Science.gov

Sample records for ischemia research group

  1. Dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test. A reexamination of its predictive potential. Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Mangano, D.T.; London, M.J.; Tubau, J.F.; Browner, W.S.; Hollenberg, M.; Krupski, W.; Layug, E.L.; Massie, B. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors examined the value of dipyridamole thallium-201 (201Tl) scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test for perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. They prospectively studied 60 patients undergoing elective vascular surgery. They performed 201Tl scintigraphy preoperatively and blinded all treating physicians to the results. Historical, clinical, laboratory, and physiological data were gathered throughout hospitalization. Myocardial ischemia was assessed during the intraoperative period using continuous 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and during the postoperative period using continuous two-lead ambulatory ECG. Adverse cardiac outcomes (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, severe ischemia, or congestive heart failure) were assessed daily throughout hospitalization. Twenty-two patients (37%) had defects that improved or reversed on delayed scintigrams (redistribution defects), 18 (30%) had persistent defects, and 20 (33%) had no defects on 201Tl scintigraphy. There was no association between redistribution defects and adverse cardiac outcomes: 54% (seven of 13) of adverse outcomes occurred in patients without redistribution defects, and the risk of an adverse outcome was not significantly increased in patients with redistribution defects. Consistent with these findings, there was also no association between redistribution defects and perioperative ischemia: 54% (19 of all 35) of perioperative ECG and TEE ischemic episodes and 58% (14 of 24) of severe ischemic episodes occurred in patients without redistribution defects. The sensitivity of 201Tl scintigraphy for perioperative ischemia and adverse outcomes ranged from 40% to 54%, specificity from 65% to 71%, positive predictive value from 27% to 47% and negative predictive value from 61% to 82%.

  2. An Evidence-Based Review of Related Metabolites and Metabolic Network Research on Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengting; Tang, Liying; Liu, Xin; Fang, Jing; Zhan, Hao; Wu, Hongwei; Yang, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, metabolomics analyses have been widely applied to cerebral ischemia research. This paper introduces the latest proceedings of metabolomics research on cerebral ischemia. The main techniques, models, animals, and biomarkers of cerebral ischemia will be discussed. With analysis help from the MBRole website and the KEGG database, the altered metabolites in rat cerebral ischemia were used for metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. Our results identify the main metabolic pathways that are related to cerebral ischemia and further construct a metabolic network. These results will provide useful information for elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, as well as the discovery of cerebral ischemia biomarkers. PMID:27274780

  3. Tumor Cold Ischemia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  4. Animal models of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury: progress and promise for translational research

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of ischemia-reperfusion injury continues to be plagued by the inability to translate research findings to clinically useful therapies. This may in part relate to the complexity of disease processes that result in intestinal ischemia but may also result from inappropriate research model selection. Research animal models have been integral to the study of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury. However, the clinical conditions that compromise intestinal blood flow in clinical patients ranges widely from primary intestinal disease to processes secondary to distant organ failure and generalized systemic disease. Thus models that closely resemble human pathology in clinical conditions as disparate as volvulus, shock, and necrotizing enterocolitis are likely to give the greatest opportunity to understand mechanisms of ischemia that may ultimately translate to patient care. Furthermore, conditions that result in varying levels of ischemia may be further complicated by the reperfusion of blood to tissues that, in some cases, further exacerbates injury. This review assesses animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the knowledge that has been derived from each to aid selection of appropriate research models. In addition, a discussion of the future of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion research is provided to place some context on the areas likely to provide the greatest benefit from continued research of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25414098

  5. National Melon Research Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  6. Prognostic significance of early ischemia after acute myocardial infarction in low-risk patients. IRES (Ischemia Residua) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Galli, M; Campolo, L

    1993-05-15

    Early postinfarction angina is generally believed to imply an unfavorable prognosis. However, most of the published information devices from data collected in the prethrombolytic era, with widely differing populations and definitions of early angina, and very little data pertinent to low-risk patients are available. This collaborative study prospectively assessed the incidence of early recurrent ischemia after thrombolysis, as well as its prognostic significance, in 453 consecutive patients aged < or = 70 years with an uncomplicated course in the first 24 hours of a first myocardial infarction participating in the second Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI-2) trial. Early recurrent ischemia (spontaneous, transient ST depression or elevation of > 1 mm and/or T-wave inversion), assessed in the coronary care unit with continuous clinical and electrocardiographic monitoring, was documented in 35 of 453 patients (8%) and was unrelated to sex, age, electrocardiographic location, Q-wave or non-Q-wave infarction, thrombolytic agent and time to its administration. In-hospital cardiac events (7 deaths, 19 nonfatal reinfarctions and 8 urgent revascularizations) occurred in 15 of 35 patients (43%) with versus 19 of 418 without (4.5%) recurrent ischemia (p < 0.001). At the 6-month follow-up of 352 medically treated patients who did not have in-hospital events, the incidence of death, reinfarction and recurrent angina was comparable between patients with (2 of 18, 11%) and without (62 of 334, 19%) early ischemia (p = NS). With use of stepwise multivariate analysis, early ischemia was the only significant predictor of in-hospital cardiac events (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  8. Team Approach to Critical Limb Ischemia Care and Research.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rahul S

    2016-06-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) has a high rate of major amputation and mortality due to advance systemic cardiovascular disease. The goals of treating patients with CLI not only include the prevention of limb loss but also to relieve pain, improve quality of life, and prevent death. A multidisciplinary team approach to treating patients with CLI improves limb salvage rates by helping to tailor the best intervention for these patients. In addition, a multidisciplinary team can help address cardiovascular risk modification and wound management to help in decreasing mortality and increase amputation-free survival. This review article intends to summarize the current trends and data in the team approach to CLI care. In addition, we will review the large multidisciplinary study evaluating surgical and endovascular treatments for CLI.

  9. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  10. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  11. Clinical research on erythrocyte deformability with different doses of He-Ne exposure in patient with ischemia disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanping; Liu, Song-hao; Sun, Jinbo; Luo, Gangyue; Hua, Rong; Liu, Qianqin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test human erythrocyte deformability with the exposure of erythrocyte from apoplexy patient and other ischemia diseases, contracted with normal donors' blood sample, and the doses-effect of Low-power He_Ne laser in vitro were discussed. Fresh blood sample from adult health donors and patients with different diseases such as apoplexy, diabetes, heart block etc in emergency department were collected and divided into different groups in which there were no less than 6 persons. Fresh human blood samples were irradiated with a He-Ne laser (Lamba=632.8nm), power output around 4.5MW, 9MW, 15mW, and 18mW, et al., exposure time from 7.5min, 15min, and 30min, operating in continuous wave. Measurements of human erythrocyte deformability were taken. Erythrocyte deformability appearance shown some different in the health contracted group and the other ischemia disease group. Some notice difference also shown among some disease group with nonirradiation and the same disease group with laser irradiation. The dose-effects of He-Ne laser therapy was discussed on the further research on the erythrocyte deformability of blood sample from patients with apoplexy disease treated with He-Ne laser at different doses, and a certain optimal doses which could take a beneficial effect in clinic were speculated on. This study revealed that the He-Ne laser have some different effects on erythrocyte deformability in vitro, which were related with the disease condition, red cell state, and outpower-doses, et al closely.

  12. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  13. Vagal modulation of high mobility group box-1 protein mediates electroacupuncture-induced cardioprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Yong, Yue; Li, Xing; Hu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong-qiang; Song, Wei; Chen, Wen-ting; Xie, Jian; Chen, Xue-mei; Lv, Xin; Hou, Li-li; Wang, Ke; Zhou, Jia; Wang, Xiang-rui; Song, Jian-gang

    2015-01-01

    Excessive release of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein from ischemic cardiomyocytes activates inflammatory cascades and enhances myocardial injury after reperfusion. Here we report evidence that electroacupuncture of mice at Neiguan acupoints can inhibit the up-regulation of cardiac HMGB1 following myocardial ischemia and attenuate the associated inflammatory responses and myocardial injury during reperfusion. These benefits of electroacupuncture were partially reversed by administering recombinant HMGB1 to the mice, and further potentiated by administering anti-HMGB1 antibody. Electroacupuncture-induced inhibition of HMGB1 release was markedly reduced by unilateral vagotomy or administration of nicotinic receptor antagonist, but not by chemical sympathectomy. The cholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine mimicked the effects of electroacupuncture on HMGB1 release and myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Culture experiments with isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes showed that acetylcholine, but not noradrenaline, inhibited hypoxia-induced release of HMGB1 via a α7nAchR-dependent pathway. These results suggest that electroacupuncture acts via the vagal nerve and its nicotinic receptor-mediated signaling to inhibit HMGB1 release from ischemic cardiomyocytes. This helps attenuate pro-inflammatory responses and myocardial injury during reperfusion. PMID:26499847

  14. Genistein exerts neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Alacam, Hasan; Kalkan, Yildiray; Silan, Coskun; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Brain ischemia and treatment are one of the important topics in neurological science. Free oxygen radicals and inflammation formed after ischemia are accepted as the most important causes of damage. Currently, there are studies on many chemopreventive agents to prevent cerebral ischemia damage. Our aim is to research the preventive effect of the active ingredient in genistein, previously unstudied, on oxidative damage in cerebral ischemia. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), ischemia group, and artery ischemia+genistein group, sacrificed at 24 h after ischemia. The harvested brain tissue from the right hemisphere was investigated histopathologically and for tissue biochemistry. Superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor 1 values decreased after ischemia and they increased after genistein treatment, while increased malondialdehyde levels after ischemia reduced after treatment. Apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase caspase-3 and caspase-9 values increased after ischemia, but reduced after treatment. Our study revealed that genistein treatment in cerebral ischemia reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration. We believe that genistein treatment may be an alternative treatment method.

  15. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  16. The Fairfax County (Va.) Principals' Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Todd

    1987-01-01

    Describes the activities developed for the "Students with Special Needs" group of the Fairfax County Principals' Research Group. The "Research Group" has shown that principals can implement ideas that do not emerge from any other source in the school system. (MD)

  17. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  18. Rodent Hypoxia-Ischemia Models for Cerebral Palsy Research: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rumajogee, Prakasham; Bregman, Tatiana; Miller, Steven P; Yager, Jerome Y; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complex multifactorial disorder, affecting approximately 2.5-3/1000 live term births, and up to 22/1000 prematurely born babies. CP results from injury to the developing brain incurred before, during, or after birth. The most common form of this condition, spastic CP, is primarily associated with injury to the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter as well as the deep gray matter. The major etiological factors of spastic CP are hypoxia/ischemia (HI), occurring during the last third of pregnancy and around birth age. In addition, inflammation has been found to be an important factor contributing to brain injury, especially in term infants. Other factors, including genetics, are gaining importance. The classic Rice-Vannucci HI model (in which 7-day-old rat pups undergo unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery followed by exposure to 8% oxygen hypoxic air) is a model of neonatal stroke that has greatly contributed to CP research. In this model, brain damage resembles that observed in severe CP cases. This model, and its numerous adaptations, allows one to finely tune the injury parameters to mimic, and therefore study, many of the pathophysiological processes and conditions observed in human patients. Investigators can recreate the HI and inflammation, which cause brain damage and subsequent motor and cognitive deficits. This model further enables the examination of potential approaches to achieve neural repair and regeneration. In the present review, we compare and discuss the advantages, limitations, and the translational value for CP research of HI models of perinatal brain injury. PMID:27199883

  19. Rodent Hypoxia–Ischemia Models for Cerebral Palsy Research: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rumajogee, Prakasham; Bregman, Tatiana; Miller, Steven P.; Yager, Jerome Y.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complex multifactorial disorder, affecting approximately 2.5–3/1000 live term births, and up to 22/1000 prematurely born babies. CP results from injury to the developing brain incurred before, during, or after birth. The most common form of this condition, spastic CP, is primarily associated with injury to the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter as well as the deep gray matter. The major etiological factors of spastic CP are hypoxia/ischemia (HI), occurring during the last third of pregnancy and around birth age. In addition, inflammation has been found to be an important factor contributing to brain injury, especially in term infants. Other factors, including genetics, are gaining importance. The classic Rice–Vannucci HI model (in which 7-day-old rat pups undergo unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery followed by exposure to 8% oxygen hypoxic air) is a model of neonatal stroke that has greatly contributed to CP research. In this model, brain damage resembles that observed in severe CP cases. This model, and its numerous adaptations, allows one to finely tune the injury parameters to mimic, and therefore study, many of the pathophysiological processes and conditions observed in human patients. Investigators can recreate the HI and inflammation, which cause brain damage and subsequent motor and cognitive deficits. This model further enables the examination of potential approaches to achieve neural repair and regeneration. In the present review, we compare and discuss the advantages, limitations, and the translational value for CP research of HI models of perinatal brain injury. PMID:27199883

  20. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  1. Ulinastatin preconditioning attenuates inflammatory reaction of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats via high mobility group box 1(HMGB1) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ying; Tang, Zhaohui; Yang, Tian; Yang, Yuting; Yang, Liqun; Shen, Weixing; Chen, Weixin

    2014-01-01

    Objective It has been found that ulinastatin (UTI) can attenuate hepatic injury in a rat model of ischemia reperfusion (IR), but the specific mechanism is unclear. This study aims to investigate possible pathomechanism of ulinastatin in reducing the inflammatory response after hepatic IR. Methods A male sprague-dawley(SD) rat model of hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury was used. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups on average, which were 0.9% saline and IR group as control, ulinastatin preconditioning (UPC) group, UPC+rHMGB1 (recombinant HMGB1) group and UPC +anti-HMGB1 group. Serum aminotransferases, TNF-α, IL-1 and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were measured. Histopathology examination and apoptotic cell detection and the different expression of HMGB1 protein were also assessed. Results Serum levels of aminotransferases, cytokines and hepatic MPO in UPC and UPC+anti-HMGB1 groups were significantly lower than those in control group (p<0.05). Decreased histologic damage and apoptosis were also seen in these two groups (p<0.05). Conclusions HMGB1 expressions in UPC and UPC+anti-HMGB1 groups were significantly lower than those in the two control groups (p<0.05), pretreatment with ulinastatin attenuated liver IR injury by reducing HMGB1 expression through its anti-inflammatory effects.

  2. [Therapeutic angiogenesis of critical lower limb ischemia. Review of the literature and prospects of research on stem cells].

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Rossella; Limbruno, Ugo; Barone, Daniele; Balbarini, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Chronic peripheral arterial disease affects up to 15% of adults over the age of 55 years; critical limb ischemia represents the most dramatic clinical outcome. Patients with chronic critical limb ischemia who are not candidate for surgical or percutaneous revascularization have impending limb loss; those who benefit from successful revascularization suffer from high rate of recurrent symptoms or revision surgery or progressive amputations. In these patients no medical treatment is considered effective for rest pain or ulcer healing. Therapeutic angiogenesis, which has the goal to achieve the process of new blood vessel formation via the administration of growth factors, has become a new promising hope. The discovery of the possibility of inducing sprouting of new vessels from preexisting vasa (angiogenesis) or the in situ differentiation of endothelial cells from stem cell precursors (vasculogenesis) have open new lease on life. However, a careful analysis of experimental results achieved in animal models is required before proposing for clinical setting. Although a major concern is that most of the experimental work has been done on animal models that do not represent the clinical process, benefit from growth factor administration or stem cell therapy has been proven in clinical trials, suggesting the importance of this new research frontier. This literature review is aimed to examine potential applications of therapeutic angiogenesis to treat critical limb ischemia with particular attention to angiogenesis obtained with stem cells. PMID:15253139

  3. Learning from Older Citizens' Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn-Giddings, Carol; McVicar, Andy; Boyce, Melanie; O'Brien, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to an ongoing conversation in gerontology about the importance of training and involving older people in research. Currently, the literature rarely distinguishes between the one-off involvement of older citizens in research projects and the development of research groups led by older people that sustain over time as well as the…

  4. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  5. [Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Ricardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  6. Mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Joseph L

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the presentation, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of the various forms of mesenteric ischemia, including acute and chronic ischemia. In addition, nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and median arcuate ligament compressive syndrome are covered. The goals are to provide a structured and evidence-based framework for the evaluation and management of patients with these intestinal ischemia syndromes. Special attention is given to avoiding typical pitfalls in the diagnostic and treatment pathways. Operative techniques are also briefly discussed, including an evidence-based review of newer endovascular techniques.

  7. Researching Group Assessment: Jazz in the Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Elisabeth; Moore, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into methods and scorings for jazz assessment in Trinity College of Music, London, focusing on the possibility of introducing group assessment. It considers the advantages of group assessment methods, contrasting these with the more traditional approach, firmly established in conservatoires, of…

  8. Silent myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gutterman, David D

    2009-05-01

    Although much progress has been made in reducing mortality from ischemic cardiovascular disease, this condition remains the leading cause of death throughout the world. This might in part be due to the fact that over half of patients have a catastrophic event (heart attack or sudden death) as their initial manifestation of coronary disease. Contributing to this statistic is the observation that the majority of myocardial ischemic episodes are silent, indicating an inability or failure to sense ischemic damage or stress on the heart. This review examines the clinical characteristics of silent myocardial ischemia, and explores mechanisms involved in the generation of angina pectoris. Possible mechanisms for the more common manifestation of injurious reductions in coronary flow; namely, silent ischemia, are also explored. A new theory for the mechanism of silent ischemia is proposed. Finally, the prognostic importance of silent ischemia and potential future directions for research are discussed.

  9. Development and Management of University Research Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert V.

    Guidelines for managers of university research groups cover securing resources, personnel, and services and choosing collaborators, as well as organizing, supervising, and controlling research activities. Attention is directed to: orientation of personnel; reporting mechanisms; boosting morale; the needs of different personnel; handling travel,…

  10. The Research Libraries Group: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalko, James; Haeger, John

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the Research Libraries Group (RLG) discusses historical background, collaboration, new needs and expectations, the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN), the CitaDel service, the ARIEL service, the Eureka service, the Zephyr server, and JACKPHY-Plus Script Development, and preservation. (JLB)

  11. Importance and Limits of Ischemia in Renal Partial Surgery: Experimental and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Secin, Fernando P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. The objective is to determine the clinical and experimental evidences of the renal responses to warm and cold ischemia, kidney tolerability, and available practical techniques of protecting the kidney during nephron-sparing surgery. Materials and methods. Review of the English and non-English literature using MEDLINE, MD Consult, and urology textbooks. Results and discussion. There are three main mechanisms of ischemic renal injury, including persistent vasoconstriction with an abnormal endothelial cell compensatory response, tubular obstruction with backflow of urine, and reperfusion injury. Controversy persists on the maximal kidney tolerability to warm ischemia (WI), which can be influenced by surgical technique, patient age, presence of collateral vascularization, indemnity of the arterial bed, and so forth. Conclusions. When WI time is expected to exceed from 20 to 30 minutes, especially in patients whose baseline medical characteristics put them at potentially higher, though unproven, risks of ischemic damage, local renal hypothermia should be used. PMID:18645616

  12. Soluble Thrombomodulin Ameliorates Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Liver Grafts by Modulating the Proinflammatory Role of High-Mobility Group Box 1.

    PubMed

    Kashiwadate, Toshiaki; Miyagi, Shigehito; Hara, Yasuyuki; Akamatsu, Yorihiro; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kawagishi, Naoki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Satomi, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation using grafts obtained after cardiac death (CD) is considered a promising solution for graft shortages. However, no standard criteria for organ preservation have been established for CD donors. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that is released from dying hepatocytes as an early mediator of inflammation and organ tissue damage. HMGB1 stimulates immunocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines, thereby amplifying the inflammatory response. Thrombomodulin is an integral membrane protein that functions as an endothelial anticoagulant cofactor, and it binds HMGB1 through the extracellular domain. We investigated the effects of ART-123, recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin, on warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in liver grafts. Male Wistar rats were divided into four ex vivo groups: heart-beating (HB) group, in which livers were isolated from HB donors; CD group, in which livers were isolated from CD donors exposed to apnea-induced conditions and warm ischemic conditions for 30 min after cardiac arrest; and two CD groups pretreated with ART-123 (1 or 5 mg/kg). Each isolated liver was reperfused for 1 h after cold preservation for 6 h. The perfusate levels of HMGB1, LDH, TNF-α, and IL-6 were significantly lower in the CD group pretreated with ART-123 (5 mg/kg) than in the CD group. Bile production was significantly higher in the CD group pretreated with ART-123 (5 mg/kg) than in the CD group. The sinusoidal spaces were significantly narrower in the CD group than in the other groups. We propose that ART-123 maintains sinusoidal microcirculation by reducing endothelial cell damage during warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27523810

  13. Scientific investigations of the Space Research Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbay, J. S.; Lynn, K. J. W.

    The origin and charter of the Space Research Group of the American Projects Division is presented. Some of the achievements of the Very Long Base Interferometer (VLBI) team is traced through the deployment of outstanding personnel and facilities to which it had access. The pioneering work in charting the higher regions of the ionosphere to define features and trace progress over time are examined. The potential of the resources within the American Projects Division to determine VLF propagation characteristics are discussed.

  14. Neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Namura, Shobu; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Liu, Jialing; Yenari, Midori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia, a focal or global insufficiency of blood flow to the brain, can arise through multiple mechanisms, including thrombosis and arterial hemorrhage. Ischemia is a major driver of stroke, one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the general etiology of cerebral ischemia and stroke has been known for some time, the conditions have only recently been considered treatable. This report describes current research in this field seeking to fully understand the pathomechanisms underlying stroke; to characterize the brain’s intrinsic injury, survival, and repair mechanisms; to identify putative drug targets as well as cell-based therapies; and to optimize the delivery of therapeutic agents to the damaged cerebral tissue. PMID:23488559

  15. Protective effects of Echium amoenum Fisch. and C.A. Mey. against cerebral ischemia in the rats

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Tameh, Abolfazl Azami; Ghannadi, Alireza; Naghani, Elmira Akbari; Tavazoei, Hamed; Alavi, Samaneh Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Echium amoenum total anthocyanin extract (ETAE) on partial/transient cerebral ischemia in the rats. Materials and Methods: Rats received ETAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the induction of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 30 min, followed by 72 h reperfusion. The neurological deficit, brain performance, and sensory motor function were assessed 48 h and 72 h after surgery. After sacrification, the brains were evaluated for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathological changes. Results: Our results showed that motor function significantly decreased in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group as compared to the sham group. Histopathological analysis exhibited the shrinkage and atrophy of the neurons in I/R group. ETAE at the dose of 200 mg/kg improved spontaneous activity and memory induced by cerebral ischemia compared to the control group and also decreased brain MPO activity following cerebral ischemia. However, it could not affect the ability to climbing, body proprioception, vibrissae touch and brain water content. In addition, pretreatment with ETAE at higher doses significantly reduced ischemia-induced neuronal loss of the brain. Conclusion: The anthocyanin rich fraction from E. amoenum was found to have protective effects against some brain damages postischemic reperfusion. However, further researches are required for investigating the exact mechanisms of the effect of this plant in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in human. PMID:26261809

  16. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  17. Productive Group Work for Students. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    There is clear evidence that students who are involved in productive collaborative groups outperform their peers. Cooperative group work also results in improved self-esteem, improved relationships and enhanced social and decision-making skills. Johnson and Johnson (1993) identified the elements of a successful collaborative activity. They include…

  18. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

    PubMed

    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  19. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  20. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  1. Population genomics and research ethics with socially identifable groups.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Joan L

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author questions whether the research ethics guidelines and procedures are robust enough to protect groups when conducting genetics research with socially identifiable populations, particularly with Native American groups. The author argues for a change in the federal guidelines in substance and procedures of conducting genetic research with socially identifiable groups.

  2. The past, the present and the future of experimental research on myocardial ischemia and protection.

    PubMed

    Ostadal, Bohuslav

    2009-01-01

    At present, cardiovascular diseases represent the most important health risks because they are responsible for more than 50% of total mortality. Among them, ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and according to the World Health Organization, will be the major global cause of death by the year 2020. Major progress in the prognosis, diagnosis and therapy of ischemic heart disease would be impossible without notable achievements of the 20th century that have been critical for further development of cardiology.We are now living in the era of molecular medicine, and the influence of basic research on clinical practice has never been more pronounced. This, however, necessitates a new strategy; future cardiovascular research should include the following general guidelines: 1) to evaluate the role and proportion of already described molecular pathways; descriptive approaches will gradually disappear; 2) to distinguish between acute, chronic and pleiotropic effects of different drugs under in vitro and in vivo conditions, with respect to possible clinical use; 3) to use clinically relevant genetic models; 4) to study possible alterations in intracellular signaling in order to find the decisive steps responsible for abnormal control of cell growth, contractile function, lipid metabolism, cardiac ischemic tolerance, etc.; 5) to study the molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases not only in healthy individuals, but also under different pathological conditions. Such an approach must include developmental and gender differences, which are particularly important for the field of ischemic heart disease; therefore, experimental cardiovascular research can no longer be restricted to males of uncertain age. It is hoped that patients in future decades will profit from the progress of basic cardiovascular research. PMID:19307688

  3. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  4. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  5. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  6. Directions of Small Group Research for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Samuel L.

    Speech communicators need to return to applied research, developing theoretical statements about how groups might work better and testing the validity of those statements. Among the tasks that group communication researchers might take up are determining the range of applicability of generalizations concerning different kinds of groups, studying…

  7. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  8. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  9. Development and Management of Research Groups: A Guide for University Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert V.

    Guidelines for professional research managers of small research groups are presented. The research group consisting of 10 or fewer full-time-equivalent research personnel is the focus. The following aspects of developing the research group are considered: obtaining grant support, recruiting personnel, procuring equipment and instrumentation…

  10. Ischemia time and liver transplantation, today.

    PubMed

    Maggi, U; Fornoni, G; Centonze, L; Melada, E; Conte, G; Rossi, G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of ischemia time and other clinical factors on the development of liver allograft primary nonfunction (PNF). We enrolled 531 consecutive liver transplantations from 1998 to 2013, identifying 10 PNF (1.9%). PNF was found to be statistically related to 4 different variables: donor age>60 years (P=.01), female donor gender (P=.01), total ischemia time>10 hours (P=.03) and infusion of more than 30 fresh frozen plasma units during surgery (P=.02). The study focused on the clinical impact of total ischemia time. We grouped total ischemia time into 4 groups (Group 1: ≤7.5 hours; Group 2: between 7.5 and 10 hours; Group 3: between 10 and 12 hours; Group 4: >12 hours) and 2 groups (assigning a cut-off value of 10 hours): both these grouping systems significantly influenced the development of PNF and 1-year graft survival, with limited impact on long-term survival. We split total ischemia time in a "technical time," "hepatectomy time," and "warm ischemia time." Only the first 2 components were found to be statistically related to PNF development with P=.02 and P=.003, respectively. Further studies should focus on these aspects of PNF. PMID:25242773

  11. Dynamics of Change in Research Work: Constructing a New Research Area in a Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, Eveliina; Miettinen, Reijo

    2001-01-01

    Studies how an aerosol technology research group constructed a research agenda for itself and how its activity was changed in the process. Analyzes the development of the production of ultrafine particles and employs the concept of mediated activity. (Contains 29 references.) (DDR)

  12. Purkinje fibers after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    García Gómez-Heras, Soledad; Álvarez-Ayuso, Lourdes; Torralba Arranz, Amalia; Fernández-García, Héctor

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on Purkinje fibers, comparing them with the adjacent cardiomyocytes. In a model of heterotopic heart transplantation in pigs, the donor heart was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia (n=9), preserved in cold saline, and subjected to 24 hours of ischemia with preservation in Wisconsin solution, alone (n=6), or with an additive consisting of calcium (n=4), Nicorandil (n=6) or Trolox (n=7). After 2 hours of reperfusion, we evaluated the recovery of cardiac electrical activity and took samples of ventricular myocardium for morphological study. The prolonged ischemia significantly affected atrial automaticity and A-V conduction in all the groups subjected to 24 hours of ischemia, as compared to 2 hours. There were no significant differences among the groups that underwent prolonged ischemia. Changes in the electrical activity did not correlate with the morphological changes. In the Purkinje fibers, ischemia-reperfusion produced a marked decrease in the glycogen content in all the groups. In the gap junctions the immunolabeling of connexin-43 decreased significantly, adopting a dispersed distribution, and staining the sarcolemma adjacent to the connective tissue. These changes were less marked in the group preserved exclusively with Wisconsin solution, despite the prolonged ischemia. The addition of other substances did not improve the altered morphology. In all the groups, the injury appeared to be more prominent in the Purkinje fibers than in the neighboring cardiomyocytes, indicating the greater susceptibility of the former to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25648569

  13. Gender and Leadership: The Implications of Small Group Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Linda Lyman

    1988-01-01

    Reviews selected literature from the small group communication research on gender and leadership emergence and suggests implications of this research for women seeking administrative positions. Hopes that, as men and women become sensitive to effects of sex-role stereotypes on group dynamics and leadership behaviors, there will be increase in…

  14. Online cancer support groups: a review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paula; Bunnell, Dyane; Cullen, Maureen; Soneji, Rachna; Gibbons, Patricia; Holecek, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    This article explores current research on online cancer support groups. A review of the literature revealed 9 research articles (describing 10 research studies) that focused on computer-mediated or Internet cancer support groups. The researchers in 9 of the 10 studies concluded that online cancer support groups helped people cope more effectively with their disease. Most of the research studies had small sample sizes. Six of the 10 studies did not include men, and six focused on Caucasian women with breast cancer. Information seeking/giving was prevalent in the online groups. Gender differences, negative psychological effects, and barriers to using online groups were identified. The few studies that were found in the literature suffered from a lack of experimental design, small and homogenous samples, and lack of outcome measures, thereby limiting applicability of results.

  15. Meeting report from the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research. Protecting the cardiovascular system from ischemia: between bench and bedside.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Alba-Alba, Corina; Aragones, Julian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Boisvert, William A; Bøtker, Hans E; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Fleming, Ingrid; Garcia-Dorado, David; Lecour, Sandrine; Liehn, Elisa; Marber, Michael S; Marina, Nephtali; Mayr, Manuel; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Miura, Tetsuji; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Salinas-Estefanon, Eduardo M; Ong, Sang-Bing; Schnittler, Hans J; Sanchez-Vega, Jose T; Sumoza-Toledo, Adriana; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Yarullina, Dina; Yellon, Derek M; Preissner, Klaus T; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in basic cardiovascular research as well as their translation into the clinical situation were the focus at the last "New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research meeting". Major topics included the characterization of new targets and procedures in cardioprotection, deciphering new players and inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic heart disease as well as uncovering microRNAs and other biomarkers as versatile and possibly causal factors in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Although a number of pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion injury or atherosclerosis can be simulated and manipulated in diverse animal models, also to challenge new drugs for intervention, patient studies are the ultimate litmus test to obtain unequivocal information about the validity of biomedical concepts and their application in the clinics. Thus, the open and bidirectional exchange between bench and bedside is crucial to advance the field of ischemic heart disease with a particular emphasis of understanding long-lasting approaches in cardioprotection.

  16. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; Schluenzen, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form,more » or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.« less

  17. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; Schluenzen, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form, or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.

  18. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  19. ESA/ESTEC Meteor Research Group - behind the scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudawska, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ESA/ESTEC Meteor Research Group consists of a team people with one goal: understand the effects of meteoric phenomena on planetary atmospheres and surfaces, as well as on spacecraft. The team carries out observational and theoretical studies in order to increase our knowledge of the small particle complex in the solar system. This talk addresses a number of tasks within the group seen from a perspective of a research fellow.

  20. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  1. Formal Group Communication with Older Adults: A Research Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…

  2. Interpreting Outcomes: Using Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansay, Sylvia J.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Nelson, John

    2004-01-01

    Although focus groups continue to gain popularity in marketing and social science research, their use in program evaluation has been limited. Here we demonstrate how focus groups can benefit evaluators, program staff, policy makers and administrators by providing an in-depth understanding of program effectiveness from the perspective of…

  3. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  4. Gender Issues in Addictions Research: The Report of the Task Group on Gender-Focused Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto (Ontario).

    The Task Group on Gender-Focused Research was established to raise awareness and interest in gender as a variable in addictions research at the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Ontario (Canada). Recognizing that much of the research on substance abuse has focused on males, the Task Group was charged with providing a basis for the development…

  5. Ellagic acid improves electrocardiogram waves and blood pressure against global cerebral ischemia rat experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Nejad, Khojasteh Hoseiny; Dianat, Mahin; Sarkaki, Alireza; Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Badavi, Mohammad; Farbood, Yaghoub

    2015-01-01

    Background: Global cerebral ischemia (GCIR) arises in patients that are shown a variety of clinical difficulty including cardiac arrest, asphyxia, and shock. In spite of advances in understanding of the brain, ischemia and protective effects to improve ischemic injury still remain unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) pretreatment in the rat models of global cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Physiology Research Center of the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran. Adult male Wistar rats (250–300 g) were used in this study. GCIR was induced by bilateral vertebral and common carotid arteries occlusion (4-VO). 32 rats were divided randomly to four groups: 1) So (Sham) received normal saline as vehicle of EA, 2) EA, 3) normal saline + GCIR, and 4) EA + GCIR. After anesthesia (a mix of xylazine and ketamine), animal subjected to 20 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion in related groups. EA (100 mg/kg, dissolved in normal saline) or 1.5 ml/kg normal saline was administered (gavage, 10 days) to the related groups. EEG was recorded from NTS in GCIR treated groups. Results: Present data showed that: 1) EEG in GCIR treated groups was flattened; 2) Blood pressure, voltage of QRS and P-R interval were reduced significantly in the ischemic groups compared to before ischemia, and pretreatment with EA prevented this reduction; and 3) MDA level and heart rate was increased by GCIR and pretreatment with EA reduced MDA level and restored the HR to normal level. Conclusion: Results indicate that global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion impairs certain heart functions and ellagic acid as an antioxidant can restore these parameters. The results of this study suggest the possible utility of ellagic acid in patients with brain stroke. PMID:26396728

  6. Designing High Quality Research in Special Education: Group Experimental Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; Lloyd, John Wills; Baker, Scott

    This paper, a result of a series of meetings of researchers, discusses critical issues related to the conduct of high-quality intervention research in special education using experimental and quasi-experimental designs that compare outcomes for different groups of students. It stresses the need to balance design components that satisfy laboratory…

  7. TAFE Curriculum Research: A Review of Group Process Methods. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tony; Jones, Neil

    This paper summarizes four reports that comprised a study of ways in which technical and further education (TAFE) curriculum research for curriculum development can be speeded up in the data collection and analysis phases. The reports are "TAFE Curriculum Research: A Review of Group Process Methods" (T. Anderson, N. Jones); "The Facilitation of…

  8. The Effects of Soy Extract on Spatial Learning and Memory Damage Induced by Global Ischemia in Ovariectomised Rats

    PubMed Central

    VAFAEE, Farzaneh; HOSSEINI, Mahmoud; SADEGHINIA, Hamid Reza; HADJZADEH, Mosa Al-reza; SOUKHTANLOO, Mohammad; RAHIMI, Motaharah

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects of soy extract on memory as well as the oxidative damage to brain tissue induced by ischemia was investigated in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. Methods: The rats were divided into: 1) Sham; 2) OVX; 3) Sham‑Ischemia; 4) OVX‑Ischemia; 5) OVX-Ischemia-S 20; and 6) OVX-Ischemia-S 60. The common carotid artery was occluded (30 minutes), and it was then re-perfused. The OVX-Ischemia-S 20 and OVX-Ischemia-S 60 groups received 20 or 60 mg/kg of soy extract for eight weeks before the ischemia. Results: The Sham-Ischemia and OVX-Ischemia groups took a longer time to reach the platform while, spent a shorter time in the target quadrant (Q1) than the Sham and OVX. The escape latencies in the OVX-Ischemia-S 20 and OVX-Ischemia-S 60 groups were lower while, time spent in the Q1 was higher than that of the OVX-Ischemia. In the rotarod test, there were no significant differences between the groups. The hippocampal concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the Sham-Ischemia and OVX-Ischemia groups were higher than the Sham and OVX. Pre-treatment by 20 and 60 mg/kg of the extract reduced the MDA. Conclusion: It is suggested that soy prevents memory impairment and brain tissue oxidative damage due to ischemia in OVX rats. PMID:25246832

  9. Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap in group psychotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mark A; Ogrodniczuk, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Sochting, Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap requires a different clinical research paradigm: participatory research that encourages community agency-academic partnerships. In this context, clinicians help define priorities, determine the type of evidence that will have an impact on their practice (affecting the methods that are used to produce the evidence), and develop strategies for translating, implementing, and disseminating their findings into evidence-based practice. Within this paradigm, different roles are assumed by the partners, and sometimes these roles are blended. This paper will consider the perspectives of people who assume these different roles (clinician, researcher, and clinician-researcher) with group psychotherapy as the specific focus. Finally, the establishment of a practice-research network will be discussed as a potentially promising way to better engage group therapists in research.

  10. [Progress of researches on mechanisms of acupuncture therapy underlying improving myocardial ischemia and the future approach for in-depth study on its mechanisms from epigenetics].

    PubMed

    He, Su-Yun; Lu, Sheng-Feng; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2014-02-01

    As an important content of alternative and complementary medicine, acupuncture therapy has been proved to be effective in relieving myocardial ischemia (MI). Authors of the present paper review recent progress of researches on acupuncture therapy in resisting MI from 1) improving cardiovascular function and promoting angiogenesis, and 2) protecting myocardial cells from further injury and reducing cellular apoptosis at different pathological stages of MI. Moreover, the authors discuss the characteristics of epigenetic regulation in the process of MI and cardiac repair including the methylating of DNA, modification of histone, remodeling of the chromatin, and micro-RNA expression, mediating cellular apoptosis, regeneration of myocardial blood vessels, etc. The authors hold that future studies on the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture therapy in the prevention and treatment of MI from epigenetics may be a new approach and a new direction.

  11. Modulation of ischemia-induced NMDAR1 activation by environmental enrichment decreases oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Briones, Teresita L; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined whether enriched environment (EE) housing has direct neuroprotective effects on oxidative damage following transient global cerebral ischemia. Fifty-two adult male Wistar rats were included in the study and received either ischemia or sham surgery. Once fully awake, rats in each group were randomly assigned to either: EE housing or socially paired housing (CON). Animals remained in their assigned environment for 7 days, and then were killed. Our data showed that glutamate receptor expression was significantly higher in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group than in the ischemia EE group. Furthermore, the oxidative DNA damage, protein oxidation, and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group were significantly increased compared to the ischemia EE group. These results suggest that EE housing possibly modulated the ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity, which then attenuated the oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in the ischemia EE rats.

  12. Effect of brain microdialysis on aminergic transmitter levels in repeated cerebral global transient ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Thaminy, S; Bellissant, E; Maginn, M; Decombe, R; Allain, H; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    1996-12-28

    The effect of repeated transient global ischemia and microdialysis on changes in aminergic neurotransmitter release was investigated using the rat four-vessel occlusion model of global ischemia. To examine the possible transient or permanent changes in neurotransmitter release, ischemia was induced at varying time points in 5 groups of rats. The first ischemia occurred either 24 h (groups I, II, IV, V) or 96 h (group III) following vertebral artery electro-coagulation and guide probe implantation(s), and the second ischemia was induced either 48 h (groups I, IV, V) or 72 h (group II) following the first ischemia. To assess the consequence of repeated microdialysis on the results, one group of rats (group IV) was not dialysed during the first ischemia and another group (group V) was bilaterally dialysed during the second ischemia. Finally, amphetamine-induced neurotransmitter release was also studied in rats submitted to ischemia and compared with that in normal rats. In each case, dopamine, serotonin and their main metabolites were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Monoamine release was inhibited during the second episode of transient ischemia; this non-release was linked to the repeated microdialysis and not to the repeated ischemia. Although the results of chronic studies using brain microdialysis have been widely recognized as valid, the findings presented here indicate that combined with ischemia, probe reinsertion modifies the level of neurotransmitter release. PMID:9007758

  13. Effect of brain microdialysis on aminergic transmitter levels in repeated cerebral global transient ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Thaminy, S; Bellissant, E; Maginn, M; Decombe, R; Allain, H; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    1996-12-28

    The effect of repeated transient global ischemia and microdialysis on changes in aminergic neurotransmitter release was investigated using the rat four-vessel occlusion model of global ischemia. To examine the possible transient or permanent changes in neurotransmitter release, ischemia was induced at varying time points in 5 groups of rats. The first ischemia occurred either 24 h (groups I, II, IV, V) or 96 h (group III) following vertebral artery electro-coagulation and guide probe implantation(s), and the second ischemia was induced either 48 h (groups I, IV, V) or 72 h (group II) following the first ischemia. To assess the consequence of repeated microdialysis on the results, one group of rats (group IV) was not dialysed during the first ischemia and another group (group V) was bilaterally dialysed during the second ischemia. Finally, amphetamine-induced neurotransmitter release was also studied in rats submitted to ischemia and compared with that in normal rats. In each case, dopamine, serotonin and their main metabolites were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Monoamine release was inhibited during the second episode of transient ischemia; this non-release was linked to the repeated microdialysis and not to the repeated ischemia. Although the results of chronic studies using brain microdialysis have been widely recognized as valid, the findings presented here indicate that combined with ischemia, probe reinsertion modifies the level of neurotransmitter release.

  14. Group analytic psychotherapy (im)possibilities to research

    PubMed Central

    Vlastelica, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    In the course of group analytic psychotherapy, where we discovered the power of the therapeutic effects, there occurred the need of group analytic psychotherapy researches. Psychotherapeutic work in general, and group psychotherapy in particular, are hard to measure and put into some objective frames. Researches, i. e. measuring of changes in psychotherapy is a complex task, and there are large disagreements. For a long time, the empirical-descriptive method was the only way of research in the field of group psychotherapy. Problems of researches in group psychotherapy in general, and particularly in group analytic psychotherapy can be reviewed as methodology problems at first, especially due to unrepeatability of the therapeutic process. The basic polemics about measuring of changes in psychotherapy is based on the question whether a change is to be measured by means of open measuring of behaviour or whether it should be evaluated more finely by monitoring inner psychological dimensions. Following the therapy results up, besides providing additional information on the patient's improvement, strengthens the psychotherapist's self-respect, as well as his respectability and credibility as a scientist. PMID:25478094

  15. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  16. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  17. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    PubMed

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.

  18. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  19. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    PubMed

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance. PMID:22441291

  20. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  1. Role of Endothelial Cells in Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Arun K.; Symons, J. David; Boudina, Sihem; Jaishy, Bharat; Shiu, Yan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury has broad clinical implications and is a critical mediator of cardiac surgical outcomes. “Ischemic injury” results from a restriction in blood supply leading to a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand of a sufficient intensity and/or duration that leads to cell necrosis, whereas ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs when blood supply is restored after a period of ischemia and is usually associated with apoptosis (i.e. programmed cell death). Compared to vascular endothelial cells, cardiac myocytes are more sensitive to ischemic injury and have received the most attention in preventing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Many comprehensive reviews exist on various aspects of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of vascular endothelial cells in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to stimulate further research in this exciting and clinically relevant area. Two specific areas that are addressed include: 1) data suggesting that coronary endothelial cells are critical mediators of myocardial dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion injury; and 2) the involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in endothelial cell death as a result of an ischemia-reperfusion insult. Elucidating the cellular signaling pathway(s) that leads to endothelial cell injury and/or death in response to ischemia-reperfusion is a key component to developing clinically applicable strategies that might minimize myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25558187

  2. Developing a Physics Expert Identity in a Biophysics Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of…

  3. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  4. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  5. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  6. Work group diversity and group performance: an integrative model and research agenda.

