to that of ischemia alone. On the other hand, hippocampal glutamate and aspartate levels were not altered by Tenoxicam. In conclusion, we showed that ischemia is certainly related to inflammation and to increased free radical production, and selective COX-2 inhibitors might be neuroprotective agents of potential benefit in the treatment of cerebral brain ischemia.

  9. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    PubMed

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  10. Guidelines to classify subject groups in sport-science research.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Cheung, Stephen S; de Geus, Bas; Rietjens, Gerard; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to outline the various preexperimental maximal cycle-test protocols, terminology, and performance indicators currently used to classify subject groups in sport-science research and to construct a classification system for cycling-related research. A database of 130 subject-group descriptions contains information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology of the subject groups, biometrical and physiological data, cycling experience, and parameters. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 1-way ANOVA, post hoc Bonferroni (P < .05), and trend lines were calculated on height, body mass, relative and absolute maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), and peak power output (PPO). During preexperimental testing, an initial workload of 100 W and a workload increase of 25 W are most frequently used. Three-minute stages provide the most reliable and valid measures of endurance performance. After obtaining data on a subject group, researchers apply various terms to define the group. To solve this complexity, the authors introduced the neutral term performance levels 1 to 5, representing untrained, recreationally trained, trained, well-trained, and professional subject groups, respectively. The most cited parameter in literature to define subject groups is relative VO(2max), and therefore no overlap between different performance levels may occur for this principal parameter. Another significant cycling parameter is the absolute PPO. The description of additional physiological information and current and past cycling data is advised. This review clearly shows the need to standardize the procedure for classifying subject groups. Recommendations are formulated concerning preexperimental testing, terminology, and performance indicators.

  11. Literacy Partners: Teacher Innovation in a Study/Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Dana L.

    A study/research partnership between university teacher educators and teachers was formed when teachers at the third-, fourth- and fifth-grade levels decided to implement an innovation called Literature Response Groups in their classrooms. The setting was an urban elementary school in northern California. Participants included six elementary…

  12. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  13. MBCP - Patients - Support Groups | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Support Groups Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) – a community of advocates, survivors, medical and research professionals united in support of people touched by bladder cancer. American Bladder Cancer Society (ABCS) – ABCS features a bladder cancer forum, treatment center finder, blog, and more . . .

  14. Developing a Physics Expert Identity in a Biophysics Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of…

  15. Infant-Toddler Group Day Care: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Sally

    Research conducted in the United States and Canada on the effects of group care outside of family settings for 20 or more hours per week on a regular basis shows few differences between day care and home reared children on four major variables: attachment, social interactions, cognitive development, and physical health. Of nine studies of…

  16. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  17. Engaging Research Groups: Rethinking Information Literacy for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Bonnie L.; Hansen, Darren B.

    2012-01-01

    Librarians have traditionally taught information literacy skills to science graduate students in separate courses dedicated to information-seeking, during assignment(s)-based library sessions for other courses, or through workshops. There is little mention in the professional literature of teaching graduate students within their research groups.…

  18. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  19. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  20. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  1. Being Researchers for the First Time: Reflections on the Development of an Inclusive Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet was an inclusive research project; it enabled a group of people with a learning disability who do not receive specialist support services to explore their own lives. This group are often labelled as having a mild learning disability. The research project focused on the strategies they used to cope with day to…

  2. Being Researchers for the First Time: Reflections on the Development of an Inclusive Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet was an inclusive research project; it enabled a group of people with a learning disability who do not receive specialist support services to explore their own lives. This group are often labelled as having a mild learning disability. The research project focused on the strategies they used to cope with day to…

  3. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  4. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Konrad; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P A; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain.

  5. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain. PMID:28282371

  6. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  7. The effect of nimesulide on oxidative damage inflicted by ischemia-reperfusion on the rat renal tissue.

    PubMed

    Suleyman, Zeynep; Sener, Ebru; Kurt, Nezahat; Comez, Mehmet; Yapanoglu, Turgut

    2015-03-01

    The objective of our study is to research biochemically and histopathologically the effect of nimesulide on oxidative damage inflicted by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) on the rat renal tissue. Twenty-four albino Wistar type of male rats were used for the experiment. The animals were divided into groups as: renal ischemia-reperfusion control (RIR), nimesulide+renal ischemia-reperfusion of 50 mg/kg (NRIR-50), nimesulide+renal ischemia-reperfusion of 100 mg/kg (NRIR-100), and sham groups (SG). In NRIR-50 and NRIR-100 groups were given nimesulide, and RIR and SG groups were given distilled water, an hour after anesthesia. Groups, except for the SG group, 1-h-ischemia and then 6-h-reperfusion were performed. In the renal tissue of the RIR group in which the malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHGua) levels were measured, the COX-1 and COX-2 activities were recorded. Nimesulide at 100 mg/kg doses reduced the oxidant parameters more significantly than 50 mg/kg doses; on the other hand, it raised the antioxidant parameters. It has been shown that 100 mg/kg doses of nimesulide prevented the renal I/R damage more significantly than a dose of 50 mg/kg, which shows that nimesulide, in clinics, could be used in the prevention of I/R damage.

  8. Conducting Nursing Intervention Research in a Cooperative Group Setting – A Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780

  9. Ellagic acid improves electrocardiogram waves and blood pressure against global cerebral ischemia rat experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Nejad, Khojasteh Hoseiny; Dianat, Mahin; Sarkaki, Alireza; Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Badavi, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global cerebral ischemia (GCIR) arises in patients that are shown a variety of clinical difficulty including cardiac arrest, asphyxia, and shock. In spite of advances in understanding of the brain, ischemia and protective effects to improve ischemic injury still remain unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) pretreatment in the rat models of global cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Physiology Research Center of the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. Adult male Wistar rats (250–300 g) were used in this study. GCIR was induced by bilateral vertebral and common carotid arteries occlusion (4-VO). 32 rats were divided randomly to four groups: 1) So (Sham) received normal saline as vehicle of EA, 2) EA, 3) normal saline + GCIR, and 4) EA + GCIR. After anesthesia (a mix of xylazine and ketamine), animal subjected to 20 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion in related groups. EA (100 mg/kg, dissolved in normal saline) or 1.5 ml/kg normal saline was administered (gavage, 10 days) to the related groups. EEG was recorded from NTS in GCIR treated groups. Results: Present data showed that: 1) EEG in GCIR treated groups was flattened; 2) Blood pressure, voltage of QRS and P-R interval were reduced significantly in the ischemic groups compared to before ischemia, and pretreatment with EA prevented this reduction; and 3) MDA level and heart rate was increased by GCIR and pretreatment with EA reduced MDA level and restored the HR to normal level. Conclusion: Results indicate that global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion impairs certain heart functions and ellagic acid as an antioxidant can restore these parameters. The results of this study suggest the possible utility of ellagic acid in patients with brain stroke. PMID:26396728

  10. Ellagic acid improves electrocardiogram waves and blood pressure against global cerebral ischemia rat experimental models.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Khojasteh Hoseiny; Dianat, Mahin; Sarkaki, Alireza; Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Badavi, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2015-08-01

    Global cerebral ischemia (GCIR) arises in patients that are shown a variety of clinical difficulty including cardiac arrest, asphyxia, and shock. In spite of advances in understanding of the brain, ischemia and protective effects to improve ischemic injury still remain unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) pretreatment in the rat models of global cerebral ischemia reperfusion. This experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Physiology Research Center of the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were used in this study. GCIR was induced by bilateral vertebral and common carotid arteries occlusion (4-VO). 32 rats were divided randomly to four groups: 1) So (Sham) received normal saline as vehicle of EA, 2) EA, 3) normal saline + GCIR, and 4) EA + GCIR. After anesthesia (a mix of xylazine and ketamine), animal subjected to 20 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion in related groups. EA (100 mg/kg, dissolved in normal saline) or 1.5 ml/kg normal saline was administered (gavage, 10 days) to the related groups. EEG was recorded from NTS in GCIR treated groups. Present data showed that: 1) EEG in GCIR treated groups was flattened; 2) Blood pressure, voltage of QRS and P-R interval were reduced significantly in the ischemic groups compared to before ischemia, and pretreatment with EA prevented this reduction; and 3) MDA level and heart rate was increased by GCIR and pretreatment with EA reduced MDA level and restored the HR to normal level. Results indicate that global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion impairs certain heart functions and ellagic acid as an antioxidant can restore these parameters. The results of this study suggest the possible utility of ellagic acid in patients with brain stroke.

  11. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  12. Cumulative Effect of Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-31

    KL, Pohost GM and Conger KA, Correlating EEG and Lactate Kinetics During Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia, Proceedings of the American Heart Association 1993...Cornelating EEG and Lactate Kinetics During Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia, Proceedings of the American Heart Association 1993. 4) HP Hetherington...thes Bernhard Foundation. ass- 134 󈧑&.1 n5. 9# American Heart Association 026085 66th Scientific Sessions Abstract Form Medical Research Nursing

  13. Using Focus Groups in the Refinement of a Research Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    were needed to obtain the different perspectives on palliative care services. In Willgerodt’s (7) project, the research aim was to determine the...McLafferty (1) conducted a study to determine attitudes of different skilled nurses and nurse lecturers towards working with older patients in a...composition. Because this study focused on the attitudes of various types of skilled nurses , McLafferty’s (1) focus groups were organized into

  14. Adolescents' understanding of research concepts: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Blake, Diane R; Lemay, Celeste A; Kearney, Margaret H; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2011-06-01

    To identify ways to improve adolescents' understanding of informed assent by exploring adolescent comprehension of concepts common to all clinical trials as well as those specific to a human immunodeficiency virus vaccine trial. Qualitative descriptive study. Community-based organizations. Healthy adolescents aged 15 to 17 years in 8 focus groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Digital recordings of the groups were transcribed verbatim. Textual data were categorized by 2 investigators using directed qualitative content analysis techniques. Major themes and subthemes were identified, and representative quotes were selected. The general research concepts that were most difficult for teens to understand were placebo and randomization. The most difficult vaccine trial concepts were how a vaccine works and that a vaccine is used for prevention rather than treatment. The most difficult human immunodeficiency virus vaccine-specific trial concept was that standard human immunodeficiency virus antibody tests might provide a false-positive result for participants receiving the test vaccine. Focus group participants wanted to be informed about adverse effects, trial procedures, and whether previous research had been performed before making a decision about trial participation. Many clinical trial concepts were difficult for teens to understand. Attention needs to be directed toward developing effective ways to explain these concepts to adolescents participating in future human immunodeficiency virus vaccine and other clinical trials.

  15. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice.

  16. Effect of ischemia preconditioning and leech therapy on cutaneous pedicle flaps subjected to prolonged ischemia in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Moosavian, Hamid Reza; Mirghazanfari, Sayid Mahdi; Moghaddam, Katayoun Gohari

    2014-10-01

    We sought to determine the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and hirudotherapy (leech therapy) on cutaneous pedicle flaps after they underwent prolonged ischemia (global ischemia) in a mouse model. Twenty cutaneous pedicle flaps were elevated in 20 mice, and the animals were randomized into four groups: sham, control, IPC and leech (5 flaps in each group). Except in the sham group, all flaps were subjected to global ischemia for 5 h via pedicle clamping. The control group did not receive any treatment before or after global ischemia. In the IPC group, global ischemia was preceded by three 10-min episodes of ischemia, each followed by 10 min of reperfusion. In the leech therapy group, after global ischemia, hirudotherapy was performed. Flap survival area and histopathological changes were evaluated on the 10th day after surgery. Flap survival areas were significantly higher in both the IPC and leech groups than in the control group and were significantly higher in the leech group than in the IPC group (p < 0.05). In conclusion IPC and hirudotherapy had definite effects on the survival area of cutaneous pedicle flaps that underwent prolonged ischemia in a mouse model.

  17. Impact of hyperthermia before and during ischemia-reperfusion on neuronal damage and gliosis in the gerbil hippocampus induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Joung; Cho, Jun Hwi; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Geum-Sil; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Choong Hyun; Bae, Eun Joo; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-15

    Hyperthermia can exacerbate the brain damage produced by ischemia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hyperthermia before and during ischemia-reperfusion on neuronal damage and glial changes in the gerbil hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. The animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1) sham-operated animals with normothermia (normothermia + sham group); (2) ischemia-operated animals with normothermia (normothermia + ischemia group); (3) sham-operated animals with hyperthermia (hyperthermia + sham group); and (4) ischemia-operated animals with hyperthermia (hyperthermia + ischemia group). Hyperthermia (39.5 ± 0.2°C) was induced by exposing the gerbils to a heating pad connected to a rectal thermistor for 30 min before and during ischemia-reperfusion. In the normothermia+ischemia groups, a significant delayed neuronal death was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In the hyperthermia+ischemia groups, neuronal death in the SP of the CA1 occurred at 1 day post-ischemia, and neuronal death was observed in the SP of the CA2/3 region at 2 days post-ischemia. In addition, we examined activations of astrocytes and microglia using immunohistochemistry for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1). GFAP-positive astrocytes and Iba-1-positive microglia in the ischemic hippocampus were activated much earlier and much more accelerated in the hyperthermia+ischemia groups than those in the normothermia+ischemia groups. Based on our findings, we suggest that an experimentally hyperthermic pre-condition before cerebral ischemic insult produces more extensive neuronal damage and glial activation in the ischemic hippocampus.

  18. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  19. Cancer and leukemia group B clinical research associates committee.

    PubMed

    Price, Kandie C; Barrett, Barbara K; Roark, Jean M

    2006-06-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B is dedicated to developing and implementing training programs that will enhance the skills and abilities of Clinical Research Associates (CRA) involved in all aspects of data collection and research. Training programs not only improve overall knowledge and professionalism but also improve the integrity of study data. The CRA roles and responsibilities include the following: collect, analyze, and monitor data; collaborate with other members of the health care team; insure regulatory mandates are followed; manage the care of research participants; assist in the recruitment and enrollment of human subjects; protect subjects rights by adhering to Institutional Review Board guidelines, the Code of Federal Regulations; prepare and submit timely adverse event experience reports; maintain case report forms and drug accountability records; educate other health care professionals, patients, and families regarding clinical trials; participate in research audits; and function as a team member with the research team. In addition, CRAs may also be responsible for writing reports, grant, and budget development and the development of protocols, forms, and informed consent documents.

  20. Functional tests for myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, J.R.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Functional tests for myocardial ischemia are numerous. Most depend upon a combination of either exercise or pharmacologic intervention with analysis of the electrocardiogram, of regional perfusion with radionuclide imaging, or of regional wall motion with radionuclide imaging or echocardiography. While each test has unique features, especially at the research level, they are generally quite similar in clinical practice, so the clinician is advised to concentrate on one or two in which local expertise is high.22 references.

  1. Using Group Research to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, A. M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C.-T. W.; Austin, C. L.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2013-04-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting extrasolar planets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kuiper Telescope using different filters to test a proposed method of detecting extrasolar planet magnetic fields. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 meter telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold star-like cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. These projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects, creating a learner-centered environment. Independent study credit is now an option for some students working on these projects.

  2. Using Group Research Projects to Stimulate Undergraduate Astronomy Major Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Turner, J. D.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-LaFollette, A. M.; Robertson, A. N.; Carleton, T. M.; Smart, B. M.; Towner, A. P. M.; Wallace, S. C.; Smith, C. W.; Small, L. C.; Daugherty, M. J.; Guvenen, B. C.; Crawford, B. E.; Austin, C. L.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2012-05-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been working on two large group research projects since 2009. One research project is a transiting extrasolar planet project that is fully student led and run. We observed the transiting exoplanets, TrES-3b and TrES-4b, with the 1.55 meter Kupier Telescope in near-UV and optical filters in order to detect any asymmetries between filters. The second project is a radio astronomy survey utilizing the Arizona Radio Observatory 12m telescope on Kitt Peak to study molecular gas in cold cores identified by the Planck all sky survey. This project provides a unique opportunity for a large group of students to get hands-on experience observing with a world-class radio observatory. These projects involve students in every single step of the process including: proposal writing to obtain telescope time on various Southern Arizona telescopes, observing at these telescopes, data reduction and analysis, managing large data sets, and presenting results at scientific meetings and in journal publications. The primary goal of these projects is to involve students in cutting-edge research early on in their undergraduate studies. The projects are designed to be continuous long term projects so that new students can easily join. As of January 2012 the extrasolar planet project became an official independent study class. New students learn from the more experienced students on the projects creating a learner-centered environment.

  3. Marked difference in tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in warm ischemia- and cold ischemia-reperfusion of the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lutterová, M; Szatmáry, Z; Kukan, M; Kuba, D; Vajdová, K

    2000-12-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha has been implicated in liver injury after both warm ischemia- and cold ischemia-reperfusion, it is unclear whether reactivity of the liver to these stimuli is similar with regard to cytokine expression. Here we compare the effects of warm and cold ischemia on tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression and test the hypothesis that cold ischemia preceding warm ischemia causes overexpression of this cytokine. Rat livers were flushed out with University of Wisconsin solution and subjected to varying periods of warm ischemia, cold ischemia, or cold ischemia plus warm ischemia followed by reperfusion using a blood-free perfusion model. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 release into the perfusate and bile were measured by ELISA, and expression of these cytokines and that of c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc were studied by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We found high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the perfusates of livers subjected to warm ischemia-reperfusion, whereas minimal or no tumor necrosis factor-alpha was detected in livers subjected to cold ischemia-reperfusion or to cold ischemia plus warm ischemia-reperfusion. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed the above findings and showed that immediate early genes were expressed in reperfused groups of livers. Measurements of cytokine release into bile showed that neither tumor necrosis factor-alpha nor interleukin-10 were upregulated by cold ischemia-reperfusion. The results suggest that (1) warm ischemia- and cold ischemia-reperfusion of rat liver lead to very different outcomes with regard to tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression and (2) cold ischemia preceding warm ischemia prevents upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. The 2010 IADR--Geriatric Oral Research Group satellite meeting.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Martin

    2012-09-01

    On 12 and 13 July, the 2010 IADR General Session satellite meeting of the IADR - Geriatric Oral Research Group (GORG) - was attended by around 60 participants in the beautiful surroundings of Sitges in the outskirts of Barcelona, Spain. The speakers reflected on the main topics 'Disparities and Expectations in Oral Healthcare: An Elderly Focus' and 'Risks and Benefits of Ageing with a Natural Dentition', which was followed by fruitful discussions in the auditorium and the jointly enjoyed meals. The Sitges meeting comprised lectures of distinguished speakers as well as poster presentations, which discussed and defined the situation of research in the field of gerodontology today as well as the development since the last GORG satellite symposium held on Vancouver Island in 1999. Despite enormous progress over the last 10 years, many important questions concerning economics, regulation, the implementation of oral health care, treatment protocols as well as general health implications of oral disease in the frail and elderly remain still unanswered.

  5. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  6. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  7. Focused Research Group in Correlated Electron and Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziqiang

    2016-02-17

    While the remarkable physical properties of correlated and complex electronic materials hold great promise for technological applications, one of the key values of the research in this field is its profound impact on fundamental physics. The transition metal oxides, pnictides, and chalcogenides play a key role and occupy an especially important place in this field. The basic reason is that the outer shell of transition metals contains the atomic d-orbitals that have small spatial extent, but not too small to behave as localized orbtials. These d-electrons therefore have a small wave function overlap in a solid, e.g. in an octahedral environment, and form energy bands that are relatively narrow and on the scale of the short-range intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion (Hubbard U). In this intermediate correlation regime lies the challenge of the many-body physics responsible for new and unconventional physical properties. The study of correlated electron and complex materials represents both the challenge and the vitality of condensed matter and materials physics and often demands close collaborations among theoretical and experimental groups with complementary techniques. Our team has a track record and a long-term research goal of studying the unusual complexities and emergent behaviors in the charge, spin, and orbital sectors of the transition metal compounds in order to gain basic knowledge of the quantum electronic states of matter. During the funding period of this grant, the team continued their close collaborations between theory, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy and made significant progress and contributions to the field of iron-based superconductors, copper-oxide high-temperature superconductors, triangular lattice transition metal oxide cobaltates, strontium ruthenates, spin orbital coupled iridates, as well as topological insulators and other topological quantum states of matter. These results include both new

  8. Effect of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Administration and Mild Hypothermia Induction on Delayed Neuronal Death After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Jeong, Ju-Yeon; Chung, Sung Phil; Kwon, Sung Won; Suh, Sang Won

    2017-05-01

    Global cerebral ischemia is a cause of poor prognosis after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Various attempts have been made to minimize global cerebral ischemia but none been more effective than mild hypothermia induction. A few studies have shown the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on global cerebral ischemia, but no studies have compared this effect with mild hypothermia or assessed any possible interaction. We aimed to show the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on delayed neuronal death after global cerebral ischemia and to compare this effect with mild hypothermia. Experimental study. Animal research laboratory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g. Rats were subjected to 7 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia and randomized into four groups: control, mild hypothermia, injection of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and combined application of mild hypothermia and mesenchymal stem cells, along with four sham groups treated identically. Rats were euthanized 7 days after global cerebral ischemia. Degree of neuronal death in hippocampus was significantly higher in control than in other groups. The number of activated microglia was higher in control group than in other groups and was higher in mild hypothermia than shams, mesenchymal stem cells, mild hypothermia/mesenchymal stem cells. Degree of blood-brain barrier disruption and the count of infiltrated neutrophils were significantly higher in control than in other groups. Degree of oxidative injury was significantly higher in control than other groups. It was higher in mild hypothermia than sham groups, mesenchymal stem cells, mild hypothermia/mesenchymal stem cells and was higher in mesenchymal stem cells group than sham groups. Significantly, worse functional results were found in control than in other groups. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells after transient global cerebral ischemia has a prominent protective effect on delayed neuron death, even compared with mild

  9. Group-effort Applied Research: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…

  10. Strengthening research capacity in the Pacific: an example from the Atoifi Health Research Group, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, David; Asugeni, James; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    To provide an example of one model of research capacity building for mental health from a remote setting in Solomon Islands. The Atoifi Health Research Group is building health research capacity with a health service on the remote east coast of Malaita, Solomon Islands. The group uses a 'learn-by-doing' approach embedded in health service and community-level health projects. The group is eclectic in nature and deliberately engages a variety of partners to discover culturally informed methods of collecting, analysing and disseminating research findings. Key successes of the Atoifi Health Research Group are: that it was initiated by Solomon Islanders with self-expressed desire to learn about research; the learn-by-doing model; inclusion of community people to inform questions and socio-cultural appropriateness; and commitment to ongoing support by international researchers. Given different social, cultural, economic, geographic, spiritual and service contexts across the Pacific, locally appropriate approaches need to be considered. Such approaches challenge the orthodox approach of centralized investment to replicate specialist driven approaches of funder nations. Increasing expertise at all levels through participatory capacity building models that define and address local problems may be more sustainable and responsive to local mental health contexts. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. Evaluation of cold ischemia for preservation of testicular function during partial orchiectomy in the rat model

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Erin R.; Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro J.; Routh, Jonathan C.; Rouse, Douglas; Madden, John F.; Wiener, John S.; Rushton, Harry G.; Ross, Sherry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that cold ischemia during partial orchiectomy would lead to higher serum testosterone levels and preservation of testicular architecture than warm ischemia in a prepubescent rat model. Materials and methods Eighteen prepubescent male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized to three different surgical groups: sham surgery, bilateral partial orchiectomy with 30 min of cord compression with cold ischemia, or bilateral partial orchiectomy with 30 min of cord compression with warm ischemia. Animals were killed at puberty, and serum, sperm, and testicles were collected. Histological tissue injury was graded by standardized methodology. Results Mean serum testosterone levels were 1445 ± 590 pg/mL for the sham group, 449 ± 268 pg/mL for the cold ischemia group and 879 ± 631 pg/mL for the warm ischemia group (p = 0.12). Mean sperm counts were 2.1 × 107 for sham, 4.4 × 106 for cold ischemia, and 9.9 × 106 for the warm ischemia groups (p = 0.48). Histological evaluation revealed significant difference in tissue injury grading with more injury in the cold ischemia than in the warm ischemia group (p = 0.01). Conclusions In our preclinical rat model, we found no benefit for cold ischemia over warm ischemia at 30 min. PMID:25128916

  12. The ubiquitin proteasome system and myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Calise, Justine

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) has been the subject of intensive research over the past 20 years to define its role in normal physiology and in pathophysiology. Many of these studies have focused in on the cardiovascular system and have determined that the UPS becomes dysfunctional in several pathologies such as familial and idiopathic cardiomyopathies, atherosclerosis, and myocardial ischemia. This review presents a synopsis of the literature as it relates to the role of the UPS in myocardial ischemia. Studies have shown that the UPS is dysfunctional during myocardial ischemia, and recent studies have shed some light on possible mechanisms. Other studies have defined a role for the UPS in ischemic preconditioning which is best associated with myocardial ischemia and is thus presented here. Very recent studies have started to define roles for specific proteasome subunits and components of the ubiquitination machinery in various aspects of myocardial ischemia. Lastly, despite the evidence linking myocardial ischemia and proteasome dysfunction, there are continuing suggestions that proteasome inhibitors may be useful to mitigate ischemic injury. This review presents the rationale behind this and discusses both supportive and nonsupportive studies and presents possible future directions that may help in clarifying this controversy. PMID:23220331

  13. [Evaluation of brain ischemia by mitochondrial respiration: experimental model].

    PubMed

    Carlotti, C G; Colli, B O; Kazuo, J Y

    2001-06-01

    Brain ischemia occurs in several diseases. One of the critical factors for recovery of patients is the duration of the ischemic process. Brain activity depends on the energetic supply, it suggests that the study of mitochondrial function can be useful for evaluation of neuronal damage. The purpose of the present research was to study the mitochondrial respiration by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery by intraluminal suture technique. Adults Wistar rats were subdivided in 4 groups: control, 15, 30 and 60 minutes of occlusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the group of 15 minutes and the control group. The group of 30 minutes had significant decrease of state III of mitochondrial respiration compared with control group. The group of 60 minutes had significant decrease in state III and IV of mitochondrial respiration compared with control group. Mitochondrial respiration allowed an early and effective evaluation of focal ischemic process of the rat brain.

  14. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  15. UCM Meteor and Fireball Research group: Results 2012--2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Izquierdo, J.; Pascual, S.; Palos, M. F.; Oré, S.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Zamora, S.; Lorenzo, C.; San Juan, R.; Muñoz-Ibáñez, B.; Vázquez, C.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Gallego, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Most of the activity of the group is based on the Fireball Detection Station located at the Observatorio UCM, a system consisting of 6 high-sensitivity videocameras covering the whole sky with wide-angle lenses during nighttime. Another 15 cameras have been placed by the researchers between 10 and 200 km away from Madrid for multiple station observations. It works as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN), a network of similar stations covering the atmosphere over Spain. Besides the continuous monitoring, the group has worked on the recording and analysis of some meteor showers. Most of the attention was focused on the Draconids 2011 campaign at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M., Madiedo, J. M., Williams, I. P., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 560; Ocaña, F., Palos, M. F., Zamorano, J., et al. 2013, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, 31st IMC, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, 2012, 70), and the 2012 Geminids balloon-borne mission over Spain (Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Madiedo, J. M., et al. 2013, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, 2202). The products of the station have been used for undergraduate thesis projects at the Physics Faculty (Ocaña, F., 2011, UCM e-prints, 13292) and other undergraduate projects. In 2013 the station received new equipment thanks to the Certamen Arquímedes award, complementing the detection with spectroscopic and frame-integrating devices.

  16. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!).

    PubMed

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-06-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  17. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!)

    PubMed Central

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/. PMID:24982016

  18. Citing Dynamic Data - Research Data Alliance working group recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Rauber, Andreas; Pröll, Stefan; van Uytvanck, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Geosciences research data sets are typically dynamic: changing over time as new records are added, errors are corrected and obsolete records are deleted from the data sets. Researchers often use only parts of the data sets or data stream, creating specific subsets tailored to their experiments. In order to keep such experiments reproducible and to share and cite the particular data used in a study, researchers need means of identifying the exact version of a subset as it was used during a specific execution of a workflow, even if the data source is continuously evolving. Some geosciences data services have tried to approach this problem by creating static versions of their data sets, and some have simply ignored this issue. The RDA Working Group on Dynamic Data Citation (WGDC) has instead approached the issue with a set of recommendations based upon versioned data, timestamping and a query based subsetting mechanism. The 14 RDA WGDC recommendations on how to adapt a data source for providing identifiable subsets for the long term are: Preparing the Data and the Query Store R1 - Data Versioning R2 - Timestamping R3 - Query Store Facilities Persistently Identifying Specific Data Sets R4 - Query Uniqueness R5 - Stable Sorting R6 - Result Set Verification R7 - Query Timestamping R8 - Query PID R9 - Store the Query R10 - Automated Citation Texts Resolving PIDs and Retrieving the Data - R11 - Landing Page R12 - Machine Actionability Upon modifications to the Data Infrastructure R13 - Technology Migration R14 - Migration Verification We present a detailed discussion of the recommendations, the rationale behind them, and give examples of how to implement them.

  19. [Spanish paediatric research in ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA: research groups and research areas (2003-2009)].

    PubMed

    González Alcaide, G; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Aleixandre Benavent, R; González de Dios, J

    2011-04-01

    Authorships of scientific papers are a significant milestone for researchers. Quantification of authors' contribution in research papers makes it possible to investigate patterns of research collaboration and interactions in scientific community. The objective of this paper is to analyse scientific collaboration and to identify research groups and research areas of ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA. Papers published in ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA between 2003 and 2009 period were selected from Medline. An author name normalization process was carried out. Productivity and scientific collaboration indexes have been determined. Research groups have been identified through co-authorships networks analysis. Thematic areas of research and major domains of research groups have been characterised by means of quantification of Medical Subject Headings terms assigned to documents. An analysis was made of 1,828 documents published by 4,695 authors. The collaboration index (articles) was 5.3 ± 2.3. A total of 97 research groups consisting of between 2 and 80 researchers, which add up 415 researchers have been identified. The main diseases and medical signs studied were asthma (n = 35), multiple abnormalities (n = 28), premature diseases (n = 25), sepsis (n = 24), congenital heart defects (n = 23), respiratory insufficiency (n = 22), HIV infections (n = 21), streptococcal infections (n = 20) and gastroenteritis (n = 20). ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA is one of the most productive Spanish medical journals. Author's collaboration was similar to those observed in other Spanish clinical journals included in Journal Citation Reports. A remarkable number of paediatric research groups publishing on many topics have been identified. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure Family history of vascular disease Warning Signs You may have critical limb ischemia if ... blood flow to the limb. Other treatments include laser atherectomy, where small bits of plaque are vaporized ...

  1. Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Involved Get Involved Resources Educational Flyers Video Library Types of Vascular Diseases Papers & Presentations News News Items Press Releases Newsletters Events Donate Donate Now Ways to Give Individual Donors Corporate Sponsors Donor Privacy Policy Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) ...

  2. [Chronic mesenteric ischemia revisited].

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Germano; Rosa, António; Ministro, Augusto; Pestana, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The authors report two clinical cases of rare and complex situations - an aortic dissection and an aortitis -, which had as a common denominator a chronic mesenteric ischemia. They discuss the indications and surgical strategies adopted.

