Science.gov

Sample records for ischemia research group

  1. Dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test. A reexamination of its predictive potential. Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Mangano, D.T.; London, M.J.; Tubau, J.F.; Browner, W.S.; Hollenberg, M.; Krupski, W.; Layug, E.L.; Massie, B. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors examined the value of dipyridamole thallium-201 (201Tl) scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test for perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. They prospectively studied 60 patients undergoing elective vascular surgery. They performed 201Tl scintigraphy preoperatively and blinded all treating physicians to the results. Historical, clinical, laboratory, and physiological data were gathered throughout hospitalization. Myocardial ischemia was assessed during the intraoperative period using continuous 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and during the postoperative period using continuous two-lead ambulatory ECG. Adverse cardiac outcomes (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, severe ischemia, or congestive heart failure) were assessed daily throughout hospitalization. Twenty-two patients (37%) had defects that improved or reversed on delayed scintigrams (redistribution defects), 18 (30%) had persistent defects, and 20 (33%) had no defects on 201Tl scintigraphy. There was no association between redistribution defects and adverse cardiac outcomes: 54% (seven of 13) of adverse outcomes occurred in patients without redistribution defects, and the risk of an adverse outcome was not significantly increased in patients with redistribution defects. Consistent with these findings, there was also no association between redistribution defects and perioperative ischemia: 54% (19 of all 35) of perioperative ECG and TEE ischemic episodes and 58% (14 of 24) of severe ischemic episodes occurred in patients without redistribution defects. The sensitivity of 201Tl scintigraphy for perioperative ischemia and adverse outcomes ranged from 40% to 54%, specificity from 65% to 71%, positive predictive value from 27% to 47% and negative predictive value from 61% to 82%.

  2. Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Suk Ho; Kim, Min; Kwon, Oh Woong

    "Ischemia" implies a tissue damage derived from perfusion insufficiency, not just an inadequate blood supply. Mild thickening and increased reflectivity of inner retina and prominent inner part of synaptic portion of outer plexiform layer are "acute retinal ischemic changes" visible on OCT. Over time, retina becomes thinner, especially in the inner portion. Choroidal perfusion supplies the outer portion of retina; thus, choroidal ischemia causes predominant change in the corresponding tissue.

  3. An Evidence-Based Review of Related Metabolites and Metabolic Network Research on Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengting; Tang, Liying; Liu, Xin; Fang, Jing; Zhan, Hao; Wu, Hongwei; Yang, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, metabolomics analyses have been widely applied to cerebral ischemia research. This paper introduces the latest proceedings of metabolomics research on cerebral ischemia. The main techniques, models, animals, and biomarkers of cerebral ischemia will be discussed. With analysis help from the MBRole website and the KEGG database, the altered metabolites in rat cerebral ischemia were used for metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. Our results identify the main metabolic pathways that are related to cerebral ischemia and further construct a metabolic network. These results will provide useful information for elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, as well as the discovery of cerebral ischemia biomarkers. PMID:27274780

  4. Tumor Cold Ischemia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  5. Animal models of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury: progress and promise for translational research.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Liara M; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2015-01-15

    Research in the field of ischemia-reperfusion injury continues to be plagued by the inability to translate research findings to clinically useful therapies. This may in part relate to the complexity of disease processes that result in intestinal ischemia but may also result from inappropriate research model selection. Research animal models have been integral to the study of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury. However, the clinical conditions that compromise intestinal blood flow in clinical patients ranges widely from primary intestinal disease to processes secondary to distant organ failure and generalized systemic disease. Thus models that closely resemble human pathology in clinical conditions as disparate as volvulus, shock, and necrotizing enterocolitis are likely to give the greatest opportunity to understand mechanisms of ischemia that may ultimately translate to patient care. Furthermore, conditions that result in varying levels of ischemia may be further complicated by the reperfusion of blood to tissues that, in some cases, further exacerbates injury. This review assesses animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the knowledge that has been derived from each to aid selection of appropriate research models. In addition, a discussion of the future of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion research is provided to place some context on the areas likely to provide the greatest benefit from continued research of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  6. National Melon Research Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  7. A novel laser-Doppler flowmetry assisted murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion for free flap research.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Al-Sawaf, Othman; Brandacher, Gerald; Kanzler, Isabella; Tuchscheerer, Nancy; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Kanatas, Anastasios; Knobe, Matthias; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Tolba, René; Mitchell, David; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan; Hölzle, Frank; Liehn, Elisa Anamaria

    2013-01-01

    Suitable and reproducible experimental models of translational research in reconstructive surgery that allow in-vivo investigation of diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms are still limited. To this end we created a novel murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion to mimic a microsurgical free flap procedure. Thirty-six C57BL6 mice (n = 6/group) were assigned to one control and five experimental groups (subject to 6, 12, 96, 120 hours and 14 days of reperfusion, respectively) following 4 hours of complete hindlimb ischemia. Ischemia and reperfusion were monitored using Laser-Doppler Flowmetry. Hindlimb tissue components (skin and muscle) were investigated using histopathology, quantitative immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Despite massive initial tissue damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, the structure of the skin component was restored after 96 hours. During the same time, muscle cells were replaced by young myotubes. In addition, initial neuromuscular dysfunction, edema and swelling resolved by day 4. After two weeks, no functional or neuromuscular deficits were detectable. Furthermore, upregulation of VEGF and tissue infiltration with CD34-positive stem cells led to new capillary formation, which peaked with significantly higher values after two weeks. These data indicate that our model is suitable to investigate cellular and molecular tissue alterations from ischemia-reperfusion such as occur during free flap procedures.

  8. Increased acetyl group availability enhances contractile function of canine skeletal muscle during ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, J A; Poucher, S M; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Worrall, V; Macdonald, I A; Greenhaff, P L

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile function is impaired during acute ischemia such as that experienced by peripheral vascular disease patients. We therefore, examined the effects of dichloroacetate, which can alter resting metabolism, on canine gracilis muscle contractile function during constant flow ischemia. Pretreatment with dichloroacetate increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and resting acetylcarnitine concentration by approximately 4- and approximately 10-fold, respectively. After 20-min contraction the control group had demonstrated an approximately 40% reduction in isomeric tension whereas the dichloroacetate group had fatigued by approximately 25% (P < 0.05). Dichloroacetate resulted in less lactate accumulation (10.3 +/- 3.0 vs 58.9 +/- 10.5 mmol.kg-1 dry muscle [dm], P < 0.05) and phosphocreatine hydrolysis (15.6 +/- 6.3 vs 33.8 +/- 9.0 mmol.kg-1 dm, P < 0.05) during contraction. Acetylcarnitine concentration fell during contraction by 5.4 +/- 1.8 mmol.kg-1 dm in the dichloroacetate group but increased by 10.0 +/- 1.9 mmol.kg-1 dm in the control group. In conclusion, dichloroacetate enhanced contractile function during ischemia, independently of blood flow, such that it appears oxidative ATP regeneration is limited by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and acetyl group availability. PMID:8609248

  9. High-Mobility Group Box-1 Protein Promotes Angiogenesis After Peripheral Ischemia in Diabetic Mice Through a VEGF-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Biscetti, Federico; Straface, Giuseppe; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Lancellotti, Stefano; Rizzo, Paola; Arena, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Egidio; Pecorini, Giovanni; Egashira, Kensuke; De Angelis, Giulia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Flex, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is a nuclear DNA-binding protein released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses and promoting tissue repair and angiogenesis. Diabetic human and mouse tissues contain lower levels of HMGB1 than their normoglycemic counterparts. Deficient angiogenesis after ischemia contributes to worse outcomes of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes. To test the hypothesis that HMGB1 enhances ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetes, we administered HMGB1 protein in a mouse hind limb ischemia model using diabetic mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin, we studied ischemia-induced neovascularization in the ischemic hind limb of normoglycemic, diabetic, and HMGB1-treated diabetic mice. RESULTS We found that the perfusion recovery was significantly attenuated in diabetic mice compared with normoglycemic control mice. Interestingly, HMGB1 protein expression was lower in the ischemic tissue of diabetic mice than in normoglycemic mice. Furthermore, we observed that HMGB1 administration restored the blood flow recovery and capillary density in the ischemic muscle of diabetic mice, that this process was associated with the increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and that HMGB1-induced angiogenesis was significantly reduced by inhibiting VEGF activity. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study show that endogenous HMGB1 is crucial for ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice and that HMGB1 protein administration enhances collateral blood flow in the ischemic hind limbs of diabetic mice through a VEGF-dependent mechanism. PMID:20200317

  10. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  11. Group Designs in Clinical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Gerald M.; Young, Martin A.

    1987-01-01

    Despite the similarity between single-subject research sessions and clinical sessions, single-subject research designs are not intrinsically more appropriate than group designs for clinical research concerning the communication disordered. (Author/CB)

  12. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  13. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  14. Identification of Proteins Interacting with Cytoplasmic High-Mobility Group Box 1 during the Hepatocellular Response to Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianjiao; Wei, Weiwei; Dirsch, Olaf; Krüger, Thomas; Kan, Chunyi; Xie, Chichi; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Fang, Haoshu; Settmacher, Utz; Dahmen, Uta

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs inevitably in liver transplantations and frequently during major resections, and can lead to liver dysfunction as well as systemic disorders. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a pathogenic role in hepatic IRI. In the normal liver, HMGB1 is located in the nucleus of hepatocytes; after ischemia reperfusion, it translocates to the cytoplasm and it is further released to the extracellular space. Unlike the well-explored functions of nuclear and extracellular HMGB1, the role of cytoplasmic HMGB1 in hepatic IRI remains elusive. We hypothesized that cytoplasmic HMGB1 interacts with binding proteins involved in the hepatocellular response to IRI. In this study, binding proteins of cytoplasmic HMGB1 during hepatic IRI were identified. Liver tissues from rats with warm ischemia reperfusion (WI/R) injury and from normal rats were subjected to cytoplasmic protein extraction. Co-immunoprecipitation using these protein extracts was performed to enrich HMGB1-protein complexes. To separate and identify the immunoprecipitated proteins in eluates, 2-dimensional electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry detection were performed. Two of the identified proteins were verified using Western blotting: betaine–homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH). Therefore, our results revealed the binding of HMGB1 to BHMT and CTH in cytoplasm during hepatic WI/R. This finding may help to better understand the cellular response to IRI in the liver and to identify novel molecular targets for reducing ischemic injury. PMID:28275217

  15. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  16. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  17. Mixed Methodology in Group Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannonhouse, Laura R.; Barden, Sejal M.; McDonald, C. Peeper

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is a useful paradigm for group work as it allows exploration of both participant outcomes and "how" or "why" such changes occur. Unfortunately, the group counseling literature is not replete with MMR studies. This article reviews the application of MMR to group contexts and summarizes the corpus of…

  18. Learning from Older Citizens' Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn-Giddings, Carol; McVicar, Andy; Boyce, Melanie; O'Brien, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to an ongoing conversation in gerontology about the importance of training and involving older people in research. Currently, the literature rarely distinguishes between the one-off involvement of older citizens in research projects and the development of research groups led by older people that sustain over time as well as the…

  19. [Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Ricardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  20. Rodent Hypoxia–Ischemia Models for Cerebral Palsy Research: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rumajogee, Prakasham; Bregman, Tatiana; Miller, Steven P.; Yager, Jerome Y.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a complex multifactorial disorder, affecting approximately 2.5–3/1000 live term births, and up to 22/1000 prematurely born babies. CP results from injury to the developing brain incurred before, during, or after birth. The most common form of this condition, spastic CP, is primarily associated with injury to the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter as well as the deep gray matter. The major etiological factors of spastic CP are hypoxia/ischemia (HI), occurring during the last third of pregnancy and around birth age. In addition, inflammation has been found to be an important factor contributing to brain injury, especially in term infants. Other factors, including genetics, are gaining importance. The classic Rice–Vannucci HI model (in which 7-day-old rat pups undergo unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery followed by exposure to 8% oxygen hypoxic air) is a model of neonatal stroke that has greatly contributed to CP research. In this model, brain damage resembles that observed in severe CP cases. This model, and its numerous adaptations, allows one to finely tune the injury parameters to mimic, and therefore study, many of the pathophysiological processes and conditions observed in human patients. Investigators can recreate the HI and inflammation, which cause brain damage and subsequent motor and cognitive deficits. This model further enables the examination of potential approaches to achieve neural repair and regeneration. In the present review, we compare and discuss the advantages, limitations, and the translational value for CP research of HI models of perinatal brain injury. PMID:27199883

  1. Researching Group Assessment: Jazz in the Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Elisabeth; Moore, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into methods and scorings for jazz assessment in Trinity College of Music, London, focusing on the possibility of introducing group assessment. It considers the advantages of group assessment methods, contrasting these with the more traditional approach, firmly established in conservatoires, of…

  2. Development and Management of University Research Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert V.

    Guidelines for managers of university research groups cover securing resources, personnel, and services and choosing collaborators, as well as organizing, supervising, and controlling research activities. Attention is directed to: orientation of personnel; reporting mechanisms; boosting morale; the needs of different personnel; handling travel,…

  3. The Research Libraries Group: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalko, James; Haeger, John

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the Research Libraries Group (RLG) discusses historical background, collaboration, new needs and expectations, the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN), the CitaDel service, the ARIEL service, the Eureka service, the Zephyr server, and JACKPHY-Plus Script Development, and preservation. (JLB)

  4. Physics Education Research with the SUPER Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjula Devi

    2005-10-01

    The Sydney University Physics Education Research group (SUPER) has an active program offering (a) PhDs by research for students and (b) research projects for visiting scholars. So why do we need to undertake such projects within a physics school rather than in education schools and faculties? The prime reason is that adequate domain knowledge and skills are required to work in areas such as conceptual change, subject-specific cognitive theories, expert/novice modeling, and multiple representations. In addition, a decrease in student motivation for studying physics has captured the interest of research-based university departments who are now interested in reversing the trend. The areas under investigation by the SUPER group include student understandings of gravity, collaborative learning environments for large first-year classes, and the transfer of mathematics skills and knowledge.

  5. The Research Libraries Group's Multilingual Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Russell G.

    1984-01-01

    The Research Libraries group (headquartered at Stanford University) has a computer terminal that can be used to create and retrieve bibliographic information in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean vernacular scripts as well as in roman alphabet languages. The development, operation, and future of the system is described. (JN)

  6. Crafting the group: Care in research management.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah R; Horst, Maja

    2015-06-01

    This article reports findings from an interview study with group leaders and principal investigators in Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Taking as our starting point current interest in the need to enhance 'responsible research and innovation', we suggest that these debates can be developed through attention to the talk and practices of scientists. Specifically, we chart the ways in which interview talk represented research management and leadership as processes of caring craftwork. Interviewees framed the group as the primary focus of their attention (and responsibilities), and as something to be tended and crafted; further, this process required a set of affective skills deployed flexibly in response to the needs of individuals. Through exploring the presence of notions of care in the talk of principal investigators and group leaders, we discuss the relation between care and craft, reflect on the potential implications of the promotion of a culture of care and suggest how mundane scientific understandings of responsibility might relate to a wider discussion of responsible research and innovation.

  7. Myocardial Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... typically on the left side of the body (angina pectoris). Other signs and symptoms — which might be experienced ... ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. Podrid PJ. Angina pectoris: Chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia. www.uptodate. ...

  8. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  9. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  10. Controlled oxygen reperfusion protects the lung against early ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypasses by downregulating high mobility group box 1.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian; Ye, Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Kai; Chen, Guang-Xian; Liang, Meng-Ya; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Jin-Xin; Huang, Wei-Ming

    2012-05-01

    Restricting oxygen delivery during the reperfusion phase of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) protects the heart, but effects on lung ischemia reperfusion (IR) in CPB are unknown. We examined whether extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation during early lung IR injury in CPB. Fourteen healthy canines received CPB with 60 minutes of aortic clamping and cardioplegic arrest, followed by 90 minutes reperfusion. Following surgery, the animals were randomized into control (n = 7) or test (n = 7) groups. Control animals received a constant level of 80% FiO(2) during the entire procedure, and the test group received a gradual increase in FiO(2) during the first 25 minutes of reperfusion. In the test group, the FiO(2) was initiated at 40% and increased by 10% every 5 minutes, to 80%. Histology, lung injury variables, HMGB1 expression, and inflammatory responses were assessed at baseline (T1) and at 25 minutes (T2) and 90 minutes (T3) after starting reperfusion. Treatment with controlled oxygen significantly suppressed lung pathologies, lung injury variables, and inflammatory responses (all P < .001). After lung IR injury, HMGB1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in the controlled oxygen group (all P < .001). Controlled oxygen reperfusion is protective in the early stages of lung IR injury in a canine CPB model, and this protection is linked to HMGB1 downregulation.

  11. Groups in Geological Education, Research, and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, William D.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different methods of instruction, such as the Keller Plan, audio-visual-tutorial methods, contract systems, and group seminars. Also discusses the role of groups in professional associations, particularly the National Association of Geology Teachers. (MLH)

  12. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  13. Productive Group Work for Students. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    There is clear evidence that students who are involved in productive collaborative groups outperform their peers. Cooperative group work also results in improved self-esteem, improved relationships and enhanced social and decision-making skills. Johnson and Johnson (1993) identified the elements of a successful collaborative activity. They include…

  14. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  15. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  16. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  17. Whitby Research Group: A Pioneering Concept in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rosalin; Lewis, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Years of meticulous research work can be lost when projects are discontinued. Institutional support can make all the difference. The Whitby Research Group coordinates projects, provides access to computers, and enables researchers to share their work in seminars. (JOW)

  18. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  19. Purkinje fibers after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    García Gómez-Heras, Soledad; Álvarez-Ayuso, Lourdes; Torralba Arranz, Amalia; Fernández-García, Héctor

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on Purkinje fibers, comparing them with the adjacent cardiomyocytes. In a model of heterotopic heart transplantation in pigs, the donor heart was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia (n=9), preserved in cold saline, and subjected to 24 hours of ischemia with preservation in Wisconsin solution, alone (n=6), or with an additive consisting of calcium (n=4), Nicorandil (n=6) or Trolox (n=7). After 2 hours of reperfusion, we evaluated the recovery of cardiac electrical activity and took samples of ventricular myocardium for morphological study. The prolonged ischemia significantly affected atrial automaticity and A-V conduction in all the groups subjected to 24 hours of ischemia, as compared to 2 hours. There were no significant differences among the groups that underwent prolonged ischemia. Changes in the electrical activity did not correlate with the morphological changes. In the Purkinje fibers, ischemia-reperfusion produced a marked decrease in the glycogen content in all the groups. In the gap junctions the immunolabeling of connexin-43 decreased significantly, adopting a dispersed distribution, and staining the sarcolemma adjacent to the connective tissue. These changes were less marked in the group preserved exclusively with Wisconsin solution, despite the prolonged ischemia. The addition of other substances did not improve the altered morphology. In all the groups, the injury appeared to be more prominent in the Purkinje fibers than in the neighboring cardiomyocytes, indicating the greater susceptibility of the former to ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  20. Investigation of ischemia modified albumin, oxidant and antioxidant markers in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hazini, Ahmet; Işıldak, İbrahim; Alpdağtaş, Saadet; Önül, Abdullah; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Tuba; Dur, Ali; Iraz, Mustafa; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still one of the most common causes of death worldwide. In recent years, for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, a new parameter, called ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which is thought to be more advantageous than common methods, has been researched. Aim In this study, systematic analysis of parameters considered to be related to myocardial ischemia has been performed, comparing between control and myocardial ischemia groups. Material and methods We selected 40 patients with AMI and 25 healthy controls for this study. Ischemia modified albumin levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid levels were investigated in both groups. Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, which are indicators of oxidative stress, were compared between patient and control groups. Results Ischemia modified albumin levels were found significantly higher in the AMI diagnosed group when compared with controls. The MDA level was elevated in the patient group, whereas the GSH level was decreased. SOD, GPx and CAT enzyme levels were decreased in the patient group, where it could be presumed that oxidative stress causes the cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Due to the increased oxidative stress, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacity was affected. Systematic investigation of parameters related to myocardial infarction has been performed, and it is believed that such parameters can contribute to protection and early diagnosis of AMI and understanding the mechanism of development of the disease. PMID:26677379

  1. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  2. Research Possibilities on Group Bilingualism: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloss, Heinz

    This report examines the problems involved in researching institutional and socio-cultural bilingualism and contains suggestions for about 60 projects and related case studies. These projects are presented under the following headings: (1) The Service, Methodological and Geographical Aspects, (2) Inventories, (3) Problems of Conceptualization and…

  3. Summary of Research 1997, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Some countries may exploit overhead system vulnerabilities in order to enhance their own denial and deception programs. With multiattribute utility ...alternatives were examined through a number of trade-off studies in order to identify a preferred configuration. Multiple Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT...as well as with the private sector in defense-related technologies. The sponsored program utilizes Cooperative Research and Development Agreements

  4. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  5. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  6. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  7. (Re)searching Methods: Reading Fiction in Literary Response Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    The trouble with education research is that the research is burdened with trouble before it begins. Working as a poststructural education researcher and engaged in a recent research project that sought to engage with questions of teacher identity, I employed an alternative data elicitation method of literary response groups--similar to that of…

  8. Grappling with groups: protecting collective interests in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Foster, Morris W

    2007-01-01

    Strategies for protecting historically disadvantaged groups have been extensively debated in the context of genetic variation research, making this a useful starting point in examining the protection of social groups from harm resulting from biomedical research. We analyze research practices developed in response to concerns about the involvement of indigenous communities in studies of genetic variation and consider their potential application in other contexts. We highlight several conceptual ambiguities and practical challenges associated with the protection of group interests and argue that protectionist strategies developed in the context of genetic research will not be easily adapted to other types of research in which social groups are placed at risk. We suggest that it is this set of conceptual and practical issues that philosophers, ethicists, and others should focus on in their efforts to protect identifiable social groups from harm resulting from biomedical research.