    PubMed

    van Knippenberg, Daan; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Homan, Astrid C

    2004-12-01

    Research on the relationship between work group diversity and performance has yielded inconsistent results. To address this problem, the authors propose the categorization-elaboration model (CEM), which reconceptualizes and integrates information/decision making and social categorization perspectives on work-group diversity and performance. The CEM incorporates mediator and moderator variables that typically have been ignored in diversity research and incorporates the view that information/decision making and social categorization processes interact such that intergroup biases flowing from social categorization disrupt the elaboration (in-depth processing) of task-relevant information and perspectives. In addition, the authors propose that attempts to link the positive and negative effects of diversity to specific types of diversity should be abandoned in favor of the assumption that all dimensions of diversity may have positive as well as negative effects. The ways in which these propositions may set the agenda for future research in diversity are discussed.

  7. Being Researchers for the First Time: Reflections on the Development of an Inclusive Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet was an inclusive research project; it enabled a group of people with a learning disability who do not receive specialist support services to explore their own lives. This group are often labelled as having a mild learning disability. The research project focused on the strategies they used to cope with day to…

  8. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  9. Acute limb ischemia: contemporary approach.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Chiyoya, Mari; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Wakako

    2015-10-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a critical condition with high mortality and morbidity even after surgical or endovascular intervention. Early recognition is important, but a delayed presentation is not uncommon. Viability of the limb is assessed by motor and sensory function and with interrogating Doppler flow signals in pedal arteries and popliteal veins as categorized by Rutherford. Category IIa indicates mild-to-moderate threat to limb salvage over a time frame without revascularization. Limb ischemia is critical without prompt revascularization in category IIb. Because the risk of reperfusion injury is high in this group of patients, perioperative management is important. In category III, reperfusion is not indicated except for embolism within several hours of onset. Intimal injury should be avoided by careful tactile control of a balloon with a smaller size catheter and under radiographic monitoring. Adjunctive treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis or bypass surgery is sometimes necessary. Endovascular treatment is a promising option for thrombotic occlusion of an atherosclerotic artery. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a serious problem. Controlled reperfusion with low-pressure perfusion at a reduced temperature and use of a leukocyte filter should be considered. The initial reperfusate is hyperosmolar, hypocalcemic, slightly alkaline, and contains free radical scavengers such as allopurinol. Immediate hemodialysis is necessary for acute renal injury caused by myoglobinemia. Compartment syndrome should be managed with assessment of intra-compartment pressure and fasciotomy.

  10. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  11. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice.

  12. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  13. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma.

  14. Challenges in diagnosing mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    van den Heijkant, Teun C; Aerts, Bart AC; Teijink, Joep A; Buurman, Wim A; Luyer, Misha DP

    2013-01-01

    Early identification of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is challenging. The wide variability in clinical presentation challenges providers to make an early accurate diagnosis. Despite major diagnostic and treatment advances over the past decades, mortality remains high. Arterial embolus and superior mesenteric artery thrombosis are common causes of AMI. Non-occlusive causes are less common, but vasculitis may be important, especially in younger people. Because of the unclear clinical presentation and non-specific laboratory findings, low clinical suspicion may lead to loss of valuable time. During this diagnostic delay, progression of ischemia to transmural bowel infarction with peritonitis and septicemia may further worsen patient outcomes. Several diagnostic modalities are used to assess possible AMI. Multi-detector row computed tomographic angiography is the current gold standard. Although computed tomographic angiography leads to an accurate diagnosis in many cases, early detection is a persistent problem. Because early diagnosis is vital to commence treatment, new diagnostic strategies are needed. A non-invasive simple biochemical test would be ideal to increase clinical suspicion of AMI and would improve patient selection for radiographic evaluation. Thus, AMI could be diagnosed earlier with follow-up computed tomographic angiography or high spatial magnetic resonance imaging. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies show promise for alpha glutathione S transferase and intestinal fatty acid binding protein as markers for AMI. Future research must confirm the clinical utility of these biochemical markers in the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia. PMID:23538325

  15. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Nabi; Khaksari, Mehdi; Erfani, Sohaila; Rajabi, Hamid; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral ischemic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction through occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic exercise significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration. PMID:26487851

  16. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  17. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  18. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: nursing discipline.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Leonard, Marcia; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2013-06-01

    Integration of the nursing discipline within cooperative groups conducting pediatric oncology clinical trials provides unique opportunities to maximize nursing's contribution to clinical care, and to pursue research questions that extend beyond cure of disease to address important gaps in knowledge surrounding the illness experience. Key areas of importance to the advancement of the nursing discipline's scientific knowledge are understanding the effective delivery of patient/family education, and reducing illness-related distress, both of which are integral to facilitating parental/child coping with the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer, and to promoting resilience and well-being of pediatric oncology patients and their families.

  19. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  20. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Pregabalin on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Aşcı, Sanem; Demirci, Serpil; Aşcı, Halil; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Onaran, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and the leading cause of disability in adults. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury causes cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and neuronal death. Aims: In post-ischemic reperfusion, free radical production causes brain tissue damage by oxidative stress. Pregabalin, an antiepileptic agent was shown to have antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of pregabalin on ischemia and reperfusion in rat brain injury. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing (250–300 g) were randomly divided into six groups, each consisting of 6 rats: control (C), pregabalin (P), ischemia (I), pregabalin + ischemia (PI), ischemia + reperfusion (IR) and ischemia + reperfusion + pregabalin (PIR). Rats were initially pre-treated with 50 mg/kg/d pregabalin orally for two days. Then, animals that applied ischemia in I, PI, IR and PIR groups were exposed to carotid clamping for 30 minutes and 20 minutes reperfusion was performed in the relevant reperfusion groups. Results: NR2B receptor levels were significantly lower in the PIR group in comparison to the IR group. In the PIR group, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level had statistically significant decrease compared with IR group. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels were also significantly increased in the PIR group compared with I, IR and control groups. In the PI and PIR groups, catalase (CAT) levels were also significantly increased compared with I and IR groups (p=0.03 and p=0.07, respectively). Conclusion: Pregabalin may protect the damage of oxidative stress after ischemia + reperfusion. This result would illuminate clinical studies in the future. PMID:27403394

  2. Group-effort Applied Research: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…

  3. Pre- and Perinatal Ischemia-Hypoxia, the Ischemia-Hypoxia Response Pathway, and ADHD Risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Taylor F; Schmidt-Kastner, Rainald; McGeary, John E; Kaczorowski, Jessica A; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on how measured pre- and perinatal environmental and (epi)genetic risk factors are interrelated and potentially influence one, of many, common developmental pathway towards ADHD. Consistent with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis, lower birth weight is associated with increased ADHD risk. Prenatal ischemia-hypoxia (insufficient blood and oxygen supply in utero) is a primary pathway to lower birth weight and produces neurodevelopmental risk for ADHD. To promote tissue survival in the context of ischemia-hypoxia, ischemia-hypoxia response (IHR) pathway gene expression is altered in the developing brain and peripheral tissues. Although altered IHR gene expression is adaptive in the context of ischemia-hypoxia, lasting IHR epigenetic modifications may lead to increased ADHD risk. Taken together, IHR genetic vulnerability to ischemia-hypoxia and IHR epigenetic alterations following prenatal ischemia-hypoxia may result in neurodevelopmental vulnerability for ADHD. Limitations of the extant literature and future directions for genetically-informed research are discussed. PMID:26920003

  4. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-1α and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  5. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  6. UCM Meteor and Fireball Research group: Results 2012--2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Izquierdo, J.; Pascual, S.; Palos, M. F.; Oré, S.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Zamora, S.; Lorenzo, C.; San Juan, R.; Muñoz-Ibáñez, B.; Vázquez, C.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Gallego, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Most of the activity of the group is based on the Fireball Detection Station located at the Observatorio UCM, a system consisting of 6 high-sensitivity videocameras covering the whole sky with wide-angle lenses during nighttime. Another 15 cameras have been placed by the researchers between 10 and 200 km away from Madrid for multiple station observations. It works as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN), a network of similar stations covering the atmosphere over Spain. Besides the continuous monitoring, the group has worked on the recording and analysis of some meteor showers. Most of the attention was focused on the Draconids 2011 campaign at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M., Madiedo, J. M., Williams, I. P., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 560; Ocaña, F., Palos, M. F., Zamorano, J., et al. 2013, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, 31st IMC, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, 2012, 70), and the 2012 Geminids balloon-borne mission over Spain (Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Madiedo, J. M., et al. 2013, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, 2202). The products of the station have been used for undergraduate thesis projects at the Physics Faculty (Ocaña, F., 2011, UCM e-prints, 13292) and other undergraduate projects. In 2013 the station received new equipment thanks to the Certamen Arquímedes award, complementing the detection with spectroscopic and frame-integrating devices.

  7. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!).

    PubMed

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-06-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/.

  8. Citing Dynamic Data - Research Data Alliance working group recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Rauber, Andreas; Pröll, Stefan; van Uytvanck, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Geosciences research data sets are typically dynamic: changing over time as new records are added, errors are corrected and obsolete records are deleted from the data sets. Researchers often use only parts of the data sets or data stream, creating specific subsets tailored to their experiments. In order to keep such experiments reproducible and to share and cite the particular data used in a study, researchers need means of identifying the exact version of a subset as it was used during a specific execution of a workflow, even if the data source is continuously evolving. Some geosciences data services have tried to approach this problem by creating static versions of their data sets, and some have simply ignored this issue. The RDA Working Group on Dynamic Data Citation (WGDC) has instead approached the issue with a set of recommendations based upon versioned data, timestamping and a query based subsetting mechanism. The 14 RDA WGDC recommendations on how to adapt a data source for providing identifiable subsets for the long term are: Preparing the Data and the Query Store R1 - Data Versioning R2 - Timestamping R3 - Query Store Facilities Persistently Identifying Specific Data Sets R4 - Query Uniqueness R5 - Stable Sorting R6 - Result Set Verification R7 - Query Timestamping R8 - Query PID R9 - Store the Query R10 - Automated Citation Texts Resolving PIDs and Retrieving the Data - R11 - Landing Page R12 - Machine Actionability Upon modifications to the Data Infrastructure R13 - Technology Migration R14 - Migration Verification We present a detailed discussion of the recommendations, the rationale behind them, and give examples of how to implement them.

  9. A service users' research advisory group from the perspectives of both service users and researchers.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Penny; Nocon, Andrew; Booth, Michael; Chowdrey, M Y; Fabian, Anne; Lambert, Neville; Mohammed, Faqir; Walgrove, Teresa

    2002-09-01

    Much has been written about the importance of involving service users in the research process. Far less is available about the experience of involvement from the perspective of service users themselves. The present paper is a joint account by service users and researchers of a service users' advisory group set up to support and advise a project to evaluate diabetes services in Bradford, UK. The establishment of a separate advisory group for service users is, to our knowledge, an innovative approach to lay involvement within mainstream National Health Service (NHS)-based research. Factors that contributed to the group's success included personal contact, continuity of membership and integration into the management structure of the project. Also valued were the confidence in numbers which membership of the group gave, and the opportunity to meet and discuss issues away from the formal and somewhat intimidating atmosphere of the project's steering group. Aside from the personal value to participants and any impact on the quality of research outcomes, wider benefits included the ability to share knowledge with others and gain greater intercultural understanding. PMID:12390226

  10. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist eritoran tetrasodium attenuates liver ischemia and reperfusion injury through inhibition of high-mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1) signaling.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, Kerry-Ann; Huang, Hai; Tohme, Samer; Loughran, Patricia; Ferrero, Kimberly; Billiar, Timothy; Tsung, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is ubiquitously expressed on parenchymal and immune cells of the liver and is the most studied TLR responsible for the activation of proinflammatory signaling cascades in liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Since pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 during the sterile inflammatory response of I/R has not been studied, we sought to determine whether eritoran, a TLR4 antagonist trialed in sepsis, could block hepatic TLR4-mediated inflammation and end organ damage. When C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with eritoran and subjected to warm liver I/R, there was significantly less hepatocellular injury compared to control counterparts. Additionally, we found that eritoran is protective in liver I/R through inhibition of high-mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1)-mediated inflammatory signaling. When eritoran was administered in conjunction with recombinant HMGB1 during liver I/R, there was significantly less injury, suggesting that eritoran blocks the HMGB1-TLR4 interaction. Not only does eritoran attenuate TLR4-dependent HMGB1 release in vivo, but this TLR4 antagonist also dampened HMGB1's release from hypoxic hepatocytes in vitro and thereby weakened HMGB1's activation of innate immune cells. HMGB1 signaling through TLR4 makes an important contribution to the inflammatory response seen after liver I/R. This study demonstrates that novel blockade of HMGB1 by the TLR4 antagonist eritoran leads to the amelioration of liver injury. PMID:25375408

  11. Becoming Researchers: The Participation of Undergraduate and Graduate Students in Scientific Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Divoll, Kent A.; Rogan-Klyve, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to understand how graduate and undergraduate students learn to do science by participating in research groups. A phenomenological approach was used to illuminate the experiences of the students. The results provide evidence that the students were in the role of apprentices, although this was not made explicit. As apprentices they…

  12. Intracoronary Levosimendan during Ischemia Prevents Myocardial Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Markus; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Saraste, Antti; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Pärkkä, Jussi P.; Leino, Kari; Laitio, Timo; Stark, Christoffer; Heikkilä, Aira; Saukko, Pekka; Savunen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer that has been shown to prevent myocardial contractile depression in patients post cardiac surgery. This drug exhibits an anti-apoptotic property; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this report, we characterized the myocardial protective of levosimendan in preventing cardiomyocyte apoptosis and post-operative stunning in an experimental ischemia–reperfusion model. Methods: Three groups of pigs (n = 8 per group) were subjected to 40 min of global, cardioplegic ischemia followed by 240 min of reperfusion. Levosimendan (65 μg/kg body weight) was given to pigs by intravenous infusion (L-IV) before ischemia or intracoronary administration during ischemia (L-IC). The Control group did not receive any levosimendan. Echocardiography was used to monitor cardiac function in all groups. Apoptosis levels were assessed from the left ventricle using the terminal transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunocytochemical detection of Caspase-3. Results: Pigs after ischemia–reperfusion had a much higher TUNEL%, suggesting that our treatment protocol was effective. Levels of apoptosis were significantly increased in Control pigs that did not receive any levosimendan (0.062 ± 0.044%) relative to those received levosimendan either before (0.02 ± 0.017%, p = 0.03) or during (0.02 ± 0.017%, p = 0.03) the ischemia phase. Longitudinal left ventricular contraction in pigs that received levosimendan before ischemia (0.75 ± 0.12 mm) was significantly higher than those received levosimendan during ischemia (0.53 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.003) or Control pigs (0.54 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggested that pigs received levosimendan displayed a markedly improved cell survival post I–R. The effect on cardiac contractility was only significant in our perfusion heart model when levosimendan was delivered intravenously before

  13. The protective effect of cilostazol on isolated rabbit femoral arteries under conditions of ischemia and reperfusion: the role of the nitric oxide pathway

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mariana R.G.A.; Celotto, Andréa C; Capellini, Verena K; Evora, Paulo R B; Piccinato, Carlos E; Joviliano, Edwaldo E

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of ischemia/reperfusion of the lower extremities demands further investigation to enable the development of more effective therapeutic alternatives. This study investigated the changes in the vascular reactivity of the rabbit femoral artery and nitric oxide metabolites under partial ischemia/reperfusion conditions following cilostazol administration. METHODS: Ischemia was induced using infrarenal aortic clamping. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Control 90 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 90/60 minutes, Control 120 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, Cilostazol, Cilostazol before Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, and Ischemia 120 minutes/Cilostazol/Reperfusion 90 minutes. Dose-response curves for sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine, and the calcium ionophore A23187 were obtained in isolated femoral arteries. The levels of nitrites and nitrates in the plasma and skeletal muscle were determined using chemiluminescence. RESULTS: Acetylcholine- and A23187-induced relaxation was reduced in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 group, and treatment with cilostazol partially prevented this ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelium impairment. Only cilostazol treatment increased plasma levels of nitrites and nitrates. An elevation in the levels of nitrites and nitrates was observed in muscle tissues in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90, Cilostazol/Ischemia/Reperfusion, and Ischemia/Cilostazol/Reperfusion groups. CONCLUSION: Hind limb ischemia/reperfusion yielded an impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the femoral artery. Furthermore, cilostazol administration prior to ischemia exerted a protective effect on endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity under ischemia/reperfusion conditions. PMID:22358243

  14. Group-effort applied research: expanding opportunities for undergraduate research through original, class-based research projects.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean D; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's laboratory. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student-one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this article, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience.

  15. Nuclear decay data files of the Dosimetry Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the nuclear decay data files used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the utility DEXRAX which provides access to the files. The files are accessed, by nuclide, to extract information on the intensities and energies of the radiations associated with spontaneous nuclear transformation of the radionuclides. In addition, beta spectral data are available for all beta-emitting nuclides. Two collections of nuclear decay data are discussed. The larger collection contains data for 838 radionuclides, which includes the 825 radionuclides assembled during the preparation of Publications 30 and 38 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and 13 additional nuclides evaluated in preparing a monograph for the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The second collection is composed of data from the MIRD monograph and contains information for 242 radionuclides. Abridged tabulations of these data have been published by the ICRP in Publication 38 and by the Society of Nuclear Medicine in a monograph entitled ``MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes.`` The beta spectral data reported here have not been published by either organization. Electronic copies of the files and the utility, along with this report, are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  17. Effect of antioxidant treatment in global ischemia and ischemic postconditioning in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Domoráková, Iveta; Mechírová, Eva; Danková, Marianna; Danielisová, Viera; Burda, Jozef

    2009-09-01

    Ischemic postconditioning is a very effective way how to prevent delayed neuronal death. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761; 40 mg/kg) posttreatment was studied on the rat model of transient forebrain ischemia and ischemia/postconditioning. Global ischemia was produced by four-vessel occlusion in Wistar male rats. Two experimental protocols were used: (a) 10 min of ischemia/7 days of reperfusion with or without EGb 761 treatment or (b) 10 min of ischemia/2 days of reperfusion/5 min of ischemia (postconditioning), following 5 days of reperfusion. EGb 761 was applied as follows: 30 min before 10 min of ischemia then 5 h, 1 and 2 days after 10 min of ischemia. Fluoro Jade B, marker for neuronal degeneration, was used for quantitative analysis of the most vulnerable hippocampal CA1 neurons. Cognitive and memory functions were tested by Morris water maze, as well. Administration of EGb 761 30 min before 10 min of ischemia or 5 h after ischemia has rather no protective effect on neuronal survival in CA1 region. Ten minutes of ischemia following ischemic postconditioning after 2 days of reperfusion trigger a significant neuroprotection of CA1 neurons, but it is abolished by EGb 761 posttreatment. Ischemia/postconditioning group showed a significant improvement of learning and memory on the seventh day of reperfusion. Protection of the most vulnerable CA1 neurons after ischemia/postconditioning is abolished by exogenous antioxidant treatment used in different time intervals after initial ischemia. Moreover, combination of EGb 761 administration with repeated stress (5 min ischemia used as postconditioning) causes cumulative injury of CA1 neurons.

  18. [Practical value of the detection of silent myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary disease using Holters].

    PubMed

    Jan, F; Monin, J L; Leichter, S; Pochmalicki, G

    1994-02-01

    The prognosis of painless myocardial ischemia is similar to that of symptomatic ischemia. The Holter technique (and solid memory Holter in particular) is a simple method of detection which, taken together with exercise testing, enables the identification among coronary disease patients of a high risk group in whom effort ischemia is accompanied by episodes of ischemia under everyday conditions and in whom additional investigations (exercise thallium scan then coronary arteriography) and appropriate treatment, including transluminal angioplasty and aorto-coronary bypass if necessary, may be required. The role of drug treatment in silent ischemia has not yet been clearly defined. While electrical ischemia regresses significantly with the majority of standard drug regimens, and beta-blockers in particular, none has yet been confirmed as having a preventive effect against serious events following on from silent myocardial ischemia.

  19. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted.

  20. Growing Researchers from the Historically Disadvantaged Groups through Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mda, Thobeka

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the nature and quality of research supervision and mentorship practices employed by supervisors and mentors of interns in a South African research council in an attempt to increase the pool and change the face of researchers in the country. Through a series of studies conducted by the research council, the…

  1. Panretinal photocoagulation for radiation-induced ocular ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Augsburger, J.J.; Roth, S.E.; Magargal, L.E.; Shields, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    We present preliminary findings on the effectiveness of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma in eyes with radiation-induced ocular ischemia. Our study group consisted of 20 patients who developed radiation-induced ocular ischemia following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy for a choroidal or ciliary body melanoma. Eleven of the 20 patients were treated by panretinal photocoagulation shortly after the diagnosis of ocular ischemia, but nine patients were left untreated. In this non-randomized study, the rate of development of neovascular glaucoma was significantly lower (p = 0.024) for the 11 photocoagulated patients than for the nine who were left untreated.

  2. Measuring Group Maturity: The Development of a Process-Oriented Variable for Small Group Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krayer, Karl J.; Fiechtner, Susan Brown

    1984-01-01

    Describes the concept of group maturity and recent attempts to measure the concept. Reports on a study that administered maturity scales to students in communication and management courses and found the scales to be powerful discriminators between mature and immature groups. Discusses implications for small group and organizational communication…

  3. Replicating Small Group Research Using the Functional Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Wright, David W.

    A replication study tested functional theory utilizing untrained full-fledged groups. One hundred forty undergraduate students who were enrolled in a small group communication course at a large midwestern university participated in small group discussions analyzing a plagiarism case used in an original study by R. Y. Hirokawa. Results indicated…

  4. Student or Scholar? Transforming Identities through a Research Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassig, Carly J.; Dillon, Lisette H.; Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role a writing group played in influencing the scholarly identities of a group of doctoral students by fostering their writing expertise. While the interest in writing groups usually centres on their potential to support doctoral students to publish, few studies have been conducted and written by the students themselves.…

  5. Development of a Research Center: Planning Focus Group Studies To Build Connections with Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spall, Sharon; Barrett, Barbara; Darragh, Sheron; Gill, Peggy; Schwei, Michael

    At Stephen F. Austin State University (Texas), focus group research was conducted to determine research needs and to inform the development of a new educational research center. Four graduate research assistants and a professor in the Department of Educational Leadership formed a study group to review the literature on focus groups and…

  6. [Scientific research in nursing education: Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais research groups].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Diana Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Lino, Mônica Motta; Canever, Bruna Pedroso; Ferraz, Fabiane; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to characterize the scientific production of the Research Groups in Nursing Education (RGNE) of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil. This is a documentary quantitative descriptive retrospective research, conducted by searching the CVs of all researchers who are part of the RGNEs in the Lattes database, followed by the search, organization, and evaluation of their scientific production according to Qualis/CAPES. The period studied was from 1995 to 2009 (the last five CAPES triennia) and included articles, books, book chapters, and full papers in conference proceedings. Results show that Rio de Janeiro has the higher number of articles in Nursing Education, highlighting the qualification of researchers at doctorate level. Both states present historic and socio-economic factors that favor scientific development.

  7. [Myocardial serotonin metabolism after local ischemia and ischemic precondition].

    PubMed

    Naumenko, S E; Latysheva, T V; Gilinskiĭ, M A

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of ischemic preconditioning upon myocardial serotonin and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) dynamic in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. 28 male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the control group (n = 13) rats were subjected to 30 min coronary occlusion and subsequent 120 min reperfusion. In the ex- perimental group (n = 15) ischemic preconditioning (3 x 3 min ischemia + 3 x 3 min reperfusion) before prolonged ischemia was used. Myocardial interstitial serotonin and 5-HIAA were measured using a microdialysis technique. Myocardial serotonin and 5-HIAA significantly increased af- ter ischemic preconditioning (p = 0.00298; p = 0.00187). In prolonged ischemia interstitial serotonin level was lower in the experimental group vs. control up to 20 min of ischemia (p < 0.05). We conclude that ischemic preconditioning increases interstitial myocardial serotonin, but inhibit serotonin increase in subsequent prolonged myocardial ischemia. After 20 minutes of reperfusion the lack of correlation between serotonin and 5-HIAA levels appeared which may be the evidence of serotonin uptake activation.

  8. Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Deborah

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible conflict of interest resulting from the Environmental Protection Agency's participation with the automobile and oil industries in the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, an organization which has sponsored much of the research important to federal regulation of clean air. (JR)

  9. Evolution and Social Dynamics of Acknowledged Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in higher education institutions characteristic of a knowledge society are strongly affecting academic life, scientists' working conditions and the social dynamics of scientific groups. In such situations, it is important to understand the different ways in which these groups are tackling the structural dilemmas posed by the changes…

  10. Focus Groups: An Important Research Technique for Internal Evaluation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara Poitras

    1993-01-01

    The use of focus groups by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a tool of internal evaluation is described. Focus groups are used in an environment where credibility is key to achieving meaningful cooperation. Issues for consideration by other evaluators interested in the approach are summarized. (SLD)

  11. 77 FR 44224 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group, Incorporated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group, Incorporated AGENCY... will authorize its contractor Eastern Research Group, Incorporated (ERG) to access Confidential Business Information (CBI) which has been submitted to EPA under the authority of all sections of...

  12. 77 FR 68769 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Eastern Research Group... Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the confidential data occurred on or about...

  13. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, year four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.

  14. Consent and research governance in biobanks: evidence from focus groups with medical researchers.

    PubMed

    Whitley, E A; Kanellopoulou, N; Kaye, J

    2012-01-01

    Much is known about patient attitudes to ethical and legal questions in the context of biobanking, particularly regarding privacy protection and consent. However, little is known about the attitudes of medical researchers who use biobanks for research to these issues. Four focus groups with medical researchers in the UK were conducted in 2010-2011. The study highlights a range of issues associated with the research oversight and consent process (including obtaining ethical approval to use biobank samples and particular concerns for international studies), the benefits and limitations of broad consent and the possibilities of revoking consent. Many of these issues originate in the relatively static consent processes that currently govern the biobanking process. However, it is now possible to develop reliable, dynamic processes using information technology that can resolve many of these ethical and legal concerns. The 'dynamic consent' approach therefore offers the opportunity to fundamentally transform the process of medical research in a manner that addresses the concerns of both patients and medical researchers.

  15. Digital ischemia in baseball players.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, M; Ogino, T; Minami, A; Ishii, S

    1986-01-01

    Eight baseball players developed digital ischemia as a result of repetitive ball impact. Symptoms and signs were coolness, numbness, cyanosis, paleness, and a positive reaction to the digital Allen's test. Seven of the eight players developed digital ischemia between the ages of 16 and 17. Angiograms of four patients with an occluded index digital artery are presented. Thermograms of four patients with a cool area of the left index finger are also presented. We investigated the incidence of digital ischemia by administration of a questionnaire. The respondents were 578 players belonging to clubs in junior high schools, high schools, and colleges. No digital ischemia was found in 207 junior high school baseball players. The incidence increased in high school (66 of 299) and college (29 of 72). The probability of developing digital ischemia corresponded to the accumulated playing time. Digital ischemia occurred characteristically in the left index finger.

  16. Research on the Problem and Countermeasures of Group-Buying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yahui; Li, Wei; Cheng, Limin

    The threshold of group-buying is low, so the group-buying develops very fast. But at the same time, there are many goods which have low price and high quality service which is false to get the network users' trust. Therefore, consumers should keep a clear head and avoiding straying into the trap of business, the website of group-buying should strengthen self-construction to safeguard the consumers' interest. In addition, government needs to play its due role to protect the legitimate right of the consumers.

  17. AAAS Report IX: Research & Development, FY 1985. Intersociety Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report consists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science overview of research and development (R&D) in the fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and its associated policy issues, together with special analyses of several important topics, such as funding for basic research. A set of overview tables is included. Part II…

  18. TAFE Curriculum Research: A Review of Group Process Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tony; Jones, Neil

    The issue of how to react quickly to the educational needs arising from technological change has been deemed a central problem facing Technical and Further Education (TAFE) in Australia. Therefore, a national study examined various curriculum research methods that hold promise for speeding up the curriculum research and development process. The…

  19. Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Antagonist Eritoran Tetrasodium Attenuates Liver Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of High-Mobility Group Box Protein B1 (HMGB1) Signaling

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kerry-Ann; Huang, Hai; Tohme, Samer; Loughran, Patricia; Ferrero, Kimberly; Billiar, Timothy; Tsung, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is ubiquitously expressed on parenchymal and immune cells of the liver and is the most studied TLR responsible for the activation of proinflammatory signaling cascades in liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Since pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 during the sterile inflammatory response of I/R has not been studied, we sought to determine whether eritoran, a TLR4 antagonist trialed in sepsis, could block hepatic TLR4-mediated inflammation and end organ damage. When C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with eritoran and subjected to warm liver I/R, there was significantly less hepatocellular injury compared to control counterparts. Additionally, we found that eritoran is protective in liver I/R through inhibition of high-mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1)-mediated inflammatory signaling. When eritoran was administered in conjunction with recombinant HMGB1 during liver I/R, there was significantly less injury, suggesting that eritoran blocks the HMGB1–TLR4 interaction. Not only does eritoran attenuate TLR4-dependent HMGB1 release in vivo, but this TLR4 antagonist also dampened HMGB1’s release from hypoxic hepatocytes in vitro and thereby weakened HMGB1’s activation of innate immune cells. HMGB1 signaling through TLR4 makes an important contribution to the inflammatory response seen after liver I/R. This study demonstrates that novel blockade of HMGB1 by the TLR4 antagonist eritoran leads to the amelioration of liver injury. PMID:25375408

  20. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B.; Fischer, Jonathan P.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S.; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D.; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education. PMID:26594297

  1. The alcohol hangover research group consensus statement on best practice in alcohol hangover research.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M; Adan, Ana; Batty, G David; Fliervoet, Lies A L; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J L; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  2. The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C.; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Adan, Ana; Batty, G. David; Fliervoet, Lies A.L.; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L. Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J.L.; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S.; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  3. Effects of wortmannin on cardioprotection exerted by ischemic preconditioning in rat hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Débora Elisabet; Hermann, Romina; Barreda Frank, Mariángeles; Mestre Cordero, Victoria Evangelina; Savino, Enrique Alberto; Varela, Alicia; Marina Prendes, Maria Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most powerful interventions to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) family in cardioprotection exerted by IPC and the relationship between preservation of mitochondrial morphology and ATP synthesis capacity. In this regard, macroautophagy (autophagy) is considered a dynamic process involved in the replacement of aged or defective organelles under physiological conditions. IPC consisted of four 5-min cycles of ischemia-reperfusion followed by sustained ischemia. Wortmannin (W), a PI3K family inhibitor, was added to the perfusion medium to study the involvement of autophagy in the beneficial effects of IPC. In the present study, LC3-II/I expression was significantly increased in the IPC group when compared with the control group. The hearts subjected to IPC showed greater degradation of p62 than control groups, establishing the existence of an autophagic flow. Electron microscopy showed that IPC preserves the structural integrity of mitochondria after ischemia and at the end of reperfusion. Moreover, hearts subjected to IPC exhibited increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The beneficial effects of IPC were abolished by W in all trials of this study, abolishing the differences between the IPC and control groups. These results suggest that IPC could partly reduce injury by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) by decreasing mitochondrial damage and promoting autophagy. Since W is a nonspecific inhibitor of the PI3Ks family, further research is required to confirm participation of PI3K in the response to IPC.

  4. How long is too long for cerebral cooling after ischemia in fetal sheep?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joanne O; Wassink, Guido; Yuill, Caroline A; Zhang, Frank G; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia can partially reduce long-term death and disability in neonates after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonging the duration of cooling from 3 days to 5 days could further improve outcomes of cerebral ischemia in near-term fetal sheep. Fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received 30 minutes bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by 3 days of normothermia (n = 8), 3 days of hypothermia (n = 8), or 5 days of hypothermia (n=8) started 3 hours after ischemia. Sham controls received sham ischemia followed by normothermia (n = 8). Cerebral ischemia was associated with profound loss of electroencephalography power and spectral edge, with greater and more rapid recovery in both hypothermia groups (P<0.05). Ischemia was associated with severe loss of neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus (P < 0.05), with a significant improvement in both hypothermia groups. However, the ischemia-3-day hypothermia group showed greater neuronal survival in the cortex and dentate gyrus compared with ischemia-5-day hypothermia (P < 0.05). Ischemia was associated with induction of iba1-positive microglia, which was attenuated in both hypothermia groups (P < 0.05). Extending the duration of delayed therapeutic hypothermia from 3 to 5 days did not improve outcomes after severe ischemia, and was associated with reduced neuronal survival in some regions. PMID:25605291

  5. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the new model of global cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisel, A. A.; Chernysheva, G. A.; Smol'yakova, V. I.; Savchenko, R. R.; Plotnikov, M. B.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis in a new model of global transient cerebral ischemia which was performed by the occlusion of the three main vessels (tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sinistra, and a. carotis communis sinistra) branching from the aortic arch and supplying the brain. Global transitory cerebral ischemia was modeled on male rats (weight = 250-300 g) under chloral hydrate with artificial lung ventilation. Animals after the same surgical operation without vessel occlusion served as sham-operated controls. The number of DCX-positive (doublecortin, the marker of immature neurons) cells in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1-CA3 fields of hippocampus was counted at the 31st day after ischemia modeling. It was revealed that global cerebral ischemia decreased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus in comparison with the sham-operated group (P<0.05) while neurogenesis in CA1-CA3 fields was increased as compared to the control (P<0.05).

  6. Using focus groups in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 91.

    PubMed

    Stalmeijer, Renée E; Mcnaughton, Nancy; Van Mook, Walther N K A

    2014-11-01

    Qualitative research methodology has become an established part of the medical education research field. A very popular data-collection technique used in qualitative research is the "focus group". Focus groups in this Guide are defined as "… group discussions organized to explore a specific set of issues … The group is focused in the sense that it involves some kind of collective activity … crucially, focus groups are distinguished from the broader category of group interview by the explicit use of the group interaction as research data" (Kitzinger 1994, p. 103). This Guide has been designed to provide people who are interested in using focus groups with the information and tools to organize, conduct, analyze and publish sound focus group research within a broader understanding of the background and theoretical grounding of the focus group method. The Guide is organized as follows: Firstly, to describe the evolution of the focus group in the social sciences research domain. Secondly, to describe the paradigmatic fit of focus groups within qualitative research approaches in the field of medical education. After defining, the nature of focus groups and when, and when not, to use them, the Guide takes on a more practical approach, taking the reader through the various steps that need to be taken in conducting effective focus group research. Finally, the Guide finishes with practical hints towards writing up a focus group study for publication. PMID:25072306

  7. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  8. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  9. Cross-Cultural Approaches to Research on Minority Group Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, John

    Comparative studies of education, discrimination, and poverty in cross-cultural context are held as contributing towards a better understanding of the social nature of poverty and the complex processes of cultural transmission, continuity, and change. Seven strategies or models of research are suggested: (1) study of secondary and tertiary…

  10. University Group Aims at Improving Small-Business Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1987-01-01

    A consortium of universities has charged that research money has been concentrated in a small number of states that have already established close ties between higher education and small businesses. Some small-business advocates believe the consortium is trying to win money that has been earmarked for small businesses. (MLW)

  11. Ten Years of Research on Group Size and Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latane, Bibb; Nida, Steve

    1981-01-01

    Reviewed research on the effect of the presence of other people on individuals' willingness to help in an emergency. Attention was paid to the nature of the precipitating incident; ambiguity of the helping situation; laboratory versus field settings; characteristics of subjects, victims, and bystanders; and communication among bystanders.…

  12. Magnesium sulfate protects fetal skin from intrauterine ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli F; Arca, Turkan; Kilinc, Kamer

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in fetus occurs with multifactorial pathogenesis and results with multiorgan injury including skin. Magnesium has widespread use in obstetric practice. Inn addition to magnesium's tocolytic and neuroprotective properties, it also has free radical reducing effects. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether magnesium sulfate could have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fetal skin ischemia was induced by clamping the utero-ovarian arteries bilaterally for 30 min, and reperfusion was achieved by removing the clamps for 60 min in 19-day pregnant rats. Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO(4)) was given to pregnant rats 20 min before I/R injury at the dose of 600 mg/kg in magnesium treatment group. No ischemia reperfusion was applied to control and sham-operated groups. Lipid peroxidation from the skin tissues was determined as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined for neutrophil activation. The results showed that the levels of TBARS and MPO increased significantly in the fetal rat skin after I/R injury compared to control group. Levels of TBARS and MPO were significantly lower than those of I/R group in Magnesium-treated group. In conclusion, intrauterine ischemia-reperfusion may produce considerable fetal skin injury. Increased TBARS and MPO activity can be inhibited by magnesium treatment. This suggests that magnesium treatment may have protective effect on fetal rat skin in intrauterine I/R injury.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of p-coumaric acid in rat model of embolic cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Mustafa; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Akman, Tarik; Sen, Halil Murat; Ozkan, Adile; Salis, Osman; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Kalkan, Yildiray; Silan, Coskun; Deniz, Mustafa; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Stroke poses a crucial risk for mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Material and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely Group I (control rats), Group II (ischemia rats), Group III (6 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats) and Group IV (24 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats). Cerebral ischemia was induced via intraluminal monofilament occlusion model. In all groups, the brain was removed after the procedure and rats were sacrificed. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor-1 were measured in the ischemic hemisphere. The histopathological changes were observed in the right hemisphere within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results: Following the treatment, biochemical factors changed significantly. Histopathologically, it was shown that p-coumaric acid decreased the oxidative damage. The neurological deficit scores of p-coumaric acid-treated rats were significantly improved after cerebral ischemia. Conclusion: Our results showed that p-coumaric acid is a neuroprotective agent on account of its strong anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic features. Moreover, p-coumaric acid decreased the focal ischemia. Extra effort should be made to introduce p-coumaric acid as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for treatment of human cerebral ischemia in the future. PMID:26019798

  14. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  15. The Neuroprotective Effect of Syringic Acid on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tokmak, Mehmet; Yuksel, Yasemin; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Cosar, Murat; Abbed, Khalid M

    2015-10-01

    Acute arterial occlusions via different vascular pathologies are the main causes of spinal cord ischemia. We investigated neuroprotective effects of syringic acid on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: (I) sham-operated control rats, (II) spinal cord ischemia group, (III) spinal cord ischemia group performed syringic acid, and (IV) spinal cord ischemia group performed methylprednisolone intraperitoneally. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. A significant decrease was seen in malondialdehyde levels in group III as compared to group II (P < 0.05). Besides these, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and superoxide dismutase activity of group III were significantly higher than group II (P < 0.05). In histopathological samples, when group III was compared with group II, there was a significant decrease in numbers of apoptotic neurons (P < 0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, BECN1 and caspase-3-immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in group III compared with group II (P < 0.05). The neurological deficit scores of group III were significantly higher than group II at twenty-fourth hour of ischemia (P < 0.05). Our study revealed that syringic acid pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required for syringic acid to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

  16. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, FANG; LIU, GUANG-JIE; LIU, NA; ZHANG, GANG; ZHANG, JIAN-XIN; LI, LAN-FANG

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is believed to be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, and now it is recognized as the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide; however, the effects of H2S on inflammatory factors in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats have not been clarified. In the present study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as the H2S donor. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, ischemia, ischemia + low-dose (0.78 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + medium-dose (1.56 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + high-dose (3.12 mg/kg) NaHS and ischemia + propargylglycine (PPG) (30 mg/kg). The rats in each group were sacrificed 6 h after the surgery for sample collection. Compared with the ischemia group, the cardiac damage in the rats in the ischemia + NaHS groups was significantly reduced, particularly in the high-dose group; in the ischemia + PPG group, the myocardial injury was aggravated compared with that in the ischemia group. Compared with the ischemia group, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of rats in the ischemia + medium- and high-dose NaHS groups were significantly reduced, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein in the myocardial tissues of rats was significantly reduced. In the ischemia + PPG group, the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the serum were significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased, although without a significant difference, and the expression of NF-κB was increased. The findings of the present study provide novel evidence for the dual effects of H2S on acute myocardial ischemia injury via the modulation of inflammatory factors. PMID:25667680

  17. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.13 What is a group research or study...

  18. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  19. The Complete Guide to Focus Group Marketing Research for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    This guide discusses the use of focus groups in marketing research for higher education. It describes the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and examines when it is appropriate to use focus group research, when it is not, and why. The guide describes a step-by-step approach in how to plan, formulate, moderate, and report…

  20. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  1. Effect of Cyperus rotundus on ischemia-induced brain damage and memory dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Entezari, Maliheh; Movassaghi, Shabnam; Goushegir, Seyed Ashrafadin; Kalantari, Samaneh; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Sharifi, Zahra Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury causes loss of pyramidal cells in CA1 region of hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus (EECR) on a model of global transient ischemia in rat, by evaluating the pathophysiology of the hippocampal tissue and spatial memory. Materials and Methods: Treatment group (EECR, 100 mg/kg/day) was gavaged from 4 days before, to 3 days after ischemia. Morris water maze test was performed 1 week after ischemia for 4 days. Brain tissue was prepared for Nissl staining. Results: Our data showed no statistical difference between the treatment and ischemia groups in water maze task. So, treatment of ischemia with EECR cannot improve spatial learning and memory. On the contrary EECR ameliorated the CA1 pyramidal cell loss due to transient global ischemia/reperfusion injury. Conclusion: These results suggest that EECR cannot reduce the ischemia-induced, cognitive impairments seen after transient, global cerebral ischemia but can prevent pyramidal cell loss in CA1 region of hippocampus. PMID:25825638

  2. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  3. Myocardial functional preservation during ischemia: influence of beta blocking agents.