  3. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR): Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research Through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student - one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's lab. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student - one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this paper, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience. PMID:24898007

  4. Group-effort applied research: expanding opportunities for undergraduate research through original, class-based research projects.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean D; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's laboratory. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student-one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this article, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. [Spinal cord ischemia].

    PubMed

    Masson, C; Leys, D; Meder, J F; Dousset, V; Pruvo, J P

    2004-01-01

    Traditional data and recent advances in the field of spinal cord ischemia are reviewed, with special attention to clinical and radiological features, as well as underlying etiology, outcome, and pathophysiology. Acute spinal cord ischemia includes arterial and venous infarction and global ischemia resulting from cardiac arrest or severe hypotension. MRI has become the technique of choice for the imaging diagnosis of spinal cord infarction. Correlation of clinical and MRI data has allowed diagnosis of clinical syndromes due to small infarcts in the central or peripheral arterial territory of the spinal cord. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging may increase the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of acute spinal cord infarction. Diagnosis of venous spinal cord infarction remains difficult. As for global ischemia, neuropathological studies demonstrated a great sensitivity of spinal cord to ischemia, with selective vulnerability of lumbosacral neurons. Chronic spinal cord ischemia results in a syndrome of progressive myelopathy. The cause is usually an arteriovenous malformation. Most often, diagnosis may be suspected on MRI, leading to diagnostic, and eventually therapeutic, spinal angiography.

  6. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  7. Nuclear decay data files of the Dosimetry Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the nuclear decay data files used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the utility DEXRAX which provides access to the files. The files are accessed, by nuclide, to extract information on the intensities and energies of the radiations associated with spontaneous nuclear transformation of the radionuclides. In addition, beta spectral data are available for all beta-emitting nuclides. Two collections of nuclear decay data are discussed. The larger collection contains data for 838 radionuclides, which includes the 825 radionuclides assembled during the preparation of Publications 30 and 38 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and 13 additional nuclides evaluated in preparing a monograph for the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The second collection is composed of data from the MIRD monograph and contains information for 242 radionuclides. Abridged tabulations of these data have been published by the ICRP in Publication 38 and by the Society of Nuclear Medicine in a monograph entitled ``MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes.`` The beta spectral data reported here have not been published by either organization. Electronic copies of the files and the utility, along with this report, are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  8. The history of the Drug Utilization Research Group in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ulf

    2006-02-01

    Following the recommendations from a World Health Organization (WHO)/Euro symposium Consumption of drugs in 1969, a common classification system for drugs was developed, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC), and a technical unit of comparison, the Defined Daily Dose (DDD), as a comparative unit of drug use. This was found to be robust across therapeutic classifications, dosing forms and diverse populations. To maintain and develop the ATC/DDD system a WHO-Collaborating Centre was established in Oslo. As this was found to be of global interest the centre now reports to the WHO headquarters in Geneva. An informal WHO Drug Utilization Research Group (WHO-DURG), later the EuroDURG, has by now met 28 times in Europe. Since 1994 in Stockholm all these meetings have been with ISPE (International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology) when meeting in Europe. The main focus was initially to improve drug utilization through cross-national drug utilization studies based on the ATC/DDD methodology as they revealed large differences between and within countries that could not easily be explained by morbidity differences alone. These observed differences have led to the expansion of the area to include social, economic and qualitative methods with a more generalized public health focus. One of the most recent contributions was the development of drug use quality indicators.

  9. Isoflurane administration before ischemia and during reperfusion attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury of isolated rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Ishibe, Y; Ueda, M; Hang, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the effects of isoflurane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury, we administered isoflurane before ischemia or during reperfusion. Isolated rabbit lungs were divided into the following groups: control (n = 6), perfused and ventilated for 120 min without ischemia; ISO-control (n = 6), 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane was administered for 30 min before 120 min continuous perfusion; IR (n = 6), ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion; IR-ISO1 and IR-ISO2, ischemia followed by reperfusion and 1 MAC (n = 6) or 2 MAC (n = 6) isoflurane for 60 min; ISO-IR (n = 6), 1 MAC isoflurane was administered for 30 min before ischemia, followed by IR. During these maneuvers, we measured total pulmonary vascular resistance (Rt), coefficient of filtration (Kfc), and lung wet to dry ratio (W/D). The results indicated that administration of isoflurane during reperfusion inhibited an IR-induced increase in Kfc and W/D ratio. Furthermore, isoflurane at 2 MAC, but not 1 MAC, significantly inhibited an IR-induced increase in Rt. The administration of isoflurane before ischemia significantly attenuated the increase in IR-induced Kfc, W/D, and Rt. Our results suggest that the administration of isoflurane before ischemia and during reperfusion protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in isolated rabbit lungs.

  10. Growing Researchers from the Historically Disadvantaged Groups through Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mda, Thobeka

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the nature and quality of research supervision and mentorship practices employed by supervisors and mentors of interns in a South African research council in an attempt to increase the pool and change the face of researchers in the country. Through a series of studies conducted by the research council, the…

  11. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Nabi; Khaksari, Mehdi; Erfani, Sohaila; Rajabi, Hamid; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral ischemic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction through occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic exercise significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration. PMID:26487851

  12. [A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-wei; Liu, Ze-jun; Zhao, Pei-qing; Bai, Shao-ying; Pang, Xing-huo; Wang, Zhi-ming; Jin, Tai-yi; Lan, Ya-jia

    2006-11-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets(235 scientific research group, 857 technical group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the technical group and scientific research group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for technical group and scientific research group were established. OSI-R profile from for technical group and scientific research group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70T indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60T to 69T suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40T indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30T indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30T to 39T suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60T indicate a strong levels of coping resources. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  13. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group.

    PubMed

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B; Fischer, Jonathan P; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A

    2015-11-01

    Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education.

  14. Replicating Small Group Research Using the Functional Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Wright, David W.

    A replication study tested functional theory utilizing untrained full-fledged groups. One hundred forty undergraduate students who were enrolled in a small group communication course at a large midwestern university participated in small group discussions analyzing a plagiarism case used in an original study by R. Y. Hirokawa. Results indicated…

  15. Student or Scholar? Transforming Identities through a Research Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassig, Carly J.; Dillon, Lisette H.; Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role a writing group played in influencing the scholarly identities of a group of doctoral students by fostering their writing expertise. While the interest in writing groups usually centres on their potential to support doctoral students to publish, few studies have been conducted and written by the students themselves.…

  16. The effect of aloe vera on ischemia--Reperfusion injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Guven, Mustafa; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Aslan, Esra; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Cosar, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Aloe vera is compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of aloe vera treatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury. Twenty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Groups; Control group (no surgical procedure or medication), sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group, sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+aloe vera group and sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+methylprednisolone group. Ischemia was performed by clamping the infrarenal abdominal aorta. 24 hours after ischemia, all animals were sacrificed. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically and biochemically. Ischemic fiber degeneration significantly decreased in the pre-treated with aloe vera and treated with methylprednisolone groups, especially in the pre-treated with aloe vera group, compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group (p<0.05). A significant decrease in MDA, an increase in NRF1 level and SOD activity were observed in the groups which obtained from the AV and MP groups when compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group. When all results were analysed it was seen that the aloe vera group was not statistically different compared to the MP group (p>0.05). Aloe vera is effective neuroprotective against sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Also aloe vera was found to be as effective as MP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Deborah

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible conflict of interest resulting from the Environmental Protection Agency's participation with the automobile and oil industries in the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, an organization which has sponsored much of the research important to federal regulation of clean air. (JR)

  18. Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Deborah

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible conflict of interest resulting from the Environmental Protection Agency's participation with the automobile and oil industries in the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, an organization which has sponsored much of the research important to federal regulation of clean air. (JR)

  19. Invasive Species Working Group: Research Summary and Expertise Directory

    Treesearch

    Jack Butler; Dean Pearson; Mee-Sook Kim

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) personnel have scientific expertise in widely ranging disciplines and conduct multidisciplinary research on invasive species issues with emphasis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats throughout the Interior West, Great Plains, and related areas (fig. 1; Expertise Directory; appendix). RMRS invasive species research covers an array...

  20. Quercetin protects rat skeletal muscle from ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ekinci Akdemir, Fazile Nur; Gülçin, İlhami; Karagöz, Berna; Soslu, Recep

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential beneficial effects of quercetin on skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley type rats were randomly divided into four groups. In the sham group, only gastrocnemius muscle were removed and given no quercetin. In ischemia group, all the femoral artery, vein and collaterals were occluded in the left hindlimb by applying tourniquate under general anaesthesia for three hours but reperfusion was not done. In the Quercetin + Ischemia reperfusion group, quercetin (200 mg kg(-1) dose orally) was given during one-week reoperation and later ischemia reperfusion model was done. Finally, gastrocnemius muscle samples were removed to measure biochemical parameters. The biomarkers, MDA levels, SOD, CAT and GPx activities, were evaluated related to skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury. MDA levels reduced and SOD, CAT and GPx activities increased significantly in Quercetin + Ischemia reperfusion group. Results clearly showed that Quercetin have a protective role against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion in rats.

  1. How Group Dynamics Research Can Inform the Theory and Practice of Postsecondary Small Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Michael; Michaelsen, Larry K.

    2007-01-01

    After a brief review of integrative small group learning models that have appeared in the educational psychology literature, this article then looks into the group dynamics literature and describes one of that field's most well-documented findings: that interactions among group members change somewhat predictably over time. How theorists from…

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Pregabalin on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Aşcı, Sanem; Demirci, Serpil; Aşcı, Halil; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Onaran, İbrahim

    2016-03-01

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and the leading cause of disability in adults. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury causes cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and neuronal death. In post-ischemic reperfusion, free radical production causes brain tissue damage by oxidative stress. Pregabalin, an antiepileptic agent was shown to have antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of pregabalin on ischemia and reperfusion in rat brain injury. Animal experimentation. Male Wistar rats weighing (250-300 g) were randomly divided into six groups, each consisting of 6 rats: control (C), pregabalin (P), ischemia (I), pregabalin + ischemia (PI), ischemia + reperfusion (IR) and ischemia + reperfusion + pregabalin (PIR). Rats were initially pre-treated with 50 mg/kg/d pregabalin orally for two days. Then, animals that applied ischemia in I, PI, IR and PIR groups were exposed to carotid clamping for 30 minutes and 20 minutes reperfusion was performed in the relevant reperfusion groups. NR2B receptor levels were significantly lower in the PIR group in comparison to the IR group. In the PIR group, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level had statistically significant decrease compared with IR group. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels were also significantly increased in the PIR group compared with I, IR and control groups. In the PI and PIR groups, catalase (CAT) levels were also significantly increased compared with I and IR groups (p=0.03 and p=0.07, respectively). Pregabalin may protect the damage of oxidative stress after ischemia + reperfusion. This result would illuminate clinical studies in the future.

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of Pregabalin on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Aşcı, Sanem; Demirci, Serpil; Aşcı, Halil; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Onaran, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and the leading cause of disability in adults. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury causes cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and neuronal death. Aims: In post-ischemic reperfusion, free radical production causes brain tissue damage by oxidative stress. Pregabalin, an antiepileptic agent was shown to have antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of pregabalin on ischemia and reperfusion in rat brain injury. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing (250–300 g) were randomly divided into six groups, each consisting of 6 rats: control (C), pregabalin (P), ischemia (I), pregabalin + ischemia (PI), ischemia + reperfusion (IR) and ischemia + reperfusion + pregabalin (PIR). Rats were initially pre-treated with 50 mg/kg/d pregabalin orally for two days. Then, animals that applied ischemia in I, PI, IR and PIR groups were exposed to carotid clamping for 30 minutes and 20 minutes reperfusion was performed in the relevant reperfusion groups. Results: NR2B receptor levels were significantly lower in the PIR group in comparison to the IR group. In the PIR group, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level had statistically significant decrease compared with IR group. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels were also significantly increased in the PIR group compared with I, IR and control groups. In the PI and PIR groups, catalase (CAT) levels were also significantly increased compared with I and IR groups (p=0.03 and p=0.07, respectively). Conclusion: Pregabalin may protect the damage of oxidative stress after ischemia + reperfusion. This result would illuminate clinical studies in the future. PMID:27403394

  4. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, year four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.

  5. A reproductive hazards research agenda for the 1990s. Research Needs Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, M; Silbergeld, E; Mattison, D

    1993-01-01

    There is substantial scientific and public concern about the potential effects of occupational and environmental toxicants on reproductive health. These effects include impaired functioning of the reproductive systems of men and women as well as a broad spectrum of developmental problems expressed in offspring. Research on reproduction and development is among the most complex undertakings in biomedical research. This complexity is due in part to the intricate biology of reproduction, the multiple targets involved (male, female, and offspring), the uncertainties in extrapolating from animal models to humans, and the problems involved in accurately characterizing exposures and outcomes in epidemiologic investigations. However, given the relatively brief history of research into toxicant-induced reproductive health effects, we have made enormous strides in our knowledge over the past decade. In particular, recent advances in reproductive biology and biotechnology and in the development of biological markers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility are greatly enhancing our ability to study cause-effect relationships. In this paper, the Research Needs Working Group proposes ways to apply existing knowledge to better protect reproductive health and suggests directions for future research. Fulfilling this challenging agenda will require responsible cooperation by labor, industry, government, individual citizens, and the scientific community. Further research and collaboration are essential to both prevent adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes and to formulate a sound scientific basis for policy making. PMID:8243388

  6. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the

  7. Evolution and Social Dynamics of Acknowledged Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in higher education institutions characteristic of a knowledge society are strongly affecting academic life, scientists' working conditions and the social dynamics of scientific groups. In such situations, it is important to understand the different ways in which these groups are tackling the structural dilemmas posed by the changes…

  8. Evolution and Social Dynamics of Acknowledged Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in higher education institutions characteristic of a knowledge society are strongly affecting academic life, scientists' working conditions and the social dynamics of scientific groups. In such situations, it is important to understand the different ways in which these groups are tackling the structural dilemmas posed by the changes…

  9. Assessing Undergraduate Curriculum for the Adult Learner: Focus Group Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia B.

    Focus group discussions were held to determine the perceptions of 8 male and 28 female adult students regarding the quality of their undergraduate evening program at a medium-sized public liberal arts college. The students voluntarily participated in one of three group sessions at which the following topics were discussed: whether evening students…

  10. 1994 NAEP U.S. History Group Assessment. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Madeline; Lazer, Stephen; Mazzeo, John; Mead, Nancy; Pearlmutter, Amy

    This report documents the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) special pilot study of group assessment. In 1994, NAEP administered U.S. History projects to a limited number of students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of group assessment, and to gain practical experience in the design, development,…

  11. GUIDANCE RESEARCH IN ACTION, GROUP COUNSELING WITH PARENTS, MONOGRAPH 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAW, MERVILLE C.; TUEL, JOHN K.

    THE SECOND PHASE OF A 3-YEAR STUDY TO DEFINE AN OBJECTIVE FOR GUIDANCE SERVICES IS PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITH THE INCLUSION OF TEACHERS IN GROUP COUNSELING AND THE CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF GROUP COUNSELING WITH PARENTS. THE 22 PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS FROM SIX SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN CALIFORNIA AND NEW MEXICO INCLUDED K-12 FROM ALL SOCIOECONOMIC LEVELS. TO…

  12. Focus Groups: An Important Research Technique for Internal Evaluation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara Poitras

    1993-01-01

    The use of focus groups by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a tool of internal evaluation is described. Focus groups are used in an environment where credibility is key to achieving meaningful cooperation. Issues for consideration by other evaluators interested in the approach are summarized. (SLD)

  13. AAAS Report IX: Research & Development, FY 1985. Intersociety Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report consists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science overview of research and development (R&D) in the fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and its associated policy issues, together with special analyses of several important topics, such as funding for basic research. A set of overview tables is included. Part II…

  14. AAAS Report IX: Research & Development, FY 1985. Intersociety Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report consists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science overview of research and development (R&D) in the fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and its associated policy issues, together with special analyses of several important topics, such as funding for basic research. A set of overview tables is included. Part II…

  15. TAFE Curriculum Research: A Review of Group Process Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tony; Jones, Neil

    The issue of how to react quickly to the educational needs arising from technological change has been deemed a central problem facing Technical and Further Education (TAFE) in Australia. Therefore, a national study examined various curriculum research methods that hold promise for speeding up the curriculum research and development process. The…

  16. [Cerebral ischemia and histamine].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naoto

    2002-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which provoke catastrophic enzymatic processes leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays the role of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and histaminergic fibers are widely distributed in the brain. In cerebral ischemia, release of histamine from nerve endings has been shown to be enhanced by facilitation of its activity. An inhibition of the histaminergic activity in ischemia aggravates the histologic outcome. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of histamine improves the aggravation, whereas blockade of histamine H2 receptors aggravates ischemic injury. Furthermore, H2 blockade enhances ischemic release of glutamate and dopamine. These findings suggest that central histamine provides beneficial effects against ischemic neuronal damage by suppressing release of excitatory neurotransmitters. However, histaminergic H2 action facilitates the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and shows deleterious effects on cerebral edema.

  17. Ischemia reperfusion injury, ischemic conditioning and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lejay, Anne; Fang, Fei; John, Rohan; Van, Julie A D; Barr, Meredith; Thaveau, Fabien; Chakfe, Nabil; Geny, Bernard; Scholey, James W

    2016-02-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion, which is characterized by deficient oxygen supply and subsequent restoration of blood flow, can cause irreversible damages to tissue. Mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion injury are complex, multifactorial and highly integrated. Extensive research has focused on increasing organ tolerance to ischemia reperfusion injury, especially through the use of ischemic conditioning strategies. Of morbidities that potentially compromise the protective mechanisms of the heart, diabetes mellitus appears primarily important to study. Diabetes mellitus increases myocardial susceptibility to ischemia reperfusion injury and also modifies myocardial responses to ischemic conditioning strategies by disruption of intracellular signaling responsible for enhancement of resistance to cell death. The purpose of this review is twofold: first, to summarize mechanisms underlying ischemia reperfusion injury and the signal transduction pathways underlying ischemic conditioning cardioprotection; and second, to focus on diabetes mellitus and mechanisms that may be responsible for the lack of effect of ischemic conditioning strategies in diabetes.

  18. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B.; Fischer, Jonathan P.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S.; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D.; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education. PMID:26594297

  19. Research on the Problem and Countermeasures of Group-Buying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yahui; Li, Wei; Cheng, Limin

    The threshold of group-buying is low, so the group-buying develops very fast. But at the same time, there are many goods which have low price and high quality service which is false to get the network users' trust. Therefore, consumers should keep a clear head and avoiding straying into the trap of business, the website of group-buying should strengthen self-construction to safeguard the consumers' interest. In addition, government needs to play its due role to protect the legitimate right of the consumers.

  20. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-1α and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

  1. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-1α and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  2. The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C.; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Adan, Ana; Batty, G. David; Fliervoet, Lies A.L.; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L. Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J.L.; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S.; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  3. The alcohol hangover research group consensus statement on best practice in alcohol hangover research.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M; Adan, Ana; Batty, G David; Fliervoet, Lies A L; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J L; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies.

  4. Enhanced fibrinolysis protects against lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christine L; Zhao, Yunge; Kim, Jiyoun; Kron, Irving L; Sharma, Ashish; Yang, Zequan; Laubach, Victor E; Linden, Joel; Ailawadi, Gorav; Pinsky, David J

    2009-05-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury continues to plague the field of lung transplantation, resulting in suboptimal outcomes. In acute lung injury, processes such as ventilator-induced injury, sepsis, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, extravascular fibrin has been shown to promote lung dysfunction and the acute inflammatory response. This study investigates the role of the fibrinolytic cascade in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and investigates the interplay between the fibrinolytic system and the inflammatory response. Mice lacking the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (PAI-1 knock out, PAI-1 KO; and thus increased lysis of endogenous fibrin) and wild-type mice underwent in situ left lung ischemia and reperfusion. Fibrin content in the lung was evaluated by immunoblotting. Reperfusion injury was assessed by histologic and physiologic parameters. Proinflammatory mediators were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ischemia-reperfusion causes fibrin deposition in murine lungs. Less fibrin was seen in PAI-1 KO mice than in wild-type mice subjected to the same ischemia-reperfusion conditions. By histologic criteria, more evidence of ischemia-reperfusion injury was noted (thickening of the interstium, cellular infiltration in the alveoli) in the wild-type than in PAI-1 KO mice. Physiologic parameters also revealed more ischemia-reperfusion injury in the wild-type than in PAI-1 KO mice. Cytokine and chemokines were elevated more in the wild-type group than the PAI-1 KO group. Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury triggers fibrin deposition in the murine lungs and fibrin creates a proinflammatory environment. Preventing fibrin deposition may reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation. This finding may lead to novel treatment strategies for ischemia-reperfusion.

  5. 75 FR 8330 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: EPA has authorized contractor, Eastern Research Group... Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the confidential data will occur no sooner than...

  6. Research Project Concerning Students From Minority Groups. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, John H.

    The motivation of this project was a desire on the part of the Harvard Business School to augment equality of career opportunities in management for minority group members and to insure expanded managerial training so that new capabilities would be developed to match new opportunities. This document describes programs undertaken by the faculty and…

  7. Ten Years of Research on Group Size and Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latane, Bibb; Nida, Steve

    1981-01-01

    Reviewed research on the effect of the presence of other people on individuals' willingness to help in an emergency. Attention was paid to the nature of the precipitating incident; ambiguity of the helping situation; laboratory versus field settings; characteristics of subjects, victims, and bystanders; and communication among bystanders.…

  8. Ten Years of Research on Group Size and Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latane, Bibb; Nida, Steve

    1981-01-01

    Reviewed research on the effect of the presence of other people on individuals' willingness to help in an emergency. Attention was paid to the nature of the precipitating incident; ambiguity of the helping situation; laboratory versus field settings; characteristics of subjects, victims, and bystanders; and communication among bystanders.…

  9. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  10. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  11. Involvement of AQP 1 in the cardio-protective effect of remifentanil post-conditioning in ischemia/reperfusion rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peng-Tao; Chen, Wen-Hua; Zheng, Hong; Lai, Zhong-Meng; Zhang, Liang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: our research aim to study the role of AQP1 in the cardioprotective effect of remifentanil post-conditioning for myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods: Ninety Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 6 groups: sham operation group (Sham group), myocardial ischemia and reperfusion group (I/R group), postconditioning of remifentanil group (R-post), postconditioning of remifentanil plus AQP1 inhibitor acetazolamide group (R-post +Ace), postconditioning of remifentanil plus opioid-receptor antagonist compounds (R-post +AC), postconditioning of remifentanil plus AQP1 enhancer arginine vasopressin (R-post +AV). All groups except the sham operation group were given 30 min ischemia in left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries. All groups were then given 120 min reperfusion to the LAD. Before reperfusion, the R-post, R-post +Ace, R-post +AC, R-post +AV groups were given 10 min remifentanil post-conditioning. Hemodynamic data were measured every 30 min after initiation of ischemia. The rats’ hearts were exercised for detecting infarct size and water content in the left ventricle, and AQP1 expression were also detected. Results: The R-post group showed a significant reduction of the infarct size compared to the I/R group. The effect of R-post for reducing infarct size was slightly enhanced by adding acetazolamide to R-post, so significant differences could still be found when compared R-post+Ace group to the I/R group. The effect of infarct size reduction brought by R-post was blocked by the opioid-receptor antagonist compounds. This effect was also blocked by the AQP1 enhancer. Similar outcomes were found considering the water content of the left ventricle and the AQP1 expression. Conclusion: Cardioprotective effect of remifentanil post-conditioning may initiate through inhibiting the function of AQP1. PMID:26550187

  12. Instantaneous wave-free ratio derived from coronary computed tomography angiography in evaluation of ischemia-causing coronary stenosis: Feasibility and initial clinical research.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Liu, Hui; Hou, Yang; Qiao, Aike; Hou, Yingying; Yang, Qingqing; Guo, Qiyong

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) closely related to fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a adenosine-independent physiologic index of coronary stenosis severity. We sought to evaluate whether iFR derived from coronary computed tomographic angiography (iFRCT) can be used as a novel noninvasive method for diagnosis of ischemia-causing coronary stenosis.We retrospectively enrolled 33 patients (47 lesions) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and examined with coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA), invasive coronary angiography (ICA), and FFR. Patient-specific anatomical model of the coronary artery was built by original resting end-diastolic CTA images. Based on the model and computational fluid dynamics, individual boundary conditions were set to calculate iFRCT as the mean pressure distal to the stenosis divided by the mean aortic pressure during the diastolic wave-free period of rest state. Ischemia was assessed by an FFR of up to 0.8, while anatomically obstructive CAD was defined by a stenosis of at least 50% by ICA. The correlation between iFRCT and FFR was evaluated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to select the cut-off value of iFRCT for diagnosis of ischemia-causing stenosis. The diagnostic performances of iFRCT, coronary CTA, and iFRCT plus CTA for ischemia-causing stenosis were compared with ROC curve and Delong method.On a per-vessel basis, iFRCT and FFR had linear correlation (r = 0.75, p < 0.01). ROC analysis identified an optimal iFRCT cut-off value of 0.82 for categorization based on an FFR cut-off value 0.8, and the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of iFRCT were 78.72%,70.59%, 83.33%,70.59%, and 83.33%, respectively. Compared with obstructive CAD diagnosed by coronary CTA (AUC = 0.60), iFRCT yielded diagnostic improvement over stenosis assessment with AUC increasing from 0.6 by CTA to 0.87 (P < 0.01) and 0.90 (P

  13. Rat model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Huanmin

    2015-01-01

    In the human brain, the dominant hemisphere is more complex than the non-dominant hemisphere. Hence, cerebral ischemia of the dominant hemisphere often leads to serious consequences. This study aims to establish a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere. The quadruped feeding test was used to screen 70 male Sprague Dawley rats. From this test, 48 rats with right paw preference were selected and randomly assigned numbers. Half were assigned to the dominant hemisphere ischemia (DHI) group, and the other half were assigned to the non-dominant hemisphere ischemia (NDHI) group. The middle cerebral artery was occluded 2 h before reperfusion. Neurological functions were tested. TTC and HE staining were performed. The volume of cerebral infarction was calculated. Rats in the DHI group had significantly worse neurological scores than rats in the NDHI group (P < 0.05). TTC staining indicated ischemia had more severe consequences in the dominant hemisphere than in the non-dominant hemisphere. The dominant hippocampus indicated severe neuronal loss and disorderly cellular arrangement. The volume of cerebral infarction was also greater in the DHI group compared to the NDHI group (P < 0.05). Compared to MCA occlusion in the non-dominant hemisphere, MCA occlusion in the dominant hemisphere caused greater impairment in neurological functions. The proposed rodent model is reliable and has high levels of reproducibility. Therefore, his model can be reliably for investigating the mechanism of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere of human brains. PMID:25785023

  14. The Relationship of Group Cohesion to Group Performance: A Research Integration Attempt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    display the data. The median effect size (product-moment correlation coefficient ) for the data. The median effect size (product-moment correlation ... coefficient ) for the 14 codable studies was .36, and the unweighted mean r was .42. When study effect sizes were weighted by the number of groups involved, the

  15. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  16. Virology Interest Group Seminar | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Virology Interest Group Seminar.  September 7th, Building 50, Room 2328 from 3:00 until 4:00.   We will have two presenters. Dr. Vladimir Majerciak: The full transcription map of mouse papillomavirus type 1 (MmuPV1), Tumor Virus RNA Biology Section, RNA Biology Laboratory, NCI Dr. Zhi-Ming Zheng: Viral DNA replication regulates HPV18 transcription and gene expression, Tumor Virus RNA Biology Section, RNA Biology Laboratory, NCI    

  17. Effect of flaxseed supplementation and exercise training on lipid profile, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats with myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nounou, Howaida A; Deif, Maha M; Shalaby, Manal A

    2012-10-05

    Flaxseed has recently gained attention in the area of cardiovascular disease primarily because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA), lignans, and fiber. Although the benefits of exercise on any single risk factor are unquestionable, the effect of exercise on overall cardiovascular risk, when combined with other lifestyle modifications such as proper nutrition, can be dramatic.This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of flaxseed and exercise on cardiac markers, lipids profile and inflammatory markers in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. The research was conducted on 40 male albino rats, divided into 4 groups (n=10): group I served as control, group II has acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol, groups III and IV have acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol pretreated with flaxseed supplementation orally for 6 weeks, additionally group IV practiced muscular exercise through swimming. Alterations of lipid profile, cardiac and inflammatory markers (Il-1β, PTX 3 and TNF- α) were observed in myocardial ischemia group. Flaxseed supplementation combined with exercise training showed significant increase of HDL and PON 1, on the other hand cardiac troponin, Il- 1β and TNF- α levels significantly decreased as compared to myocardial ischemic group. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis of cTnI, PTX 3, Il-1β and TNF- α revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Regular exercise enhances the improvement in plasma lipoprotein levels and cardiovascular protection that results from flaxseed supplementation by mitigating the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Elevation of HDL, the antioxidant PON 1 and the cardioprotective marker PTX 3 emphasizes the protective effects of flaxseed and muscular exercise mutually against the harmful effects of acute myocardial ischemia.

  18. Using focus groups in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 91.

    PubMed

    Stalmeijer, Renée E; Mcnaughton, Nancy; Van Mook, Walther N K A

    2014-11-01

    Qualitative research methodology has become an established part of the medical education research field. A very popular data-collection technique used in qualitative research is the "focus group". Focus groups in this Guide are defined as "… group discussions organized to explore a specific set of issues … The group is focused in the sense that it involves some kind of collective activity … crucially, focus groups are distinguished from the broader category of group interview by the explicit use of the group interaction as research data" (Kitzinger 1994, p. 103). This Guide has been designed to provide people who are interested in using focus groups with the information and tools to organize, conduct, analyze and publish sound focus group research within a broader understanding of the background and theoretical grounding of the focus group method. The Guide is organized as follows: Firstly, to describe the evolution of the focus group in the social sciences research domain. Secondly, to describe the paradigmatic fit of focus groups within qualitative research approaches in the field of medical education. After defining, the nature of focus groups and when, and when not, to use them, the Guide takes on a more practical approach, taking the reader through the various steps that need to be taken in conducting effective focus group research. Finally, the Guide finishes with practical hints towards writing up a focus group study for publication.

  19. Myocardial ischemia and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition: comparison of ischemia during mental and physical stress.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ronnie; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Zafari, A Maziar; Binongo, Jose N; Sheps, David S

    2013-01-01

    Mental stress provokes myocardial ischemia in many patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) portends a worse prognosis, independent of standard cardiac risk factors or outcome of traditional physical stress testing. Angiotensin II plays a significant role in the physiological response to stress, but its role in MSIMI remains unknown. Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is associated with a differential effect on the incidence of MSIMI compared with ischemia during physical stress. Retrospective analysis of 218 patients with stable CAD, including 110 on ACEI, was performed. 99m-Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging was used to define ischemia during mental stress, induced by a standardized public speaking task, and during physical stress, induced by either exercise or adenosine. Overall, 40 patients (18%) developed MSIMI and 80 patients (37%) developed ischemia during physical stress. MSIMI occurred less frequently in patients receiving ACEIs (13%) compared with those not on ACEIs (24%; p = .030, adjusted odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.19-0.91). In contrast, the frequency of myocardial ischemia during physical stress testing was similar in both groups (39% versus 35% in those on and not on ACEIs, respectively); adjusted odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-1.73). In this retrospective study, patients using ACEI therapy displayed less than half the risk of developing ischemia during mental stress but not physical stress. This possible beneficial effect of ACEIs on MSIMI may be contributing to their salutary effects in CAD.