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibits high-mobility group box 1 and attenuates cardiac dysfunction post-myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Lei; Shenoy, Vinayak; Krause, Eric; Oh, S. Paul; Pepine, Carl J; Katovich, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) triggers and amplifies inflammation cascade following ischemic injury, and its elevated levels are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a key member of vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), regulates cardiovascular functions and exerts beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. However, the association between HMGB1 and ACE2 has not been studied. We hypothesized that overexpression of ACE2 provides cardioprotective effects against MI via inhibiting HMGB1 and inflammation. ACE2 knock-in (KI) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls were subjected to either sham or coronary artery ligation surgery to induce MI. Heart function was assessed 4 weeks after surgery using echocardiography and Millar catheterization. Tissues were collected for histology and analysis of the expression of HMGB1, RAS components, and inflammatory cytokines. ACE2 in the heart of the ACE2 KI mice was 58-fold higher than WT controls. ACE2-MI mice exhibited a remarkable preservation of cardiac function and reduction of infarct size in comparison to WT-MI mice. Notably, ACE2 overexpression significantly reduced the MI-induced increase in apoptosis, macrophage infiltration, and HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNF-α and IL-6). Moreover, in an in vitro study, ACE2 activation prevented the hypoxia-induced cell death and upregulation of HMGB1 in adult cardiomyocytes. This protective effect is correlated with downregulation of HMGB1 and downstream pro-inflammatory cascades, which could be useful for the development of novel treatment for ischemic heart disease. PMID:26498282

  10. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  11. Managerial Women in Mixed Groups: Implications of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Constance M.

    Research on the problems faced by women in managerial positions is reviewed in this paper. Work in the area of tokenism is presented first, followed by similar research documenting the fact that females participating in mixed groups operate at a disadvantage. Research on the problems of women in leadership roles is presented next. Other…

  12. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; Schluenzen, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form, or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.

  13. The research data alliance photon and neutron science interest group

    DOE PAGES

    Boehnlein, Amber; Matthews, Brian; Proffen, Thomas; ...

    2015-04-01

    Scientific research data provides unique challenges that are distinct from classic “Big Data” sources. One common element in research data is that the experiment, observations, or simulation were designed, and data were specifically acquired, to shed light on an open scientific question. The data and methods are usually “owned” by the researcher(s) and the data itself might not be viewed to have long-term scientific significance after the results have been published. Often, the data volume was relatively low, with data sometimes easier to reproduce than to catalog and store. Some data and meta-data were not collected in a digital form,more » or were stored on antiquated or obsolete media. Generally speaking, policies, tools, and management of digital research data have reflected an ad hoc approach that varies domain by domain and research group by research group. This model, which treats research data as disposable, is proving to be a serious limitation as the volume and complexity of research data explodes. Changes are required at every level of scientific research: within the individual groups, and across scientific domains and interdisciplinary collaborations. Enabling researchers to learn about available tools, processes, and procedures should encourage a spirit of cooperation and collaboration, allowing researchers to come together for the common good. In conclusion, these community-oriented efforts provide the potential for targeted projects with high impact.« less

  14. Research agenda for understanding Alzheimer disease in diverse populations: work group on cultural diversity, Alzheimer's association.

    PubMed

    Shadlen, Marie-Florence; McCormick, Wayne C; Larson, Eric B

    2002-01-01

    The emerging evidence of ethnic variations in apolipoprotein polymorphism and Alzheimer disease risk shows that one cannot generalize findings based on a single cultural group too broadly ( Tang et al., 2001). Presence of one apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele is a stronger risk factor for Alzheimer disease in whites and Asians than in blacks ( Farrer et al., 1997). Environmental or genetic cofactors may modulate the effects of epsilon 4 on beta-amyloid metabolism differently in different subpopulations ( Shadlen, 1998). Recognizing this, the Alzheimer's Association has extended its goals to strengthen the scientific information base on the interactions of population diversity and Alzheimer disease heterogeneity ( NIA, 1998). This new focus is timely since minority elderly are the most rapidly increasing segment of the elderly population ( Lilienfeld and Perl, 1994, Brookmeyer et al., 1998). In this article, the authors highlight recent progress in research on Alzheimer disease among culturally diverse populations with a special emphasis on gaps in the knowledge base. The authors recommend four priorities for future Alzheimer disease research: (1) determine whether genetic causative factors interact differently in different populations; (2) reexamine the nature and role of cerebral ischemia and infarction and variations in symptom severity of Alzheimer disease; (3) explore the interaction of genes and environmental influences that are protective against Alzheimer disease; and (4) recruit and enroll ethnically diverse subjects in Alzheimer disease clinical trials.

  15. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  16. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  17. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  18. Interpreting Outcomes: Using Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansay, Sylvia J.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Nelson, John

    2004-01-01

    Although focus groups continue to gain popularity in marketing and social science research, their use in program evaluation has been limited. Here we demonstrate how focus groups can benefit evaluators, program staff, policy makers and administrators by providing an in-depth understanding of program effectiveness from the perspective of…

  19. Formal Group Communication with Older Adults: A Research Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…

  20. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  1. Group-based trajectory modeling in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Nagin, Daniel S; Odgers, Candice L

    2010-01-01

    Group-based trajectory models are increasingly being applied in clinical research to map the developmental course of symptoms and assess heterogeneity in response to clinical interventions. In this review, we provide a nontechnical overview of group-based trajectory and growth mixture modeling alongside a sampling of how these models have been applied in clinical research. We discuss the challenges associated with the application of both types of group-based models and propose a set of preliminary guidelines for applied researchers to follow when reporting model results. Future directions in group-based modeling applications are discussed, including the use of trajectory models to facilitate causal inference when random assignment to treatment condition is not possible.

  2. [Ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gennai, Stéphane; Pison, Christophe; Briot, Raphaël

    2014-09-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage arising from the first hours after transplantation. The first etiology of the primary graft dysfunction in lung is ischemia-reperfusion. It is burdened by an important morbi-mortality. Lung ischemia-reperfusion increases the oxidative stress, inactivates the sodium pump, increases the intracellular calcium, leads to cellular death and the liberation of pro-inflammatory mediators. Researches relative to the reduction of the lung ischemia-reperfusion injuries are numerous but few of them found a place in common clinical practice, because of an insufficient level of proofs. Ex vivolung evaluation is a suitable technique in order to evaluate therapeutics supposed to limit lung ischemia-reperfusion injuries.

  3. Electroacupuncture pretreatment attenuates spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury via inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 production in a LXA4 receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Xin; Wang, Wei; Li, Xu; Huo, Jia; Wang, Yu; Min, Yu-Yuan; Su, Bin-Xiao; Pei, Jian-Ming

    2017-03-15

    Paraplegia caused by spinal cord ischemia is a severe complication following surgeries in the thoracic aneurysm. HMGB1 has been recognized as a key mediator in spinal inflammatory response after spinal cord injury. Electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment could provide neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury through inhibition of HMGB1 release. Therefore, the present study aims to test the hypothesis that EA pretreatment protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury via inhibition of HMGB1 release. Animals were pre-treated with EA stimulations 30min daily for 4 successive days, followed by 20-min spinal cord ischemia induced by using a balloon catheter placed into the aorta. We found that spinal I/R significantly increased mRNA and cytosolic protein levels of HMGB1 after reperfusion in the spinal cord. The EA-pretreated animals displayed better motor performance after reperfusion along with the decrease of apoptosis, HMGB1, TNF-α and IL-1β expressions in the spinal cord, whereas these effects by EA pretreatment was reversed by rHMGB1 administration. Furthermore, EA pretreatment attenuated the down-regulation of LXA4 receptor (ALX) expression induced by I/R injury, while the decrease of HMGB1 release in EA-pretreated rats was reversed by the combined BOC-2 (an inhibitor of LXA4 receptor) treatment. In conclusion, EA pretreatment may promote spinal I/R injury through the inhibition of HMGB1 release in a LXA4 receptor-dependent manner. Our data may represent a new therapeutic technique for treating spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  4. Meeting report from the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research. Protecting the cardiovascular system from ischemia: between bench and bedside.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Alba-Alba, Corina; Aragones, Julian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Boisvert, William A; Bøtker, Hans E; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Fleming, Ingrid; Garcia-Dorado, David; Lecour, Sandrine; Liehn, Elisa; Marber, Michael S; Marina, Nephtali; Mayr, Manuel; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Miura, Tetsuji; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Salinas-Estefanon, Eduardo M; Ong, Sang-Bing; Schnittler, Hans J; Sanchez-Vega, Jose T; Sumoza-Toledo, Adriana; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Yarullina, Dina; Yellon, Derek M; Preissner, Klaus T; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in basic cardiovascular research as well as their translation into the clinical situation were the focus at the last "New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research meeting". Major topics included the characterization of new targets and procedures in cardioprotection, deciphering new players and inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic heart disease as well as uncovering microRNAs and other biomarkers as versatile and possibly causal factors in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Although a number of pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion injury or atherosclerosis can be simulated and manipulated in diverse animal models, also to challenge new drugs for intervention, patient studies are the ultimate litmus test to obtain unequivocal information about the validity of biomedical concepts and their application in the clinics. Thus, the open and bidirectional exchange between bench and bedside is crucial to advance the field of ischemic heart disease with a particular emphasis of understanding long-lasting approaches in cardioprotection.

  5. Group analytic psychotherapy (im)possibilities to research

    PubMed Central

    Vlastelica, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    In the course of group analytic psychotherapy, where we discovered the power of the therapeutic effects, there occurred the need of group analytic psychotherapy researches. Psychotherapeutic work in general, and group psychotherapy in particular, are hard to measure and put into some objective frames. Researches, i. e. measuring of changes in psychotherapy is a complex task, and there are large disagreements. For a long time, the empirical-descriptive method was the only way of research in the field of group psychotherapy. Problems of researches in group psychotherapy in general, and particularly in group analytic psychotherapy can be reviewed as methodology problems at first, especially due to unrepeatability of the therapeutic process. The basic polemics about measuring of changes in psychotherapy is based on the question whether a change is to be measured by means of open measuring of behaviour or whether it should be evaluated more finely by monitoring inner psychological dimensions. Following the therapy results up, besides providing additional information on the patient's improvement, strengthens the psychotherapist's self-respect, as well as his respectability and credibility as a scientist. PMID:25478094

  6. Tenoxicam exerts a neuroprotective action after cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Rita I M; Diógenes, João P L; Maia, Graziela C L; Filho, Emídio A S; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M; de Menezes, Dalgimar B; Cunha, Geanne M A; Viana, Glauce S B

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of Tenoxicam, a type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitor, on brain damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion. Male Wistar rats (18-month old average) were anesthetized and submitted to ischemia occlusion of both common carotid arteries (BCAO) for 45 min. After 24 h of reperfusion, rats were decapitated and hippocampi removed for further assays. Animals were divided into sham-operated, ischemia, ischemia + Tenoxicam 2.5 mg/kg, and ischemia + Tenoxicam 10 mg/kg groups. Tenoxicam was administered intraperitoneally immediately after BCAO. Histological analyses show that ischemia produced significant striatal as well as hippocampal lesions which were reversed by the Tenoxicam treatment. Tenoxicam also significantly reduced, to control levels, the increased myeloperoxidase activity in hippocampus homogenates observed after ischemia. However, nitrite concentrations showed only a tendency to decrease in the ischemia + Tenoxicam groups, as compared to that of ischemia alone. On the other hand, hippocampal glutamate and aspartate levels were not altered by Tenoxicam. In conclusion, we showed that ischemia is certainly related to inflammation and to increased free radical production, and selective COX-2 inhibitors might be neuroprotective agents of potential benefit in the treatment of cerebral brain ischemia.

  7. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    PubMed

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  8. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  9. Studies of Typing from the LNR Typing Research Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    transient signals having identical energy spectra. February, 1970. 11. Donald A. Norman. Remembrance of things past. June, 1970. 12. Norman I. Anderson...Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation Donald R. Gentner F-’ Jonathan Grudin Serge Larochelle __ Donald A. Norman...Group: The Role of Context, Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation The LNI Typing Research Group: Donald R

  10. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  11. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    PubMed

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.

  12. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  13. [Progress of researches on mechanisms of acupuncture therapy underlying improving myocardial ischemia and the future approach for in-depth study on its mechanisms from epigenetics].

    PubMed

    He, Su-Yun; Lu, Sheng-Feng; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2014-02-01

    As an important content of alternative and complementary medicine, acupuncture therapy has been proved to be effective in relieving myocardial ischemia (MI). Authors of the present paper review recent progress of researches on acupuncture therapy in resisting MI from 1) improving cardiovascular function and promoting angiogenesis, and 2) protecting myocardial cells from further injury and reducing cellular apoptosis at different pathological stages of MI. Moreover, the authors discuss the characteristics of epigenetic regulation in the process of MI and cardiac repair including the methylating of DNA, modification of histone, remodeling of the chromatin, and micro-RNA expression, mediating cellular apoptosis, regeneration of myocardial blood vessels, etc. The authors hold that future studies on the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture therapy in the prevention and treatment of MI from epigenetics may be a new approach and a new direction.

  14. Infant-Toddler Group Day Care: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Sally

    Research conducted in the United States and Canada on the effects of group care outside of family settings for 20 or more hours per week on a regular basis shows few differences between day care and home reared children on four major variables: attachment, social interactions, cognitive development, and physical health. Of nine studies of…

  15. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  16. Engaging Research Groups: Rethinking Information Literacy for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Bonnie L.; Hansen, Darren B.

    2012-01-01

    Librarians have traditionally taught information literacy skills to science graduate students in separate courses dedicated to information-seeking, during assignment(s)-based library sessions for other courses, or through workshops. There is little mention in the professional literature of teaching graduate students within their research groups.…

  17. Use of group-randomized trials in pet population research.

    PubMed

    Lord, L K; Wittum, T E; Scarlett, J M

    2007-12-14

    Communities invest considerable resources to address the animal welfare and public health concerns resulting from unwanted pet animals. Traditionally, research in this area has enumerated the pet-owning population, described pet population dynamics in individual communities, and estimated national euthanasia figures. Recent research has investigated the human-animal bond and explored the community implications of managed feral cat colonies. These reports have utilized traditional epidemiologic study designs to generate observational data to describe populations and measure associations. However, rigorous scientific evaluations of potential interventions at the group level have been lacking. Group-randomized trials have been used extensively in public health research to evaluate interventions that change a population's behavior, not just the behavior of selected individuals. We briefly describe the strengths and limitations of group-randomized trials as they are used to evaluate interventions that promote social and behavioral changes in the human public health field. We extend these examples to suggest the appropriate application of group-randomized trials for pet population dynamics research.

  18. Literacy Partners: Teacher Innovation in a Study/Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Dana L.

    A study/research partnership between university teacher educators and teachers was formed when teachers at the third-, fourth- and fifth-grade levels decided to implement an innovation called Literature Response Groups in their classrooms. The setting was an urban elementary school in northern California. Participants included six elementary…

  19. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  20. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  1. The effect of nimesulide on oxidative damage inflicted by ischemia-reperfusion on the rat renal tissue.

    PubMed

    Suleyman, Zeynep; Sener, Ebru; Kurt, Nezahat; Comez, Mehmet; Yapanoglu, Turgut

    2015-03-01

    The objective of our study is to research biochemically and histopathologically the effect of nimesulide on oxidative damage inflicted by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) on the rat renal tissue. Twenty-four albino Wistar type of male rats were used for the experiment. The animals were divided into groups as: renal ischemia-reperfusion control (RIR), nimesulide+renal ischemia-reperfusion of 50 mg/kg (NRIR-50), nimesulide+renal ischemia-reperfusion of 100 mg/kg (NRIR-100), and sham groups (SG). In NRIR-50 and NRIR-100 groups were given nimesulide, and RIR and SG groups were given distilled water, an hour after anesthesia. Groups, except for the SG group, 1-h-ischemia and then 6-h-reperfusion were performed. In the renal tissue of the RIR group in which the malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHGua) levels were measured, the COX-1 and COX-2 activities were recorded. Nimesulide at 100 mg/kg doses reduced the oxidant parameters more significantly than 50 mg/kg doses; on the other hand, it raised the antioxidant parameters. It has been shown that 100 mg/kg doses of nimesulide prevented the renal I/R damage more significantly than a dose of 50 mg/kg, which shows that nimesulide, in clinics, could be used in the prevention of I/R damage.

  2. Being Researchers for the First Time: Reflections on the Development of an Inclusive Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet was an inclusive research project; it enabled a group of people with a learning disability who do not receive specialist support services to explore their own lives. This group are often labelled as having a mild learning disability. The research project focused on the strategies they used to cope with day to…

  3. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Konrad; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P A; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain.

  4. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain. PMID:28282371

  5. Conducting Nursing Intervention Research in a Cooperative Group Setting – A Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780

  6. Cumulative Effect of Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-31

    KL, Pohost GM and Conger KA, Correlating EEG and Lactate Kinetics During Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia, Proceedings of the American Heart Association 1993...Cornelating EEG and Lactate Kinetics During Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia, Proceedings of the American Heart Association 1993. 4) HP Hetherington...thes Bernhard Foundation. ass- 134 󈧑&.1 n5. 9# American Heart Association 026085 66th Scientific Sessions Abstract Form Medical Research Nursing

  7. Impact of hyperthermia before and during ischemia-reperfusion on neuronal damage and gliosis in the gerbil hippocampus induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Joung; Cho, Jun Hwi; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Geum-Sil; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Choong Hyun; Bae, Eun Joo; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-15

    Hyperthermia can exacerbate the brain damage produced by ischemia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hyperthermia before and during ischemia-reperfusion on neuronal damage and glial changes in the gerbil hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. The animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups: (1) sham-operated animals with normothermia (normothermia + sham group); (2) ischemia-operated animals with normothermia (normothermia + ischemia group); (3) sham-operated animals with hyperthermia (hyperthermia + sham group); and (4) ischemia-operated animals with hyperthermia (hyperthermia + ischemia group). Hyperthermia (39.5 ± 0.2°C) was induced by exposing the gerbils to a heating pad connected to a rectal thermistor for 30 min before and during ischemia-reperfusion. In the normothermia+ischemia groups, a significant delayed neuronal death was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In the hyperthermia+ischemia groups, neuronal death in the SP of the CA1 occurred at 1 day post-ischemia, and neuronal death was observed in the SP of the CA2/3 region at 2 days post-ischemia. In addition, we examined activations of astrocytes and microglia using immunohistochemistry for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1). GFAP-positive astrocytes and Iba-1-positive microglia in the ischemic hippocampus were activated much earlier and much more accelerated in the hyperthermia+ischemia groups than those in the normothermia+ischemia groups. Based on our findings, we suggest that an experimentally hyperthermic pre-condition before cerebral ischemic insult produces more extensive neuronal damage and glial activation in the ischemic hippocampus.

  8. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  9. Using Focus Groups in the Refinement of a Research Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    were needed to obtain the different perspectives on palliative care services. In Willgerodt’s (7) project, the research aim was to determine the...McLafferty (1) conducted a study to determine attitudes of different skilled nurses and nurse lecturers towards working with older patients in a...composition. Because this study focused on the attitudes of various types of skilled nurses , McLafferty’s (1) focus groups were organized into

  10. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  11. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice.

  12. Functional tests for myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, J.R.; Guiney, T.E.; Boucher, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Functional tests for myocardial ischemia are numerous. Most depend upon a combination of either exercise or pharmacologic intervention with analysis of the electrocardiogram, of regional perfusion with radionuclide imaging, or of regional wall motion with radionuclide imaging or echocardiography. While each test has unique features, especially at the research level, they are generally quite similar in clinical practice, so the clinician is advised to concentrate on one or two in which local expertise is high.22 references.