    PubMed

    Toleikis, P M; Tomlinson, C W

    1997-11-01

    To determine whether prior acute Beta blockade protects the heart against the deleterious effects of normothermic low flow global ischemia on myocardial function, aortic pressure, developed pressure, dP/dtmax and end diastolic pressure were monitored in isolated perfused rabbit hearts prior to, during and following 30 and 60 min ischemia, during which either Krebs-Henseleit (control) or Beta blocking agents. Bevantolol (cardioselective) or Propranolol (non-selective) were perfused through the heart. Control hearts made ischemic for 30 min and then reperfused had significantly elevated end diastolic (p < .01) and aortic pressures (p < .01) and reduced developed pressure relative to baseline (p < .05). Hearts treated with Bevantolol or Propranolol (3 x 10(-5) m/l) 5 min prior to and during 30 min ischemia recovered preischemic developed pressure and dP/dtmax (p > 0.05), while end diastolic pressure was elevated (p < .01, p < .05 respectively). Aortic pressure was unchanged relative to baseline (p > .05). Comparison of indices from hearts under Beta blockade with controls showed that following 30 min ischemia and recovery, the Bevantolol treated group had reduced aortic pressure (p < .01) and end diastolic pressure (p < .05) and increased percent developed pressure and percent dP/dtmax (p < .001) relative to control. In the propranolol treated group, end diastolic pressure was reduced and percent developed pressure (p < .01) and percent dP/dtmax (p < .001) were increased relative to unblocked hearts. Following 60 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion, reduction in all functional indices occurred, however dP/dtmax was unchanged from baseline in the Propranolol and Bevantolol treated groups. Comparison between groups showed that the Bevantolol treated group had significantly better dP/dtmax and developed pressure (p < .05), whereas the Propranolol group shows no significant difference from baseline (p > .05) (K-H). We conclude that following short periods of ischemia

  4. Cerulean Warbler Technical Group: Coordinating international research and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Wigley, T.B.; Keyser, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation for species of concern requires interchange and collaboration among conservationists and stakeholders. The Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) is a consortium of biologists and managers from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry, who are dedicated to finding pro-active, science-based solutions for conservation of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea). Formed in the United States in 2001, CWTG’s scope soon broadened to address the species’ ecology and conservation on both the breeding and non-breeding ranges, in partnership with biologists from South and Central America. In 2004, CWTG launched the Cerulean Warbler Conservation Initiative, a set of activities aimed at addressing information and conservation needs for the species. These include (1) studies in the core breeding range to assess Cerulean Warbler response to forest management practices and to identify mined lands that could be reforested to benefit the species, (2) ecological and demographic studies on the winter range, and (3) surveys of Cerulean Warbler distribution on the breeding and winter ranges and during migration. A rangewide conservation action plan has been completed, along with a more detailed conservation plan for the non-breeding range. CWTG and partners now move forward with on-the-ground conservation, while still addressing unmet information needs.

  5. Vitreal Oxygenation in Retinal Ischemia Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Walid; Ameri, Hossein; Barron, Ernesto; Chader, Gerald J.; Greenbaum, Elias; Hinton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To study the feasibility of anterior vitreal oxygenation for the treatment of acute retinal ischemia. Methods. Twenty rabbits were randomized into an oxygenation group, a sham treatment group, and a no treatment group. Baseline electroretinography (ERG) and preretinal oxygen (Po2) measurements were obtained 3 to 5 days before surgery. Intraocular pressure was raised to 100 mm Hg for 90 minutes and then normalized. The oxygenation group underwent vitreal oxygenation for 30 minutes using intravitreal electrodes. The sham treatment group received inactive electrodes for 30 minutes while there was no intervention for the no treatment group. Preretinal Po2 in the posterior vitreous was measured 30 minutes after intervention or 30 minutes after reperfusion (no treatment group) and on postoperative days (d) 3, 6, 9, and 12. On d14, rabbits underwent ERG and were euthanatized. Results. Mean final (d12) Po2 was 10.64 ± 0.77 mm Hg for the oxygenation group, 2.14 ± 0.61 mm Hg for the sham group, and 1.98 ± 0.63 mm Hg for the no treatment group. On ERG, scotopic b-wave amplitude was significantly preserved in the oxygenation group compared with the other two groups. Superoxide dismutase assay showed higher activity in the operated eyes than in the nonoperated control eyes in the sham treatment group and no treatment group only. Histopathology showed preservation of retinal architecture and choroidal vasculature in the oxygenation group, whereas the sham-treated and nontreated groups showed retinal thinning and choroidal atrophy. Conclusions. In severe total ocular ischemia, anterior vitreal oxygenation supplies enough oxygen to penetrate the retinal thickness, resulting in rescue of the RPE/choriocapillaris that continues to perfuse, hence sparing the retinal tissue from damage. PMID:21051734

  6. Post-conditioning through lower limb ischemia-reperfusion can alleviate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shi-Qiu; Gan, Hui-Li; Zhang, Jian-Qun; Feng, Lei; Sun, Jian-Chao; Wang, Sheng-Xun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Operation on the infrarenal aorta could cause ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury in local tissues and remote organs (e.g. the lung). We aim to explore the method of reducing lung ischemia-reperfusion damage after lower limb IR with post conditioning (LIPC). Methods: Bilateral lower limb ischemia was performed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and then animals were divided into 4 groups: IR-Sham-operated, IR, post conditioned-IR (LIPC) and bilateral lower limb ischemia (LIR). The serum free radical, histological changes, Wet/Dry (W/D) ratio, levels of TNF-α, IL-6, cytokines and chemokines were tested and compared. Results: Post-conditioning could ameliorate histological injuries in the lung when compared to IR group. The serum free radical is significantly lower in LIPC group than IR groups. W/D ratio in LIPC groups is significantly lower. LIPC also could reduce the expression of cytokines and chemokines. Conclusion: post conditioning could reduce long-term damages of the lung after lower limb ischemic-reperfusion injury. PMID:26628977

  7. Digital Ischemia Associated With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le Besnerais, Maëlle; Miranda, Sébastien; Cailleux, Nicole; Girszyn, Nicolas; Marie, Isabelle; Lévesque, Hervé; Benhamou, Ygal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Digital ischemia associated with cancer (DIAC) is increasing in frequency and recent reports have suggested the concept of paraneoplastic manifestation. The aims of this study were to characterize the clinical presentation of DIAC and identify clinical features that could lead physicians to diagnose underlying cancer. From January 2004 to December 2011, 100 patients were hospitalized in the Department of Internal Medicine at Rouen University Hospital, France for a first episode of DI. Fifteen (15%) exhibited symptomatic or asymptomatic cancer during the year preceding or following vascular episode and constituted the DIAC group. Other patients without cancer made up the digital ischemia (DI) group. Median time between diagnosis of cancer and episode of digital necrosis was 2 months [0.25–9]. Diagnosis of DI and concomitant cancer was made in 7 of the 15 patients, while DI preceded the malignant disorder in 2 cases and followed it in 6 cases. Histological types were adenocarcinoma for 7 (46.7%), squamous cell carcinoma for 4 (26.7%), and lymphoid neoplasia for 3 patients (20%). Six patients (40%) had extensive cancer. Three patients were lost to follow-up and 5 patients died <1 year after diagnosis of cancer. Cancer treatment improved vascular symptoms in 6 patients (40%). Patients with DIAC, compared to patients with DI, were significantly older (56 years [33–79] vs 46 [17–83] P =0.005), and had significantly lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (12.7 g/dl vs 13.9 g/dl; P =0.003 and 38% vs 42%; P =0.003, respectively). Patients with DIAC had a higher platelet rate (420 vs 300 G/L P =0.01), and 6 patients with DIAC (40%) had thrombocytosis. There was no difference between groups either in C-reactive protein level (12 mg/L vs 5 mg/L; P =0.08) or regarding cardiovascular risk factors, presence of autoimmunity, or monoclonal protein. This retrospective study suggests that DIAC may be more prevalent than previously reported. Outcomes

  8. Thirty-One Years of Group Research in "Social Psychology Quarterly" (1975-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrod, Wendy J.; Welch, Bridget K.; Kushkowski, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in group research published in Social Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) from 1975 to 2005. We identified a total of 332 papers about groups published during the time period. Following Moreland, Hogg, and Hains (1994), we created an index of interest in groups by dividing the number of pages in papers about groups by the total number of…

  9. Abate Cytochrome C induced apoptosome to protect donor liver against ischemia reperfusion injury on rat liver transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhuonan; Lian, Peilong; Wu, Xiaojuan; Shi, Baoxu; Zhuang, Maoyou; Zhou, Ruiling; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Zhen; Guo, Sen; Ji, Zhipeng; Xu, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to protect donor liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating Cytochrome C induced apoptosome on rat model. Methods: A total of 25 clean SD inbred male rats were used in this research. The rats in ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group, n=5) were under liver transplantation operation; rats in dichloroacetate diisopropylamine group (DADA group, n=5) were treated DADA before liver transplantation; control group (Ctrl group, n=5); other 10 rats were used to offer donor livers. Results: In DADA therapy group, Cytochrome C expression in donor hepatocellular cytoplasm was detected lower than that in I/R group. And the Cytochrome C induced apoptosome was also decreased in according to the lower expressions of Apaf-1 and Caspase3. Low level of cleaved PARP expression revealed less apoptosis in liver tissue. The morphology of donor liver mitochondria in DADA group was observed to be slightly edema but less than I/R group after operation 12 h. The liver function indexes of ALT and AST in serum were tested, and the results in DADA group showed it is significantly lower than I/R group after operation 12 h. The inflammation indexes of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions in DADA group were significantly lower than that in I/R group after operation 24 h. Conclusion: The dichloroacetate diisopropylamine treatment could protect the hepatocellular mitochondria in case of the spillage of Cytochrome C induced apoptosome, and protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, it may be a method to promote the recovery of donor liver function after transplantation. PMID:27186297

  10. Vitreal Ocygenation in Retinal Ischemia Reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallab, Walid; AmeriMD, Hossein; Barron, Ernesto; ChaderPhD, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias; Hinton, David E; Humayun, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To study the feasibility of anterior vitreal oxygenation for the treatment of acute retinal ischemia. METHODS. Twenty rabbits were randomized into an oxygenation group, a sham treatment group, and a no treatment group. Baseline electroretinography (ERG) and preretinal oxygen (PO2) measurements were obtained 3 to 5 days before surgery. Intraocular pressure was raised to 100 mm Hg for 90 minutes and then normalized. The oxygenation group underwent vitreal oxygenation for 30 minutes using intravitreal electrodes. The sham treatment group received inactive electrodes for 30 minutes while there was no intervention for the no treatment group. Preretinal PO2 in the posterior vitreous was measured 30 minutes after intervention or 30 minutes after reperfusion (no treatment group) and on postoperative days (d) 3, 6, 9, and 12. On d14, rabbits underwent ERG and were euthanatized.

  11. Failure in neuroprotection of remote limb ischemic postconditioning in the hippocampus of a gerbil model of transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Bai Hui; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Hui Young; Cho, Young Shin; Cho, Jun Hwi; Hong, Seongkweon; Choi, Soo Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Chan Woo

    2015-11-15

    Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC) has been proven to provide potent protection of the heart and brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, despite the evidence of cerebral protection with RIPoC is compelling, RIPoC-mediated neuroprotection against transient cerebral ischemic insult is still mired in controversy. In this study, we examined the effect of RIPoC induced by sublathal transient hind limb ischemia on neuronal death in the hippocampus following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Animals were randomly assigned to sham-, ischemia-, sham plus (+) RIPoC- and ischemia+RIPoC-groups. RIPoC was induced by three cycles of 5-min and 10-min occlusion-reperfusion of both femoral arteries at predetermined points in time (0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24h after transient cerebral ischemia). CV staining, F-J B histofluorescence staining and NeuN immunohistochemistry were carried out to examine neuroprotection in the RIPoC-mediated hippocampus 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In the ischemia-group, we found a significant loss of pyramidal cells in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region at 5 days post-ischemia compared with the sham-group. In all of the ischemia+RIPoC-groups, the loss of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region at 5 days post-ischemia was not different from that in the ischemia-group. Our present findings indicate that RIPoC does not prevent hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells from neuronal death induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

  12. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  13. Statistics of Statisticians: Critical Mass of Statistics and Operational Research Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    Using a recently developed model, inspired by mean field theory in statistical physics, and data from the UK's Research Assessment Exercise, we analyse the relationship between the qualities of statistics and operational research groups and the quantities of researchers in them. Similar to other academic disciplines, we provide evidence for a linear dependency of quality on quantity up to an upper critical mass, which is interpreted as the average maximum number of colleagues with whom a researcher can communicate meaningfully within a research group. The model also predicts a lower critical mass, which research groups should strive to achieve to avoid extinction. For statistics and operational research, the lower critical mass is estimated to be 9 ± 3. The upper critical mass, beyond which research quality does not significantly depend on group size, is 17 ± 6.

  14. Does closure of acid-sensing ion channels reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat brain?★

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Yinghui; Lian, Zhigang; Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Tingzhun; Li, Mengkao; Wei, Yi; Dong, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Acidosis is a common characteristic of brain damage. Because studies have shown that permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels can mediate the toxic effects of calcium ions, they have become new targets against pain and various intracranial diseases. However, the mechanism associated with expression of these channels remains unclear. This study sought to observe the expression characteristics of permeable Ca2+-acid-sensing ion channels during different reperfusion inflows in rats after cerebral ischemia. The rat models were randomly divided into three groups: adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group, one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, and severe cerebral ischemic injury group. Western blot assays and immunofluorescence staining results exhibited that when compared with the one-time ischemia/reperfusion group, acid-sensing ion channel 3 and Bcl-x/l expression decreased in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Calmodulin expression was lowest in the adaptive ischemia/reperfusion group. Following adaptive reperfusion, common carotid artery flow was close to normal, and the pH value improved. Results verified that adaptive reperfusion following cerebral ischemia can suppress acid-sensing ion channel 3 expression, significantly reduce Ca2+ influx, inhibit calcium overload, and diminish Ca2+ toxicity. The effects of adaptive ischemia/reperfusion on suppressing cell apoptosis and relieving brain damage were better than that of one-time ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25206411

  15. Conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening among diverse groups of immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Karwalajtys, Tina L.; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda J.; Fowler, Nancy C.; Lohfeld, Lynne H.; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz A.; Lytwyn, Alice

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the research lessons learned in the process of conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening perspectives among multiple ethnolinguistic groups of immigrant women and to provide guidance to family medicine researchers on methodologic and practical issues related to planning and conducting focus group research with multiple immigrant groups. DESIGN Observations based on a qualitative study of 11 focus groups. SETTING Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women from 1 of 5 ethnolinguistic immigrant groups and Canadian-born women of low socioeconomic status. METHODS We conducted 11 focus groups using interactive activities and tools to learn about women’s views of cervical cancer screening, and we used our research team reflections, deliberate identification of preconceptions or potential biases, early and ongoing feedback from culturally representative field workers, postinterview debriefings, and research team debriefings as sources of information to inform the process of such qualitative research. MAIN FINDINGS Our learnings pertain to 5 areas: forming effective research teams and community partnerships; culturally appropriate ways of accessing communities and recruiting participants; obtaining written informed consent; using sensitive or innovative data collection approaches; and managing budget and time requirements. Important elements included early involvement, recruitment, and training of ethnolinguistic field workers in focus group methodologies, and they were key to participant selection, participation, and effective groups. Research methods (eg, recruitment approaches, inclusion criteria) needed to be modified to accommodate cultural norms. Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Acquiring signed consent might also require extra time. Novel approaches within focus groups increased the likelihood of more rich discussion about sensitive topics. High costs of professional translation might challenge methodologic rigour (eg

  16. Suppressive Effect of High Hydrogen Generating High Amylose Cornstarch on Subacute Hepatic Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    TANABE, Hiroki; SASAKI, Yumi; YAMAMOTO, Tatsuro; KIRIYAMA, Shuhachi; NISHIMURA, Naomichi

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether feeding high hydrogen generating resistant starch could suppress subacute hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were fed a control diet with or without 20% high amylose cornstarch (HAS) supplementation for 14 days. On day 12, rats were subject to ischemia-reperfusion treatment. Portal hydrogen concentration was higher in the HAS group compared with the control group. Increased plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities due to ischemia-reperfusion treatment tended to decrease, and a significant reduction was observed by HAS feeding when compared with the control group. In conclusion, HAS, which enhances hydrogen generation in the hindgut, alleviated subacute hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:24936356

  17. The Focus Group Interview: Rising to the Challenge in Qualitative Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of expanding the focus group interview into the field of English as a Second Language (ESL), where this research methodology is yet to be thoroughly explored. Specifically, it aims to challenge popular criticisms about the reliability and validity of the focus group as a qualitative research methodology. It does…

  18. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  19. Short ischemia induces rat kidney mitochondria dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Baniene, Rasa; Trumbeckas, Darius; Kincius, Marius; Pauziene, Neringa; Raudone, Lina; Jievaltas, Mindaugas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2016-02-01

    Renal artery clamping itself induces renal ischemia which subsequently causes renal cell injury and can lead to renal failure. The duration of warm ischemia that would be safe for postoperative kidney function during partial nephrectomy remains under investigations. Mitochondria play an important role in pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion induced kidney injury, however relation between ischemia time and mitochondrial dysfunction are not fully elucidated. Thus, the effects of renal ischemia (20 min, 40 min and 60 min) on mitochondrial functions were investigated by using in vitro rat ischemia model. Thus, electronmicroscopy showed that at short (20 min) ischemia mitochondria start to swell and the damage increases with the duration of ischemia. In accordance with this, a significant decrease in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity was observed already after 20 min of ischemia with both, complex I dependent substrate glutamate/malate (52%) and complex II dependent substrate succinate (44%) which further decreased with the prolonged time of ischemia. The diminished state 3 respiration rate was associated with the decrease in mitochondrial Complex I activity and the release of cytochrome c. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was diminished by 37-49% after 20-60 min of ischemia and caspase-3 activation increased by 1.15-2.32-fold as compared to control. LDH activity changed closely with increasing time of renal ischemia. In conclusion, even short time (20 min) of warm ischemia in vitro leads to renal mitochondrial injury which increases progressively with the duration of ischemia. PMID:26782060

  20. A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Interpretation of Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the…

  1. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  2. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  3. Positive Outcomes of Group Learning in the ABLE Classroom. Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Beverly J.; McKenna, Gail Kaylor

    In the fall of 1993, a study was begun on how adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students reacted to working in groups. The research was conducted through a joint vocational school's ABLE program using three target groups at two of its ABLE centers. The groups met two times per week and were facilitated by three different teachers. More…

  4. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  5. An Approach for Group, Undergraduate Research Experiences in Courses Across the Geology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and

  6. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Dewey, Michael; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; McKeigue, Paul; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata MM; Stewart, Robert; Uwakwe, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Methods/design Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina), with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000). Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain). Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815). A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina) to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. Discussion The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our aim is to create an

  7. [Non-cardiac causes of acute ischemia in the arms].

    PubMed

    d'Addato, M; Pedrini, L

    1996-01-01

    Among a series of 286 cases of acute ischemia of the upper limb, we analyzed the files of 176 patients (61.5%) with noncardiac ischemia in order to identify the causes and treatment. Trauma was the most frequent cause (126 cases) including trauma of the forearm especially due to stab wounds. Lesions with a subclavian-axillary localization were predominantly due to tear wounds or blunt trauma. We analyzed two groups among the trauma cases: iatrogenic lesions (9 cases) usually resulted from orthopedic surgery (5 cases) or vascular catheterization (3 cases) as well as near-total limb amputations (13) cases. Thrombosis of the subclavian artery occurred in 33 patients; 9 had acute ischemia including 3 due to a cervical rib and 6 due to compression by the rib and the clavicle. Only 4 of these 33 patients suffered ischemia of the hand due to embolization. Acute ischemia was caused by arteriopathy of the hand in 8 patients including 2 volley ball players, 1 baseball player and 3 subjects with occupational microtrauma and 1 with thrombosis of the palmar arch. Finally 1 patient had thrombosis after intravenous drug injection. These files demonstrated the variety of non-cardiac causes of acute ischemia of the upper limb. During the acute phase, we propose locoregional thrombolysis in case of thrombosis and embolectomy for emboli followed by treatment of the casual lesion. An arteriography is essential for correct diagnosis and should include the subclavian artery in the hyperabduction position and the hand. Duplex scanning of the subclavian artery is indicated in case of ischemia of the hand using the Adson, McGowan and Wright maneuvers in order to guide the radiologist for invasive radiography before initiating appropriate treatment.

  8. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  9. p63 Expression in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Ischemia and Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on p63 Expression in the Ischemic Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Bae, Eun Joo; Ahn, Ji Yun; Park, Chan Woo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Hui Young

    2015-05-01

    p63 is a transcription factor of p53 gene family, which are involved in development, differentiation and cell response to stress; however, its roles in ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the brain are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IPC on p63 immunoreactivity caused by 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of transie ischemia 1 day prior to 5 min of transient ischemia. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+)-sham-operated-group and IPC + ischemia-operated-group). The number of viable neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) was significantly increased by IPC + ischemia-operated-group compared with that in the ischemia-operated-group 5 days after ischemic insult. We found that strong p63 immunoreactivity was detected in the CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated-group, and the immunoreactivity was decreased with time after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, strong p63 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in microglial cells of the CA1 region from 2 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In all the IPC + sham-operated-groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the CA1 pyramidal neurons was similar to that in the sham-operated-group, and the immunoreactivity was well maintained in the IPC + ischemia-operated-groups after cerebral ischemia. In brief, our present findings show that IPC dramatically protected the reduction of p63 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region after ischemia-reperfusion, and this result suggests that the expression of p63 may be necessary for neurons to survive after transient cerebral ischemia.

  10. p63 Expression in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Ischemia and Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on p63 Expression in the Ischemic Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Bae, Eun Joo; Ahn, Ji Yun; Park, Chan Woo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Hui Young

    2015-05-01

    p63 is a transcription factor of p53 gene family, which are involved in development, differentiation and cell response to stress; however, its roles in ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the brain are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IPC on p63 immunoreactivity caused by 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of transie ischemia 1 day prior to 5 min of transient ischemia. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+)-sham-operated-group and IPC + ischemia-operated-group). The number of viable neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) was significantly increased by IPC + ischemia-operated-group compared with that in the ischemia-operated-group 5 days after ischemic insult. We found that strong p63 immunoreactivity was detected in the CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated-group, and the immunoreactivity was decreased with time after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, strong p63 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in microglial cells of the CA1 region from 2 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In all the IPC + sham-operated-groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the CA1 pyramidal neurons was similar to that in the sham-operated-group, and the immunoreactivity was well maintained in the IPC + ischemia-operated-groups after cerebral ischemia. In brief, our present findings show that IPC dramatically protected the reduction of p63 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region after ischemia-reperfusion, and this result suggests that the expression of p63 may be necessary for neurons to survive after transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:25777256

  11. Group of Eight Response to DIISR Consultation Paper: "Meeting Australia's Research Workforce Needs"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) welcomes the Government's commitment to developing a comprehensive research workforce strategy. Australia's research capacity and the continuing translation of research into policy, products and services is directly linked to the future productivity of the economy, social wellbeing, environmental outcomes and the nation's…

  12. Research Data Storage: A Framework for Success. ECAR Working Group Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Douglas; Dawson, Barbara E.; Fary, Michael; Hillegas, Curtis W.; Hopkins, Brian W.; Lyons, Yolanda; McCullough, Heather; McMullen, Donald F.; Owen, Kim; Ratliff, Mark; Williams, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research Data Management Working Group (ECAR-DM) has created a framework for research data storage as an aid for higher education institutions establishing and evaluating their institution's research data storage efforts. This paper describes areas for consideration and suggests graduated criteria to assist in…

  13. Interpersonal and Small Group Communication Research in 1977: Review and Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Julia T.

    A review of more than 100 articles and papers in interpersonal and small group communication (ISG) research done in 1977 and a survey of active researchers revealed that it was difficult to identify significant trends in content and methodology as well as to note specific advances and problems reflected in the research. However, six issues or…

  14. Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR): A Metamorphosis of Mentorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thea M.; Smith, Barbara K.; Watts, Danielle L.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Roark, Alison M.; Bybee, Seth M.; Cox, Clayton E.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR), a yearlong structured program at the University of Florida that guided graduate student mentors and their undergraduate mentees through the mentored research process. Using the national Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences for an academic year, we found that outcomes for our…

  15. Research on/as Violence: Reflections on Injurious Moments in Research with Friendship Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of harm in the research process. While researchers seek to conduct research that minimises harm, this paper argues that approaches adopted often create new forms of harm. This proposition is examined through drawing on Bourdieu's ideas about symbolic violence and poststructural theories of identity, to critically…

  16. [Syndromes of venous mesenteric ischemia: infarction and transient ischemia].

    PubMed

    Cardot, F; Borg, J Y; Guédon, C; Lerebours, E; Colin, R

    1992-01-01

    The reports of 8 patients with acute or subacute abdominal pain related to venous mesenteric ischemia were reviewed. None of the patients presented local or regional predisposing factors for venous thrombosis. In 4 patients, a localized segment of ischemic small bowel (median length 125 cm; range: 30-350) was resected without immediate anastomosis and postoperative anticoagulation therapy was given. Two of these patients developed recurrent ischemia involving the bowel adjacent to the stoma, treated successfully in 1 case by a repeat resection. The 4 other patients hospitalized with intestinal obstructive symptoms (1 case) or abdominal angina (3 cases) were treated by long term anticoagulation in 3 cases and artificial nutrition in 2 cases. None of them developed mesenteric infarction with a median follow up of 34 months. In 7 of the 8 patients, a coagulopathy was found: primary myeloproliferative disorder (1 case), hypercoagulation state (5 cases), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (1 case). These observations suggest that venous mesenteric ischemia included two different entities on the basis of clinical and morphological criteria: mesenteric infarction and subacute transient ischemia without bowel infarction. Most of apparently idiopathic cases of acute or subacute venous mesenteric ischemia are related to hypercoagulation states requiring a long term anticoagulation.

  17. Effects of ischemic preconditioning on VEGF and pFlk-1 immunoreactivities in the gerbil ischemic hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Seok; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Geum-Sil; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Young Shin; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2014-12-15

    Ischemia preconditioning (IPC) displays an important adaptation of the CNS to sub-lethal ischemia. In the present study, we examined the effect of IPC on immunoreactivities of VEGF-, and phospho-Flk-1 (pFlk-1) following transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated-group, and IPC+ischemia-operated-group). IPC was induced by subjecting gerbils to 2 min of ischemia followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated-group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) alone 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion, however, in all the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, pyramidal neurons in the SP were well protected. In immunohistochemical study, VEGF immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated-group was increased in the SP at 1 day post-ischemia and decreased with time. Five days after ischemia-reperfusion, strong VEGF immunoreactivity was found in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as pericytes, in the stratum oriens (SO) and radiatum (SR). In the IPC+sham-operated- and IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, VEGF immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the SP. pFlk-1 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated- and ischemia-operated-groups was hardly found in the SP, and, from 2 days post-ischemia, pFlk-1 immunoreactivity was strongly increased in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as pericytes. In the IPC+sham-operated-group, pFlk-1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in both pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells; in the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, the similar pattern of VEGF immunoreactivity was found in the ischemic CA1, although the VEGF immunoreactivity was strong in non-pyramidal cells at 5 days post-ischemia. In brief, our findings show that IPC dramatically augmented the induction of VEGF and pFlk-1 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 after ischemia

  18. Effects of ischemic preconditioning on VEGF and pFlk-1 immunoreactivities in the gerbil ischemic hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Seok; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Geum-Sil; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Young Shin; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2014-12-15

    Ischemia preconditioning (IPC) displays an important adaptation of the CNS to sub-lethal ischemia. In the present study, we examined the effect of IPC on immunoreactivities of VEGF-, and phospho-Flk-1 (pFlk-1) following transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated-group, and IPC+ischemia-operated-group). IPC was induced by subjecting gerbils to 2 min of ischemia followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated-group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) alone 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion, however, in all the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, pyramidal neurons in the SP were well protected. In immunohistochemical study, VEGF immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated-group was increased in the SP at 1 day post-ischemia and decreased with time. Five days after ischemia-reperfusion, strong VEGF immunoreactivity was found in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as pericytes, in the stratum oriens (SO) and radiatum (SR). In the IPC+sham-operated- and IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, VEGF immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the SP. pFlk-1 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated- and ischemia-operated-groups was hardly found in the SP, and, from 2 days post-ischemia, pFlk-1 immunoreactivity was strongly increased in non-pyramidal cells, which were identified as pericytes. In the IPC+sham-operated-group, pFlk-1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in both pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells; in the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, the similar pattern of VEGF immunoreactivity was found in the ischemic CA1, although the VEGF immunoreactivity was strong in non-pyramidal cells at 5 days post-ischemia. In brief, our findings show that IPC dramatically augmented the induction of VEGF and pFlk-1 immunoreactivity in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 after ischemia

  19. Ischemia detection from morphological QRS angle changes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Laguna, Pablo; Pueyo, Esther

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ischemia detector is presented based on the analysis of QRS-derived angles. The detector has been developed by modeling ischemic effects on the QRS angles as a gradual change with a certain transition time and assuming a Laplacian additive modeling error contaminating the angle series. Both standard and non-standard leads were used for analysis. Non-standard leads were obtained by applying the PCA technique over specific lead subsets to represent different potential locations of the ischemic zone. The performance of the proposed detector was tested over a population of 79 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in one of the major coronary arteries (LAD (n  =  25), RCA (n  =  16) and LCX (n  =  38)). The best detection performance, obtained for standard ECG leads, was achieved in the LAD group with values of sensitivity and specificity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], followed by the RCA group with [Formula: see text], Sp  =  94.4 and the LCX group with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], notably outperforming detection based on the ST series in all cases, with the same detector structure. The timing of the detected ischemic events ranged from 30 s up to 150 s (mean  =  66.8 s) following the start of occlusion. We conclude that changes in the QRS angles can be used to detect acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:27243441

  20. Developing a clinical research network: the Northern Region Endoscopy Group experience.

    PubMed

    Rajasekhar, Praveen; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew; Hungin, Pali

    2014-04-01

    Research is central to the National Health Service. Clinical trial recruitment has been aided by the National Institute for Health Research's Comprehensive Research Network but these networks do not support development of research. The Northern Region Endoscopy Group (NREG) was founded in 2007, encompasses 17 endoscopy units and has become a highly successful collaborative research network. The network is now a major contributor to UK trials, has published over 20 papers (>60 abstracts) and holds grants totalling more than £1.5 million. The NREG provides an exemplar model of how collaborative working can contribute significantly to biomedical research.

  1. [Recurrent intestinal ischemia due to factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Monedero, Jesús Javier; Legaz Huidobro, María Luisa; Galindo Andugar, María Angeles; Rodríguez Pérez, Alvaro; Mantrana del Valle, José María

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose and can be caused by several etiologic processes. We report the case of a female patient with recurrent bowel ischemia due to small vessel thrombosis, which is caused by factor VIII, a procoagulant factor.

  2. Social Research and Public Policy-Making: An Overview; Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premfors, Rune I. T.

    Reasons for underutilization of social research in public policy-making and the complexity of the concept of utilization are discussed. Among the factors affecting underutilization are the limitations of the social sciences and shortcomings of specific policy research. A common explanation of underutilization is the allegedly long-established…

  3. Transforming Catholic Education through Research: The American Educational Research Association Catholic Education Special Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States and abroad face numerous financial, cultural, and structural challenges due to contemporary education policies and economic trends. Within this climate, research about Catholic education is often conducted and leveraged in efforts to serve schools' most immediate needs. To be certain, research aimed at…

  4. Critical Masses for Academic Research Groups and Consequences for Higher Education Research Policy and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Smaller universities may produce research which is on a par with larger, elite establishments. This is confirmed by a recently developed mathematical model, supported by data from British and French higher education research-evaluation exercises. The detailed nature of the UK system, in particular, allows quantification of the notion of critical…

  5. Brain ischemia changes the long term response to antidepressant drugs in mice.

    PubMed

    Deplanque, Dominique; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Bordet, Régis

    2011-06-01

    Depression is a frequent but often unrecognized and under treated complication of stroke that has scarcely been investigated in animal models particularly regarding treatment issues. Using the Forced Swim Test (FST) and testing spontaneous motor activity, we studied whether a transient focal cerebral ischemia modifies mice behaviours and antidepressant drug effects. We first evaluated whether FST realized 2 days or 1 week after brain reperfusion may be routinely used in male Swiss mice previously submitted to a 15, 30 or 60-min transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. We then evaluated behavioural changes up to 5 weeks in mice previously submitted to a 15-min ischemia. Behaviours according to the administration of imipramine or fluvoxamine at 1 and 5 weeks after a 15-min ischemia were finally evaluated. Transient ischemia was associated with a decrease in immobility in the FST performed 2 days after reperfusion while no changes were observed in 1 and 5 weeks post-ischemia groups. Changes were related neither to brain ischemia duration nor to infarct volume. At both 1 and 5 weeks after brain ischemia, a dramatic decrease in the antidepressant response to imipramine related to a decrease in climbing behaviour was observed while the effects of fluvoxamine were improved through an increase in both climbing and swimming. Behaviours in the FST were unrelated to any spontaneous motor activity changes. Responses to anti-depressant drugs are strongly modified in mice previously submitted to brain ischemia. Present results underline that not all antidepressant drugs are appropriate after ischemic stroke.

  6. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  7. [Neuroprotection of herbs promoting EPO on cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Bai, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Fei-yan; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2015-06-01

    Amounts of researches show that EPO is characterized with neurotrophic and neuroprotective manner, especially in brain stroke, which attracts a large numbers of researchers to study it. With the accumulating researches on its neuroprotection, many related mechanisms were revealed, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, which suggests a multiple targets role of EPO on brain stroke. However, because of the high risk of thromboembolism in clinical administration of rhEPO and its analogs, the herbs are potential to be a replacer for its less side effects. Many researchers suggested that a larger of herbs were founded having the action of increasing the endogenous EPO in the model of anemia and cerebral ischemia. At the same time, there herbs were also proved that they had the action of against cerebral ischemia while some without considering the role of EPO in the reports. Considering of the action of promoting EPO of these herbs and the neural protection of EPO, this essay mainly summarizes the studies of herbs promoting EPO in the cerebral ischemia and discusses the mechanism of regulating the EPO of these herbs, for the aim of finding the potential drugs against cerebral ischemia. PMID:26591507

  8. [Neuroprotection of herbs promoting EPO on cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Bai, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Fei-yan; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2015-06-01

    Amounts of researches show that EPO is characterized with neurotrophic and neuroprotective manner, especially in brain stroke, which attracts a large numbers of researchers to study it. With the accumulating researches on its neuroprotection, many related mechanisms were revealed, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, which suggests a multiple targets role of EPO on brain stroke. However, because of the high risk of thromboembolism in clinical administration of rhEPO and its analogs, the herbs are potential to be a replacer for its less side effects. Many researchers suggested that a larger of herbs were founded having the action of increasing the endogenous EPO in the model of anemia and cerebral ischemia. At the same time, there herbs were also proved that they had the action of against cerebral ischemia while some without considering the role of EPO in the reports. Considering of the action of promoting EPO of these herbs and the neural protection of EPO, this essay mainly summarizes the studies of herbs promoting EPO in the cerebral ischemia and discusses the mechanism of regulating the EPO of these herbs, for the aim of finding the potential drugs against cerebral ischemia.

  9. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  10. DIGE Proteome Analysis Reveals Suitability of Ischemic Cardiac In Vitro Model for Studying Cellular Response to Acute Ischemia and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Sina; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Moerbt, Nora; von Bergen, Martin; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Andrukhova, Olena; Robitzki, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of myocardial tissue from patient population is suited to yield insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms taking place in cardiovascular diseases. However, it has been limited by small sized biopsies and complicated by high variances between patients. Therefore, there is a high demand for suitable model systems with the capability to simulate ischemic and cardiotoxic effects in vitro, under defined conditions. In this context, we established an in vitro ischemia/reperfusion cardiac disease model based on the contractile HL-1 cell line. To identify pathways involved in the cellular alterations induced by ischemia and thereby defining disease-specific biomarkers and potential target structures for new drug candidates we used fluorescence 2D-difference gel electrophoresis. By comparing spot density changes in ischemic and reperfusion samples we detected several protein spots that were differentially abundant. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and ESI-MS the proteins were identified and subsequently grouped by functionality. Most prominent were changes in apoptosis signalling, cell structure and energy-metabolism. Alterations were confirmed by analysis of human biopsies from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. With the establishment of our in vitro disease model for ischemia injury target identification via proteomic research becomes independent from rare human material and will create new possibilities in cardiac research. PMID:22384053

  11. Implementation and Outcomes of Online Self and Peer Assessment on Group Based Honours Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chengqing; Chanda, Emmanuel; Willison, John

    2014-01-01

    Honours research projects in the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide are run with small groups of students working with an academic supervisor in a chosen area for one year. The research project is mainly self-directed study, which makes it very difficult to fairly assess the contribution of…

  12. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  13. Research on Students and Museums: Looking More Closely at the Students in School Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Janette

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys research over the past decade on school group visits to museums. By shifting attention to students' views about field trips, to their socially negotiated learning behaviors during field trips and the interaction between learning in the classroom and in the museum, this research has afforded a deeper understanding of the nature…

  14. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  15. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  16. The International Research Training Group (GRK532): Practicing Cross-Border Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehses, Markus; Veith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the International Research Training Group "GRK532" was founded as a pilot project for cross-border European postgraduate education along the German/French/Luxembourg borders. The project consists of an interdisciplinary research programme on synthesis, isolation and characterization of new materials accompanied by an ambitious continuous…

  17. Warranted concerns, warranted outlooks: a focus group study of public understandings of genetic research.

    PubMed

    Bates, Benjamin R; Lynch, John A; Bevan, Jennifer L; Condit, Celeste M

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses how the American public accounts for the concerns that they have about genetic research and the benefits that they foresee. We develop a general framework for discussing public claims about genetic technology based on Stephen Toulmin's model of warrants in argumentation. After a review of the results from public opinion polls about genetic research, we present a focus group study of public understandings of genetics. We outline the warrants, or publicly accepted "good reasons", that this group offers for accepting some aspects of genetic technology and for rejecting other aspects. The warrants presented by the public in their discussion of genetic research indicate that the public has a complex, informed understanding of genetic research, albeit a non-technical one. The paper concludes with a discussion of the importance of public participation in debates over genetic research and the ways that researchers and policymakers could adapt to public concerns about genetics.

  18. Profile of scientific and technological production in nursing education research groups in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lino, Mônica Motta; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Canever, Bruna Pedroso; Ferraz, Fabiane; Prado, Marta Lenise

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to present the profile of production of Nursing Education Research Groups (NERG) scientific and technological production in the South of Brazil. This documentary, quantitative, exploratory-descriptive retrospective research was guided by the active search for products in the Lattes curriculum of previously selected NERG researchers, based on the 2006 Census of the Research Group Directory/CNPq, between 1995 and 2008. The results indicated that the 18 NERG from southern Brazil produced 453 papers in proceedings, 371 book chapters, 206 books, 1,437 scientific articles and 08 technological products, but no patent was registered. NERGs scientific production in the research region has grown progressively over the past 14 years. To strengthen this structure, the establishment of collaborative networks can be used as a strategy, so that political-scientific joint actions in the sector can advance science and technology.

  19. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  20. Instrumentations and projects of research groups in Switzerland related to the research on rocket and balloon carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoli, Marianne; Kopp, Ernest

    2003-08-01

    In the past few years four very active Swiss groups involved in the research by means of rocket and balloon carriers have terminated their programmes. These groups were located at the University of Bern (Ernest Kopp), the World Radiation Center in Davos (Klaus Fröhlich), the ETH Zürich (Kurt Kneubühl) and the Observatoire de Genève (Daniel Huguenin). The remaining groups are the Space Biology Group in the field of Life Science in Space, the Applied Physics Institute in Bern with its observation of water vapor and ozone constituents using the microwave remote sensing technique, the meteorological soundings from the SMA balloon station in Payerne and the ozone soundings from the Institute of Atmosphere and Climate (IAC) at the ETH Zürich. In this report we will mainly present the activities of these groups in the past and in future. An addition three well known groups at the Laboratoire de Pollution Atmospherique (LPAS) at the EPFL in Lausanne, the IAC and the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC) located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which is associated to the ETH in Zürich, are contributing lab- and field research for the diagnostics and research of aerosols. The LPAS Group of Michael Rossi in Lausanne is determining heterogeneous chemical reaction rates in the laboratory. The research group of Thomas Peter at the IAC in Zürich is investigating fundamental physical and chemical processes of aerosols and the interaction to the gas phase of the atmosphere. In addition these results are combined with field measurements and model calculations. The LAC under Urs Baltensberger is investigating the key processes determining the gas phase and aerosol composition in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer, and the identification of their sources and sinks.

  1. Extending the duration of hypothermia does not further improve white matter protection after ischemia in term-equivalent fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Joanne O.; Yuill, Caroline A.; Zhang, Frank G.; Wassink, Guido; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in modern neonatal care is to further improve outcomes after therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. In this study we tested whether extending the duration of cooling might reduce white matter damage. Term-equivalent fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received either sham ischemia followed by normothermia (n = 8) or 30 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by three days of normothermia (n = 8), three days of hypothermia (n = 8) or five days of hypothermia (n = 8) started three hours after ischemia. Histology was assessed 7 days after ischemia. Ischemia was associated with loss of myelin basic protein (MBP) and Olig-2 positive oligodendrocytes and increased Iba-1-positive microglia compared to sham controls (p < 0.05). Three days and five days of hypothermia were associated with a similar, partial improvement in MBP and numbers of oligodendrocytes compared to ischemia-normothermia (p < 0.05). Both hypothermia groups had reduced microglial activation compared to ischemia-normothermia (p < 0.05). In the ischemia-five-day hypothermia group, but not ischemia-three-day, numbers of microglia remained higher than in sham controls (p < 0.05). In conclusion, delayed cerebral hypothermia partially protected white matter after global cerebral ischemia in fetal sheep. Extending cooling from 3 to 5 days did not further improve outcomes, and may be associated with greater numbers of residual microglia. PMID:27121655

  2. Extending the duration of hypothermia does not further improve white matter protection after ischemia in term-equivalent fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joanne O; Yuill, Caroline A; Zhang, Frank G; Wassink, Guido; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in modern neonatal care is to further improve outcomes after therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. In this study we tested whether extending the duration of cooling might reduce white matter damage. Term-equivalent fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received either sham ischemia followed by normothermia (n = 8) or 30 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by three days of normothermia (n = 8), three days of hypothermia (n = 8) or five days of hypothermia (n = 8) started three hours after ischemia. Histology was assessed 7 days after ischemia. Ischemia was associated with loss of myelin basic protein (MBP) and Olig-2 positive oligodendrocytes and increased Iba-1-positive microglia compared to sham controls (p < 0.05). Three days and five days of hypothermia were associated with a similar, partial improvement in MBP and numbers of oligodendrocytes compared to ischemia-normothermia (p < 0.05). Both hypothermia groups had reduced microglial activation compared to ischemia-normothermia (p < 0.05). In the ischemia-five-day hypothermia group, but not ischemia-three-day, numbers of microglia remained higher than in sham controls (p < 0.05). In conclusion, delayed cerebral hypothermia partially protected white matter after global cerebral ischemia in fetal sheep. Extending cooling from 3 to 5 days did not further improve outcomes, and may be associated with greater numbers of residual microglia.