  20. The protective effect of cilostazol on isolated rabbit femoral arteries under conditions of ischemia and reperfusion: the role of the nitric oxide pathway

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mariana R.G.A.; Celotto, Andréa C; Capellini, Verena K; Evora, Paulo R B; Piccinato, Carlos E; Joviliano, Edwaldo E

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of ischemia/reperfusion of the lower extremities demands further investigation to enable the development of more effective therapeutic alternatives. This study investigated the changes in the vascular reactivity of the rabbit femoral artery and nitric oxide metabolites under partial ischemia/reperfusion conditions following cilostazol administration. METHODS: Ischemia was induced using infrarenal aortic clamping. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Control 90 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 90/60 minutes, Control 120 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, Cilostazol, Cilostazol before Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, and Ischemia 120 minutes/Cilostazol/Reperfusion 90 minutes. Dose-response curves for sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine, and the calcium ionophore A23187 were obtained in isolated femoral arteries. The levels of nitrites and nitrates in the plasma and skeletal muscle were determined using chemiluminescence. RESULTS: Acetylcholine- and A23187-induced relaxation was reduced in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 group, and treatment with cilostazol partially prevented this ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelium impairment. Only cilostazol treatment increased plasma levels of nitrites and nitrates. An elevation in the levels of nitrites and nitrates was observed in muscle tissues in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90, Cilostazol/Ischemia/Reperfusion, and Ischemia/Cilostazol/Reperfusion groups. CONCLUSION: Hind limb ischemia/reperfusion yielded an impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the femoral artery. Furthermore, cilostazol administration prior to ischemia exerted a protective effect on endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity under ischemia/reperfusion conditions. PMID:22358243

  1. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted.

  2. Panretinal photocoagulation for radiation-induced ocular ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Augsburger, J.J.; Roth, S.E.; Magargal, L.E.; Shields, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    We present preliminary findings on the effectiveness of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma in eyes with radiation-induced ocular ischemia. Our study group consisted of 20 patients who developed radiation-induced ocular ischemia following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy for a choroidal or ciliary body melanoma. Eleven of the 20 patients were treated by panretinal photocoagulation shortly after the diagnosis of ocular ischemia, but nine patients were left untreated. In this non-randomized study, the rate of development of neovascular glaucoma was significantly lower (p = 0.024) for the 11 photocoagulated patients than for the nine who were left untreated.

  3. The Role of ABO Blood Group in Cerebral Vasospasm, Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage, and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in 470 Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dubinski, Daniel; Won, Sae-Yeon; Konczalla, Jürgen; Mersmann, Jan; Geisen, Christof; Herrmann, Eva; Seifert, Volker; Senft, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm usually presents with an acute onset and requires multidisciplinary intensive care treatment and the overall death and disability rates are high. The ABO blood type is known to play an important role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular NO response. The aspect of ABO blood type in onset, clinical progress, and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is largely unexplored. We conducted this study to elucidate the association of ABO blood type with the occurrence and outcome of aneurysmal SAH. In our retrospective study, 470 patients with aneurysmal SAH treated at our institution were included. We performed a χ(2) test for comparison between blood types and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies admission status, cerebral vasospasm, delayed infarction, associated intracerebral hemorrhage and Fisher grade for analysis for their association with SAH. No significant difference between blood type and the reviewed variables for SAH outcome were identified: World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies admission status (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-1.6; P = 0.56); SAH-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.5-1.3; P = 0.36); cerebral vasospasm (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.7-1.6; P = 0.71); DCI (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.8-1.8; P = 0.30); Fisher grade (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.7-1.6; P = 0.19). Although a possible relationship between the ABO blood group and the clinical course of patients with SAH was hypothesized, our study showed no significant influence of patient's ABO blood type on cerebral vasospasm onset, SAH-associated intracerebral hemorrhage, or delayed infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Framework for Conducting Critical Dialectical Pluralist Focus Group Discussions Using Mixed Research Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    Although focus group discussions (FGDs) represent a popular data collection tool for researchers, they contain an extremely serious flaw: FGD researchers have ultimate power over all decisions made at every stage of the research process--from the conceptualization of the research, to the planning of the research study, to the implementation of the…

  5. Cerulean Warbler Technical Group: Coordinating international research and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Wigley, T.B.; Keyser, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation for species of concern requires interchange and collaboration among conservationists and stakeholders. The Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) is a consortium of biologists and managers from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry, who are dedicated to finding pro-active, science-based solutions for conservation of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea). Formed in the United States in 2001, CWTG’s scope soon broadened to address the species’ ecology and conservation on both the breeding and non-breeding ranges, in partnership with biologists from South and Central America. In 2004, CWTG launched the Cerulean Warbler Conservation Initiative, a set of activities aimed at addressing information and conservation needs for the species. These include (1) studies in the core breeding range to assess Cerulean Warbler response to forest management practices and to identify mined lands that could be reforested to benefit the species, (2) ecological and demographic studies on the winter range, and (3) surveys of Cerulean Warbler distribution on the breeding and winter ranges and during migration. A rangewide conservation action plan has been completed, along with a more detailed conservation plan for the non-breeding range. CWTG and partners now move forward with on-the-ground conservation, while still addressing unmet information needs.

  6. The evolving concept of physiological ischemia training vs. ischemia preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Lu, Hongjian; Lu, Xiao; Jiang, Minghui; Peng, Qingyun; Ren, Caili; Xiang, Jie; Mei, Chengyao; Li, Jianan

    2015-11-01

    Ischemic heart diseases are the leading cause of death with increasing numbers of patients worldwide. Despite advances in revascularization techniques, angiogenic therapies remain highly attractive. Physiological ischemia training, which is first proposed in our laboratory, refers to reversible ischemia training of normal skeletal muscles by using a tourniquet or isometric contraction to cause physiologic ischemia for about 4 weeks for the sake of triggering molecular and cellular mechanisms to promote angiogenesis and formation of collateral vessels and protect remote ischemia areas. Physiological ischemia training therapy augments angiogenesis in the ischemic myocardium by inducing differential expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell migration, protein folding, and generation. It upregulates the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor, and induces angiogenesis, protects the myocardium when infarction occurs by increasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells and enhancing their migration, which is in accordance with physical training in heart disease rehabilitation. These findings may lead to a new approach of therapeutic angiogenesis for patients with ischemic heart diseases. On the basis of the promising results in animal studies, studies were also conducted in patients with coronary artery disease without any adverse effect in vivo, indicating that physiological ischemia training therapy is a safe, effective and non-invasive angiogenic approach for cardiovascular rehabilitation. Preconditioning is considered to be the most protective intervention against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury to date. Physiological ischemia training is different from preconditioning. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical data of physiological ischemia training and its difference from preconditioning.

  7. Calibration of the Flow in the Test Section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    calibration of the flow in the test section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group. The calibration was performed to establish the flow quality and to...of the Flow in the Test Section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group Executive Summary The Defence Science and Technology Group (DST

  8. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury: from basic science to clinical bedside.

    PubMed

    Frank, Anja; Bonney, Megan; Bonney, Stephanie; Weitzel, Lindsay; Koeppen, Michael; Eckle, Tobias

    2012-09-01

    Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial ischemia, cardiac surgery or circulatory arrest. Primarily, no blood flow to the heart causes an imbalance between oxygen demand and supply, named ischemia (from the Greek isch, restriction; and haema, blood), resulting in damage or dysfunction of the cardiac tissue. Instinctively, early and fast restoration of blood flow has been established to be the treatment of choice to prevent further tissue injury. Indeed, the use of thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective strategy for reducing the size of a myocardial infarct and improving the clinical outcome. Unfortunately, restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium, named reperfusion, can also induce injury. This phenomenon was therefore termed myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Subsequent studies in animal models of acute myocardial infarction suggest that myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct. Consequently, many researchers aim to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury to find therapeutic strategies ultimately reducing the final infarct size. Despite the identification of numerous therapeutic strategies at the bench, many of them are just in the process of being translated to bedside. The current review discusses the most striking basic science findings made during the past decades that are currently under clinical evaluation, with the ultimate goal to treat patients who are suffering from myocardial ischemia reperfusion-associated tissue injury.

  9. Group process research and emergence of therapeutic factors in critical incident stress debriefing.

    PubMed

    Pender, Debra A; Prichard, Karen K

    2008-01-01

    Critical incident stress debriefing is a highly utilized and often debated form of post-trauma exposure intervention. This article presents exploratory group process research that utilized a mixed method approach and group process research techniques. The article's findings, the emergence of therapeutic factors, support that CISD group work does yield indicators consistent with support/ psychoeducation groups with a crisis theme. Further the events that trigger the intervention yield specific therapeutic factors. CISD group work may be better understood through established group research patterns.

  10. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  11. The Complete Guide to Focus Group Marketing Research for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    This guide discusses the use of focus groups in marketing research for higher education. It describes the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and examines when it is appropriate to use focus group research, when it is not, and why. The guide describes a step-by-step approach in how to plan, formulate, moderate, and report…

  12. Writing Groups, Change and Academic Identity: Research Development as Local Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alison; Boud, David

    2003-01-01

    Examines the use of writing groups as a strategy for research development, asserting that writing is best considered a starting point of the research process and that fostering academic writing is a useful place to do research development work. The article describes the use of various writing groups over 3 years, exploring the responses of leaders…

  13. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  14. Involvement of endometrial membrane sulphydryl groups in blastocyst implantation: sulphydryl groups as a potential target for contraceptive research.

    PubMed

    Nivsarkar, M; Sethi, A; Bapu, C; Patel, M; Padh, H

    2001-10-01

    The role of membrane sulphydryl groups in blastocyst implantation was studied by masking the membrane sulphydryl groups in the endometrium of Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, using 10(-5) M cobalt chloride and 0.05 mM as well as 0.005 mM n-ethylmaleimide. Here we show that the blocking of sulphydryl groups with cobalt resulted in a decrease in superoxide radical surge and an increase in superoxide dismutase levels at the time of implantation. We hypothesize that it may be due to either a decrease in membrane fluidity or the unavailability of sulphydryl groups of endometrial membrane, thus preventing blastocyst implantation. These sulphydryl groups can be targeted for future contraceptive research.

  15. Radiological Evaluation of Bowel Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dhatt, Harpreet S.; Behr, Spencer C; Miracle, Aaron; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel, is a potentially catastrophic entity that may require emergent intervention or surgery in the acute setting. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of intestinal ischemia are nonspecific, CT findings can be highly suggestive in the correct clinical setting. In this chapter we review the CT diagnosis of arterial, venous, and non-occlusive intestinal ischemia. We discuss the vascular anatomy, pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia, CT techniques for optimal imaging, key and ancillary radiological findings, and differential diagnosis. In the setting of an acute abdomen, rapid evaluation is necessary to identify intraabdominal processes that require emergent surgical intervention (1). While a wide-range of intraabdominal diseases may be present from trauma to inflammation, one of the most feared disorders is mesenteric ischemia, also known as intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel (2). Initial imaging evaluation for intestinal ischemia is typically obtained with CT. Close attention to technique and search for key radiologic features with relation to the CT technique is required. Accurate diagnosis depends on understanding the vascular anatomy, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of various forms of mesenteric ischemia and their corresponding radiological findings on MDCT. At imaging, not only is inspection of the bowel itself important, but evaluation of the mesenteric fat, vasculature, and surrounding peritoneal cavity also helps improves accuracy in the diagnosis of bowel ischemia. PMID:26526436

  16. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 plays a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seongkweon; Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Won, Moo-Ho; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Seung Min; Cho, Jun Hwi; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which carry monocarboxylates such as lactate across biological membranes, have been associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion process. In this study, we studied the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on MCT4 immunoreactivity after 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. Animals were randomly designated to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia only group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia group). A serious loss of neuron was found in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1), not CA2/3, of the ischemia-only group at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC + ischemia groups, neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 were well protected. Weak MCT4 immunoreactivity was found in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the sham-operated group. MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale began to decrease at 2 days post-ischemia and was hardly detected at 5 days post-ischemia; at this time point, MCT4 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes. In the IPC + sham-operated group, MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 was increased compared with the sham-operated group, and, in the IPC + ischemia group, MCT4 immunoreactivity was also increased in the stratum pyramidale compared with the ischemia only group. Briefly, present findings show that IPC apparently protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased or maintained MCT4 expression in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest that MCT4 appears to play a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC in the gerbil with transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26692857

  17. Renoprotective Effect of Humic Acid on Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Alpaslan; Silan, Coskun; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Sancak, Eyup Burak; Ozkanli, Sidika Seyma; Cakir, Dilek Ulker

    2015-12-01

    Humic acid is an antioxidant molecule used in agriculture and livestock breeding, as well as in medicine. Our aim was to investigate the potential renoprotective effects of humic acid in a renal ischemia reperfusion model. Twenty-one rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. Intraperitoneal serum or humic acid was injected at 1, 12, and 24 h. Non-ischemic group I was evaluated as sham. The left renal artery was clamped in serum (group II) and intraperitoneal humic acid (group III) to subject to left renal ischemic reperfusion procedure. Ischemia and reperfusion time was 60 min for each. Total antioxidant status, total oxidative status, oxidative stress index, and ischemia-modified albumin levels were analyzed biochemically from the serum samples. Kidneys were evaluated histopatologically and immunohistochemically. Biochemical results showed that total oxidative status, ischemia-modified albumin, and oxidative stress index levels were significantly decreased, but total antioxidant status was increased in the humic acid group (III) compared with the ischemia group (II) On histopathological examination, renal tubular dilatation, tubular cell damage and necrosis, dilatation of Bowman's capsule, hyaline casts, and tubular cell spillage were decreased in the humic acid group (III) compared with the ischemia group (II). Immunohistochemical results showed that apoptosis was deteriorated in group III. Renal ischemia reperfusion injury was attenuated by humic acid administration. These observations indicate that humic acid may have a potential therapeutic effect on renal ischemia reperfusion injury by preventing oxidative stress.

  18. Bromelain ameliorates hepatic microcirculation after warm ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bahde, Ralf; Palmes, Daniel; Minin, Evgeni; Stratmann, Udo; Diller, Ricarda; Haier, Jörg; Spiegel, Hans-Ullrich

    2007-05-01

    Because of its immunomodulatory action, the protease bromelain represents a novel strategy for the treatment of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. A dose-response study was performed to investigate the effect of bromelain on liver function, microcirculation, and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in hepatic I/R injury. One hundred forty rats were randomized to 8 short-term or 12 long-term groups (n=7 each). A 30 min normothermic hepatic ischemia was induced by Pringle maneuver with a portocaval shunt. Animals were treated 60 min prior to ischemia with either no therapy, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg/kg b.w. bromelain i.v. In the short-term experiments, microcirculation was investigated 30 min after sham operation or ischemia using intravital microscopy. In the long-term experiments AST, ALT, and bradykinin levels were determined for 14 d after central venous catheter (CVC) placement only, sham operation, or ischemia. Additionally, apoptosis rate, Kupffer cell activation, endothelial cell damage, and eNOS expression were analyzed. In sham-operated animals, treatment with 10 mg/kg b.w. bromelain led to a disturbed microcirculation with increased leukocyte adherence, apoptosis rate, Kupffer cell activation, and endothelial cell damage. Six h after CVC placement and administration of 10 mg/kg b.w. bromelain, AST and ALT levels were significantly increased. After I/R, rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg b.w. bromelain showed an improved microcirculation, reduction in leukocyte adhesion, apoptosis rates, Kupffer cell activation and endothelial cell damage, increased eNOS expression, and significantly lower AST levels compared with untreated animals. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of hepatic I/R injury with a limited therapeutic window.

  19. Thirty-One Years of Group Research in "Social Psychology Quarterly" (1975-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrod, Wendy J.; Welch, Bridget K.; Kushkowski, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in group research published in Social Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) from 1975 to 2005. We identified a total of 332 papers about groups published during the time period. Following Moreland, Hogg, and Hains (1994), we created an index of interest in groups by dividing the number of pages in papers about groups by the total number of…

  20. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  1. Statistics of Statisticians: Critical Mass of Statistics and Operational Research Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    Using a recently developed model, inspired by mean field theory in statistical physics, and data from the UK's Research Assessment Exercise, we analyse the relationship between the qualities of statistics and operational research groups and the quantities of researchers in them. Similar to other academic disciplines, we provide evidence for a linear dependency of quality on quantity up to an upper critical mass, which is interpreted as the average maximum number of colleagues with whom a researcher can communicate meaningfully within a research group. The model also predicts a lower critical mass, which research groups should strive to achieve to avoid extinction. For statistics and operational research, the lower critical mass is estimated to be 9 ± 3. The upper critical mass, beyond which research quality does not significantly depend on group size, is 17 ± 6.

  2. The Effect of Activated Protein C on Attenuation of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Muscle Flap Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Elizabeth W; Fang, Taolin; Arnold, Peter B; Songcharoen, Somjade Jay; Lineaweaver, William C; Zhang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is often the final and irreversible factor causing flap failure in microsurgery. The salvage of a microsurgical flap with an ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes to the success of microsurgical flap transfers. Activated protein C (APC), a serine protease with anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities, has been shown to improve ischemic flap survival. To date, APC has yet to be applied to models of free flap with ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of APC on gracilis flap ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by gracilis vessels clamping and reopening. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. After 4 hours of clamping for ischemia, flaps were reperfused and recombinant human APC (25 μg/kg) or saline was injected in the flaps through pedicles. At 0, 1, 4, 18, and 24 hours after injection (n = 6 for each time point), the tissue samples were harvested. The muscle viability at 24 hours in saline group was 54.8% (15.1%), whereas the APC-treated group was 90.0% (4.3%) (P < 0.05). The induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression increased with the time after reperfusion, which were 0.93 (0.25) to 2.09 (0.22) in saline group, and 0.197 (0.15) to 0.711 (0.15) in the APC-treated group. iNOS mRNA expression in the APC-treated group was significantly higher than the saline group at 1, 18, and 24 hours (P < 0.05). Numerous inflammatory cells were observed infiltrating and invading the muscle fibers in the saline group more than the APC-treated group. Increased number of polymorphonuclear cells was also noted in the saline group compared with the APC-treated group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, APC treatment can significantly attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury and increase the survival of the free flap through down-regulating iNOS mRNA expression and reducing the inflammatory cells. Further research is still needed to be done on various mechanisms in which APC is

  3. Vasospastic Limb Ischemia Presenting Acute and Chronic Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vasospastic limb ischemia might have been underappreciated compared to vasospasm in other territories such as heart and brain. However, an increasing awareness of this vascular disorder can be translated to an improved patients’ care. Herein, we report a case of vasospasm presenting acute and chronic limb ischemia in four extremities. PMID:24995065

  4. Neuroprotection in selective focal ischemia in rats by nitrates, an alternative redox manipulation on nitric oxide: experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zúñiga, R; Velázquez-Santana, H; Mercado-Pimentel, R; Cerda-Camacho, F

    1998-09-01

    The recent advances in the histopathology of ischemia have set forth new proposals, particularly in regard to excitotoxicity by the glutamate receptor, NMDA. The participation of the nitric oxide (NO) in normal and pathological conditions and its relationship with toxicity in ischemia, suggest new alternatives for the modulation of the NMDA receptor REDOX site through its pharmacologic manipulation. This event would potentially limit the consequences of the activation-calcium flow and the production of peroxoinitrite during the ischemic phenomenon. The present work delivers two proposals: 1) A modified technique to the ones that have been described, of endovascular, without craniectomy, for experimental cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats, and with particular harmful effect upon the hippocampus. 2) It promotes the use of nitrates as an additional alternative to other elements, in order to restrict excitotoxicity in the described experimental cerebral ischemia, and paying attention to CA1-CA2 of the hippocampus. This area, specially sensitive to hypoxia-ischemia, offers an excellent study option for focal, experimental, cerebral ischemia associated with toxicity mediated by excitatory amino acids, since it stores an important concentration of NMDA receptors (R1/R2 A) as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Our parameters are supported by quantitative-qualitative cell analysis, and not by the extension of the stroke which offers a more objective perspective upon the assessment of the focal ischemic event. By means of this technique, these results confirm the extent of the ischemic injury to the cell at the level of the hippocampus compared to a control/basal group, P = 0.0006. Furthermore, it suggests a neuroprotective effect of isosorbide dinitrate since it preserves the viable cells, and limits the appearance of hypoxic-ischemic cells at the hippocampus when the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is occluded endovascularly, as compared to the animals with no treatment

  5. Effects of wortmannin on cardioprotection exerted by ischemic preconditioning in rat hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Débora Elisabet; Hermann, Romina; Barreda Frank, Mariángeles; Mestre Cordero, Victoria Evangelina; Savino, Enrique Alberto; Varela, Alicia; Marina Prendes, Maria Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most powerful interventions to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) family in cardioprotection exerted by IPC and the relationship between preservation of mitochondrial morphology and ATP synthesis capacity. In this regard, macroautophagy (autophagy) is considered a dynamic process involved in the replacement of aged or defective organelles under physiological conditions. IPC consisted of four 5-min cycles of ischemia-reperfusion followed by sustained ischemia. Wortmannin (W), a PI3K family inhibitor, was added to the perfusion medium to study the involvement of autophagy in the beneficial effects of IPC. In the present study, LC3-II/I expression was significantly increased in the IPC group when compared with the control group. The hearts subjected to IPC showed greater degradation of p62 than control groups, establishing the existence of an autophagic flow. Electron microscopy showed that IPC preserves the structural integrity of mitochondria after ischemia and at the end of reperfusion. Moreover, hearts subjected to IPC exhibited increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The beneficial effects of IPC were abolished by W in all trials of this study, abolishing the differences between the IPC and control groups. These results suggest that IPC could partly reduce injury by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) by decreasing mitochondrial damage and promoting autophagy. Since W is a nonspecific inhibitor of the PI3Ks family, further research is required to confirm participation of PI3K in the response to IPC.

  6. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the new model of global cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisel, A. A.; Chernysheva, G. A.; Smol'yakova, V. I.; Savchenko, R. R.; Plotnikov, M. B.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis in a new model of global transient cerebral ischemia which was performed by the occlusion of the three main vessels (tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sinistra, and a. carotis communis sinistra) branching from the aortic arch and supplying the brain. Global transitory cerebral ischemia was modeled on male rats (weight = 250-300 g) under chloral hydrate with artificial lung ventilation. Animals after the same surgical operation without vessel occlusion served as sham-operated controls. The number of DCX-positive (doublecortin, the marker of immature neurons) cells in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1-CA3 fields of hippocampus was counted at the 31st day after ischemia modeling. It was revealed that global cerebral ischemia decreased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus in comparison with the sham-operated group (P<0.05) while neurogenesis in CA1-CA3 fields was increased as compared to the control (P<0.05).

  7. The Relationship Between Ischemia Time and Mucous Secretion in Vaginal Reconstruction With the Jejunal Free Flap: An Experimental Study on the Rat Jejunum.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Omer; Ozkan, Ozlenen; Bektas, Gamze; Cinpolat, Anı; Bassorgun, Ibrahim; Ciftcioglu, Akif

    2015-07-01

    Jejunum flap for reconstruction of the vagina provides a durable, stable coverage; patent tube passage; and natural esthetic appearance. However, excessive mucous secretion is a major drawback of the technique.We have recently presented our cases in which strict 3-hour ischemia with lower mucus secretion was applied. However, a quantitative analysis of goblet cells of the jejunum subjected to ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury on an animal model has not been reported to support this argument.Because goblet cells are responsible for the production and the maintenance of the mucous blanket, we aimed to determine whether goblet cell numbers decrease after ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury.This study was conducted on 3 groups of 10 animals. We applied to the rat jejunum only ischemia in group 1, one hour of ischemia followed by reperfusion in group 2, and 2 hours of ischemia followed by reperfusion in group 3. Histological samples taken from the jejunum exposed to ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury were evaluated in terms of goblet cell numbers, inflammation, apoptotic bodies, and necrosis.Goblet cell numbers significantly decreased in the group of animals exposed to ischemia and exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury. We think that mucus hypersecretion of the jejenum can be limited by applying a longer period of ischemia time during free flap transfer in vaginal reconstruction.

  8. Academic Research Record-Keeping: Best Practices for Individuals, Group Leaders, and Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Alan A.; Wilson, Kenneth; Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century, social and technological changes in academic research groups have challenged traditional research record-keeping practices, making them either insufficient or obsolete. New practices have developed but standards (best practices) are still evolving. Based on the authors’ review and analysis of a number of sources, they present a set of systematically compiled best practices for research record-keeping for academic research groups. These best practices were developed as an adjunct to a research project on research ethics aimed at examining the actual research record-keeping practices of active academic scientists and their impact on research misconduct inquiries. The best practices differentiate and provide separate standards for three different levels within the university: the individual researcher, the research group leader, and the department/institution. They were developed using a combination of literature reviews, surveys of university integrity officials, focus groups of active researchers, and inspection of university policies on research record-keeping. The authors believe these best practices constitute a “snapshot” of the current normative standards for research records within the academic research community. They are offered as ethical and practical guidelines subject to continuing evolution and not as absolute rules. They may be especially useful in training the next generation of researchers. PMID:16377817

  9. Research productivity of members of IADR Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group: relationship to professional and personal factors.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern.

  10. The protective role of heme oxygenase-1 in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Aztatzi-Santillán, Emmanuel; Nares-López, Felipe Eduardo; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Aguilera, Penélope; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2010-12-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of death and disability in industrialized countries, with no curative treatments to date. Identification of potential targets and elucidation of their physiological role under stress conditions may give support to the development of drugs and strategies to contend with this pathology. In the last years, Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been considered by many groups as a potential target in ischemic damage. HO-1 is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of the heme group to billiverdin, carbon monoxide and iron; a highly regulated cytoprotective enzyme able to respond to numerous chemical or physical stressors, many of which decrease oxygen availability and generate oxidative stress. The disruption of HO-1 activity has been widely associated with a bad outcome in many disorders, and a protective role through its heme catabolism products has been observed in transplantation, cardiac ischemia, limb ischemia/reperfusion and different alterations that involve ischemia and reperfusion events. Here, we review recent reports supporting the protective role of HO-1 in cerebral ischemia. Results on the endogenous HO-1 response, overexpression of HO-1 and compounds that reduce ischemic damage through the induction of HO-1 in cerebral ischemia in in vivo and in vitro models are analyzed.

  11. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Dewey, Michael; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; McKeigue, Paul; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata MM; Stewart, Robert; Uwakwe, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Methods/design Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina), with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000). Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain). Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815). A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina) to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. Discussion The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our aim is to create an

  12. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  13. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  14. Oligodendrogenesis after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruilan; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rodent brain generate oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that disperse throughout the corpus callosum and striatum where some of OPCs differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Studies in animal models of stroke demonstrate that cerebral ischemia induces oligodendrogenesis during brain repair processes. This article will review evidence of stroke-induced proliferation and differentiation of OPCs that are either resident in white matter or are derived from SVZ neural progenitor cells and of therapies that amplify endogenous oligodendrogenesis in ischemic brain. PMID:24194700

  15. Research on/as Violence: Reflections on Injurious Moments in Research with Friendship Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of harm in the research process. While researchers seek to conduct research that minimises harm, this paper argues that approaches adopted often create new forms of harm. This proposition is examined through drawing on Bourdieu's ideas about symbolic violence and poststructural theories of identity, to critically…

  16. Research and Scholarship in Group Work: Scope and Emergent Themes over 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vereen, Linwood G.; Bohecker, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was utilized for the reporting of the research literature in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" (JSGW) since a 1997 special issue focused on contemporary issues in the research of group work was published. The focus of this review was to explore the…

  17. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  18. Report on Focus Groups: Research and Practice--Reading Instruction. ERIC/OSEP Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaunstein, Phyllis; And Others

    This report summarizes results of three focus groups which examined teachers' ideas and attitudes about the utility of research on the practice of teaching reading to students with learning disabilities and about forms of communication that would make research information more useful. The focus groups were part of a larger project designed to…

  19. Composition of Junior Research Groups and Phd Completion Rate: Disciplinary Differences and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pull, Kerstin; Pferdmenges, Birgit; Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the link between the composition and the performance of junior research groups. The authors argue that the heterogeneity-performance link depends on the type of heterogeneity (cultural vs. study field) and on the disciplinary area. The authors test their hypotheses on a data set of 45 junior research groups and find a U-shaped…

  20. Composition of Junior Research Groups and Phd Completion Rate: Disciplinary Differences and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pull, Kerstin; Pferdmenges, Birgit; Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the link between the composition and the performance of junior research groups. The authors argue that the heterogeneity-performance link depends on the type of heterogeneity (cultural vs. study field) and on the disciplinary area. The authors test their hypotheses on a data set of 45 junior research groups and find a U-shaped…

  1. When Groups Aren't Random: Using the Analysis of Covariance in Family Studies Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lynne Harrington

    Among the many problems faced by family researchers in conducting experimental research in field settings is that posed by nonequivalent and intact treatment and control groups. Nonequivalence refers to the assignment of individuals to treatments on a nonrandom basis, thus generating treatment groups with different expected values on one or more…

  2. Borax partially prevents neurologic disability and oxidative stress in experimental spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Koc, Emine Rabia; Gökce, Emre Cemal; Sönmez, Mehmet Akif; Namuslu, Mehmet; Gökce, Aysun; Bodur, A Said

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effects of borax on ischemia/reperfusion injury of the rat spinal cord. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups: sham (no ischemia/reperfusion), ischemia/reperfusion, and borax (ischemia/reperfusion + borax); each group was consist of 7 animals. Infrarenal aortic cross clamp was applied for 30 minutes to generate spinal cord ischemia. Animals were evaluated functionally with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scoring system and inclined-plane test. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase activity, xanthine oxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and total oxidant status and to perform histopathological examination. At the 72nd hour after ischemia, the borax group had significantly higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan and inclined-plane scores than those of ischemia/reperfusion group. Histopathological examination of spinal cord tissues in borax group showed that treatment with borax significantly reduced the degree of spinal cord edema, inflammation, and tissue injury disclosed by light microscopy. Xanthine oxidase activity and total oxidant status levels of the ischemia/reperfusion group were significantly higher than those of the sham and borax groups (P < .05), and total antioxidant capacity levels of borax group were significantly higher than those of the ischemia/reperfusion group (P < .05). There was not a significantly difference between the sham and borax groups in terms of total antioxidant capacity levels (P > .05). The nitric oxide levels and nitric oxide synthase activity of all groups were similar (P > .05). Borax treatment seems to protect the spinal cord against injury in a rat ischemia/reperfusion model and improve neurological outcome. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A critical review of labor and birth care. Obstetrical Interest Group of the North American Primary Care Research Group.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Acheson, L S; Byrd, J E; Curtis, P; Day, T W; Frank, S H; Franks, P; Graham, A V; LeFevre, M; Resnick, J

    1991-09-01

    A critical review of the literature regarding important aspects of labor and delivery was conducted by members of the Obstetrical Interest Group of the North American Primary Care Research Group using computerized searches, personal communication, and literature exchange between group members. Each written topic summary was carefully reviewed by a second group member, and a consensus was reached regarding conclusions and recommendations by the group. The topics include family involvement, comfort measures, fetal heart rate monitoring, labor augmentation, birth positions, and episiotomies. Each topic summary is preceded by conclusions and recommendations given in the order of least invasive to most invasive of the woman in labor. The strength of these conclusions and recommendations is based on the amount and type of supportive data in the literature and is indicated by one to three stars preceding that statement. One-star conclusions are not well supported in the literature but reflect a family practice style and were reached through consensus from the group. Three-star conclusions are supported by data from clinical trials.