  13. Evaluation of cold ischemia for preservation of testicular function during partial orchiectomy in the rat model

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Erin R.; Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro J.; Routh, Jonathan C.; Rouse, Douglas; Madden, John F.; Wiener, John S.; Rushton, Harry G.; Ross, Sherry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that cold ischemia during partial orchiectomy would lead to higher serum testosterone levels and preservation of testicular architecture than warm ischemia in a prepubescent rat model. Materials and methods Eighteen prepubescent male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized to three different surgical groups: sham surgery, bilateral partial orchiectomy with 30 min of cord compression with cold ischemia, or bilateral partial orchiectomy with 30 min of cord compression with warm ischemia. Animals were killed at puberty, and serum, sperm, and testicles were collected. Histological tissue injury was graded by standardized methodology. Results Mean serum testosterone levels were 1445 ± 590 pg/mL for the sham group, 449 ± 268 pg/mL for the cold ischemia group and 879 ± 631 pg/mL for the warm ischemia group (p = 0.12). Mean sperm counts were 2.1 × 107 for sham, 4.4 × 106 for cold ischemia, and 9.9 × 106 for the warm ischemia groups (p = 0.48). Histological evaluation revealed significant difference in tissue injury grading with more injury in the cold ischemia than in the warm ischemia group (p = 0.01). Conclusions In our preclinical rat model, we found no benefit for cold ischemia over warm ischemia at 30 min. PMID:25128916

  14. The 2010 IADR--Geriatric Oral Research Group satellite meeting.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Martin

    2012-09-01

    On 12 and 13 July, the 2010 IADR General Session satellite meeting of the IADR - Geriatric Oral Research Group (GORG) - was attended by around 60 participants in the beautiful surroundings of Sitges in the outskirts of Barcelona, Spain. The speakers reflected on the main topics 'Disparities and Expectations in Oral Healthcare: An Elderly Focus' and 'Risks and Benefits of Ageing with a Natural Dentition', which was followed by fruitful discussions in the auditorium and the jointly enjoyed meals. The Sitges meeting comprised lectures of distinguished speakers as well as poster presentations, which discussed and defined the situation of research in the field of gerodontology today as well as the development since the last GORG satellite symposium held on Vancouver Island in 1999. Despite enormous progress over the last 10 years, many important questions concerning economics, regulation, the implementation of oral health care, treatment protocols as well as general health implications of oral disease in the frail and elderly remain still unanswered.

  15. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  16. Focused Research Group in Correlated Electron and Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziqiang

    2016-02-17

    While the remarkable physical properties of correlated and complex electronic materials hold great promise for technological applications, one of the key values of the research in this field is its profound impact on fundamental physics. The transition metal oxides, pnictides, and chalcogenides play a key role and occupy an especially important place in this field. The basic reason is that the outer shell of transition metals contains the atomic d-orbitals that have small spatial extent, but not too small to behave as localized orbtials. These d-electrons therefore have a small wave function overlap in a solid, e.g. in an octahedral environment, and form energy bands that are relatively narrow and on the scale of the short-range intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion (Hubbard U). In this intermediate correlation regime lies the challenge of the many-body physics responsible for new and unconventional physical properties. The study of correlated electron and complex materials represents both the challenge and the vitality of condensed matter and materials physics and often demands close collaborations among theoretical and experimental groups with complementary techniques. Our team has a track record and a long-term research goal of studying the unusual complexities and emergent behaviors in the charge, spin, and orbital sectors of the transition metal compounds in order to gain basic knowledge of the quantum electronic states of matter. During the funding period of this grant, the team continued their close collaborations between theory, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy and made significant progress and contributions to the field of iron-based superconductors, copper-oxide high-temperature superconductors, triangular lattice transition metal oxide cobaltates, strontium ruthenates, spin orbital coupled iridates, as well as topological insulators and other topological quantum states of matter. These results include both new

  17. Group-effort Applied Research: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…

  18. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  19. UCM Meteor and Fireball Research group: Results 2012--2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Izquierdo, J.; Pascual, S.; Palos, M. F.; Oré, S.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Zamora, S.; Lorenzo, C.; San Juan, R.; Muñoz-Ibáñez, B.; Vázquez, C.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Gallego, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Most of the activity of the group is based on the Fireball Detection Station located at the Observatorio UCM, a system consisting of 6 high-sensitivity videocameras covering the whole sky with wide-angle lenses during nighttime. Another 15 cameras have been placed by the researchers between 10 and 200 km away from Madrid for multiple station observations. It works as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN), a network of similar stations covering the atmosphere over Spain. Besides the continuous monitoring, the group has worked on the recording and analysis of some meteor showers. Most of the attention was focused on the Draconids 2011 campaign at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M., Madiedo, J. M., Williams, I. P., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 560; Ocaña, F., Palos, M. F., Zamorano, J., et al. 2013, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, 31st IMC, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, 2012, 70), and the 2012 Geminids balloon-borne mission over Spain (Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Madiedo, J. M., et al. 2013, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, 2202). The products of the station have been used for undergraduate thesis projects at the Physics Faculty (Ocaña, F., 2011, UCM e-prints, 13292) and other undergraduate projects. In 2013 the station received new equipment thanks to the Certamen Arquímedes award, complementing the detection with spectroscopic and frame-integrating devices.

  20. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!).

    PubMed

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-06-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/.

  1. Citing Dynamic Data - Research Data Alliance working group recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Rauber, Andreas; Pröll, Stefan; van Uytvanck, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Geosciences research data sets are typically dynamic: changing over time as new records are added, errors are corrected and obsolete records are deleted from the data sets. Researchers often use only parts of the data sets or data stream, creating specific subsets tailored to their experiments. In order to keep such experiments reproducible and to share and cite the particular data used in a study, researchers need means of identifying the exact version of a subset as it was used during a specific execution of a workflow, even if the data source is continuously evolving. Some geosciences data services have tried to approach this problem by creating static versions of their data sets, and some have simply ignored this issue. The RDA Working Group on Dynamic Data Citation (WGDC) has instead approached the issue with a set of recommendations based upon versioned data, timestamping and a query based subsetting mechanism. The 14 RDA WGDC recommendations on how to adapt a data source for providing identifiable subsets for the long term are: Preparing the Data and the Query Store R1 - Data Versioning R2 - Timestamping R3 - Query Store Facilities Persistently Identifying Specific Data Sets R4 - Query Uniqueness R5 - Stable Sorting R6 - Result Set Verification R7 - Query Timestamping R8 - Query PID R9 - Store the Query R10 - Automated Citation Texts Resolving PIDs and Retrieving the Data - R11 - Landing Page R12 - Machine Actionability Upon modifications to the Data Infrastructure R13 - Technology Migration R14 - Migration Verification We present a detailed discussion of the recommendations, the rationale behind them, and give examples of how to implement them.

  2. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Nabi; Khaksari, Mehdi; Erfani, Sohaila; Rajabi, Hamid; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral ischemic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction through occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic exercise significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration. PMID:26487851

  3. Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure Family history of vascular disease Warning Signs You may have critical limb ischemia if ... blood flow to the limb. Other treatments include laser atherectomy, where small bits of plaque are vaporized ...

  4. Group-effort applied research: expanding opportunities for undergraduate research through original, class-based research projects.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean D; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's laboratory. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student-one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this article, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience.

  5. Nuclear decay data files of the Dosimetry Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the nuclear decay data files used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the utility DEXRAX which provides access to the files. The files are accessed, by nuclide, to extract information on the intensities and energies of the radiations associated with spontaneous nuclear transformation of the radionuclides. In addition, beta spectral data are available for all beta-emitting nuclides. Two collections of nuclear decay data are discussed. The larger collection contains data for 838 radionuclides, which includes the 825 radionuclides assembled during the preparation of Publications 30 and 38 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and 13 additional nuclides evaluated in preparing a monograph for the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The second collection is composed of data from the MIRD monograph and contains information for 242 radionuclides. Abridged tabulations of these data have been published by the ICRP in Publication 38 and by the Society of Nuclear Medicine in a monograph entitled ``MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes.`` The beta spectral data reported here have not been published by either organization. Electronic copies of the files and the utility, along with this report, are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. The history of the Drug Utilization Research Group in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ulf

    2006-02-01

    Following the recommendations from a World Health Organization (WHO)/Euro symposium Consumption of drugs in 1969, a common classification system for drugs was developed, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC), and a technical unit of comparison, the Defined Daily Dose (DDD), as a comparative unit of drug use. This was found to be robust across therapeutic classifications, dosing forms and diverse populations. To maintain and develop the ATC/DDD system a WHO-Collaborating Centre was established in Oslo. As this was found to be of global interest the centre now reports to the WHO headquarters in Geneva. An informal WHO Drug Utilization Research Group (WHO-DURG), later the EuroDURG, has by now met 28 times in Europe. Since 1994 in Stockholm all these meetings have been with ISPE (International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology) when meeting in Europe. The main focus was initially to improve drug utilization through cross-national drug utilization studies based on the ATC/DDD methodology as they revealed large differences between and within countries that could not easily be explained by morbidity differences alone. These observed differences have led to the expansion of the area to include social, economic and qualitative methods with a more generalized public health focus. One of the most recent contributions was the development of drug use quality indicators.

  7. Quercetin protects rat skeletal muscle from ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ekinci Akdemir, Fazile Nur; Gülçin, İlhami; Karagöz, Berna; Soslu, Recep

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential beneficial effects of quercetin on skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley type rats were randomly divided into four groups. In the sham group, only gastrocnemius muscle were removed and given no quercetin. In ischemia group, all the femoral artery, vein and collaterals were occluded in the left hindlimb by applying tourniquate under general anaesthesia for three hours but reperfusion was not done. In the Quercetin + Ischemia reperfusion group, quercetin (200 mg kg(-1) dose orally) was given during one-week reoperation and later ischemia reperfusion model was done. Finally, gastrocnemius muscle samples were removed to measure biochemical parameters. The biomarkers, MDA levels, SOD, CAT and GPx activities, were evaluated related to skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury. MDA levels reduced and SOD, CAT and GPx activities increased significantly in Quercetin + Ischemia reperfusion group. Results clearly showed that Quercetin have a protective role against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion in rats.

  8. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Pregabalin on Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Aşcı, Sanem; Demirci, Serpil; Aşcı, Halil; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Onaran, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and the leading cause of disability in adults. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury causes cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and neuronal death. Aims: In post-ischemic reperfusion, free radical production causes brain tissue damage by oxidative stress. Pregabalin, an antiepileptic agent was shown to have antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of pregabalin on ischemia and reperfusion in rat brain injury. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Male Wistar rats weighing (250–300 g) were randomly divided into six groups, each consisting of 6 rats: control (C), pregabalin (P), ischemia (I), pregabalin + ischemia (PI), ischemia + reperfusion (IR) and ischemia + reperfusion + pregabalin (PIR). Rats were initially pre-treated with 50 mg/kg/d pregabalin orally for two days. Then, animals that applied ischemia in I, PI, IR and PIR groups were exposed to carotid clamping for 30 minutes and 20 minutes reperfusion was performed in the relevant reperfusion groups. Results: NR2B receptor levels were significantly lower in the PIR group in comparison to the IR group. In the PIR group, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level had statistically significant decrease compared with IR group. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels were also significantly increased in the PIR group compared with I, IR and control groups. In the PI and PIR groups, catalase (CAT) levels were also significantly increased compared with I and IR groups (p=0.03 and p=0.07, respectively). Conclusion: Pregabalin may protect the damage of oxidative stress after ischemia + reperfusion. This result would illuminate clinical studies in the future. PMID:27403394

  10. How Group Dynamics Research Can Inform the Theory and Practice of Postsecondary Small Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Michael; Michaelsen, Larry K.

    2007-01-01

    After a brief review of integrative small group learning models that have appeared in the educational psychology literature, this article then looks into the group dynamics literature and describes one of that field's most well-documented findings: that interactions among group members change somewhat predictably over time. How theorists from…

  11. Student or Scholar? Transforming Identities through a Research Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassig, Carly J.; Dillon, Lisette H.; Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role a writing group played in influencing the scholarly identities of a group of doctoral students by fostering their writing expertise. While the interest in writing groups usually centres on their potential to support doctoral students to publish, few studies have been conducted and written by the students themselves.…

  12. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (p<0.05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase levels of the kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (p<0.05). In histopathological samples, the kefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical staining, hipoxia-inducible factor-1α and caspase 3 immunopositive neurons were significantly decreased in kefir group compared with ischemia group (p<0.05). The neurological deficit scores of kefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study revealed that kefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  13. Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Deborah

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible conflict of interest resulting from the Environmental Protection Agency's participation with the automobile and oil industries in the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, an organization which has sponsored much of the research important to federal regulation of clean air. (JR)

  14. Ischemia reperfusion injury, ischemic conditioning and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lejay, Anne; Fang, Fei; John, Rohan; Van, Julie A D; Barr, Meredith; Thaveau, Fabien; Chakfe, Nabil; Geny, Bernard; Scholey, James W

    2016-02-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion, which is characterized by deficient oxygen supply and subsequent restoration of blood flow, can cause irreversible damages to tissue. Mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion injury are complex, multifactorial and highly integrated. Extensive research has focused on increasing organ tolerance to ischemia reperfusion injury, especially through the use of ischemic conditioning strategies. Of morbidities that potentially compromise the protective mechanisms of the heart, diabetes mellitus appears primarily important to study. Diabetes mellitus increases myocardial susceptibility to ischemia reperfusion injury and also modifies myocardial responses to ischemic conditioning strategies by disruption of intracellular signaling responsible for enhancement of resistance to cell death. The purpose of this review is twofold: first, to summarize mechanisms underlying ischemia reperfusion injury and the signal transduction pathways underlying ischemic conditioning cardioprotection; and second, to focus on diabetes mellitus and mechanisms that may be responsible for the lack of effect of ischemic conditioning strategies in diabetes.

  15. Involvement of AQP 1 in the cardio-protective effect of remifentanil post-conditioning in ischemia/reperfusion rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peng-Tao; Chen, Wen-Hua; Zheng, Hong; Lai, Zhong-Meng; Zhang, Liang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: our research aim to study the role of AQP1 in the cardioprotective effect of remifentanil post-conditioning for myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods: Ninety Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 6 groups: sham operation group (Sham group), myocardial ischemia and reperfusion group (I/R group), postconditioning of remifentanil group (R-post), postconditioning of remifentanil plus AQP1 inhibitor acetazolamide group (R-post +Ace), postconditioning of remifentanil plus opioid-receptor antagonist compounds (R-post +AC), postconditioning of remifentanil plus AQP1 enhancer arginine vasopressin (R-post +AV). All groups except the sham operation group were given 30 min ischemia in left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries. All groups were then given 120 min reperfusion to the LAD. Before reperfusion, the R-post, R-post +Ace, R-post +AC, R-post +AV groups were given 10 min remifentanil post-conditioning. Hemodynamic data were measured every 30 min after initiation of ischemia. The rats’ hearts were exercised for detecting infarct size and water content in the left ventricle, and AQP1 expression were also detected. Results: The R-post group showed a significant reduction of the infarct size compared to the I/R group. The effect of R-post for reducing infarct size was slightly enhanced by adding acetazolamide to R-post, so significant differences could still be found when compared R-post+Ace group to the I/R group. The effect of infarct size reduction brought by R-post was blocked by the opioid-receptor antagonist compounds. This effect was also blocked by the AQP1 enhancer. Similar outcomes were found considering the water content of the left ventricle and the AQP1 expression. Conclusion: Cardioprotective effect of remifentanil post-conditioning may initiate through inhibiting the function of AQP1. PMID:26550187

  16. Focus Groups: An Important Research Technique for Internal Evaluation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara Poitras

    1993-01-01

    The use of focus groups by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a tool of internal evaluation is described. Focus groups are used in an environment where credibility is key to achieving meaningful cooperation. Issues for consideration by other evaluators interested in the approach are summarized. (SLD)

  17. 1994 NAEP U.S. History Group Assessment. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Madeline; Lazer, Stephen; Mazzeo, John; Mead, Nancy; Pearlmutter, Amy

    This report documents the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) special pilot study of group assessment. In 1994, NAEP administered U.S. History projects to a limited number of students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of group assessment, and to gain practical experience in the design, development,…

  18. GUIDANCE RESEARCH IN ACTION, GROUP COUNSELING WITH PARENTS, MONOGRAPH 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAW, MERVILLE C.; TUEL, JOHN K.

    THE SECOND PHASE OF A 3-YEAR STUDY TO DEFINE AN OBJECTIVE FOR GUIDANCE SERVICES IS PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITH THE INCLUSION OF TEACHERS IN GROUP COUNSELING AND THE CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF GROUP COUNSELING WITH PARENTS. THE 22 PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS FROM SIX SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN CALIFORNIA AND NEW MEXICO INCLUDED K-12 FROM ALL SOCIOECONOMIC LEVELS. TO…

  19. Evolution and Social Dynamics of Acknowledged Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in higher education institutions characteristic of a knowledge society are strongly affecting academic life, scientists' working conditions and the social dynamics of scientific groups. In such situations, it is important to understand the different ways in which these groups are tackling the structural dilemmas posed by the changes…

  20. Assessing Undergraduate Curriculum for the Adult Learner: Focus Group Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia B.

    Focus group discussions were held to determine the perceptions of 8 male and 28 female adult students regarding the quality of their undergraduate evening program at a medium-sized public liberal arts college. The students voluntarily participated in one of three group sessions at which the following topics were discussed: whether evening students…

  1. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, year four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.

  2. [Cerebral ischemia and histamine].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Naoto

    2002-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which provoke catastrophic enzymatic processes leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays the role of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and histaminergic fibers are widely distributed in the brain. In cerebral ischemia, release of histamine from nerve endings has been shown to be enhanced by facilitation of its activity. An inhibition of the histaminergic activity in ischemia aggravates the histologic outcome. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of histamine improves the aggravation, whereas blockade of histamine H2 receptors aggravates ischemic injury. Furthermore, H2 blockade enhances ischemic release of glutamate and dopamine. These findings suggest that central histamine provides beneficial effects against ischemic neuronal damage by suppressing release of excitatory neurotransmitters. However, histaminergic H2 action facilitates the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and shows deleterious effects on cerebral edema.

  3. A reproductive hazards research agenda for the 1990s. Research Needs Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, M; Silbergeld, E; Mattison, D

    1993-01-01

    There is substantial scientific and public concern about the potential effects of occupational and environmental toxicants on reproductive health. These effects include impaired functioning of the reproductive systems of men and women as well as a broad spectrum of developmental problems expressed in offspring. Research on reproduction and development is among the most complex undertakings in biomedical research. This complexity is due in part to the intricate biology of reproduction, the multiple targets involved (male, female, and offspring), the uncertainties in extrapolating from animal models to humans, and the problems involved in accurately characterizing exposures and outcomes in epidemiologic investigations. However, given the relatively brief history of research into toxicant-induced reproductive health effects, we have made enormous strides in our knowledge over the past decade. In particular, recent advances in reproductive biology and biotechnology and in the development of biological markers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility are greatly enhancing our ability to study cause-effect relationships. In this paper, the Research Needs Working Group proposes ways to apply existing knowledge to better protect reproductive health and suggests directions for future research. Fulfilling this challenging agenda will require responsible cooperation by labor, industry, government, individual citizens, and the scientific community. Further research and collaboration are essential to both prevent adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes and to formulate a sound scientific basis for policy making. PMID:8243388

  4. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the

  5. 75 FR 8330 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: EPA has authorized contractor, Eastern Research Group... Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the confidential data will occur no sooner than...

  6. 77 FR 68769 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Eastern Research Group... Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the confidential data occurred on or about...

  7. AAAS Report IX: Research & Development, FY 1985. Intersociety Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report consists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science overview of research and development (R&D) in the fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and its associated policy issues, together with special analyses of several important topics, such as funding for basic research. A set of overview tables is included. Part II…

  8. TAFE Curriculum Research: A Review of Group Process Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tony; Jones, Neil

    The issue of how to react quickly to the educational needs arising from technological change has been deemed a central problem facing Technical and Further Education (TAFE) in Australia. Therefore, a national study examined various curriculum research methods that hold promise for speeding up the curriculum research and development process. The…

  9. Research on the Problem and Countermeasures of Group-Buying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yahui; Li, Wei; Cheng, Limin

    The threshold of group-buying is low, so the group-buying develops very fast. But at the same time, there are many goods which have low price and high quality service which is false to get the network users' trust. Therefore, consumers should keep a clear head and avoiding straying into the trap of business, the website of group-buying should strengthen self-construction to safeguard the consumers' interest. In addition, government needs to play its due role to protect the legitimate right of the consumers.