  3. ST monitoring for myocardial ischemia during and after coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, M; Ben Freedman, S; Barns, E; Ogasawara, S; Bailey, B P; Bernstein, L

    1990-08-15

    We performed 12-lead electrocardiographic monitoring in 97 patients during coronary angioplasty (PTCA) of a single vessel to correlate ischemic ST changes with clinical, angiographic and coronary hemodynamic variables and to determine the optimum lead or combination of leads for their detection. Ischemia (chest pain or ST change, group A) occurred in 79 patients (80%), but in only 15 of 23 patients (65%) with collaterals (p less than 0.05). Ischemia occurred more often in left anterior descending and left circumflex PTCA than right coronary PTCA, but pain was the only manifestation more often in left circumflex and right coronary PTCA. Ischemic ST change was silent in 16% and this proportion did not differ in clinical or angiographic groups except for diabetes with 3 of 5 (60%) having silent ischemia (p less than 0.05). Patients in group A (ischemia) compared to group B (no ischemia) had less severe lesions (85 +/- 9 vs 91 +/- 7%, p less than 0.01), higher transstenotic gradients (62 +/- 19 vs 53 +/- 9 mm Hg, p less than 0.05) and lower distal occluded pressures (24 +/- 11 vs 33 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.01), suggesting less collateral flow. Compared with a 12-lead electrocardiogram, the best single lead for detecting ST change during PTCA in each artery had a sensitivity of 80% and this increased to 93% using the best 2 leads. The best 3 leads (V3/III/V5 for left anterior descending and III/V2/V5 for right coronary and left circumflex) increased sensitivity to 100%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Levosimendan Administration in Limb Ischemia: Multicomponent Signaling Serving Kidney Protection

    PubMed Central

    Onody, Peter; Aranyi, Peter; Turoczi, Zsolt; Stangl, Rita; Fulop, Andras; Dudas, Emese; Lotz, Gabor; Szijarto, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives Acute renal failure is a severe complication of lower extremity major arterial reconstructions, which could even be fatal. Levosimendan is a dual-acting positive inotropic and vasodilatory agent, which is suspected to have protective effects against cardiac ischemia. However, there is no data available on lower limb or remote organ ischemic injuries therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on lower limb ischemia-reperfusion injury and the corollary renal dysfunction. Methods Male Wistar rats underwent 180 min bilateral lower limb ischemia followed by 4 or 24 hours of reperfusion. Intravenous Levosimendan was administered continuously (0.2μg/bwkg/min) throughout the whole course of ischemia and the first 3h of reperfusion. Results were compared with sham-operated and ischemia-reperfusion groups. Hemodynamic monitoring was performed by invasive arterial blood pressure measurement. Kidney and lower limb muscle microcirculation was registered by a laser Doppler flowmeter. After 4h and 24h of reperfusion, serum, urine and histological samples were collected. Results Systemic hemodynamic parameters and microcirculation of kidney and the lower limb significantly improved in the Levosimendan treated group. Muscle viability was significantly preserved 4 and 24 hours after reperfusion. At the same time, renal functional laboratory tests and kidney histology demonstrated significantly less expressive kidney injury in Levosimendan groups. TNF-α levels were significantly less elevated in the Levosimendan group 4 hours after reperfusion. Conclusion The results claim a protective role for Levosimendan administration during major vascular surgeries to prevent renal complications. PMID:27684548

  5. [Effect and mechanism of icariin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model in diabetes rats].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-wu; Liu, Kai; Yan, Meng-tong

    2015-11-01

    To study the therapeutic effect and possible mechanism of icariin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury ( MIRI) model in diabetes rats. The model of diabetic rats were induced by Streptozotocin (STZ), then the model of MIRI was established by ligating the reversible left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min, and then reperfusing for 120 min. totally 40 male SD were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (NS), the ischemia reperfusion group (NIR), the diabetes control group (MS), the diabetic ischemia reperfusion group (MIR) and the diabetic ischemia reperfusion with icariin group (MIRI). The changes in blood glucose, body weight and living status were observed; the enzyme activity of serum CK-MB, LDH, GSH-Px and myocardium SOD and the content MDA and NO in myocardium were detected; the myocardial pathological changes were observed by HE staining; the myocardial Caspase-3, the Bcl-2, Bax protein expressions were detected by Western blot. The result showed that the diabetes model was successfully replicated; myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury was more serious in diabetes rats; icariin can increase NO, SOD, GSH-Px, Bcl-2 protein expression, decrease MDA formation, CK-MB and LDH activities and Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 protein expressions and myocardial damage. The result suggested that icariin may play a protective role against ischemia reperfusion myocardial injury in diabetes rats by resisting oxidative stress and inhibiting cell apoptosis. PMID:27071263

  6. Controversies in cardiovascular care: silent myocardial ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective evidence of silent myocardial ischemia--ischemia in the absence of classical chest pain--includes ST-segment shifts (usually depression), momentary left ventricular failure, and perfusion defects on scintigraphic studies. Assessment of angina patients with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring may uncover episodes of silent ischemia, the existence of which may give important information regarding prognosis and may help structure a more effective therapeutic regimen. The emerging recognition of silent ischemia as a significant clinical entity may eventually result in an expansion of current therapy--not only to ameliorate chest pain, but to minimize or eliminate ischemia in the absence of chest pain.

  7. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sosa, P M; Schimidt, H L; Altermann, C; Vieira, A S; Cibin, F W S; Carpes, F P; Mello-Carpes, P B

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise. PMID:26222650

  8. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, P.M.; Schimidt, H.L.; Altermann, C.; Vieira, A.S.; Cibin, F.W.S.; Carpes, F.P.; Mello-Carpes, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise. PMID:26222650

  9. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  10. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  11. CASPER's New Educational Research Group: The Physical Environment and Educational Interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Wang, Li; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    CASPER research has long included the area of STEM science education, which grew out of its history in educational intervention and curriculum development and its NSF funded REU summer program, which has been active since 1994. Recently CASPER's Educational Research group entered into a partnership with the Region 12 Educational Service Center and Huckabee, Inc. to examine the role the physical environment plays in educational intervention and the impact this combination has on student engagement and learning. This talk introduces the partnership, explains the framework guiding the research and presents the roles each partner plays in the research.

  12. Long-term follow-up of patients with silent ischemia during exercise radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenbuecher, A.P.; Pfisterer, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Burckhardt, D. )

    1990-04-01

    A retrospective 5 year follow-up study was performed in 140 patients with unequivocal ischemia during exercise radionuclide angiography (greater than or equal to 10% decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction or greater than or equal to 5% decrease in ejection fraction together with a distinct regional wall motion abnormality). In 84 patients (60%), ischemia during radionuclide angiography was silent (silent ischemia group), whereas 56 patients experienced angina during the test (symptomatic group). Work load and antianginal medication were similar in both groups. Critical cardiac events (unstable angina, myocardial infarction, cardiac death) occurred in 27% of patients in the silent ischemia group and 16% of those in the symptomatic group (p = NS); however, myocardial infarction or death was more frequent in patients with silent ischemia (22% versus 9%; p less than 0.05). If there was additional exercise-induced ST segment depression, the rate of critical events was further increased (p less than 0.05). The difference in critical cardiac events seemed to be influenced by the higher incidence of revascularization procedures in symptomatic patients, whereas medical therapy had no similar effect. Thus, these findings suggest that patients with documented severe ischemia should undergo left heart catheterization and revascularization irrespective of symptoms to improve their prognosis.

  13. Diseases and their management strategies take top research priority in watermelon research and development group member’s survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is an important crop grown for its delicious fruit in the U.S. and in many countries across the world. A survey of members of Watermelon Research and Development Group (WRDG) was conducted via email and during WRDG meetings in 2014 and 2015 in an effort to identify and rank important rese...

  14. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  15. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  16. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  17. Effective small group teaching strategies for research supervision - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    UNESCO-IHE's students are unique in several aspects: they are mid-career professionals separated from their last university experience by a number of years in the profession, they are from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and they often have relatively clear understanding on the diverse problems in the practice of engineering in their respective countries and are focused on solving those. As a result of the diversity in many forms, managing effective groups during the research phase of the UNESCO-IHE master's course pose considerable challenge. In this paper, we present a unique combination of tools and approaches that are employed in managing a small group of students (between five and ten) in one study area, who were working on diverse research topics that had the common denominator of mathematical modelling. We blend a number of traditional (e.g. seminars, group discussions, focused training sessions) and non-traditional (e.g. Using collaboration platforms like WIKI, peer-learning) approaches so that the cohesion of the group in maintained and every member benefits from being a part of the group. Four years of experience with employing this blend of tools on a six-month long master's research programme showed us: The approach motivates the students to perform focusing not only on the end-goal of their research study, but on the process of day to day work that lead to that goal. The students' self-confidence is often enhanced by being a part of close-knit group. Initial workload of the teacher increases significantly by this approach, but later this is more than compensated by the fact that the teacher has to do little maintain the momentum. Both strong and not so-strong students equally benefit from the approach. A significant number of students develop a keen interest in being involved in research further. (e.g. engaging in doctoral studies.)

  18. Research participants' opinions on genetic research and reasons for participation: a Jackson Heart Study focus group analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn R; Nelson, Cheryl R; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Thigpen, Darcel T; Puggal, Mona A; Sarpong, Daniel E; Smith, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) convened focus groups to engage the community in dialogue on participation in the National, Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Resource (CARe) project. CARe, a genome wide association and candidate gene study, required the release of participant phenotypic and genotypic data with storage at NIH for widespread distribution to qualified researchers. The authors wanted to assess the willingness of an African American community to participate in the genetics research, given the past history of bioethical misconduct in ethnic minority communities. The discussion produced the following specific issues of interest: reasons for participants' interest in genetics research; participants' knowledge about the JHS; and participants' knowledge about genetics research and its advantages and disadvantages. Training on genetic issues was also developed for the JHS community and staff.

  19. Dissecting the Effects of Ischemia and Reperfusion on the Coronary Microcirculation in a Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Maurits R.; de Waard, Guus A.; Konijnenberg, Lara S. F.; Meijer-van Putten, Rosalie M. E.; van den Brom, Charissa E.; Paauw, Nanne; de Vries, Helga E.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Aman, Jurjan; Van Nieuw-Amerongen, Geerten P.; Hordijk, Peter L.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.; Van Royen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background Microvascular injury (MVI) after coronary ischemia-reperfusion is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Both ischemia and reperfusion are involved in MVI, but to what degree these phases contribute is unknown. Understanding the etiology is essential for the development of new potential therapies. Methods and Findings Rats were divided into 3 groups receiving either 30 minutes ischemia, 90 minutes ischemia or 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion. Subsequently hearts were ex-vivo perfused in a Langendorff-model. Fluorescence and electron microscopy was used for analysis of capillary density, vascular permeability and ultrastructure. Most MVI was observed after 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion. In comparison to the 30’ and 90’ ischemia group, wall thickness decreased (207.0±74 vs 407.8±75 and 407.5±71, p = 0.02). Endothelial nuclei in the 30’-60’ group showed irreversible damage and decreased chromatin density variation (50.5±9.4, 35.4±7.1 and 23.7±3.8, p = 0.03). Cell junction density was lowest in the 30’-60’ group (0.15±0.02 vs 2.5±0.6 and 1.8±0.7, p<0.01). Microsphere extravasation was increased in both the 90’ ischemia and 30’-60’ group. Conclusions Ischemia alone for 90 minutes induces mild morphological changes to the coronary microcirculation, with increased vascular permeability. Ischemia for 30 minutes, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion, induces massive MVI. This shows the direct consequences of reperfusion on the coronary microcirculation. These data imply that a therapeutic window exists to protect the microcirculation directly upon coronary revascularization. PMID:27391645

  20. Critical ischemia time in a model of spinal cord section. A study performed on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Martinez, David; Rosales Corral, Sergio A.; Flores Soto, Mario E.; Velarde Silva, Gustavo; Portilla de Buen, Eliseo

    2006-01-01

    Vascular changes after acute spinal cord trauma are important factors that predispose quadriplegia, in most cases irreversible. Repair of the spinal blood flow helps the spinal cord recovery. The average time to arrive and perform surgery is 3 h in most cases. It is important to determine the critical ischemia time in order to offer better functional prognosis. A spinal cord section and vascular clamping of the spinal anterior artery at C5–C6 model was used to determine critical ischemia time. The objective was to establish a critical ischemia time in a model of acute spinal cord section. Four groups of dogs were used, anterior approach and vascular clamp of spinal anterior artery with 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of ischemia and posterior hemisection of spinal cord at C5–C6 was performed. Clinical evaluation was made during 12 weeks and morphological evaluation at the end of this period. We obtained a maximal neurological coordination at 23 days average. Two cases showed sequels of right upper limb paresis at 1 and 3 ischemia hours. There was nerve conduction delay of 56% at 3 h of ischemia. Morphological examination showed 25% of damaged area. The VIII and IX Rexed’s laminae were the most affected. The critical ischemia time was 3 h. Dogs with 4 h did not exhibit any recovery. PMID:17024402

  1. Alcohol and Inflammatory Responses: Summary of the 2013 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Niya L.; Ippolito, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda J.; Chen, Michael M.; Friedman, Scott L.; Hines, Ian N.; Haddad, Gorges E.; Chang, Sulie L.; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2014-01-01

    Loyola University Chicago, Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois hosted the 18th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting on November 22, 2013. This year’s meeting emphasized alcohol’s effect on inflammatory responses in diverse disease states and injury conditions. The meeting consisted of three plenary sessions demonstrating the adverse effects of alcohol, specifically, liver inflammation, adverse systemic effects, and alcohol’s role in infection and immunology. Researchers also presented insight on modulation of microRNAs and stress proteins following alcohol consumption. Additionally, researchers revealed sex- and concentration-dependent differences in alcohol-mediated pathologies. PMID:25468277

  2. Role of mucus in ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Mojzis, J; Hegedüsová, R; Mirossay, L

    2000-01-01

    Gastric mucus plays an important role in gastric mucosal protection. Apart from its "barrier" function, it has been demonstrated that mucus protects gastric epithelial cells against toxic oxygen metabolites derived from the xanthine/ xanthine oxidase system. In this study, we investigated the effect of malotilate and sucralfate (mucus production stimulators) and N-acetylcysteine (mucolytic agent) on ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury. Gastric ischemia was induced by 30 min clamping of the coeliac artery followed by 30 min of reperfusion. The mucus content was determined by the Alcian blue method. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg), malotilate (100 mg/kg), and N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg) were given orally 30 min before surgery. Both sucralfate and malotilate increased the mucus production in control rats. On the other hand, N-acetyloysteine significantly decreased mucus content in control (sham) group. A significant decrease of mucus content was found in the control and the N-acetylcysteine pretreated group during the period of ischemia. On the other hand, sucralfate and malotilate prevented the decrease the content of mucus during ischemia. A similar result can be seen after ischemia/reperfusion. In the control group and N-acetylcysteine pretreated group a significant decrease of adherent mucus content was found. However, sucralfate and malotilate increased mucus production (sucralfate significantly). Sucralfate and malotilate also significantly protected the gastric mucosa against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. However, N-acetylcysteine significantly increased gastric mucosal injury after ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that gastric mucus may be involved in the protection of gastric mucosa after ischemia/reperfusion.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of Alpinia katsumadai against neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kang, Il-Jun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2011-09-01

    Alpinia katsumadai, one of the family Zingiberaceae, contains chalcone, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenoids, stilbenes, and labdanes. It has been reported that the extract of Alpinia katsumadai seed (EAKS) has antiinflammatory effects, and enhances antioxidant activities. We observed the neuroprotective effects of EAKS against ischemic damage in gerbils received oral administrations of EAKS (50 mg/kg) once a day for 7 days before transient cerebral ischemia. In the EAKS-treated ischemia group, neuronal nuclei (NeuN, a marker for neurons)-immunoreactive pyramidal neurons were abundant (68.3% of the sham group) in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) compared to those in the vehicle-treated ischemia group (13.18%). We also observed that EAKS treatment significantly decreased the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the CA1 compared with the vehicle-treated ischemia group 4 days postischemia. In addition, protein levels of GFAP and Iba-1 in the EAKS-treated ischemia group were much lower than those in the vehicle-treated ischemia group 4 days after I/P. Our findings indicate that the repeated supplements of EAKS could protect neurons from an ischemic damage, showing that glial activation is markedly decreased in the ischemic area.

  4. A Performance Evaluation of the Collaborative Efforts in an Online Group Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lori A.; Eastham, Nicholas P.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of 13 graduate students' collaborative efforts toward a group research project in an Instructional Analysis, Design, and Evaluation online course. Gaps between course expectations from the instructor and student collaborative performance were identified through the review of the team agreement, the use of…

  5. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  6. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  7. Grounded Theory and Focus Groups: Reconciling Methodologies in Indigenous Australian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper captures an ideological moment in time in which I contemplated the methodological approach I was embarking upon. In my search for a more appropriate approach for conducting research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary students at the University of Queensland, I chose focus groups set within the qualitative process of…

  8. Cause and Causality in Daycare Research: An Investigation of Group Differences in Swedish Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessels, Holger; Lamb, Michael E.; Hwang, Carl-Philip

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates problems facing researchers trying to demonstrate causal relationships between types of nonparental care and differences between groups of Swedish children. Argues that efforts must be made to validate and interpret differences that are found. Indicates ways to avoid misinterpretation of differences that are attributable to…

  9. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  10. Evaluation of Using Course-Management Software: Supplementing a Course that Requires a Group Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Gump, Nathaniel W.

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of course-management software (CMS) will not be realized if it is underused. The authors investigated one possible barrier to CMS use, students' perceptions of using CMS. After taking a course requiring a group research project, college students reported their perceptions of the use of CMS for the course. Overall, students did not…

  11. Ability Grouping, Segregation and Civic Competences among Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the linkages between ability grouping, classroom social and ethnic segregation, and civic competences (understood here as referring to attitudes and behaviours as well as knowledge and skills). It does so by analysing data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education…

  12. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  13. The Importance of Bonding to School for Healthy Development: Findings from the Social Development Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Fleming, Charles B.; Hawkins, J. David

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations of school connectedness completed by the Social Development Research Group in two longitudinal studies, the Seattle Social Development Project and Raising Healthy Children. The theoretical importance of school connectedness, empirical support for the theoretical propositions of the impact of school…

  14. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and Employees in Team…

  15. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  16. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  17. Oxytocin modulates cooperation within and competition between groups: an integrative review and research agenda.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2012-03-01

    The author reviews evidence that hypothalamic release (or infusion) of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates the regulation of cooperation and conflict among humans because of three reasons. First, oxytocin enables social categorization of others into in-group versus out-group. Second, oxytocin dampens amygdala activity and enables the development of trust. Third, and finally, oxytocin up-regulates neural circuitries (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus) involved in empathy and other-concern. Consistent with an evolutionary perspective on the functionality of cooperation, it is concluded that oxytocin-motivated cooperation is mostly parochial-it motivates (i) in-group favoritism, (ii) cooperation towards in-group but not out-group members, and (iii) defense-motivated non-cooperation towards threatening outsiders. Thus, in addition to its well-known role in reproduction and pair-bond formation, oxytocin's primary functions include in-group "tend-and-defend." This review concludes with avenues for new research on oxytocin's functions in within-group cooperation and between-group competition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22227278

  18. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  19. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  20. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children

    PubMed Central

    JEICAN, IONUŢ ISAIA; ICHIM, GABRIELA; GHEBAN, DAN

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison’s disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis. PMID:27547054

  1. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Ichim, Gabriela; Gheban, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison's disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis. PMID:27547054

  2. Effects of ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ay, Yasin; Kara, Ibrahim; Aydin, Cemalettin; Ay, Nuray Kahraman; Teker, Melike Elif; Senol, Serkan; Inan, Bekir; Basel, Halil; Uysal, Omer; Zeybek, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of cardiac ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on reperfusion damage in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. 38 male Wistar Albino rats used in this study were divided into 5 groups. The control group (Group 1) (n=6), ischemia/reperfusion (IR) group (Group 2) (n=8), cardiac ischemic preconditioning (CIP) group (Group 3) (n=8), iloprost (ILO) group (Group 4) (n=8), and cardiac ischemic preconditioning + iloprost (CIP+ILO) group (Group 5) (n=8). Pre-ischemia, 15 minutes post-ischemia, 45 minutes post-reperfusion, mean blood pressure (MBP), and heart rates (HR) were recorded. The rate-pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Post-reperfusion plasma creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin (cTn) vlaues, and infarct size/area at risk (IS/AAR) were calculated from myocardial tissue samples. Arrhythmia and ST segment elevations were evaluated during the ischemia and reperfusion stages. Although the MBP, HR, RPP values, biochemical parameters of CK-MB and LDH levels, IS/AAR rates, ST segment elevation values were found to be similar in CIP and CIP+ILO groups and the IR and ILO groups (p>0.05), CIP-containing group values had a positively meaningful difference (p<0.05) compared with the IR and ILO group. While mild-moderate findings of damage were observed in Group 3 and Group 5, severely findings of damage were releaved in Group 2 and Group 4. The arrhythmia score of the ILO group was meaningfully lower (F: 41.4, p<0.001) than the IR group. We can conclude that the effects of myocardial reperfusion damage can be reduced by cardiac ischemic preconditioning, intravenous iloprost reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia associated with reperfusion, and its use with CIP caused no additional changes.

  3. Effects of ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ay, Yasin; Kara, Ibrahim; Aydin, Cemalettin; Ay, Nuray Kahraman; Teker, Melike Elif; Senol, Serkan; Inan, Bekir; Basel, Halil; Uysal, Omer; Zeybek, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of cardiac ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on reperfusion damage in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. 38 male Wistar Albino rats used in this study were divided into 5 groups. The control group (Group 1) (n=6), ischemia/reperfusion (IR) group (Group 2) (n=8), cardiac ischemic preconditioning (CIP) group (Group 3) (n=8), iloprost (ILO) group (Group 4) (n=8), and cardiac ischemic preconditioning + iloprost (CIP+ILO) group (Group 5) (n=8). Pre-ischemia, 15 minutes post-ischemia, 45 minutes post-reperfusion, mean blood pressure (MBP), and heart rates (HR) were recorded. The rate-pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Post-reperfusion plasma creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin (cTn) vlaues, and infarct size/area at risk (IS/AAR) were calculated from myocardial tissue samples. Arrhythmia and ST segment elevations were evaluated during the ischemia and reperfusion stages. Although the MBP, HR, RPP values, biochemical parameters of CK-MB and LDH levels, IS/AAR rates, ST segment elevation values were found to be similar in CIP and CIP+ILO groups and the IR and ILO groups (p>0.05), CIP-containing group values had a positively meaningful difference (p<0.05) compared with the IR and ILO group. While mild-moderate findings of damage were observed in Group 3 and Group 5, severely findings of damage were releaved in Group 2 and Group 4. The arrhythmia score of the ILO group was meaningfully lower (F: 41.4, p<0.001) than the IR group. We can conclude that the effects of myocardial reperfusion damage can be reduced by cardiac ischemic preconditioning, intravenous iloprost reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia associated with reperfusion, and its use with CIP caused no additional changes. PMID:23936589

  4. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is expressed in astrocytes and melatonin treatment maintains AANAT in the gerbil hippocampus induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Ok Kyu; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Park, Jun Hong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho

    2010-07-15

    Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin by the action of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. In this study, we observed cellular changes of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.87; AANAT) in the hippocampal CA1 region at various time points after ischemia/reperfusion. In vehicle-treated sham group, AANAT immunoreaction was detected in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region. AANAT immunoreactivity in the neurons was highest 2 days and disappeared from 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion. From 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion, AANAT immunoreaction was expressed in astrocytes in the strata oriens and radiatum of the CA1 region. AANAT protein and mRNA levels were significantly increased 2 days after ischemia/reperfusion, and markedly decreased from 5 days after ischemia/reperfusion. The repeated administration of melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 3 times (once a day) to gerbils before ischemia/reperfusion significantly reduced ischemia-induced hyperactivity as well as neuronal death compared to those in the vehicle-treated ischemia group. Melatonin treatment also maintained AANAT immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the CA1 region after ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that the reduction of AANAT in ischemic CA1 region is associated with delayed neuronal death following transient ischemia, and melatonin treatment shows neuroprotection with maintenance of AANAT levels in the ischemic CA1 region.

  5. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahbi, Abdullah M; Elmoukaied, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. PMID:27022305

  6. Estimation of jeopardized left ventricular myocardium in symptomatic and silent ischemia as determined by iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid rotational tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, J.K.; Pippin, J.J.; Akers, M.S.; Corbett, J.R.

    1989-03-01

    Whether patients with silent myocardial ischemia have a lesser mass of ischemic myocardium than patients with symptomatic ischemia is controversial. Forty-five patients with angiographic coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% luminal diameter narrowing) were studied. All patients had ischemic patterns of myocardial uptake and clearance of the long-chain fatty acid perfusion/metabolic imaging agent iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid after maximal exercise. Single-photon emission computed tomography was performed and 25 myocardial segments were analyzed using circumferential activity profile curves. The 21 patients with silent treadmill ischemia exercised longer than the 24 patients with painful treadmill ischemia (430 +/- 137 vs 337 +/- 96 seconds, p less than 0.01) and to a higher heart rate (138 +/- 21 vs 125 +/- 18 beats/min, p less than 0.05). Patients with treadmill silent ischemia had the same number of abnormally perfused myocardial segments as patients with painful treadmill ischemia (8.6 +/- 4.5 vs 6.5 +/- 4.1 segments, difference not significant) and the same number of reversibly ischemic myocardial segments (4.0 +/- 1.4 vs 4.2 +/- 3.0 segments, difference not significant). The angiographic severity and extent of coronary artery disease were similar in the 2 groups. Thus, in this selected group of patients, those with silent treadmill ischemia appear to have at least as great an extent of ischemic myocardium as patients with painful exertional ischemia.

  7. The critical value of focus group discussions in research with women living with HIV in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E

    2010-05-01

    This article is based on a critical ethnography about HIV and gender-based issues of power and violence conducted in Malawi in 2008. In all, 72 women living with HIV were recruited from four antiretroviral treatment clinics, three rural and one urban, to participate in 12 focus groups. Informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, we analyze the process and products of these focus groups to interrogate their capacity to facilitate collective engagement with the social and structural realities confronting women in a resource-limited, highly AIDS-affected country. We present exemplars to show how women together created collective narratives to mobilize individuals to action. Findings indicate that focus groups can be used innovatively to benefit both the research and the participants, not only as a critical method of inquiry with marginalized groups but also as a forum in which validating dialogue, mutual support, and exchange of strategic information can generate transformative change to improve women's lives.

  8. Global oral health inequalities: dental caries task group--research agenda.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N; Amaechi, B; Niederman, R; Acevedo, A-M; Vianna, R; Ganss, C; Ismail, A; Honkala, E

    2011-05-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science.

  9. Classical and remote post-conditioning effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute oxidant kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Najafi, Atefeh; Seifi, Behjat

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of classical and remote ischemic postconditioning (POC) on rat renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury. After right nephrectomy, male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 8). In the IR group, 45 min of left renal artery occlusion was induced followed by 24 h of reperfusion. In the classical POC group, after induction of 45 min ischemia, 4 cycles of 10 s of intermittent ischemia and reperfusion were applied to the kidney before complete restoring of renal blood. In the remote POC group, 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia and reperfusion of left femoral artery were applied after 45 min renal ischemia and right at the time of renal reperfusion. There was a reduction in renal function (increase in blood urea and creatinine) in the IR group. Application of both forms of POC prevented the IR-induced reduction in renal function and histology. There were also significant improvements in kidney oxidative stress status in both POC groups demonstrated by a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and preservation of antioxidant levels comparing to the IR group. We concluded that both methods of POC have protective effects on renal function and histology possibly by a reduction in IR-induced oxidative stress.

  10. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  11. Murine Model of Hindlimb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Niiyama, Hiroshi; Huang, Ngan F.; Rollins, Mark D.; Cooke, John P.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects about 10 million individuals, and is also prevalent worldwide. Medical therapies for symptomatic relief are limited. Surgical or endovascular interventions are useful for some individuals, but long-term results are often disappointing. As a result, there is a need for developing new therapies to treat PAD. The murine hindlimb ischemia preparation is a model of PAD, and is useful for testing new therapies. When compared to other models of tissue ischemia such as coronary or cerebral artery ligation, femoral artery ligation provides for a simpler model of ischemic tissue. Other advantages of this model are the ease of access to the femoral artery and low mortality rate. In this video, we demonstrate the methodology for the murine model of unilateral hindimb ischemia. The specific materials and procedures for creating and evaluating the model will be described, including the assessment of limb perfusion by laser Doppler imaging. This protocol can also be utilized for the transplantation and non-invasive tracking of cells, which is demonstrated by Huang et al.1. PMID:19229179

  12. Predictive Modeling of Cardiac Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Gary T.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the Contextual Alarms Management System (CALMS) project is to develop sophisticated models to predict the onset of clinical cardiac ischemia before it occurs. The system will continuously monitor cardiac patients and set off an alarm when they appear about to suffer an ischemic episode. The models take as inputs information from patient history and combine it with continuously updated information extracted from blood pressure, oxygen saturation and ECG lines. Expert system, statistical, neural network and rough set methodologies are then used to forecast the onset of clinical ischemia before it transpires, thus allowing early intervention aimed at preventing morbid complications from occurring. The models will differ from previous attempts by including combinations of continuous and discrete inputs. A commercial medical instrumentation and software company has invested funds in the project with a goal of commercialization of the technology. The end product will be a system that analyzes physiologic parameters and produces an alarm when myocardial ischemia is present. If proven feasible, a CALMS-based system will be added to existing heart monitoring hardware.

  13. Basic fibroblast growth factor alleviates brain injury following global ischemia reperfusion in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; Gan, Jian-xin; Jiang, Guan-yu; Xu, Shan-xiang; Tao, Xiang-luo; Hong, An; Li, Jiao-kun

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on brain injury following global ischemia reperfusion and its mechanisms. Brain injury following global ischemia was induced by four vessels occlusion and systemic hypotension. Twenty-four rabbits were randomized into three groups: group A, only dissection of vessels; group B, intravenous infusion of normal saline after reperfusion for 6 h; group C, 30 μg/kg bFGF injected intravenously at the onset of reperfusion, then infused with 10 μg/(kg·h) for 6 h. Serum neuron specific enolase (NSE), S-100B, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured before ischemia, 30 min after ischemia, 0.5, 1, 3, 6 h after reperfusion. Brain water content was determined and cerebral histopathological damages were compared. NSE and S-100B were increased 1 h after reperfusion and reached their peaks 6 h after reperfusion, but were much higher in group B than those in group C 3, 6 h after reperfusion. In groups B and C, TNF-α was increased after ischemia and IL-1 and IL-8 were increased significantly 0.5 h after reperfusion, then reached their peaks 6 h, 3 h, 6 h after reperfusion respectively. TNF-α and IL-8 at the time points of 1 h and 3 h and IL-1 at 3 h and 6 h in group C were correspondingly lower than those in group B. These indices in group A were nearly unchanged. There were less severe cerebral histopathological damages in group C compared with group B, but no difference in brain water content. It could be concluded that bFGF alleviates brain injury following global ischemia and reperfusion by down-regulating expression of inflammatory factors and inhibiting their activities. PMID:15973765

  14. Percutaneous isolated limb perfusion with thrombolytics for severe limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahsan T; Kalapatapu, Venkat R; Bledsoe, Shelly; Moursi, Mohammed M; Eidt, John F

    2005-01-01

    Patients with severe tibioperoneal disease are poor candidates for a distal bypass. Absence of a distal target, lack of conduit, or multiple medical problems can make these patients a prohibitive risk for revascularization. Acute on chronic ischemia in this group poses a greater challenge. Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemia can be prolonged and carries a significant risk of bleeding if continued beyond 24 hours. However, if the ischemic limbs can be isolated from the systemic circulation, a higher dose of the lytic agent can be given with lower risk. These are the initial results of a series of 10 patients who underwent percutaneous isolated limb perfusion with a high dose of thrombolytics for severe ischemia. Ten patients (lower extremity 8 and upper extremity 2) presented with severe limb-threatening ischemia. Mean ankle/brachial index (ABI) was 0.15 for the lower extremity, and there were no recordable digital pressures in patients with upper extremity ischemia. No distal target was visible on the initial arteriogram. These patients were then taken to the operating room, and under anesthesia, catheters were placed in an antegrade fashion via femoral approach in the popliteal artery and vein percutaneously. For upper extremity, the catheters were placed in the brachial artery and vein. A proximal tourniquet was then applied. This isolated the limb from the systemic circulation. Heparinized saline was infused through the arterial catheter while the venous catheter was left open. A closed loop or an isolated limb perfusion was confirmed when effluent became clear coming out of the venous port. A high dose of thrombolytic agent (urokinase 500,000 to 1,000,000 U) was infused into the isolated limb via the arterial catheter and drained out of the venous catheter. After 45 minutes, arterial flow was reestablished. In 4 patients, Reopro((R)) was used in addition to thrombolytics. Postprocedure angiograms showed minimal changes, but patients exhibited marked

  15. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  16. Improving Scientific Research and Writing Skills through Peer Review and Empirical Group Learning.

    PubMed

    Senkevitch, Emilee; Smith, Ann C; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Song, Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a semester-long, multipart activity called "Read and wRite to reveal the Research process" (R(3)) that was designed to teach students the elements of a scientific research paper. We implemented R(3) in an advanced immunology course. In R(3), we paralleled the activities of reading, discussion, and presentation of relevant immunology work from primary research papers with student writing, discussion, and presentation of their own lab findings. We used reading, discussing, and writing activities to introduce students to the rationale for basic components of a scientific research paper, the method of composing a scientific paper, and the applications of course content to scientific research. As a final part of R(3), students worked collaboratively to construct a Group Research Paper that reported on a hypothesis-driven research project, followed by a peer review activity that mimicked the last stage of the scientific publishing process. Assessment of student learning revealed a statistically significant gain in student performance on writing in the style of a research paper from the start of the semester to the end of the semester.

  17. Reporting genetic results in research studies: summary and recommendations of an NHLBI working group.

    PubMed

    Bookman, Ebony B; Langehorne, Aleisha A; Eckfeldt, John H; Glass, Kathleen C; Jarvik, Gail P; Klag, Michael; Koski, Greg; Motulsky, Arno; Wilfond, Benjamin; Manolio, Teri A; Fabsitz, Richard R; Luepker, Russell V

    2006-05-15

    Prospective epidemiologic studies aid in identifying genetic variants associated with diseases, health risks, and physiologic traits. These genetic variants may eventually be measured clinically for purposes of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. As evidence of the potential clinical value of such information accrues, research studies face growing pressure to report these results to study participants or their physicians, even before sufficient evidence is available to support widespread screening of asymptomatic persons. There is thus a need to begin to develop consensus on whether and when genetic findings should be reported to participants in research studies. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group on Reporting Genetic Results in Research Studies to discuss if, when, and how genetic information should be reported to study participants. The Working Group concluded that genetic test results should be reported to study participants when the associated risk for the disease is significant; the disease has important health implications such as premature death or substantial morbidity or has significant reproductive implications; and proven therapeutic or preventive interventions are available. Finally, the Working Group recommended procedures for reporting genetic research results and encouraged increased efforts to create uniform guidelines for this activity.

  18. Effect of mild hypothermia on focal cerebral ischemia. Review of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Takahito; Tamura, Akira; Fukui, Shinji; Hossmann, Konstantin-Alexander

    2003-07-01

    The purposes of this review are to clarify the effect of hypothermia therapy on focal cerebral ischemia in rats, and to consider the relevancy of its application to human focal cerebral ischemia. Since 1990, 26 reports confirming the brain-protecting effect of hypothermia in rat focal cerebral ischemia models have been published. Seventy-four experimental groups in these 26 reports were classified as having transient middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO) with mild hypothermia (group A; 43 groups), permanent MCAO with mild hypothermia (group B; 14 groups), permanent MCAO with deep hypothermia (group C; 8 groups) and transient or permanent MCAO with mild hyperthermia (group D; 9 groups). The results were evaluated as the % infarct volume change caused by hypothermia or hyperthermia compared with the infarct volume in normothermic animals. The effectiveness was confirmed in 36 (83%) of the 43 groups in group A, 10 (71%) of the 14 in group B, and six (75%) of the eight in group C. The infarct volume of eight of the nine groups in group D was markedly aggravated. The percent infarct volume change was 55.3% +/- 27.1% in group A, 57.6% +/- 24.7% in group B, 60.8% +/- 45.5% in group C, and 189.7% +/- 89.4% in group D. For effective reduction of the infarct volume, hypothermia should be started during ischemia or within 1 h, at latest, after the beginning of reperfusion in the rat transient MCAO model. However, it is not clear whether this neuroprotective effect of hypothermia can also be observed in the chronic stage, such as several months later. Keeping the body temperature normothermic in order to avoid mild hyperthermia seems to be rather important for not aggravating cerebral infarction. Clinical randomized studies on the efficacy of mild hypothermia for focal cerebral ischemia and sophisticated mild hypothermia therapy techniques are mandatory.

  19. "Blogs" and "wikis" are valuable software tools for communication within research groups.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Igor M; Bialek, Dominik; Efimova, Ekaterina; Schwartlander, Ruth; Pless, Gesine; Neuhaus, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate software tools may improve communication and ease access to knowledge for research groups. A weblog is a website which contains periodic, chronologically ordered posts on a common webpage, whereas a wiki is hypertext-based collaborative software that enables documents to be authored collectively using a web browser. Although not primarily intended for use as an intranet-based collaborative knowledge warehouse, both blogs and wikis have the potential to offer all the features of complex and expensive IT solutions. These tools enable the team members to share knowledge simply and quickly-the collective knowledge base of the group can be efficiently managed and navigated.

  20. EFFECT OF THREE-WEEK ZINC AND MELATONIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE OXIDANT-ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM IN EXPERIMENTAL RENAL ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion directly affects glomerular and tubular epithelium. Oxygen free radicals have a significant part in the pathophysiology of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study aimed to identify the effects of 3-week zinc, melatonin, and zinc + melato- nin supplementation on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in tissue and plasma and glutathione levels (GSH) in erythrocytes and tissue of rats with experimentally induced renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The study included Wistar albino rats with a mean weight of 250 g. Study groups were formed as follows: control, sham-control, ischemia + reperfusion, zinc + ischemia-reperfusion, melatonin + ischemia-reperfusion, and zinc + melatonin + ischemia-reperfusion. Animals were supplemented with zinc and melatonin 3 mg/kg/day i.p. for 3 weeks before the induction of ischemia-reperfusion. Renal ischemia-reperfusion was induced in the left kidney under general anesthesia and consisted of ischemia for 45 minutes and reperfusion for 1 hour. After the procedure, animals were sacrificed and blood and kidney samples were collected to analyze MDA and GSH levels. GSH values in kidney tissues and erythrocytes were found to be elevated in the groups supplemented with zinc and melatonin (p < 0.005). When MDA values in renal tissue and plasma were examined, it was seen that ischemia significantly elevated this parameter, while zinc and melatonin supplementation signifi- cantly inhibited MDA values (p < 0.002). The results of the study indicated that oxidative injury of the blood and renal tissues of rats increased in association with ischemia-reperfusion, but zinc and melatonin supplementation before ischemia-reperfusion markedly reduced this oxidative damage.

  1. Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of cerebral ischemia in symptomatic carotid stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberg, M.R.; Eskridge, J.; Winn, H.R.; Eskridge, J. ); Wilson, S.E. ); Yatsu, F. ); Weiss, D.G. ); Messina, L. ); Hershey, L.A. ); Colling, C. ); Deykin, D. )

    1991-12-18

    The objective of this study was to determine whether carotid endarterectomy provides protection against subsequent cerebral ischemia in men with ischemic symptoms in the distribution of significant ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. The study group was comprised of men who presented within 120 days of onset of symptoms that were consistent with transient ischemic attacks, transient monocular blindness, or recent small completed strokes between July 1988 and February 1991. Among 5,000 patients screened, 189 individuals were randomized with angiographic internal carotid artery stenosis greater than 50% ipsilateral to the presenting symptoms. Forty-eight eligible patients who refused entry were followed up outside of the trial. For a selected cohort of men with symptoms of cerebral or retinal ischemia in the distribution of a high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis, carotid endarterectomy can effectively reduce the risk of subsequent ipsilateral cerebral ischemia. The risk of cerebral ischemia in this subgroup of patients is considerably higher than previously estimated.

  2. Group Supervision in Psychotherapy. Main Findings from a Swedish Research Project on Psychotherapy Supervision in a Group Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Marie-Louise; Sundin, Eva C.

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to…

  3. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75,000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research.

  4. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75,000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  5. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75 000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  6. Low-dose tadenan protects the rabbit bladder from bilateral ischemia/ reperfusion-induced contractile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Levin, R M; Whitbeck, C; Horan, P; Bellamy, F

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can cause the contractile dysfunctions induced in animal models of partial bladder outlet obstruction. Tadenan (Pygeum africanum) pretreatment can prevent the rabbit bladder from developing the contractile and biochemical dysfunctions induced by partial outlet obstruction, possibly by protecting the bladder from ischemic injury. The current study was designed to determine whether pre-treating rabbits with a clinically relevant dose of Tadenan could prevent the bladder from developing the contractile dysfunctions that are induced by bilateral ischemia followed by reperfusion. New Zealand White rabbits were separated into two groups. One group was pre-treated by oral gavage for 3 weeks with Tadenan (3.0 mg/kg body wt./ day). The second group was treated with vehicle (peanut oil). Five rabbits from each group were subjected to either bilateral ischemia for 1 or 3 h and than reperfused for either 1 h or 1 week. Five rabbits from each group were subjected to sham surgery and run with each of the experimental groups. The results of the current study show that Tadenan pretreatment at the clinically relevant dose of 3.0 mg/kg body wt./day protected the bladder from the contractile dysfunctions induced by bilateral ischemia followed by reperfusion. These data are consistent with the assertion that Tadenan therapy in both rabbits and humans acts by protecting the bladder smooth muscle against cellular damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion.