  4. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: effect of warm ischemia on serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Bhayani, Sam B; Rha, Koon H; Pinto, Peter A; Ong, Albert M; Allaf, Mohamad E; Trock, Bruce J; Jarrett, Thomas W; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2004-10-01

    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has been shown to be a safe and effective option for small renal tumors. However, limited data are available regarding the effect of warm ischemic time on postoperative renal function. We assessed the effect of variable durations of warm ischemia on long-term renal function in patients undergoing LPN. A total of 118 patients with a single, unilateral, sporadic renal tumor and normal contralateral kidney underwent LPN from August 1998 to November 2002. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on warm ischemic time, namely group 1-no renal occlusion in 42, group 2-warm ischemia less than 30 minutes in 48 and group 3-warm ischemia greater than 30 minutes in 28. All 3 groups were assessed for changes in serum creatinine 6 months after LPN. Additionally, renal remnants were examined with cross-sectional imaging. At a median followup of 28 months (range 6 to 56) median creatinine had not statistically increased postoperatively. None of the 118 patients progressed to renal insufficiency or required dialysis after LPN. Based on postoperative serum creatinine warm ischemia time up to 55 minutes does not significantly influence long-term renal function after LPN. Thus, during LPN efforts to minimize warm ischemia are important but they should not jeopardize cancer control, hemostasis or collecting system closure.

  6. An Approach for Group, Undergraduate Research Experiences in Courses Across the Geology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and

  7. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  8. Industrial Hygiene Group: 1986 Annual report on research and special activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, H.J.

    1987-11-01

    This report details all the 1986 research activities and some selected operational programs of the Industrial Hygiene Group. During 1986, research studies were directed at: respiratory protection, personal protective clothing, applied industrial hygiene, and aerosols and air cleaning. In several instances, the transfer of technology, previously developed by the Industrial Hygiene Group, is described together with the application of research developments to operational health protection programs.

  9. Group Work That Examines Systems of Power with Young People: Youth Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy L.; Krueger-Henney, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Youth-led group work shifts power dynamics and repositions youth as leaders in driving the learning they envision for themselves. This shift calls into question how group facilitators measure outcomes of youth empowerment groups. Youth participatory action research (YPAR) has expanded the field of knowledge production by creating shared spaces…

  10. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  11. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  12. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  13. Positive Outcomes of Group Learning in the ABLE Classroom. Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Beverly J.; McKenna, Gail Kaylor

    In the fall of 1993, a study was begun on how adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students reacted to working in groups. The research was conducted through a joint vocational school's ABLE program using three target groups at two of its ABLE centers. The groups met two times per week and were facilitated by three different teachers. More…

  14. Science Research Group Leader's Power and Members' Compliance and Satisfaction with Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Yi; He, Jia; Luo, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the correlations between science research group members' perceptions of power bases used by their group (lab, team) leader (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent) and the effect of those perceptions on group members' attitudinal compliance, behavioral compliance, and satisfaction with supervision. Participants…

  15. A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Interpretation of Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the…

  16. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  17. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  18. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury.

  19. Research Data Storage: A Framework for Success. ECAR Working Group Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Douglas; Dawson, Barbara E.; Fary, Michael; Hillegas, Curtis W.; Hopkins, Brian W.; Lyons, Yolanda; McCullough, Heather; McMullen, Donald F.; Owen, Kim; Ratliff, Mark; Williams, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research Data Management Working Group (ECAR-DM) has created a framework for research data storage as an aid for higher education institutions establishing and evaluating their institution's research data storage efforts. This paper describes areas for consideration and suggests graduated criteria to assist in…

  20. Group of Eight Response to DIISR Consultation Paper: "Meeting Australia's Research Workforce Needs"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) welcomes the Government's commitment to developing a comprehensive research workforce strategy. Australia's research capacity and the continuing translation of research into policy, products and services is directly linked to the future productivity of the economy, social wellbeing, environmental outcomes and the nation's…

  1. Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR): A Metamorphosis of Mentorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thea M.; Smith, Barbara K.; Watts, Danielle L.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Roark, Alison M.; Bybee, Seth M.; Cox, Clayton E.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR), a yearlong structured program at the University of Florida that guided graduate student mentors and their undergraduate mentees through the mentored research process. Using the national Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences for an academic year, we found that outcomes for our…

  2. Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR): A Metamorphosis of Mentorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thea M.; Smith, Barbara K.; Watts, Danielle L.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Roark, Alison M.; Bybee, Seth M.; Cox, Clayton E.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR), a yearlong structured program at the University of Florida that guided graduate student mentors and their undergraduate mentees through the mentored research process. Using the national Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences for an academic year, we found that outcomes for our…

  3. Research Data Storage: A Framework for Success. ECAR Working Group Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Douglas; Dawson, Barbara E.; Fary, Michael; Hillegas, Curtis W.; Hopkins, Brian W.; Lyons, Yolanda; McCullough, Heather; McMullen, Donald F.; Owen, Kim; Ratliff, Mark; Williams, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research Data Management Working Group (ECAR-DM) has created a framework for research data storage as an aid for higher education institutions establishing and evaluating their institution's research data storage efforts. This paper describes areas for consideration and suggests graduated criteria to assist in…

  4. What Really Happens in Quantitative Group Research? Results of a Content Analysis of Recent Quantitative Research in "JSGW"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Lauren H.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Eyal, Maytal; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis on quantitative studies published in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") between 2012 and 2015. This brief report provides a general overview of the current practices of quantitative group research in counseling. The following study characteristics are reported and…

  5. Transforming Catholic Education through Research: The American Educational Research Association Catholic Education Special Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States and abroad face numerous financial, cultural, and structural challenges due to contemporary education policies and economic trends. Within this climate, research about Catholic education is often conducted and leveraged in efforts to serve schools' most immediate needs. To be certain, research aimed at finding…

  6. Critical Masses for Academic Research Groups and Consequences for Higher Education Research Policy and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Smaller universities may produce research which is on a par with larger, elite establishments. This is confirmed by a recently developed mathematical model, supported by data from British and French higher education research-evaluation exercises. The detailed nature of the UK system, in particular, allows quantification of the notion of critical…

  7. Intestinal Injury Currents Associated with Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, T.; Bradshaw, L. A.; O'Mahony, G. P.; Gallucci, M. R.; Berch, B.; Richards, W. O.

    2006-09-01

    A non-invasive method of detecting mesenteric ischemia is presented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of arterial reperfusion on these injury currents. The small bowel of New Zealand white rabbits was exteriorized and the mesenteric blood flow interrupted. Experiments were conducted in three groups, control (n = 3), ischemia (n = 6) and reperfusion following ischemia (n = 5). The subject's position was modulated in and out of the biological field detection range of a SQUID magnetometer. The changes in magnetic field amplitude for the experimental groups were 9.3% and 31.0% for the control and the ischemia groups respectively. The reperfusion group first exhibited a decrease of 17.4% from pre-ischemic to the ischemic period followed by an increase of 13.9% of the ischemic value after re-establishing perfusion. It is concluded that injury currents in GI smooth muscle that appear during ischemia are reduced to pre-ischemic levels during reperfusion.

  8. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, FANG; LIU, GUANG-JIE; LIU, NA; ZHANG, GANG; ZHANG, JIAN-XIN; LI, LAN-FANG

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is believed to be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, and now it is recognized as the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide; however, the effects of H2S on inflammatory factors in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats have not been clarified. In the present study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as the H2S donor. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, ischemia, ischemia + low-dose (0.78 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + medium-dose (1.56 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + high-dose (3.12 mg/kg) NaHS and ischemia + propargylglycine (PPG) (30 mg/kg). The rats in each group were sacrificed 6 h after the surgery for sample collection. Compared with the ischemia group, the cardiac damage in the rats in the ischemia + NaHS groups was significantly reduced, particularly in the high-dose group; in the ischemia + PPG group, the myocardial injury was aggravated compared with that in the ischemia group. Compared with the ischemia group, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of rats in the ischemia + medium- and high-dose NaHS groups were significantly reduced, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein in the myocardial tissues of rats was significantly reduced. In the ischemia + PPG group, the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the serum were significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased, although without a significant difference, and the expression of NF-κB was increased. The findings of the present study provide novel evidence for the dual effects of H2S on acute myocardial ischemia injury via the modulation of inflammatory factors. PMID:25667680

  9. Digital Ischemia Associated With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le Besnerais, Maëlle; Miranda, Sébastien; Cailleux, Nicole; Girszyn, Nicolas; Marie, Isabelle; Lévesque, Hervé; Benhamou, Ygal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Digital ischemia associated with cancer (DIAC) is increasing in frequency and recent reports have suggested the concept of paraneoplastic manifestation. The aims of this study were to characterize the clinical presentation of DIAC and identify clinical features that could lead physicians to diagnose underlying cancer. From January 2004 to December 2011, 100 patients were hospitalized in the Department of Internal Medicine at Rouen University Hospital, France for a first episode of DI. Fifteen (15%) exhibited symptomatic or asymptomatic cancer during the year preceding or following vascular episode and constituted the DIAC group. Other patients without cancer made up the digital ischemia (DI) group. Median time between diagnosis of cancer and episode of digital necrosis was 2 months [0.25–9]. Diagnosis of DI and concomitant cancer was made in 7 of the 15 patients, while DI preceded the malignant disorder in 2 cases and followed it in 6 cases. Histological types were adenocarcinoma for 7 (46.7%), squamous cell carcinoma for 4 (26.7%), and lymphoid neoplasia for 3 patients (20%). Six patients (40%) had extensive cancer. Three patients were lost to follow-up and 5 patients died <1 year after diagnosis of cancer. Cancer treatment improved vascular symptoms in 6 patients (40%). Patients with DIAC, compared to patients with DI, were significantly older (56 years [33–79] vs 46 [17–83] P =0.005), and had significantly lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (12.7 g/dl vs 13.9 g/dl; P =0.003 and 38% vs 42%; P =0.003, respectively). Patients with DIAC had a higher platelet rate (420 vs 300 G/L P =0.01), and 6 patients with DIAC (40%) had thrombocytosis. There was no difference between groups either in C-reactive protein level (12 mg/L vs 5 mg/L; P =0.08) or regarding cardiovascular risk factors, presence of autoimmunity, or monoclonal protein. This retrospective study suggests that DIAC may be more prevalent than previously reported. Outcomes

  10. Introducing New Undergraduates Into a Research Group Through Use of a Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittlesey, Phyllis; Lopez, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    In a large research group it can be difficult to communicate fundamental group-specific concepts and data collection procedures to new or inexperienced members. Our research group utilizes a type of website called a wiki, which allows members to update and change content quickly and easily. A page on our group's wiki details fundamental concepts in the space physics research group, oriented at incoming undergraduate researchers, including a detailed description of what each of the most-used data sites is used for and a step by step procedure on how to use each one. The nature of the wiki as a dynamic and member-edited project means that descriptions and procedures can be revised and updated as new data sets become available. Our efforts include weekly meetings with the new undergraduates to explore these concepts and frequently-used data websites until these new members have learned enough to understand their assigned research projects. Our group has successfully incorporated undergraduates as early as their freshman year into the research group on scientifically significant research projects using these methods.

  11. Nine lessons and recommendations from the conduct of focus group research in chronic pain samples.

    PubMed

    McParland, Joanna L; Flowers, Paul

    2012-09-01

     The view of the patient is central to their care. Focus group methodology has been used in health psychology to capture patient views on health and illness. However, the process of conducting focus group research with patient groups has received scarce attention. The purpose of this paper was to highlight lessons learned from the conduct of focus groups in psychological research with chronic pain samples.  Lessons were taken from three structured focus groups containing participants recruited from General Practice. Each group contained five, four, and six chronic pain sufferers from upper, middle and lower socioeconomic areas, respectively.  Nine lessons were learned about the conduct of focus group research in general, and also with chronic pain sufferers in particular. The lessons relate to (1) translating study interest into group attendance, (2) ensuring the environment maximizes the opportunity to learn from participants, (3) understanding participant motivations for attendance as well as (4) what participants take from the group, (5) ensuring adequate question specificity, accommodating the needs of particular groups in (6) moderation style and (7) discussion time scales, (8) considering the function of conflict in the group and (9) paying due attention to simultaneous dialogue. Recommendations for addressing the lessons are made.  Patient groups have specific requirements and the conduct of focus groups should be driven by these needs to maximize inclusion and quality contributions in the group. Time, resources, and flexibility are needed to ensure the successful transition of these groups into focus group research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Vitreal Oxygenation in Retinal Ischemia Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Walid; Ameri, Hossein; Barron, Ernesto; Chader, Gerald J.; Greenbaum, Elias; Hinton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To study the feasibility of anterior vitreal oxygenation for the treatment of acute retinal ischemia. Methods. Twenty rabbits were randomized into an oxygenation group, a sham treatment group, and a no treatment group. Baseline electroretinography (ERG) and preretinal oxygen (Po2) measurements were obtained 3 to 5 days before surgery. Intraocular pressure was raised to 100 mm Hg for 90 minutes and then normalized. The oxygenation group underwent vitreal oxygenation for 30 minutes using intravitreal electrodes. The sham treatment group received inactive electrodes for 30 minutes while there was no intervention for the no treatment group. Preretinal Po2 in the posterior vitreous was measured 30 minutes after intervention or 30 minutes after reperfusion (no treatment group) and on postoperative days (d) 3, 6, 9, and 12. On d14, rabbits underwent ERG and were euthanatized. Results. Mean final (d12) Po2 was 10.64 ± 0.77 mm Hg for the oxygenation group, 2.14 ± 0.61 mm Hg for the sham group, and 1.98 ± 0.63 mm Hg for the no treatment group. On ERG, scotopic b-wave amplitude was significantly preserved in the oxygenation group compared with the other two groups. Superoxide dismutase assay showed higher activity in the operated eyes than in the nonoperated control eyes in the sham treatment group and no treatment group only. Histopathology showed preservation of retinal architecture and choroidal vasculature in the oxygenation group, whereas the sham-treated and nontreated groups showed retinal thinning and choroidal atrophy. Conclusions. In severe total ocular ischemia, anterior vitreal oxygenation supplies enough oxygen to penetrate the retinal thickness, resulting in rescue of the RPE/choriocapillaris that continues to perfuse, hence sparing the retinal tissue from damage. PMID:21051734

  13. Research Productivity of Members of IADR Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group: Relationship to Professional and Personal Factors

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern. PMID:18923094

  14. Effects of central sympathetic activation on repolarization-dispersion during short-term myocardial ischemia in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, Theofilos M; La Rocca, Vassilios; Psychalakis, Nikolaos; Karampela, Eleftheria; Kontonika, Marianthi; Tourmousoglou, Christos; Baltogiannis, Giannis G; Papalois, Apostolos; Kyriakides, Zenon S

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic activation during myocardial ischemia enhances arrhythmogenesis, but the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the central sympathetic effects on ventricular repolarization during the early-period post-coronary artery occlusion. We studied 12 Wistar rats (254±2 g) for 30 min following left coronary artery ligation, with (n=6) or without (n=6) pretreatment with the central sympatholytic agent clonidine. Mapping of left and right ventricular epicardial electrograms was performed with a 32-electrode array. As an index of sympathetic activation, heart rate variability in the frequency domain was calculated. Heart rate and repolarization duration were measured with a custom-made recording and analysis software, followed by calculation of intra- and inter-ventricular dispersion of repolarization. Heart rate and heart rate variability indicated lower sympathetic activation in clonidine-treated rats during ischemia. Repolarization duration in the left ventricle prolonged after clonidine at baseline, independently of heart rate, but no differences were present 30 min post-ligation. Dispersion of repolarization in the right ventricle remained stable during ischemia, whereas it increased in the left ventricle, equally in both groups. A similar trend was observed for inter-ventricular dispersion, without differences between groups. In addition to intra-ventricular repolarization-dispersion, anterior-wall myocardial ischemia may also increase inter-ventricular repolarization-dispersion. Progressive central sympathetic activation occurs during myocardial ischemia, but it does not affect intra- or inter-ventricular dispersion of ventricular repolarization during the early phase. Further research is warranted on the potential effects during subsequent time-periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  16. Vitreal Ocygenation in Retinal Ischemia Reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallab, Walid; AmeriMD, Hossein; Barron, Ernesto; ChaderPhD, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias; Hinton, David E; Humayun, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To study the feasibility of anterior vitreal oxygenation for the treatment of acute retinal ischemia. METHODS. Twenty rabbits were randomized into an oxygenation group, a sham treatment group, and a no treatment group. Baseline electroretinography (ERG) and preretinal oxygen (PO2) measurements were obtained 3 to 5 days before surgery. Intraocular pressure was raised to 100 mm Hg for 90 minutes and then normalized. The oxygenation group underwent vitreal oxygenation for 30 minutes using intravitreal electrodes. The sham treatment group received inactive electrodes for 30 minutes while there was no intervention for the no treatment group. Preretinal PO2 in the posterior vitreous was measured 30 minutes after intervention or 30 minutes after reperfusion (no treatment group) and on postoperative days (d) 3, 6, 9, and 12. On d14, rabbits underwent ERG and were euthanatized.

  17. Challenges of participatory research: reflections on a study with breast cancer self‐help groups

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ross E.; Fitch, Margaret; Davis, Christine; Phillips, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Objective To review and discuss issues related to participatory research, as they apply within the arena of cancer control. Design A participatory research study with breast cancer self‐help groups is referred to for description and discussion purposes. That study employed primarily individual and group interviews to assess benefits and limitations of self‐help groups. Settings Four breast cancer self‐help groups in Ontario communities provided the core involvement in the participatory research project. Results The values and practices of mainstream academic research often conflict with those of research emphasizing participation and control of communities under study, leading to a variety of challenges for the latter approaches. Practical constraints faced by many community groups have important implications for participatory research approaches. Conclusions A balance needs to be found for participatory research within cancer control – one that ensures that the core aims of participatory research are maintained, while simultaneously acknowledging the various challenges that make a fully participatory project unrealistic. Steps can be taken to achieve a workable balance. PMID:11281935

  18. Development of a Unified Reference System for a Multi-personnel Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D.; Fitzpaynes, J. Y. L.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment of a reference filing system, based on optical coincidence retrieval, for an eight-man research group studying gas reactions is described. The complete system is simple to use and gives rapid, precise reference retrieval. (1 reference) (Author)

  19. The Perceived Structure of American Ethnic Groups: The Use of Multidimensional Scaling in Stereotype Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Sandra G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A methodology for stereotype research, including an experimental paradigm and an analytic method, is presented. The paradigm involves the collection of three different types of similarities data concerning ethnic groups and rating-scale adjectives. (Author/DEP)

  20. Abate Cytochrome C induced apoptosome to protect donor liver against ischemia reperfusion injury on rat liver transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhuonan; Lian, Peilong; Wu, Xiaojuan; Shi, Baoxu; Zhuang, Maoyou; Zhou, Ruiling; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Zhen; Guo, Sen; Ji, Zhipeng; Xu, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to protect donor liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating Cytochrome C induced apoptosome on rat model. Methods: A total of 25 clean SD inbred male rats were used in this research. The rats in ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group, n=5) were under liver transplantation operation; rats in dichloroacetate diisopropylamine group (DADA group, n=5) were treated DADA before liver transplantation; control group (Ctrl group, n=5); other 10 rats were used to offer donor livers. Results: In DADA therapy group, Cytochrome C expression in donor hepatocellular cytoplasm was detected lower than that in I/R group. And the Cytochrome C induced apoptosome was also decreased in according to the lower expressions of Apaf-1 and Caspase3. Low level of cleaved PARP expression revealed less apoptosis in liver tissue. The morphology of donor liver mitochondria in DADA group was observed to be slightly edema but less than I/R group after operation 12 h. The liver function indexes of ALT and AST in serum were tested, and the results in DADA group showed it is significantly lower than I/R group after operation 12 h. The inflammation indexes of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions in DADA group were significantly lower than that in I/R group after operation 24 h. Conclusion: The dichloroacetate diisopropylamine treatment could protect the hepatocellular mitochondria in case of the spillage of Cytochrome C induced apoptosome, and protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, it may be a method to promote the recovery of donor liver function after transplantation. PMID:27186297

  1. Action research on group consulting of family legal education for adolescent parents in China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Feng, Wei

    2012-08-09

    In this experimental study, we made an attempt to explore the approach and method to improve the legal cognition and family legal education level for adolescent parents. 10 parents of students of grade two in a middle school of Chongqing in China were provided with group consulting and training. We adopted action research method to make overall assessment on the needs, execution and results of group consulting and training activity about family legal education for adolescent parents. After educating intervention group training of action research, the legal cognition level and the mastery and utilization of family legal educational method of adolescent parents get rising. Through the assessment of action research, the group training manner is a useful group consulting manner to make family legal education for adolescent parents. The program was feasible; the method was effective; the intervention effect was obvious.

  2. Action Research on Group Consulting of Family Legal Education for Adolescent Parents in China

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Ying; Feng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Aim: In this experimental study, we made an attempt to explore the approach and method to improve the legal cognition and family legal education level for adolescent parents. Methods: 10 parents of students of grade two in a middle school of Chongqing in China were provided with group consulting and training. We adopted action research method to make overall assessment on the needs, execution and results of group consulting and training activity about family legal education for adolescent parents. Results: After educating intervention group training of action research, the legal cognition level and the mastery and utilization of family legal educational method of adolescent parents get rising. Conclusion: Through the assessment of action research, the group training manner is a useful group consulting manner to make family legal education for adolescent parents. The program was feasible; the method was effective; the intervention effect was obvious. PMID:22980385

  3. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  4. Does closure of acid-sensing ion channels reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat brain?★

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Yinghui; Lian, Zhigang; Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Tingzhun; Li, Mengkao; Wei, Yi; Dong, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Acidosis is a common characteristic of brain damage. Because studies have shown that permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels can mediate the toxic effects of calcium ions, they have become new targets against pain and various intracranial diseases. However, the mechanism associated with expression of these channels remains unclear. This study sought to observe the expression characteristics of permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels during different reperfusion inflows in rats after cerebral ischemia. The rat models were randomly divided into three groups: adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group, one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, and severe cerebral ischemic injury group. Western blot assays and immunofluorescence staining results exhibited that when compared with the one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, acid-sensing ion channel 3 and Bcl-x/l expression decreased in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Calmodulin expression was lowest in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Following adaptive reperfusion, common carotid artery flow was close to normal, and the pH value improved. Results verified that adaptive reperfusion following cerebral ischemia can suppress acid-sensing ion channel 3 expression, significantly reduce Ca2+ influx, inhibit calcium overload, and diminish Ca2+ toxicity. The effects of adaptive ischemia/reperfusion on suppressing cell apoptosis and relieving brain damage were better than that of one-time ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25206411

  5. Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin Levels in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Yunus; Gündüz, Abdulkadir; Türkmen, Süha; Menteşe, Ahmet; Türedi, Süleyman; Eryiğit, Umut; Karahan, Süleyman Caner

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a potentially fatal disease. Difficulties in diagnosis make it essential to find early biomarkers. Aims: This study investigated the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in AMI. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In the experimental group, an experimental ischemia model was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery from the aortic outflow tract. Blood and tissue specimens were collected from rats in the experimental mesenteric ischemia model at 30 min and 2 and 6 h, and these were compared with specimens from the respective control groups. PCT levels were compared at 30 min and 2 and 6 h. Results: PCT levels were 185.3 pg/mL in the control group and 219.3 pg/mL in the study group, 199.6 pg/mL in the control group and 243.9 pg/mL in the study group, and 201.9 pg/mL in the control group and 286.9 pg/mL in the study group, respectively, at 30 minute, 2 and 6 hours. Significant differences were determined between 6-h control group and ischemia group PCT levels (p=0.005). Conclusion: The absence of a significant increase in PCT levels in the early period, while a significant difference was detected in the later period (6 h), shows that PCT levels rise late in mesenteric ischemia and can be a marker in the late period. PMID:26185718

  6. Ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptotic endothelial cells isolated from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei Z; Fang, Xin-Hua; Stephenson, Linda L; Khiabani, Kayvan T; Zamboni, William A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptosis and necrosis in endothelial cells isolated from skeletal muscle. A vascular pedicle isolated rat gracilis muscle model was used. After surgical preparation, clamps were applied to the vascular pedicle to create 4 hours of ischemia and released for reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion group, n = 9). Clamping was omitted in sham ischemia-reperfusion rats (sham ischemia-reperfusion group, n = 9). The muscle samples were harvested after 20 hours of reperfusion for the process of cell isolation. One hundred thousand cells from each sample were stained by monoclonal anti-CD146-fluorescein (a principal marker for mature endothelial cells), Annexin V-PE, or 7-aminoactinomycin D to detect and quantify apoptotic and necrotic cells. Twenty thousand cells from each sample were scanned and analyzed by flow cytometry. The average +/- SEM of CD146-fluorescein-positive cells was 20.0 +/- 2.9 percent, suggesting that these cells might be endothelial cells from the muscle microvasculature. In the population of gated CD146-fluorescein-positive cells, the average percentage of apoptotic cells (stained by Annexin V-PE) was 15.9 +/- 2.2 percent in the sham ischemia-reperfusion group and 33.5 +/- 5.3 percent in the ischemia-reperfusion group (p < 0.01), the average percentage of necrotic/apoptotic cells (stained by both 7-aminoactinomycin D and Annexin V-PE) was 17.8 +/- 4.1 percent in the sham ischemia-reperfusion group and 39.2 +/- 3.1 percent in the ischemia-reperfusion group (p < 0.01). Given the results of the present study, the authors hypothesize that the endothelial cells lining microscopic blood vessels are among the major contributors to ischemia-reperfusion-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis detected from rat skeletal muscle.

  7. Discovering the research priorities of people with diabetes in a multicultural community: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ken; Dyas, Jane; Chahal, Prit; Khalil, Yesmean; Riaz, Perween; Cummings-Jones, Joy

    2006-01-01

    Background Usually experts decide on which research is worthwhile, yet it is government policy to involve service users in research. There has been a lack of published research about involving patients from minority ethnic groups and people from deprived areas in setting research agendas. In this study we wanted to hear the voices of patients that are not often heard. Aim To find out the research priorities of people with diabetes from an inner city community and compare these with current expert-led research priorities in diabetes. Design of study A qualitative study using a participatory approach with consumer groups. Setting Primary care within inner city Nottingham, UK. Method Thirty-nine adult patients with diabetes with varying ethnic backgrounds recruited from three general practices. Six focus groups carried out in participants' preferred language, analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Nine main themes equating to research priorities were identified. Within these themes, information and awareness, service delivery and primary prevention of diabetes emerged as the main factors. There were no science-based topics and there was more emphasis on culturally influenced research questions, which differed from recent Department of Health priorities. There were several themes about service delivery, patient self-management and screening and prevention of diabetes that overlapped. Conclusions There is some divergence between expert-led and patient-led agendas in research about diabetes. Patient perspectives have a significant influence on research priorities, and there are likely to be several different patient perspectives. PMID:16536961

  8. Delayed neuronal cell death in brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fang; Hata, Ryuji; Zhu, Pengxiang; Takeda, Shoichiro; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Sakanaka, Masahiro; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2010-09-14

    Because of the lack of reproducible brainstem ischemia models in rodents, the temporal profile of ischemic lesions in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia has not been evaluated intensively. Previously, we produced a reproducible brainstem ischemia model of Mongolian gerbils. Here, we showed the temporal profile of ischemic lesions after transient brainstem ischemia. Brainstem ischemia was produced by occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries just before their entry into the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae of Mongolian gerbils. Animals were subjected to brainstem ischemia for 15 min, and then reperfused for 0 d (just after ischemia), 1 d, 3 d and 7 d (n = 4 in each group). Sham-operated animals (n = 4) were used as control. After deep anesthesia, the gerbils were perfused with fixative for immunohistochemical investigation. Ischemic lesions were detected by immunostaining for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Just after 15-min brainstem ischemia, ischemic lesions were detected in the lateral vestibular nucleus and the ventral part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and these ischemic lesions disappeared one day after reperfusion in all animals examined. However, 3 days and 7 days after reperfusion, ischemic lesions appeared again and clusters of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1(IBA-1)-positive cells were detected in the same areas in all animals. These results suggest that delayed neuronal cell death took place in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils.

  9. The Town Hall Focus Group: A New Format for Qualitative Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman-Parker, Michelle; Shank, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The town hall focus group method is described in this paper. We start by outlining the circumstances that brought about this unusual research strategy. Then, we describe the tactical decisions we made that allowed this particular effort to be a success. We conclude with a series of concrete suggestions for conducting focus groups with large groups…

  10. Tech Prep: Building a Framework for Future Research, Evaluation, and Program Practice. Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Barbara G.

    This document reports on three focus groups comprised of state officials, local practitioners and supporters, and researchers who were convened to provide input on strategies for assessing and validating the effects of tech prep. Part I provides a brief summary of the groups' discussions, including major points and broad themes in these four topic…

  11. Focus Group Discussions: Three Examples from Family and Consumer Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.; Monroe, Pamela A.; Sasser, Diane D.; Shaffer, Amy C.; Blalock, Lydia B.

    1999-01-01

    Gives examples of the focus group method in terms of question development, group composition and recruitment, interview protocols, and data analysis as applied to three family and consumer-sciences research projects: consumer behavior of working female adolescents, work readiness of adult males with low educational attainment, and definition of…

  12. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context…

  13. Cross--Cultural Small Group Research: A Review, an Analysis, and a Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuter, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes research on cross-national small group behavior and offers a value theory of small group development. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  14. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  15. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  16. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  17. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  18. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  19. Collaborative Group Action Research: A Constructivist Approach to Developing an Integrated Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurino, Penny L.; Saurino, Dan R.