  10. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B.; Fischer, Jonathan P.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S.; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D.; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education. PMID:26594297

  11. Rat model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Huanmin

    2015-01-01

    In the human brain, the dominant hemisphere is more complex than the non-dominant hemisphere. Hence, cerebral ischemia of the dominant hemisphere often leads to serious consequences. This study aims to establish a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere. The quadruped feeding test was used to screen 70 male Sprague Dawley rats. From this test, 48 rats with right paw preference were selected and randomly assigned numbers. Half were assigned to the dominant hemisphere ischemia (DHI) group, and the other half were assigned to the non-dominant hemisphere ischemia (NDHI) group. The middle cerebral artery was occluded 2 h before reperfusion. Neurological functions were tested. TTC and HE staining were performed. The volume of cerebral infarction was calculated. Rats in the DHI group had significantly worse neurological scores than rats in the NDHI group (P < 0.05). TTC staining indicated ischemia had more severe consequences in the dominant hemisphere than in the non-dominant hemisphere. The dominant hippocampus indicated severe neuronal loss and disorderly cellular arrangement. The volume of cerebral infarction was also greater in the DHI group compared to the NDHI group (P < 0.05). Compared to MCA occlusion in the non-dominant hemisphere, MCA occlusion in the dominant hemisphere caused greater impairment in neurological functions. The proposed rodent model is reliable and has high levels of reproducibility. Therefore, his model can be reliably for investigating the mechanism of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere of human brains. PMID:25785023

  12. The protective effect of cilostazol on isolated rabbit femoral arteries under conditions of ischemia and reperfusion: the role of the nitric oxide pathway

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mariana R.G.A.; Celotto, Andréa C; Capellini, Verena K; Evora, Paulo R B; Piccinato, Carlos E; Joviliano, Edwaldo E

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of ischemia/reperfusion of the lower extremities demands further investigation to enable the development of more effective therapeutic alternatives. This study investigated the changes in the vascular reactivity of the rabbit femoral artery and nitric oxide metabolites under partial ischemia/reperfusion conditions following cilostazol administration. METHODS: Ischemia was induced using infrarenal aortic clamping. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Control 90 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 90/60 minutes, Control 120 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, Cilostazol, Cilostazol before Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, and Ischemia 120 minutes/Cilostazol/Reperfusion 90 minutes. Dose-response curves for sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine, and the calcium ionophore A23187 were obtained in isolated femoral arteries. The levels of nitrites and nitrates in the plasma and skeletal muscle were determined using chemiluminescence. RESULTS: Acetylcholine- and A23187-induced relaxation was reduced in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 group, and treatment with cilostazol partially prevented this ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelium impairment. Only cilostazol treatment increased plasma levels of nitrites and nitrates. An elevation in the levels of nitrites and nitrates was observed in muscle tissues in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90, Cilostazol/Ischemia/Reperfusion, and Ischemia/Cilostazol/Reperfusion groups. CONCLUSION: Hind limb ischemia/reperfusion yielded an impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the femoral artery. Furthermore, cilostazol administration prior to ischemia exerted a protective effect on endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity under ischemia/reperfusion conditions. PMID:22358243

  13. Using focus groups in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 91.

    PubMed

    Stalmeijer, Renée E; Mcnaughton, Nancy; Van Mook, Walther N K A

    2014-11-01

    Qualitative research methodology has become an established part of the medical education research field. A very popular data-collection technique used in qualitative research is the "focus group". Focus groups in this Guide are defined as "… group discussions organized to explore a specific set of issues … The group is focused in the sense that it involves some kind of collective activity … crucially, focus groups are distinguished from the broader category of group interview by the explicit use of the group interaction as research data" (Kitzinger 1994, p. 103). This Guide has been designed to provide people who are interested in using focus groups with the information and tools to organize, conduct, analyze and publish sound focus group research within a broader understanding of the background and theoretical grounding of the focus group method. The Guide is organized as follows: Firstly, to describe the evolution of the focus group in the social sciences research domain. Secondly, to describe the paradigmatic fit of focus groups within qualitative research approaches in the field of medical education. After defining, the nature of focus groups and when, and when not, to use them, the Guide takes on a more practical approach, taking the reader through the various steps that need to be taken in conducting effective focus group research. Finally, the Guide finishes with practical hints towards writing up a focus group study for publication.

  14. The Relationship of Group Cohesion to Group Performance: A Research Integration Attempt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    display the data. The median effect size (product-moment correlation coefficient ) for the data. The median effect size (product-moment correlation ... coefficient ) for the 14 codable studies was .36, and the unweighted mean r was .42. When study effect sizes were weighted by the number of groups involved, the

  15. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  16. Research Project Concerning Students From Minority Groups. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, John H.

    The motivation of this project was a desire on the part of the Harvard Business School to augment equality of career opportunities in management for minority group members and to insure expanded managerial training so that new capabilities would be developed to match new opportunities. This document describes programs undertaken by the faculty and…

  17. Angina and exertional myocardial ischemia in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: assessment by exercise thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesto, R.W.; Phillips, R.T.; Kett, K.G.; Hill, T.; Perper, E.; Young, E.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease are thought to have painless myocardial ischemia more often than patients without diabetes. We studied 50 consecutive patients with diabetes and 50 consecutive patients without diabetes, all with ischemia, on exercise thallium scintigraphy to show the reliability of angina as a marker for exertional ischemia. The two groups had similar clinical characteristics, treadmill test results, and extent of infarction and ischemia, but only 7 patients with diabetes compared with 17 patients without diabetes had angina during exertional ischemia. In diabetic patients the extent of retinopathy, nephropathy, or peripheral neuropathy was similar in patients with and without angina. Angina is an unreliable index of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. Given the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality in such patients, periodic objective assessments of the extent of ischemia are warranted.

  18. Panretinal photocoagulation for radiation-induced ocular ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Augsburger, J.J.; Roth, S.E.; Magargal, L.E.; Shields, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    We present preliminary findings on the effectiveness of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma in eyes with radiation-induced ocular ischemia. Our study group consisted of 20 patients who developed radiation-induced ocular ischemia following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy for a choroidal or ciliary body melanoma. Eleven of the 20 patients were treated by panretinal photocoagulation shortly after the diagnosis of ocular ischemia, but nine patients were left untreated. In this non-randomized study, the rate of development of neovascular glaucoma was significantly lower (p = 0.024) for the 11 photocoagulated patients than for the nine who were left untreated.

  19. Ten Years of Research on Group Size and Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latane, Bibb; Nida, Steve

    1981-01-01

    Reviewed research on the effect of the presence of other people on individuals' willingness to help in an emergency. Attention was paid to the nature of the precipitating incident; ambiguity of the helping situation; laboratory versus field settings; characteristics of subjects, victims, and bystanders; and communication among bystanders.…

  20. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  1. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury: from basic science to clinical bedside.

    PubMed

    Frank, Anja; Bonney, Megan; Bonney, Stephanie; Weitzel, Lindsay; Koeppen, Michael; Eckle, Tobias

    2012-09-01

    Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial ischemia, cardiac surgery or circulatory arrest. Primarily, no blood flow to the heart causes an imbalance between oxygen demand and supply, named ischemia (from the Greek isch, restriction; and haema, blood), resulting in damage or dysfunction of the cardiac tissue. Instinctively, early and fast restoration of blood flow has been established to be the treatment of choice to prevent further tissue injury. Indeed, the use of thrombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective strategy for reducing the size of a myocardial infarct and improving the clinical outcome. Unfortunately, restoring blood flow to the ischemic myocardium, named reperfusion, can also induce injury. This phenomenon was therefore termed myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Subsequent studies in animal models of acute myocardial infarction suggest that myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury accounts for up to 50% of the final size of a myocardial infarct. Consequently, many researchers aim to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury to find therapeutic strategies ultimately reducing the final infarct size. Despite the identification of numerous therapeutic strategies at the bench, many of them are just in the process of being translated to bedside. The current review discusses the most striking basic science findings made during the past decades that are currently under clinical evaluation, with the ultimate goal to treat patients who are suffering from myocardial ischemia reperfusion-associated tissue injury.

  2. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 plays a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seongkweon; Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Won, Moo-Ho; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Seung Min; Cho, Jun Hwi; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which carry monocarboxylates such as lactate across biological membranes, have been associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion process. In this study, we studied the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on MCT4 immunoreactivity after 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. Animals were randomly designated to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia only group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia group). A serious loss of neuron was found in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1), not CA2/3, of the ischemia-only group at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC + ischemia groups, neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 were well protected. Weak MCT4 immunoreactivity was found in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the sham-operated group. MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale began to decrease at 2 days post-ischemia and was hardly detected at 5 days post-ischemia; at this time point, MCT4 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes. In the IPC + sham-operated group, MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 was increased compared with the sham-operated group, and, in the IPC + ischemia group, MCT4 immunoreactivity was also increased in the stratum pyramidale compared with the ischemia only group. Briefly, present findings show that IPC apparently protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased or maintained MCT4 expression in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest that MCT4 appears to play a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC in the gerbil with transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26692857

  3. Writing Groups, Change and Academic Identity: Research Development as Local Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alison; Boud, David

    2003-01-01

    Examines the use of writing groups as a strategy for research development, asserting that writing is best considered a starting point of the research process and that fostering academic writing is a useful place to do research development work. The article describes the use of various writing groups over 3 years, exploring the responses of leaders…

  4. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  5. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.13 What is a group research or study...

  6. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.13 What is a group research or study...

  7. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.13 What is a group research or study...

  8. The Complete Guide to Focus Group Marketing Research for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    This guide discusses the use of focus groups in marketing research for higher education. It describes the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and examines when it is appropriate to use focus group research, when it is not, and why. The guide describes a step-by-step approach in how to plan, formulate, moderate, and report…

  9. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  10. The evolving concept of physiological ischemia training vs. ischemia preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Lu, Hongjian; Lu, Xiao; Jiang, Minghui; Peng, Qingyun; Ren, Caili; Xiang, Jie; Mei, Chengyao; Li, Jianan

    2015-11-01

    Ischemic heart diseases are the leading cause of death with increasing numbers of patients worldwide. Despite advances in revascularization techniques, angiogenic therapies remain highly attractive. Physiological ischemia training, which is first proposed in our laboratory, refers to reversible ischemia training of normal skeletal muscles by using a tourniquet or isometric contraction to cause physiologic ischemia for about 4 weeks for the sake of triggering molecular and cellular mechanisms to promote angiogenesis and formation of collateral vessels and protect remote ischemia areas. Physiological ischemia training therapy augments angiogenesis in the ischemic myocardium by inducing differential expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell migration, protein folding, and generation. It upregulates the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor, and induces angiogenesis, protects the myocardium when infarction occurs by increasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells and enhancing their migration, which is in accordance with physical training in heart disease rehabilitation. These findings may lead to a new approach of therapeutic angiogenesis for patients with ischemic heart diseases. On the basis of the promising results in animal studies, studies were also conducted in patients with coronary artery disease without any adverse effect in vivo, indicating that physiological ischemia training therapy is a safe, effective and non-invasive angiogenic approach for cardiovascular rehabilitation. Preconditioning is considered to be the most protective intervention against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury to date. Physiological ischemia training is different from preconditioning. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical data of physiological ischemia training and its difference from preconditioning.

  11. Involvement of endometrial membrane sulphydryl groups in blastocyst implantation: sulphydryl groups as a potential target for contraceptive research.

    PubMed

    Nivsarkar, M; Sethi, A; Bapu, C; Patel, M; Padh, H

    2001-10-01

    The role of membrane sulphydryl groups in blastocyst implantation was studied by masking the membrane sulphydryl groups in the endometrium of Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, using 10(-5) M cobalt chloride and 0.05 mM as well as 0.005 mM n-ethylmaleimide. Here we show that the blocking of sulphydryl groups with cobalt resulted in a decrease in superoxide radical surge and an increase in superoxide dismutase levels at the time of implantation. We hypothesize that it may be due to either a decrease in membrane fluidity or the unavailability of sulphydryl groups of endometrial membrane, thus preventing blastocyst implantation. These sulphydryl groups can be targeted for future contraceptive research.

  12. The Effect of Activated Protein C on Attenuation of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Muscle Flap Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Elizabeth W; Fang, Taolin; Arnold, Peter B; Songcharoen, Somjade Jay; Lineaweaver, William C; Zhang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is often the final and irreversible factor causing flap failure in microsurgery. The salvage of a microsurgical flap with an ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes to the success of microsurgical flap transfers. Activated protein C (APC), a serine protease with anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities, has been shown to improve ischemic flap survival. To date, APC has yet to be applied to models of free flap with ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of APC on gracilis flap ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by gracilis vessels clamping and reopening. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. After 4 hours of clamping for ischemia, flaps were reperfused and recombinant human APC (25 μg/kg) or saline was injected in the flaps through pedicles. At 0, 1, 4, 18, and 24 hours after injection (n = 6 for each time point), the tissue samples were harvested. The muscle viability at 24 hours in saline group was 54.8% (15.1%), whereas the APC-treated group was 90.0% (4.3%) (P < 0.05). The induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression increased with the time after reperfusion, which were 0.93 (0.25) to 2.09 (0.22) in saline group, and 0.197 (0.15) to 0.711 (0.15) in the APC-treated group. iNOS mRNA expression in the APC-treated group was significantly higher than the saline group at 1, 18, and 24 hours (P < 0.05). Numerous inflammatory cells were observed infiltrating and invading the muscle fibers in the saline group more than the APC-treated group. Increased number of polymorphonuclear cells was also noted in the saline group compared with the APC-treated group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, APC treatment can significantly attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury and increase the survival of the free flap through down-regulating iNOS mRNA expression and reducing the inflammatory cells. Further research is still needed to be done on various mechanisms in which APC is

  13. Cerulean Warbler Technical Group: Coordinating international research and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Wigley, T.B.; Keyser, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation for species of concern requires interchange and collaboration among conservationists and stakeholders. The Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) is a consortium of biologists and managers from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry, who are dedicated to finding pro-active, science-based solutions for conservation of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea). Formed in the United States in 2001, CWTG’s scope soon broadened to address the species’ ecology and conservation on both the breeding and non-breeding ranges, in partnership with biologists from South and Central America. In 2004, CWTG launched the Cerulean Warbler Conservation Initiative, a set of activities aimed at addressing information and conservation needs for the species. These include (1) studies in the core breeding range to assess Cerulean Warbler response to forest management practices and to identify mined lands that could be reforested to benefit the species, (2) ecological and demographic studies on the winter range, and (3) surveys of Cerulean Warbler distribution on the breeding and winter ranges and during migration. A rangewide conservation action plan has been completed, along with a more detailed conservation plan for the non-breeding range. CWTG and partners now move forward with on-the-ground conservation, while still addressing unmet information needs.

  14. Thirty-One Years of Group Research in "Social Psychology Quarterly" (1975-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrod, Wendy J.; Welch, Bridget K.; Kushkowski, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in group research published in Social Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) from 1975 to 2005. We identified a total of 332 papers about groups published during the time period. Following Moreland, Hogg, and Hains (1994), we created an index of interest in groups by dividing the number of pages in papers about groups by the total number of…

  15. Effects of wortmannin on cardioprotection exerted by ischemic preconditioning in rat hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Débora Elisabet; Hermann, Romina; Barreda Frank, Mariángeles; Mestre Cordero, Victoria Evangelina; Savino, Enrique Alberto; Varela, Alicia; Marina Prendes, Maria Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most powerful interventions to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) family in cardioprotection exerted by IPC and the relationship between preservation of mitochondrial morphology and ATP synthesis capacity. In this regard, macroautophagy (autophagy) is considered a dynamic process involved in the replacement of aged or defective organelles under physiological conditions. IPC consisted of four 5-min cycles of ischemia-reperfusion followed by sustained ischemia. Wortmannin (W), a PI3K family inhibitor, was added to the perfusion medium to study the involvement of autophagy in the beneficial effects of IPC. In the present study, LC3-II/I expression was significantly increased in the IPC group when compared with the control group. The hearts subjected to IPC showed greater degradation of p62 than control groups, establishing the existence of an autophagic flow. Electron microscopy showed that IPC preserves the structural integrity of mitochondria after ischemia and at the end of reperfusion. Moreover, hearts subjected to IPC exhibited increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The beneficial effects of IPC were abolished by W in all trials of this study, abolishing the differences between the IPC and control groups. These results suggest that IPC could partly reduce injury by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) by decreasing mitochondrial damage and promoting autophagy. Since W is a nonspecific inhibitor of the PI3Ks family, further research is required to confirm participation of PI3K in the response to IPC.

  16. The Relationship Between Ischemia Time and Mucous Secretion in Vaginal Reconstruction With the Jejunal Free Flap: An Experimental Study on the Rat Jejunum.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Omer; Ozkan, Ozlenen; Bektas, Gamze; Cinpolat, Anı; Bassorgun, Ibrahim; Ciftcioglu, Akif

    2015-07-01

    Jejunum flap for reconstruction of the vagina provides a durable, stable coverage; patent tube passage; and natural esthetic appearance. However, excessive mucous secretion is a major drawback of the technique.We have recently presented our cases in which strict 3-hour ischemia with lower mucus secretion was applied. However, a quantitative analysis of goblet cells of the jejunum subjected to ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury on an animal model has not been reported to support this argument.Because goblet cells are responsible for the production and the maintenance of the mucous blanket, we aimed to determine whether goblet cell numbers decrease after ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury.This study was conducted on 3 groups of 10 animals. We applied to the rat jejunum only ischemia in group 1, one hour of ischemia followed by reperfusion in group 2, and 2 hours of ischemia followed by reperfusion in group 3. Histological samples taken from the jejunum exposed to ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury were evaluated in terms of goblet cell numbers, inflammation, apoptotic bodies, and necrosis.Goblet cell numbers significantly decreased in the group of animals exposed to ischemia and exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury. We think that mucus hypersecretion of the jejenum can be limited by applying a longer period of ischemia time during free flap transfer in vaginal reconstruction.

  17. Neuroprotection in selective focal ischemia in rats by nitrates, an alternative redox manipulation on nitric oxide: experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zúñiga, R; Velázquez-Santana, H; Mercado-Pimentel, R; Cerda-Camacho, F

    1998-09-01

    The recent advances in the histopathology of ischemia have set forth new proposals, particularly in regard to excitotoxicity by the glutamate receptor, NMDA. The participation of the nitric oxide (NO) in normal and pathological conditions and its relationship with toxicity in ischemia, suggest new alternatives for the modulation of the NMDA receptor REDOX site through its pharmacologic manipulation. This event would potentially limit the consequences of the activation-calcium flow and the production of peroxoinitrite during the ischemic phenomenon. The present work delivers two proposals: 1) A modified technique to the ones that have been described, of endovascular, without craniectomy, for experimental cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats, and with particular harmful effect upon the hippocampus. 2) It promotes the use of nitrates as an additional alternative to other elements, in order to restrict excitotoxicity in the described experimental cerebral ischemia, and paying attention to CA1-CA2 of the hippocampus. This area, specially sensitive to hypoxia-ischemia, offers an excellent study option for focal, experimental, cerebral ischemia associated with toxicity mediated by excitatory amino acids, since it stores an important concentration of NMDA receptors (R1/R2 A) as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Our parameters are supported by quantitative-qualitative cell analysis, and not by the extension of the stroke which offers a more objective perspective upon the assessment of the focal ischemic event. By means of this technique, these results confirm the extent of the ischemic injury to the cell at the level of the hippocampus compared to a control/basal group, P = 0.0006. Furthermore, it suggests a neuroprotective effect of isosorbide dinitrate since it preserves the viable cells, and limits the appearance of hypoxic-ischemic cells at the hippocampus when the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is occluded endovascularly, as compared to the animals with no treatment

  18. Radiological Evaluation of Bowel Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dhatt, Harpreet S.; Behr, Spencer C; Miracle, Aaron; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel, is a potentially catastrophic entity that may require emergent intervention or surgery in the acute setting. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of intestinal ischemia are nonspecific, CT findings can be highly suggestive in the correct clinical setting. In this chapter we review the CT diagnosis of arterial, venous, and non-occlusive intestinal ischemia. We discuss the vascular anatomy, pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia, CT techniques for optimal imaging, key and ancillary radiological findings, and differential diagnosis. In the setting of an acute abdomen, rapid evaluation is necessary to identify intraabdominal processes that require emergent surgical intervention (1). While a wide-range of intraabdominal diseases may be present from trauma to inflammation, one of the most feared disorders is mesenteric ischemia, also known as intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel (2). Initial imaging evaluation for intestinal ischemia is typically obtained with CT. Close attention to technique and search for key radiologic features with relation to the CT technique is required. Accurate diagnosis depends on understanding the vascular anatomy, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of various forms of mesenteric ischemia and their corresponding radiological findings on MDCT. At imaging, not only is inspection of the bowel itself important, but evaluation of the mesenteric fat, vasculature, and surrounding peritoneal cavity also helps improves accuracy in the diagnosis of bowel ischemia. PMID:26526436

  19. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  20. Statistics of Statisticians: Critical Mass of Statistics and Operational Research Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    Using a recently developed model, inspired by mean field theory in statistical physics, and data from the UK's Research Assessment Exercise, we analyse the relationship between the qualities of statistics and operational research groups and the quantities of researchers in them. Similar to other academic disciplines, we provide evidence for a linear dependency of quality on quantity up to an upper critical mass, which is interpreted as the average maximum number of colleagues with whom a researcher can communicate meaningfully within a research group. The model also predicts a lower critical mass, which research groups should strive to achieve to avoid extinction. For statistics and operational research, the lower critical mass is estimated to be 9 ± 3. The upper critical mass, beyond which research quality does not significantly depend on group size, is 17 ± 6.

  1. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the new model of global cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisel, A. A.; Chernysheva, G. A.; Smol'yakova, V. I.; Savchenko, R. R.; Plotnikov, M. B.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis in a new model of global transient cerebral ischemia which was performed by the occlusion of the three main vessels (tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sinistra, and a. carotis communis sinistra) branching from the aortic arch and supplying the brain. Global transitory cerebral ischemia was modeled on male rats (weight = 250-300 g) under chloral hydrate with artificial lung ventilation. Animals after the same surgical operation without vessel occlusion served as sham-operated controls. The number of DCX-positive (doublecortin, the marker of immature neurons) cells in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1-CA3 fields of hippocampus was counted at the 31st day after ischemia modeling. It was revealed that global cerebral ischemia decreased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus in comparison with the sham-operated group (P<0.05) while neurogenesis in CA1-CA3 fields was increased as compared to the control (P<0.05).