  7. Effect of tramadol on lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion: an experimental study*

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Jahanshahi, Amirali; Sotoudeh, Amir; Jahanshahi, Gholamreza; Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Aslani, Kimia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tramadol has a protective effect against lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty Wistar male rats were allocated to one of two groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ischemia-reperfusion + tramadol (IR+T). The animals were anesthetized with intramuscular injections of ketamine and xylazine (50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively). All of the animals underwent 2-h ischemia by occlusion of the femoral artery and 24-h reperfusion. Prior to the occlusion of the femoral artery, 250 IU heparin were administered via the jugular vein in order to prevent clotting. The rats in the IR+T group were treated with tramadol (20 mg/kg i.v.) immediately before reperfusion. After the reperfusion period, the animals were euthanized with pentobarbital (300 mg/kg i.p.), the lungs were carefully removed, and specimens were properly prepared for histopathological and biochemical studies. RESULTS: Myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the IR group than in the IR+T group (p = 0.001 for both). Histological abnormalities, such as intra-alveolar edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration, were significantly more common in the IR group than in the IR+T group. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that tramadol prevents lung tissue injury after skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:24068264

  8. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-06-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1-3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  9. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Joo; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Shin, Bich Na; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Lee, Yun Lyul; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Joon Ha

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1–3) between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults. PMID:26199612

  10. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-06-01

    As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:25785762

  11. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:25785762

  12. A call for research: the need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors.

    PubMed

    Cerel, Julie; Padgett, Jason H; Conwell, Yeates; Reed, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Support groups for suicide survivors (those individuals bereaved following a suicide) are widely used, but little research evidence is available to determine their efficacy. This paper outlines the pressing public health need to conduct research and determine effective ways to identify and meet the needs of suicide survivors, particularly through survivor support groups. After describing the various approaches to survivor support groups, we explain the need for further research, despite the inherent challenges. Finally, we pose several questions for researchers to consider as they work with survivors to develop a research agenda that sheds more light on the experiences of survivors and the help provided by survivor support groups.

  13. An Action Research Process on University Tutorial Sessions with Small Groups: Presentational Tutorial Sessions and Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz-Salarirche, Noelia; Gallardo-Gil, Monsalud; Herrera-Pastor, David; Servan-Nunez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    We describe and analyse the action research process carried out by us as teachers in a general didactics course in the University of Malaga (Spain). The course methodology combined lectures to the whole class and small-group work. We were in charge of guiding small-group work. In the small groups, students researched on an educational innovation…

  14. Group interventions for men who batter: a summary of program descriptions and research.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel G

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the latest research on men's group interventions for men who batter their intimate partners. The major components of current programs are described, along with studies on treatment effectiveness. Evidence for the effectiveness of treatment combined with a coordinated community response is also presented. Several related topics are covered, in particular methods for enhancing treatment motivation and culturally competent practice.

  15. Glucose metabolism and neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Lee, Kwon Young; Park, Joon Ha; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence exists that glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the brain. Most previous studies have been conducted using focal or hypoxic ischemia models and have focused on changes in GLUT3 expression based on protein and mRNA levels rather than tissue levels. In the present study, we observed change in GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the adult gerbil hippocampus at various time points after 5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region was weak, in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region increased in a time-dependent fashion 24 hours after ischemia, and in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased significantly between 2 and 5 days after ischemia, with high level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity observed in the CA1 region 10 days after ischemia. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), we observed strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the astrocytes. GLUT3 immunoreactivity increased after ischemia and peaked 7 days in the dentate gyrus after ischemia/reperfusion. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and doublecortin (DCX), we observed low level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the differentiated neuroblasts of the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus after ischemia. GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the increase in GLUT3 immunoreactivity may be a compensatory mechanism to modulate glucose level in the hippocampal CA1 region and to promote adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. PMID:27651772

  16. Glucose metabolism and neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Young; Lee, Kwon Young; Park, Joon Ha; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence exists that glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the brain. Most previous studies have been conducted using focal or hypoxic ischemia models and have focused on changes in GLUT3 expression based on protein and mRNA levels rather than tissue levels. In the present study, we observed change in GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the adult gerbil hippocampus at various time points after 5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region was weak, in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region increased in a time-dependent fashion 24 hours after ischemia, and in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased significantly between 2 and 5 days after ischemia, with high level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity observed in the CA1 region 10 days after ischemia. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), we observed strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the astrocytes. GLUT3 immunoreactivity increased after ischemia and peaked 7 days in the dentate gyrus after ischemia/reperfusion. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and doublecortin (DCX), we observed low level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the differentiated neuroblasts of the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus after ischemia. GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the increase in GLUT3 immunoreactivity may be a compensatory mechanism to modulate glucose level in the hippocampal CA1 region and to promote adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. PMID:27651772

  17. Glucose metabolism and neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Young; Lee, Kwon Young; Park, Joon Ha; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence exists that glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the brain. Most previous studies have been conducted using focal or hypoxic ischemia models and have focused on changes in GLUT3 expression based on protein and mRNA levels rather than tissue levels. In the present study, we observed change in GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the adult gerbil hippocampus at various time points after 5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region was weak, in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region increased in a time-dependent fashion 24 hours after ischemia, and in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased significantly between 2 and 5 days after ischemia, with high level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity observed in the CA1 region 10 days after ischemia. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), we observed strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the astrocytes. GLUT3 immunoreactivity increased after ischemia and peaked 7 days in the dentate gyrus after ischemia/reperfusion. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and doublecortin (DCX), we observed low level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the differentiated neuroblasts of the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus after ischemia. GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the increase in GLUT3 immunoreactivity may be a compensatory mechanism to modulate glucose level in the hippocampal CA1 region and to promote adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

  18. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups. PMID:23821879

  19. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  20. Anorexia nervosa: directions for future research. Study Group on Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    On September 27-29, 1993, the Study Group on Anorexia Nervosa (AN): Basic Mechanisms, Clinical Approaches and Treatment met in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss recent progress in research on anorexia nervosa, and to identify directions for future studies. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of unknown etiology, without a specific curative treatment, affecting mostly individuals in adolescence and early adulthood, with significant morbidity and mortality, and having a major impact on psychosocial and vocational development. In anorexia nervosa there are severe disturbances in virtually every endocrine system, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, the growth hormone (GH)/somatomedin C (IGF-1) system, and the central and peripheral arginine vasopressin (AVP) systems. Furthermore, classical neurotransmitter systems, such as the cholinergic noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems, are abnormally regulated in anorexia nervosa. New research data is also emerging on the abnormal regulation of immune function in this disorder. The Study Group concluded that even though several biological systems are abnormally regulated in anorexia nervosa, there is no biological test which is specific enough to make the diagnosis of the disorder. New directions for research in anorexia nervosa are identified and discussed in this report. Finally, the Study Group proposed future meetings to bring together clinical and pre-clinical (pharmacological, biochemical, and molecular) scientists studying topics, such as neuroendocrine function, which are important in the biology of anorexia nervosa.

  1. Effects of curcumin on ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    ESER, AYLA; HIZLI, DENIZ; HALTAS, HACER; NAMUSLU, MEHMET; KOSUS, AYDIN; KOSUS, NERMIN; KAFALI, HASAN

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a significant problem following reperfusion treatment for ovarian torsion. It is generally caused by reactive oxygen species-induced damage. Antioxidant agents, such as curcumin, may protect ovaries from this adverse effect. The aim of the present randomized, controlled study was to evaluate the short-term protective effect of curcumin on a rat model of ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury. A total of 30 female Wistar albino rats, weighing 160–230 g, were divided into 2 groups depending upon the time of unilateral, left ovary ischemia/reperfusion (group 1, 2 h ischemia/2 h reperfusion and group 2, 4 h ischemia/4 h reperfusion). These groups were subdivided into 3 subgroups (sham, control and curcumin). The sham subgroups were not subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Control and curcumin subgroups were performed under ischemia for 2 h plus 2 h reperfusion or 4 h ischemia plus 4 h reperfusion. Curcumin, 200 mg/kg, was intraperitoneally administered simultaneously with reperfusion to the curcumin subgroups. Serum nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase (NOS), xanthine oxidase (XO), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and histological scores were measured and compared between subgroups. For group 1, no significant differences were observed between NO, NOS, XO, TAS or TOS. The left ovary histological grade was significantly higher in the control and curcumin subgroups compared with the sham subgroup (P=0.036). For group 2, TOS was significantly higher in the control group compared with the sham and curcumin groups (P=0.023). However, TAS was also significantly higher in the control subgroup compared with the other 2 subgroups (P=0.005). Left ovary histological grade was significantly higher in the control and curcumin subgroups compared with the sham subgroup (P=0.038). No significant differences were observed between NO, NOS or XO between the group 2 subgroups. The results showed that curcumin exerted no major significant

  2. Manufacturing individual opinions: market research focus groups and the discursive psychology of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Puchta, Claudia; Potter, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    This article addresses a paradox. On the one hand, discourse and rhetorical studies have provided evidence that evaluative talk is both variable and rhetorically organized. On the other hand, a wide range of social psychological research is produced that both presupposes and finds evidence of enduring underlying attitudes. One explanation for this may be that, on some occasions at least, the results of attitude research are a consequence of procedures that restrict and refine from everyday evaluative practices in a way that ensures the 'discovery' of underlying attitudes. The article explores this explanation in one domain where there is a major practical concern with attitudes and opinions, namely market research focus groups. Detailed analysis of transcripts of eight market research focus groups identifies three procedures that moderators use to produce freestanding opinion packages: (a). they display rhetorically embedded evaluations as inconsequential; (b). they provide formal guidance for participants to produce freestanding opinions; and (c). they formulate participants' talk as freestanding opinions, stripping off rhetorical elements. The findings are supported by considering deviant cases. This illustrates one way in which evaluations are transformed into freestanding attitudes. More broadly, it contributes to a body of work that studies how social science methods work in practice. PMID:12419007

  3. Technical Note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard; Camossi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  4. [Observation, interview and discussion group: the silence of 3 research practices].

    PubMed

    Callejo Gallego, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Before entering into the opposition between quantitative perspective and qualitative perspective of social research, the need is discussed of considering the social research process as a social process and the empirical observation situations per se as social situations. Therefore, in social research, the object of observation and the ways of observation are made in the same stuff. As in any social situation, social norms come into play in the observation situation. Thus, the article develops the presentation of three qualitative social research practices from their design as producing different social situations which, in turn, take on the nature of immediate contexts which favor respective articulations between the practical norms of specific social groups and the dominant social norms in society at large. The practices presented are: participant observation, in-depth interview and discussion group. A different articulation among social norms which finds silence to be privileged way of observation. Hence, the conclusion is reached that the management and analysis of silence is fundamental both for distinguishing the qualitative from the quantitative perspective, the former opening up more to silence than the latter, and to distinguish one practice from another, especially for observing the effects proper of the observation during the observation processes.

  5. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, Bertrand; Holovatch, Yuri; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple metrics as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are invariably drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as “critical mass” and “h-index” are bandied about without understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent upon the scientific community itself to clarify their nature. Here we report on recent attempts to do that by properly defining critical mass and showing how group size influences research quality. We also examine currently predominant metrics and show that these fail as reliable indicators of group research quality.

  6. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Spector, Anya Y.; Valera, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a “Community Collaborative Board” (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles. Steps: (1) Engaging membership, (2) Developing relationships, (3) Exchanging information, (4) Negotiation and decision-making, (5) Retaining membership, and (6) Studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: 1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; 2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and 3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  7. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  8. Technical note: Harmonising metocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, Richard P.; Camossi, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  9. Technical note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, R. P.; Camossi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardized web-services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by: (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using technology that is free, and that is easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing tools to communicate with web services that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modelers continue producing custom data, but virtually aggregates and standardizes the data using NetCDF Markup Language. The THREDDS Data Server is used for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (Matlab®1) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Ocean Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.1 Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the US Government.

  10. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  11. Neuronal damage using fluoro-jade B histofluorescence and gliosis in the striatum after various durations of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Ohk, Taek Geun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Park, Seung Min; Shin, Bich Na; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Hee Cheol; Lee, Young Joo; Kim, Myong Jo; Kim, Tae Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2012-04-01

    Ischemic damage occurs well in vulnerable regions of the brain, including the hippocampus and striatum. In the present study, we examined neuronal damage/death and glial changes in the striatum 4 days after 5, 10, 15 and 20 min of transient cerebral ischemia using the gerbil. Spontaneous motor activity was increased with the duration time of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). To examine neuronal damage, we used Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining. F-J B positive cells were detected only in the 20 min ischemia-group, not in the other groups. In addition, we examined gliosis of astrocytes and microglia using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti- ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), respectively. In the 5 min ischemia-group, GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes were distinctively increased in number, and the immunoreactivity was stronger than that in the sham-group. In the 10, 15 and 20 min ischemia-groups, GFAP-immunoreactivity was more increased with the duration of I-R. On the other hand, the immunoreactivity and the number of Iba-1-immunoreactive microglia were distinctively increased in the 5 and 10 min ischemia-groups. In the 15 min ischemia-group, cell bodies of microglia were largest, and the immunoreactivity was highest; however, in the 20 min ischemia-group, the immunoreactivity was low compared to the 15 min ischemia-group. The results of western blotting for GFAP and Iba-1 were similar to the immunohistochemical data. In brief, these findings showed that neuronal death could be detected only in the 20 min ischemia-group 4 days after I-R, and the change pattern of astrocytes and microglia were apparently different according to the duration time of I-R.

  12. Alcohol and immunology: Summary of the 2012 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    On October 27, 2012, the 17th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Grand Wailea Hotel in Maui, Hawaii as a satellite meeting to the 2012 Society of Leukocyte Biology conference. This year's meeting focused on the influence of alcohol on signal transduction pathways in various disease and injury models. Three plenary sessions were held where invited speakers shared their research on alcohol-mediated alterations of cell signaling components, immune cell subsets, and inflammation. These studies suggested alcohol has a negative effect on cell signaling machinery and immune cell homeostasis, resulting in disease, disease progression, and increased mortality. Researchers also identified tissue-specific alcohol-linked elevations in markers of inflammation, including cold-shock proteins and microRNAs. Additionally, one study revealed the effects of alcohol on immune cell subsets in a model of allergic asthma.

  13. From Practice to Research: Training Health Care Providers to Conduct Culturally Relevant Community Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative data from focus groups can provide an “insiders’ view” of the culture of those being studied. Such data can help health care providers and program planners understand how people perceive themselves, and therefore guide providers and planners in developing culturally appropriate outcome measures that can strengthen the planning, implementation, and evaluation of future programs. This article discusses the process used to train Latino and African American health care providers to moderate focus groups that will be conducted as one phase of a research study looking at health beliefs and health practices in an urban arthritis health center. After taking part in two lecture and discussion training sessions, members of the training class were asked to participate in a pilot focus group. The ½ to 2 hour focus group included nine individuals who fulfilled the roles of moderator, facilitator, or respondent. Community health center practitioners provided valuable insight into the design and feasibility of the focus groups during their training sessions. PMID:26225128

  14. A study on the protective effect of Silybum marianum extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Chen, Zhiheng; Cao, Dongbo; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Lian; Liu, Rui; Xiao, Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to study the protective effect of Silybum marianum extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into five groups; namely Silybum marianum extract high-, medium-, and low-dose protection groups, model group and control group. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model was prepared. Serum or plasma AST, ALT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels were measured. The results revealed that after liver injury, AST, ALT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels significantly increased in succession, showing significant differences. We concluded that inflammatory cytokines participate in liver injury and that Silybum marianum extract can reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines, and thus can have a protective effect on hepatic ischemia and reperfusion.

  15. Inhalation of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats - A possible new hydrogen resource for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Chen, Xiao; Zhai, Xiao; Shi, Dongchen; Zhang, Rongjia; Zhi, Xin; Li, Xiaoqun; Gu, Zhengrong; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liping; Sun, Xuejun; Ji, Fang; Hou, Jiong; Su, Jiacan

    2016-10-29

    Hydrogen is a kind of noble gas with the character to selectively neutralize reactive oxygen species. Former researches proved that low-concentration of hydrogen can be used to ameliorating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen electrolyzed from water has a hydrogen concentration of 66.7%, which is much higher than that used in previous studies. And water electrolysis is a potential new hydrogen resource for regular clinical use. This study was designed and carried out for the determination of safety and neuroprotective effects of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, and middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to make cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Pathologically, tissues from rats in hydrogen inhalation group showed no significant difference compared with the control group in HE staining pictures. The blood biochemical findings matched the HE staining result. TTC, Nissl, and TUNEL staining showed the significant improvement of infarction volume, neuron morphology, and neuron apoptosis in rat with hydrogen treatment. Biochemically, hydrogen inhalation decreased brain caspase-3, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cells and inflammation factors concentration. Water electrolysis-derived hydrogen inhalation had neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats with the effect of suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, and it is a possible new hydrogen resource to electrolyze water at the bedside clinically. PMID:27555551

  16. Inhalation of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats - A possible new hydrogen resource for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Chen, Xiao; Zhai, Xiao; Shi, Dongchen; Zhang, Rongjia; Zhi, Xin; Li, Xiaoqun; Gu, Zhengrong; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liping; Sun, Xuejun; Ji, Fang; Hou, Jiong; Su, Jiacan

    2016-10-29

    Hydrogen is a kind of noble gas with the character to selectively neutralize reactive oxygen species. Former researches proved that low-concentration of hydrogen can be used to ameliorating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen electrolyzed from water has a hydrogen concentration of 66.7%, which is much higher than that used in previous studies. And water electrolysis is a potential new hydrogen resource for regular clinical use. This study was designed and carried out for the determination of safety and neuroprotective effects of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, and middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to make cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Pathologically, tissues from rats in hydrogen inhalation group showed no significant difference compared with the control group in HE staining pictures. The blood biochemical findings matched the HE staining result. TTC, Nissl, and TUNEL staining showed the significant improvement of infarction volume, neuron morphology, and neuron apoptosis in rat with hydrogen treatment. Biochemically, hydrogen inhalation decreased brain caspase-3, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cells and inflammation factors concentration. Water electrolysis-derived hydrogen inhalation had neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats with the effect of suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, and it is a possible new hydrogen resource to electrolyze water at the bedside clinically.

  17. Acetyl-L-carnitine and oxaloacetate in post-treatment against LTP impairment in a rat ischemia model. An in vitro electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Mészáros, J; Kis, Z; Farkas, T; Vécsei, L; Toldi, J

    2015-06-01

    A high proportion of research relating to cerebral ischemia focuses on neuroprotection. The application of compounds normally present in the organism is popular, because they do not greatly influence the synaptic activity by receptor modulation, and can be administered without serious side effects. Oxaloacetate (OxAc) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are such favorable endogenous molecules. ALC can exert a protective effect by improving the energy state of the neurons under ischemic conditions. A promising neuroprotective strategy is glutamate scavenging, which can be achieved by the intravenous administration of OxAc. This study involved the possible protective effects of ALC and OxAc in different post-treatment protocols against long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment. Ischemia was induced in rats by 2-vessel occlusion, which led to a decreased LTP relative to the control group. High-dose (200 mg/kg) ALC or OxAc post-treatment resulted in a higher potentiation relative to the 2VO group, but it did not reach the control level, whereas low-dose ALC (100 mg/kg) in combination with OxAc completely restored the LTP function. Many previous studies have concluded that ALC can be protective only as pretreatment. The strategy described here reveals that ALC can also be neuroprotective when utilized as post-treatment against ischemia.

  18. Can heat shock protein 32 be used for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia?

    PubMed Central

    Berhuni, Sait; Öztürk, Ersin; Oral, Arzu Yılmaztepe; Sarkut, Pınar; Kahveci, Nevzat; Yılmazlar, Tuncay; Özlük, Kasım; Yerci, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a challenging and fatal disease. The aim of this study was to detect the heat shock protein 32 (HSP32) response in intestinal tissue and systemic blood to intestinal ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion to define a tool for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia. Material and Methods: Thirty female Wistar albino rats were equally divided into 3 groups. Group 1 rats underwent simple laparotomy and closure (control). In Group 2 rats, 1-hour intestinal ischemia followed by 5-hour reperfusion was performed, and Group 3 rats were subjected to 6-hour intestinal ischemia. The experiment was repeated with a 24-hour waiting period. At the end of the waiting period, blood was withdrawn from the tail veins of the rats and the rats were sacrificed via cardiac puncture. Re-laparotomy was subsequently performed and intestinal tissue and luminal samples were obtained for biochemical and pathological investigations. The HSP32 levels of intestinal tissues, luminal contents and blood levels were compared among the groups. Results: At the end of the 24-hour waiting period, the median tissue HSP32 levels were 0.43 (0–6.6) ng/mL for Group 1, 9.51 (2.5–49.9) ng/mL for Group 2 and 43.13 (6.3–121.3) ng/mL for Group 3 (p=0.001). The median blood HSP32 levels were 0.11 (0.1–1.4) ng/mL for Group 1, 0.42 (0.1–0.7) ng/mL for Group 2, and 0.25 (0.1–1.2) ng/mL for Group 3 (p=0.047). The HSP levels in the luminal contents were undetectable. Conclusion: Both ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion significantly raised intestinal tissue HSP32 levels in comparison with the control group. However, this change was not reflected in the circulating blood or luminal contents. PMID:26985164

  19. The protective effect of tadalafil on IMA (ischemia modified albumin) levels in experimental renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Amasyali, Akin Soner; Akkurt, Abdullah; Kazan, Ercan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Erol, Bulent; Yildiz, Yuksel; Erol, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To investigate the effect of the tadalafil in experimental renal I/R injury and to evaluate these changes with IMA (nonspesific early biomarker of ischemia), NO and MDA levels. Materials and methods: Twenty four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8): Group I, sham; Group II, 60 min I/R; Group III, 60 min I/R plus tadalafil. Tadalafil was administered via an orogastric tube (10 mg/kg) 24 h prior to the procedure. After ischemia of the left kidney and 1 h of reperfusion, blood samples were obtained, and the kidney was removed. Results: Statistically significant histopathologic changes were exist between groups, with the most severe injury was determined in group II in comparison to the others (X2=21,803, P=0.000). Also mean serum IMA levels were higher in group II, but not statistically significant (19.83±7.81 U/ml, 22.26±7.14 U/ml and 19.82±7.77 U/ml, P=0.613). In addition, NO values were lower in I/R groups (P=0.049). There were no differences among the groups in terms of MDA. Conclusions: IMA may be used as a nonselective biomarker for IR injury before the occurrence of necrosis. Decreased IMA levels may indicate the nephroprotective effect of tadalafil in renal IR injury. PMID:26629074

  20. Neuroprotective effects of tadalafil on gerbil dopaminergic neurons following cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Taek; Chung, Kyung Jin; Lee, Han Sae; Ko, Il Gyu; Kim, Chang Ju; Na, Yong Gil; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2013-03-15

    Impairment of dopamine function, which is known to have major effects on behaviors and cognition, is one of the main problems associated with cerebral ischemia. Tadalafil, a long-acting phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, is known to ameliorate neurologic impairment induced by brain injury, but not in dopaminergic regions. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of treatment with tadalafil on cyclic guanosine monophosphate level and dopamine function following cerebral ischemia. Forty adult Mongolian gerbils were randomly and evenly divided into five groups (n = 8 in each group): Sham-operation group, cerebral ischemia-induced and 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg tadalafil-treated groups, respectively. Tadalafil dissolved in distilled water was administered orally for 7 consecutive days, starting 1 day after surgery. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate assay and immunohistochemistry were performed for thyrosine hydroxylase expression and western blot analysis for dopamine D2 receptor expression. A decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate level following cerebral ischemia was found with an increase in thyrosine hydroxylase activity and a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region. However, treatment with tadalafil increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate expression, suppressed thyrosine hydroxylase expression and increased dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region in a dose-dependent manner. Tadalafil might ameliorate cerebral ischemia-induced dopaminergic neuron injury. Therefore, tadalafil has the potential as a new neuroprotective treatment strategy for cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:25206715

  1. Inspired by Fieldwork: A Teacher Research Experience Energizes and Ignites a Group of Elementary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a

  2. Somatostatin Improved B Cells Mature in Macaques during Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Tan, Qinghua; Hu, Bin; Wu, Hao; Wang, Chunhui; Liu, Rui; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Aims Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion has been taken as an important pathophysiological process for multiple organ dysfunctions in critical patients. Recent studies reported that dual expression programs of the B cells receptors and Toll-like receptors on B-lymphocytes permit these ubiquitous cells to integrate both adaptive and innate immune functions. Our previous studies found that somatostatin inhibited the intestinal inflammatory injury after ischemia-reperfusion in macaques. However, the changes of B cells and the effects of somatostatin on B cells after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion were unclear. Methods 15 macaques were divided into control, intestinal ischemia-reperfusion and somatostatin pretreatment groups. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify the distributions of adaptive and innate immunity markers in the iliac mucosa. Hmy2.cir B lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured in vitro study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure IgM, IL-6 and SIgA, and the expressions of B cells transcription factors, PAX-5 and BLIMP-1, were detected by Western blotting. Results B2 lymphocytes in normal Peyer’s patches were presented the phenotype of PAX-5+CD20+CD5-. Ischemia-reperfusion increased the numbers and sizes of Peyer’s patches but with PAX-5+CD20-CD5- B cells, an unmatured set of B cells. Somatostatin partly kept the phenotype of mature B cells during ischemia-reperfusion. The innate immunity of B cells was inhibited whereas the adaptive immunity was increased in the intestinal mucosa in the somatostatin group, compared to the ischemia-reperfusion group. In vitro, somatostatin significantly inhibited IL-6 and promoted IgM by increasing the expression of both PAX-5 and BLIMP-1 in the proinflammatory condition. Conclusion Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion resulted in the proliferation of unmatured B cells which were involved in the augmentation of innate immunity. Somatostatin, with a bi-directional regulation function on innate as well as

  3. Cardioplegia and vascular injury. Dissociation of the effects of ischemia from those of the cardioplegic solution.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, C; Hearse, D J

    1994-08-01

    Although cardioplegic solutions successfully protect myocardial contractile cells against ischemic injury, their effect on the vasculature remains controversial. To address this we used a vascular bed preparation (isolated rat mesentery) that permits the study of vascular function without the coincident changes in contractile status that affect vascular tone (and hence the assessment of vascular function in isolated hearts). Smooth muscle cell contraction was assessed by measurement of the vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine, and relaxation was assessed by measurement of the vasodilator responses to sodium nitroprusside and the endothelium-dependent relaxant adenosine triphosphate. After characterization of basal vascular function, mesenteries were subjected to normothermic ischemia for 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes (n = 12 for each time period; 6 preparations were subjected to ischemia alone and 6 to ischemia preceded by a 3-minute infusion of the St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution). The tissue was then reperfused for 20 minutes and vascular function reassessed. Ischemia alone caused progressive time-dependent deterioration in vasoconstrictor responses (99% +/- 13%, 90% +/- 10%, 63% +/- 6%, 51% +/- 10%, and 27% +/- 4%), endothelium-independent vasodilation (93% +/- 3%, 86% +/- 2%, 78% +/- 5%, 61% +/- 5%, and 38% +/- 9%), and endothelium-dependent vasodilation (93% +/- 3%, 96% +/- 2%, 94% +/- 2%, 87% +/- 7%, and 62% +/- 11%). There were similar time-dependent deteriorations in mesenteries subjected to ischemia coupled with cardioplegic solution that were not significantly different from any of the ischemia-alone groups when matched for ischemic times. Thus, for example, after 180 minutes of ischemia alone, the vasoconstrictor response was 18% +/- 3%, endothelium-independent vasodilation was 44% +/- 7%, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation was 40% +/- 9%. The results demonstrate that under the conditions of this experiment, the St. Thomas

  4. Effect of dexmedetomidine on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, LILI; LI, LI; SHEN, JINMEI; QI, ZEYOU; GUO, LIANG

    2014-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a specific selective α2-adrenergic agonist, does not only have the characteristics of being a sedative and analgesic, but also exhibits a protective role in brain ischemia-reperfusion injury and inhibits the inflammation in animals with sepsis. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine is capable of attenuating rat pulmonary damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, which is a type of acute sterile lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into six groups: The sham-operated (sham) group, the lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, intravenous injection of dexmedetomidine 2.5 μg/kg/h (Dex2.5) or 5 μg/kg/h (Dex5) for 1 h prior to ischemia, combination of α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine prior to dexmedetomidine pre-treatment (Dex+Yoh) and pre-administration of yohimbine alone (Yoh) prior to ischemia. Lung injury was assessed by the histopathological changes, arterial blood gas, wet/dry (w/d) weight ratio and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of the lung. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) mRNA in the lung were determined by quantitative PCR, and phosphorylated levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were determined by western blotting. Pre-treatment with dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the lung injury, w/d weight ratio and MPO activity, and decreased the concentration of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in BALF compared with the I/R group. The expression of TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA and the levels of phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 in the lung tissue were markedly downregulated by intravenous injection of dexmedetomidne for 1 h prior to lung I/R. The protective effects of dexmedetomidine

  5. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  6. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  7. Lipopolysaccharide Pretreatment Protects from Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heemann, Uwe; Szabo, Attila; Hamar, Peter; Müller, Veronika; Witzke, Oliver; Lutz, Jens; Philipp, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    controls compared with LPS-pretreated animals. IL-1, IFN-γ, and iNOS mRNA expression did not differ between the groups throughout the time points examined. However, the expression of TNF-α mRNA was significantly increased at 2 hours and IL-6 mRNA was significantly down-regulated before ischemia and shortly after reperfusion in the LPS-pretreated kidneys. Therefore, we found that sublethal doses of LPS induced cross-tolerance to renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our data suggest that increased TNF-α and reduced IL-6 mRNA expression might be responsible. However, more studies are needed to decipher the exact mechanism. PMID:10623677

  8. Alcohol and epigenetic changes: summary of the 2011 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Zahs, Anita; Curtis, Brenda J; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Brown, Lou Ann S; Gauthier, Theresa W; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Bird, Melanie D

    2012-12-01

    On November 18, 2011, the 16th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Illinois. The focus of this year's meeting was alcohol's effect on epigenetic changes and possible outcomes induced by these changes. Two sessions, which consisted of talks from invited speakers as well as presentations of selected abstracts, were held in addition to a poster session. Participants presented information on alcohol-induced alterations in histone modifications and gene expression along with immunologic responses to alcohol. Speakers shared new research specifically on histone deacetylase enzyme expression and modifications due to alcohol and the downstream effect of these modifications may have on gene expression and tissue damage. Additional studies suggested that alcohol exacerbates inflammation when combined with other insults such as infection, trauma, inhalation injury, and disease.

  9. Alcohol and inflammatory responses: Highlights of the 2015 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Abigail R; Morris, Niya L; Hammer, Adam M; Curtis, Brenda; Remick, Daniel G; Yeligar, Samantha M; Poole, Lauren; Burnham, Ellen L; Wyatt, Todd A; Molina, Patricia E; So-Armah, Kaku; Cisneros, Trinidad; Wang, Guoshun; Lang, Charles H; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2016-08-01

    On September 27, 2015 the 20th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held as a satellite symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Leukocyte Biology in Raleigh, NC. The 2015 meeting focused broadly on adverse effects of alcohol and alcohol-use disorders in multiple organ systems. Divided into two plenary sessions, AIRIG opened with the topic of pulmonary inflammation as a result of alcohol consumption, which was followed by alcohol's effect on multiple organs, including the brain and liver. With presentations showing the diverse range of underlying pathology and mechanisms associated with multiple organs as a result of alcohol consumption, AIRIG emphasized the importance of continued alcohol research, as its detrimental consequences are not limited to one or even two organs, but rather extend to the entire host as a whole. PMID:27522326

  10. Research on students and museums: Looking more closely at the students in school groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Janette

    2004-07-01

    This paper surveys research over the past decade on school group visits to museums. By shifting attention to students' views about field trips, to their socially negotiated learning behaviors during field trips and the interaction between learning in the classroom and in the museum, this research has afforded a deeper understanding of the nature of learning in these contexts. This paper explores these aspects through a look at what the literature tells us about the similarities and differences between how families and students learn in museums, then investigates this further through the voices of adults and students in museums. The impact of the valuing and definition of learning in museums by students and teachers leads to discussion of boundary crossings between museums and schools.

  11. Alcohol and epigenetic changes: Summary of the 2011 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    PubMed Central

    Zahs, Anita; Curtis, Brenda J.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Brown, Lou Ann S.; Gauthier, Theresa W.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Bird, Melanie D.

    2013-01-01

    On November 18, 2011, the 16th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Illinois. The focus of this year’s meeting was alcohol’s effect on epigenetic changes and possible outcomes induced by these changes. Two sessions, which consisted of talks from invited speakers as well as presentations of selected abstracts, were held in addition to a poster session. Participants presented information on alcohol-induced alterations in histone modifications and gene expression along with immunologic responses to alcohol. Speakers shared new research specifically on histone deacetylase enzyme expression and modifications due to alcohol and the downstream effect of these modifications may have on gene expression and tissue damage. Additional studies suggested that alcohol exacerbates inflammation when combined with other insults such as infection, trauma, inhalation injury, and disease. PMID:22738858

  12. Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings: an e-KT case study.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website--www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca--using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians.

  13. Scientific production of nurse clinicians mediated by a research advisory group.

    PubMed

    Guariente, Maria Helena Dantas de Menezes; Zago, Marcia Maria Fontão

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the activities developed within the Nursing Research Nucleus (NUPE) of a public school hospital and the scientific production of nurses during the period from 1999 to 2002. For this purpose, data regarding the preparation of professionals and scientific production during this period were obtained from the primary document sources of NUPE and the Human Resources Advisory Group. Nurses elaborated, alone or in collaboration with nursing students and teachers, 129 research projects, and 151 scientific studies were presented on the occasion of different events, 6 of which received a prize. Sixty-three scientific studies were submitted for publication and 36 were published. During this period, all nurses concluded a specialization course and some of them enrolled for a master's or doctoral program. In conclusion, NUPE boosted the scientific production of the institution, with repercussions on nurses' personal and professional development.

  14. [The effect of argan oil on heart function during ischemia and reperfusion].

    PubMed

    Benajiba, N; Morel, S; De Leiris, J; Boucher, F; Charrouf, Z; Mokhtar, N; Aguenaou, H

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organ oil on isolated heart function before and after ischemia and on the activity of cardiac antioxidant enzymes. 16 Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups; control group and treated group receiving 5 mL/kg/day of organ oil. After 8 weeks of treatment, hearts were perfused and subjected to a global ischemia followed by reperfusion. Activity of cardiac antioxidant enzymes was assessed in freeze-clamped hearts at the end of reperfusion. Results showed that organ oil induces: 1--damage to heart function during the preischemic period, 2--decreased functional recovery during reperfusion and 3--significant increase in catalase activity. It seems that, in our experimental conditions, organ oil increases heart sensitivity to ischemia and reperfusion. However, the mechanism involved has yet to be understood.

  15. Building Trust: The History and Ongoing Relationships Amongst DSD Clinicians, Researchers, and Patient Advocacy Groups.

    PubMed

    Lossie, A C; Green, J

    2015-05-01

    Individuals born with differences or disorders of sex development (DSD) have been marginalized by society and the health care system. Standards of care in the mid-20(th) century were based on fixing the child with a DSD, using hormonal and surgical interventions; these treatments and the diagnoses were almost never disclosed to the child, and sometimes they were not disclosed to the parents. This led to secrecy, shame, and stigma. When these children became adults and demanded access to their medical records, the realization of the depth of secrecy led to the formation of activism groups that shook the medical community. Despite precarious beginnings, advocates, health care professionals, and researchers were able to elicit changes in the standard of care. The 2006 Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders called for a multidisciplinary approach to care and questioned the evidence for many of the standard procedures. Standard of care moved from a concealment model to a patient-centered paradigm, and funding agencies put resources into determining the future paths of research on DSD. Recognition of the need to address patient priorities led to changing international standards for including patients in research design. Some challenges that remain include: the findings from the Institute of Medicine that sexual and gender minorities experience poor health outcomes; establishing trust across all parties; developing a common language and creating venues where individuals can participate in dialogue that addresses personal experiences, research design, clinical practices and intervention strategies. PMID:25868122

  16. Industry programs of the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Sassen, R.; Kennicutt, M.C. II

    1995-08-01

    The Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) formally established by the Texas A&M University System Board of Regents in 1987, is a cross-disciplinary R&D center for conducting research in the areas of petroleum geochemistry, ecology, environmental chemistry and oceanography. GERG is a self-supporting research center with >$10 million annual funding derived from the private sector ({approximately}35% of revenues) and federal agencies. GERG`s main offices are located in College Station, Texas. For its global projects, GERG has region offices in Houston, Washington, D.C., Malaysia and Moscow. GERG conducts both private and consortium programs for private industry (mainly major oil companies) in the areas of surface geochemical exploration (SGE); oil/source rock regional and well-specific studies; site surveys, environmental assessment; oil spill fate and effects; and physical oceanography studies. An example of a large industry program that GERG is currently conducting is a west African expedition using its research vessel the R/V POWELL. Programs being undertaken for industry include a number of consortium surface geochemical exploration coring programs. These SGE programs are designed to correlate geochemical anomalies with subsurface features identified by geophysical surveys in the survey areas. GERG is a world-leader in offshore SGE programs having conducted many programs for most major oil companies. In addition to the SGE programs, sedimentology/geotechnical, paleontological, physical oceanographic and engineering site surveys will also be conducted in west Africa.

  17. Effects of ischemic preconditioning on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias by upregulatation of connexin 43 expression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The susceptibility of hypertrophied myocardium to ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with increased risk of postoperative arrhythmias. We investigate the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IP) on post-ischemic reperfusion arrhythmias in hypertrophic rabbit hearts. Methods Thirty-three rabbit models of myocardial hypertrophy were randomly divided into three groups of 11 each: non-ischemia-reperfusion group (group A), ischemia-reperfusion group (group B), and ischemic preconditioning group (group C). Another ten healthy rabbits with normal myocardium served as the healthy control group. Rabbit models of myocardial hypertrophy were induced by abdominal aortic banding. Surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and Curtis-Ravingerova score was used for arrhythmia quantification. Connexin 43 (Cx43) expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Ratios of heart weight to body weight and left ventricular weight to body weight increase significantly in the three groups compared with the healthy control group (p < 0.05). Arrhythmia incidence in group C is significantly lower than group B (p < 0.05). Curtis-Ravingerova score in group C is lower than group B (p < 0.05). Cx43 expression area in group A is smaller by comparison with the healthy control group (p < 0.05). Cx43 expression area and fluorescence intensity in group B are reduced by 60.9% and 23.9%, respectively, compared with group A (p < 0.05). In group C, Cx43 expression area increases by 32.5% compared with group B (p < 0.05), and decreases by 54.8% compared with group A (p < 0.05). Conclusions The incidence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in hypertrophic rabbit hearts decreases after IP, which plays an important protecting role on the electrophysiology of hypertrophied myocardium by up-regulating the expression of Cx43. PMID:21635761

  18. Neuronal damage using fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence and gliosis in the gerbil septum submitted to various durations of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Jae-Chul; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Dae Hwan; Cho, Geum-Sil; Yan, Bing Chun; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Hui Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2013-10-01

    The extent of neuronal damage/death in some brain regions is highly correlated to duration time of transient ischemia. In the present study, we carried out neuronal degeneration/death and glial changes in the septum 4 days after 5, 10, 15, and 20 min of transient cerebral ischemia using gerbils. To examine neuronal damage, Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining was used. F-J B positive ((+)) cells were detected in the septo-hippocampal nucleus (SHN) of the septum only in the 20 min ischemia-group; the mean number of F-J B(+) neurons was 14.9 ± 2.5/400 μm(2) in a section. Gliosis of astrocytes and microglia was examined using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), respectively. In all the ischemia-groups, GFAP- and Iba-1-immunoreactive astrocytes and microglia, respectively, were increased in number, and apparently tended to be increased in their immunoreactivity. Especially, in the 20 min ischemia-group, the number and immunoreactivity of Iba-immunoreactive microglia was highest and strongest in the ischemic SHN 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In brief, our findings showed that neuronal damage/death in the SHN occurred and gliosis was apparently increased in the 20 min ischemia-group at 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion.

  19. Relation between QT dispersion and adenosine triphosphate stress thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging for detecting myocardial ischemia and scar.

    PubMed

    Teragawa, H; Hirao, H; Muraoka, Y; Yamagata, T; Matsuura, H; Kajiyama, G

    1999-04-15

    It is not known if QT dispersion is useful for detecting coronary artery disease. We investigated whether QT dispersion at baseline and during adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion correlate with the imaging patterns obtained from ATP stress thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (ATP-SPECT). QT dispersion was determined in 169 patients who underwent ATP-SPECT from 12-lead electrocardiograms obtained at baseline and 3 minutes after the beginning of ATP infusion. Based on the results of ATP-SPECT, patients were divided into 4 groups: normal (n = 55), ischemia (n = 38), ischemia and scar (n = 42), and scar (n = 34). Baseline QT dispersions (mean +/- SD) in the normal, ischemia, ischemia and scar, and scar groups were 48 +/- 15, 50 +/- 17, 69 +/- 25, and 70 +/- 24 ms, respectively. Baseline QT dispersion was significantly greater in the groups with myocardial scar. QT dispersions during ATP infusion were 43 +/- 16, 63 +/- 20, 76 +/- 20, and 62 +/- 25 ms in the normal, ischemia, ischemia and scar, and scar groups, respectively. QT dispersion increased with ATP infusion in patients with myocardial ischemia. QT dispersion at baseline and during ATP infusion correlated with the ATP-SPECT imaging pattern. These findings suggest that baseline QT dispersion and ATP-induced changes in QT dispersion may help detect the presence of myocardial ischemia and scar. PMID:10215275

  20. Protective effects of antithrombin III supplementation on warm ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Okano, K; Kokudo, Y; Okajima, K; Hossain, M A; Ishimura, K; Yachida, S; Tsubouchi, T; Wakabayashi, H; Maeba, T; Maeta, H

    1996-10-01

    The effect of antithrombin III (AT III) supplementation on energy status, microcirculation, cytoprotection, and prostacyclin (PGI2) production during and after a period of warm ischemia of the rat liver was investigated. AT III supplementation (250 units/kg) stimulate prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) production from 1 hour after administration, with maximal production observed at 3 hours. Ischemia was induced by occluding the hepatoduodenal ligament for 30 minutes, and experiments were continued for 60 minutes after reperfusion. The rats received AT III (250 units/kg IC) 30 minutes before induction of liver ischemia (AT III group). In the AT III group, recovery of the beta-ATP/inorganic phosphate ratio measured by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance showed significant improvement (p < 0.01), and the recovery of tissue blood flow markedly improved (p < 0.01) compared to the saline-treated group (control group). Leakages of aspartame aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase were mitigated in the AT III group (p < 0. 05). Ultrastructural alterations of sinusoidal endothelial cells were markedly reduced in the AT III group. The PGI2 level at the end of reperfusion was significantly elevated (p < 0.01) in the AT III group compared to the control group. The results of this study indicated that pretreatment with AT III significantly improved the energy status and microcirculation, as well as histologic damage, after liver ischemia and reperfusion. One of the fundamental effects of AT III might be mediated through the production of prostacyclin.