    Elementary teachers collaborated on a research project that investigated how a constructivist approach to gifted and talented integrated curriculum strategies and techniques could be developed and implemented. The collaborative group action research cycle involved planning, collecting baseline data, intervening strategies/modifying interventions,…

  20. The International Research Training Group (GRK532): Practicing Cross-Border Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehses, Markus; Veith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the International Research Training Group "GRK532" was founded as a pilot project for cross-border European postgraduate education along the German/French/Luxembourg borders. The project consists of an interdisciplinary research programme on synthesis, isolation and characterization of new materials accompanied by an ambitious…

  1. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  2. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  3. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  4. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... foreign country. (2) The period of research or study in a foreign country is generally from three to... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  5. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... foreign country. (2) The period of research or study in a foreign country is generally from three to... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  6. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... foreign country. (2) The period of research or study in a foreign country is generally from three to... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  7. Implementation and Outcomes of Online Self and Peer Assessment on Group Based Honours Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chengqing; Chanda, Emmanuel; Willison, John

    2014-01-01

    Honours research projects in the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide are run with small groups of students working with an academic supervisor in a chosen area for one year. The research project is mainly self-directed study, which makes it very difficult to fairly assess the contribution of…

  8. Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer-to-Peer Interactions in a Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Matthews, Michael A.; Thompson, Nancy S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of active learning in the traditional classroom setting are well established among engineering educators; however, this learning model can thrive in other settings, namely in a research group. This work presents findings from an educational research project specifically designed to foster active learning among undergraduates and…

  9. The International Research Training Group (GRK532): Practicing Cross-Border Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehses, Markus; Veith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the International Research Training Group "GRK532" was founded as a pilot project for cross-border European postgraduate education along the German/French/Luxembourg borders. The project consists of an interdisciplinary research programme on synthesis, isolation and characterization of new materials accompanied by an ambitious…

  10. Implementation and Outcomes of Online Self and Peer Assessment on Group Based Honours Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chengqing; Chanda, Emmanuel; Willison, John

    2014-01-01

    Honours research projects in the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide are run with small groups of students working with an academic supervisor in a chosen area for one year. The research project is mainly self-directed study, which makes it very difficult to fairly assess the contribution of…

  11. Profile of scientific and technological production in nursing education research groups in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lino, Mônica Motta; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Canever, Bruna Pedroso; Ferraz, Fabiane; Prado, Marta Lenise

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to present the profile of production of Nursing Education Research Groups (NERG) scientific and technological production in the South of Brazil. This documentary, quantitative, exploratory-descriptive retrospective research was guided by the active search for products in the Lattes curriculum of previously selected NERG researchers, based on the 2006 Census of the Research Group Directory/CNPq, between 1995 and 2008. The results indicated that the 18 NERG from southern Brazil produced 453 papers in proceedings, 371 book chapters, 206 books, 1,437 scientific articles and 08 technological products, but no patent was registered. NERGs scientific production in the research region has grown progressively over the past 14 years. To strengthen this structure, the establishment of collaborative networks can be used as a strategy, so that political-scientific joint actions in the sector can advance science and technology.

  12. Experimental Research into the Behavior of Piles and Pile Groups Subjected to Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    FI LE CoP, MISCELLANECUS PAPER GL 88 10 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO THE of EngnBEHAVIOR OF PILES AND PILE GROUPS SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC LATERAL LOADING...1988 Final Report "- n, .... "/ Minerals Management Service US Department of Interior, Reston, Virginia 22090 and Department of Research . Federal Highway...PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO See reverse 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) 0 Experimental Research Into the Behavior of

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Resveratrol on Acute Brain Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Measuring Annexin V, p53, Bcl-2 Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kizmazoglu, Ceren; Aydin, Hasan Emre; Sevin, Ismail Ertan; Yüceer, Nurullah; Atasoy, Metin Ant

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral ischemia is as a result of insufficient cerebral blood flow for cerebral metabolic functions. Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin that can be extracted from grape's skin and had potent role in treating the cerebral ischemia. Apoptosis, a genetically programmed cellular event which occurs after ischemia and leads to biochemical and morphological changes in cells. There are some useful markers for apoptosis like Bcl-2, bax, and p53. The last reports, researchers verify the apoptosis with early markers like Annexin V. Methods We preferred in this experimental study a model of global cerebral infarction which was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion method. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups : sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), I/R plus 20 mg/kg resveratrol and I/R plus 40 mg/kg resveratrol. Statistical analysis was performed using Sigmastat 3.5 ve IBM SPSS Statistics 20. We considered a result significant when p<0.001. Results After administration of resveratrol, Bcl-2 and Annexin levels were significantly increased (p<0.001). Depending on the dose of resveratrol, Bcl2 levels increased, p53 levels decreased but Annexin V did not effected. P53 levels were significantly increased in ishemia group, so apoptosis is higher compared to other groups. Conclusion In the acute period, Annexin V levels misleading us because the apoptotic cell counts could not reach a certain level. Therefore we should support our results with bcl-2 and p53. PMID:26819684

  14. Instrumentations and projects of research groups in Switzerland related to the research on rocket and balloon carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoli, Marianne; Kopp, Ernest

    2003-08-01

    In the past few years four very active Swiss groups involved in the research by means of rocket and balloon carriers have terminated their programmes. These groups were located at the University of Bern (Ernest Kopp), the World Radiation Center in Davos (Klaus Fröhlich), the ETH Zürich (Kurt Kneubühl) and the Observatoire de Genève (Daniel Huguenin). The remaining groups are the Space Biology Group in the field of Life Science in Space, the Applied Physics Institute in Bern with its observation of water vapor and ozone constituents using the microwave remote sensing technique, the meteorological soundings from the SMA balloon station in Payerne and the ozone soundings from the Institute of Atmosphere and Climate (IAC) at the ETH Zürich. In this report we will mainly present the activities of these groups in the past and in future. An addition three well known groups at the Laboratoire de Pollution Atmospherique (LPAS) at the EPFL in Lausanne, the IAC and the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC) located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which is associated to the ETH in Zürich, are contributing lab- and field research for the diagnostics and research of aerosols. The LPAS Group of Michael Rossi in Lausanne is determining heterogeneous chemical reaction rates in the laboratory. The research group of Thomas Peter at the IAC in Zürich is investigating fundamental physical and chemical processes of aerosols and the interaction to the gas phase of the atmosphere. In addition these results are combined with field measurements and model calculations. The LAC under Urs Baltensberger is investigating the key processes determining the gas phase and aerosol composition in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer, and the identification of their sources and sinks.

  15. Effects of beta-glucan on protection of young and aged rats from renal ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Esrefoglu, M; Tok, O E; Aydin, M S; Iraz, M; Ozer, O F; Selek, S; Iraz, M

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the leading causes of acute renal failure which is a common clinical event leading to development of chronic kidney disease and a high mortality; especially in elderly people. β-glucans are glucose polymer groups with free-radical scavenger, macrophage activator, and immune defense inducer functions. We designed this study to determine the possible protective effects of β-glucan against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury comparatively in young and aged rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: Young and aged sham, young and aged ischemia-reperfusion, young and aged β-glucan, young and aged ischemia-reperfusion+β-glucan. At the end of the experiment, following collection of blood samples, rats were sacrificed and kidneys were removed for histopathological and biochemical examination. Mean tissue histopathological damage scores of young β-glucan group was lower than that of young ischemia-reperfusion group, and of aged β-glucan group was lower than that of aged ischemia-reperfusion group. Urea and creatinine levels of young and aged of sham group and β-glucan administered groups were all lower than those of ischemia-reperfusion and β-glucan+ischemia-reperfusion groups. Oxidative stress indexes of ischemia-reperfusion groups were increased however ; oxidative stress indexes of β-glucan administered to young and aged rats were lower than those of ischemia-reperfusion groups. We conclude that β-glucan is effective to protect kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage, especially in young rats (Fig. 6, Ref. 45).

  16. An online monogenic diabetes discussion group: supporting families and fueling new research.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Marie E; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-11-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments and design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern.

  17. Selective occlusion of lumbar arteries as a spinal cord ischemia model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoyuki; Mori, Koichi; Shiraishi, Yoshimitsu; Tatebayashi, Kyoko; Kawai, Yasuaki

    2003-02-01

    Paraplegia is a devastating complication of operations requiring transient occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta. Many animal models of spinal cord ischemia have been utilized to examine the efficacy of various neuroprotective methods. In this study, we establish a rabbit model of spinal cord ischemia by selective temporary occlusion of lumbar arteries and examine the protective effects of systemic mild hypothermia in this model. Animals were divided into the following four groups: sham group (group A, n = 6); 10 min ischemia, normothermia (39 degrees C) (group B, n = 6); 20 min ischemia, normothermia (group C, n = 6); and 30 min ischemia, mild hypothermia (35 degrees C) (group D, n = 6). After 7 d of reperfusion, three rabbits in group B and five rabbits in group C developed paraplegia (Tarlov's score = 0). In contrast, all rabbits preserved hindlimb motor function (Tarlov's score = 4) in groups A and D. Histological findings indicated that the number of motor neurons in the anterior horns in group C were significantly fewer than in group A. A large number of motor neurons were preserved in group D. Hypothermia is known to be an effective and reliable method of neuroprotection, but the risk of complications rises at deep hypothermia. Our current results confirm that systemic, mild hypothermia is a safe and effective neuroprotective method during ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord.

  18. Evaluation of stem cell administration in a model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Léa Bueno Lucas; Palma, Patrícia Viana Bonini; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Bueno, Valquiria

    2007-12-15

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common early event in kidney transplantation and contributes to a delay in organ function. Acute tubular necrosis, impaired kidney function and organ leukocyte infiltration are the major findings. The therapeutic potential of stem cells has been the focus of recent research as these cells possess capabilities such as self-renewal, multipotent differentiation and aid in regeneration after organ injury. FTY720 is a new synthetic compound that has been associated with preferential migration of blood lymphocytes to peripheral lymph nodes instead of inflammatory sites. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and/or FTY720 were used as therapy to promote recovery of tubule cells and avoid inflammation at the renal site, respectively. Mice were submitted to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and were either treated with two doses of FTY720, 10x10(6) BMSC, or both in order to compare the therapeutic effect with non-treated and control animals. Renal function and structure were investigated as were cell numbers in peripheral blood and spleen. Activation and apoptosis markers were also evaluated in splenocytes using flow cytometry. We found that the combined therapy (FTY720+BMSC) was associated with more significant changes in renal function and structure after ischemia-reperfusion injury when compared with the other groups. Also a decrease at cell numbers and prevention of spleen cells activation and apoptosis was observed. In conclusion, in our model it was not possible to demonstrate the potential of stem cells alone or in combination with FTY720 to promote early kidney recovery after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  19. A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

  20. Progress in Childhood Cancer: 50 Years of Research Collaboration, A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Maura; Krailo, Mark; Anderson, James R.; Reaman, Gregory H.

    2009-01-01

    The Children's Oncology Group (COG) recently celebrated the milestone of 50 years of pediatric clinical trials and collaborative research in oncology. Our group had its origins in the four legacy pediatric clinical trials groups: the Children's Cancer Group, the Pediatric Oncology Group, the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group and the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group which merged in 2000 to form the COG. Over the last 50 years, the survival rates for childhood cancer have risen from 10% to almost 80%. Outcome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) has gone from a six month median survival to an 85% overall cure rate. We have modified therapies in most major diseases to induce remission with the least amount of long term sequelae. Here we look back on our advances but also look forward to the next 50 years which will produce even more successful treatments that will be tailored to the specific patient translating the tools of molecular genetics. Experience has clearly proven that everything we know about the diagnosis and management of childhood cancer is a result of research and the dramatic historical decrease in mortality from childhood cancer is directly related to cooperative group clinical research. PMID:18929147

  1. Safety and Postoperative Outcomes of Regional versus Global Ischemia for Partial Nephrectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiduo; Qu, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Shuqiu; Xu, Bin; Lu, Kai; Liu, Chunhui; Tao, Tao; Yang, Yu; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    To analyze current evidence comparing the safety and outcomes of regional and global ischemia for partial nephrectomy (PN). A systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted in May 2014 to identify studies comparing the safety and outcomes of regional and global ischemia for PN. A systematic review and meta-analysis was also performed. Six retrospective observational studies were selected for the analysis, including 363 patients who underwent PN (162 regional ischemia and 201 global ischemia cases). Operation times were not statistically different [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 20.35 min, 95% CI: -0.28-40.97, p = 0.05], but estimated blood loss was significantly higher in the regional ischemia group (WMD = 52.04 ml, 95% CI: 14.30-89.78, p = 0.007) than in the global ischemia group. Complication rates [odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.63-2.15, p = 0.63] and blood transfusion rates (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 0.86-4.01, p = 0.12) of the two groups were not significantly different. The regional ischemia group showed better postoperative renal function (WMD = 4.23 ml/min, 95% CI: 2.61-5.85, p < 0.00001) than the global ischemia group, and all cases in the regional ischemia group showed negative margins. Regional ischemia is as safe to perform as global ischemia, and the former leads to better postoperative renal functions than the latter. These findings support the application of regional ischemia for PN. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Ichim, Gabriela; Gheban, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison's disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis.

  3. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  4. Diseases and their management strategies take top research priority in watermelon research and development group member’s survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon is an important crop grown for its delicious fruit in the U.S. and in many countries across the world. A survey of members of Watermelon Research and Development Group (WRDG) was conducted via email and during WRDG meetings in 2014 and 2015 in an effort to identify and rank important rese...

  5. Developing an organizing framework to guide nursing research in the Children’s Oncology Group (COG)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Hooke, Mary C.; Ruccione, Kathleen; Landier, Wendy; Haase, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and application of an organizing research framework to guide COG Nursing research. Data Sources Research articles, reports and meeting minutes Conclusion An organizing research framework helps to outline research focus and articulate the scientific knowledge being produced by nurses in the pediatric cooperative group. Implication for Nursing Practice The use of an organizing framework for COG nursing research can facilitate clinical nurses’ understanding of how children and families sustain or regain optimal health when faced with a pediatric cancer diagnosis through interventions designed to promote individual and family resilience. The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is the sole National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported cooperative pediatric oncology clinical trials group and the largest organization in the world devoted exclusively to pediatric cancer research. It was founded in 2000 following the merger of the four legacy NCI-supported pediatric clinical trials groups (Children’s Cancer Group [CCG], Pediatric Oncology Group [POG], National Wilms Tumor Study Group, and Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group). The COG currently has over 200 member institutions across North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe and a multidisciplinary membership of over 8,000 pediatric, radiation, and surgical oncologists, nurses, clinical research associates, pharmacists, behavioral scientists, pathologists, laboratory scientists, patient/parent advocates and other pediatric cancer specialists. The COG Nursing Discipline was formed from the merger of the legacy CCG and POG Nursing Committees, and current membership exceeds 2000 registered nurses. The discipline has a well-developed infrastructure that promotes nursing involvement throughout all levels of the organization, including representation on disease, protocol, scientific, executive and other administrative committees (e.g., nominating committee, data safety monitoring

  6. CASPER's New Educational Research Group: The Physical Environment and Educational Interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Wang, Li; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    CASPER research has long included the area of STEM science education, which grew out of its history in educational intervention and curriculum development and its NSF funded REU summer program, which has been active since 1994. Recently CASPER's Educational Research group entered into a partnership with the Region 12 Educational Service Center and Huckabee, Inc. to examine the role the physical environment plays in educational intervention and the impact this combination has on student engagement and learning. This talk introduces the partnership, explains the framework guiding the research and presents the roles each partner plays in the research.

  7. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  8. [Retinal ischemia and nitric oxide].

    PubMed

    Neroev, V V; Arkhipova, M M

    2003-01-01

    Retinal ischemia is the main chain in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases of the eye. It was established that nitric oxide (NO) plays the key role in the development of ischemia. Recent understanding of the NO role, as a universal regulator of the cellular and tissue metabolism, is presented. The authors' and published data were used to design a scheme of pathogenesis of retinal ischemia with regard for the NO role. NO can produce both positive and negative effects depending on a stage of the process, NO concentration and on a number of other factors if they are present. Initial stages of hypoxia/ischemia are accompanied by an activation of all forms of NO-synthases (NOS) caused by the influence of biologically active substances (cytokines, prostaglandins, serotonin, bradykinin, glycolisis suboxide products etc.). The activation of inducible NOS, which synthesize a bigger quantity of NO possessing a direct cytotoxic action and contributing to the production of highly toxic radical of peroxinitrit, is in the focus of attention. The damage of cellular structures due to free-radical processes leads to the development of endothelial, macrophage and thrombocyte malfunctions, which manifest itself through a reduced activity of endothelial NOS and through disruption of NO-dependent processes (vasospasm, an increased aggregation of platelets and a reduced fibrinolytic activity). A sharp reduction of NO synthesis substrate (L-arginine) is observed in patients with retinal ischemia. The aggravation of ischemia causes a decrease of NO synthesis due to an exhaustion of L-arginine and its intensified consumption in the course of free-radical processes. The use of NO-inhibitors and of NO-donors at different stages of retinal ischemia prevents the development of neovascularization and proliferation.

  9. [The scientific production and research groups on sanitary surveillance at CNPq].

    PubMed

    Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais; de Noronha, Ana Beatriz Marinho; Figueiredo, Tatiana Aragão; de Souza, Adriana de Alvarenga Linhares; Oliveira, Catia Veronica dos Santos; Pontes Júnior, Durval Martins

    2010-11-01

    Sanitary surveillance is an intersectorial and multidisciplinary practice of health regulation. The aim was to describe the scientific research on sanitary surveillance and its research groups in Brazil during the period of 1997 to 2003, through the Census of 2000, 2002 and 2004 of Directory of Research Groups of the Scientific and Technological Development National Council (CNPq). The term "sanitary surveillance" was used to search the production and the research groups in the Lattes Platform of CNPq. There were 1,194 items, 913 in bibliographic production and 281 in post-graduated production, with an increment of 540% on the period. There were 735 research groups, created mostly from 2000 to 2003 and 6,263 researchers concentrated in the Southeast Region and in CNPq sub area of Public Health. The great increase of the production lead to the conclusion that sanitary surveillance have been a locus of production only in the last decade, presented in scientific events of Public Health and until now concentrated just like others areas in Health.

  10. Challenges faced by research ethics committees in El Salvador: results from a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Camp, Jonathan W; Barfield, Raymond C; Rodriguez, Virginia; Young, Amanda J; Finerman, Ruthbeth; Caniza, Miguela A

    2009-04-01

    To identify perceived barriers to capacity building for local research ethics oversight in El Salvador, and to set an agenda for international collaborative capacity building. Focus groups were formed in El Salvador which included 17 local clinical investigators and members of newly formed research ethics committees. Information about the proposed research was presented to participants during an international bioethics colloquium sponsored and organized by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in collaboration with the National Ethics Committee of El Salvador and the University of El Salvador. Interviews with the focus group participants were qualitatively analyzed. Participants expressed the need to tailor the informed consent process and documentation to the local culture; for example, allowing family members to participate in decision-making, and employing shorter consent forms. Participants indicated that economic barriers often impede efforts in local capacity building. Participants valued international collaboration for mutual capacity building in research ethics oversight. Research ethics committees in El Salvador possess a basic knowledge of locally relevant ethical principles, though they need more training to optimize the application of bioethical principles and models to their particular contexts. Challenges increase the value of collaborative exchanges with ethics committee members in the United States. Further research on facilitating communication between host country and sponsor country ethics committees can maximize local research ethics expertise, and thus raise the standard of protecting human participants involved in international research.

  11. The effects of simvastatin on ischemia-reperfusion injury of sciatic nerve in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Mohammad Reza; Abolhassani, Farid; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Akbari, Mohammad; Sobhani, Aligholi; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Kamalian, Naser; Amoli, Fahimeh Asadi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Dehpoor, Ahmad Reza; Sohrabi, Davood

    2008-08-20

    Severe ischemia to nerve results in fiber degeneration and reperfusion results in oxidative injury to endothelial cells and augments fiber degeneration. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, the most widely used lipid-lowering drugs, have been demonstrated to play a neuroprotective role. So we evaluated the effectiveness of simvastatin in protecting sciatic nerve from ischemia-reperfusion injury using the model of experimental nerve ischemia. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used. They were divided into ten groups (N=6 per group). We used ischemia model in these groups by occluding the femoral artery and vein with a silk suture 6-0 using slipknot technique. All ischemia groups were rendered in ischemic for 3 h reperfused for various times of zero (0 h), 3 h (3 hour reperfusion), 7 days (7 day reperfusion), 14 days (14 day reperfusion). Half of the groups had experimental simvastatin (1 mg/kg) i.v. injection treatment via tail vein 1 h before ischemia. The other half experienced only ischemia-reperfusion as control groups. After euthanasia, histological samples were taken from distal part of the sciatic nerve. Sections were cut at 5 microm and then were stained with H and E and modified trichrome. We used H and E stain for edema and trichrome gomori for ischemic fiber degeneration. Samples were observed to assess their fiber degeneration and edema changes. By observation the level of fiber degeneration and endoneurial edema were also decreased in these recent groups (in both ischemia and reperfusion duration). In conclusion, pre-ischemic administration of simvastatin exhibits neuroprotective properties in ischemia-reperfusion nerve injury.

  12. Under-representation of minority ethnic groups in cardiovascular research: a semi-structured interview study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paramjit S; Plumridge, Gill; Khunti, Kamlesh; Greenfield, Sheila

    2013-04-01

    Minority ethnic groups are often excluded from research, and the reasons for this are complex. This study aimed to explore why minority ethnic groups do not participate in research, and how their participation can be increased. Ninety-one interviews were undertaken with people who either had (n = 48) or had not (n = 43) responded to the invitation to take part in a community heart failure screening study. These were split across four ethnic groups (African Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani) and between men and women. Participants were interviewed once, face-to-face, either in English or with an interpreter if they wished. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. The main reason for participating in the screening study was for a health/heart check. Many participants either had not understood that it was research or had not known what this meant. Most people who did not participate had not remembered receiving the invitation or had been unavailable at the time. Few participants, including those who had and those who had not participated in the screening study, had any understanding of the objectives and nature of research. Once this had been briefly explained to them, many described altruistic reasons for why they would participate in research in the future. We have shown that South Asians and Black African-Caribbean communities are willing to take part in research as long as they are approached directly and the reasons for the research and potential benefits are explained clearly to them.

  13. Group Development and Integration in a Cross-Disciplinary and Intercultural Research Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna

    2017-04-01

    Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews ( n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.

  14. Group Development and Integration in a Cross-Disciplinary and Intercultural Research Team.

    PubMed

    Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna

    2017-04-01

    Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews (n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.

  15. Learning from Latino voices: Focus Groups' Insights on Participation in Genetic Research.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Priscilla; Cummings, Cory; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Chartier, Karen G

    2017-08-01

    There is a paucity of genetics research examining alcohol use among Latinos. The purpose of this study is to examine Latino perceptions of participation in alcohol studies that collect biological samples, an important precursor to increasing their participation in genetics research. A synthesis of the literature addressing participation of racial/ethnic minorities in alcohol genetics research was undertaken. We developed a framework of themes related to barriers and facilitators for participation, which we then used to analyze two focus groups held with 18 Latino participants. From the literature review, we identified nine themes related to facilitators of and barriers to participation. They are, on continua: curiosity to disinterest; trust to mistrust; understanding to confusion; safety to danger; inclusion to exclusion; sense of connection to disconnection; hope to despair; ease to hassle; and benefit to cost. Another theme emerged from the focus groups: previous experience to no previous experience with health research. Applying the themes from the literature review to Latino perspectives on providing biological samples for alcohol research helps expand their definition and applicability. Consideration of these themes when designing recruitment/retention materials and strategies may encourage Latino participation in alcohol genetics research. An understanding of these themes and their significance for Latinos is offered in the form of "guiding questions" for researchers to consider as we strive for more inclusive research. Focus group participants were Mexican American; future research should further explore perspectives of this heterogeneous demographic group by studying other Latino subgroups. (Am J Addict 2017;26:477-485). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. On the prevalence of population groups in the human-genetics research literature.

    PubMed

    Birenbaum-Carmeli, D

    2004-03-01

    Population-specific human-genetics research has become commonplace but remains controversial, as its results can affect public and personal perceptions of the ethnic, national, and racial groups studied. Choice of populations for study has generally seemed a function of scientific, logistical, or economic factors. Has the identity of populations studied in the human-genetics research literature varied systematically, and, if it has, in what ways? I searched the PubMed database for population-genetics reports, calculating for each a population score, a genetics score, and a mutation score. Some populations had been studied far more intensively than others. Many of the most frequently studied groups were ethnically defined and politically marginal in their home countries; some of these groups were involved in self-determination struggles. In the mutation-research literature, state-defined Muslim and Mediterranean populations prevailed. Study-population selection may in some cases be explained by, or may complicate, political predicament.

  17. How much ischemia can the liver tolerate during resection?

    PubMed Central

    van Riel, Wouter G.; van Golen, Rowan F.; Reiniers, Megan J.; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The use of vascular inflow occlusion (VIO, also known as the Pringle maneuver) during liver surgery prevents severe blood loss and the need for blood transfusion. The most commonly used technique for VIO entails clamping of the portal triad, which simultaneously occludes the proper hepatic artery and portal vein. Although VIO is an effective technique to reduce intraoperative blood loss, it also inevitably inflicts hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury as a side effect. I/R injury induces formation of reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress and cell death, ultimately leading to a sterile inflammatory response that causes hepatocellular damage and liver dysfunction that can result in acute liver failure in most severe cases. Since the duration of ischemia correlates positively with the severity of liver injury, there is a need to find the balance between preventing severe blood loss and inducing liver damage through the use of VIO. Although research on the maximum duration of hepatic ischemia has intensified since the beginning of the 1980s, there still is no consensus on the tolerable upper limit. Based on the available literature, it is concluded that intermittent and continuous VIO can both be used safely when ischemia times do not exceed 120 min. However, intermittent VIO should be the preferred technique in cases that require >120 min duration of ischemia. PMID:26904558

  18. National Institute of Nursing Research working group on "Optimizing pregnancy outcomes in minority populations".

    PubMed

    Grady, Patricia A

    2005-05-01

    The growing complexity of biomedical research requires new methods of discovery; scientists must use an interdisciplinary approach and explore new models of team science, as underscored in the Roadmap of the National Institutes of Health. In March 2003, the National Institute of Nursing Research convened a working group of scientists and clinicians with a wide range of backgrounds to address "Optimizing Pregnancy Outcomes in Minority Populations." The 2-day meeting included a variety of presentations on the current state of research on pregnancy in minority populations. Many participants provided specific insights regarding biobehavioral issues in human-environment interaction, stress and health status relationships to risk, maternal-fetal interactions, and the complications of pregnancy. This supplement presents articles from several participants at this interdisciplinary meeting. The National Institute of Nursing Research looks forward to further collaborations across the National Institutes of Health and other agencies to achieve the vital aims of this working group.

  19. Research participants' opinions on genetic research and reasons for participation: a Jackson Heart Study focus group analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn R; Nelson, Cheryl R; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Thigpen, Darcel T; Puggal, Mona A; Sarpong, Daniel E; Smith, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) convened focus groups to engage the community in dialogue on participation in the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Resource (CARe) project. CARe, a genome wide association and candidate gene study, required the release of participant phenotypic and genotypic data with storage at NIH for widespread distribution to qualified researchers. The authors wanted to assess the willingness of an African American community to participate in the genetics research, given the past history of bioethical misconduct in ethnic minority communities. The discussion produced the following specific issues of interest: reasons for participants' interest in genetics research; participants' knowledge about the JHS; and participants' knowledge about genetics research and its advantages and disadvantages. Training on genetic issues was also developed for the JHS community and staff.

  20. Clinical and research implications of the evaluation of women's group therapy for anorgasmia: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuriansky, J B; Sharpe, L

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews some important clinical and research implications of studies which have evaluated the effectiveness of short-term behavioral group therapy for anorgasmia. Though formal research data on curative factors is very sparse, the experience of sharing within a group, and the focus on arousal seem consistent with treatment outcome; however, the emphasis on assertiveness and the woman-only approach may have countertherapeutic as well as therapeutic effects. A potentially important intervening variable is the woman's level of ego development. The use of certain assessment scales and criteria for success of treatment are critiqued, and recommendations made for further study.

  1. [Recurrent intestinal ischemia due to factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Monedero, Jesús Javier; Legaz Huidobro, María Luisa; Galindo Andugar, María Angeles; Rodríguez Pérez, Alvaro; Mantrana del Valle, José María

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose and can be caused by several etiologic processes. We report the case of a female patient with recurrent bowel ischemia due to small vessel thrombosis, which is caused by factor VIII, a procoagulant factor.

  2. Availability of a baseline Electrocardiogram changes the application of the Sclarovsky-Birnbaum Myocardial Ischemia Grade.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Esben A; Bang, Lia E; Køber, Lars; Strauss, David G; Amaral, Matias; Barbagelata, Alejandro; Warren, Stafford; Wagner, Galen S

    2014-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) based Sclarovsky-Birnbaum Ischemia Grade may be used to determine the prognosis of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, application of the method is based on assumption of the baseline QRS morphology. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine if the baseline QRS morphology was correctly assumed based on an ECG recorded during induced ischemia, and if reference to the baseline ECG altered the designated Ischemia Grade. Sixty-three patients with chronic ischemic heart disease that underwent elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were included. Baseline ECG and ECG during the procedure were recorded. In the latter, Ischemia Grade was classified according to assumed baseline QRS morphology. Then the baseline ECG was used as reference and Ischemia Grade was determined based on change from the baseline ECG. In 66.6% (42/63) of patients the criteria for STEMI were fulfilled; the incidence was similar between left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) occlusion. In LAD patients who fulfilled STEMI criteria, assumption of baseline QRS morphology in involved leads was accurate in only 35% (7/20) and this altered the Ischemia Grade in 10% (2/20) of patients. In RCA patients who fulfilled STEMI criteria, assumption of baseline QRS morphology in involved leads was accurate in 77.3% (17/22) and this altered the Ischemia Grade in 9.1% (2/22) of patients. Application of the Sclarovsky-Birnbaum Ischemia Grade with reference to a baseline ECG altered Ischemia Grade in approximately 10% of patients. All patients that were reclassified were assigned a higher Ischemia Grade. Future research is needed to determine the impact of availability of the baseline ECG on the clinical diagnostic and prognostic performances of the Sclarovsky-Birnbaum Ischemia Grade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  4. Conflicts of interest in the management of silent ischemia.

    PubMed

    Graboys, T B

    1989-04-14

    Nonclinical factors that may pressure physicians to intervene when a patient presents with so-called silent ischemia, and that may compel a management course not necessarily in the patient's best interest, are explored. These factors include the public's "obsession" with cardiac health, the enormous potential market for pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the funding of ischemia research by drug and medical device companies, the growth of "interventional cardiology" as a subspecialty, the increasingly entrepreneurial approach to medical care on the part of physicians and hospitals, and the fear of malpractice litigation. Given the financial advantage to health facilities and practitioners in recommending an interventionist rather than a conservative approach to silent ischemia, Graboys questions whether studies to determine the optimal management of this condition will ever be undertaken.

  5. [Neuroprotective mechanisms of cannabinoids in brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders].