  2. Vasospastic Limb Ischemia Presenting Acute and Chronic Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vasospastic limb ischemia might have been underappreciated compared to vasospasm in other territories such as heart and brain. However, an increasing awareness of this vascular disorder can be translated to an improved patients’ care. Herein, we report a case of vasospasm presenting acute and chronic limb ischemia in four extremities. PMID:24995065

  3. Academic Research Record-Keeping: Best Practices for Individuals, Group Leaders, and Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Alan A.; Wilson, Kenneth; Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century, social and technological changes in academic research groups have challenged traditional research record-keeping practices, making them either insufficient or obsolete. New practices have developed but standards (best practices) are still evolving. Based on the authors’ review and analysis of a number of sources, they present a set of systematically compiled best practices for research record-keeping for academic research groups. These best practices were developed as an adjunct to a research project on research ethics aimed at examining the actual research record-keeping practices of active academic scientists and their impact on research misconduct inquiries. The best practices differentiate and provide separate standards for three different levels within the university: the individual researcher, the research group leader, and the department/institution. They were developed using a combination of literature reviews, surveys of university integrity officials, focus groups of active researchers, and inspection of university policies on research record-keeping. The authors believe these best practices constitute a “snapshot” of the current normative standards for research records within the academic research community. They are offered as ethical and practical guidelines subject to continuing evolution and not as absolute rules. They may be especially useful in training the next generation of researchers. PMID:16377817

  4. Research productivity of members of IADR Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group: relationship to professional and personal factors.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern.

  5. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  6. Composition of Junior Research Groups and Phd Completion Rate: Disciplinary Differences and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pull, Kerstin; Pferdmenges, Birgit; Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the link between the composition and the performance of junior research groups. The authors argue that the heterogeneity-performance link depends on the type of heterogeneity (cultural vs. study field) and on the disciplinary area. The authors test their hypotheses on a data set of 45 junior research groups and find a U-shaped…

  7. Report on Focus Groups: Research and Practice--Reading Instruction. ERIC/OSEP Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaunstein, Phyllis; And Others

    This report summarizes results of three focus groups which examined teachers' ideas and attitudes about the utility of research on the practice of teaching reading to students with learning disabilities and about forms of communication that would make research information more useful. The focus groups were part of a larger project designed to…

  8. 75 FR 57768 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified... contractor, Eastern Research Group (ERG) of Lexington, MA and subcontractor Avanti Corporation of Alexandria... Control Act (TSCA). Some of the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential...

  9. A critical review of labor and birth care. Obstetrical Interest Group of the North American Primary Care Research Group.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Acheson, L S; Byrd, J E; Curtis, P; Day, T W; Frank, S H; Franks, P; Graham, A V; LeFevre, M; Resnick, J

    1991-09-01

    A critical review of the literature regarding important aspects of labor and delivery was conducted by members of the Obstetrical Interest Group of the North American Primary Care Research Group using computerized searches, personal communication, and literature exchange between group members. Each written topic summary was carefully reviewed by a second group member, and a consensus was reached regarding conclusions and recommendations by the group. The topics include family involvement, comfort measures, fetal heart rate monitoring, labor augmentation, birth positions, and episiotomies. Each topic summary is preceded by conclusions and recommendations given in the order of least invasive to most invasive of the woman in labor. The strength of these conclusions and recommendations is based on the amount and type of supportive data in the literature and is indicated by one to three stars preceding that statement. One-star conclusions are not well supported in the literature but reflect a family practice style and were reached through consensus from the group. Three-star conclusions are supported by data from clinical trials.

  10. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  11. Oligodendrogenesis after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruilan; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rodent brain generate oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that disperse throughout the corpus callosum and striatum where some of OPCs differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Studies in animal models of stroke demonstrate that cerebral ischemia induces oligodendrogenesis during brain repair processes. This article will review evidence of stroke-induced proliferation and differentiation of OPCs that are either resident in white matter or are derived from SVZ neural progenitor cells and of therapies that amplify endogenous oligodendrogenesis in ischemic brain. PMID:24194700

  12. An Approach for Group, Undergraduate Research Experiences in Courses Across the Geology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and

  13. Science Research Group Leader's Power and Members' Compliance and Satisfaction with Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Yi; He, Jia; Luo, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the correlations between science research group members' perceptions of power bases used by their group (lab, team) leader (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent) and the effect of those perceptions on group members' attitudinal compliance, behavioral compliance, and satisfaction with supervision. Participants…

  14. Positive Outcomes of Group Learning in the ABLE Classroom. Research to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Beverly J.; McKenna, Gail Kaylor

    In the fall of 1993, a study was begun on how adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students reacted to working in groups. The research was conducted through a joint vocational school's ABLE program using three target groups at two of its ABLE centers. The groups met two times per week and were facilitated by three different teachers. More…

  15. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  16. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  17. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  18. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Dewey, Michael; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; McKeigue, Paul; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata MM; Stewart, Robert; Uwakwe, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Methods/design Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina), with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000). Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain). Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815). A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina) to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. Discussion The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our aim is to create an

  19. Industrial Hygiene Group: 1986 Annual report on research and special activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, H.J.

    1987-11-01

    This report details all the 1986 research activities and some selected operational programs of the Industrial Hygiene Group. During 1986, research studies were directed at: respiratory protection, personal protective clothing, applied industrial hygiene, and aerosols and air cleaning. In several instances, the transfer of technology, previously developed by the Industrial Hygiene Group, is described together with the application of research developments to operational health protection programs.

  20. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  1. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, FANG; LIU, GUANG-JIE; LIU, NA; ZHANG, GANG; ZHANG, JIAN-XIN; LI, LAN-FANG

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is believed to be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, and now it is recognized as the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide; however, the effects of H2S on inflammatory factors in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats have not been clarified. In the present study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as the H2S donor. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, ischemia, ischemia + low-dose (0.78 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + medium-dose (1.56 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + high-dose (3.12 mg/kg) NaHS and ischemia + propargylglycine (PPG) (30 mg/kg). The rats in each group were sacrificed 6 h after the surgery for sample collection. Compared with the ischemia group, the cardiac damage in the rats in the ischemia + NaHS groups was significantly reduced, particularly in the high-dose group; in the ischemia + PPG group, the myocardial injury was aggravated compared with that in the ischemia group. Compared with the ischemia group, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of rats in the ischemia + medium- and high-dose NaHS groups were significantly reduced, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein in the myocardial tissues of rats was significantly reduced. In the ischemia + PPG group, the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the serum were significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased, although without a significant difference, and the expression of NF-κB was increased. The findings of the present study provide novel evidence for the dual effects of H2S on acute myocardial ischemia injury via the modulation of inflammatory factors. PMID:25667680

  2. Intestinal Injury Currents Associated with Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, T.; Bradshaw, L. A.; O'Mahony, G. P.; Gallucci, M. R.; Berch, B.; Richards, W. O.

    2006-09-01

    A non-invasive method of detecting mesenteric ischemia is presented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of arterial reperfusion on these injury currents. The small bowel of New Zealand white rabbits was exteriorized and the mesenteric blood flow interrupted. Experiments were conducted in three groups, control (n = 3), ischemia (n = 6) and reperfusion following ischemia (n = 5). The subject's position was modulated in and out of the biological field detection range of a SQUID magnetometer. The changes in magnetic field amplitude for the experimental groups were 9.3% and 31.0% for the control and the ischemia groups respectively. The reperfusion group first exhibited a decrease of 17.4% from pre-ischemic to the ischemic period followed by an increase of 13.9% of the ischemic value after re-establishing perfusion. It is concluded that injury currents in GI smooth muscle that appear during ischemia are reduced to pre-ischemic levels during reperfusion.

  3. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  4. Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR): A Metamorphosis of Mentorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thea M.; Smith, Barbara K.; Watts, Danielle L.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Roark, Alison M.; Bybee, Seth M.; Cox, Clayton E.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR), a yearlong structured program at the University of Florida that guided graduate student mentors and their undergraduate mentees through the mentored research process. Using the national Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences for an academic year, we found that outcomes for our…

  5. Group of Eight Response to DIISR Consultation Paper: "Meeting Australia's Research Workforce Needs"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) welcomes the Government's commitment to developing a comprehensive research workforce strategy. Australia's research capacity and the continuing translation of research into policy, products and services is directly linked to the future productivity of the economy, social wellbeing, environmental outcomes and the nation's…

  6. Research Data Storage: A Framework for Success. ECAR Working Group Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Douglas; Dawson, Barbara E.; Fary, Michael; Hillegas, Curtis W.; Hopkins, Brian W.; Lyons, Yolanda; McCullough, Heather; McMullen, Donald F.; Owen, Kim; Ratliff, Mark; Williams, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research Data Management Working Group (ECAR-DM) has created a framework for research data storage as an aid for higher education institutions establishing and evaluating their institution's research data storage efforts. This paper describes areas for consideration and suggests graduated criteria to assist in…

  7. Research on/as Violence: Reflections on Injurious Moments in Research with Friendship Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of harm in the research process. While researchers seek to conduct research that minimises harm, this paper argues that approaches adopted often create new forms of harm. This proposition is examined through drawing on Bourdieu's ideas about symbolic violence and poststructural theories of identity, to critically…

  8. Vitreal Oxygenation in Retinal Ischemia Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Walid; Ameri, Hossein; Barron, Ernesto; Chader, Gerald J.; Greenbaum, Elias; Hinton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To study the feasibility of anterior vitreal oxygenation for the treatment of acute retinal ischemia. Methods. Twenty rabbits were randomized into an oxygenation group, a sham treatment group, and a no treatment group. Baseline electroretinography (ERG) and preretinal oxygen (Po2) measurements were obtained 3 to 5 days before surgery. Intraocular pressure was raised to 100 mm Hg for 90 minutes and then normalized. The oxygenation group underwent vitreal oxygenation for 30 minutes using intravitreal electrodes. The sham treatment group received inactive electrodes for 30 minutes while there was no intervention for the no treatment group. Preretinal Po2 in the posterior vitreous was measured 30 minutes after intervention or 30 minutes after reperfusion (no treatment group) and on postoperative days (d) 3, 6, 9, and 12. On d14, rabbits underwent ERG and were euthanatized. Results. Mean final (d12) Po2 was 10.64 ± 0.77 mm Hg for the oxygenation group, 2.14 ± 0.61 mm Hg for the sham group, and 1.98 ± 0.63 mm Hg for the no treatment group. On ERG, scotopic b-wave amplitude was significantly preserved in the oxygenation group compared with the other two groups. Superoxide dismutase assay showed higher activity in the operated eyes than in the nonoperated control eyes in the sham treatment group and no treatment group only. Histopathology showed preservation of retinal architecture and choroidal vasculature in the oxygenation group, whereas the sham-treated and nontreated groups showed retinal thinning and choroidal atrophy. Conclusions. In severe total ocular ischemia, anterior vitreal oxygenation supplies enough oxygen to penetrate the retinal thickness, resulting in rescue of the RPE/choriocapillaris that continues to perfuse, hence sparing the retinal tissue from damage. PMID:21051734

  9. Abate Cytochrome C induced apoptosome to protect donor liver against ischemia reperfusion injury on rat liver transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhuonan; Lian, Peilong; Wu, Xiaojuan; Shi, Baoxu; Zhuang, Maoyou; Zhou, Ruiling; Zhao, Rui; Zhao, Zhen; Guo, Sen; Ji, Zhipeng; Xu, Kesen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to protect donor liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating Cytochrome C induced apoptosome on rat model. Methods: A total of 25 clean SD inbred male rats were used in this research. The rats in ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group, n=5) were under liver transplantation operation; rats in dichloroacetate diisopropylamine group (DADA group, n=5) were treated DADA before liver transplantation; control group (Ctrl group, n=5); other 10 rats were used to offer donor livers. Results: In DADA therapy group, Cytochrome C expression in donor hepatocellular cytoplasm was detected lower than that in I/R group. And the Cytochrome C induced apoptosome was also decreased in according to the lower expressions of Apaf-1 and Caspase3. Low level of cleaved PARP expression revealed less apoptosis in liver tissue. The morphology of donor liver mitochondria in DADA group was observed to be slightly edema but less than I/R group after operation 12 h. The liver function indexes of ALT and AST in serum were tested, and the results in DADA group showed it is significantly lower than I/R group after operation 12 h. The inflammation indexes of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions in DADA group were significantly lower than that in I/R group after operation 24 h. Conclusion: The dichloroacetate diisopropylamine treatment could protect the hepatocellular mitochondria in case of the spillage of Cytochrome C induced apoptosome, and protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, it may be a method to promote the recovery of donor liver function after transplantation. PMID:27186297

  10. Introducing New Undergraduates Into a Research Group Through Use of a Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittlesey, Phyllis; Lopez, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    In a large research group it can be difficult to communicate fundamental group-specific concepts and data collection procedures to new or inexperienced members. Our research group utilizes a type of website called a wiki, which allows members to update and change content quickly and easily. A page on our group's wiki details fundamental concepts in the space physics research group, oriented at incoming undergraduate researchers, including a detailed description of what each of the most-used data sites is used for and a step by step procedure on how to use each one. The nature of the wiki as a dynamic and member-edited project means that descriptions and procedures can be revised and updated as new data sets become available. Our efforts include weekly meetings with the new undergraduates to explore these concepts and frequently-used data websites until these new members have learned enough to understand their assigned research projects. Our group has successfully incorporated undergraduates as early as their freshman year into the research group on scientifically significant research projects using these methods.

  11. Digital Ischemia Associated With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Le Besnerais, Maëlle; Miranda, Sébastien; Cailleux, Nicole; Girszyn, Nicolas; Marie, Isabelle; Lévesque, Hervé; Benhamou, Ygal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Digital ischemia associated with cancer (DIAC) is increasing in frequency and recent reports have suggested the concept of paraneoplastic manifestation. The aims of this study were to characterize the clinical presentation of DIAC and identify clinical features that could lead physicians to diagnose underlying cancer. From January 2004 to December 2011, 100 patients were hospitalized in the Department of Internal Medicine at Rouen University Hospital, France for a first episode of DI. Fifteen (15%) exhibited symptomatic or asymptomatic cancer during the year preceding or following vascular episode and constituted the DIAC group. Other patients without cancer made up the digital ischemia (DI) group. Median time between diagnosis of cancer and episode of digital necrosis was 2 months [0.25–9]. Diagnosis of DI and concomitant cancer was made in 7 of the 15 patients, while DI preceded the malignant disorder in 2 cases and followed it in 6 cases. Histological types were adenocarcinoma for 7 (46.7%), squamous cell carcinoma for 4 (26.7%), and lymphoid neoplasia for 3 patients (20%). Six patients (40%) had extensive cancer. Three patients were lost to follow-up and 5 patients died <1 year after diagnosis of cancer. Cancer treatment improved vascular symptoms in 6 patients (40%). Patients with DIAC, compared to patients with DI, were significantly older (56 years [33–79] vs 46 [17–83] P =0.005), and had significantly lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (12.7 g/dl vs 13.9 g/dl; P =0.003 and 38% vs 42%; P =0.003, respectively). Patients with DIAC had a higher platelet rate (420 vs 300 G/L P =0.01), and 6 patients with DIAC (40%) had thrombocytosis. There was no difference between groups either in C-reactive protein level (12 mg/L vs 5 mg/L; P =0.08) or regarding cardiovascular risk factors, presence of autoimmunity, or monoclonal protein. This retrospective study suggests that DIAC may be more prevalent than previously reported. Outcomes

  12. Vitreal Ocygenation in Retinal Ischemia Reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallab, Walid; AmeriMD, Hossein; Barron, Ernesto; ChaderPhD, Gerald; Greenbaum, Elias; Hinton, David E; Humayun, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To study the feasibility of anterior vitreal oxygenation for the treatment of acute retinal ischemia. METHODS. Twenty rabbits were randomized into an oxygenation group, a sham treatment group, and a no treatment group. Baseline electroretinography (ERG) and preretinal oxygen (PO2) measurements were obtained 3 to 5 days before surgery. Intraocular pressure was raised to 100 mm Hg for 90 minutes and then normalized. The oxygenation group underwent vitreal oxygenation for 30 minutes using intravitreal electrodes. The sham treatment group received inactive electrodes for 30 minutes while there was no intervention for the no treatment group. Preretinal PO2 in the posterior vitreous was measured 30 minutes after intervention or 30 minutes after reperfusion (no treatment group) and on postoperative days (d) 3, 6, 9, and 12. On d14, rabbits underwent ERG and were euthanatized.

  13. Critical Masses for Academic Research Groups and Consequences for Higher Education Research Policy and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Smaller universities may produce research which is on a par with larger, elite establishments. This is confirmed by a recently developed mathematical model, supported by data from British and French higher education research-evaluation exercises. The detailed nature of the UK system, in particular, allows quantification of the notion of critical…

  14. Transforming Catholic Education through Research: The American Educational Research Association Catholic Education Special Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States and abroad face numerous financial, cultural, and structural challenges due to contemporary education policies and economic trends. Within this climate, research about Catholic education is often conducted and leveraged in efforts to serve schools' most immediate needs. To be certain, research aimed at…

  15. Challenges of participatory research: reflections on a study with breast cancer self‐help groups

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ross E.; Fitch, Margaret; Davis, Christine; Phillips, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Objective To review and discuss issues related to participatory research, as they apply within the arena of cancer control. Design A participatory research study with breast cancer self‐help groups is referred to for description and discussion purposes. That study employed primarily individual and group interviews to assess benefits and limitations of self‐help groups. Settings Four breast cancer self‐help groups in Ontario communities provided the core involvement in the participatory research project. Results The values and practices of mainstream academic research often conflict with those of research emphasizing participation and control of communities under study, leading to a variety of challenges for the latter approaches. Practical constraints faced by many community groups have important implications for participatory research approaches. Conclusions A balance needs to be found for participatory research within cancer control – one that ensures that the core aims of participatory research are maintained, while simultaneously acknowledging the various challenges that make a fully participatory project unrealistic. Steps can be taken to achieve a workable balance. PMID:11281935

  16. Research Productivity of Members of IADR Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group: Relationship to Professional and Personal Factors

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern. PMID:18923094

  17. The Perceived Structure of American Ethnic Groups: The Use of Multidimensional Scaling in Stereotype Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Sandra G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A methodology for stereotype research, including an experimental paradigm and an analytic method, is presented. The paradigm involves the collection of three different types of similarities data concerning ethnic groups and rating-scale adjectives. (Author/DEP)

  18. Development of a Unified Reference System for a Multi-personnel Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D.; Fitzpaynes, J. Y. L.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment of a reference filing system, based on optical coincidence retrieval, for an eight-man research group studying gas reactions is described. The complete system is simple to use and gives rapid, precise reference retrieval. (1 reference) (Author)

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Resveratrol on Acute Brain Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Measuring Annexin V, p53, Bcl-2 Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kizmazoglu, Ceren; Aydin, Hasan Emre; Sevin, Ismail Ertan; Yüceer, Nurullah; Atasoy, Metin Ant

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral ischemia is as a result of insufficient cerebral blood flow for cerebral metabolic functions. Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin that can be extracted from grape's skin and had potent role in treating the cerebral ischemia. Apoptosis, a genetically programmed cellular event which occurs after ischemia and leads to biochemical and morphological changes in cells. There are some useful markers for apoptosis like Bcl-2, bax, and p53. The last reports, researchers verify the apoptosis with early markers like Annexin V. Methods We preferred in this experimental study a model of global cerebral infarction which was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion method. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups : sham, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), I/R plus 20 mg/kg resveratrol and I/R plus 40 mg/kg resveratrol. Statistical analysis was performed using Sigmastat 3.5 ve IBM SPSS Statistics 20. We considered a result significant when p<0.001. Results After administration of resveratrol, Bcl-2 and Annexin levels were significantly increased (p<0.001). Depending on the dose of resveratrol, Bcl2 levels increased, p53 levels decreased but Annexin V did not effected. P53 levels were significantly increased in ishemia group, so apoptosis is higher compared to other groups. Conclusion In the acute period, Annexin V levels misleading us because the apoptotic cell counts could not reach a certain level. Therefore we should support our results with bcl-2 and p53. PMID:26819684

  20. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  1. Selective occlusion of lumbar arteries as a spinal cord ischemia model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoyuki; Mori, Koichi; Shiraishi, Yoshimitsu; Tatebayashi, Kyoko; Kawai, Yasuaki

    2003-02-01

    Paraplegia is a devastating complication of operations requiring transient occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta. Many animal models of spinal cord ischemia have been utilized to examine the efficacy of various neuroprotective methods. In this study, we establish a rabbit model of spinal cord ischemia by selective temporary occlusion of lumbar arteries and examine the protective effects of systemic mild hypothermia in this model. Animals were divided into the following four groups: sham group (group A, n = 6); 10 min ischemia, normothermia (39 degrees C) (group B, n = 6); 20 min ischemia, normothermia (group C, n = 6); and 30 min ischemia, mild hypothermia (35 degrees C) (group D, n = 6). After 7 d of reperfusion, three rabbits in group B and five rabbits in group C developed paraplegia (Tarlov's score = 0). In contrast, all rabbits preserved hindlimb motor function (Tarlov's score = 4) in groups A and D. Histological findings indicated that the number of motor neurons in the anterior horns in group C were significantly fewer than in group A. A large number of motor neurons were preserved in group D. Hypothermia is known to be an effective and reliable method of neuroprotection, but the risk of complications rises at deep hypothermia. Our current results confirm that systemic, mild hypothermia is a safe and effective neuroprotective method during ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord.