  1. Sport and Physical Activity in the Lives of Looked-After Children: A "Hidden Group" in Research, Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Looked-after children are arguably one of the most disadvantaged groups in society and constitute a "hidden group" in relation to sport and physical activity research, policy and practice. Research on looked-after children has explored the views of caregivers, practitioners and policy-makers who have often been asked to speak for…

  2. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Physics Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; Schollum, Brendan

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Physics action-research group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with force and motion, suggesting that children's ideas of these concepts might…

  3. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Chemistry Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; And Others

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Chemistry Action-Research Group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with particles and physical/chemical changes. Based on findings during the…

  4. Literacy, Text, Practice, and Culture: Major Trends in the Umea History of Education Research Group, 1972-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This article presents some major research themes and findings of the leading Swedish research group in the field of literacy in history. The informal and encouraging leadership of Professor Egil Johansson was of vital importance to the creativity and productivity of the group. Prior to 1985, a few large projects on Swedish alphabetization were…

  5. The Start-Up, Evolution and Impact of a Research Group in a University Developing Its Knowledge Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo; Martins, Rui

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the understudied role of research groups contributing to develop the knowledge base of developing universities in regions lagging behind in human, financial and scientific resources. We analyse the evolution of a research group that, in less than 10 years, achieved worldwide recognition in the field of microelectronics,…

  6. Classroom management of situated group learning: A research study of two teaching strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod

    2000-06-01

    Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.

  7. IGORR-1: Proceedings of the first meeting of the international group on research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    Many organizations, in several countries, are planning or implementing new or upgraded research reactor projects, but there has been no organized forum devoted entirely to discussion and exchange of information in this field. Over the past year or so, informal discussions resulted in widespread agreement that such a forum would serve a useful purpose. Accordingly, a proposal to form a group was submitted to the leading organizations known to be involved in projects to build or upgrade reactor facilities. Essentially all agreed to join in the formation of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR) and nominated a senior staff member to serve on its international organizing committee. The first IGORR meeting took place on February 28--March 2, 1990. It was very successful and well attended; some 52 scientists and engineers from 25 organizations in 10 countries participated in 2-1/2 days of open and informative presentations and discussions. Two workshop sessions offered opportunities for more detailed interaction among participants and resulted in identification of common R D needs, sources of data, and planned new facilities. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of Withania coagulans root extract on CA1 hippocampus following cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh- Sagheb, Hamidreza; Valizadeh, Moharram; Doostkami, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxygen free radicals may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion damage. The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients, as well as complex plant extracts, on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries are well known. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydro-alcoholic root extract of Withania coagulans on CA1 hippocampus oxidative damages following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in five groups: control, sham operated, Ischemia/ Reperfiusion (IR), and Withania Coagulans Extract (WCE) 500 and 1000mg/kg + I/R groups. Ischemia was induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min after 30 days of WCE administration. Three days after, the animals were sacrificed, their brains were fixed for histological analysis (NISSL and TUNEL staining) and some samples were prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in hippocampus. Results: WCE showed neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in MDA level and increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activity in pretreated groups as compared to I/R groups (p<0.001). The number of intact neurons was increased while the number of TUNEL positive neurons in CA1 hippocampal region in pretreated groups were decreased as compared to I/R group (p<0.001). Conclusion: WCE showed potent neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced injuries caused by global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion in rats probably by radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:27516980

  9. The effect of cannabidiol on ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias: the role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonca, Ersöz; Darıcı, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling. As the adenosine A1 receptor activation confers protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced ventricular arrhythmias, we hypothesized that CBD may have antiarrhythmic effect through the activation of adenosine A1 receptor. Cannabidiol has recently been shown to suppress ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to research the effect of CBD on the incidence and the duration of I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias and to investigate the role of adenosine A1 receptor activation in the possible antiarrhythmic effect of CBD. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was induced in anesthetized male rats by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 minutes and by loosening the bond at the coronary artery, respectively. Cannabidiol alone was given in a dose of 50 µg/kg, 10 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion and coadministrated with adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) in a dose of 100 µg/kg, 15 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion to investigate whether the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD is modified by the activation of adenosine A1 receptors. The experimental groups were as follows: (1) vehicle control (n = 10), (2) CBD (n = 9), (3) DPCPX (n = 7), and (4) CBD + DPCPX group (n = 7). Cannabidiol treatment significantly decreased the incidence and the duration of ventricular tachycardia, total length of arrhythmias, and the arrhythmia scores compared to control during the reperfusion period. The DPCPX treatment alone did not affect the incidence and the duration of any type of arrhythmias. However, DPCPX aborted the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD when it was combined with it. The present results demonstrated that CBD has an antiarrhythmic effect against I/R-induced arrhythmias, and the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD may be mediated through the activation of adenosine

  10. Water Providers and Trade Groups Wake Up to Climate Change: Implications for the Research Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In just the last two years, U.S. water providers and water trade groups have begun to take notice of the impacts of climate change on their water systems and many now realize that they can no longer rely on climate stationarity for operations or for planning. In addition, many of these providers are facing additional stress from rapid population growth, aging infrastructure, emerging pollutants, required environmental flow releases, already allocated water supplies, and the need to mitigate their own, frequently significant, greenhouse gases. They are asking difficult questions of the scientific community about the quality and suitability of current climate theory, data and projections, especially in their region, for the purpose of decision making. Given the potentially very expensive adaptations such as constructing sea walls, building new reservoirs, or acquiring new water, they need answers sooner rather than later and are not about to wait while the normal pace of scientific discourse occurs. Some have already taken matters into their own hands: the American Water Works Research Foundation (soon to become the Water Research Foundation) has established a multi-year strategic initiative at $1m year to identify and fund research projects and is seeking at Congressional authorization for more funding. These entities have significant political resources and clout - the Water Utility Climate Alliance represents over 30m consumers in 5 key states and the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies serves more than 130m customers. These entities are very likely to demand more and higher quality results from the research and consulting communities in the very near future. How can and how should the scientific community engage with this critical set of stakeholders? How will research be impacted by these new players and demands? And what might the nation do to meet this critical need?

  11. Placental ischemia induces changes in gene expression in chorionic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Michael R.; Granger, Joey P.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious and common hypertensive complication of pregnancy, affecting ~5 to 8 % of pregnancies. The underlying cause of preeclampsia is believed to be placental ischemia, which causes secretion of pathogenic factors into the maternal circulation. While a number of these factors have been identified, it is likely that others remain to be elucidated. Here, we have utilized a relevant preclinical rodent model of placental ischemia-induced hypertension, the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model, to determine the effect of chronic placental ischemia on the underlying chorionic tissue and placental villi. Tissue from control and RUPP rats were isolated on gestational day 19 and mRNA from these tissues was subjected to microarray analysis to determine differential gene expression. At a statistical cutoff of p <0.05, some 2,557 genes were differentially regulated between the two groups. Interestingly, only a small subset (22) of these genes exhibited changes of greater than 50 % versus control, a large proportion of which were subsequently confirmed using qRT-PCR analysis. Network analysis indicated a strong effect on inflammatory pathways, including those involving NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. Of the most differentially expressed genes, the predominant gene classes were extracellular remodeling proteins, pro-inflammatory proteins, and a coordinated upregulation of the prolactin genes. The functional implications of these novel factors are discussed. PMID:24668059

  12. Recent Advances in Sarcopenia Research in Asia: 2016 Update From the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Arai, Hidenori; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress. The prevalence of sarcopenia estimated by the AWGS criteria ranges between 4.1% and 11.5% of the general older population; however, prevalence rates were higher in Asian studies that used European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People cut-offs. Risk factors include age, sex, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, daily alcohol consumption, and low protein or vitamin intake; physical activity is protective. Adjusting skeletal muscle mass by weight rather than height is better in showing the effect of older age in sarcopenia and identifying sarcopenic obesity; however, some Asian studies found no significant skeletal muscle loss, and muscle strength might be a better indicator. Although AWGS 2014 diagnostic cut-offs were generally well accepted, some may require further revision in light of conflicting evidence from some studies. The importance of sarcopenia in diverse therapeutic areas is increasingly evident, with strong research interest in sarcopenic obesity and the setting of malignancy. Pharmacologic interventions have been unsatisfactory, and the core management strategies remain physical exercise and nutritional supplementation; however, further research is required to determine the most beneficial approaches. PMID:27372539

  13. A Comparison of College Performance of Matched AP® and Non-AP Student Groups. Research Report No. 2009-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to compare the college performance of three groups of Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) students who took the AP Exam and either earned course credit, did not earn course credit, or earned course credit but elected to take the entry-level college course to three groups of Non-AP student groups matched on SAT…

  14. Science Research Group Leader's Power and Members' Compliance and Satisfaction with Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Yi; He, Jia; Luo, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the correlations between science research group members' perceptions of power bases used by their group (lab, team) leader (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent) and the effect of those perceptions on group members' attitudinal compliance, behavioral compliance, and satisfaction with supervision.…

  15. Sympathetic nervous response to ischemia-reperfusion injury in humans is altered with remote ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Elisabeth A; Thomas, Colleen J; Hemmes, Robyn; Eikelis, Nina; Pathak, Atul; Schlaich, Markus P; Lambert, Gavin W

    2016-08-01

    Sympathetic neural activation may be detrimentally involved in tissue injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We examined the effects of experimental IR in the forearm on sympathetic nerve response, finger reactive hyperemia, and oxidative stress, and the protection afforded by applying remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). Ischemia was induced in the forearm for 20 min in healthy volunteers. RIPC was induced by applying two cycles, 5 min each, of ischemia and reperfusion to the upper leg immediately before IR. We examined muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral leg using microneurography, finger reactive hyperemia [ischemic reactive hyperemia index (RHI)], erythrocyte production of reduced gluthathione (GSH), and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration. In controls (no RIPC; n = 15), IR increased MSNA in the early and late phase of ischemia (70% at 5 min; 101% at 15 min). In subjects who underwent RIPC (n = 15), the increase in MSNA was delayed to the late phase of ischemia and increased only by 40%. GSH increased during ischemia in the control group (P = 0.05), but not in those who underwent RIPC. Nitrate and nitrite concentration, taken as an index of NO availability, decreased during the reperfusion period in control individuals (P < 0.05), while no change was observed in those who underwent RIPC. Experimental IR did not affect RHI in the control condition, but a significant vasodilatory response occurred in the RIPC group (P < 0.05). RIPC attenuated ischemia-induced sympathetic activation, prevented the production of an erythrocyte marker of oxidative stress and the reduction of NO availability, and ameliorated RHI. PMID:27288436

  16. Folic acid deficiency increases delayed neuronal death, DNA damage, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity, and gliosis in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Suh, Hong-Won; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Kwon, Young-Guen; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-07-01

    Folic acid deficiency increases stroke risk. In the present study, we examined whether folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage and gliosis via oxidative stress in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 5 min. Exposure to an FAD increased plasma homocysteine levels by five- to eightfold compared with those of animals fed with a control diet (CD). In CD-treated animals, most neurons were dead in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas, in FAD-treated animals, this occurred 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was performed to examine DNA damage in CA1 neurons in both groups after ischemia, and it was found that 8-OHdG immunoreactivity in both FAD and CD groups peaked at 12 hr after reperfusion, although the immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much greater than that in the CD group. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; a final mediator of neutrophil transendothelial migration) immunoreactivity in both groups increased with time after ischemia/reperfusion: Its immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much higher than that in the CD group 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, reactive gliosis in the ischemic CA1 region increased with time after ischemia in both groups, but astrocytosis and microgliosis in the FAD group were more severe than in the CD group at all times after ischemia. Our results suggest that folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage induced by ischemia.

  17. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  18. Ischemic preconditioning inhibits expression of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Geum-Sil; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Seung Min; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Bae, Eun Joo; Yong, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul

    2015-04-15

    The participation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) in neuronal damage/death in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) induced by transient forebrain ischemia has not been well established, although acidosis may be involved in neuronal damage/death. In the present study, we examined the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on NHE1 immunoreactivity following a 5min of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. The animals used in the study were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated-group and IPC+ischemia-operated-group). IPC was induced by subjecting animals to 2min of ischemia followed by 1day of recovery. A significant neuronal loss was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the CA1, not the CA2/3, of the ischemia-operated-group at 5days post-ischemia. However, in the IPC+ischemia-operated-group, neurons in the SP of the CA1 were well protected. NHE1 immunoreactivity was not detected in any regions of the CA1-3 of the sham- and IPC+sham-operated-groups. However, the immunoreactivity was apparently expressed in the SP of the CA1-3 after ischemia, and the NHE1immunoreactivity was very weak 5days after ischemia; however, at this point in time, strong NHE1immunoreactivity was found in astrocytes in the CA1. In the CA2/3, NHE1immunoreactivity was slightly changed, although NHE1immunoreactivity was expressed in the SP. In the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, NHE1 immunoreactivity was also expressed in the SP of the CA1-3; however, the immunoreactivity was more slightly changed than that in the ischemia-operated-groups. In brief, our findings show that IPC dramatically protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and strongly inhibited NHE1 expression in the SP of the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NHE1 expression may be necessary for neuronal survival from transient ischemic damage.

  19. Mild Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Reduces the Susceptibility of the Heart to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: Identification of Underlying Gene Expression Changes

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Lehner, Alice; Li, Shiliang; Vater, Adrian; Radovits, Tamás; Hegedűs, Péter; Ruppert, Mihály; Brlecic, Paige; Zorn, Markus; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Despite clinical studies indicating that diabetic hearts are more sensitive to ischemia/reperfusion injury, experimental data is contradictory. Although mild diabetes prior to ischemia/reperfusion may induce a myocardial adaptation, further research is still needed. Nondiabetic Wistar (W) and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (16-week-old) underwent 45 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 24 h reperfusion. The plasma glucose level was significantly higher in diabetic rats compared to the nondiabetics. Diabetes mellitus was associated with ventricular hypertrophy and increased interstitial fibrosis. Inducing myocardial infarction increased the glucose levels in diabetic compared to nondiabetic rats. Furthermore, the infarct size was smaller in GK rats than in the control group. Systolic and diastolic functions were impaired in W + MI and did not reach statistical significance in GK + MI animals compared to the corresponding controls. Among the 125 genes surveyed, 35 genes showed a significant change in expression in GK + MI compared to W + MI rats. Short-term diabetes promotes compensatory mechanisms that may provide cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, at least in part, by increased antioxidants and the upregulation of the prosurvival PI3K/Akt pathway, by the downregulation of apoptotic genes, proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, profibrogenic TGF-β, and hypertrophic marker α-actin-1. PMID:26229969

  20. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  1. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  2. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    PubMed

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  3. [Ischemia-reperfusion myocardial injury].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Chávez, Edmundo

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we present some considerations on the myocardial damage due to a deficit of oxygen supply. In fact, this damage properly constitutes a partial diastolic depolarization or injury, i.e., a moderate reduction of the rest transmembrane potential. This phenomenon is characteristic of the acute phase of the myocardial infarction syndrome and is responsible for the main electrical manifestations appearing in this phase: disorders of rhythm and conduction, as well as a reduced contractility of the involved myocardial fibers. All the mentioned phenomena are due to a defect of the myocardial energetic mechanisms, owing to the mitochondrial alterations in myocytes: early reduction of the nicotinamide adenine nucleotides, accumulation of calcium ("calcium overload") into mitochondria, and a drop in oxidative phosphorylation. These changes can present again, more exaggerated, in a following phase of evolution of the myocardial infarction due to myocardial reperfusion. Its severity is related to the duration of the initial ischemia period. Moreover, consequences of the oxidative stress can add producing cellular damage by liberation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidant stress causes also alterations in the mitochondrial DNA, i.e., mutations due to oxidation of nitrogenous bases. During the initial ischemia phase, as well as during reperfusion, metabolic therapy can be very useful as, for example, glucose-insulin-potassium solutions (G-I-K). These could act as scavengers of the free radicals derived from oxygen and avoid or reduce the myocardial damage due to reperfused myocytes. Metabolic drugs, as for example trimetazidine, antioxidants, etc, can also be used in the myocardial reperfusion phase.

  4. Didactic Patterns for Electronic Materials in the Teaching of Interculturalism through Literature: The Experience of the Research Group LEETHi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azcarate, Asuncion Lopez-Varela

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive summary of a research project on blended learning in the Faculty of Arts at the University Complutense Madrid. The project was conducted as action research in 2002-06 by the research group LEETHi. LEETHi's projects focus on the teaching of literature from an intercultural perspective while helping to develop new media…

  5. UNFEASIBLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF NORMOTHERMIC HEPATIC ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION IN RATS USING THE PRINGLE MANEUVER

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, Helbert Minuncio Pereira; SERIGIOLLE, Leonardo Carvalho; RODRIGUES, Daren Athiê Boy; LOPES, Carolina Marques; STUDART, Sarah do Valle; LEME, Pedro Luiz Squilacci

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative result of a research does not always indicate failure, and when the data do not permit a proper conclusion, or are contrary to the initial project, should not simply be discarded and archived. Aim To report failure after performing experimental model of liver ischemia and reperfusion normothermic, continuous or intermittent, in small animals aiming at the study of biochemical and histological parameters after postoperative recovery. Methods Fifteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups of five animals each; all underwent surgery, the abdomen was sutured after the proposed procedures for each group and the animals were observed for 6 h or until they died, and then were reoperated. In Group 1, control (sham-operated): dissection of the hepatic hilum was performed; in Group 2: clamping of the hepatic hilum for 30 m; in Group 3: clamping of the hepatic hilum for 15 m, reperfusion for 5 m and another 15 m of clamping. Data from Groups 2 and 3 were compared with Student's t test. Results All animals of Group 1 survived for 6 h. Two animals in Group 2 died before the 6 h needed to validate the experiment; two did not recover from anesthesia and one survived until the end. In Group 3, four animals died before the 6 h established and one of them survived the required time. Only one animal in Group 2 and one in Group 3 survived and were able to accomplish the study. There was no statistical significance when the results of Groups 2 and 3 were compared (p>0.05). Conclusion The death of six animals before the necessary period of observation turned the initial proposal of the experiment unfeasible. PMID:25184771

  6. Ischemia and hepatic reperfusion: is it possible to reduce hepatic alterations?

    PubMed

    Lanteri, Raffaele; Greco, Raffaele; Licitra, Edelweiss; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Li Destri, Giovanni; Di Cataldo, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate liver damage after ischemia and reperfusion, and at the same time test the effectiveness of some drugs in preventing these alterations. For this study, we utilized 50 rats divided into four groups: three underwent hepatic ischemia through occlusion of the portal vein and hepatic artery for 30 min, and one underwent a sham operation. In all groups, hepatic enzymes and bilirubine were tested at 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 24 h, and 30 h. The drugs utilized were: L-arginine, donor of nitric oxide, and L-canavanine, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Our data showed that the drugs tested could make an improvement in hepatic function after ischemia/reperfusion, preventing its damage. These preliminary results could suggest a clinical application in order to prolong ischemic period during liver transplantation or liver resection in cirrhotic patients.

  7. Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane, Ed.; Beswick, Kim, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This is a record of the proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA). The theme of the conference is "Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice." The theme draws attention to the importance of developing and maintaining links between research and practice and ties in with…

  8. Testicular ischemia-reperfusion may alter micro-rheological parameters in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Norbert; Kiss, Ferenc; Klarik, Zoltan; Peto, Katalin; Vanyolos, Erzsebet; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion-caused hemorheological alterations have been widely studied but the effect of testicular ischemia-reperfusion has not so far. In this study 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were involved. In the ischemia-reperfusion group under general anaesthesia the left testis was explored by opening the scrotum then the deferent duct and vasculature were clamped for 30 minutes. Testicular microcirculation was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. The right testis was untouched. In the control group: only anaesthesia was induced. Blood sampling occurred before and after ischemia, at the 60th minute of reperfusion and on the 1st postoperative day for determining hematological parameters (microcell-counter), erythrocyte deformability (slit-flow ektacytometer) and erythrocyte aggregation (light-transmission aggregometer). After the last blood sampling, testicles were removed for histological examination. Hematological parameter changes reflected inflammatory response. Erythrocyte deformability showed a worsening already at the 60th minute of reperfusion compared to base and control values. By the 1st postoperative day further decrease was observed. Erythrocyte aggregation significantly enhanced with great magnitude versus base and control values (p < 0.001). However, conventional histological examinations did not show marked testicular injury. The experienced changes can attract attention to the testicular ischemia-reperfusion causing significant effects on hemorheological parameters, which can lead to further harmful microcirculatory consequences.

  9. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia’s score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia’s score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24259800

  10. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm.

  11. Quantifying QRS changes during myocardial ischemia: Insights from high frequency electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Amit, Guy; Granot, Yair; Abboud, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Over four decades of high frequency electrocardiography research have provided a body of knowledge about QRS changes during myocardial ischemia, and the techniques to measure and quantify them. High-frequency QRS (HFQRS) components, being closely related to the pattern of ventricular depolarization, carry valuable clinical information. Changes in HFQRS amplitude and morphology have been shown to be sensitive diagnostic markers of myocardial ischemia, often superior to measures of ST-T segment changes. Clinical studies in patients undergoing exercise testing have consistently demonstrated the incremental diagnostic value of HFQRS analysis in detection of demand ischemia. In 6 studies that evaluated the HyperQ™ technology, the average sensitivity and specificity of HFQRS analysis were 75%±6% and 80%±6%, respectively, compared to average sensitivity 48%±16% and average specificity 70%±15% of ST segment analysis. In patients with acute supply ischemia, recent studies characterized and quantified the ischemic HFQRS patterns. HFQRS morphology index was found to be higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), compared to non-ischemic, with good sensitivity in patients without ST elevation. These research findings may be translated into commercially-available ECG systems and be used in clinical practice for improved diagnosis and monitoring of myocardial ischemia.

  12. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  13. Relationship between Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio and Electrocardiographic Ischemia Grade in STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Yalcinkaya, Emre; Yuksel, Uygar Cagdas; Celik, Murat; Kabul, Hasan Kutsi; Barcin, Cem; Yalcin, Gokoglan; Yildirim, Erkan; Iyisoy, Atila

    2015-01-01

    Background Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been found to be a good predictor of future adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Changes in the QRS terminal portion have also been associated with adverse outcomes following STEMI. Objective To investigate the relationship between ECG ischemia grade and NLR in patients presenting with STEMI, in order to determine additional conventional risk factors for early risk stratification. Methods Patients with STEMI were investigated. The grade of ischemia was analyzed from the ECG performed on admission. White blood cells and subtypes were measured as part of the automated complete blood count (CBC) analysis. Patients were classified into two groups according to the ischemia grade presented on the admission ECG, as grade 2 ischemia (G2I) and grade 3 ischemia (G3I). Results Patients with G3I had significantly lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction than those in G2I (44.58 ± 7.23 vs. 48.44 ± 7.61, p = 0.001). As expected, in-hospital mortality rate increased proportionally with the increase in ischemia grade (p = 0.036). There were significant differences in percentage of lymphocytes (p = 0.010) and percentage of neutrophils (p = 0.004), and therefore, NLR was significantly different between G2I and G3I patients (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only NLR was the independent variable with a significant effect on ECG ischemia grade (odds ratio = 1.254, 95% confidence interval 1.120–1.403, p < 0.001). Conclusion We found an association between G3I and elevated NLR in patients with STEMI. We believe that such an association might provide an additional prognostic value for risk stratification in patients with STEMI when combined with standardized risk scores. PMID:25424159

  14. Ischemia-modified albumin in type 2 diabetic patients with and without peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Shao-gang; WEI, Chun-ling; HONG, Bing; YU, Wei-nan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between serum ischemia-modified albumin and the risk factor profile in type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease and to identify the risk markers for peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: Participants included 290 patients (35.2% women) with type 2 diabetes. The ankle-brachial pressure index was measured using a standard protocol, and peripheral arterial disease was defined as an ankle-brachial index <0.90 or ≥1.3. The basal ischemia-modified albumin levels and clinical parameters were measured and analyzed. The risk factors for peripheral arterial disease were examined by multiple logistic analyses. RESULTS: Age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, urine albumin, homocysteine, and ischemia-modified albumin were significantly higher in patients with peripheral arterial disease than in disease-free patients (p<0.05), while ankle-brachial index was lower in the former group (p<0.05). Ischemia-modified albumin was positively associated with HbA1c and homocysteine levels (r = 0.220, p = 0.030; r = 0.446, p = 0.044, respectively), while no correlation was found with ankle-brachial index. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, homocysteine and ischemia-modified albumin were independent risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in the diabetic subjects. CONCLUSION: The baseline ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly higher and positively associated with HbA1c and homocysteine levels in type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease. Ischemia-modified albumin was a risk marker for peripheral arterial disease. Taken together, these results might be helpful for monitoring diabetic peripheral arterial disease. PMID:22012037

  15. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on a Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Martín-Solé, Oriol; Rodó, Joan; García-Aparicio, Lluís; Blanch, Josep; Cusí, Victoria; Albert, Asteria

    2016-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute renal failure, causing renal cell death, a permanent decrease of renal blood flow, organ dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product rich in growth factors, and therefore able to promote tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. This product has proven its efficacy in multiple studies, but has not yet been tested on kidney tissue. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the application of PRP to rat kidneys undergoing ischemia-reperfusion reduces mid-term kidney damage. A total of 30 monorrenal Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent renal ischemia-reperfusion for 45 minutes. During ischemia, PRP (PRP Group, n = 15) or saline solution (SALINE Group, n = 15) was administered by subcapsular renal injection. Control kidneys were the contralateral organs removed immediately before the start of ischemia in the remaining kidneys. Survival, body weight, renal blood flow on Doppler ultrasound, kidney weight, kidney volume, blood biochemistry and histopathology were determined for all subjects and kidneys, as applicable. Correlations between these variables were searched for. The PRP Group showed significantly worse kidney blood flow (p = 0.045) and more histopathological damage (p<0.0001). Correlations were found between body weight, kidney volume, kidney weight, renal blood flow, histology, and serum levels of creatinine and urea. Our study provides the first evidence that treatment with PRP results in the deterioration of the kidney's response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27551718

  16. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on a Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Solé, Oriol; Rodó, Joan; García-Aparicio, Lluís; Blanch, Josep; Cusí, Victoria; Albert, Asteria

    2016-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute renal failure, causing renal cell death, a permanent decrease of renal blood flow, organ dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product rich in growth factors, and therefore able to promote tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. This product has proven its efficacy in multiple studies, but has not yet been tested on kidney tissue. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the application of PRP to rat kidneys undergoing ischemia-reperfusion reduces mid-term kidney damage. A total of 30 monorrenal Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent renal ischemia-reperfusion for 45 minutes. During ischemia, PRP (PRP Group, n = 15) or saline solution (SALINE Group, n = 15) was administered by subcapsular renal injection. Control kidneys were the contralateral organs removed immediately before the start of ischemia in the remaining kidneys. Survival, body weight, renal blood flow on Doppler ultrasound, kidney weight, kidney volume, blood biochemistry and histopathology were determined for all subjects and kidneys, as applicable. Correlations between these variables were searched for. The PRP Group showed significantly worse kidney blood flow (p = 0.045) and more histopathological damage (p<0.0001). Correlations were found between body weight, kidney volume, kidney weight, renal blood flow, histology, and serum levels of creatinine and urea. Our study provides the first evidence that treatment with PRP results in the deterioration of the kidney’s response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27551718

  17. Vascular Protection Following Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Palomares, Sara Morales; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research that has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of stroke, translation of this knowledge into effective therapies has largely failed. The only effective treatment for ischemic stroke is rapid recanalization of an occluded vessel by dissolving the clot with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, stroke adversely affects vascular function as well that can cause secondary brain injury and limit treatment that depends on a patent vasculature. In middle cerebral arteries (MCA), ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) cause loss of myogenic tone, vascular paralysis, and endothelial dysfunction that can lead to loss of autoregulation. In contrast, brain parenchymal arterioles retain considerable tone during I/R that likely contributes to expansion of the infarct into the penumbra. Microvascular dysregulation also occurs during ischemic stroke that causes edema and hemorrhage, exacerbating the primary insult. Ischemic injury of vasculature is progressive with longer duration of I/R. Early postischemic reperfusion has beneficial effects on stroke outcome but can impair vascular function and exacerbate ischemic injury after longer durations of I/R. This review focuses on current knowledge on the effects of I/R on the structure and function of different vascular segments in the brain and highlight some of the more promising targets for vascular protection. PMID:22102980

  18. Nerve Protective Effect of Asiaticoside against Ischemia-Hypoxia in Cultured Rat Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Bin; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background Asiaticoside is one of the main functional components of the natural plant Centella asiatica urban. Studies have reported it has several functions such as anti-depression and nerve cell protection. Asiaticoside can reduce the cerebral infarct size in acute focal cerebral ischemia in a mouse model and asiatic acid glycosides can significantly improve neurobehavioral scores. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of asiaticoside in regard to its neural protective mechanism in cerebral ischemia. This study aimed to solve this problem by using an ischemia-hypoxia cell model in vitro. Material/Methods An in vitro ischemia hypoxia cell model was successfully established by primary cultured newborn rat cortical neurons. After being treated by asiaticoside for 24 h, cell survival rate, lactate dehydrogenase release quantity, and B-cell lymphoma gene-2 (BCL-2), Bax, and caspase-3 protein expressions was detected. Results After 10 nmol/L or 100 nmol/L of asiaticoside were given to the cells, cell survival rate increased significantly and presented concentration dependence. Asiaticoside can reduce lactate dehydrogenase release. Lactate dehydrogenase release in model cells is gradually reduced with the increase of asiaticoside concentration. The lactate dehydrogenase release in asiaticoside 10 nmol/L group, asiaticoside 100 nmol/L group and ischemia hypoxia group were 26.75±1.05, 22.36±2.87 and 52.35±5.46%, respectively (p<0.05). It was also found that asiaticoside could modulate the expression of apoptotic factors, including bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. Conclusions Asiaticoside helps to protect in vitro ischemia hypoxia neurons. This nerve cell protection may be mediated by the BCL-2 protein. PMID:26447863

  19. Researching the mental health needs of hard-to-reach groups: managing multiple sources of evidence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Common mental health problems impose substantial challenges to patients, carers, and health care systems. A range of interventions have demonstrable efficacy in improving the lives of people experiencing such problems. However many people are disadvantaged, either because they are unable to access primary care, or because access does not lead to adequate help. New methods are needed to understand the problems of access and generate solutions. In this paper we describe our methodological approach to managing multiple and diverse sources of evidence, within a research programme to increase equity of access to high quality mental health services in primary care. Methods We began with a scoping review to identify the range and extent of relevant published material, and establish key concepts related to access. We then devised a strategy to collect - in parallel - evidence from six separate sources: a systematic review of published quantitative data on access-related studies; a meta-synthesis of published qualitative data on patient perspectives; dialogues with local stakeholders; a review of grey literature from statutory and voluntary service providers; secondary analysis of patient transcripts from previous qualitative studies; and primary data from interviews with service users and carers. We synthesised the findings from these diverse sources, made judgements on key emerging issues in relation to needs and services, and proposed a range of potential interventions. These proposals were debated and refined using iterative electronic and focus group consultation procedures involving international experts, local stakeholders and service users. Conclusions Our methods break new ground by generating and synthesising multiple sources of evidence, connecting scientific understanding with the perspectives of users, in order to develop innovative ways to meet the mental health needs of under-served groups. PMID:20003275

  20. 42nd Congress of the "Groupe Français des Pesticides" (French Group of Pesticide research--GFP 2012) ENSIP, Poitiers, France, 30 May-1 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Jean-François; Couderchet, Michel; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    The 42nd congress of the "Groupe Français des Pesticides" (French Group of Pesticide research--GFP 2012) took place 30 May-1 June at the "École Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Poitiers" (ENSIP), a French generalist engineering grande école in Poitiers. Its focus is on the protection of the environment and is part of the University of Poitiers, one of the oldest universities in Europe. GFP is an annual conference where the latest developments in the field of pesticide research are presented. The topics most commonly discussed mainly concern environmental quality, monitoring, fate, and transfer of pesticides in the environment or risks associated with use of pesticides, but every year a key theme sets the tone. For this 42nd edition, the theme "Innovative strategies for plant protection" was retained.

  1. Heat tolerant fungi and applied research: Addition to the previously treated group of strictly thermotolerant species.

    PubMed

    Mouchacca, Jean

    2007-12-01

    Heat tolerant fungi are organisms that may perform bioconversion processes and produce industrially important metabolites. They may either be obligate thermophiles or simple thermotolerants. The present document is the continuation of a critical note on thermotolerant fungi erroneously reported in the literature as possessing thermophilic attributes. Fifty strictly thermotolerant taxa are here considered. Some of their binomials have only recently been introduced in the scientific literature. The reported thermotolerant species are grouped according to broad taxonomic categories. The nomenclature of zygomycetous taxa and anamorphic fungi is straightforward, as usually only one binomial is available or only one state is produced in culture respectively. For Ascomycetes regularly producing in culture a conidial state, the name of the sexual state (teleomorph) should be used to designate the organism even when a binomial is available for the anamorph; this prevents the practice of interchangeably using the name of either states of the same fungus. When ascomycetous taxa produce the anamorph regularly and the teleomorph only under specific cultural conditions, the name of the anamorph could be preferentially selected. The goal is to introduce uniformity in name citations of fungi, particularly in the literature of applied research. Each species is reported under its taxonomically correct name, either the original binomial or the latest combined binomial after generic transfer(s). Known synonyms are also specified. Maximum efforts were undertaken to trace updated information on the taxonomic position of these fifty strict thermotolerant species. For each, information on the type material, morphological features distinguishing it from related members of the genus (and when necessary a generic taxonomic assessment) and, finally, salient ecological features including heat tolerance levels are given. For some information on their biotechnological use is also provided

  2. Evaluating Experimental Elements and Stimulating Research in the Teaching of Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Filer, Rex D.

    1991-01-01

    Devised method for evaluating the experiential elements used in teaching group counseling. Analyzed questionnaire administered to group theories class and group dynamics class. Findings suggest that, in general, the experiential strategies were perceived by students as useful in learning group counseling concepts. (Author/PVV)

  3. Assesment of Myocardial Ischemia by Combination of Tissue Synchronisation Imaging and Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Aksakal, Enbiya; Gurlertop, Yekta; Simsek, Ziya; Gundogdu, Fuat; Sevimli, Serdar; Bakirci, Eftal Murat; Karakelleoglu, Sule

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is an important non-invasive imaging method for evaluating ischemia. However, wall motion interpretation can be impaired by the experience level of the interpreter and the subjectivity of the visual assessment. In our study we aimed to combine DSE and tissue syncronisation imaging to increase sensitivity for detecting ischemia. Subjects and Methods 50 patients with indications for DSE were included in the study. In 25 patients we found DSE positive for ischemia and in the other 25 patients we found it to be negative. The negative group was accepted as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of risk factors and echocardiographic parameters between the two groups, except for wall motion scores. In both groups, left ventricular dyssychrony was accepted as the difference between time to peak systolic velocity (Ts) in the reciprocal four couple of non-apical segments at rest and during peak stress. Timings were corrected for heart rate. We compared the differences of the dyssynchronisation value at rest and during peak stress to determine the distinctions within the groups and between the groups of DSE positive and negative patients. Results We found that stress and ischemia did not create any significant difference over the left intraventricular dyssynchrony with DSE, although at the segmenter level it prolonged the time to peak systolic velocity (p<0.05). These alterations did not show any significant difference between positive and negative DSE groups. Conclusion As a result, this segmenter dyssynchrony and the time to peak systolic velocity, which is corrected for heart rate, did not enhance any new value over DSE for detecting ischemia. PMID:23882287

  4. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans.

  5. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans. PMID:26892502

  6. Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ferulago angulata Improves Memory and Pain in Brain Hypoperfusion Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mirzapour, Sahar; Rafieirad, Maryam; Rouhi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cerebral ischemia causes some disorders in behavioral patterns, including memory disorders and pain, which is due to the production of free radicals. Ferulago angulata, known in Iran as chavir, contains some bioactive compounds having antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of F. angulate (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) on pain as well as active and passive avoidance memories after permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion or cerebral ischemia/hypoperfusion in male adult rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 35 male rats were randomly allocated to test and control groups. To make animal model of permanent cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia, carotid arteries were ligatured as upper and lower and cut bilaterally. Results: It was found that the administration of 400 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of F. angulate for two weeks after brain hypoperfusion ischemia increased the passive avoidance memory (P < 0.001) and latency time of painful tail reflex significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Ferulago angulata extract, because of its antioxidant activities, is probably capable of removing free radicals and oxidant substances from brain and thus it can improve behavioral disorders in brain hypoperfusion ischemia model. PMID:25866714

  7. Recombinant Fv-Hsp70 protein mediates neuroprotection after focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xinhua; Ander, Bradley P; Liao, Isaac H; Hansen, James E; Kim, Chester; Clements, Douglas; Weisbart, Richard H; Nishimura, Robert N; Sharp, Frank R

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study investigated the effects of intravenous recombinant Fv-Hsp70 protein on infarction volume and behavior following experimental ischemic stroke. Methods Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by occluding the middle cerebral artery (MCA) using the intraluminal suture technique. Rats subjected to 2 hours of focal ischemia were allowed to survive 24 h. At 2 ¼ h and 3 h after onset of ischemia, Fv-Hsp70 recombinant protein (0.5 mg / kg) or saline was injected via the tail vein. Sensory-motor function and infarction volume were assessed at 24 h following ischemia. Results Administration of Fv-Hsp70 following focal cerebral ischemia significantly decreased infarct volume by 68% and significantly improved sensory-motor function compared to the saline-treated control group. Western blots showed Fv-Hsp70 in ischemic but not in control brain; and Fv-Hsp70 suppressed endogenous Hsp70. Conclusion Fv-Hsp70 protects ischemic brain in this experimental stroke model. PMID:20075343

  8. Hypoxic radioprotection by temporary intestinal ischemia: degradable starch microsphere embolization in the cat

    SciTech Connect

    Lote, K.

    1981-11-01

    Temporary small intestinal ischemia was induced by mesenteric arteriolar embolization of degradable starch microspheres in cats. During ischemia, the small intestine received a surface dose of 7 Gy 200 kV x-ray irradiation. One group of animals also had received 7 Gy to the intact abdomen 72 hr earlier. The risk of thrombosis in small intestinal vessels during or after starch microsphere-induced ischemia combined with irradiation was evaluated by monitoring superior mesenteric arterial blood flow, by determination of blood platelets, fibrinogen, and factor VIII consumed across the mesenteric vascular bed, and by histologic examination of small intestinal vessels. Vascular integrity was inferred from intact response to isoproterenol and vasopressin after the combined trauma of ischemia and irradiation. No signs of thrombosis were detected in small intestinal vessels after temporary ischemia and irradiation. Hypoxic radioprotection of the small intestine in the cat can thus be achieved by mesenteric arterial microembolization of degradable starch spheres without evidence of thrombotic complications or significant vascular damage.

  9. Hypoxic radioprotection by temporary intestinal ischemia: degradable starch microsphere embolization in the cat

    SciTech Connect

    Lote, K.

    1981-01-01

    Temporary small intestinal ischemia was induced by mesenteric arteriolar embolization of degradable starch microspheres in cats. During ischemia, the small intestine received a surface dose of 7 Gy 200 kV x-ray irradiation. One group of animals also had received 7 Gy to the intact abdomen 72 hr earlier. The risk of thrombosis in small intestinal vessels during or after starch microsphere-induced ischemia combined with irradiation was evaluated by monitoring superior mesenteric arterial blood flow, by determination of blood platelets, fibrinogen, and factor VIII consumed across the mesenteric vascular bed, and by histologic examination of small intestinal vessels. Vascular integrity was inferred from intact response to isoproterenol and vasopressin after the combined trauma of ischemia and irradiation. No signs of thrombosis were detected in small intestinal vessels after temporary ischemia and irradiation. Hypoxic radioprotection of the small intestine in the cat can thus be achieved by mesenteric arterial microembolization of degradable starch spheres without evidence of thrombotic complications of significant vascular damage.

  10. Psychological Research Online: Report of Board of Scientific Affairs' Advisory Group on the Conduct of Research on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraut, Robert; Olson, Judith; Banaji, Mahzarin; Bruckman, Amy; Cohen, Jeffrey; Couper, Mick

    2004-01-01

    As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research. Psychologists can observe new or rare phenomena online and can do research on traditional psychological topics more efficiently, enabling them to expand the scale and scope of their research. Yet these…

  11. A Model of Research Group Microclimate: Environmental and Cultural Factors Affecting the Experiences of Overseas Research Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Researchers from outside the European Union represent an increasing proportion of the UK doctoral student body. However, relatively little research exists on their experience from their own perspective. This research, based on interviews with students from a range of countries and scientific and engineering disciplines, seeks to address that…

  12. Defining the Collateral Flow of Posterior Tibial Artery and Dorsalis Pedis Artery in Ischemic Foot Disease: Is It a Preventing Factor for Ischemia?