    PubMed

    Osuna-Zazuetal, Marcela Amparo; Ponce-Gómez, Juan Antonio; Pérez-Neri, Iván

    2015-06-01

    One of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality is neurologic dysfunction; its high incidence has led to an intense research of the mechanisms that protect the central nervous system from hypoxia and ischemia. The mayor challenge is to block the biochemical events leading to neuronal death. This may be achieved by neuroprotective mechanisms that avoid the metabolic and immunologic cascades that follow a neurological damage. When it occurs, several pathophysiological events develop including cytokine release, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids to all those mechanisms have been reported in animal models of brain ischemia, excitotoxicity, brain trauma and neurodegenerative disorders. Some endocannabinoid analogs are being tested in clinical studies (I-III phase) for acute disorders involving neuronal death (brain trauma and ischemia). The study of the cannabinoid system may allow the discovery of effective neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  6. Critical Limb Ischemia: Cell and Molecular Therapies for Limb Salvage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in developing new limb salvage therapies for patients with severe peripheral artery disease who have no alternative to amputation. Cell and gene therapy studies are showing promise in controlling pain and minor ulceration in patients with significant critical limb ischemia. Among cardiovascular cell and molecular therapy programs, The Methodist Hospital is one of the leading centers in both gene and cell therapy for critical limb ischemia. Randomized controlled trials continue to be performed, and these experimental therapies will move from research to pharmacy within the decade. In conjunction with aggressive medical and surgical management, these emergent therapies may help patients with critical limb ischemia avoid a major amputation and are one of the foundations of any advanced limb salvage program. PMID:23342184

  7. Thromboxane A2 release in ischemia and reperfusion of free flaps in rats, studied by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Ionac, M; Schaefer, D; Geishauser, M

    2001-02-01

    Several studies have implicated enhanced eicosanoid production in reperfusion injury. The reported study investigated the use of microdialysis in the in vivo measurement of thromboxane levels during reperfusion in ischemic and reperfused experimental free muscle flaps. Microdialysis probes were inserted, via a guide, into the gracilis and semitendinosus free flap in the rat. The probe was perfused at a flow of 5 microl/min, with samples collected at intervals of 20 min, and analyzed by the ELISA technique. Animals were randomly distributed into three groups. After ischemic periods of 2, 4, and 6 hr, respectively, the free muscle flaps were revascularized on the contralateral femoral vessels. The mean thromboxane level during ischemia was 1785.34 +/- 124.81 pg/ml. The mean levels of thromboxane rose significantly (p < 0.05), compared to base level, with 151.65 percent in the 2-hr ischemia group, 192.33 percent in the 4-hr ischemia group, and 294.69 percent in the 6-hr ischemia group, and correlated well with histologic observations. The results suggest that a microdialysis technique, combined with a sensitive assay for measuring thromboxane, is a useful method for in vivo monitoring of inflammatory processes during ischemia and reperfusion. The evolution of thromboxane release following 6 hr of ischemia indicates that this mediator may be involved in facilitation of cell death, following ischemia and reperfusion, since its tissue level correlates with histologic tissue damage.

  8. Treatment of mice with cromolyn sodium after reperfusion, but not prior to ischemia, attenuates small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiaoliang; Liu, Dezhao; Ge, Mian; Luo, Chenfang; Gao, Wanling; Hei, Ziqing

    2013-09-01

    Stabilizing mast cells (MCs) can either inhibit or augment inflammation; however, how improved therapeutic benefits against small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IIRI) can be achieved by stabilizing MCs remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to evaluate different treatments with cromolyn sodium (CS, an MC stabilizer), which was administrated either prior to ischemia or after reperfusion. Kunming mice were randomized into a sham-operated group (SH), a sole IIR group (M), in which mice were subjected to 30 min superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 3 day or 3 h reperfusion, or IIR, treated with CS 15 min prior to ischemia or 15 min after reperfusion in the PreCr and PostCr groups. The survival rate and Chiu's scores were evaluated. The levels of ET-1, histamine, TNF-α and IL-6, and expression of MC protease 7 (MCP7), MC counts and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified. IIR resulted in severe injury as demonstrated by significant increases in mortality and injury score. IIR also led to substantial elevations in the levels of ET-1, histamine, TNF-α and IL-6, expression of MCP7, MC counts and MPO activities (P<0.05, M vs. SH groups). All biochemical changes were markedly reduced in the PostCr group (P<0.05, PostCr vs. M groups), whereas pretreatment of IIR mice with CS prior to ischemia exhibited no changes of ET-1 levels, injury score and inflammation (P>0.05, PreCr vs. M groups). In conclusion, administration of CS after reperfusion, but not prior to ischemia, attenuates IIRI by downregulating ET-1 and suppressing sustained MC activation.

  9. The Mela Study: exploring barriers to diabetes research in black and minority ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Hood, Gillian A; Chowdhury, Tahseen A; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hood, Rosie K E; Mathews, Christopher; Hitman, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are particularly susceptible to diabetes and its vascular complications in the United Kingdom and most western societies. To understand potential predisposition and tailor treatments accordingly, there is a real need to engage these groups in diabetes research. Despite this, BME participation in research studies continues to remain low in most countries and this may be a contributory factor to reduced health outcomes and poorer quality of life in these groups. This study explores the barriers BME groups may have towards participation in diabetes research in one area of East London, and includes local recommendations on how to improve this for the future. A questionnaire designed from previously reported exploratory work and piloted in several BME localities was distributed at the East London Bangladeshi Mela and similar cultural and religious events in London, UK. People were asked opportunistically to complete the survey themselves if they understood English, or discuss their responses with an advocate. The purpose of the questionnaire was to understand current local awareness with regards to diabetes, identify specific BME barriers and attitudes towards diabetes research by ethnicity, gender and age, and gain insight into how these barriers may be addressed. Of 1682 people surveyed (16-90 years; median age 40 years), 36.4% were South Asian, 25.9% White, and 11.1% Black and other ethnicities; 26.6% withheld their ethnicity. Over half cited language problems generally (54%) and lack of research awareness (56%) as main barriers to engaging in research. South Asian groups were more likely to cite research as too time consuming (42%) whereas Black groups were more concerned with potential drug side effects in research (39%). Participants expressed a general mistrust of research, and the need for researchers to be honest in their approach. Recommendations for increased participation in South Asian groups centred round both helping

  10. [Neuroprotection of herbs promoting EPO on cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Bai, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Fei-yan; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2015-06-01

    Amounts of researches show that EPO is characterized with neurotrophic and neuroprotective manner, especially in brain stroke, which attracts a large numbers of researchers to study it. With the accumulating researches on its neuroprotection, many related mechanisms were revealed, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, which suggests a multiple targets role of EPO on brain stroke. However, because of the high risk of thromboembolism in clinical administration of rhEPO and its analogs, the herbs are potential to be a replacer for its less side effects. Many researchers suggested that a larger of herbs were founded having the action of increasing the endogenous EPO in the model of anemia and cerebral ischemia. At the same time, there herbs were also proved that they had the action of against cerebral ischemia while some without considering the role of EPO in the reports. Considering of the action of promoting EPO of these herbs and the neural protection of EPO, this essay mainly summarizes the studies of herbs promoting EPO in the cerebral ischemia and discusses the mechanism of regulating the EPO of these herbs, for the aim of finding the potential drugs against cerebral ischemia.

  11. An Online Monogenic Diabetes Discussion Group: Supporting Families and Fueling New Research

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Marie E.; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H.; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2016-01-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support, and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments as well as design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern. PMID:26184072

  12. Effective small group teaching strategies for research supervision - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    UNESCO-IHE's students are unique in several aspects: they are mid-career professionals separated from their last university experience by a number of years in the profession, they are from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and they often have relatively clear understanding on the diverse problems in the practice of engineering in their respective countries and are focused on solving those. As a result of the diversity in many forms, managing effective groups during the research phase of the UNESCO-IHE master's course pose considerable challenge. In this paper, we present a unique combination of tools and approaches that are employed in managing a small group of students (between five and ten) in one study area, who were working on diverse research topics that had the common denominator of mathematical modelling. We blend a number of traditional (e.g. seminars, group discussions, focused training sessions) and non-traditional (e.g. Using collaboration platforms like WIKI, peer-learning) approaches so that the cohesion of the group in maintained and every member benefits from being a part of the group. Four years of experience with employing this blend of tools on a six-month long master's research programme showed us: The approach motivates the students to perform focusing not only on the end-goal of their research study, but on the process of day to day work that lead to that goal. The students' self-confidence is often enhanced by being a part of close-knit group. Initial workload of the teacher increases significantly by this approach, but later this is more than compensated by the fact that the teacher has to do little maintain the momentum. Both strong and not so-strong students equally benefit from the approach. A significant number of students develop a keen interest in being involved in research further. (e.g. engaging in doctoral studies.)

  13. Real time measurement of myocardial oxygen dynamics during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion of rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Seung Ki; Kang, Sung Wook; Kim, Ok-Kyun; Chae, Su-Jin; Choi, Samjin; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2012-11-21

    Because oxygen plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of myocardial injury during subsequent reperfusion, as well as ischemia, the accurate measurement of myocardial oxygen tension is crucial for the assessment of myocardial viability by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we utilized a sol-gel derived electrochemical oxygen microsensor to monitor changes in oxygen tension during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. We also analyzed differences in oxygen tension recovery in post-ischemic myocardium depending on ischemic time to investigate the correlation between recovery parameters for oxygen tension and the severity of IR injury. An oxygen sensor was built using a xerogel-modified platinum microsensor and a coiled Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Rat hearts were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (0 min ischemia), I-10 (10 min ischemia), I-20 (20 min ischemia), I-30 (30 min ischemia), and I-40 (40 min ischemia) groups (n = 3 per group, respectively). After the induction of ischemia, reperfusion was performed for 60 min. As soon as the ischemia was initiated, oxygen tension rapidly declined to near zero levels. When reperfusion was initiated, the changes in oxygen tension depended on ischemic time. The normalized peak level of oxygen tension during the reperfusion episode was 188 ± 27 in group I-10, 120 ± 24 in group I-20, 12.5 ± 10.6 in group I-30, and 1.24 ± 1.09 in group I-40 (p < 0.001, n = 3, respectively). After 60 min of reperfusion, the normalized restoration level was 129 ± 30 in group I-10, 88 ± 4 in group I-20, 3.40 ± 4.82 in group I-30, and 0.99 ± 0.94 in group I-40 (p < 0.001, n = 3, respectively). The maximum and restoration values of oxygen tension in groups I-30 and I-40 after reperfusion were lower than pre-ischemic values. In particular, oxygen tension in the I-40 group was not recovered at all. These results were also demonstrated by TTC staining. We suggest that these recovery parameters could be utilized as an index of

  14. Rodent models of cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Busto, R. )

    1989-12-01

    The use of physiologically regulated, reproducible animal models is crucial to the study of ischemic brain injury--both the mechanisms governing its occurrence and potential therapeutic strategies. Several laboratory rodent species (notably rats and gerbils), which are readily available at relatively low cost, are highly suitable for the investigation of cerebral ischemia and have been widely employed for this purpose. We critically examine and summarize several rodent models of transient global ischemia, resulting in selective neuronal injury within vulnerable brain regions, and focal ischemia, typically giving rise to localized brain infarction. We explore the utility of individual models and emphasize the necessity for meticulous experimental control of those variables that modulate the severity of ischemic brain injury.169 references.

  15. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  16. Software and Space: Investigating How a Cosmology Research Group Enacts Infrastructure by Producing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Drew

    Software is a pervasive element of twenty-first century life and an integral element of scientific research. Research in Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) in recent decades investigates how distributed, collaborative scientific projects take place across different geographical and temporal scales through the enactment of research infrastructures. This dissertation expands upon existing CSCW research with a qualitative, episodic study of a group of cosmologists who are themselves enacting and working among multiple research infrastructures by producing data analysis software as part of a multinational radio telescope project. I describe this cosmology group's software production practices to explain how software is a material for expressing their scientific method. Software operationalizes and encapsulates their cosmology theory, a model of the telescope, observation data, and ongoing analysis decisions. I demonstrate how by using plots (visualizations of observation data, their software, and the physical telescope) they engage in rigorous and thoughtful testing and analysis of infrastructural components in their work. Doing this data-intensive scientific work requires that they collectively develop a deep understanding of multiple infrastructures to isolate and remove flaws in their data and do a high-precision scientific analysis, interrogating the many embedded relations among conventions of practice that make up their work. My dissertation offers a novel perspective on the production, use, and work of software in science that emphasizes that software in scientific research is not some static product to simply be sustained but a perpetually mutable expression of method to be iterated upon and improved through unfolding research work.

  17. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Ge; Cheng, Bao-Hua; Wang, Xin; Ding, Liang-Cai; Liu, Hai-Qing; Chen, Jing; Bai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 μg/g) was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  18. Bias from historical control groups used in orthodontic research: a meta-epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Koretsi, Vasiliki; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The validity of meta-analysis is dependent upon the quality of included studies. Here, we investigated whether the design of untreated control groups (i.e. source and timing of data collection) influences the results of clinical trials in orthodontic research. This meta-epidemiological study used unrestricted literature searching for meta-analyses in orthodontics including clinical trials with untreated control groups. Differences in standardized mean differences (ΔSMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the untreated control group through multivariable random-effects meta-regression controlling for nature of the interventional group and study sample size. Effects were pooled with random-effects synthesis, followed by mixed-effect subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Studies with historical control groups reported deflated treatment effects compared to studies with concurrent control groups (13 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.53, -0.10; P = 0.004). Significant differences were found according to the type of historical control group (based either on growth study or clinical archive; 11 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.59; P < 0.001). The use of historical control groups in orthodontic clinical research was associated with deflation of treatment effects, which was independent from whether the interventional group was prospective or retrospective and from the study's sample size. Caution is warranted when interpreting clinical studies with historical untreated control groups or when interpreting systematic reviews that include such studies. PROSPERO (CRD42015024179). None. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Unique morphological characteristics of mitochondrial subtypes in the heart: the effect of ischemia and ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kalkhoran, Siavash Beikoghli; Munro, Peter; Qiao, Fan; Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R.; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Boisvert, William A.; Yellon, Derek M.; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Three subsets of mitochondria have been described in adult cardiomyocytes - intermyofibrillar (IMF), subsarcolemmal (SSM), and perinuclear (PN). They have been shown to differ in physiology, but whether they also vary in morphological characteristics is unknown. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction induced by acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), but whether IPC can also modulate mitochondrial morphology is not known. Aims Morphological characteristics of three different subsets of adult cardiac mitochondria along with the effect of ischemia and IPC on mitochondrial morphology will be investigated. Methods Mouse hearts were subjected to the following treatments (N=6 for each group): stabilization only, IPC (3x5 min cycles of global ischemia and reperfusion), ischemia only (20 min global ischemia); and IPC and ischemia. Hearts were then processed for electron microscopy and mitochondrial morphology was assessed subsequently. Results In adult cardiomyocytes, IMF mitochondria were found to be more elongated and less spherical than PN and SSM mitochondria. PN mitochondria were smaller in size when compared to the other two subsets. SSM mitochondria had similar area to IMF mitochondria but their sphericity measures were similar to PN mitochondria. Ischemia was shown to increase the sphericity parameters of all 3 subsets of mitochondria; reduce the length of IMF mitochondria, and increase the size of PN mitochondria. IPC had no effect on mitochondrial morphology either at baseline or after ischemia. Conclusion The three subsets of mitochondria in the adult heart are morphologically different. IPC does not appear to modulate mitochondrial morphology in adult cardiomyocytes. PMID:28736742

  20. Unique morphological characteristics of mitochondrial subtypes in the heart: the effect of ischemia and ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoran, Siavash Beikoghli; Munro, Peter; Qiao, Fan; Ong, Sang-Bing; Hall, Andrew R; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Boisvert, William A; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2017-01-01

    Three subsets of mitochondria have been described in adult cardiomyocytes - intermyofibrillar (IMF), subsarcolemmal (SSM), and perinuclear (PN). They have been shown to differ in physiology, but whether they also vary in morphological characteristics is unknown. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction induced by acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), but whether IPC can also modulate mitochondrial morphology is not known. Morphological characteristics of three different subsets of adult cardiac mitochondria along with the effect of ischemia and IPC on mitochondrial morphology will be investigated. Mouse hearts were subjected to the following treatments (N=6 for each group): stabilization only, IPC (3x5 min cycles of global ischemia and reperfusion), ischemia only (20 min global ischemia); and IPC and ischemia. Hearts were then processed for electron microscopy and mitochondrial morphology was assessed subsequently. In adult cardiomyocytes, IMF mitochondria were found to be more elongated and less spherical than PN and SSM mitochondria. PN mitochondria were smaller in size when compared to the other two subsets. SSM mitochondria had similar area to IMF mitochondria but their sphericity measures were similar to PN mitochondria. Ischemia was shown to increase the sphericity parameters of all 3 subsets of mitochondria; reduce the length of IMF mitochondria, and increase the size of PN mitochondria. IPC had no effect on mitochondrial morphology either at baseline or after ischemia. The three subsets of mitochondria in the adult heart are morphologically different. IPC does not appear to modulate mitochondrial morphology in adult cardiomyocytes.

  1. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  2. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  3. Grounded Theory and Focus Groups: Reconciling Methodologies in Indigenous Australian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper captures an ideological moment in time in which I contemplated the methodological approach I was embarking upon. In my search for a more appropriate approach for conducting research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary students at the University of Queensland, I chose focus groups set within the qualitative process of…

  4. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  5. Realising Graduate Attributes in the Research Degree: The Role of Peer Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stracke, Elke; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peer support groups (PSGs) in realising graduate attributes in the research degree. The literature indicates that top-down embedding of graduate attributes has met with only limited success. By taking a bottom-up approach, this paper shows that PSGs offer an opportunity to improve the graduate attribute outcomes of…

  6. Ability Grouping, Segregation and Civic Competences among Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the linkages between ability grouping, classroom social and ethnic segregation, and civic competences (understood here as referring to attitudes and behaviours as well as knowledge and skills). It does so by analysing data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education…

  7. Ability Grouping, Segregation and Civic Competences among Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the linkages between ability grouping, classroom social and ethnic segregation, and civic competences (understood here as referring to attitudes and behaviours as well as knowledge and skills). It does so by analysing data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education…

  8. Constructing Our Identities through a Writing Support Group: Bridging from Doctoral Students to Teacher Educator Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Shelley; McGlynn-Stewart, Monica; Ghafouri, Farveh

    2014-01-01

    We are recent graduates of a graduate faculty of education in a research-based university in Canada. Our aspirations to become successful teacher educators and to write our dissertations brought us together to form a writing support group. During the 2010-2011 academic year, we conducted a self-study to better understand how the support group…

  9. Cooperative Learning Strategies for Teaching Small Group Communication: Research and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Kay; Gimple, Debbie

    Research has shown that cooperative learning rather than competitive behavior enhances students' achievement, self-esteem, and satisfaction while reducing performance anxiety. Although cooperation within a small group results in greater productivity and member satisfaction, it should be considered only as a means to an end, not an end in itself. A…

  10. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and…

  11. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  12. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  13. Instructional Technology Research and Development in a US Physics Education Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this brief paper is to provide insight into the kinds of work being done by an education research group in a US physics department. As will be evident, instructional technology raises many interesting questions and lends itself to a wide variety of studies. References and contacts are provided for readers wanting more detailed…

  14. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and…

  15. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  16. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  17. Evaluation of Using Course-Management Software: Supplementing a Course that Requires a Group Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Gump, Nathaniel W.

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of course-management software (CMS) will not be realized if it is underused. The authors investigated one possible barrier to CMS use, students' perceptions of using CMS. After taking a course requiring a group research project, college students reported their perceptions of the use of CMS for the course. Overall, students did not…

  18. New Developments in Wood-Destroying Organisms from the International Research Group on Wood Preservation \\t

    Treesearch

    Elmer L. Schmidt

    1991-01-01

    New developments in wood-destroying organisms and in wood protection from the 20th annual meeting (May 1989 at Lappeenranta, Finland) of the International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG) are highlighted in the areas of biological control of fungi, dry rot, decay mechanisms and product problems, new techniques, insect problems and control, and developments in...

  19. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  20. Realising Graduate Attributes in the Research Degree: The Role of Peer Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stracke, Elke; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peer support groups (PSGs) in realising graduate attributes in the research degree. The literature indicates that top-down embedding of graduate attributes has met with only limited success. By taking a bottom-up approach, this paper shows that PSGs offer an opportunity to improve the graduate attribute outcomes of…

  1. Grounded Theory and Focus Groups: Reconciling Methodologies in Indigenous Australian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper captures an ideological moment in time in which I contemplated the methodological approach I was embarking upon. In my search for a more appropriate approach for conducting research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary students at the University of Queensland, I chose focus groups set within the qualitative process of…

  2. The Public and Public Education: A Cousins Research Group Report on Public Education in Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, David

    2016-01-01

    This Cousins Research Group report includes two articles by Kettering Foundation president David Mathews that were published previously. "The Public for Public Schools Is Slipping" was first published in "Education Week" in 1995. The second piece, "Putting the Public Back into Public Education: An Old-Fashioned Remedy for…

  3. Use of the Web by a Distributed Research group Performing Distributed Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, David A.; Peterkin, Robert E.

    2001-06-01

    A distributed research group that uses distributed computers faces a spectrum of challenges--some of which can be met by using various electronic means of communication. The particular challenge of our group involves three physically separated research entities. We have had to link two collaborating groups at AFRL and NRL together for software development, and the same AFRL group with a LANL group for software applications. We are developing and using a pair of general-purpose, portable, parallel, unsteady, plasma physics simulation codes. The first collaboration is centered around a formal weekly video teleconference on relatively inexpensive equipment that we have set up in convenient locations in our respective laboratories. The formal virtual meetings are augmented with informal virtual meetings as the need arises. Both collaborations share research data in a variety of forms on a secure URL that is set up behind the firewall at the AFRL. Of course, a computer-generated animation is a particularly efficient way of displaying results from time-dependent numerical simulations, so we generally like to post such animations (along with proper documentation) on our web page. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our accomplishments and disappointments.

  4. Changes in Retinal Morphology, Electroretinogram and Visual Behavior after Transient Global Ischemia in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Yu, Bo; Xiang, Yong-Hui; Han, Xin-Jia; Xu, Ying; So, Kwok-Fai; Xu, An-Ding; Ruan, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The retina is a light-sensitive tissue of the central nervous system that is vulnerable to ischemia. The pathological mechanism underlying retinal ischemic injury is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate structural and functional changes of different types of rat retinal neurons and visual behavior following transient global ischemia. Retinal ischemia was induced using a 4-vessel occlusion model. Compared with the normal group, the number of βIII-tubulin positive retinal ganglion cells and calretinin positive amacrine cells were reduced from 6 h to 48 h following ischemia. The number of recoverin positive cone bipolar cells transiently decreased at 6 h and 12 h after ischemia. However, the fluorescence intensity of rhodopsin positive rod cells and fluorescent peanut agglutinin positive cone cells did not change after reperfusion. An electroretinogram recording showed that the a-wave, b-wave, oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were completely lost during ischemia. The amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were partially recovered at 1 h after ischemia, and returned to the control level at 48 h after reperfusion. However, the amplitudes of oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were still reduced at 48 h following reperfusion. Visual behavior detection showed there was no significant change in the time spent in the dark chamber between the control and 48 h group, but the distance moved, mean velocity in the black and white chambers and intercompartmental crosses were reduced at 48 h after ischemia. These results indicate that transient global ischemia induces dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells at molecular and ERG levels. However, transient global ischemia in a 17 minute duration does not appear to affect photoreceptors. PMID:23776500

  5. Return of Individual Research Results and Incidental Findings in the Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The NCI funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects patient samples for correlative research. The Cooperative Group Bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of Incidental Findings (IFs) and Individual Research Results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the ten consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Re-identification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

  6. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  7. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  8. Metabolic adaptation to a disruption in oxygen supply during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion is underpinned by temporal and quantitative changes in the cardiac proteome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Arslan, Fatih; Ren, Yan; Adav, Sunil S; Poh, Kian Keong; Sorokin, Vitaly; Lee, Chuen Neng; de Kleijn, Dominique; Lim, Sai Kiang; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2012-04-06

    Despite decades of intensive research, there is still no effective treatment for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, an important corollary in the treatment of ischemic disease. I/R injury is initiated when the altered biochemistry of cells after ischemia is no longer compatible with oxygenated microenvironment (or reperfusion). To better understand the molecular basis of this alteration and subsequent incompatibility, we assessed the temporal and quantitative alterations in the cardiac proteome of a mouse cardiac I/R model by an iTRAQ approach at 30 min of ischemia, and at 60 or 120 min reperfusion after the ischemia using sham-operated mouse heart as the baseline control. Of the 509 quantified proteins identified, 121 proteins exhibited significant changes (p-value<0.05) over time and were mostly clustered in eight functional groups: Fatty acid oxidation, Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETC (electron transport chain), Redox Homeostasis, Glutathione S-transferase, Apoptosis related, and Heat Shock proteins. The first four groups are intimately involved in ATP production and the last four groups are known to be important in cellular antioxidant activity. During ischemia and reperfusion, the short supply of oxygen precipitates a pivotal metabolic switch from aerobic metabolism involving fatty acid oxidation, TCA, and phosphorylation to anaerobic metabolism for ATP production and this, in turn, increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Therefore the implication of these 8 functional groups suggested that ischemia-reperfusion injury is underpinned in part by proteomic alterations. Reversion of these alterations to preischemia levels took at least 60 min, suggesting a refractory period in which the ischemic cells cannot adjust to the presence of oxygen. Therefore, therapeutics that could compensate for these proteomic alterations during this interim refractory period could alleviate ischemia-reperfusion injury to enhance cellular recovery from an ischemic to a normoxic

  9. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Adipofascial Tissue: An Experimental Study Evaluating Early Histologic and Biochemical Alterations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kenan Coban, Yusuf; Belge Kurutas, Ergul; Ciralik, Harun

    2005-01-01

    Fat necrosis remains a serious complication in reconstructive flaps. In clinical setting, it is well known that fat tissue is more susceptible to ischemic events. We aimed to evaluate early histological and biochemical changes of adipofascial tissue in an experimantal model. An epigastric flap model in rats was used to evaluate the effect of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury on adipofascial tissue. Two groups of animals (one with ischemia alone and other ischemia-reperfusion group) were used to evaluate the degree of histological edema, congestion and extravascular bleeding, and early biochemical alterations within the adipofascial flaps. The biochemical parameters included glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In each group, contralateral groin subcutaneous adipose tissue served as control. These evaluations were compared to normal unmanipulated, contralateral abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The ischemia-reperfused flap group showed histologically significantly much edema congestion and bleeding than the control groups (P < .0001). The control group showed less edema in fat tissue than the ischemia-alone group (P < .05). All of the flaps in the ischemia-only group showed significantly less bleeding and edema than I-R group (P < .001). The ratio of MDA/GSH was 33 in control, 37 in ischemia alone, and 82 in ischemia-reperfusion groups, respectively. This study confirms that significant histologic and biochemical alteration occurs after ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion events in adipose tissue. Marked drop in adipose tissue antioxidant levels after I-R suggested that preemptive measures to this decrease should be undertaken in clinical settings. PMID:16258198

  10. Collaborative translational research leading to multicenter clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG).

    PubMed

    Escolar, Diana M; Henricson, Erik K; Pasquali, Livia; Gorni, Ksenija; Hoffman, Eric P

    2002-10-01

    Progress in the development of rationally based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy has been accelerated by encouraging multidisciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration between basic science and clinical investigators in the Cooperative International Research Group. We combined existing research efforts in pathophysiology by a gene expression profiling laboratory with the efforts of animal facilities capable of conducting high-throughput drug screening and toxicity testing to identify safe and effective drug compounds that target different parts of the pathophysiologic cascade in a genome-wide drug discovery approach. Simultaneously, we developed a clinical trial coordinating center and an international network of collaborating physicians and clinics where those drugs could be tested in large-scale clinical trials. We hope that by bringing together investigators at these facilities and providing the infrastructure to support their research, we can rapidly move new bench discoveries through animal model screening and into therapeutic testing in humans in a safe, timely and cost-effective setting.

  11. Methylene blue protects the cortical blood-brain barrier against ischemia/reperfusion-induced disruptions.

    PubMed

    Miclescu, Adriana; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Martijn, Cécile; Wiklund, Lars

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effects of cardiac arrest and the reperfusion syndrome on blood-brain barrier permeability and evaluate whether methylene blue counteracts blood-brain barrier disruption in a pig model of controlled cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study. University-affiliated research laboratory. Forty-five piglets. Forty-five anesthetized piglets were subjected to cardiac arrest alone or 12-min cardiac arrest followed by 8 mins cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The first group (n = 16) was used to evaluate blood-brain barrier disruptions after untreated cerebral ischemia after 0, 15, or 30 mins after untreated cardiac arrest. The other two groups received either an infusion of saline (n = 10) or infusion of saline with methylene blue (n = 12) 1 min after the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and continued 50 mins after return of spontaneous circulation. In these groups, brains were removed for immunohistological analyses at 30, 60, and 180 mins after return of spontaneous circulation. An increase of injured neurons and albumin immunoreactivity was demonstrated with increasing duration of ischemia/reperfusion. Less blood-brain barrier disruption was observed in subjects receiving methylene blue as demonstrated by decreased albumin leakage (p < .01), water content (p < .05), and neuronal injury (p < .01). Methylene blue treatment reduced cerebral tissue nitrite/nitrate content (p < .05) and the number of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase-activated cortical cells during administration (p < .01). Meanwhile, the number of cortical endothelial nitric oxide synthase-activated cells increased over time (p < .001). Cerebral tissue water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and neurologic injury were increased early in reperfusion after cardiac arrest. Methylene blue exerted neuroprotective effects against the brain damage associated with the ischemia/reperfusion injury and ameliorated the blood-brain barrier

  12. Trisulfate Disaccharide Decreases Calcium Overload and Protects Liver Injury Secondary to Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Vasques, Enio Rodrigues; Cunha, Jose Eduardo Monteiro; Coelho, Ana Maria Mendonca; Sampietre, Sandra N.; Patzina, Rosely Antunes; Abdo, Emilio Elias; Nader, Helena B.; Tersariol, Ivarne L. S.; Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Godoy, Carlos M. G.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Chaib, Eleazar; D’Albuquerque, Luiz A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) causes tissue damage and intracellular calcium levels are a factor of cell death. Sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) regulates calcium extrusion and Trisulfated Disaccharide (TD) acts on NCX decreasing intracellular calcium through the inhibition of the exchange inhibitory peptide (XIP). Objectives The aims of this research are to evaluate TD effects in liver injury secondary to I/R in animals and in vitro action on cytosolic calcium of hepatocytes cultures under calcium overload. Methods Wistar rats submitted to partial liver ischemia were divided in groups: Control: (n = 10): surgical manipulation with no liver ischemia; Saline: (n = 15): rats receiving IV saline before reperfusion; and TD: (n = 15): rats receiving IV TD before reperfusion. Four hours after reperfusion, serum levels of AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were measured. Liver tissue samples were collected for mitochondrial function and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Pulmonary vascular permeability and histologic parameters of liver were determined. TD effect on cytosolic calcium was evaluated in BRL3A hepatic rat cell cultures stimulated by thapsigargin pre and after treatment with TD. Results AST, ALT, cytokines, liver MDA, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatic histologic injury scores were less in TD group when compared to Saline Group (p<0.05) with no differences in pulmonary vascular permeability. In culture cells, TD diminished the intracellular calcium raise and prevented the calcium increase pre and after treatment with thapsigargin, respectively. Conclusion TD decreases liver cell damage, preserves mitochondrial function and increases hepatic tolerance to I/R injury by calcium extrusion in Ca2+ overload situations. PMID:26901764

  13. Trisulfate Disaccharide Decreases Calcium Overload and Protects Liver Injury Secondary to Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Enio Rodrigues; Cunha, Jose Eduardo Monteiro; Coelho, Ana Maria Mendonca; Sampietre, Sandra N; Patzina, Rosely Antunes; Abdo, Emilio Elias; Nader, Helena B; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Godoy, Carlos M G; Rodrigues, Tiago; Chaib, Eleazar; D'Albuquerque, Luiz A C

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) causes tissue damage and intracellular calcium levels are a factor of cell death. Sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) regulates calcium extrusion and Trisulfated Disaccharide (TD) acts on NCX decreasing intracellular calcium through the inhibition of the exchange inhibitory peptide (XIP). The aims of this research are to evaluate TD effects in liver injury secondary to I/R in animals and in vitro action on cytosolic calcium of hepatocytes cultures under calcium overload. Wistar rats submitted to partial liver ischemia were divided in groups: (n = 10): surgical manipulation with no liver ischemia; Saline: (n = 15): rats receiving IV saline before reperfusion; and TD: (n = 15): rats receiving IV TD before reperfusion. Four hours after reperfusion, serum levels of AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were measured. Liver tissue samples were collected for mitochondrial function and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Pulmonary vascular permeability and histologic parameters of liver were determined. TD effect on cytosolic calcium was evaluated in BRL3A hepatic rat cell cultures stimulated by thapsigargin pre and after treatment with TD. AST, ALT, cytokines, liver MDA, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatic histologic injury scores were less in TD group when compared to Saline Group (p<0.05) with no differences in pulmonary vascular permeability. In culture cells, TD diminished the intracellular calcium raise and prevented the calcium increase pre and after treatment with thapsigargin, respectively. TD decreases liver cell damage, preserves mitochondrial function and increases hepatic tolerance to I/R injury by calcium extrusion in Ca2+ overload situations.