  2. Cross--Cultural Small Group Research: A Review, an Analysis, and a Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuter, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes research on cross-national small group behavior and offers a value theory of small group development. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  3. Hope as a Predictor of Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methodology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the extent that cooperative group members' levels of hopefulness, operationalized as a combination of pathways to meet desired goals and the agentic thinking that motivates an individual to use those pathways, predict (a) group performance, namely, the quality of an article critique assignment and research proposal…

  4. Focus Group Discussions: Three Examples from Family and Consumer Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.; Monroe, Pamela A.; Sasser, Diane D.; Shaffer, Amy C.; Blalock, Lydia B.

    1999-01-01

    Gives examples of the focus group method in terms of question development, group composition and recruitment, interview protocols, and data analysis as applied to three family and consumer-sciences research projects: consumer behavior of working female adolescents, work readiness of adult males with low educational attainment, and definition of…

  5. Tech Prep: Building a Framework for Future Research, Evaluation, and Program Practice. Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Barbara G.

    This document reports on three focus groups comprised of state officials, local practitioners and supporters, and researchers who were convened to provide input on strategies for assessing and validating the effects of tech prep. Part I provides a brief summary of the groups' discussions, including major points and broad themes in these four topic…

  6. Discovering the research priorities of people with diabetes in a multicultural community: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ken; Dyas, Jane; Chahal, Prit; Khalil, Yesmean; Riaz, Perween; Cummings-Jones, Joy

    2006-01-01

    Background Usually experts decide on which research is worthwhile, yet it is government policy to involve service users in research. There has been a lack of published research about involving patients from minority ethnic groups and people from deprived areas in setting research agendas. In this study we wanted to hear the voices of patients that are not often heard. Aim To find out the research priorities of people with diabetes from an inner city community and compare these with current expert-led research priorities in diabetes. Design of study A qualitative study using a participatory approach with consumer groups. Setting Primary care within inner city Nottingham, UK. Method Thirty-nine adult patients with diabetes with varying ethnic backgrounds recruited from three general practices. Six focus groups carried out in participants' preferred language, analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Nine main themes equating to research priorities were identified. Within these themes, information and awareness, service delivery and primary prevention of diabetes emerged as the main factors. There were no science-based topics and there was more emphasis on culturally influenced research questions, which differed from recent Department of Health priorities. There were several themes about service delivery, patient self-management and screening and prevention of diabetes that overlapped. Conclusions There is some divergence between expert-led and patient-led agendas in research about diabetes. Patient perspectives have a significant influence on research priorities, and there are likely to be several different patient perspectives. PMID:16536961

  7. Implementation and Outcomes of Online Self and Peer Assessment on Group Based Honours Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chengqing; Chanda, Emmanuel; Willison, John

    2014-01-01

    Honours research projects in the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide are run with small groups of students working with an academic supervisor in a chosen area for one year. The research project is mainly self-directed study, which makes it very difficult to fairly assess the contribution of…

  8. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  9. Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer-to-Peer Interactions in a Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Matthews, Michael A.; Thompson, Nancy S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of active learning in the traditional classroom setting are well established among engineering educators; however, this learning model can thrive in other settings, namely in a research group. This work presents findings from an educational research project specifically designed to foster active learning among undergraduates and…

  10. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  11. Collaborative Group Action Research: A Constructivist Approach to Developing an Integrated Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurino, Penny L.; Saurino, Dan R.

    Elementary teachers collaborated on a research project that investigated how a constructivist approach to gifted and talented integrated curriculum strategies and techniques could be developed and implemented. The collaborative group action research cycle involved planning, collecting baseline data, intervening strategies/modifying interventions,…

  12. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  13. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  14. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of higher education and graduate and undergraduate students to undertake research or study in a... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  15. The International Research Training Group (GRK532): Practicing Cross-Border Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehses, Markus; Veith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the International Research Training Group "GRK532" was founded as a pilot project for cross-border European postgraduate education along the German/French/Luxembourg borders. The project consists of an interdisciplinary research programme on synthesis, isolation and characterization of new materials accompanied by an ambitious…

  16. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  17. Evaluation of stem cell administration in a model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Léa Bueno Lucas; Palma, Patrícia Viana Bonini; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Bueno, Valquiria

    2007-12-15

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common early event in kidney transplantation and contributes to a delay in organ function. Acute tubular necrosis, impaired kidney function and organ leukocyte infiltration are the major findings. The therapeutic potential of stem cells has been the focus of recent research as these cells possess capabilities such as self-renewal, multipotent differentiation and aid in regeneration after organ injury. FTY720 is a new synthetic compound that has been associated with preferential migration of blood lymphocytes to peripheral lymph nodes instead of inflammatory sites. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and/or FTY720 were used as therapy to promote recovery of tubule cells and avoid inflammation at the renal site, respectively. Mice were submitted to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and were either treated with two doses of FTY720, 10x10(6) BMSC, or both in order to compare the therapeutic effect with non-treated and control animals. Renal function and structure were investigated as were cell numbers in peripheral blood and spleen. Activation and apoptosis markers were also evaluated in splenocytes using flow cytometry. We found that the combined therapy (FTY720+BMSC) was associated with more significant changes in renal function and structure after ischemia-reperfusion injury when compared with the other groups. Also a decrease at cell numbers and prevention of spleen cells activation and apoptosis was observed. In conclusion, in our model it was not possible to demonstrate the potential of stem cells alone or in combination with FTY720 to promote early kidney recovery after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  18. An online monogenic diabetes discussion group: supporting families and fueling new research.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Marie E; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-11-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments and design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern.

  19. Instrumentations and projects of research groups in Switzerland related to the research on rocket and balloon carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoli, Marianne; Kopp, Ernest

    2003-08-01

    In the past few years four very active Swiss groups involved in the research by means of rocket and balloon carriers have terminated their programmes. These groups were located at the University of Bern (Ernest Kopp), the World Radiation Center in Davos (Klaus Fröhlich), the ETH Zürich (Kurt Kneubühl) and the Observatoire de Genève (Daniel Huguenin). The remaining groups are the Space Biology Group in the field of Life Science in Space, the Applied Physics Institute in Bern with its observation of water vapor and ozone constituents using the microwave remote sensing technique, the meteorological soundings from the SMA balloon station in Payerne and the ozone soundings from the Institute of Atmosphere and Climate (IAC) at the ETH Zürich. In this report we will mainly present the activities of these groups in the past and in future. An addition three well known groups at the Laboratoire de Pollution Atmospherique (LPAS) at the EPFL in Lausanne, the IAC and the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC) located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which is associated to the ETH in Zürich, are contributing lab- and field research for the diagnostics and research of aerosols. The LPAS Group of Michael Rossi in Lausanne is determining heterogeneous chemical reaction rates in the laboratory. The research group of Thomas Peter at the IAC in Zürich is investigating fundamental physical and chemical processes of aerosols and the interaction to the gas phase of the atmosphere. In addition these results are combined with field measurements and model calculations. The LAC under Urs Baltensberger is investigating the key processes determining the gas phase and aerosol composition in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer, and the identification of their sources and sinks.

  20. A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

  1. Progress in Childhood Cancer: 50 Years of Research Collaboration, A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Maura; Krailo, Mark; Anderson, James R.; Reaman, Gregory H.

    2009-01-01

    The Children's Oncology Group (COG) recently celebrated the milestone of 50 years of pediatric clinical trials and collaborative research in oncology. Our group had its origins in the four legacy pediatric clinical trials groups: the Children's Cancer Group, the Pediatric Oncology Group, the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group and the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group which merged in 2000 to form the COG. Over the last 50 years, the survival rates for childhood cancer have risen from 10% to almost 80%. Outcome in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) has gone from a six month median survival to an 85% overall cure rate. We have modified therapies in most major diseases to induce remission with the least amount of long term sequelae. Here we look back on our advances but also look forward to the next 50 years which will produce even more successful treatments that will be tailored to the specific patient translating the tools of molecular genetics. Experience has clearly proven that everything we know about the diagnosis and management of childhood cancer is a result of research and the dramatic historical decrease in mortality from childhood cancer is directly related to cooperative group clinical research. PMID:18929147

  2. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Ichim, Gabriela; Gheban, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison's disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis.

  3. Outcomes of lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Baril, Donald T.; Patel, Virendra I.; Judelson, Dejah R.; Goodney, Philip P.; McPhee, James T.; Hevelone, Nathanael D.; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Schanzer, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute limb ischemia remains one of the most challenging emergencies in vascular surgery. Historically, outcomes following interventions for acute limb ischemia have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine contemporary outcomes following lower extremity bypass performed for acute limb ischemia. Methods All patients undergoing infrainguinal lower extremity bypass between 2003 and 2011 within hospitals comprising the Vascular Study Group of New England were identified. Patients were stratified according to whether or not the indication for lower extremity bypass was acute limb ischemia. Primary end points included bypass graft occlusion, major amputation, and mortality at 1 year postoperatively as determined by Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate independent predictors of mortality and major amputation at 1 year. Results Of 5712 lower extremity bypass procedures, 323 (5.7%) were performed for acute limb ischemia. Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass for acute limb ischemia were similar in age (66 vs 67; P = .084) and sex (68% male vs 69% male; P = .617) compared with chronic ischemia patients, but were less likely to be on aspirin (63% vs 75%; P < .0001) or a statin (55% vs 68%; P < .0001). Patients with acute limb ischemia were more likely to be current smokers (49% vs 39%; P < .0001), to have had a prior ipsilateral bypass (33% vs 24%; P = .004) or a prior ipsilateral percutaneous intervention (41% vs 29%; P = .001). Bypasses performed for acute limb ischemia were longer in duration (270 vs 244 minutes; P = .007), had greater blood loss (363 vs 272 mL; P < .0001), and more commonly utilized prosthetic conduits (41% vs 33%; P = .003). Acute limb ischemia patients experienced increased in-hospital major adverse events (20% vs 12%; P < .0001) including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure exacerbation

  4. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  5. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  6. CASPER's New Educational Research Group: The Physical Environment and Educational Interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Wang, Li; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    CASPER research has long included the area of STEM science education, which grew out of its history in educational intervention and curriculum development and its NSF funded REU summer program, which has been active since 1994. Recently CASPER's Educational Research group entered into a partnership with the Region 12 Educational Service Center and Huckabee, Inc. to examine the role the physical environment plays in educational intervention and the impact this combination has on student engagement and learning. This talk introduces the partnership, explains the framework guiding the research and presents the roles each partner plays in the research.

  7. [The scientific production and research groups on sanitary surveillance at CNPq].

    PubMed

    Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais; de Noronha, Ana Beatriz Marinho; Figueiredo, Tatiana Aragão; de Souza, Adriana de Alvarenga Linhares; Oliveira, Catia Veronica dos Santos; Pontes Júnior, Durval Martins

    2010-11-01

    Sanitary surveillance is an intersectorial and multidisciplinary practice of health regulation. The aim was to describe the scientific research on sanitary surveillance and its research groups in Brazil during the period of 1997 to 2003, through the Census of 2000, 2002 and 2004 of Directory of Research Groups of the Scientific and Technological Development National Council (CNPq). The term "sanitary surveillance" was used to search the production and the research groups in the Lattes Platform of CNPq. There were 1,194 items, 913 in bibliographic production and 281 in post-graduated production, with an increment of 540% on the period. There were 735 research groups, created mostly from 2000 to 2003 and 6,263 researchers concentrated in the Southeast Region and in CNPq sub area of Public Health. The great increase of the production lead to the conclusion that sanitary surveillance have been a locus of production only in the last decade, presented in scientific events of Public Health and until now concentrated just like others areas in Health.

  8. Diseases and their management strategies take top research priority in watermelon research and development group member’s survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is an important crop grown for its delicious fruit in the U.S. and in many countries across the world. A survey of members of Watermelon Research and Development Group (WRDG) was conducted via email and during WRDG meetings in 2014 and 2015 in an effort to identify and rank important rese...

  9. [Retinal ischemia and nitric oxide].

    PubMed

    Neroev, V V; Arkhipova, M M

    2003-01-01

    Retinal ischemia is the main chain in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases of the eye. It was established that nitric oxide (NO) plays the key role in the development of ischemia. Recent understanding of the NO role, as a universal regulator of the cellular and tissue metabolism, is presented. The authors' and published data were used to design a scheme of pathogenesis of retinal ischemia with regard for the NO role. NO can produce both positive and negative effects depending on a stage of the process, NO concentration and on a number of other factors if they are present. Initial stages of hypoxia/ischemia are accompanied by an activation of all forms of NO-synthases (NOS) caused by the influence of biologically active substances (cytokines, prostaglandins, serotonin, bradykinin, glycolisis suboxide products etc.). The activation of inducible NOS, which synthesize a bigger quantity of NO possessing a direct cytotoxic action and contributing to the production of highly toxic radical of peroxinitrit, is in the focus of attention. The damage of cellular structures due to free-radical processes leads to the development of endothelial, macrophage and thrombocyte malfunctions, which manifest itself through a reduced activity of endothelial NOS and through disruption of NO-dependent processes (vasospasm, an increased aggregation of platelets and a reduced fibrinolytic activity). A sharp reduction of NO synthesis substrate (L-arginine) is observed in patients with retinal ischemia. The aggravation of ischemia causes a decrease of NO synthesis due to an exhaustion of L-arginine and its intensified consumption in the course of free-radical processes. The use of NO-inhibitors and of NO-donors at different stages of retinal ischemia prevents the development of neovascularization and proliferation.

  10. Group Development and Integration in a Cross-Disciplinary and Intercultural Research Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna

    2017-04-01

    Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews ( n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.

  11. Group Development and Integration in a Cross-Disciplinary and Intercultural Research Team.

    PubMed

    Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna

    2017-04-01

    Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews (n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.

  12. How much ischemia can the liver tolerate during resection?

    PubMed Central

    van Riel, Wouter G.; van Golen, Rowan F.; Reiniers, Megan J.; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The use of vascular inflow occlusion (VIO, also known as the Pringle maneuver) during liver surgery prevents severe blood loss and the need for blood transfusion. The most commonly used technique for VIO entails clamping of the portal triad, which simultaneously occludes the proper hepatic artery and portal vein. Although VIO is an effective technique to reduce intraoperative blood loss, it also inevitably inflicts hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury as a side effect. I/R injury induces formation of reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress and cell death, ultimately leading to a sterile inflammatory response that causes hepatocellular damage and liver dysfunction that can result in acute liver failure in most severe cases. Since the duration of ischemia correlates positively with the severity of liver injury, there is a need to find the balance between preventing severe blood loss and inducing liver damage through the use of VIO. Although research on the maximum duration of hepatic ischemia has intensified since the beginning of the 1980s, there still is no consensus on the tolerable upper limit. Based on the available literature, it is concluded that intermittent and continuous VIO can both be used safely when ischemia times do not exceed 120 min. However, intermittent VIO should be the preferred technique in cases that require >120 min duration of ischemia. PMID:26904558

  13. Thromboxane A2 release in ischemia and reperfusion of free flaps in rats, studied by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Ionac, M; Schaefer, D; Geishauser, M

    2001-02-01

    Several studies have implicated enhanced eicosanoid production in reperfusion injury. The reported study investigated the use of microdialysis in the in vivo measurement of thromboxane levels during reperfusion in ischemic and reperfused experimental free muscle flaps. Microdialysis probes were inserted, via a guide, into the gracilis and semitendinosus free flap in the rat. The probe was perfused at a flow of 5 microl/min, with samples collected at intervals of 20 min, and analyzed by the ELISA technique. Animals were randomly distributed into three groups. After ischemic periods of 2, 4, and 6 hr, respectively, the free muscle flaps were revascularized on the contralateral femoral vessels. The mean thromboxane level during ischemia was 1785.34 +/- 124.81 pg/ml. The mean levels of thromboxane rose significantly (p < 0.05), compared to base level, with 151.65 percent in the 2-hr ischemia group, 192.33 percent in the 4-hr ischemia group, and 294.69 percent in the 6-hr ischemia group, and correlated well with histologic observations. The results suggest that a microdialysis technique, combined with a sensitive assay for measuring thromboxane, is a useful method for in vivo monitoring of inflammatory processes during ischemia and reperfusion. The evolution of thromboxane release following 6 hr of ischemia indicates that this mediator may be involved in facilitation of cell death, following ischemia and reperfusion, since its tissue level correlates with histologic tissue damage.

  14. Real time measurement of myocardial oxygen dynamics during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion of rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Seung Ki; Kang, Sung Wook; Kim, Ok-Kyun; Chae, Su-Jin; Choi, Samjin; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2012-11-21

    Because oxygen plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of myocardial injury during subsequent reperfusion, as well as ischemia, the accurate measurement of myocardial oxygen tension is crucial for the assessment of myocardial viability by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we utilized a sol-gel derived electrochemical oxygen microsensor to monitor changes in oxygen tension during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. We also analyzed differences in oxygen tension recovery in post-ischemic myocardium depending on ischemic time to investigate the correlation between recovery parameters for oxygen tension and the severity of IR injury. An oxygen sensor was built using a xerogel-modified platinum microsensor and a coiled Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Rat hearts were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (0 min ischemia), I-10 (10 min ischemia), I-20 (20 min ischemia), I-30 (30 min ischemia), and I-40 (40 min ischemia) groups (n = 3 per group, respectively). After the induction of ischemia, reperfusion was performed for 60 min. As soon as the ischemia was initiated, oxygen tension rapidly declined to near zero levels. When reperfusion was initiated, the changes in oxygen tension depended on ischemic time. The normalized peak level of oxygen tension during the reperfusion episode was 188 ± 27 in group I-10, 120 ± 24 in group I-20, 12.5 ± 10.6 in group I-30, and 1.24 ± 1.09 in group I-40 (p < 0.001, n = 3, respectively). After 60 min of reperfusion, the normalized restoration level was 129 ± 30 in group I-10, 88 ± 4 in group I-20, 3.40 ± 4.82 in group I-30, and 0.99 ± 0.94 in group I-40 (p < 0.001, n = 3, respectively). The maximum and restoration values of oxygen tension in groups I-30 and I-40 after reperfusion were lower than pre-ischemic values. In particular, oxygen tension in the I-40 group was not recovered at all. These results were also demonstrated by TTC staining. We suggest that these recovery parameters could be utilized as an index of

  15. Treatment of mice with cromolyn sodium after reperfusion, but not prior to ischemia, attenuates small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiaoliang; Liu, Dezhao; Ge, Mian; Luo, Chenfang; Gao, Wanling; Hei, Ziqing

    2013-09-01

    Stabilizing mast cells (MCs) can either inhibit or augment inflammation; however, how improved therapeutic benefits against small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IIRI) can be achieved by stabilizing MCs remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to evaluate different treatments with cromolyn sodium (CS, an MC stabilizer), which was administrated either prior to ischemia or after reperfusion. Kunming mice were randomized into a sham-operated group (SH), a sole IIR group (M), in which mice were subjected to 30 min superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 3 day or 3 h reperfusion, or IIR, treated with CS 15 min prior to ischemia or 15 min after reperfusion in the PreCr and PostCr groups. The survival rate and Chiu's scores were evaluated. The levels of ET-1, histamine, TNF-α and IL-6, and expression of MC protease 7 (MCP7), MC counts and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified. IIR resulted in severe injury as demonstrated by significant increases in mortality and injury score. IIR also led to substantial elevations in the levels of ET-1, histamine, TNF-α and IL-6, expression of MCP7, MC counts and MPO activities (P<0.05, M vs. SH groups). All biochemical changes were markedly reduced in the PostCr group (P<0.05, PostCr vs. M groups), whereas pretreatment of IIR mice with CS prior to ischemia exhibited no changes of ET-1 levels, injury score and inflammation (P>0.05, PreCr vs. M groups). In conclusion, administration of CS after reperfusion, but not prior to ischemia, attenuates IIRI by downregulating ET-1 and suppressing sustained MC activation.

  16. Clinical and research implications of the evaluation of women's group therapy for anorgasmia: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuriansky, J B; Sharpe, L

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews some important clinical and research implications of studies which have evaluated the effectiveness of short-term behavioral group therapy for anorgasmia. Though formal research data on curative factors is very sparse, the experience of sharing within a group, and the focus on arousal seem consistent with treatment outcome; however, the emphasis on assertiveness and the woman-only approach may have countertherapeutic as well as therapeutic effects. A potentially important intervening variable is the woman's level of ego development. The use of certain assessment scales and criteria for success of treatment are critiqued, and recommendations made for further study.