    PubMed Central

    Tutar, Onur; Yildirim, Duzgun; Samanci, Cesur; Rafiee, Babak; Inan, Kaan; Dikici, Suleyman; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Kuyumcu, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Critical limb ischemia, a worldwide prevalent morbidity cause, is mostly secondary to vascular insufficiency due to atherosclerosis. The disease presents with intermittent claudication, which can progress to critical limb ischemia requiring amputation. Research has emphasized that the quality or existence of the pedal arch have a direct effect on wound healing and, therefore, on limb salvage, through the mechanism of collateral vascularization to the ischemic regions. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the existence and, if present, grade of retrograde blood flow from plantar arch to dorsal foot artery (dorsalis pedis artery, DPA). The correlation between clinical symptoms and presence of collateral flow were also investigated. Patients and Methods: Study group consisted of 34 cases, which included patient group (n = 17, all male, mean age: 68 years) and control group (n = 17, all male, mean age: 66 years). After physical examination and lower extremity Doppler examination, spectral morphology of DPA flow was recorded, before and during manual compression of posterior tibial artery (PTA), for a period of 5 seconds. At the end, findings of Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography and, physical examination finding and symptomatology were gathered and analyzed. Results: In the patient group, 31 lower limb arteries, of total of 17 cases, were included. After compression maneuver, DPA in 11 cases (six right, five left) showed retrograde filling from plantar arch. This retrograde flow support was triphasic in three cases, biphasic in five cases, and monophasic in three cases. In other DPAs of these 20 limbs, PTA based retrograde collateral flow was not determined. In nine of these 20 limbs, with no or diminished retrograde filling, symptoms were worse than in other cases. Contrarily, only two of 11 limbs, with retrograde collaterals, have claudication during walking. Conclusion: In cases with critical

  13. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on the expression of c-myb in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Young; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Chan Woo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present study, we investigated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on c-myb immunoreactivity as well as neuronal damage/death after a subsequent lethal transient ischemia in gerbils. Materials and Methods: IPC was subjected to a 2 min sublethal ischemia and a lethal transient ischemia was given 5 min transient ischemia. The animals in all of the groups were given recovery times of 1 day, 2 days and 5 days and we examined change in c-myb immunoreactivity as well as neuronal damage/death in the hippocampus induced by a lethal transient ischemia. Results: A lethal transient ischemia induced a significant loss of cells in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region at 5 days post-ischemia, and this insult showed that c-myb immunoreactivity in cells of the SP of the CA1 region was significantly decreased at 2 days post-ischemia and disappeared at 5 days post-ischemia. However, IPC effectively prevented the neuronal loss in the SP and showed that c-myb immunoreactivity was constitutively maintained in the SP after a lethal transient ischemia. Conclusion: Our results show that a lethal transient ischemia significantly decreased c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region and that IPC well preserved c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region. We suggest that the maintenance of c-myb might be related with IPC-mediated neuroprotection after a lethal ischemic insult. PMID:27482343

  14. Investigating the potential for ethnic group harm in collaborative genomics research in Africa: Is ethnic stigmatisation likely?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jantina; Jallow, Muminatou; Williams, Thomas N.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in genomics research is that the use of ethnic categories has the potential to lead to ethnic stigmatisation – particularly when the research is done on minority populations. Yet few empirical studies have sought to investigate the relation between genomics and stigma, and fewer still with a focus on Africa. In this paper, we investigate the potential for genomics research to lead to harms to ethnic groups. We carried out 49 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with stakeholders in a current medical genomics research project in Africa, MalariaGEN. Interviews were conducted with MalariaGEN researchers, fieldworkers, members of three ethics committees who reviewed MalariaGEN project proposals, and with members of the two funding bodies providing support to the MalariaGEN project. Interviews were conducted in Kenya, The Gambia and the UK between June 2008 and October 2009. They covered a range of aspects relating to the use of ethnicity in the genomics project, including views on adverse effects of the inclusion of ethnicity in such research. Drawing on the empirical data, we argue that the risk of harm to ethnic groups is likely to be more acute in specific types of genomics research. We develop a typology of research questions and projects that carry a greater risk of harm to the populations included in genomics research. We conclude that the potential of generating harm to ethnic groups in genomics research is present if research includes populations that are already stigmatised or discriminated against, or where the research investigates questions with particular normative implications. We identify a clear need for genomics researchers to take account of the social context of the work they are proposing to do, including understanding the local realities and relations between ethnic groups, and whether diseases are already stigmatised. PMID:22749442

  15. Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dworrak, Birgit; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Lucia, Alejandro; Buck, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, echocardiography has emerged as a dominant and indispensable technique for the detection and assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, we will describe and discuss this powerful tool of cardiology, especially in the hands of an experienced user, with a focus on myocardial ischemia. Technical development is still on-going, and various new ultrasound techniques have been established in the field of echocardiography in the last several years, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), contrast echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE), and speckle tracking echocardiography (i.e., strain/strain rate-echocardiography). High-end equipment with harmonic imaging, high frame rates and the opportunity to adjust mechanical indices has improved imaging quality. Like all new techniques, these techniques must first be subjected to comprehensive scientific assessment, and appropriate training that accounts for physical and physiological limits should be provided. These limits will constantly be redefined as echocardiographic techniques continue to change, which will present new challenges for the further development of ultrasound technology. PMID:27500160

  16. Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Leischik, Roman; Dworrak, Birgit; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Lucia, Alejandro; Buck, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund

    2016-07-01

    Over the last 60 years, echocardiography has emerged as a dominant and indispensable technique for the detection and assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, we will describe and discuss this powerful tool of cardiology, especially in the hands of an experienced user, with a focus on myocardial ischemia. Technical development is still on-going, and various new ultrasound techniques have been established in the field of echocardiography in the last several years, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), contrast echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE), and speckle tracking echocardiography (i.e., strain/strain rate-echocardiography). High-end equipment with harmonic imaging, high frame rates and the opportunity to adjust mechanical indices has improved imaging quality. Like all new techniques, these techniques must first be subjected to comprehensive scientific assessment, and appropriate training that accounts for physical and physiological limits should be provided. These limits will constantly be redefined as echocardiographic techniques continue to change, which will present new challenges for the further development of ultrasound technology. PMID:27500160

  17. Effect of regional myocardial ischemia on sympathetic nervous system as assessed by fluorine-18-metaraminol

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, M.; Guibourg, H.; Rosenspire, K.; McClanahan, T.; Gallagher, K.; Hutchins, G.; Wieland, D.M. )

    1990-08-01

    With the introduction of radiolabeled catecholamine analogues, the noninvasive evaluation of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system has become possible. This study evaluated the effect of regional ischemia on myocardial retention of the new norepinephrine analogue 6-({sup 18}F) fluorometaraminol (FMR) in the open chest dog model. Six dogs were injected intravenously with FMR following 30-min occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. Six sham animals served as control group. Regional myocardial blood flow as determined by microspheres decreased 87% during ischemia (p less than 0.01), but was not significantly different from control myocardium following reperfusion. Regional myocardial 18F activity as determined postmortem was significantly reduced in reperfused myocardium (-34%), which paralleled an 18% reduction of tissue norepinephrine concentration. Thus, short time periods of coronary occlusion affect neuronal function indicating the sensitivity of the sympathetic nerve terminals to ischemia. FMR provides a new tracer approach for the characterization of neuronal integrity in postischemic myocardium.

  18. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. PMID:24051215

  19. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  20. Digitization as a Method of Preservation? Final Report of a Working Group of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Hartmut; Dorr, Marianne

    The German Research Association (DFG) is actively involved in preservation of research materials; it takes the view that in preservation, the enormous potential of digitization for access should be combined with the stability of microfilm for long-term storage. A working group was convened to investigate the technical state of digitization of…

  1. Having Friends--They Help You when You Are Stuck from Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the lived experiences and friendships of a small group of people with a learning disability who live without support in one of the most deprived areas in the UK. The findings are from an inclusive research project, that was named "Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet" and the participants who researched their own lives become…

  2. Heart Rate Variability for the Early Detection of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J Michael

    2016-06-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia is considered the leading cause of death or major disability in subarachnoid hemorrhage after the impact of the initial event and rebleeding. Waiting to treat patients until they exhibit clinical symptoms of ischemia is too late to prevent cerebral infarction for more than 60% of patients, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography has not proven to be a reliable screening tool to identify high-risk patients. Continuous heart rate variability monitoring may provide an alternative screening strategy to identify patients at high risk for delayed cerebral ischemia. Heart rate variability is a composite reflection of autonomic outflow, neuroendocrine influences, and autonomic responsiveness. Most importantly, heart rate variability is responsive to changes in systemic inflammation, which evidence suggests is important to the causal pathway of delayed cerebral ischemia. The clinical application of continuous heart rate variability monitoring in critical care is relatively recent despite its existence for more than 50 years. Initial studies suggest promise for heart rate variability monitoring as a delayed cerebral ischemia screening tool, but significant research is still required before this approach may achieve clinical applicability and bring benefit to patients. PMID:27258451

  3. The CB1 antagonist, SR141716A, is protective in permanent photothrombotic cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Zachary Wilmer; Li, Hongbo; Ward, Sara Jane; Tuma, Ronald F

    2016-09-01

    Modulation of the endocannabinoid system has been shown to have a significant impact on outcomes in animal models of stroke. We have previously reported a protective effect of the CB1 antagonist, SR141716A, in a transient reperfusion mouse model of cerebral ischemia. This protective effect was in part mediated by activation of the 5HT1A receptor. Here we have examined its effect in a mouse model of permanent ischemia induced by photoinjury. The CB1 antagonist was found to be protective in this model. As was the case following transient ischemia reperfusion, SR141716A (5mg/kg) resulted in smaller infarct fractions and stroke volumes when utilized both as a pretreatment and as a post-treatment. In contrast to the effect in a transient ischemia model, the pretreatment effect did not depend on the 5HT1A receptor. Neurological function correlated favorably to the reduction in stroke size when SR141716A was given as a pretreatment. With the incidence of stroke predicted to rise in parallel with an ever aging population, understanding mechanisms underlying ischemia and therapeutics remains a paramount goal of research. PMID:27453059

  4. Panic attack triggering myocardial ischemia documented by myocardial perfusion imaging study. A case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chest pain, a key element in the investigation of coronary artery disease is often regarded as a benign prognosis when present in panic attacks. However, panic disorder has been suggested as an independent risk factor for long-term prognosis of cardiovascular diseases and a trigger of acute myocardial infarction. Objective Faced with the extreme importance in differentiate from ischemic to non-ischemic chest pain, we report a case of panic attack induced by inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide triggering myocardial ischemia, documented by myocardial perfusion imaging study. Discussion Panic attack is undoubtedly a strong component of mental stress. Patients with coronary artery disease may present myocardial ischemia in mental stress response by two ways: an increase in coronary vasomotor tone or a sympathetic hyperactivity leading to a rise in myocardial oxygen consumption. Coronary artery spasm was presumed to be present in cases of cardiac ischemia linked to panic disorder. Possibly the carbon dioxide challenge test could trigger myocardial ischemia by the same mechanisms. Conclusion The use of mental stress has been suggested as an alternative method for myocardial ischemia investigation. Based on translational medicine objectives the use of CO2 challenge followed by Sestamibi SPECT could be a useful method to allow improved application of research-based knowledge to the medical field, specifically at the interface of PD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22999016

  5. Analysis of temporal dynamics in imagery during acute limb ischemia and reperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Regan, John; Spain, Tammy A.; Caruso, Joseph D.; Rodriquez, Maricela; Luthra, Rajiv; Forsberg, Jonathon; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion injuries present major challenges for both military and civilian medicine. Improved methods for assessing the effects and predicting outcome could guide treatment decisions. Specific issues related to ischemia and reperfusion injury can include complications arising from tourniquet use, such as microvascular leakage in the limb, loss of muscle strength and systemic failures leading to hypotension and cardiac failure. Better methods for assessing the viability of limbs/tissues during ischemia and reducing complications arising from reperfusion are critical to improving clinical outcomes for at-risk patients. The purpose of this research is to develop and assess possible prediction models of outcome for acute limb ischemia using a pre-clinical model. Our model relies only on non-invasive imaging data acquired from an animal study. Outcome is measured by pathology and functional scores. We explore color, texture, and temporal features derived from both color and thermal motion imagery acquired during ischemia and reperfusion. The imagery features form the explanatory variables in a model for predicting outcome. Comparing model performance to outcome prediction based on direct observation of blood chemistry, blood gas, urinalysis, and physiological measurements provides a reference standard. Initial results show excellent performance for the imagery-base model, compared to predictions based direct measurements. This paper will present the models and supporting analysis, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  6. Autophagy activation attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Li; Cui, Li-Yan; Yang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a common clinical complication but lacks effective therapies. This study investigated the role of autophagy in renal I/R injury and explored potential mechanisms in an established rat renal I/R injury model. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, I/R, I/R pretreated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor), or I/R pretreated with rapamycin (autophagy activator). All rats were subjected to clamping of the left renal pedicle for 45 min after right nephrectomy, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The Sham group underwent the surgical procedure without ischemia. 3-MA and rapamycin were injected 15 min before ischemia. Renal function was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Tissue samples from the kidneys were scored histopathologically. Autophagy was indicated by light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, and p62 levels and the number of autophagic vacuoles. Apoptosis was evaluated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and expression of caspase-3. Autophagy was activated after renal I/R injury. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA before I/R aggravated renal injury, with worsened renal function, higher renal tissue injury scores, and more tubular apoptosis. In contrast, rapamycin pretreatment ameliorated renal injury, with improved renal function, lower renal tissue injury scores, and inhibited apoptosis based on fewer TUNEL-positive cells and lower caspase-3 expression. Our results demonstrate that autophagy could be activated during I/R injury and play a protective role in renal I/R injury. The mechanisms were involved in the regulation of several autophagy and apoptosis-related genes. Furthermore, autophagy activator may be a promising therapy for I/R injury and AKI in the future. PMID:25898836

  7. From research to self-reflection: learning about ourselves as academics through a support group's resistance to our intervention.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Courtney Lynam; Mattson, Marifran

    2012-01-01

    Purdue University's Center for Healthcare Engineering developed a computer-assisted technology hub (CATHUB) designed to aid individuals with disabilities. Upon realizing the lack of input from the very individuals they were trying to help, Marifran approached the developers of CATHUB and offered to engage a group of amputees to aid in the design and implementation of the hub. In this essay, Courtney and Marifran recount, each from their own perspective, their experiences working with Amputees in Action as participants in their research project. Ultimately the researchers discovered their research agenda was not compatible with the amputees' needs, resulting in enlightened self-reflection by the researchers and abandonment of the research project.

  8. Arts and Learning Research, 1994. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, Louisiana, April 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Lorrie, Ed.; Morbey, Mary Leigh, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The research papers gathered in this volume were presented at the 1994 meeting of the American Educational Research Association as part of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group program. Papers collected in the volume represent an eclectic view of arts education and include music education. Following an editorial, papers are: "Arts and…

  9. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on antioxidant status in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Min; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, In Hye

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a condition of sublethal transient global ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective effects against subsequent lethal ischemic insult. We, in this study, examined the neuroprotective effects of IPC and its effects on immunoreactive changes of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of animals died 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC (8.6% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group); however, IPC prevented the pyramidal neurons from subsequent lethal ischemic injury (92.3% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group). SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals were easily detected in pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region, while all of these immunoreactivities were rarely detected in the stratum pyramidale at 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC. Meanwhile, their immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals with IPC were similar to (SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) or higher (GPX) than those in the sham-operated animals without IPC. Furthermore, their immunoreactivities in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemia-operated animals with IPC were steadily maintained after lethal ischemia/reperfusion. Results of western blot analysis for SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX were similar to immunohistochemical data. In conclusion, IPC maintained or increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region after subsequent lethal transient forebrain ischemia and IPC exhibited neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region against transient forebrain ischemia. PMID:27630689

  10. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on antioxidant status in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Min; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, In Hye

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a condition of sublethal transient global ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective effects against subsequent lethal ischemic insult. We, in this study, examined the neuroprotective effects of IPC and its effects on immunoreactive changes of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of animals died 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC (8.6% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group); however, IPC prevented the pyramidal neurons from subsequent lethal ischemic injury (92.3% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group). SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals were easily detected in pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region, while all of these immunoreactivities were rarely detected in the stratum pyramidale at 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC. Meanwhile, their immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals with IPC were similar to (SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) or higher (GPX) than those in the sham-operated animals without IPC. Furthermore, their immunoreactivities in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemia-operated animals with IPC were steadily maintained after lethal ischemia/reperfusion. Results of western blot analysis for SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX were similar to immunohistochemical data. In conclusion, IPC maintained or increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region after subsequent lethal transient forebrain ischemia and IPC exhibited neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region against transient forebrain ischemia. PMID:27630689

  11. Paracrine systems in the cardioprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Yang, X P; Sharov, V G; Sigmon, D H; Sabbath, H N; Carretero, O A

    1996-01-01

    After transient episodes of ischemia, benefits of thrombolytic or angioplastic therapy may be limited by reperfusion injury. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury, an effect mediated by kinins. We examined whether the protective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramiprilat on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion is due to kinin stimulation of prostaglandin and/or nitric oxide release. The left anterior descending coronary artery of Lewis inbred rats was occluded for 30 minutes, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Immediately before reperfusion rats were treated with vehicle, ramiprilat, or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. We tested whether pretreatment with the kinin receptor antagonist Hoe 140, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin blocked the effect of ramiprilat on infarct size and reperfusion arrhythmias. In controls, infarct size as a percentage of the area at risk was 79 +/- 3%; ramiprilat reduced this to 49 +/- 4% (P < .001), but losartan had little effect (74 +/- 6%, P = NS). Pretreatment with Hoe 140, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, or indomethacin abolished the beneficial effect of ramiprilat. Compared with the 30-minute ischemia/120-minute reperfusion group, nonreperfused hearts with 30 minutes of ischemia had significantly smaller infarct size as a percentage of the area at risk, whereas in the 150-minute ischemia group it was significantly larger. This suggests that reperfusion caused a significant part of the myocardial injury, but it also suggests that compared with prolonged ischemia, reperfusion salvaged some of the myocardium. Ventricular arrhythmias mirrored the changes in infarct size. Thus, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury and arrhythmias; these beneficial effects are mediated primarily by a kinin

  12. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on antioxidant status in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Min; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, In Hye

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a condition of sublethal transient global ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective effects against subsequent lethal ischemic insult. We, in this study, examined the neuroprotective effects of IPC and its effects on immunoreactive changes of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of animals died 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC (8.6% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group); however, IPC prevented the pyramidal neurons from subsequent lethal ischemic injury (92.3% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group). SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals were easily detected in pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region, while all of these immunoreactivities were rarely detected in the stratum pyramidale at 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC. Meanwhile, their immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals with IPC were similar to (SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) or higher (GPX) than those in the sham-operated animals without IPC. Furthermore, their immunoreactivities in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemia-operated animals with IPC were steadily maintained after lethal ischemia/reperfusion. Results of western blot analysis for SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX were similar to immunohistochemical data. In conclusion, IPC maintained or increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region after subsequent lethal transient forebrain ischemia and IPC exhibited neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region against transient forebrain ischemia.

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine research initiatives in the Children's Oncology Group and the role of the pediatric oncology nurse.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Ria

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has emerged as a new area of investigation in cancer research and treatment. CAM modalities are widely used, but little is known about their efficacy. The Children's Oncology Group has made a major commitment to CAM research in childhood and adolescent cancer, beginning with studies of CAM in the area of supportive care. Pediatric oncology nurses, as implementing clinicians and collaborating researchers, are critical to the success of these studies.

  14. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian; Shahzamani, Mehran; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Allahverdi, Amin; Khansari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. Objective This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Methods Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. Conclusion From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model. PMID:26039663

  15. Preclinical Models to Investigate Retinal Ischemia: Advances and Drawbacks

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Gillipsie; Morishita, Ryuichi; Anand, Akshay

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ischemia is a major cause of blindness worldwide. It is associated with various disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, optic neuropathies, stroke, and other retinopathies. Retinal ischemia is a clinical condition that occurs due to lack of appropriate supply of blood to the retina. As the retina has a higher metabolic demand, any hindrance in the blood supply to it can lead to decreased supply of oxygen, thus causing retinal ischemia. The pathology of retinal ischemia is still not clearly known. To get a better insight into the pathophysiology of retinal ischemia, the role of animal models is indispensable. The standard treatment care for retinal ischemia has limited potential. Transplantation of stem cells provide neuroprotection and to replenish damaged cells is an emerging therapeutic approach to treat retinal ischemia. In this review we provide an overview of major animal models of retinal ischemia along with the current and preclinical treatments in use. PMID:22593752

  16. Characteristics of mRNA dynamic expression related to spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury: a transcriptomics study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhi-Ping; Xia, Peng; Hou, Ting-Ting; Li, Ding-Yang; Zheng, Chang-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Following spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, an endogenous damage system is immediately activated and participates in a cascade reaction. It is difficult to interpret dynamic changes in these pathways, but the examination of the transcriptome may provide some information. The transcriptome reflects highly dynamic genomic and genetic information and can be seen as a precursor for the proteome. We used DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of dynamic evolution-related mRNA after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The abdominal aorta was blocked with a vascular clamp for 90 minutes and underwent reperfusion for 24 and 48 hours. The simple ischemia group and sham group served as controls. After rats had regained consciousness, hindlimbs showed varying degrees of functional impairment, and gradually improved with prolonged reperfusion in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that neuronal injury and tissue edema were most severe in the 24-hour reperfusion group, and mitigated in the 48-hour reperfusion group. There were 8,242 differentially expressed mRNAs obtained by Multi-Class Dif in the simple ischemia group, 24-hour and 48-hour reperfusion groups. Sixteen mRNA dynamic expression patterns were obtained by Serial Test Cluster. Of them, five patterns were significant. In the No. 28 pattern, all differential genes were detected in the 24-hour reperfusion group, and their expressions showed a trend in up-regulation. No. 11 pattern showed a decreasing trend in mRNA whereas No. 40 pattern showed an increasing trend in mRNA from ischemia to 48 hours of reperfusion, and peaked at 48 hours. In the No. 25 and No. 27 patterns, differential expression appeared only in the 24-hour and 48-hour reperfusion groups. Among the five mRNA dynamic expression patterns, No. 11 and No. 40 patterns could distinguish normal spinal cord from pathological tissue. No. 25 and No. 27 patterns could distinguish simple

  17. Assessment of Renal Ischemia By Optical Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J T; Demos, S; Michalopoulou, A; Pierce, J L; Troppmann, C

    2004-01-07

    Introduction: No reliable method currently exists for quantifying the degree of warm ischemia in kidney grafts prior to transplantation. We describe a method for evaluating pretransplant warm ischemia time using optical spectroscopic methods. Methods: Lewis rat kidney vascular pedicles were clamped unilaterally in vivo for 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 or 120 minutes; 8 animals were studied at each time point. Injured and contra-lateral control kidneys were then flushed with Euro-Collins solution, resected and placed on ice. 335 nm excitation autofluorescence as well as cross polarized light scattering images were taken of each injured and control kidney using filters of various wavelengths. The intensity ratio of the injured to normal kidneys was compared to ischemia time. Results: Autofluorescence intensity ratios through a 450 nm filter and light scattering intensity ratios through an 800 nm filter both decreased significantly with increasing ischemia time (p < 0.0001 for each method, one-way ANOVA). All adjacent and non-adjacent time points between 0 and 90 minutes were distinguishable using one of these two modalities by Fisher's PLSD. Conclusions: Optical spectroscopic methods can accurately quantify warm ischemia time in kidneys that have been subsequently hypothermically preserved. Further studies are needed to correlate results with physiological damage and posttransplant performance.

  18. [The developing profile of cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Martí-Vilalta, J L; Martí-Fábregas, J

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia, which may be silently manifested as transitory ischemia attacks or cerebral infarction, is not a stable, but rather, a moving process. In cerebral infarctions the initial ischemic area may change or move in a high percentage of patients and may involve a significant volume (mean of 32%) of neuronal tissue. The negative changes of initial cerebral ischemia which produce a worsening of the same may be due to the progression of the thrombus, appearance of new embolisms, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, blood reperfusion and systemias causes. These changes may determine the conversion of the shaded ischemic area into a definitive, irreversible infarction. The negative changes may also be produced some distance from the initial ischemic area, either because of microthromboembolisms or diaschisis. The positive changes of initial cerebral ischemia which produce as improvement of the same, may be due to collateral circulation, lysis or fragmentation of the embolism and a decrease in cerebral edema. Clinical changes with no evident clinical manifestations may also be produced and may be diagnosed with the use of clinical scales, imaging techniques, ultrasound and hematological and biochemical markers. Acknowledgement of these cerebral ischemia changes in the acute phase may determine the salvation of a part of the brain, and thereby modify the future clinical situation of the patient.

  19. The Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR): A Statewide, Collaborative, Multi-disciplinary, Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Howard; Agger, William; Baumgardner, Dennis; Burmester, James K.; Cisler, Ron A.; Evertsen, Jennifer; Glurich, Ingrid; Hartman, David; Yale, Steven H.; DeMets, David

    2010-01-01

    In response to the goals of the Wisconsin Partnership Program and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Initiatives to Improve Healthcare, the Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR) was formed. As a collaborative, multi-disciplinary statewide research network, WiNHR encourages and fosters the discovery and application of scientific knowledge for researchers and practitioners throughout Wisconsin. The 4 founding institutions—Aurora Health Care/Center for Urban Population Health (CUPH), Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison—representing geographically diverse areas of the state, are optimistic and committed to WiNHR’s success. This optimism is based on the relevance of its goals to public health, the quality of statewide health care research, and, most importantly, the residents of Wisconsin who recognize the value of health research. PMID:20131687

  20. Diversity in Collaborative Research Communities: A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Thesis Writing Group in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Cally; Xafis, Vicki; Doda, Diana V.; Gillam, Marianne H.; Larg, Allison J.; Luckner, Helene; Jahan, Nasreen; Widayati, Aris; Xu, Chuangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Writing groups for doctoral students are generally agreed to provide valuable learning spaces for Ph.D. candidates. Here an academic developer and the eight members of a writing group formed in a Discipline of Public Health provide an account of their experiences of collaborating in a multicultural, multidisciplinary thesis writing group. We…

  1. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  2. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N.; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Methods Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Results Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001). Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non–patient group respondents (all p < .05). Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01). Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non–patient group respondents (all p< .01). Conclusions Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with

  3. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  4. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  5. Exendin-4 protected against critical limb ischemia in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Meng-Wei; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chua, Sarah; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Lee, Fan-Yen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that exendin-4 protects against critical limb ischemia (CLI) in obese mice undergoing hypoxic stress (H). B6 mice were categorized into aged-matched control (C)-H (group 1-A), obesity (induced by high-fat diet) (O)-H (group 1-B), C-H-CLI (group 2-A), O-H-CLI (group 2-B), C-H-CLI-exendin-4 (group 3-A) and O-H-CLI-exendin-4 (group 3-B). Animals were sacrificed by day 14 after CLI procedure. By day 14, laser Doppler results showed that blood flow in CLI area was higher in group 3-A than group 2-A, higher in group 3-B than group 2-B, highest in groups 1-A and 1-B, higher in group 2-A than in group 2-B, and higher in group 3-A than in group 3-B (all p<0.001), but not significantly different between groups 1-A and 1-B. Furthermore, circulating numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (c-kit/CD31+, Sca-1/KDR+) showed an identical pattern of blood flow in CLI area among groups 2-A, 2-B, 3-A and 3-B, except that these biomarkers were lowest in groups 1-A and 1-B (all p<0.001). Protein and cellular levels of angiogenesis factors (VEGF, CXCR4, SDF-1α) exhibited an identical pattern of circulating EPC numbers among all groups (all p<0.001). Protein levels of apoptotic (cytosolic cytochrome-C, mitochondrial Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and PARP) and fibrotic (Samd 3, TGF-β) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern of blood flow in CLI area among groups 2-A, 2-B, 3-A and 3-B, but were lowest in groups 1-A and 1-B (all p<0.001). This finding suggests exendin-4 protected against CLI in obese mice undergoing hypoxic stress mainly through enhancing angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  6. Dexamethasone pretreatment attenuates lung and kidney injury in cholestatic rats induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liangyi; Yao, Xiangqing; Chen, Yanling

    2012-02-01

    Hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) results in mild to severe organ injury, in which tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) seem to be involved. Thus, we aim to assess the influence of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury on remote organs in addition to cholestasis and consider the possible efficacy of steroid pretreatment in reducing the injury. A common bile duct ligation model was done on 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 7 days, the rats were divided randomly into control group, IR group, and dexamethasone (DEX) group. The IR group showed significant increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine levels compared with the control and DEX groups. By ELISA techniques, higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in lung and kidney tissues were measured in the IR group than in the control and DEX groups, these were verified by immunohistochemistry. The lung histology of the IR group rats showed neutrophil infiltration, interstitial edema, and alveolar wall thickening. Kidney histology of the IR group rats showed vacuolization of the proximal tubular epithelial cells and tubular dilatation with granular eosinophilic casts. Better morphological aspects were observed in the DEX-pretreated animals. Minimal lesions were observed in the control. The results suggest that hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in cholestatic rats induced lung and kidney injuries. Pretreatment with dexamethasone reduced the IR-induced injury in addition to cholestasis.

  7. Prevalence of and variables associated with silent myocardial ischemia on exercise thallium-201 stress testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperetti, C.M.; Burwell, L.R.; Beller, G.A. )

    1990-07-01

    The prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia was prospectively assessed in a group of 103 consecutive patients (mean age 59 +/- 10 years, 79% male) undergoing symptom-limited exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Variables that best correlated with the occurrence of painless ischemia by quantitative scintigraphic criteria were examined. Fifty-nine patients (57%) had no angina on exercise testing. A significantly greater percent of patients with silent ischemia than of patients with angina had a recent myocardial infarction (31% versus 7%, p less than 0.01), had no prior angina (91% versus 64%, p less than 0.01), had dyspnea as an exercise test end point (56% versus 35%, p less than 0.05) and exhibited redistribution defects in the supply regions of the right and circumflex coronary arteries (50% versus 35%, p less than 0.05). The group with exercise angina had more ST depression (64% versus 41%, p less than 0.05) and more patients with four or more redistribution defects. However, there was no difference between the two groups with respect to mean total thallium-201 perfusion score, number of redistribution defects per patient, multi-vessel thallium redistribution pattern or extent of angiographic coronary artery disease. There was also no difference between the silent ischemia and angina groups with respect to antianginal drug usage, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, exercise duration, peak exercise heart rate, peak work load, peak double (rate-pressure) product and percent of patients achieving greater than or equal to 85% of maximal predicted heart rate for age. Thus, in this study group, there was a rather high prevalence rate of silent ischemia (57%) by exercise thallium-201 criteria.

  8. Infrared laser hemotherapy in cerebral ischemia modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musienko, Julia I.; Nechipurenko, Natalia I.

    2003-10-01

    Use of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) is considered to be the most effective method of laser therapy and its application is expedient pathogenetically in the ischemic disturbances. The aim of this study is to investigate ILIB influence with infrared laser (IL) with 860 nm wavelength on hemostasis, acid-base status (ABS) of blood in normal rabbits and after modeling of local ischemia of brain (LIB). Experimental cerebral ischemia is characterized by development of hypercoagulation syndrom and metabolic acidosis. ILIB with infrared radiation of 2.0 mW power provokes hypocoagulation in intact animals. Application of ILIB in rabbits after LIB contributes for hemostasis and acid-base status normalizing compared to operated animals. IL radiation with 8,5 mW power results in marked hemostatic activation in all animals. Therefore, beneficial effect of low power laser radiation (LPLR) manifests in narrow power diapason in experimental brain ischemia.

  9. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tavares, J G P; Vasques, E R; Arida, R M; Cavalheiro, E A; Cabral, F R; Torres, L B; Menezes-Rodrigues, F S; Jurkiewicz, A; Caricati-Neto, A; Godoy, C M G; Gomes da Silva, S

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12) and epilepsy (n=14). It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01). During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05) and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both) in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01) was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode.

  10. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, J.G.P.; Vasques, E.R.; Arida, R.M.; Cavalheiro, E.A.; Cabral, F.R.; Torres, L.B.; Menezes-Rodrigues, F.S.; Jurkiewicz, A.; Caricati-Neto, A.; Godoy, C.M.G.; Gomes da Silva, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated electrocardiographic alterations in rats with epilepsy submitted to an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (n=12) and epilepsy (n=14). It was found that rats with epilepsy presented a significant reduction in atrioventricular block incidence following the ischemia and reperfusion procedure. In addition, significant alterations were observed in electrocardiogram intervals during the stabilization, ischemia, and reperfusion periods of rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. It was noted that rats with epilepsy presented a significant increase in the QRS interval during the stabilization period in relation to control rats (P<0.01). During the ischemia period, there was an increase in the QRS interval (P<0.05) and a reduction in the P wave and QT intervals (P<0.05 for both) in rats with epilepsy compared to control rats. During the reperfusion period, a significant reduction in the QT interval (P<0.01) was verified in the epilepsy group in relation to the control group. Our results indicate that rats submitted to an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine presented electrical conductivity alterations of cardiac tissue, mainly during an AMI episode. PMID:25590352

  11. Effects of Fluvastatin on Characteristics of Stellate Ganglion Neurons in a Rabbit Model of Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Li-Jun; Li, Guang-Ping; Li, Jian; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stellate ganglion (SG) plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases. The electrical activity of SG neurons is involved in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of fluvastatin on the electrophysiological characteristics of SG neurons in a rabbit model of myocardial ischemia (MI). Methods: The MI model was induced by abdominal subcutaneous injections of isoproterenol in rabbits. Using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we studied the characteristic changes of ion channels and action potentials (APs) in isolated SG neurons in control group (n = 20), MI group (n = 20) and fluvastatin pretreated group (fluvastatin group, n = 20), respectively. The protein expression of sodium channel in SG was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: MI and the intervention of fluvastatin did not have significantly influence on the characteristics of delayed rectifier potassium channel currents. The maximal peak current density of sodium channel currents in SG neurons along with the characteristics of activation curves, inactivation curves, and recovery curves after inactivation were changed in the MI group. The peak current densities of control group, MI group, and fluvastatin group (n = 10 in each group) were −71.77 ± 23.22 pA/pF, −126.75 ± 18.90 pA/pF, and −86.42 ± 28.30 pA/pF, respectively (F = 4.862, P = 0.008). Fluvastatin can decrease the current amplitude which has been increased by MI. Moreover, fluvastatin induced the inactivation curves and post-inactive recovery curves moving to the position of the control group. But the expression of sodium channel-associated protein (Nav1.7) had no significantly statistical difference among the three groups. The percentages of Nav1.7 protein in control group, MI group, and fluvastatin group (n = 5 in each group) were 21.49 ± 7.33%, 28.53 ± 8.26%, and 21.64 ± 2.78%, respectively (F = 1.495, P = 0.275). Moreover, MI reduced the electrical

  12. Development of Innovative Group Work Practice Using the Intervention Research Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Edna; Meier, Andrea; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2004-01-01

    Rothman and Thomas' intervention research (IR) paradigm provides an alternative, developmental research method that is appropriate for practice research, especially at the early stages. It is more flexible than conventional experimental designs, capitalizes on the availability of small samples, accommodates the dynamism and variation in practice…

  13. Reference, or Advisory, Groups Involving Disabled People: Reflections from Three Contrasting Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah; Robertson, Christopher; Feiler, Anthony; Tarleton, Beth; Watson, Debby; Byers, Richard; Davies, Jill; Fergusson, Ann; Marvin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly in recent years, the involvement of disabled people as co-researchers has been regarded as "good practice." This has been informed by growing participatory and emancipatory research paradigms as well as user-focused policy imperatives. The benefits of these shifts apply to the research itself (improved definition, direction,…

  14. Intestinal ischemic preconditioning reduces liver ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    XUE, TONG-MIN; TAO, LI-DE; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, PEI-JIAN; LIU, XIA; CHEN, GUO-FENG; ZHU, YI-JIA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether intestinal ischemic preconditioning (IP) reduces damage to the liver during hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR). Sprague Dawley rats were used to model liver IR injury, and were divided into the sham operation group (SO), IR group and IP group. The results indicated that IR significantly increased Bax, caspase 3 and NF-κBp65 expression levels, with reduced expression of Bcl-2 compared with the IP group. Compared with the IR group, the levels of AST, ALT, MPO, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1 were significantly reduced in the IP group. Immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 and Bax indicated that Bcl-2 expression in the IP group was significantly increased compared with the IR group. In addition, IP reduced Bax expression compared with the IR group. The average liver injury was worsened in the IR group and improved in the IP group, as indicated by the morphological evaluation of liver tissues. The present study suggested that IP may alleviates apoptosis, reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, ameloriate reductions in liver function and reduce liver tissue injury. To conclude, IP provided protection against hepatic IR injury. PMID:26821057

  15. Spinal ischemia following abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Bergan, J J; Conn, J; Yao, J S

    1975-03-01

    Serious spinal cord ischemia may follow infrarenal abdominal aortic surgery. Five cases are summarized and added to the 23 previously published cases in order to identify this syndrome, emphasize its importance, and draw attention to the possibility of spontaneous recovery which may occur. The multifactorial complex which comprises each patient's clinical picture clouds a precise and specific cause for paraplegia in these cases. However, neither hypotension, steal phenomena nor emboli are necessary for completion of the syndrome. The relevant spinal cord arterial anatomy indicates that the common anomalies which occur favor development of spinal cord ischemia in the arteriosclerotic population which requires aortic surgery. No means of prevention is possible at this time.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide as a protective agent during reperfusion. A study in the isolated perfused rabbit heart subjected to regional ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ytrehus, K; Walsh, R S; Richards, S C; Downey, J M

    1995-12-01

    In spite of extensive research during the last decade it has not been possible to prove that endogenously generated hydrogen peroxide or any reduced oxygen species reaches sufficient concentration during reperfusion after myocardial ischemia to contribute significantly to irreversible cell injury. In an attempt to further test this hypothesis we subjected isolated perfused rabbit hearts to 30 min regional ischemia followed by reperfusion and supplied hydrogen peroxide in low levels with or without catalase during the first 30 min of reperfusion and thereafter continued the reperfusion for a total of 120 min. Five different groups were studied: controls, and hearts supplied with 2 microM H2O2, 1 microM H2O2, 1 microM H2O2 + catalase (IU/l) or catalase alone in the initial part of the reperfusion. At the end of 120 min reperfusion, area at risk was measured with fluorescent particles and infarct zone size with tetrazolium staining. The results were: in the control group 32 +/- 5.0% of the risk zone infarcted, in the 2 microM H2O2 group 16.3 +/- 5.6% and in the 1 microM H2O2 group 6.9 +/- 0.8% (P < 0.05 compared to control). The reduction in infarct size was not present when catalase was added to the hydrogen peroxide-containing solution (26.4 +/- 4.5) or if catalase was present alone (22.9 +/- 1.8% infarction). In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide, 1 microM, protected the heart during reperfusion and reduced the amount of cell death after 120 min of reperfusion. The study demonstrated reduction or delay in infarction based only on treatment in the reperfusion period. The mechanism behind this protection remains to be determined.

  17. Clinical research using an information system: the multicenter perioperative outcomes group.

    PubMed

    Kheterpal, Sachin

    2011-09-01

    Clinical research using electronic medical record (EMR) data is an emerging source of scientific progress. Increasingly, researchers are using retrospective observational data acquired from EMRs as the substrate for their clinical research into comorbidities, procedures, situations, and outcomes that have historically presented significant challenges. Although EMR data collection is perceived to require fewer resources than manual chart review, there are many specific regulatory, privacy, data quality, and technique issues unique to clinical research using EMR data. This article discusses the use of EMRs for observational research.

  18. Talking Science: The research evidence on the use of small group discussions in science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the topics used to promote small group discussions. They also demonstrate that students often struggle to formulate and express coherent arguments, and demonstrate a low level of engagement with tasks. The reviews suggest that groups function more purposefully, and understanding improves most, when specifically constituted such that differing views are represented, when some form of training is provided for students on effective group work, and when help in structuring discussions is provided in the form of "cues". Single-sex groups function more purposefully than mixed-sex groups, though improvements in understanding are independent of gender composition of groups. Finally, the reviews demonstrate very clearly that, for small group discussions to be effective, teachers and students need to be given explicit teaching in the skills associated with the development of arguments and the characteristics associated with effective group discussions. In addition to the substantive findings, the paper also reports on key features of the methods employed to gather and analyse data. Of particular note are the two contrasting approaches to data analysis, one adopting a grounded theory approach and the other drawing on established methods of discourse analysis.

  19. Meclizine Preconditioning Protects the Kidney Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Seiji; Campanholle, Gabriela; Gohil, Vishal M; Perocchi, Fabiana; Brooks, Craig R; Morizane, Ryuji; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Ichimura, Takaharu; Mootha, Vamsi K; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2015-09-01

    Global or local ischemia contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Currently there are no specific therapies to prevent AKI. Potentiation of glycolytic metabolism and attenuation of mitochondrial respiration may decrease cell injury and reduce reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria. Meclizine, an over-the-counter anti-nausea and -dizziness drug, was identified in a 'nutrient-sensitized' chemical screen. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg of meclizine, 17 h prior to ischemia protected mice from IRI. Serum creatinine levels at 24 h after IRI were 0.13 ± 0.06 mg/dl (sham, n = 3), 1.59 ± 0.10 mg/dl (vehicle, n = 8) and 0.89 ± 0.11 mg/dl (meclizine, n = 8). Kidney injury was significantly decreased in meclizine treated mice compared with vehicle group (p < 0.001). Protection was also seen when meclizine was administered 24 h prior to ischemia. Meclizine reduced inflammation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, and tubular injury. Meclizine preconditioned kidney tubular epithelial cells, exposed to blockade of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism with 2-deoxyglucose and NaCN, had reduced LDH and cytochrome c release. Meclizine upregulated glycolysis in glucose-containing media and reduced cellular ATP levels in galactose-containing media. Meclizine inhibited the Kennedy pathway and caused rapid accumulation of phosphoethanolamine. Phosphoethanolamine recapitulated meclizine-induced protection both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26501107

  20. Meclizine Preconditioning Protects the Kidney Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Seiji; Campanholle, Gabriela; Gohil, Vishal M; Perocchi, Fabiana; Brooks, Craig R; Morizane, Ryuji; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Ichimura, Takaharu; Mootha, Vamsi K; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2015-09-01

    Global or local ischemia contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Currently there are no specific therapies to prevent AKI. Potentiation of glycolytic metabolism and attenuation of mitochondrial respiration may decrease cell injury and reduce reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria. Meclizine, an over-the-counter anti-nausea and -dizziness drug, was identified in a 'nutrient-sensitized' chemical screen. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg of meclizine, 17 h prior to ischemia protected mice from IRI. Serum creatinine levels at 24 h after IRI were 0.13 ± 0.06 mg/dl (sham, n = 3), 1.59 ± 0.10 mg/dl (vehicle, n = 8) and 0.89 ± 0.11 mg/dl (meclizine, n = 8). Kidney injury was significantly decreased in meclizine treated mice compared with vehicle group (p < 0.001). Protection was also seen when meclizine was administered 24 h prior to ischemia. Meclizine reduced inflammation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, and tubular injury. Meclizine preconditioned kidney tubular epithelial cells, exposed to blockade of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism with 2-deoxyglucose and NaCN, had reduced LDH and cytochrome c release. Meclizine upregulated glycolysis in glucose-containing media and reduced cellular ATP levels in galactose-containing media. Meclizine inhibited the Kennedy pathway and caused rapid accumulation of phosphoethanolamine. Phosphoethanolamine recapitulated meclizine-induced protection both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Colchicine protects rat skeletal muscle from ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liangrong; Shan, Yuanlu; Chen, Lei; Lin, Bi; Xiong, Xiangqing; Lin, Lina; Jin, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Neutrophils play an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (IR) induced skeletal muscle injury. Microtubules are required for neutrophil activation in response to various stimuli. This study aimed to investigate the effects of colchicine, a microtubule-disrupting agent, on skeletal muscle IR injury in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three groups IR group, colchicine treated-IR (CO) group and sham operation (SM) group. Rats of both the IR and CO groups were subjected to 3 hr of ischemia by clamping the right femoral artery followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. Colchicine (1 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally prior to hindlimb ischemia in the CO group. After 2 hr of reperfusion, we measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the muscle samples. Plasma creatinine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were measured. We also evaluated the histological damage score and wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Results: The histological damage score, W/D ratio, MPO activity, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in muscle tissues were significantly increased, SOD activity was decreased, and plasma CK and LDH levels were remarkably elevated in both the IR and CO groups compared to the SM group (P<0.05). Colchicine treatment significantly reduced muscle damage and edema, oxidative stress and levels of the inflammatory parameters in the CO group compared to the IR group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Colchicine attenuates IR-induced skeletal muscle injury in rats. PMID:27482349

  2. Metallothionein-II Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation and Improves Functional Recovery after Transient Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Vacio-Adame, Patricia; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Méndez-Armenta, Marisela; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    After transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), damaging mechanisms, such as excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, lead to irreversible neurological deficits. The induction of metallothionein-II (MT-II) protein is an endogenous mechanism after I/R. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of MT-II after I/R in rats. Male Wistar rats were transiently occluded at the middle cerebral artery for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. Rats received either MT (10 μg per rat i.p.) or vehicle after ischemia. Lipid peroxidation (LP) was measured 22 h after reperfusion in frontal cortex and hippocampus; also, neurological deficit was evaluated after ischemia, using the Longa scoring scale. Infarction area was analyzed 72 hours after ischemia. Results showed increased LP in frontal cortex (30.7%) and hippocampus (26.4%), as compared to control group; this effect was fully reversed by MT treatment. Likewise, we also observed a diminished neurological deficit assessed by the Longa scale in those animals treated with MT compared to control group values. The MT-treated group showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction of 39.9% in the infarction area, only at the level of hippocampus, as compared to control group. Results suggest that MT-II may be a novel neuroprotective treatment to prevent ischemia injury. PMID:24719677

  3. Cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Chichorium intybus on ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Najmeh; Dianat, Mahin; Badavi, Mohammad; Malekzadeh, Ahad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that Chichorium intybus (C. intybus) which possesses flavonoid compounds has an effective role in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Contractile dysfunction mostly occurs after acute myocardial infarction, cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplantation and coronary angioplasty. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of C. intybus on ischemia- reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into four groups (Sham, Control, 1 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml of extract) of 8 rats. The aorta was cannulated, and then the heart was mounted on a Langendorff apparatus. Next, a balloon was inserted into the left ventricle (LV) and peak positive value of time derivate of LV pressure (+dp/dt), coronary flow (CF), and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) in pre-ischemia and reperfusion period were calculated by a Power Lab system. All groups underwent a 30-minute global ischemia followed by a 60-minute reperfusion. Results: The results showed that heart rate (HR), coronary flow, and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate of pressure product (RPP) significantly decreased in the control group during reperfusion, while these values in the groups receiving the extract (3mg/ml) improved significantly during reperfusion (p<0.001). Conclusion: It seems that flavonoid compounds of aqueous extract of C. intybus reduce ischemia - reperfusion injuries, suggesting its protective effect on heart function after ischemia. PMID:26693414

  4. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter-over-groups

  5. Memory deficits and oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion: neuroprotective role of physical exercise and green tea supplementation.