  14. Desflurane inhalation before ischemia increases ischemia-reperfusion-induced vascular leakage in isolated rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Seiji; Yamasaki, Kazumasa; Mochida, Shinsuke; Funaki, Kazumi; Moriyama, Naoki; Otsuki, Akihiro; Endo, Ryo; Nakasone, Masato; Takahashi, Shunsaku; Harada, Tomomi; Minami, Yukari; Inagaki, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Isoflurane and sevoflurane protect lungs with ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We examined the influence of desflurane on IR lung injury using isolated rabbit lungs perfused with a physiological salt solution. The isolated lungs were divided into three groups: IR, desflurane-treated ischemia-reperfusion (DES-IR), and ventilation/perfusion-continued control (Cont) groups (n = 6 per group). In the DES-IR group, inhalation of desflurane at 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was conducted in a stable 30-min phase. In the IR and DES-IR groups, ventilation/perfusion was stopped for 75 min after the stable phase. Subsequently, they were resumed. Each lung was placed on a balance, and weighed. Weight changes were measured serially throughout this experiment. The coefficient of filtration (Kfc) was determined immediately before ischemia and 60 min after reperfusion. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from the right bronchus at the completion of the experiment. After the completion of the experiment, the left lung was dried, and the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D) was calculated. The Kfc values at 60 min after perfusion were 0.40 ± 0.13 ml/min/mmHg/100 g in the DES-IR group, 0.26 ± 0.07 ml/min/mmHg/100 g in the IR group, and 0.22 ± 0.08 (mean ± SD) ml/mmHg/100 g in the Cont group. In the DES-IR group, the Kfc at 60 min after the start of reperfusion was significantly higher than in the other groups. In the DES-IR group, W/D was significantly higher than in the Cont group. In the DES-IR group, the BALF concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites were significantly higher than in the other groups. In the DES-IR group, the total amount of vascular endothelial growth factor in BALF was significantly higher than in the Cont group. The pre-inhalation of desflurane at 1 MAC exacerbates pulmonary IR injury in isolated/perfused rabbit lungs.

  15. The protective effect of erdosteine on short-term global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozerol, Elif; Bilgic, Sedat; Iraz, Mustafa; Cigli, Ahmet; Ilhan, Atilla; Akyol, Omer

    2009-02-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that free radicals play a major role on neuronal injury during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Erdosteine is a thioderivative endowed with mucokinetic, mucolytic and free-radical-scavenging properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of erdosteine treatment against short-term global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The study was carried out on Wistar rats divided into four groups. (i) Control group, (ii) ischemia/reperfusion group, (iii) ischemia/reperfusion+erdosteine group, and (iv) erdosteine group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were analysed in erythrocyte and plasma of rats. Plasma NO levels were significantly higher in the ischemia/reperfusion group than the other groups. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px were decreased, while TBARS levels increased in the ischemia/reperfusion group compared to other groups in both plasma and erythrocyte. The erythrocyte CAT activity was higher in erdosteine group and there was a statistically significant increase, when compared with the erdosteine plus ischemia/reperfusion group. By treating the rats with erdosteine, the depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and increase of TBARS and NO levels were prevented. This study, therefore, suggests that erdosteine reduces parameters of oxidative stress is well supported by the data.

  16. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  17. Glibenclamide in cerebral ischemia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Simard, J Marc; Sheth, Kevin N; Kimberly, W Taylor; Stern, Barney J; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Jacobson, Sven; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2014-04-01

    The sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1)-transient receptor potential 4 (Trpm4) channel is an important molecular element in focal cerebral ischemia. The channel is upregulated in all cells of the neurovascular unit following ischemia, and is linked to microvascular dysfunction that manifests as edema formation and secondary hemorrhage, which cause brain swelling. Activation of the channel is a major molecular mechanism of cytotoxic edema and "accidental necrotic cell death." Blockade of Sur1 using glibenclamide has been studied in different types of rat models of stroke: (i) in conventional non-lethal models (thromboembolic, 1-2 h temporary, or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion), glibenclamide reduces brain swelling and infarct volume and improves neurological function; (ii) in lethal models of malignant cerebral edema, glibenclamide reduces edema, brain swelling, and mortality; (iii) in models with rtPA, glibenclamide reduces swelling, hemorrhagic transformation, and death. Retrospective studies of diabetic patients who present with stroke have shown that those whose diabetes is managed with a sulfonylurea drug and who are maintained on the sulfonylurea drug during hospitalization for stroke have better outcomes at discharge and are less likely to suffer hemorrhagic transformation. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the basic science, preclinical experiments, and retrospective clinical studies on glibenclamide in focal cerebral ischemia and stroke. We also compare the preclinical work in stroke models to the updated recommendations of the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR). The findings reviewed here provide a strong foundation for a translational research program to study glibenclamide in patients with ischemic stroke.

  18. Global oral health inequalities: dental caries task group--research agenda.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N; Amaechi, B; Niederman, R; Acevedo, A-M; Vianna, R; Ganss, C; Ismail, A; Honkala, E

    2011-05-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science.

  19. Swedish nurses' perception of nursing research and its implementation in clinical practice: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Doris M; Ericsson, Terese; Borglin, Gunilla

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, nursing research is seen as an integral part of professional nursing although implementing knowledge derived from nursing research into the practice setting is still problematic. Current research, conducted mainly with a descriptive quantitative design, highlights the struggle experienced by Registered Nurses (RNs) to use and implement research findings in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this naturalistic inquiry was to explore nurses' perception of nursing research and its implementation in a clinical context. A qualitative approach was chosen, and four focus group discussions were conducted. The groups comprised a total of 16 RNs (three men and 13 women) working in a secondary care setting. The transcribed texts were analysed, inspired by Burnard's description of content analysis. The texts were interpreted as representing three predominant themes: scholastic, individual and contextual influences highlighted as influential components impacting on the RNs' views on research and its implementation as well as on their readiness to accept and support it. However, the most influential aspect permeating our themes was their educational background--the type of qualification they held. In general, the RNs with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing viewed research and the implementation of knowledge in practice more favourably than those RNs with a diploma. Our findings, although based on a small qualitative study, are congruent with others, indicating that further research is warranted concerning the impact of education on RNs' views of nursing research and its implementation. Hence, it might well be that the RNs' educational point of departure needs to be stressed more than what so far have been anticipated. In the meanwhile, it is possible that a number of strategies could be tested to promote a more favourable view in these issues and where the nursing education has the possibility to influence this endeavour. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of

  20. Improving Scientific Research and Writing Skills through Peer Review and Empirical Group Learning.

    PubMed

    Senkevitch, Emilee; Smith, Ann C; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Song, Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a semester-long, multipart activity called "Read and wRite to reveal the Research process" (R(3)) that was designed to teach students the elements of a scientific research paper. We implemented R(3) in an advanced immunology course. In R(3), we paralleled the activities of reading, discussion, and presentation of relevant immunology work from primary research papers with student writing, discussion, and presentation of their own lab findings. We used reading, discussing, and writing activities to introduce students to the rationale for basic components of a scientific research paper, the method of composing a scientific paper, and the applications of course content to scientific research. As a final part of R(3), students worked collaboratively to construct a Group Research Paper that reported on a hypothesis-driven research project, followed by a peer review activity that mimicked the last stage of the scientific publishing process. Assessment of student learning revealed a statistically significant gain in student performance on writing in the style of a research paper from the start of the semester to the end of the semester.

  1. Improving Scientific Research and Writing Skills through Peer Review and Empirical Group Learning †

    PubMed Central

    Senkevitch, Emilee; Smith, Ann C.; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Song, Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a semester-long, multipart activity called “Read and wRite to reveal the Research process” (R3) that was designed to teach students the elements of a scientific research paper. We implemented R3 in an advanced immunology course. In R3, we paralleled the activities of reading, discussion, and presentation of relevant immunology work from primary research papers with student writing, discussion, and presentation of their own lab findings. We used reading, discussing, and writing activities to introduce students to the rationale for basic components of a scientific research paper, the method of composing a scientific paper, and the applications of course content to scientific research. As a final part of R3, students worked collaboratively to construct a Group Research Paper that reported on a hypothesis-driven research project, followed by a peer review activity that mimicked the last stage of the scientific publishing process. Assessment of student learning revealed a statistically significant gain in student performance on writing in the style of a research paper from the start of the semester to the end of the semester. PMID:23653760

  2. Controversies in cardiovascular care: silent myocardial ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective evidence of silent myocardial ischemia--ischemia in the absence of classical chest pain--includes ST-segment shifts (usually depression), momentary left ventricular failure, and perfusion defects on scintigraphic studies. Assessment of angina patients with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring may uncover episodes of silent ischemia, the existence of which may give important information regarding prognosis and may help structure a more effective therapeutic regimen. The emerging recognition of silent ischemia as a significant clinical entity may eventually result in an expansion of current therapy--not only to ameliorate chest pain, but to minimize or eliminate ischemia in the absence of chest pain.

  3. Controversies in cardiovascular care: silent myocardial ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective evidence of silent myocardial ischemia--ischemia in the absence of classical chest pain--includes ST-segment shifts (usually depression), momentary left ventricular failure, and perfusion defects on scintigraphic studies. Assessment of angina patients with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring may uncover episodes of silent ischemia, the existence of which may give important information regarding prognosis and may help structure a more effective therapeutic regimen. The emerging recognition of silent ischemia as a significant clinical entity may eventually result in an expansion of current therapy--not only to ameliorate chest pain, but to minimize or eliminate ischemia in the absence of chest pain.

  4. Tetramethylpyrazine inhibits neutrophil activation following permanent cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Kao, Tsung-Kuei; Chen, Wen-Ying; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri; Liao, Su-Lan; Raung, Shue-Ling; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-07-31

    Experimental studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against ischemic stroke and highlighted its crucial role in anti-inflammatory activity. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for TMP and sheds light on the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action against ischemic brain injury. We report a global inhibitory effect of TMP on inflammatory cell intracerebral activation and infiltration in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia. The results of immunohistochemistry, enzymatic assay, flow cytometric analysis, and cytological analysis revealed that intraperitoneal TMP administration reduced neuronal loss, macrophage/microglia activation, brain parenchyma infiltrative neutrophils, and circulating neutrophils after cerebral ischemia. Biochemical studies of cultured neutrophils further demonstrated that TMP attenuated neutrophil migration, endothelium adhesion, spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) production, and stimuli-activated NO production after cerebral ischemia. In parallel with these anti-neutrophil phenomena, TMP also attenuated the activities of ischemia-induced inflammation-associated signaling molecules, including plasma high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) and neutrophil toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Another finding in this study was that the anti-neutrophil effect of TMP was accompanied by a further elevated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in neutrophils after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our results suggest that both the promotion of endogenous anti-inflammatory defense capacity and the attenuation of pro-inflammatory responses via targeting of circulating neutrophils by elevating Nrf2/HO-1 expression and inhibiting HMGB1/TLR4, Akt, and ERK signaling might actively contribute to TMP-mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia.

  5. The Effect of Pentoxifylline on bcl-2 Gene Expression Changes in Hippocampus after Ischemia-Reperfusion in Wistar Rats by a Quatitative RT-PCR Method.

    PubMed

    Sari, Soyar; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Mahdian, Reza; Parivar, Kazem; Rezayat, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to the tissue after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen. Ischemia-reperfusion brain injury initiates an inflammatory response involving the expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (250-300 g body wt) were used in this study. The animals were divided into four groups of 6 rats each: I: Control group that was subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, II: Ischemia-reperfusion group that was subjected to all surgical procedures, III: Drug group that received pentoxifylline (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) 60 min before and after ischemia and IV: Vehicle group that received saline. Seventy two h after ischemia-reperfusion, the hippocampus was taken for studying the changes in bcl-2 gene expression. We used quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of bcl-2 gene expression in ischemia and drug groups and then compared them to normal samples. The results showed the gene dosage ratio of 0.66 and 1.5 for ischemia group and the drug groups, respectively. The results also showed the bcl-2 gene expression declined in ischemia group as compared to the drug group. Furthermore, we observed a significant difference in the bcl-2 gene expression between ischemia and drug groups. These findings are consistent with anti-apoptotic properties of bcl-2 gene. Furthermore this method provides a powerful tool for the investigators to study brain ischemia and respond to the treatment drugs with anti-apoptotic agents.

  6. Experimental Study of Thallium 201 Redistribution in Transient Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Mandal, Ashis K.; Wong, Dennis Q.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of differential washout on the redistribution phenomenon of thallium 201 chloride deposited in ischemic myocardium was investigated. Two groups of dogs had serial scintigraphic images and tissue counting performed. The first group had ischemia produced prior to the injection of the thallium and, following the control image after production of ischemia, the occlusion was released and serial images obtained over a three-hour period. The second group received thallium initially and after a control scintigraph was taken, ischemia was created and maintained for three hours via transthoracic ligature. Activity distribution was followed by serial images. Thallium content of ischemic areas was compared to the normal area by computer assisted data analysis. Tissues from the ischemic and normal areas from both groups were obtained after the serial images and counted. In the first group, prompt redistribution of activity into the ischemic areas was seen within 30 minutes of releasing the occlusion and was verified by tissue counting. Neither scintigraphic image changes nor tissue uptake differences were observed in the second group. The restoration of blood flow and consequently increased avidity for thallium probably accounted for the redistribution seen in the first group as there appeared to be no differential washout of activity in the second group from either the ischemic or normal areas to contribute to the redistribution phenomenon. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7120444

  7. Levosimendan Administration in Limb Ischemia: Multicomponent Signaling Serving Kidney Protection

    PubMed Central

    Onody, Peter; Aranyi, Peter; Turoczi, Zsolt; Stangl, Rita; Fulop, Andras; Dudas, Emese; Lotz, Gabor; Szijarto, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives Acute renal failure is a severe complication of lower extremity major arterial reconstructions, which could even be fatal. Levosimendan is a dual-acting positive inotropic and vasodilatory agent, which is suspected to have protective effects against cardiac ischemia. However, there is no data available on lower limb or remote organ ischemic injuries therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on lower limb ischemia-reperfusion injury and the corollary renal dysfunction. Methods Male Wistar rats underwent 180 min bilateral lower limb ischemia followed by 4 or 24 hours of reperfusion. Intravenous Levosimendan was administered continuously (0.2μg/bwkg/min) throughout the whole course of ischemia and the first 3h of reperfusion. Results were compared with sham-operated and ischemia-reperfusion groups. Hemodynamic monitoring was performed by invasive arterial blood pressure measurement. Kidney and lower limb muscle microcirculation was registered by a laser Doppler flowmeter. After 4h and 24h of reperfusion, serum, urine and histological samples were collected. Results Systemic hemodynamic parameters and microcirculation of kidney and the lower limb significantly improved in the Levosimendan treated group. Muscle viability was significantly preserved 4 and 24 hours after reperfusion. At the same time, renal functional laboratory tests and kidney histology demonstrated significantly less expressive kidney injury in Levosimendan groups. TNF-α levels were significantly less elevated in the Levosimendan group 4 hours after reperfusion. Conclusion The results claim a protective role for Levosimendan administration during major vascular surgeries to prevent renal complications. PMID:27684548

  8. [Portfolio as an evaluation strategy of individual performance of a research group].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm; Sanna, Maria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the use of portfolio in a research group 35 examples produced in 2004 to 2005 were analyzed. Comprehensive analysis revealed description of the research projects elaboration, writing of articles, participation in events, seeking for proficiency in English language and comprising of academic credits. The support for registration, content ordering and the examination between proposition and fulfillment varied. Of these last ones, the search for professional and research development were evidenced by the intention in publishing, to make a presentation in scientific congresses and to be admitted in post-graduation programs. Approval of use of this resource for planning and carrier evaluation also was verified. It was concluded that portfolio is an efficient strategy for the development of researchers.

  9. Sirt1 in cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Koronowski, Kevin B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death worldwide. It is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the brain that results in cell death and damage, ultimately causing motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Today, clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia, mostly stroke and cardiac arrest, is limited and new neuroprotective therapies are desperately needed. The Sirtuin family of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases has been shown to govern several processes within the central nervous system as well as to possess neuroprotective properties in a variety of pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and Huntington’s Disease, among others. Recently, Sirt1 in particular has been identified as a mediator of cerebral ischemia, with potential as a possible therapeutic target. To gather studies relevant to this topic, we used PubMed and previous reviews to locate, select, and resynthesize the lines of evidence presented here. In this review, we will first describe some functions of Sirt1 in the brain, mainly neurodevelopment, learning and memory, and metabolic regulation. Second, we will discuss the experimental evidence that has implicated Sirt1 as a key protein in the regulation of cerebral ischemia as well as a potential target for the induction of ischemic tolerance. PMID:26819971

  10. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    PubMed

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Current research findings on end-of-life decision making among racially or ethnically diverse groups.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E

    2005-10-01

    We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or choices, where racial or ethnic groups were compared in their end-of-life decisions, or where the end-of-life decision making of a single minority group was studied in depth. We conducted a narrative review and identified four topical domains of study: advance directives; life support; disclosure and communication of diagnosis, prognosis, and preferences; and designation of primary decision makers. Non-White racial or ethnic groups generally lacked knowledge of advance directives and were less likely than Whites to support advance directives. African Americans were consistently found to prefer the use of life support; Asians and Hispanics were more likely to prefer family-centered decision making than other racial or ethnic groups. Variations within groups existed and were related to cultural values, demographic characteristics, level of acculturation, and knowledge of end-of-life treatment options. Common methodological limitations of these studies were lack of theoretical framework, use of cross-sectional designs, convenience samples, and self-developed measurement scales. Although the studies are limited by methodological concerns, identified differences in end-of-life decision-making preference and practice suggest that clinical care and policy should recognize the variety of values and preferences found among diverse racial or ethnic groups. Future research priorities are described to better inform clinicians and policy makers about ways to allow for more culturally sensitive approaches to end-of-life care.

  12. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75 000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  13. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75,000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research.

  14. Oxidative stress in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Love, S

    1999-01-01

    Brain ischemia initiates a complex cascade of metabolic events, several of which involve the generation of nitrogen and oxygen free radicals. These free radicals and related reactive chemical species mediate much of damage that occurs after transient brain ischemia, and in the penumbral region of infarcts caused by permanent ischemia. Nitric oxide, a water- and lipid-soluble free radical, is generated by the action of nitric oxide synthases. Ischemia causes a surge in nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS 1) activity in neurons and, possibly, glia, increased NOS 3 activity in vascular endothelium, and later an increase in NOS 2 activity in a range of cells including infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages, activated microglia and astrocytes. The effects of ischemia on the activity of NOS 1, a Ca2+-dependent enzyme, are thought to be secondary to reversal of glutamate reuptake at synapses, activation of NMDA receptors, and resulting elevation of intracellular Ca2+. The up-regulation of NOS 2 activity is mediated by transcriptional inducers. In the context of brain ischemia, the activity of NOS 1 and NOS 2 is broadly deleterious, and their inhibition or inactivation is neuroprotective. However, the production of nitric oxide in blood vessels by NOS 3, which, like NOS 1, is Ca2+-dependent, causes vasodilatation and improves blood flow in the penumbral region of brain infarcts. In addition to causing the synthesis of nitric oxide, brain ischemia leads to the generation of superoxide, through the action of nitric oxide synthases, xanthine oxidase, leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and other mechanisms. Nitric oxide and superoxide are themselves highly reactive but can also combine to form a highly toxic anion, peroxynitrite. The toxicity of the free radicals and peroxynitrite results from their modification of macromolecules, especially DNA, and from the resulting induction of apoptotic and necrotic pathways. The mode of cell death that prevails probably

  15. Influence of remote ischemic conditioning and tramadol hydrochloride on oxidative stress in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Silva de; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Ribeiro, Rubens Fernando Gonçalves; Oliveira, Leonam Oliver Durval; Monteiro, Andrew Moraes; Brandão, Fernando Mateus Viegas; Cavalcante, Lainy Carollyne da Costa; Gouveia, Eduardo Henrique Herbster; Henriques, Higor Yuri Bezerra

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of tramadol hydrochloride associated to remote ischemic perconditioning on oxidative stress. Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Tramadol group (T) treated with tramadol hydrochloride (40mg/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Tramadol group (Per+T) with both treatments. Oxidative stress was assessed after 24 hours of reperfusion. Statistical differences were observed in MDA levels between I/R group with all groups (p<0.01), in addition there was difference between Tramadol with Sham, Per and Per+T groups (p<0.05), both in plasma and renal tissue. Remote ischemic perconditioning was more effective reducing renal ischemia-reperfusion injury than administration of tramadol or association of both treatments.

  16. [Effect of Safflor injection on the intestine ultrastructure characteristics following intestine ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Cong-De; Li, Zhong-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Wan-Tie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fang-Yan; Fang, Zhou-Xi

    2009-11-01

    To explore effects of Safflor (Chinese Tradional Medicine) on the intestine ultrastructure characteristics during intestine ischemia/ reperfusion injury (I/RI) in rabbits. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: control group (group S), ischemia/reperfusion group (group I/R) and Safflor injection group (group SI). Morphological changes of intestine ischemia/reperfusion in rabbits and the protective effects of Safflor were observed under electric telescope. The intestine ultrastructure was badly injured in group I/R. Mitochondria and intestinal mucosal cells were swellen and endoplasmic reticulum expanded, however, in the SI group the ultrastructural injury of the ischemia greatly ameliorated. The ultrastructure injury occurrted after intestine I/RI and Safflor has protective effects on the intestine ultrastructure.

  17. The use of Facebook for virtual asynchronous focus groups in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Narelle

    2017-10-04

    The Internet and the development of more user-engaging applications have opened a whole new world for researchers as a means of recruitment and data collection source. This paper describes the methodological approach of a research study that explored the experiences of Australian military spouses who packed up their family and home to accompany their spouse on an overseas posting. The study used Facebook as a recruitment tool and then as a data source through the conduct of an asynchronous virtual focus group. This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this unique data source as a means of capturing the voices of a hard-to-reach population.

  18. Black and minority ethnic group involvement in health and social care research: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Shoba; Campbell, Stephen M; Giles, Sally J; Morris, Rebecca L; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh

    2017-08-15

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is growing internationally, but little is known about black and minority ethnic (BME) involvement and the factors influencing their involvement in health and social care research. To characterize and critique the empirical literature on BME-PPI involvement in health and social care research. Systematic searches of six electronic bibliographic databases were undertaken, utilizing both MeSH and free-text terms to identify international empirical literature published between 1990 and 2016. All study designs that report primary data that involved BME groups in health or social care research. Screening was conducted by two reviewers. Data extraction and quality appraisal were performed independently. Data extraction focused on the level(s) of PPI involvement and where PPI activity occurred in the research cycle. Studies were quality-assessed using the guidelines for measuring the quality and impact of user involvement in research. Data were analysed using a narrative approach. Forty-five studies were included with the majority undertaken in the USA focusing on African Americans and indigenous populations. Involvement most commonly occurred during the research design phase and least in data analysis and interpretation. This is the first systematic review investigating BME involvement in health and social care research internationally. While there is a widespread support for BME involvement, this is limited to particular phases of the research and particular ethnic subgroups. There is a need to understand factors that influence BME involvement in all parts of the research cycle. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Revascularization and Muscle Adaptation to Limb Demand Ischemia in Diet Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Albadawi, Hassan; Tzika, Aria; Rask-Madsen, Christian; Crowley, Lindsey M.; Koulopoulos, Michael W.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Watkins, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in humans which can result in lower limb demand ischemia and exercise intolerance. Exercise triggers skeletal muscle adaptation including increased vasculogenesis. The goal of this study was to determine whether demand ischemia modulates revascularization, fiber size, and signaling pathways in the ischemic hind limb muscles of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Materials and Methods DIO mice (n=7) underwent unilateral femoral artery ligation (FAL) and recovered for 2-weeks followed by 4-weeks with daily treadmill exercise to induce demand ischemia. A parallel sedentary ischemia group (n=7) had FAL without exercise. The contralateral limb muscles of sedentary ischemia served as control. Muscles were examined for capillary density, myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), cytokine levels, and phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2. Results Exercise significantly enhanced capillary density (p<0.01) and markedly lowered CSA (p<0.001) in demand ischemia compared to sedentary ischemia. These findings coincided with a significant increase in G-CSF (p<0.001) and IL-7 (p<0.01) levels. In addition, phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 (p<0.01) were increased while UCP-1 and MCP-1 protein levels were lower (p<0.05) without altering VEGF and TNFα protein levels. Demand ischemia increased the PGC1α mRNA (p<0.001) without augmenting PGC1α protein levels. Conclusions Exercise induced limb demands ischemia in the setting of DIO causes myofiber atrophy despite an increase in muscle capillary density. The combination of persistent increase in TNFα, lower VEGF and failure to increase PGC1α protein may reflect a deficient adaption to demand ischemia in DIO. PMID:27620999

  20. Group Supervision in Psychotherapy. Main Findings from a Swedish Research Project on Psychotherapy Supervision in a Group Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Marie-Louise; Sundin, Eva C.

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to…

  1. Exercise stress tests for detecting myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hage, Fadi G; Lusa, Lara; Dondi, Maurizio; Giubbini, Raffaele; Iskandrian, Ami E

    2013-07-01

    The predominant cause of death in diabetes mellitus (DM) is coronary artery disease (CAD). Little is known about prevalence of silent ischemia in developing nations. We compared prevalence of silent ischemia in DM to a control group by exercise myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in developing nations. The prospective multinational Ischemia Assessment with Exercise imaging in Asymptomatic Diabetes study recruited participants at 12 sites in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. DM participants were age- and gender-matched 2:1 to non-DM individuals with ≥1 CAD risk factor. Subjects underwent exercise tests that were interpreted in core labs in blinded fashion. The study included 392 DM and 205 control participants. Among participants with diagnostic ECGs, a similar proportion of DM and controls had ischemic ECG (15% vs 12%, p = 0.5). A significantly higher proportion of DM group had MPI abnormalities compared with controls (26% vs 14%, p <0.001). In participants with ischemia on MPI, only 17% had ischemic ECG, whereas in those without ischemia on MPI, 10% had ischemic ECG. In a multivariable model, DM was independently associated with abnormal MPI (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.5, p = 0.004). Women were less likely to have ischemia by MPI than men (10% vs 30%, p <0.001) and concordance between ECG and MPI was much worse in women. In conclusion, in this large prospective study, asymptomatic DM participants had (1) more ischemia by exercise MPI than ECG, (2) more ischemia by MPI but not ECG than control group, and (3) ischemia by MPI was less in women than men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of pretreatment with minocycline on memory impairment following cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Yazdan; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Parvardeh, Siavash; Moini Zanjani, Taraneh

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia leads to memory impairment that is associated with loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion damage. Minocycline has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups: control, sham, and minocycline-pretreated group. Minocycline (40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally immediately before surgery, and then ischemia was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 20 min. Seven days after reperfusion, the Morris water-maze task was used to evaluate memory. Nissl staining was also performed to analyze pyramidal cell damage. We measured the contents of malondialdehyde and proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus by the thiobarbituric acid method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Microglial activation was also investigated by Iba1 immunostaining. The results showed that pretreatment with minocycline prevented memory impairment induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Minocycline pretreatment also significantly attenuated ischemia-induced pyramidal cell death and microglial activation in the CA1 region and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) in the hippocampus of ischemic rats. Minocycline showed neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia-induced memory deficit probably through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  3. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sosa, P M; Schimidt, H L; Altermann, C; Vieira, A S; Cibin, F W S; Carpes, F P; Mello-Carpes, P B

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise.

  4. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, P.M.; Schimidt, H.L.; Altermann, C.; Vieira, A.S.; Cibin, F.W.S.; Carpes, F.P.; Mello-Carpes, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise. PMID:26222650

  5. Methylprednisolone fails to preserve retinal ganglion cells and visual function after ocular ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, Cornelia; Bach, Michael; Lagrèze, Wolf A; Jehle, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Methylprednisolone (MP) is commonly used to treat traumatic optic neuropathy and optic neuritis, but its benefit in terms of neuronal survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MP on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and visual function after ischemia in rats. Ocular ischemia was induced by elevated intraocular pressure. Rats were treated with NaCl, 1 mg/kg/d, or 30 mg/kg/d intraperitoneal MP over 3 days. RGCs were labeled retrogradely 4 days after ischemia and were quantified 6 days later. Post-ischemic retinal function was assessed by scotopic and photopic electroretinography (ERG). Optic nerve function was investigated on days 4 and 10 after ischemia by visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Compared with nonischemic eyes, ischemia reduced RGCs with NaCl to 47% +/- 3% (mean +/- SEM) and to 46% +/- 3% and 43% +/- 6% with 1 mg/kg/d and 30 mg/kg/d MP. ERG did not differ significantly for any parameter among the three groups. Four days after ischemia, the VEPs of rats receiving any dose of MP were significantly higher than the control. VEPs in both steroid groups fell to control levels 10 days after ischemia. Treatment with MP did not improve RGC survival or retinal function. The VEP showed a short-term benefit because of steroids.