  17. National Institute of Nursing Research working group on "Optimizing pregnancy outcomes in minority populations".

    PubMed

    Grady, Patricia A

    2005-05-01

    The growing complexity of biomedical research requires new methods of discovery; scientists must use an interdisciplinary approach and explore new models of team science, as underscored in the Roadmap of the National Institutes of Health. In March 2003, the National Institute of Nursing Research convened a working group of scientists and clinicians with a wide range of backgrounds to address "Optimizing Pregnancy Outcomes in Minority Populations." The 2-day meeting included a variety of presentations on the current state of research on pregnancy in minority populations. Many participants provided specific insights regarding biobehavioral issues in human-environment interaction, stress and health status relationships to risk, maternal-fetal interactions, and the complications of pregnancy. This supplement presents articles from several participants at this interdisciplinary meeting. The National Institute of Nursing Research looks forward to further collaborations across the National Institutes of Health and other agencies to achieve the vital aims of this working group.

  18. [Neuroprotective mechanisms of cannabinoids in brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders].

    PubMed

    Osuna-Zazuetal, Marcela Amparo; Ponce-Gómez, Juan Antonio; Pérez-Neri, Iván

    2015-06-01

    One of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality is neurologic dysfunction; its high incidence has led to an intense research of the mechanisms that protect the central nervous system from hypoxia and ischemia. The mayor challenge is to block the biochemical events leading to neuronal death. This may be achieved by neuroprotective mechanisms that avoid the metabolic and immunologic cascades that follow a neurological damage. When it occurs, several pathophysiological events develop including cytokine release, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids to all those mechanisms have been reported in animal models of brain ischemia, excitotoxicity, brain trauma and neurodegenerative disorders. Some endocannabinoid analogs are being tested in clinical studies (I-III phase) for acute disorders involving neuronal death (brain trauma and ischemia). The study of the cannabinoid system may allow the discovery of effective neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  19. Conflicts of interest in the management of silent ischemia.

    PubMed

    Graboys, T B

    1989-04-14

    Nonclinical factors that may pressure physicians to intervene when a patient presents with so-called silent ischemia, and that may compel a management course not necessarily in the patient's best interest, are explored. These factors include the public's "obsession" with cardiac health, the enormous potential market for pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the funding of ischemia research by drug and medical device companies, the growth of "interventional cardiology" as a subspecialty, the increasingly entrepreneurial approach to medical care on the part of physicians and hospitals, and the fear of malpractice litigation. Given the financial advantage to health facilities and practitioners in recommending an interventionist rather than a conservative approach to silent ischemia, Graboys questions whether studies to determine the optimal management of this condition will ever be undertaken.

  20. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Ge; Cheng, Bao-Hua; Wang, Xin; Ding, Liang-Cai; Liu, Hai-Qing; Chen, Jing; Bai, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 μg/g) was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  1. [Recurrent intestinal ischemia due to factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Monedero, Jesús Javier; Legaz Huidobro, María Luisa; Galindo Andugar, María Angeles; Rodríguez Pérez, Alvaro; Mantrana del Valle, José María

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose and can be caused by several etiologic processes. We report the case of a female patient with recurrent bowel ischemia due to small vessel thrombosis, which is caused by factor VIII, a procoagulant factor.

  2. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  3. [Neuroprotection of herbs promoting EPO on cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Bai, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Fei-yan; Xu, Xiao-yu

    2015-06-01

    Amounts of researches show that EPO is characterized with neurotrophic and neuroprotective manner, especially in brain stroke, which attracts a large numbers of researchers to study it. With the accumulating researches on its neuroprotection, many related mechanisms were revealed, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, which suggests a multiple targets role of EPO on brain stroke. However, because of the high risk of thromboembolism in clinical administration of rhEPO and its analogs, the herbs are potential to be a replacer for its less side effects. Many researchers suggested that a larger of herbs were founded having the action of increasing the endogenous EPO in the model of anemia and cerebral ischemia. At the same time, there herbs were also proved that they had the action of against cerebral ischemia while some without considering the role of EPO in the reports. Considering of the action of promoting EPO of these herbs and the neural protection of EPO, this essay mainly summarizes the studies of herbs promoting EPO in the cerebral ischemia and discusses the mechanism of regulating the EPO of these herbs, for the aim of finding the potential drugs against cerebral ischemia.

  4. Metabolic adaptation to a disruption in oxygen supply during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion is underpinned by temporal and quantitative changes in the cardiac proteome.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Arslan, Fatih; Ren, Yan; Adav, Sunil S; Poh, Kian Keong; Sorokin, Vitaly; Lee, Chuen Neng; de Kleijn, Dominique; Lim, Sai Kiang; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2012-04-06

    Despite decades of intensive research, there is still no effective treatment for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, an important corollary in the treatment of ischemic disease. I/R injury is initiated when the altered biochemistry of cells after ischemia is no longer compatible with oxygenated microenvironment (or reperfusion). To better understand the molecular basis of this alteration and subsequent incompatibility, we assessed the temporal and quantitative alterations in the cardiac proteome of a mouse cardiac I/R model by an iTRAQ approach at 30 min of ischemia, and at 60 or 120 min reperfusion after the ischemia using sham-operated mouse heart as the baseline control. Of the 509 quantified proteins identified, 121 proteins exhibited significant changes (p-value<0.05) over time and were mostly clustered in eight functional groups: Fatty acid oxidation, Glycolysis, TCA cycle, ETC (electron transport chain), Redox Homeostasis, Glutathione S-transferase, Apoptosis related, and Heat Shock proteins. The first four groups are intimately involved in ATP production and the last four groups are known to be important in cellular antioxidant activity. During ischemia and reperfusion, the short supply of oxygen precipitates a pivotal metabolic switch from aerobic metabolism involving fatty acid oxidation, TCA, and phosphorylation to anaerobic metabolism for ATP production and this, in turn, increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Therefore the implication of these 8 functional groups suggested that ischemia-reperfusion injury is underpinned in part by proteomic alterations. Reversion of these alterations to preischemia levels took at least 60 min, suggesting a refractory period in which the ischemic cells cannot adjust to the presence of oxygen. Therefore, therapeutics that could compensate for these proteomic alterations during this interim refractory period could alleviate ischemia-reperfusion injury to enhance cellular recovery from an ischemic to a normoxic

  5. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Adipofascial Tissue: An Experimental Study Evaluating Early Histologic and Biochemical Alterations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kenan Coban, Yusuf; Belge Kurutas, Ergul; Ciralik, Harun

    2005-01-01

    Fat necrosis remains a serious complication in reconstructive flaps. In clinical setting, it is well known that fat tissue is more susceptible to ischemic events. We aimed to evaluate early histological and biochemical changes of adipofascial tissue in an experimantal model. An epigastric flap model in rats was used to evaluate the effect of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury on adipofascial tissue. Two groups of animals (one with ischemia alone and other ischemia-reperfusion group) were used to evaluate the degree of histological edema, congestion and extravascular bleeding, and early biochemical alterations within the adipofascial flaps. The biochemical parameters included glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In each group, contralateral groin subcutaneous adipose tissue served as control. These evaluations were compared to normal unmanipulated, contralateral abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. The ischemia-reperfused flap group showed histologically significantly much edema congestion and bleeding than the control groups (P < .0001). The control group showed less edema in fat tissue than the ischemia-alone group (P < .05). All of the flaps in the ischemia-only group showed significantly less bleeding and edema than I-R group (P < .001). The ratio of MDA/GSH was 33 in control, 37 in ischemia alone, and 82 in ischemia-reperfusion groups, respectively. This study confirms that significant histologic and biochemical alteration occurs after ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion events in adipose tissue. Marked drop in adipose tissue antioxidant levels after I-R suggested that preemptive measures to this decrease should be undertaken in clinical settings. PMID:16258198

  6. The protective effect of erdosteine on short-term global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozerol, Elif; Bilgic, Sedat; Iraz, Mustafa; Cigli, Ahmet; Ilhan, Atilla; Akyol, Omer

    2009-02-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that free radicals play a major role on neuronal injury during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Erdosteine is a thioderivative endowed with mucokinetic, mucolytic and free-radical-scavenging properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of erdosteine treatment against short-term global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The study was carried out on Wistar rats divided into four groups. (i) Control group, (ii) ischemia/reperfusion group, (iii) ischemia/reperfusion+erdosteine group, and (iv) erdosteine group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were analysed in erythrocyte and plasma of rats. Plasma NO levels were significantly higher in the ischemia/reperfusion group than the other groups. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px were decreased, while TBARS levels increased in the ischemia/reperfusion group compared to other groups in both plasma and erythrocyte. The erythrocyte CAT activity was higher in erdosteine group and there was a statistically significant increase, when compared with the erdosteine plus ischemia/reperfusion group. By treating the rats with erdosteine, the depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and increase of TBARS and NO levels were prevented. This study, therefore, suggests that erdosteine reduces parameters of oxidative stress is well supported by the data.

  7. An Online Monogenic Diabetes Discussion Group: Supporting Families and Fueling New Research

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Marie E.; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H.; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2016-01-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support, and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments as well as design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern. PMID:26184072

  8. Effective small group teaching strategies for research supervision - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    UNESCO-IHE's students are unique in several aspects: they are mid-career professionals separated from their last university experience by a number of years in the profession, they are from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and they often have relatively clear understanding on the diverse problems in the practice of engineering in their respective countries and are focused on solving those. As a result of the diversity in many forms, managing effective groups during the research phase of the UNESCO-IHE master's course pose considerable challenge. In this paper, we present a unique combination of tools and approaches that are employed in managing a small group of students (between five and ten) in one study area, who were working on diverse research topics that had the common denominator of mathematical modelling. We blend a number of traditional (e.g. seminars, group discussions, focused training sessions) and non-traditional (e.g. Using collaboration platforms like WIKI, peer-learning) approaches so that the cohesion of the group in maintained and every member benefits from being a part of the group. Four years of experience with employing this blend of tools on a six-month long master's research programme showed us: The approach motivates the students to perform focusing not only on the end-goal of their research study, but on the process of day to day work that lead to that goal. The students' self-confidence is often enhanced by being a part of close-knit group. Initial workload of the teacher increases significantly by this approach, but later this is more than compensated by the fact that the teacher has to do little maintain the momentum. Both strong and not so-strong students equally benefit from the approach. A significant number of students develop a keen interest in being involved in research further. (e.g. engaging in doctoral studies.)

  9. Changes in Retinal Morphology, Electroretinogram and Visual Behavior after Transient Global Ischemia in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Yu, Bo; Xiang, Yong-Hui; Han, Xin-Jia; Xu, Ying; So, Kwok-Fai; Xu, An-Ding; Ruan, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The retina is a light-sensitive tissue of the central nervous system that is vulnerable to ischemia. The pathological mechanism underlying retinal ischemic injury is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate structural and functional changes of different types of rat retinal neurons and visual behavior following transient global ischemia. Retinal ischemia was induced using a 4-vessel occlusion model. Compared with the normal group, the number of βIII-tubulin positive retinal ganglion cells and calretinin positive amacrine cells were reduced from 6 h to 48 h following ischemia. The number of recoverin positive cone bipolar cells transiently decreased at 6 h and 12 h after ischemia. However, the fluorescence intensity of rhodopsin positive rod cells and fluorescent peanut agglutinin positive cone cells did not change after reperfusion. An electroretinogram recording showed that the a-wave, b-wave, oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were completely lost during ischemia. The amplitudes of the a- and b-waves were partially recovered at 1 h after ischemia, and returned to the control level at 48 h after reperfusion. However, the amplitudes of oscillatory potentials and the photopic negative response were still reduced at 48 h following reperfusion. Visual behavior detection showed there was no significant change in the time spent in the dark chamber between the control and 48 h group, but the distance moved, mean velocity in the black and white chambers and intercompartmental crosses were reduced at 48 h after ischemia. These results indicate that transient global ischemia induces dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells at molecular and ERG levels. However, transient global ischemia in a 17 minute duration does not appear to affect photoreceptors. PMID:23776500

  10. Trisulfate Disaccharide Decreases Calcium Overload and Protects Liver Injury Secondary to Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Vasques, Enio Rodrigues; Cunha, Jose Eduardo Monteiro; Coelho, Ana Maria Mendonca; Sampietre, Sandra N.; Patzina, Rosely Antunes; Abdo, Emilio Elias; Nader, Helena B.; Tersariol, Ivarne L. S.; Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Godoy, Carlos M. G.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Chaib, Eleazar; D’Albuquerque, Luiz A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) causes tissue damage and intracellular calcium levels are a factor of cell death. Sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) regulates calcium extrusion and Trisulfated Disaccharide (TD) acts on NCX decreasing intracellular calcium through the inhibition of the exchange inhibitory peptide (XIP). Objectives The aims of this research are to evaluate TD effects in liver injury secondary to I/R in animals and in vitro action on cytosolic calcium of hepatocytes cultures under calcium overload. Methods Wistar rats submitted to partial liver ischemia were divided in groups: Control: (n = 10): surgical manipulation with no liver ischemia; Saline: (n = 15): rats receiving IV saline before reperfusion; and TD: (n = 15): rats receiving IV TD before reperfusion. Four hours after reperfusion, serum levels of AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were measured. Liver tissue samples were collected for mitochondrial function and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Pulmonary vascular permeability and histologic parameters of liver were determined. TD effect on cytosolic calcium was evaluated in BRL3A hepatic rat cell cultures stimulated by thapsigargin pre and after treatment with TD. Results AST, ALT, cytokines, liver MDA, mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatic histologic injury scores were less in TD group when compared to Saline Group (p<0.05) with no differences in pulmonary vascular permeability. In culture cells, TD diminished the intracellular calcium raise and prevented the calcium increase pre and after treatment with thapsigargin, respectively. Conclusion TD decreases liver cell damage, preserves mitochondrial function and increases hepatic tolerance to I/R injury by calcium extrusion in Ca2+ overload situations. PMID:26901764

  11. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  12. Software and Space: Investigating How a Cosmology Research Group Enacts Infrastructure by Producing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Drew

    Software is a pervasive element of twenty-first century life and an integral element of scientific research. Research in Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) in recent decades investigates how distributed, collaborative scientific projects take place across different geographical and temporal scales through the enactment of research infrastructures. This dissertation expands upon existing CSCW research with a qualitative, episodic study of a group of cosmologists who are themselves enacting and working among multiple research infrastructures by producing data analysis software as part of a multinational radio telescope project. I describe this cosmology group's software production practices to explain how software is a material for expressing their scientific method. Software operationalizes and encapsulates their cosmology theory, a model of the telescope, observation data, and ongoing analysis decisions. I demonstrate how by using plots (visualizations of observation data, their software, and the physical telescope) they engage in rigorous and thoughtful testing and analysis of infrastructural components in their work. Doing this data-intensive scientific work requires that they collectively develop a deep understanding of multiple infrastructures to isolate and remove flaws in their data and do a high-precision scientific analysis, interrogating the many embedded relations among conventions of practice that make up their work. My dissertation offers a novel perspective on the production, use, and work of software in science that emphasizes that software in scientific research is not some static product to simply be sustained but a perpetually mutable expression of method to be iterated upon and improved through unfolding research work.

  13. Evaluation of Using Course-Management Software: Supplementing a Course that Requires a Group Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Gump, Nathaniel W.

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of course-management software (CMS) will not be realized if it is underused. The authors investigated one possible barrier to CMS use, students' perceptions of using CMS. After taking a course requiring a group research project, college students reported their perceptions of the use of CMS for the course. Overall, students did not…

  14. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  15. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE14 Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... under section 41 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to the treatment of qualified...

  16. Ability Grouping, Segregation and Civic Competences among Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the linkages between ability grouping, classroom social and ethnic segregation, and civic competences (understood here as referring to attitudes and behaviours as well as knowledge and skills). It does so by analysing data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education…

  17. Realising Graduate Attributes in the Research Degree: The Role of Peer Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stracke, Elke; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peer support groups (PSGs) in realising graduate attributes in the research degree. The literature indicates that top-down embedding of graduate attributes has met with only limited success. By taking a bottom-up approach, this paper shows that PSGs offer an opportunity to improve the graduate attribute outcomes of…

  18. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  19. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and…

  20. Constructing Our Identities through a Writing Support Group: Bridging from Doctoral Students to Teacher Educator Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Shelley; McGlynn-Stewart, Monica; Ghafouri, Farveh

    2014-01-01

    We are recent graduates of a graduate faculty of education in a research-based university in Canada. Our aspirations to become successful teacher educators and to write our dissertations brought us together to form a writing support group. During the 2010-2011 academic year, we conducted a self-study to better understand how the support group…

  1. Cooperative Learning Strategies for Teaching Small Group Communication: Research and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Kay; Gimple, Debbie

    Research has shown that cooperative learning rather than competitive behavior enhances students' achievement, self-esteem, and satisfaction while reducing performance anxiety. Although cooperation within a small group results in greater productivity and member satisfaction, it should be considered only as a means to an end, not an end in itself. A…

  2. Grounded Theory and Focus Groups: Reconciling Methodologies in Indigenous Australian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper captures an ideological moment in time in which I contemplated the methodological approach I was embarking upon. In my search for a more appropriate approach for conducting research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary students at the University of Queensland, I chose focus groups set within the qualitative process of…

  3. The Public and Public Education: A Cousins Research Group Report on Public Education in Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, David

    2016-01-01

    This Cousins Research Group report includes two articles by Kettering Foundation president David Mathews that were published previously. "The Public for Public Schools Is Slipping" was first published in "Education Week" in 1995. The second piece, "Putting the Public Back into Public Education: An Old-Fashioned Remedy for…

  4. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  5. Use of the Web by a Distributed Research group Performing Distributed Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, David A.; Peterkin, Robert E.

    2001-06-01

    A distributed research group that uses distributed computers faces a spectrum of challenges--some of which can be met by using various electronic means of communication. The particular challenge of our group involves three physically separated research entities. We have had to link two collaborating groups at AFRL and NRL together for software development, and the same AFRL group with a LANL group for software applications. We are developing and using a pair of general-purpose, portable, parallel, unsteady, plasma physics simulation codes. The first collaboration is centered around a formal weekly video teleconference on relatively inexpensive equipment that we have set up in convenient locations in our respective laboratories. The formal virtual meetings are augmented with informal virtual meetings as the need arises. Both collaborations share research data in a variety of forms on a secure URL that is set up behind the firewall at the AFRL. Of course, a computer-generated animation is a particularly efficient way of displaying results from time-dependent numerical simulations, so we generally like to post such animations (along with proper documentation) on our web page. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our accomplishments and disappointments.

  6. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  7. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  8. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  9. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  10. Levosimendan Administration in Limb Ischemia: Multicomponent Signaling Serving Kidney Protection

    PubMed Central

    Onody, Peter; Aranyi, Peter; Turoczi, Zsolt; Stangl, Rita; Fulop, Andras; Dudas, Emese; Lotz, Gabor; Szijarto, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives Acute renal failure is a severe complication of lower extremity major arterial reconstructions, which could even be fatal. Levosimendan is a dual-acting positive inotropic and vasodilatory agent, which is suspected to have protective effects against cardiac ischemia. However, there is no data available on lower limb or remote organ ischemic injuries therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on lower limb ischemia-reperfusion injury and the corollary renal dysfunction. Methods Male Wistar rats underwent 180 min bilateral lower limb ischemia followed by 4 or 24 hours of reperfusion. Intravenous Levosimendan was administered continuously (0.2μg/bwkg/min) throughout the whole course of ischemia and the first 3h of reperfusion. Results were compared with sham-operated and ischemia-reperfusion groups. Hemodynamic monitoring was performed by invasive arterial blood pressure measurement. Kidney and lower limb muscle microcirculation was registered by a laser Doppler flowmeter. After 4h and 24h of reperfusion, serum, urine and histological samples were collected. Results Systemic hemodynamic parameters and microcirculation of kidney and the lower limb significantly improved in the Levosimendan treated group. Muscle viability was significantly preserved 4 and 24 hours after reperfusion. At the same time, renal functional laboratory tests and kidney histology demonstrated significantly less expressive kidney injury in Levosimendan groups. TNF-α levels were significantly less elevated in the Levosimendan group 4 hours after reperfusion. Conclusion The results claim a protective role for Levosimendan administration during major vascular surgeries to prevent renal complications. PMID:27684548

  11. Tetramethylpyrazine inhibits neutrophil activation following permanent cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Kao, Tsung-Kuei; Chen, Wen-Ying; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri; Liao, Su-Lan; Raung, Shue-Ling; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-07-31

    Experimental studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against ischemic stroke and highlighted its crucial role in anti-inflammatory activity. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for TMP and sheds light on the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action against ischemic brain injury. We report a global inhibitory effect of TMP on inflammatory cell intracerebral activation and infiltration in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia. The results of immunohistochemistry, enzymatic assay, flow cytometric analysis, and cytological analysis revealed that intraperitoneal TMP administration reduced neuronal loss, macrophage/microglia activation, brain parenchyma infiltrative neutrophils, and circulating neutrophils after cerebral ischemia. Biochemical studies of cultured neutrophils further demonstrated that TMP attenuated neutrophil migration, endothelium adhesion, spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) production, and stimuli-activated NO production after cerebral ischemia. In parallel with these anti-neutrophil phenomena, TMP also attenuated the activities of ischemia-induced inflammation-associated signaling molecules, including plasma high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) and neutrophil toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Another finding in this study was that the anti-neutrophil effect of TMP was accompanied by a further elevated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in neutrophils after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our results suggest that both the promotion of endogenous anti-inflammatory defense capacity and the attenuation of pro-inflammatory responses via targeting of circulating neutrophils by elevating Nrf2/HO-1 expression and inhibiting HMGB1/TLR4, Akt, and ERK signaling might actively contribute to TMP-mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia.