    PubMed

    Schimidt, Helen L; Vieira, Aline; Altermann, Caroline; Martins, Alexandre; Sosa, Priscila; Santos, Francielli W; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Izquierdo, Ivan; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-10-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Among impairments observed in survivors there is a significant cognitive learning and memory deficit. Neuroprotective strategies are being investigated to minimize such deficits after an ischemia event. Here we investigated the neuroprotective potential of physical exercise and green tea in an animal model of ischemia-reperfusion. Eighty male rats were divided in 8 groups and submitted to either transient brain ischemia-reperfusion or a sham surgery after 8 weeks of physical exercise and/or green tea supplementation. Ischemia-reperfusion was performed by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries during 30 min. Later, their memory was evaluated in an aversive and in a non-aversive task, and hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were removed for biochemical analyses of possible oxidative stress effects. Ischemia-reperfusion impaired learning and memory. Reactive oxygen species were increased in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Eight weeks of physical exercise and/or green tea supplementation before the ischemia-reperfusion event showed a neuroprotective effect; both treatments in separate or together reduced the cognitive deficits and were able to maintain the functional levels of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione.

  6. Genetic modifiers of ambulation in the cooperative international Neuromuscular research group Duchenne natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Luca; Kesari, Akanchha; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cnaan, Avital; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Punetha, Jaya; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik K; Pegoraro, Elena; McDonald, Craig M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the effects of LTBP4 and SPP1 polymorphisms on age at loss of ambulation (LoA) in a multiethnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort. Methods We genotyped SPP1 rs28357094 and LTBP4 haplotype in 283 of 340 participants in the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study (CINRG-DNHS). Median ages at LoA were compared by Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test. We controlled polymorphism analyses for concurrent effects of glucocorticoid corticosteroid (GC) treatment (time-varying Cox regression) and for population stratification (multidimensional scaling of genome-wide markers). Results Hispanic and South Asian participants (n = 18, 41) lost ambulation 2.7 and 2 years earlier than Caucasian subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001). The TG/GG genotype at SPP1 rs28357094 was associated to 1.2-year-earlier median LoA (p = 0.048). This difference was greater (1.9 years, p = 0.038) in GC-treated participants, whereas no difference was observed in untreated subjects. Cox regression confirmed a significant effect of SPP1 genotype in GC-treated participants (hazard ratio = 1.61, p = 0.016). LTBP4 genotype showed a direction of association with age at LoA as previously reported, but it was not statistically significant. After controlling for population stratification, we confirmed a strong effect of LTBP4 genotype in Caucasians (2.4 years, p = 0.024). Median age at LoA with the protective LTBP4 genotype in this cohort was 15.0 years, 16.0 for those who were treated with GC. Interpretation SPP1 rs28357094 acts as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of GC response, and LTBP4 haplotype modifies age at LoA in the CINRG-DNHS cohort. Adjustment for GC treatment and population stratification appears crucial in assessing genetic modifiers in DMD. PMID:25641372

  7. Patch test results with the metalworking fluid series of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG).

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Dickel, Heinrich; Frosch, Peter J; Koch, Patrick; Becker, Detlef; Jappe, Uta; Aberer, Werner; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2004-09-01

    Based on the information of the interdisciplinary task force on allergy diagnostics in the metal branch, in 2001, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) compiled two metalworking fluid (MWF) test series with currently and previously used components, respectively. After 2 years of patch testing, we present results obtained with these series, based on data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). 251 metalworkers who were patch tested because of suspected MWF dermatitis in 2002 and 2003 were included in this retrospective data analysis. Of these, 206 were tested with the current MWF series and 155 with the historical MWF series. Among the current MWF allergens, monoethanolamine ranked 1st with 11.6% positive reactions. Diethanolamine (3.0%), triethanolamine (1.1%), and diglycolamine (1.9%) elicited positive reactions far less frequently. Allergic reactions to p-aminoazobenzene were frequently observed (6.0%), but the relevance of these reactions is still obscure. Positive reactions to biocides ranged from 4.5% for Bioban CS 1135 to 0.5% for iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and 2-phenoxyethanol. Concomitant reactions to formaldehyde, which caused positive reactions in 3.3%, and formaldehyde releasers occurred to varying extents without conclusive pattern. No positive reactions were seen to dibutyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, tricresyl phosphate, isopropyl myristate or benzotriazole. With the historical MWF test series, positive reactions to methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) were observed most frequently. However, sensitization via allergen sources other than MWF seems likely, as MDBGN, during the study period, has been one of the most frequent preservative allergens in cosmetics and body care products. Other historical MWF allergens comprised morpholinyl mercaptobenzothiazole (3.3%), benzisothiazolinone (BIT; 2.0%) and Bioban P 1487(1.3%). BIT is currently used in MWF again, so it was shifted to the current MWF test series

  8. Evidence-Based Practice in Group Care: The Effects of Policy, Research, and Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Carol; Sanders, Larry; Gurevich, Maria; Fulton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effect of a province-wide vision of evidence-based and outcome-based services for children and youth and the challenges of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) and evidence-based treatment (EBT) approaches within group care settings. The paper is based on the results of a survey of group care settings in the…

  9. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups on Student Progress: Evidence from a National Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; Whitebread, David

    2007-01-01

    Nurture groups (NGs) are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. Although the first groups were established over 30 years ago, growth in the number of NGs in the UK has been exponential over the past ten years. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of NGs in promoting positive…

  10. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  11. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  12. Reduction and Redistribution of Gap and Adherens Junction Proteins After Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Tansey, Erin E.; Kwaku, Kevin F.; Hammer, Peter E.; Cowan, Douglas B.; Federman, Micheline; Levitsky, Sidney; McCully, James D.

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations in myocardial structure, consistent with tissue and sarcomere disruption as well as myofibril dissociation, occur after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. In this study we determine the onset of these structural changes and their contribution to electrical conduction. Methods Langendorff perfused rabbit hearts (n = 47) were subjected to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes global ischemia, followed by 120 minutes reperfusion. Hemodynamics were recorded and tissue samples were collected for histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. Orthogonal epicardial conduction velocities were measured, with temperature controlled, in a separate group of 10 hearts subjected to 0 or 30 minutes of global ischemia, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Results Histochemical and quantitative light microscopy spatial analysis showed significantly increased longitudinal and transverse interfibrillar separation after 15 minutes or more of ischemia (p < 0.05 versus control). Confocal immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis demonstrated significant reductions (p < .05 versus control) of the intercellular adherens junction protein, N-cadherin, and the active phosphorylated isoform of the principal gap junction protein, connexin 43 at more than 15 minutes of ischemia. Cellular redistribution of connexin 43 was also evidenced on immunohistochemistry. No change in integrin-β1, an extracellular matrix attachment protein, or in epicardial conduction velocity anisotropy was observed. Conclusions These data indicate that there are significant alterations in the structural integrity of the myocardium as well as gap and adherens junction protein expression with increasing global ischemia time. The changes occur coincident with previously observed significant decreases in postischemic functional recovery, but are not associated with altered expression of matrix binding proteins or electrical anisotropic conduction. PMID

  13. The Protective Effect of Remote Renal Preconditioning Against Hippocampal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role of KATP Channels.

    PubMed

    Mehrjerdi, Fatemeh Zare; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Ajami, Marjan; Khaksari, Mehdi; Safari, Fatemeh; Habibey, Rouhollah

    2015-12-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), which consists of several brief ischemia/reperfusion applied at the remote site of lethal ischemia reperfusion, can, through activating different mechanisms, increase the ability of the body's endogenous protection against prolonged ischemia/reperfusion. Recent studies have shown that RIPC has neuroprotective effects, but its mechanisms are not well elucidated. The present study aimed to determine whether activation of KATP channels in remote renal preconditioning decreases hippocampus damage induced by global cerebral ischemia. RIPC was induced by ischemia of the left renal artery (IPC); 24 h later, global cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) was induced by common carotid arteries occlusion. 5hydroxydecanoate (5HD) and glibenclamide (Gli) were injected before of IPC. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) activity were assessed in hippocampus. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was assessed to detect apoptotic cells in hippocampus. RIPC inhibited apoptosis by decreasing positive TUNEL cells (P < 0.05). KATP channels blocking with 5HD and Gli markedly increased apoptosis in hippocampal cells in RIPC group (P < 0.001). RIPC decreased MDA level and increased CAT activity in ischemic hippocampus (P < 0.01). Also, 5HD and Gli inhibited the effect of RIPC on MDA level and CAT activity (P < 0.05). The present study shows that RIPC can effectively attenuate programmed cell death, increase activity of CAT, and reduce MDA levels. Blocking of KATP channels inhibited the protective effects of RIPC. PMID:26254913

  14. Alleviation of ischemia-induced brain edema by activation of the central histaminergic system in rats.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Yumi; Adachi, Naoto; Liu, Keyue; Arai, Tatsuru; Nagaro, Takumi

    2008-09-01

    We have reported that facilitation of central histaminergic activity prevents the development of ischemia-induced brain injury. Since cerebral edema is a major cause of brain damage, we studied effects on brain edema of postischemic administration of L-histidine, a precursor of histamine, and thioperamide, a histamine H(3)-receptor antagonist, both of which enhance central histaminergic activity. Focal cerebral ischemia for 2 h was provoked by transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in rats, and the water content and infarct size were determined 24 h after reperfusion. Changes in the extracellular concentration of histamine were examined in the striatum by a microdialysis procedure, and effects of these compounds were evaluated. Repeated administration of L-histidine (1000 mg/kg x 2, i.p.), immediately and 6 h after reperfusion, reduced the increase in the water contents in ischemic regions. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide (5 mg/kg, s.c.) with L-histidine (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) completely prevented edema formation and alleviated brain infarction, although a single dose of L-histidine, immediately after reperfusion, showed no benefits. The striatal histamine level was gradually increased after reperfusion as well as during ischemia. Simultaneous administration of thioperamide with L-histidine markedly increased the brain histamine concentration, and the value increased up to 230% of that in the saline group 5 - 6 h after reperfusion. L-Histidine alone did not affect the increase in the histamine output after ischemia. These findings suggest that further activation of the central histaminergic system after initiation of cerebral ischemia prevents development of ischemia-induced brain edema.

  15. The effects and mechanism of miR-92a and miR-126 on myocardial apoptosis in mouse ischemia-reperfusion model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Changhao; Ji, Ningning; Luo, Gaojiang; Ni, Shimao; Zong, Jinbo; Chen, Zhili; Bao, Donglai; Gong, Xinyan; Fu, Ting

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to explore the effects of miR-92a and miR-126 on myocardial apoptosis in mouse ischemia-reperfusion model and further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eighteen Kunming mice were selected and randomly divided into sham operation group and ischemia-reperfusion group with nine mice in each group. Cardiac muscle tissue was stained with Evans blue to confirm myocardial infarction and ischemia. Annexin V/PI double staining was used to detect the apoptotic rate of myocardial cells, and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect the number of apoptotic cells; Western blot was used to detect expression of Caspase 3 to evaluate the apoptosis of mouse myocardial cells; qRT-PCR was used to detect expression of miR-92a and miR-126 in mouse myocardium, and Western blot was used to detect expression of HSP70 in two groups. Evans blue staining results showed that there was a large area of ischemia in myocardium of ischemia-reperfusion mice with marked infarction, suggesting successful establishment of the model. In sham operation group, myocardial cells were mostly normal cells. Annexin V/PI double staining of flow cytometry result showed that the apoptotic rate was 5.9 % in sham operation group and 37.0 % in ischemia-reperfusion group, respectively. Apoptosis detection results showed that apoptotic index (AI) of myocardial cells in ischemia-reperfusion mice was significantly higher than in sham operation group. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed that miR-92a expression in ischemia-reperfusion group was significantly higher than in sham operation group (F = 32.302, P = 0.000), and miR-126 expression in ischemia-reperfusion group was significantly lower than in sham operation group (F = 41.125, P = 0.000). Moreover, HSP70 detected by Western blot showed that HSP expression in ischemia-reperfusion group was significantly lower than in sham operation group. The change of miR-92a was in accordance with AI of

  16. Magnesium chloride alone or in combination with diazepam fails to prevent hippocampal damage following transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Milani, H; Lepri, E R; Giordani, F; Favero-Filho, L A

    1999-10-01

    In the central nervous system, magnesium ion (Mg2+) acts as an endogenous modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-coupled calcium channels, and may play a major role in the pathomechanisms of ischemic brain damage. In the present study, we investigated the effects of magnesium chloride (MgCl2, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/kg), either alone or in combination with diazepam (DZ), on ischemia-induced hippocampal cell death. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia for 15 min using the 4-vessel occlusion model. MgCl2 was applied systemically (sc) in single (1x, 2 h post-ischemia) or multiple doses (4x, 1, 2, 24 and 48 h post-ischemia). DZ was always given twice, at 1 and 2 h post-ischemia. Thus, ischemia-subjected rats were assigned to one of the following treatments: vehicle (0.1 ml/kg, N = 34), DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 24), MgCl2 (2.5 mmol/kg, N = 10), MgCl2 (5.0 mmol/kg, N = 17), MgCl2 (7.5 mmol/kg, N = 9) or MgCl2 (5 mmol/kg) + DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 14). Seven days after ischemia the brains were analyzed histologically. Fifteen minutes of ischemia caused massive pyramidal cell loss in the subiculum (90.3%) and CA1 (88.4%) sectors of the hippocampus (P<0.0001, vehicle vs sham). Compared to the vehicle-treated group, all pharmacological treatments failed to attenuate the ischemia-induced death of both subiculum (lesion: 86. 7-93.4%) and CA1 (lesion: 85.5-91.2%) pyramidal cells (P>0.05). Both DZ alone and DZ + MgCl2 reduced rectal temperature significantly (P<0.05). No animal death was observed after drug treatment. These data indicate that exogenous magnesium, when administered systemically post-ischemia even in different multiple dose schedules, alone or with diazepam, is not useful against the histopathological effects of transient global cerebral ischemia in rats.

  17. Protective effects of hydrogen enriched saline on liver ischemia reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a key trigger for the inflammatory reaction during liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Hydrogen treatment was recently associated with down-regulation of the expression of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines during sepsis and myocardial IRI, but it is not known whether hydrogen has an effect on HMGB1 in liver IRI. Methods A rat model of 60 minutes 70% partial liver ischemia reperfusion injury was used. Hydrogen enriched saline (2.5, 5 or 10 ml/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 10 minutes before hepatic reperfusion. Liver injury was assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme levels and histological changes. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 8-hydroxy-guanosine (8-OH-G) levels as markers of the peroxidation injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6, and high mobility group box B1 protein (HMGB1) were measured as markers of post ischemia-reperfusion inflammation. Results Hydrogen enriched saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion. The treatment group showed reduced serum ALT activity and markers of lipid peroxidation and post ischemia reperfusion histological changes were reduced. Hydrogen enriched saline treatment inhibited HMGB1 expression and release, reflecting a reduced local and systemic inflammatory response to hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Conclusion These results suggest that, in our model, hydrogen enriched saline treatment is protective against liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. This effect may be mediated by both the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the solution. PMID:24410860

  18. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from the Top Group's Top Quark Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Top group studies the properties of the top quark, the heaviest known fundamental particle. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  19. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from Supersymmetry, New Phenomena Research of the CDF Exotics Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Exotics group searches for Supersymmetry and other New Phenomena. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  20. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  1. Incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients with exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Assey, M.E.; Walters, G.L.; Hendrix, G.H.; Carabello, B.A.; Usher, B.W.; Spann, J.F. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-five patients with angiographically proved coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent Bruce protocol exercise stress testing with thallium-201 imaging. Twenty-seven patients (group I) showed myocardial hypoperfusion without angina pectoris during stress, which normalized at rest, and 28 patients (group II) had a similar pattern of reversible myocardial hypoperfusion but also had angina during stress. Patients were followed for at least 30 months. Six patients in group I had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 3 of whom died, and only 1 patient in group II had an AMI (p = 0.05), and did not die. Silent myocardial ischemia uncovered during exercise stress thallium testing may predispose to subsequent AMI. The presence of silent myocardial ischemia identified in this manner is of prognostic value, independent of angiographic variables such as extent of CAD and left ventricular ejection fraction.

  2. Impact of an Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Erythropoietin on Experimental Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Grothusen, Christina; Hagemann, Angelika; Attmann, Tim; Braesen, Jan; Broch, Ole; Cremer, Jochen; Schoettler, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Revascularization of infarcted myocardium results in release of inflammatory cytokines mediating myocardial reperfusion injury and heart failure. Blockage of inflammatory pathways dampens myocardial injury and reduces infarct size. We compared the impact of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra and erythropoietin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In contrast to others, we hypothesized that drug administration prior to reperfusion reduces myocardial damage. Methods and Results. 12–15 week-old Lewis rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia by a 1 hr occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. After 15 min of ischemia, a single shot of Anakinra (2 mg/kg body weight (bw)) or erythropoietin (5000 IE/kg bw) was administered intravenously. In contrast to erythropoietin, Anakinra decreased infarct size (P < 0.05, N = 4/group) and troponin T levels (P < 0.05, N = 4/group). Conclusion. One-time intravenous administration of Anakinra prior to myocardial reperfusion reduces infarct size in experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, Anakinra may represent a treatment option in myocardial infarction prior to revascularization. PMID:22649318

  3. New drug delivery system for liver sinusoidal endothelial cells for ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Naoki; Tamura, Takafumi; Toriyabe, Naoyuki; Nowatari, Takeshi; Nakayama, Ken; Tanoi, Tomohito; Murata, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yu; Hyodo, Mamoru; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cytoprotective effects in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, we developed a new formulation of hyaluronic acid (HA) and sphingosine 1-phophate. METHODS: We divided Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: control, HA, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and HA-S1P. After the administration of each agent, we subjected the rat livers to total ischemia followed by reperfusion. After reperfusion, we performed the following investigations: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), histological findings, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also investigated the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis, hepatoprotection, and S1P accumulation. RESULTS: S1P accumulated in the HA-S1P group livers more than S1P group livers. Serum ALT levels, TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, and expression of cleaved caspase-3 expression, were significantly decreased in the HA-S1P group. TEM revealed that the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) lining was preserved in the HA-S1P group. Moreover, the HA-S1P group showed a greater increase in the HO-1 protein levels compared to the S1P group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HA-S1P exhibits cytoprotective effects in the liver through the inhibition of LSEC apoptosis. HA-S1P is an effective agent for hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26668502

  4. Relationships Matter: Some Benefits, Challenges and Tensions Associated with Forming a Collaborative Educational Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Sandie; Murray, E.; Rivalland, C.; Monk, H.; Piazza-McFarland, L.; Daniel, G.

    2014-01-01

    Growing recognition of the complexity of children's lives has led to strong advocacy in education research literature for greater collaboration between researchers from different paradigms to address the "wicked" problems that face contemporary children and families. There is little literature, however, exploring how collaboration…

  5. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  6. External Group Coaching and Mentoring: Building a Research Community of Practice at a University of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritz, Jeanette; Visagie, Retha; Johnson, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Globally, a clarion call has been made for higher education institutions to establish creative and effective research capacity-building systems with the purpose of developing a next generation of scholars. The training and skills development of a researcher entail a process of increasing levels of participation in diverse communities of practice.…

  7. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... been undertaken in any event. Congress ] believed that businesses often determine their research...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE14 Credit for Increasing Research... under section 41 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to the treatment of qualified...

  8. Current Issues in Self-Regulation Research and Their Significance for Therapeutic Intervention in Offender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, theory and research on human self-regulation has made significant progress. While self-regulation may be understood as a generic term comprising a range of different cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes, most research pertains to a subcomponent of self-regulation, namely emotional self-regulation, or emotional…

  9. [Qualitative research: the systematization of the generating topics and group technics].

    PubMed

    Laganá, M T

    1989-04-01

    This study describes the systematization of generating themes into social representations, followed by group works with interventions that go through the stages of identification, domestication, relearning and performance redefinitions.

  10. Proceedings of the DOE/industry advanced research and development sensor working group members, Gaithersburg, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, D.B.; Whitworth, B.A.

    1986-04-29

    Sensor topics studied by this working group, for the pulp and paper industry, include in situ combustion control, consistency sensor, humidity sensor, lignin mass spectrometer, and steam flow meter. Presentation aids are included as appendices. (DLC)

  11. Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N=310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD=9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD=7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs—attraction to the group’s task (SE=0.096, CI: −0.599 to −0.221) and group integration around the task (SE=0.060, CI: −0.092 to −0.328)—and social constructs—attraction to the group’s social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366)—significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color. PMID:21826476

  12. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF AN ACUTE MESENTERIAL ISCHEMIA].

    PubMed

    Shepehtko, E N; Garmash, D A; Kurbanov, A K; Marchenko, V O; Kozak, Yu S

    2016-04-01

    Experience of surgical treatment of 143 patients, suffering an acute mesenterial ischemia, was summarized. Isolated intestinal resection was performed in 41 patients (lethality 65.9%), intestinal resection with the mesenterial vessels thrombembolectomy--in 9 (lethality 33.3%). After performance of the combined intervention postoperative lethality was in two times lower, than after isolated intestinal resection. PMID:27434952

  13. [Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Jiang, Xin-Ying; Ma, Xing; Gu, Shu-Ling; Dai, Ti-Jun

    2007-08-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor (GHBR) on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats and its mechanism. NCS-356 (the agonist of GHBR) and NCS-382 (the antagonist of GHBR) were adopted as the tool medicine. The ripe male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 240 - 280 g were randomly divided into seven groups: sham operation group (sham), ischemia-reperfusion group (Isc/R), NCS-356 160 microg x kg(-1) group (N1), NCS-356 320 microg x kg(-1) group (N2), NCS-356 640 microg x kg(-1) group (N3), NCS-382 640 microg x kg(-1) + NCS-356 640 microg x kg(-1) group (NCS-382 + N3), and nimodipine (Nim) 600 microg x kg(-1) group. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model referring to Longa's method with modifications was adopted. The effect of GHBR on behavioral consequence of MCAO rats was studied after 2 h of ischemia-reperfusion. After 24 h of ischemia-reperfusion, part of animals were used to measure the cerebral infarction volume by TTC staining; ischemic cortex of another part of animals were used to measure the content of intracellular free calcium by flow cytometry, the tNOS, iNOS activity and the content of NO by spectrophotometric method, the content of cGMP by radioimmunoassay. The neurological function score and infarction volume rate in Isc/R group rats increased significantly than that in sham group; The content of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]) of cortex neuron and cGMP, the activities of tNOS and iNOS, and the content of NO in Isc/R group were higher than that in sham group obviously (P < 0.01); These consequence we mentioned of N1, N2, N3 and Nim group were lower than that of Isc/R. NCS-382 + N3 group could significantly antagonize the above effect of N3. Thus, NCS-356 has protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury by activating GHBR. The neuroprotective effect of GHBR is related with decreasing the content of [Ca2+]i, NO, cGMP and tNOS, iNOS activity in MCAO rats.

  14. Effects of pulmonary ischemia on lung morphology.

    PubMed

    Fields, Michael J; Bishai, John M; Mitzner, Wayne; Wagner, Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    Pulmonary ischemia resulting from chronic pulmonary embolism leads to proliferation of the systemic circulation within and surrounding the lung. However, it is not clear how well alveolar tissue is sustained during the time of complete pulmonary ischemia. In the present study, we investigated how pulmonary ischemia after left pulmonary artery ligation (LPAL) would alter lung mechanical properties and morphology. In this established mouse model of lung angiogenesis after chronic LPAL (10), we evaluated lung function and structure before (3 days) and after (14 days) a functional systemic circulation to the left lung is established. Age-matched naïve and sham-operated C57Bl/6 mice and mice undergoing chronic LPAL were studied. Left and right lung pressure-volume relationships were determined. Next, lungs were inflated in situ with warmed agarose (25-30 cmH(2)O) and fixed, and mean chord lengths (MCL) of histological sections were quantified. MCL of naïve mice averaged 43.9 +/- 1.8 mum. No significant changes in MCL were observed at either time point after LPAL. Left lung volumes and specific compliances were significantly reduced 3 days after LPAL. However, by 14 days after LPAL, lung pressure-volume relationships were not different from controls. These results suggest that severe pulmonary ischemia causes changes in lung mechanics early after LPAL that are reversed by the time a new systemic vasculature is known to perfuse pulmonary capillaries. The LPAL model thus affords a unique opportunity to study lung functional responses to tissue ischemia and subsequent recovery. PMID:17449796

  15. Real Apprenticeships: Creating a Revolution in English Skills. Research by The Boston Consulting Group for the Sutton Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian; Jones, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This research by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) for Sutton Trust examined the English education system and its apprenticeship programs. BCG reported that the UK is failing nearly half its young people by providing inadequate vocational opportunities. BSG presents key findings that include: (1) more than four in ten people have only low level…

  16. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Biology Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Robyn; And Others

    Many students, even after formal science instruction, have not developed a scientifically acceptable concept of "living,""animal," or "plant." Therefore, as part of the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, a working group was formed to explore (with teachers) some possible strategies aimed at modifying students' current…

  17. Research participation by low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups: how payment may change the balance.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jennifer K; Burke, James F; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-10-01

    Minorities are underenrolled in clinical research trials, and one-third of trials are underenrolled overall. The role of payment has not been studied at the national level as an explanation for enrollment patterns. Our objective was to examine the distribution of self-reported previous research participation across different sociodemographic groups; to assess the public's perception of fair payment for a low-risk medicine trial and the association between requested payment and sociodemographic characteristics; to estimate the amount of payment for a medication trial to achieve proportional representation of minorities and different socioeconomic groups. This was a cross-sectional study with nationally representative data collected in 2011 by the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. To determine the relationship between perceived fair payment and individual-level characteristics, we used multivariable linear regression. With 60% participation rate, in a sample of 2,150 respondents 11% (n = 221) of the sample had previously participated in medical research. Requested payment differed significantly by racial/ethnic group with Hispanics requesting more payment than non-Hispanic whites (0.37 [95%CI 0.02, 0.72]) In contrast to payment at $49, $149, and $249, payment at $349 yielded proportional representation of racial/ethnic minority groups. Hispanics requested higher payment for research participation, suggesting a possible explanation for their underenrollment.

  18. Research with Young Children: The Use of an Affinity Group Approach To Explore the Social Dynamics of Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the research approach of a case study ethnography. The study sought to explore the peer group understandings of five male friends aged between six and eight years. In exploring the social dynamics of peer culture, and in particular how these dynamics interacted to define, regulate and maintain particular understandings of…

  19. Promoting Access to Higher Education and Identifying Access Students: How Useful Is Research on Participation by Socio-Economic Group?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Research conducted by Patrick Clancy and by Fitzpatrick Associates and Philip O'Connell on the level of representation of socio-economic groups amongst higher education entrants has been a key element in the development of access policy and practice in Ireland. This article reviews the context for the development of access and explores the…

  20. A Little Help from My Friends: Testing the Utility of Facebook Groups as Online Communities in an Undergraduate Research Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, Joseph Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This Executive Position Paper describes the findings of a study investigating the utility of Facebook Groups in fostering community among participants in the Delaware INBRE and EPSCoR undergraduate research internship programs. In the first phase of the study, findings from the existing evaluation of the programs and themes from the literature…

  1. The Origin and Advancement of Cardiovascular Physiology in Brazil: The Contribution of Eduardo Krieger to Research Groups

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Elisardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1996, symposia devoted to the discussion of advances in cardiovascular physiology have been alternately organized by Brazilian research groups, most of which were created or joined by Ph.D. trainees of Eduardo M Krieger. Therefore, as Frontiers in Physiology is publishing a topic devoted to the celebration of the 20th edition of the Brazilian Symposium of Cardiovascular Physiology, it is a great opportunity to talk about the contributions of Eduardo Krieger to the development of cardiovascular physiology. In this historical mini-review, first, the influence of the Argentinian group of Bernardo Houssay and Braun Menéndez on cardiovascular physiology in Brazil is discussed. Second, the contribution of Eduardo Krieger to the creation of several of those groups and to the development of science and technology is reviewed. Finally, the origin and consolidation of the group of Vitoria is highlighted as an example of a research group that was influenced by the University of Sao Paulo-Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto and has trained hundreds of Master and Ph.D. students in the area of cardiovascular research. PMID:27148073

  2. The Origin and Advancement of Cardiovascular Physiology in Brazil: The Contribution of Eduardo Krieger to Research Groups.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Elisardo C

    2016-01-01

    Since 1996, symposia devoted to the discussion of advances in cardiovascular physiology have been alternately organized by Brazilian research groups, most of which were created or joined by Ph.D. trainees of Eduardo M Krieger. Therefore, as Frontiers in Physiology is publishing a topic devoted to the celebration of the 20th edition of the Brazilian Symposium of Cardiovascular Physiology, it is a great opportunity to talk about the contributions of Eduardo Krieger to the development of cardiovascular physiology. In this historical mini-review, first, the influence of the Argentinian group of Bernardo Houssay and Braun Menéndez on cardiovascular physiology in Brazil is discussed. Second, the contribution of Eduardo Krieger to the creation of several of those groups and to the development of science and technology is reviewed. Finally, the origin and consolidation of the group of Vitoria is highlighted as an example of a research group that was influenced by the University of Sao Paulo-Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto and has trained hundreds of Master and Ph.D. students in the area of cardiovascular research.

  3. Time course of IL-6 expression in experimental CNS ischemia.

    PubMed

    Clark, W M; Rinker, L G; Lessov, N S; Hazel, K; Eckenstein, F

    1999-04-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) appears to be an important modulator of the inflammatory response associated with CNS ischemia. Clinically, IL-6 values obtained in the first week post-stroke have been shown to correlate with infarct size and outcome. In this study we used a focal reversible stroke model to investigate the time course and relationship to outcome of IL-6 production in plasma, brain and CSF. Reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery was produced in 50 adult Swiss Webster mice by advancing an 8-0 filament into the internal carotid artery for 2 h (sham 1 min). At 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h (8 each ischemia; 2 each sham) groups of animals were evaluated on a 28 point clinical scale, blood and CSF obtained, and the brains were evaluated for infarct volume and IL-6 mRNA levels. Serum levels of IL-6 (ELISA mean +/- SD; undetectable in controls) overall sham group, 102 +/- 87; 3 h, 908 +/- 494* pg ml-1; 6 h, 1079 +/- 468* pg ml-1; 12 h, 980 +/- 221* pg ml-1; pg ml-1; 24 h, 320 +/- 314* pg ml-1; 72 h, 20 +/- 30* pg ml-1 (*p < or = 0.05 to sham). CSF levels (ELISA) overall sham group, 10 +/- 18; 3 h, 379 +/- 210* pg ml-1; 6 h, 157 +/- 61* pg ml-1; 12 h, 136 +/- 88* pg ml-1; 24 h, 127 +/- 99 pg ml-1; 72 h, 72 +/- 9* pg ml-1 (*p < or = 0.05 to sham). Brain IL-6 mRNA levels overall sham group, 20; 3 h, 480; 6 h, 599; 12 h, 7960; 24 h, 20267; 72 h, 0. There was an overall R2 of 0.20 between plasma and CSF IL-6. There was an overall R2 of 0.13 and 0.20 between infarct size and serum and CSF IL-6 level respectively, and an overall R2 of 0.10 and 0.17 between neurologic function and serum and CSF IL-6 level respectively. These findings confirm that IL-6 values increase following CNS ischemia with peak serum and CSF levels occurring before brain values. CSF IL-6 levels had a stronger correlation with neurologic function and infarct size than serum.

  4. Arts and Learning Research, 1998-1999. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, Illinois, April 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Liora, Ed.; Ellis, Nancy C., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This volume highlights thought-provoking issues in visual arts, drama, and music education presented at the 1998 meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Following a message from the Special Interest Group Chair, Larry Kantner, and an editorial, articles in section 1 are: "Art Beginnings" (L. A. Kantner); "Teachers' Conceptions of…

  5. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The TOS activity levels in blood samples were significantly higher in Control group and than the other groups (p <  0.01 for all comparison). The OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in the sham, CUR, DEX, and CUR-DEX groups, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion causes histopathological changes in the kidneys. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and renal histopathologic injury in an acute hind limb I/R rat model. PMID:26983591

  6. Research on Group Decision-Making Mechanism of Internet Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kefan; Chen, Gang; Qian, Wu; Shi, Zhao

    With the development of information technology, internet has become a popular term and internet emergency has an intensive influence on people's life. This article offers a short history of internet emergency management. It discusses the definition, characteristics, and factor of internet emergency management. A group decision-making mechanism of internet emergency is presented based on the discussion. The authors establish a so-called Rough Set Scenario Flow Graphs (RSSFG) of group decision-making mechanism of internet emergency management and make an empirical analysis based on the RSSFG approach. The experimental results confirm that this approach is effective in internet emergency decision-making.

  7. [Research progress of real-time quantitative PCR method for group A rotavirus detection].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Qing; Li, Dan-Di; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Group A rotavirus is one of the most significant etiological agents which causes acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. So far, several method which includes electron microscopy (EM), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and Real-time Quantitative PCR has been established for the detection of rotavirus. Compared with other methods, Real-time quantitative PCR have advantages in specificity, sensitivity, genotyping and quantitative accuracy. This article shows a overview of the application of real-time quantitative PCR technique to detecte group A rotavirus.

  8. Research on same-gender grouping in eighth-grade science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Jennifer Ingrid

    This study examined two hypotheses related to same-gender grouping of eighth-grade science classes in a public middle-school setting in suburban Kansas City. The first hypothesis, male and female students enrolled in same-gender eighth-grade science classes demonstrate more positive science academic achievement than their male and female peers enrolled in mixed-gender science classes. The second hypothesis, same-gender grouping of students in eighth-grade science has a positive effect on classroom climate. The participants in this study were randomly assigned to class sections of eighth-grade science. The first experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-male students (n = 20) taught by a male science teacher. The control group used for comparison to the male same-gender class consisted of the male students (n = 42) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same male teacher. The second experimental group was an eighth-grade science class of all-female students (n = 23) taught by a female science teacher. The control group for the female same-gender class consisted of female students (n = 61) in the coeducational eighth-grade science classes taught by the same female teacher. The male teacher and the female teacher did not vary instruction for the same-gender and mixed-gender classes. Science academic achievement was measured for both groups through a quantitative analysis using grades on science classroom assessment and overall science course grades. Classroom climate was measured through qualitative observations and through qualitative and quantitative analysis of a twenty-question student survey administered at the end of each trimester grading period. The results of this study did not indicate support for either hypothesis. Data led to the conclusions that same-gender grouping did not produce significant differences in student science academic achievement, and that same-gender classes did not create a more positive

  9. Mitochondria: the headquarters in ischemia-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Joaquin; de Groot, Piet W J; Galindo, Maria F

    2011-06-01

    Due to a lack of efficient treatments, searching for novel therapies against acute ischemic stroke represents one of the main fields in neuropharmacology. In this review we summarize and discuss the role of mitochondrial participation in ischemia-induced neuronal death. Mitochondria are regarded as the main link between cellular stress signals and the execution of programmed death of nerve cells. Since it was described that the release of mitochondrial proteins such as cytochrome c, apoptosis inducing factor and endonuclease G are key elements in cell death pathways, they have been the focus of cell death studies. Changes in the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane result in a non-reversible step in cell death processes. Cytochrome c released from mitochondria binds in the cytoplasm to Apaf-1 to initiate the formation of an apoptosome, which then binds pro-caspase-9. Active caspase-9 cleaves "executioner" caspases, which in turn proceed to cleave key substrates in the cell. Thus, the identification of new targets might enable establishment of novel strategies for therapeutic research, in this case based on the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial pathways, to improve the development of compounds for treatment of ischemia.

  10. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  11. Being scientifical: Popularity, purpose and promotion of amateur research and investigation groups in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Sharon A.

    21st century television and the Internet are awash in content regarding amateur paranormal investigators and research groups. These groups proliferated after reality investigation programs appeared on television. Exactly how many groups are active in the U.S. at any time is not known. The Internet provides an ideal means for people with niche interests to find each other and organize activities. This study collected information from 1000 websites of amateur research and investigation groups (ARIGs) to determine their location, area of inquiry, methodology and, particularly, to determine if they state that they use science as part of their mission, methods or goals. 57.3% of the ARIGs examined specifically noted or suggested use of science as part of the groups' approach to investigation and research. Even when not explicit, ARIGs often used science-like language, symbols and methods to describe their groups' views or activities. Yet, non-scientific and subjective methods were described as employed in conjunction with objective methods. Furthermore, what were considered scientific processes by ARIGs did not match with established methods and the ethos of the scientific research community or scientific processes of investigation. ARIGs failed to display fundamental understanding regarding objectivity, methodological naturalism, peer review, critical thought and theoretical plausibility. The processes of science appear to be mimicked to present a serious and credible reputation to the non-scientific public. These processes are also actively promoted in the media and directly to the local public as "scientific". These results highlight the gap between the scientific community and the lay public regarding the understanding of what it means to do science and what criteria are necessary to establish reliable knowledge about the world.

  12. The development and utilisation of the European Organisation for research and treatment of cancer quality of life group item bank.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, A; Vachalec, S; Bjordal, K; Blazeby, J; Flechtner, H; Ruyskart, P

    2002-08-01

    One of the problems in assessing patients' quality of life (QL) is the availability of good robust measures that have demonstrated validity, reliability and sensitivity for changes over time, but also have been validated across a large group of culturally diverse nations. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group (QLG) has recognised this and has established a substantial research programme with the aim of developing such tools, with particular relevance to cancer clinical trials. However, the management of a large set of items in multiple languages is difficult and very labour-intensive. Thus, to support the EORTC QLG research agenda, a computerised web-based database of all EORTC QLG measures and individual questionnaire items was developed. This database allows access to a pool of over 500 validated items in some 6000 translated versions. The database speeds up module development, ensures that questionnaires items have similar wording and provides rapid access to multiple translations.

  13. Neuronal damage in hippocampal subregions induced by various durations of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils using Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dong-Kun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Shin, Bich Na; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Cho, Yong-Jun; Kang, Il-Jun; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho

    2012-02-01

    Although there are many studies on ischemic brain damage in the gerbil, which is a good model of transient cerebral ischemia, studies on neuronal damage according to the duration of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) time are limited. We carried out neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus after various durations of I-R (5, 10, 15 and 20 min) using Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a maker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence as well as cresyl violet (CV) staining. The changes of CV positive ((+)) neurons were well detected in the hippocampal CA1 region, not in the other regions. F-J B histofluorescence staining showed apparent neuronal damage in all the hippocampal subregions. In the CA1, most of the pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) were stained with F-J B (about 100/mm(2) in a section), and F-J B(+) neurons in the other ischemia-groups were not changed. In the CA2, a few F-J B(+) neurons were detected in the SP of the 5 min ischemia-group, and F-J B(+) neurons were gradually increased with the longer time of ischemia: in the 20 min ischemia-group, the mean number of F-J B(+) neurons was about 85/mm(2) in a section. In the CA3, some F-J B(+) neurons were observed only in the SP of the 20 min ischemia-group. In the dentate gyrus, some F-J B positive neurons were detected only in the polymorphic layer (PL) of the 5 min ischemia-group, and the number of F-J B(+) neurons were gradually increased with the longer ischemic time. Our findings indicate that F-J B histofluorescence showed a very high quality of neuronal damage in all the hippocampal subregions.

  14. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongzhou; Li, Liang; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jiayong; Chen, Ming; Bao, Shengde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA) following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360) or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817) and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659). Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p = 0.022). Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p = 0.82) and different contrast agents (p = 0.619). Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography. PMID:27419129

  15. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ming; Bao, Shengde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA) following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360) or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817) and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659). Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p = 0.022). Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p = 0.82) and different contrast agents (p = 0.619). Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography. PMID:27419129

  16. A Review of the Research on Pinkston's Single-Parent Group Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Cox, Wendell H.; Sharkey, Caroline N.; Briggs, Adam C.; Black, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to chronicle the extent to which the Pinkston and colleagues model is utilized in single-parent training group (SPG) interventions in the home environment for children aged 5 to 12 or preadolescent school-aged children. Methods: Several databases were searched electronically and independent full reviews were…

  17. Cryptographic Research and NSA: Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davida, George I.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Cryptography Study Group accepted the claim made by the National Security Agency that some information in some publications concerning cryptology could be inimical to national security, and is allowing the establishment of a voluntary mechanism, on an experimental basis, for NSA to review cryptology manuscripts. (MLW)

  18. Reliability and the Nonequivalent Groups with Anchor Test Design. Research Report. ETS RR-07-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Kim, Sooyeon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of unequal reliability on test equating methods in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. Classical true score-based models were compared in terms of their assumptions about how reliability impacts test scores. These models were related to treatment of population ability differences by different…

  19. Focus Group Research on the Implications of Adopting the Unified English Braille Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Five focus groups explored concerns about adopting the Unified English Braille Code. The consensus was that while the proposed changes to the literary braille code would be minor, those to the mathematics braille code would be much more extensive. The participants emphasized that "any code that reduces the number of individuals who can access…

  20. Adolescent Girls' Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women's understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) "types of sexual risk," (b) "factors…