  6. Fish oil prevents oxidative stress and exerts sustained antiamnesic effect after global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; Matsushita, Makoto; Santos Previdelli, Isolde; Mori, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) causes hippocampal/cortical damage and the persistent loss of welltrained, long-term memory (retrograde amnesia). Fish oil (FO), a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, abolishes such amnesia in the absence of neurohistological protection. The present study investigated whether FO prevents ischemia-induced oxidative stress and whether such an action contributes to the lasting effect of FO on memory recovery. In a first experiment, FO was administered for 4 days prior to ischemia, and antioxidant status was subsequently measured after 24 h of reperfusion. In another experiment, naive rats were trained in an eight-arm radial maze until they achieved asymptotic performance and then subjected to TGCI. One group of rats received FO as in the first experiment (i.e., 4 days prior to ischemia), whereas another group received FO for 4 days prior to ischemia plus 6 days postischemia. Retrograde memory performance was assessed 2-5 weeks after ischemia. TGCI depleted the level of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of protein carbonylation, indicating oxidative damage. Fish oil reversed oxidative damage to control levels. The same treatment that attenuated oxidative stress after 24 h of reperfusion also prevented retrograde amnesia assessed several weeks later. This antiamnesic effect afforded by short preischemia treatment was comparable to 10 days of treatment but not as consistent. These data indicate that an antioxidant action in the hyperacute phase of ischemia/reperfusion may contribute to the long-term, antiamnesic effect of FO.

  7. Historical note: How bringing women's health advocacy groups to WHO helped change the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Jane

    2015-05-01

    The politics of population control and its sometimes coercive methods in developing countries documented during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, gave rise to strong opposition by women's groups, and put into question the safety of contraceptive methods that were being developed and introduced into countries. In 1991, the Special Programme on Human Reproduction at the World Health Organization, a research programme focused on development of new methods and safety assessments of existing fertility regulation methods, started a process of "dialogue" meetings between scientists and women's health advocacy groups which lasted for nearly a decade. This paper describes the process of these meetings and what they achieved in terms of bringing new or different research topics into the agenda, and some of the actions taken as a result. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Group interventions for men who batter: a summary of program descriptions and research.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel G

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the latest research on men's group interventions for men who batter their intimate partners. The major components of current programs are described, along with studies on treatment effectiveness. Evidence for the effectiveness of treatment combined with a coordinated community response is also presented. Several related topics are covered, in particular methods for enhancing treatment motivation and culturally competent practice.

  9. Alzheimer Disease International's 10/66 Dementia Research Group - one model for action research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin; Graham, Nori; Brodaty, Henry; Rimmer, Elizabeth; Varghese, Mathew; Chiu, Helen; Acosta, Daisy; Scazufca, Marcia

    2004-02-01

    The 10/66 Dementia Research Group (10/66) founded in 1998, is a network of over 100 researchers from mainly developing countries. 10/66 is committed to encourage more good quality research in those regions, where an estimated two-thirds of all those with dementia live. It represents a collaboration of academics, clinicians, and an international non-governmental organization, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI). 10/66 pilot studies in 26 centres in Latin America, India, Africa and China and SE Asia suggest that education and culture-fair diagnosis is an attainable aim. Despite extended family care networks, these studies also identified high levels of practical, psychological and economic strain upon caregivers. Population-based studies in six centres will now estimate prevalence, describe impact and seek to identify genetic and environmental risk factors in novel settings. At a practical level, 10/66 has studied ways to circumvent the lack of help-seeking in developing countries, and has developed a low-level intervention to educate and train caregivers. The links with ADI and its international networks, and the volunteerism of ADIs members have fostered the rapid growth of 10/66. The partnership facilitates both the raising of awareness and influence upon policy, as 10/66 research evidence can be used by ADI and national Alzheimer's Associations to direct and support advocacy. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The effects of Y-27632 on pial microvessels during global brain ischemia and reperfusion in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Noriyuki; Ishiyama, Tadahiko; Kotoda, Masakazu; Asano, Nobumasa; Sessler, Daniel I; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2017-03-07

    Global brain ischemia-reperfusion during propofol anesthesia provokes persistent cerebral pial constriction. Constriction is likely mediated by Rho-kinase. Cerebral vasoconstriction possibly exacerbates ischemic brain injury. Because Y-27632 is a potent Rho-kinase inhibitor, it should be necessary to evaluate its effects on cerebral pial vessels during ischemia-reperfusion period. We therefore tested the hypotheses that Y-27632 dilates cerebral pial arterioles after the ischemia-reperfusion injury, and evaluated the time-course of cerebral pial arteriolar status after the ischemia-reperfusion. Japanese white rabbits were anesthetized with propofol, and a closed cranial window inserted over the left hemisphere. Global brain ischemia was produced by clamping the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries for 15 min. Rabbits were assigned to cranial window perfusion with: (1) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (Control group, n = 7); (2) topical infusion of Y-27632 10(-6) mol · L(-1) for 30 min before the initiation of global brain ischemia (Pre group, n = 7); (3) topical infusion of Y-27632 10(-6) mol · L(-1) starting 30 min before ischemia and continuing throughout the study period (Continuous group, n = 7); and, (4) topical infusion of Y-27632 10(-6) mol · L(-1) starting 10 min after the ischemia and continuing until the end of the study (Post group, n = 7). Cerebral pial arterial and venule diameters were recorded 30 min before ischemia, just before arterial clamping, 10 min after clamping, and 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min after unclamping. Mean arterial blood pressure and blood glucose concentration increased significantly after global brain ischemia except in the Continuous group. In the Pre and Continuous groups, topical application of Y-27632 produced dilation of large (mean 18-19%) and small (mean; 25-29%) pial arteries, without apparent effect on venules. Compared with the Control and Pre

  11. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  12. Supporting self-management by Community Matrons through a group intervention; an action research study.

    PubMed

    Barkham, Abigail M; Ersser, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a group intervention by Community Matrons to support those living with multiple long-terms conditions. Little evidence exists as to how the role of the Community Matron (CM) should be delivered to effectively enhance disease self-management and levels of self-efficacy for the service users. This qualitative participatory action research study explored the use of group work as a method of intervention by CMs. A purposive sample of 29 participants was recruited. Each patient group had 8-10 participants, led by a CM working in both the researcher and practitioner role, operating over 12-month period. Data were collected by participant observation, researcher reflexive account and interviews. Grounded theory method was used to systematically analyse the data. Three main data categories emerged: (i) comparison by patients that leads to re-motivation of the self; (ii) learning, leading to enhanced self-management techniques, through storytelling and understanding of each other's experiences; and (iii) ownership that resulted in the self-awareness, cognisance and insight into the role of the support group they were based in and how it benefited them. The core category of 'Taking back the self - understanding the whole,' conveyed the impact that this care delivery method had upon readjusting the balance of power between health professional and service users and its consequence in refreshing and improving their self-management and the patients' self-efficacy. It was concluded that CM intervention using a model of group learning can lead to more effective and efficient support, through improving self-efficacy and patients' related self-management ability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Developing rehabilitation treatment groups for cardiology and orthopaedics -- findings of a research project].

    PubMed

    Ranneberg, J; Neubauer, G

    2005-02-01

    The call for a more specific and transparent service and reimbursement system for medical rehabilitation is not new. However, in practice, the idea was not followed up for a long time. This situation changed with the introduction of German Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) for acute care settings. It is now strongly being discussed whether such a sophisticated lump sum reimbursement system might also be a viable alternative in the field of rehabilitation. There still exist different opinions over the suitability of a lump sum-system for medical rehabilitation, but the main direction seems to be clear. There is no doubt that medical rehabilitation requires a needs-adapted, differentiated patient classification system. The benefits of such cost-homogeneous groups are evident. They support medical and management services and are suitable for both internal and external use. The main intent of the project presented was to develop such a patient classification system, adapted to the requirements of medical rehabilitation. The project concentrated on orthopaedic and cardiac rehabilitaton. For these two areas, needs-adapted and cost-homogeneous groups (RBG, Rehabilitationsbehandlungsgruppen - Rehabilitation Treatment Groups) were developed in order to adequately represent the underlying service portfolio and to act as a link between acute and post-acute care. In addition, severity level indicators were identified, in order to explain for different needs and resource volumes and in order to create severity-RBGs representing patients with the same severity level. Based on these groups, a needs-adapted lump sum reimbursement system can be developed, allowing for a differentiated service and cost controlling. The project described formed part of the Research Funding Programme Rehabilitation Sciences defrayed by the German Pension Insurance and the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. As part of the Freiburg/Bad Sackingen research network, it was realised at the

  14. Prologue: 2009 Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA).

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip J; Gladman, Dafna D

    2011-03-01

    The 2009 Annual Meeting of the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) was held in June 2009 in Stockholm, Sweden, and was attended by rheumatologists, dermatologists, biopharmaceutical company representatives, and patient groups. A primary goal of GRAPPA is to foster outreach and interdisciplinary communication between the fields of rheumatology and dermatology. Several members attended an adjacent meeting of the International Federation of Psoriasis Associations; reports were also provided of recent meetings of the American Academy of Dermatology and the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis (ASAS) working group. In a training session of the GRAPPA meeting, members served as faculty while rheumatology fellows and dermatology residents presented original research work. In one module of the meeting, several response measures were discussed. In another module, discussions were held on the need for dermatologists to be able to diagnose psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among their psoriasis patients; several PsA screening questionnaires were presented, and progress was reported on developing online training videos as an aid to educate clinicians in their diagnoses. Other topics for discussion at the GRAPPA meeting included presentations on genetic associations with PsA and on comorbidities in patients with PsA. Current and future research projects also were outlined.

  15. Ischemic preconditioning maintains the immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in neurons of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    CHO, YOUNG SHIN; CHO, JUN HWI; SHIN, BICH-NA; CHO, GEUM-SIL; KIM, IN HYE; PARK, JOON HA; AHN, JI HYEON; OHK, TAEK GEUN; CHO, BYUNG-RYUL; KIM, YOUNG-MYEONG; HONG, SEONGKWEON; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, JAE-CHUL

    2015-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) is involved in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. In the present study, the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the immunoreactivities of GK and its regulatory protein (GKRP) following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia was investigated in gerbils. The gerbils were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia-operated group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia, followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia-operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected. Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post-ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post-ischemia. In the IPC + ischemia-operated group, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the SP of the CA1 were similar to those in the sham-group. In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia-reperfusion. This indicated that GK and GKRP may be necessary for neuron survival against transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26134272

  16. Study on pretreatment of FPS-1 in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiqing; Liu, Kexuan; Wu, Weikang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuanhong

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether FPS-1, the water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from fuzi, protected against hepatic damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and its mechanism. SD rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. FPS-1 (160 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 5 days before ischemia-reperfusion injury in treatment group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and albumin (ALB) were assayed to evaluate liver functions. Liver samples were taken for histological examination and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), that catalase (CAT) in liver. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in mitochondria were measured with colorimetry method. Morphological changes were also investigated by using both light microscopy and electron microscopy (EM). In addition, apoptosis and oncosis were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Serum AST and ALT levels were elevated in groups exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (p < 0.05). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a marked increase in MDA level, and significant decreases in hepatic SOD and CAT (p < 0.05). Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase were reduced in ischemia-reperfusion groups compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). Oncosis and apoptosis were also observed in ischemia-reperfusion groups. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reversed all these biochemical parameters as well as histological alterations, evidently by increased SOD, CAT, reduced MDA and histological scores compared to the model group (p < 0.05). FPS-1 could attenuate the necrotic states by the detection of immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reduced hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidative effects and attenuation of necrotic states.

  17. Major Ozonated Autohemotherapy Preconditioning Ameliorates Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Sancak, Eyup Burak; Turkön, Hakan; Çukur, Selma; Erimsah, Sevilay; Akbas, Alpaslan; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Toman, Huseyin; Sahin, Hasan; Uzun, Metehan

    2016-02-01

    Medical ozone has therapeutic properties as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, modulator of antioxidant defense system. Major ozonated autohemotherapy (MOA) is a new therapeutic approach that is widely used in the treatment of many diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether preischemic application of MOA would attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups, each including six animals: (1) Sham-operated group, (2) Ozone group (the MOA group without IRI), (3) IR group (60 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion), and (4) IR + MOA group (MOA group). The effects of MOA were examined by use of hematologic and biochemical parameters consisting of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI). In addition, the histopathological changes including the tubular brush border loss (TBBL), tubular cast (TC), tubular necrosis (TN), intertubular hemorrhage and congestion (IHC), dilatation of bowman space (DBS), and interstitial inflammatory cells infiltration (IECI) were evaluated. In the IR group, compared to the Sham group, biochemical parameters indicating oxidative stress, NLR, IL-6, TNF-α, IMA, TOS, and OSI have increased. MOA reduced inflammation and oxidative stress parameters. Although TAS values have decreased in the IR group and increased in the MOA-pretreated group, no significant changes in TAS values were detected between the IR and MOA groups. The total score was obtained by summing all the scores from morphological kidney damage markers. The total score has increased with IR damage when compared with the Sham group (13.83 ± 4.30 vs 1.51 ± 1.71; p = 0.002). But, the total score has decreased significantly after application of MOA (5.01 ± 1.49; p = 0.002; compared

  18. The neuroprotective effect of Sulindac after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cosar, Murat; Kaner, Tuncay; Sahin, Onder; Topaloglu, Naci; Guven, Mustafa; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarık; Ozkan, Adile; Sen, Halil Murat; Memi, Gulsum; Deniz, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of Sulindac on the hippocampal complex after global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Thirty one Sprague-Dawley rats were used, distributed into group I (sham) n:7 were used as control. For group II (n:8), III (n:8) and IV (n:8) rats, cerebral ischemia was performed via the occlusion of bilateral internal carotid artery for 45 minutes and continued with reperfusion process. 0.3 mL/kg/h 0.9 % sodium chloride was infused intraperitoneally to the Group II rats before ischemia, 5μg/kg/h/0.3 ml sulindac was infused intraperitoneally to the Group III rats before ischemia and 5μg/kg/h/0.3 ml sulindac was infused intraperitoneally to the Group IV rats after ischemia and before reperfusion process. The levels of MDA, GSH and MPO activity were measured in the left hippocampus tissue. The hippocampal tissue of all group members were taken for histopathological study. The MDA and MPO levels increased from group I (control) to group II (I/R) (P<0.05) and decreased from group II (I/R) to group III (presulindac + I/R) and IV (postsulindac + I/R) (P<0.05). Beside these, the GSH levels decreased from group I (control) to group II (I/R) (P<0.05) and increased from group II (I/R) to group III (presulindac + I/R) and IV (postsulindac + I/R) (P<0.05).The number of apoptotic neurons increased from group I (control) to group II (I/R) (P<0.05) and decreased from group II (I/R) to group III (presulindac + I/R) and IV (postsulindac + I/R) (P<0.05). The Sulindac may have neuroprotective effects on ischemic neural tissue to prevent the reperfusion injury after ischemia.

  19. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  20. Globus Nexus: A Platform-as-a-Service Provider of Research Identity, Profile, and Group Management.

    PubMed

    Chard, Kyle; Lidman, Mattias; McCollam, Brendan; Bryan, Josh; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Tuecke, Steven; Foster, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Globus Nexus is a professionally hosted Platform-as-a-Service that provides identity, profile and group management functionality for the research community. Many collaborative e-Science applications need to manage large numbers of user identities, profiles, and groups. However, developing and maintaining such capabilities is often challenging given the complexity of modern security protocols and requirements for scalable, robust, and highly available implementations. By outsourcing this functionality to Globus Nexus, developers can leverage best-practice implementations without incurring development and operations overhead. Users benefit from enhanced capabilities such as identity federation, flexible profile management, and user-oriented group management. In this paper we present Globus Nexus, describe its capabilities and architecture, summarize how several e-Science applications leverage these capabilities, and present results that characterize its scalability, reliability, and availability.

  1. Globus Nexus: A Platform-as-a-Service Provider of Research Identity, Profile, and Group Management

    PubMed Central

    Lidman, Mattias; McCollam, Brendan; Bryan, Josh; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Tuecke, Steven; Foster, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Globus Nexus is a professionally hosted Platform-as-a-Service that provides identity, profile and group management functionality for the research community. Many collaborative e-Science applications need to manage large numbers of user identities, profiles, and groups. However, developing and maintaining such capabilities is often challenging given the complexity of modern security protocols and requirements for scalable, robust, and highly available implementations. By outsourcing this functionality to Globus Nexus, developers can leverage best-practice implementations without incurring development and operations overhead. Users benefit from enhanced capabilities such as identity federation, flexible profile management, and user-oriented group management. In this paper we present Globus Nexus, describe its capabilities and architecture, summarize how several e-Science applications leverage these capabilities, and present results that characterize its scalability, reliability, and availability. PMID:26688598

  2. Long-term follow-up of patients with silent ischemia during exercise radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenbuecher, A.P.; Pfisterer, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Burckhardt, D. )

    1990-04-01

    A retrospective 5 year follow-up study was performed in 140 patients with unequivocal ischemia during exercise radionuclide angiography (greater than or equal to 10% decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction or greater than or equal to 5% decrease in ejection fraction together with a distinct regional wall motion abnormality). In 84 patients (60%), ischemia during radionuclide angiography was silent (silent ischemia group), whereas 56 patients experienced angina during the test (symptomatic group). Work load and antianginal medication were similar in both groups. Critical cardiac events (unstable angina, myocardial infarction, cardiac death) occurred in 27% of patients in the silent ischemia group and 16% of those in the symptomatic group (p = NS); however, myocardial infarction or death was more frequent in patients with silent ischemia (22% versus 9%; p less than 0.05). If there was additional exercise-induced ST segment depression, the rate of critical events was further increased (p less than 0.05). The difference in critical cardiac events seemed to be influenced by the higher incidence of revascularization procedures in symptomatic patients, whereas medical therapy had no similar effect. Thus, these findings suggest that patients with documented severe ischemia should undergo left heart catheterization and revascularization irrespective of symptoms to improve their prognosis.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 overexpression inhibits neuronal apoptosis after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing-zhen; Sun, Xin; Shen, Kang-ping; Jin, Wen-jie; Fu, Zhi-yi; Tao, Hai-rong; Xu, Zhi-xing

    2017-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is an important factor in inhibiting oxidative stress and has been shown to protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALDH2 could reduce spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced in rats using the modified Zivin's method of clamping the abdominal aorta. After successful model establishment, the agonist group was administered a daily consumption of 2.5% alcohol. At 7 days post-surgery, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score significantly increased in the agonist group compared with the spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury group. ALDH2 expression also significantly increased and the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased in the agonist group than in the spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury group. Correlation analysis revealed that ALDH2 expression negatively correlated with the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells (r = −0.485, P < 0.01). In summary, increased ALDH2 expression protected the rat spinal cord against ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:28852401

  4. Technical Note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard; Camossi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  5. Technical note: Harmonising metocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, Richard P.; Camossi, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  6. Technical note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, R. P.; Camossi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardized web-services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by: (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using technology that is free, and that is easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing tools to communicate with web services that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modelers continue producing custom data, but virtually aggregates and standardizes the data using NetCDF Markup Language. The THREDDS Data Server is used for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (Matlab®1) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Ocean Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.1 Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the US Government.

  7. An update to returning genetic research results to individuals: perspectives of the industry pharmacogenomics working group.

    PubMed

    Prucka, Sandra K; Arnold, Lester J; Brandt, John E; Gilardi, Sandra; Harty, Lea C; Hong, Feng; Malia, Joanne; Pulford, David J

    2015-02-01

    The ease with which genotyping technologies generate tremendous amounts of data on research participants has been well chronicled, a feat that continues to become both faster and cheaper to perform. In parallel to these advances come additional ethical considerations and debates, one of which centers on providing individual research results and incidental findings back to research participants taking part in genetic research efforts. In 2006 the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG) offered some 'Points-to-Consider' on this topic within the context of the drug development process from those who are affiliated to pharmaceutical companies. Today many of these points remain applicable to the discussion but will be expanded upon in this updated viewpoint from the I-PWG. The exploratory nature of pharmacogenomic work in the pharmaceutical industry is discussed to provide context for why these results typically are not best suited for return. Operational challenges unique to this industry which cause barriers to returning this information are also explained. © 2014 Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  9. Prologue: 2011 Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA).

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip J; Gladman, Dafna D

    2012-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Meeting of the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) was held in July 2011 in Naples, Italy, and attended by rheumatologists, dermatologists, and representatives of biopharmaceutical companies and patient groups from around the world. The meeting began with a trainee symposium, where 25 rheumatology fellows and dermatology residents presented their original research work. Presentations and discussions by GRAPPA members during the remaining 2-day meeting included a 2-part discussion of the status of psoriatic disease biomarker research, summaries of the GRAPPA Composite Exercise and the GRAPPA video projects, a contribution from Italian members on their psoriasis and PsA projects, a lengthy discussion of research and collaborative initiatives from GRAPPA dermatologists, updates on ultrasound imaging in psoriatic disease and on plans to define inflammatory musculoskeletal disease, a presentation of the results of a small study of psoriasis and PsA in aboriginal people of Peru, and a review of global education and partnering opportunities. Introductions to these discussions are included in this prologue.

  10. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rogério M; Spector, Anya Y; Valera, Pamela A

    2011-08-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a "Community Collaborative Board" (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure, and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles: (1) engaging membership; (2) developing relationships; (3) exchanging information; (4) negotiation and decision-making; (5) retaining membership; and (6) studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: (1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; (2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and (3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners.

  11. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, Bertrand; Holovatch, Yuri; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple metrics as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are invariably drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as “critical mass” and “h-index” are bandied about without understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent upon the scientific community itself to clarify their nature. Here we report on recent attempts to do that by properly defining critical mass and showing how group size influences research quality. We also examine currently predominant metrics and show that these fail as reliable indicators of group research quality.

  12. Alcohol and immunology: Summary of the 2012 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    On October 27, 2012, the 17th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Grand Wailea Hotel in Maui, Hawaii as a satellite meeting to the 2012 Society of Leukocyte Biology conference. This year's meeting focused on the influence of alcohol on signal transduction pathways in various disease and injury models. Three plenary sessions were held where invited speakers shared their research on alcohol-mediated alterations of cell signaling components, immune cell subsets, and inflammation. These studies suggested alcohol has a negative effect on cell signaling machinery and immune cell homeostasis, resulting in disease, disease progression, and increased mortality. Researchers also identified tissue-specific alcohol-linked elevations in markers of inflammation, including cold-shock proteins and microRNAs. Additionally, one study revealed the effects of alcohol on immune cell subsets in a model of allergic asthma.

  13. Preconditioning strategies for kidney ischemia reperfusion injury: implications of the "time-window" in remote ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Eun; Lee, Kwang Suk; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yang, Seung Choul; Han, Woong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (IP) is a potential renoprotective strategy. However, there has been no demonstrated result in large animals and the role of time window in remote IP remains to be defined. Using a single-kidney porcine model, we evaluated organ protective function of remote IP in renal ischemia reperfusion injury. Fifteen Yorkshire pigs, 20 weeks old and weighing 35-38 kg were used. One week after left nephrectomy, we performed remote IP (clamping right external iliac artery, 2 cycles of 10 minutes) and right renal artery clamping (warm ischemia; 90 minutes). The animals were randomly divided into three groups: control group, warm ischemia without IP; group 1 (remote IP with early window [IP-E]), IP followed by warm ischemia with a 10-minute time window; and group 2 (remote IP with late window [IP-L]), IP followed by warm ischemia after a 24-hour time window. There were no differences in serum creatinine changes between groups. The IP-L group had lower urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin than control and IP-E at 72 hours post-ischemia. At 72 hours post-ischemia, the urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was lower in the IP-L group than in the control and IP-E groups, and the IP-L group KIM-1 was near pre-ischemic levels, whereas the control and IP-E group KIM-1 levels were rising. Microalbumin also tended to be lower in the IP-L group. Taken together, remote IP showed a significant reduction in renal injury biomarkers from ischemia reperfusion injury. To effectively provide kidney protection, remote IP might require a considerable, rather than short, time window of ischemia.

  14. An Action Research Process on University Tutorial Sessions with Small Groups: Presentational Tutorial Sessions and Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz-Salarirche, Noelia; Gallardo-Gil, Monsalud; Herrera-Pastor, David; Servan-Nunez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    We describe and analyse the action research process carried out by us as teachers in a general didactics course in the University of Malaga (Spain). The course methodology combined lectures to the whole class and small-group work. We were in charge of guiding small-group work. In the small groups, students researched on an educational innovation…

  15. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  16. PREVALENCE OF SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT AMONG A GROUP OF RESEARCHERS IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    OKONTA, PATRICK; ROSSOUW, THERESA

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on the prevalence of scientific misconduct from Nigeria. Objectives This study aimed at determining the prevalence of scientific misconduct in a group of researchers in Nigeria. Factors associated with the prevalence were ascertained. Method A descriptive study of researchers who attended a scientific conference in 2010 was conducted using the adapted Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire- Revised (SMQ-R). Results Ninety-one researchers (68.9%) admitted having committed at least one of the eight listed forms of scientific misconduct. Disagreement about authorship was the most common form of misconduct committed (36.4%) while plagiarism was the least (9.2%). About 42% of researchers had committed falsification of data or plagiarism. Analysis of specific acts of misconduct showed that committing plagiarism was inversely associated with years in research (Fisher exact p-value = 0.02); falsifying data was related to perceived low effectiveness of the institution’s rules and procedures for reducing scientific misconduct (X2 = 6.44, p-value = 0.01); and succumbing to pressure from study sponsor to engage in unethical practice was related to sex of researcher (Fisher exact p-value = 0.02). Conclusions The emergent data from this study is a cause for serious concern and calls for prompt intervention. The best response to reducing scientific misconduct will proceed from measures that contain both elements of prevention and enforcement. Training on research ethics has to be integrated into the curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate students while provision should be made for in-service training of researchers. Penalties against acts of scientific misconduct should be enforced at institutional and national levels. PMID:22994914

  17. The Social Context of Instruction. Group Organization and Group Processes. [Papers Presented at a Conference Held at The Wisconsin Center for Education Research (Madison, May 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.; And Others

    This book is an outgrowth of a conference funded by the National Institute of Education and held at the Wisconsin Center for Education Research in May 1982. A major theme of this volume of collected papers is how and in what ways grouping of students can be used effectively. Papers included are: (1) "Instructional Groups in the Classroom:…

  18. The Use of the Delphi and Other Consensus Group Methods in Medical Education Research: A Review.

    PubMed

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Varpio, Lara; Wood, Timothy J; Gonsalves, Carol; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Mascioli, Kelly; Wang, Carol; Foth, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Consensus group methods, such as the Delphi method and nominal group technique (NGT), are used to synthesize expert opinions when evidence is lacking. Despite their extensive use, these methods are inconsistently applied. Their use in medical education research has not been well studied. The authors set out to describe the use of consensus methods in medical education research and to assess the reporting quality of these methods and results. Using scoping review methods, the authors searched the Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC databases for 2009-2016. Full-text articles that focused on medical education and the keywords Delphi, RAND, NGT, or other consensus group methods were included. A standardized extraction form was used to collect article demographic data and features reflecting methodological rigor. Of the articles reviewed, 257 met the inclusion criteria. The Modified Delphi (105/257; 40.8%), Delphi (91/257; 35.4%), and NGT (23/257; 8.9%) methods were most often used. The most common study purpose was curriculum development or reform (68/257; 26.5%), assessment tool development (55/257; 21.4%), and defining competencies (43/257; 16.7%). The reporting quality varied, with 70.0% (180/257) of articles reporting a literature review, 27.2% (70/257) reporting what background information was provided to participants, 66.1% (170/257) describing the number of participants, 40.1% (103/257) reporting if private decisions were collected, 37.7% (97/257) reporting if formal feedback of group ratings was shared, and 43.2% (111/257) defining consensus a priori. Consensus methods are poorly standardized and inconsistently used in medical education research. Improved criteria for reporting are needed.

  19. Meeting the Needs of USGS's Science Application for Risk Reduction Group through Evaluation Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, L.; Campbell, N. M.; Vickery, J.; Madera, A.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) group aims to support innovative collaborations in hazard science by uniting a broad range of stakeholders to produce and disseminate knowledge in ways that are useful for decision-making in hazard mitigation, planning, and preparedness. Since 2013, an evaluation team at the Natural Hazards Center (NHC) has worked closely with the SAFRR group to assess these collaborations and communication efforts. In contributing to the nexus between academia and practice, or "pracademia," we use evaluation research to provide the USGS with useful feedback for crafting relevant information for practitioners and decision-makers. This presentation will highlight how the NHC team has varied our methodological and information design approaches according to the needs of each project, which in turn assist the SAFRR group in meeting the needs of practitioners and decision-makers. As the foci of our evaluation activities with SAFRR have evolved, so have our efforts to ensure that our work appropriately matches the information needs of each scenario project. We draw upon multiple projects, including evaluation work on the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario, "The First Sue Nami" tsunami awareness messaging, and their most recent project concerning a hypothetical M7 earthquake on the Hayward fault in the Bay Area (HayWired scenario). We have utilized various qualitative and quantitative methodologies—including telephone interviews, focus groups, online surveys, nonparticipant observation, and in-person survey distribution. The findings generated from these series of evaluations highlight the ways in which evaluation research can be used by researchers and academics to more appropriately address the needs of practitioners. Moreover, they contribute to knowledge enhancement surrounding disaster preparedness and risk communication, and, more generally, the limited body of knowledge about evaluation-focused disaster

  20. Strategies to Support Recruitment of Patients with Life-limiting illness for Research: The Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura C.; Bull, Janet; Wessell, Kathryn; Massie, Lisa; Bennett, Rachael E.; Kutner, Jean S.; Aziz, Noreen M.; Abernethy, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Context The Palliative Care Research Cooperative group (PCRC) is the first clinical trials cooperative for palliative care in the United States. Objectives To describe barriers and strategies for recruitment during the inaugural PCRC clinical trial. Methods The parent study was a multi-site randomized controlled trial enrolling adults with life expectancy anticipated to be 1–6 months, randomized to discontinue statins (intervention) vs. to continue on statins (control). To study recruitment best practices, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 site Principal Investigators (PI) and Clinical Research Coordinators (CRC), and reviewed recruitment rates. Interviews covered 3 topics – 1) successful strategies for recruitment, 2) barriers to recruitment, and 3) optimal roles of the PI and CRC. Results All eligible site PIs and CRCs completed interviews and provided data on statin protocol recruitment. The parent study completed recruitment of n=381 patients. Site enrollment ranged from 1–109 participants, with an average of 25 enrolled per site. Five major barriers included difficulty locating eligible patients, severity of illness, family and provider protectiveness, seeking patients in multiple settings, and lack of resources for recruitment activities. Five effective recruitment strategies included systematic screening of patient lists, thoughtful messaging to make research relevant, flexible protocols to accommodate patients’ needs, support from clinical champions, and the additional resources of a trials cooperative group. Conclusion The recruitment experience from the multi-site PCRC yields new insights into methods for effective recruitment to palliative care clinical trials. These results will inform training materials for the PCRC and may assist other investigators in the field. PMID:24863152