  12. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice.

  13. Collaborative translational research leading to multicenter clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG).

    PubMed

    Escolar, Diana M; Henricson, Erik K; Pasquali, Livia; Gorni, Ksenija; Hoffman, Eric P

    2002-10-01

    Progress in the development of rationally based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy has been accelerated by encouraging multidisciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration between basic science and clinical investigators in the Cooperative International Research Group. We combined existing research efforts in pathophysiology by a gene expression profiling laboratory with the efforts of animal facilities capable of conducting high-throughput drug screening and toxicity testing to identify safe and effective drug compounds that target different parts of the pathophysiologic cascade in a genome-wide drug discovery approach. Simultaneously, we developed a clinical trial coordinating center and an international network of collaborating physicians and clinics where those drugs could be tested in large-scale clinical trials. We hope that by bringing together investigators at these facilities and providing the infrastructure to support their research, we can rapidly move new bench discoveries through animal model screening and into therapeutic testing in humans in a safe, timely and cost-effective setting.

  14. Controversies in cardiovascular care: silent myocardial ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective evidence of silent myocardial ischemia--ischemia in the absence of classical chest pain--includes ST-segment shifts (usually depression), momentary left ventricular failure, and perfusion defects on scintigraphic studies. Assessment of angina patients with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring may uncover episodes of silent ischemia, the existence of which may give important information regarding prognosis and may help structure a more effective therapeutic regimen. The emerging recognition of silent ischemia as a significant clinical entity may eventually result in an expansion of current therapy--not only to ameliorate chest pain, but to minimize or eliminate ischemia in the absence of chest pain.

  15. Improving Scientific Research and Writing Skills through Peer Review and Empirical Group Learning.

    PubMed

    Senkevitch, Emilee; Smith, Ann C; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Song, Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a semester-long, multipart activity called "Read and wRite to reveal the Research process" (R(3)) that was designed to teach students the elements of a scientific research paper. We implemented R(3) in an advanced immunology course. In R(3), we paralleled the activities of reading, discussion, and presentation of relevant immunology work from primary research papers with student writing, discussion, and presentation of their own lab findings. We used reading, discussing, and writing activities to introduce students to the rationale for basic components of a scientific research paper, the method of composing a scientific paper, and the applications of course content to scientific research. As a final part of R(3), students worked collaboratively to construct a Group Research Paper that reported on a hypothesis-driven research project, followed by a peer review activity that mimicked the last stage of the scientific publishing process. Assessment of student learning revealed a statistically significant gain in student performance on writing in the style of a research paper from the start of the semester to the end of the semester.

  16. Ischemic preconditioning maintains the immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in neurons of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    CHO, YOUNG SHIN; CHO, JUN HWI; SHIN, BICH-NA; CHO, GEUM-SIL; KIM, IN HYE; PARK, JOON HA; AHN, JI HYEON; OHK, TAEK GEUN; CHO, BYUNG-RYUL; KIM, YOUNG-MYEONG; HONG, SEONGKWEON; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, JAE-CHUL

    2015-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) is involved in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. In the present study, the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the immunoreactivities of GK and its regulatory protein (GKRP) following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia was investigated in gerbils. The gerbils were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia-operated group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia, followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia-operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected. Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post-ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post-ischemia. In the IPC + ischemia-operated group, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the SP of the CA1 were similar to those in the sham-group. In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia-reperfusion. This indicated that GK and GKRP may be necessary for neuron survival against transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26134272

  17. Neuroprotective effects of pretreatment with minocycline on memory impairment following cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Yazdan; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Parvardeh, Siavash; Moini Zanjani, Taraneh

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia leads to memory impairment that is associated with loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion damage. Minocycline has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups: control, sham, and minocycline-pretreated group. Minocycline (40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally immediately before surgery, and then ischemia was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 20 min. Seven days after reperfusion, the Morris water-maze task was used to evaluate memory. Nissl staining was also performed to analyze pyramidal cell damage. We measured the contents of malondialdehyde and proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus by the thiobarbituric acid method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Microglial activation was also investigated by Iba1 immunostaining. The results showed that pretreatment with minocycline prevented memory impairment induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Minocycline pretreatment also significantly attenuated ischemia-induced pyramidal cell death and microglial activation in the CA1 region and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) in the hippocampus of ischemic rats. Minocycline showed neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia-induced memory deficit probably through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  18. Study on pretreatment of FPS-1 in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiqing; Liu, Kexuan; Wu, Weikang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuanhong

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether FPS-1, the water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from fuzi, protected against hepatic damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and its mechanism. SD rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. FPS-1 (160 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 5 days before ischemia-reperfusion injury in treatment group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and albumin (ALB) were assayed to evaluate liver functions. Liver samples were taken for histological examination and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), that catalase (CAT) in liver. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in mitochondria were measured with colorimetry method. Morphological changes were also investigated by using both light microscopy and electron microscopy (EM). In addition, apoptosis and oncosis were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Serum AST and ALT levels were elevated in groups exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (p < 0.05). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a marked increase in MDA level, and significant decreases in hepatic SOD and CAT (p < 0.05). Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase were reduced in ischemia-reperfusion groups compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). Oncosis and apoptosis were also observed in ischemia-reperfusion groups. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reversed all these biochemical parameters as well as histological alterations, evidently by increased SOD, CAT, reduced MDA and histological scores compared to the model group (p < 0.05). FPS-1 could attenuate the necrotic states by the detection of immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reduced hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidative effects and attenuation of necrotic states.

  19. Sirt1 in cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Koronowski, Kevin B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is among the leading causes of death worldwide. It is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the brain that results in cell death and damage, ultimately causing motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Today, clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia, mostly stroke and cardiac arrest, is limited and new neuroprotective therapies are desperately needed. The Sirtuin family of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacylases has been shown to govern several processes within the central nervous system as well as to possess neuroprotective properties in a variety of pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and Huntington’s Disease, among others. Recently, Sirt1 in particular has been identified as a mediator of cerebral ischemia, with potential as a possible therapeutic target. To gather studies relevant to this topic, we used PubMed and previous reviews to locate, select, and resynthesize the lines of evidence presented here. In this review, we will first describe some functions of Sirt1 in the brain, mainly neurodevelopment, learning and memory, and metabolic regulation. Second, we will discuss the experimental evidence that has implicated Sirt1 as a key protein in the regulation of cerebral ischemia as well as a potential target for the induction of ischemic tolerance. PMID:26819971

  20. Long-term follow-up of patients with silent ischemia during exercise radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenbuecher, A.P.; Pfisterer, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Burckhardt, D. )

    1990-04-01

    A retrospective 5 year follow-up study was performed in 140 patients with unequivocal ischemia during exercise radionuclide angiography (greater than or equal to 10% decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction or greater than or equal to 5% decrease in ejection fraction together with a distinct regional wall motion abnormality). In 84 patients (60%), ischemia during radionuclide angiography was silent (silent ischemia group), whereas 56 patients experienced angina during the test (symptomatic group). Work load and antianginal medication were similar in both groups. Critical cardiac events (unstable angina, myocardial infarction, cardiac death) occurred in 27% of patients in the silent ischemia group and 16% of those in the symptomatic group (p = NS); however, myocardial infarction or death was more frequent in patients with silent ischemia (22% versus 9%; p less than 0.05). If there was additional exercise-induced ST segment depression, the rate of critical events was further increased (p less than 0.05). The difference in critical cardiac events seemed to be influenced by the higher incidence of revascularization procedures in symptomatic patients, whereas medical therapy had no similar effect. Thus, these findings suggest that patients with documented severe ischemia should undergo left heart catheterization and revascularization irrespective of symptoms to improve their prognosis.

  1. Major Ozonated Autohemotherapy Preconditioning Ameliorates Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Sancak, Eyup Burak; Turkön, Hakan; Çukur, Selma; Erimsah, Sevilay; Akbas, Alpaslan; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Toman, Huseyin; Sahin, Hasan; Uzun, Metehan

    2016-02-01

    Medical ozone has therapeutic properties as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, modulator of antioxidant defense system. Major ozonated autohemotherapy (MOA) is a new therapeutic approach that is widely used in the treatment of many diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether preischemic application of MOA would attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups, each including six animals: (1) Sham-operated group, (2) Ozone group (the MOA group without IRI), (3) IR group (60 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion), and (4) IR + MOA group (MOA group). The effects of MOA were examined by use of hematologic and biochemical parameters consisting of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI). In addition, the histopathological changes including the tubular brush border loss (TBBL), tubular cast (TC), tubular necrosis (TN), intertubular hemorrhage and congestion (IHC), dilatation of bowman space (DBS), and interstitial inflammatory cells infiltration (IECI) were evaluated. In the IR group, compared to the Sham group, biochemical parameters indicating oxidative stress, NLR, IL-6, TNF-α, IMA, TOS, and OSI have increased. MOA reduced inflammation and oxidative stress parameters. Although TAS values have decreased in the IR group and increased in the MOA-pretreated group, no significant changes in TAS values were detected between the IR and MOA groups. The total score was obtained by summing all the scores from morphological kidney damage markers. The total score has increased with IR damage when compared with the Sham group (13.83 ± 4.30 vs 1.51 ± 1.71; p = 0.002). But, the total score has decreased significantly after application of MOA (5.01 ± 1.49; p = 0.002; compared

  2. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75 000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  3. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75,000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research.

  4. Group Supervision in Psychotherapy. Main Findings from a Swedish Research Project on Psychotherapy Supervision in a Group Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Marie-Louise; Sundin, Eva C.

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to…

  5. Oxidative stress in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Love, S

    1999-01-01

    Brain ischemia initiates a complex cascade of metabolic events, several of which involve the generation of nitrogen and oxygen free radicals. These free radicals and related reactive chemical species mediate much of damage that occurs after transient brain ischemia, and in the penumbral region of infarcts caused by permanent ischemia. Nitric oxide, a water- and lipid-soluble free radical, is generated by the action of nitric oxide synthases. Ischemia causes a surge in nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS 1) activity in neurons and, possibly, glia, increased NOS 3 activity in vascular endothelium, and later an increase in NOS 2 activity in a range of cells including infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages, activated microglia and astrocytes. The effects of ischemia on the activity of NOS 1, a Ca2+-dependent enzyme, are thought to be secondary to reversal of glutamate reuptake at synapses, activation of NMDA receptors, and resulting elevation of intracellular Ca2+. The up-regulation of NOS 2 activity is mediated by transcriptional inducers. In the context of brain ischemia, the activity of NOS 1 and NOS 2 is broadly deleterious, and their inhibition or inactivation is neuroprotective. However, the production of nitric oxide in blood vessels by NOS 3, which, like NOS 1, is Ca2+-dependent, causes vasodilatation and improves blood flow in the penumbral region of brain infarcts. In addition to causing the synthesis of nitric oxide, brain ischemia leads to the generation of superoxide, through the action of nitric oxide synthases, xanthine oxidase, leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and other mechanisms. Nitric oxide and superoxide are themselves highly reactive but can also combine to form a highly toxic anion, peroxynitrite. The toxicity of the free radicals and peroxynitrite results from their modification of macromolecules, especially DNA, and from the resulting induction of apoptotic and necrotic pathways. The mode of cell death that prevails probably

  6. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  7. [Developing rehabilitation treatment groups for cardiology and orthopaedics -- findings of a research project].

    PubMed

    Ranneberg, J; Neubauer, G

    2005-02-01

    The call for a more specific and transparent service and reimbursement system for medical rehabilitation is not new. However, in practice, the idea was not followed up for a long time. This situation changed with the introduction of German Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) for acute care settings. It is now strongly being discussed whether such a sophisticated lump sum reimbursement system might also be a viable alternative in the field of rehabilitation. There still exist different opinions over the suitability of a lump sum-system for medical rehabilitation, but the main direction seems to be clear. There is no doubt that medical rehabilitation requires a needs-adapted, differentiated patient classification system. The benefits of such cost-homogeneous groups are evident. They support medical and management services and are suitable for both internal and external use. The main intent of the project presented was to develop such a patient classification system, adapted to the requirements of medical rehabilitation. The project concentrated on orthopaedic and cardiac rehabilitaton. For these two areas, needs-adapted and cost-homogeneous groups (RBG, Rehabilitationsbehandlungsgruppen - Rehabilitation Treatment Groups) were developed in order to adequately represent the underlying service portfolio and to act as a link between acute and post-acute care. In addition, severity level indicators were identified, in order to explain for different needs and resource volumes and in order to create severity-RBGs representing patients with the same severity level. Based on these groups, a needs-adapted lump sum reimbursement system can be developed, allowing for a differentiated service and cost controlling. The project described formed part of the Research Funding Programme Rehabilitation Sciences defrayed by the German Pension Insurance and the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. As part of the Freiburg/Bad Sackingen research network, it was realised at the

  8. Prologue: 2009 Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA).

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip J; Gladman, Dafna D

    2011-03-01

    The 2009 Annual Meeting of the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) was held in June 2009 in Stockholm, Sweden, and was attended by rheumatologists, dermatologists, biopharmaceutical company representatives, and patient groups. A primary goal of GRAPPA is to foster outreach and interdisciplinary communication between the fields of rheumatology and dermatology. Several members attended an adjacent meeting of the International Federation of Psoriasis Associations; reports were also provided of recent meetings of the American Academy of Dermatology and the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis (ASAS) working group. In a training session of the GRAPPA meeting, members served as faculty while rheumatology fellows and dermatology residents presented original research work. In one module of the meeting, several response measures were discussed. In another module, discussions were held on the need for dermatologists to be able to diagnose psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among their psoriasis patients; several PsA screening questionnaires were presented, and progress was reported on developing online training videos as an aid to educate clinicians in their diagnoses. Other topics for discussion at the GRAPPA meeting included presentations on genetic associations with PsA and on comorbidities in patients with PsA. Current and future research projects also were outlined.

  9. The Social Context of Instruction. Group Organization and Group Processes. [Papers Presented at a Conference Held at The Wisconsin Center for Education Research (Madison, May 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.; And Others

    This book is an outgrowth of a conference funded by the National Institute of Education and held at the Wisconsin Center for Education Research in May 1982. A major theme of this volume of collected papers is how and in what ways grouping of students can be used effectively. Papers included are: (1) "Instructional Groups in the Classroom:…

  10. Globus Nexus: A Platform-as-a-Service Provider of Research Identity, Profile, and Group Management

    PubMed Central

    Lidman, Mattias; McCollam, Brendan; Bryan, Josh; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Tuecke, Steven; Foster, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Globus Nexus is a professionally hosted Platform-as-a-Service that provides identity, profile and group management functionality for the research community. Many collaborative e-Science applications need to manage large numbers of user identities, profiles, and groups. However, developing and maintaining such capabilities is often challenging given the complexity of modern security protocols and requirements for scalable, robust, and highly available implementations. By outsourcing this functionality to Globus Nexus, developers can leverage best-practice implementations without incurring development and operations overhead. Users benefit from enhanced capabilities such as identity federation, flexible profile management, and user-oriented group management. In this paper we present Globus Nexus, describe its capabilities and architecture, summarize how several e-Science applications leverage these capabilities, and present results that characterize its scalability, reliability, and availability. PMID:26688598

  11. Globus Nexus: A Platform-as-a-Service Provider of Research Identity, Profile, and Group Management.

    PubMed

    Chard, Kyle; Lidman, Mattias; McCollam, Brendan; Bryan, Josh; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Tuecke, Steven; Foster, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Globus Nexus is a professionally hosted Platform-as-a-Service that provides identity, profile and group management functionality for the research community. Many collaborative e-Science applications need to manage large numbers of user identities, profiles, and groups. However, developing and maintaining such capabilities is often challenging given the complexity of modern security protocols and requirements for scalable, robust, and highly available implementations. By outsourcing this functionality to Globus Nexus, developers can leverage best-practice implementations without incurring development and operations overhead. Users benefit from enhanced capabilities such as identity federation, flexible profile management, and user-oriented group management. In this paper we present Globus Nexus, describe its capabilities and architecture, summarize how several e-Science applications leverage these capabilities, and present results that characterize its scalability, reliability, and availability.

  12. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  13. Prologue: 2011 Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA).

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip J; Gladman, Dafna D

    2012-11-01

    The 2011 Annual Meeting of the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) was held in July 2011 in Naples, Italy, and attended by rheumatologists, dermatologists, and representatives of biopharmaceutical companies and patient groups from around the world. The meeting began with a trainee symposium, where 25 rheumatology fellows and dermatology residents presented their original research work. Presentations and discussions by GRAPPA members during the remaining 2-day meeting included a 2-part discussion of the status of psoriatic disease biomarker research, summaries of the GRAPPA Composite Exercise and the GRAPPA video projects, a contribution from Italian members on their psoriasis and PsA projects, a lengthy discussion of research and collaborative initiatives from GRAPPA dermatologists, updates on ultrasound imaging in psoriatic disease and on plans to define inflammatory musculoskeletal disease, a presentation of the results of a small study of psoriasis and PsA in aboriginal people of Peru, and a review of global education and partnering opportunities. Introductions to these discussions are included in this prologue.

  14. Technical Note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard; Camossi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  15. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, Bertrand; Holovatch, Yuri; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple metrics as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are invariably drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as “critical mass” and “h-index” are bandied about without understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent upon the scientific community itself to clarify their nature. Here we report on recent attempts to do that by properly defining critical mass and showing how group size influences research quality. We also examine currently predominant metrics and show that these fail as reliable indicators of group research quality.

  16. Technical note: Harmonising metocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, Richard P.; Camossi, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  17. Technical note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, R. P.; Camossi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardized web-services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by: (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using technology that is free, and that is easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing tools to communicate with web services that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modelers continue producing custom data, but virtually aggregates and standardizes the data using NetCDF Markup Language. The THREDDS Data Server is used for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (Matlab®1) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Ocean Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.1 Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the US Government.

  18. Alcohol and immunology: Summary of the 2012 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    On October 27, 2012, the 17th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Grand Wailea Hotel in Maui, Hawaii as a satellite meeting to the 2012 Society of Leukocyte Biology conference. This year's meeting focused on the influence of alcohol on signal transduction pathways in various disease and injury models. Three plenary sessions were held where invited speakers shared their research on alcohol-mediated alterations of cell signaling components, immune cell subsets, and inflammation. These studies suggested alcohol has a negative effect on cell signaling machinery and immune cell homeostasis, resulting in disease, disease progression, and increased mortality. Researchers also identified tissue-specific alcohol-linked elevations in markers of inflammation, including cold-shock proteins and microRNAs. Additionally, one study revealed the effects of alcohol on immune cell subsets in a model of allergic asthma.

  19. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  20. Dissecting the Effects of Ischemia and Reperfusion on the Coronary Microcirculation in a Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Maurits R.; de Waard, Guus A.; Konijnenberg, Lara S. F.; Meijer-van Putten, Rosalie M. E.; van den Brom, Charissa E.; Paauw, Nanne; de Vries, Helga E.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Aman, Jurjan; Van Nieuw-Amerongen, Geerten P.; Hordijk, Peter L.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.; Van Royen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background Microvascular injury (MVI) after coronary ischemia-reperfusion is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Both ischemia and reperfusion are involved in MVI, but to what degree these phases contribute is unknown. Understanding the etiology is essential for the development of new potential therapies. Methods and Findings Rats were divided into 3 groups receiving either 30 minutes ischemia, 90 minutes ischemia or 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion. Subsequently hearts were ex-vivo perfused in a Langendorff-model. Fluorescence and electron microscopy was used for analysis of capillary density, vascular permeability and ultrastructure. Most MVI was observed after 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion. In comparison to the 30’ and 90’ ischemia group, wall thickness decreased (207.0±74 vs 407.8±75 and 407.5±71, p = 0.02). Endothelial nuclei in the 30’-60’ group showed irreversible damage and decreased chromatin density variation (50.5±9.4, 35.4±7.1 and 23.7±3.8, p = 0.03). Cell junction density was lowest in the 30’-60’ group (0.15±0.02 vs 2.5±0.6 and 1.8±0.7, p<0.01). Microsphere extravasation was increased in both the 90’ ischemia and 30’-60’ group. Conclusions Ischemia alone for 90 minutes induces mild morphological changes to the coronary microcirculation, with increased vascular permeability. Ischemia for 30 minutes, followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion, induces massive MVI. This shows the direct consequences of reperfusion on the coronary microcirculation. These data imply that a therapeutic window exists to protect the microcirculation directly upon coronary revascularization. PMID:27391645

  1. Changes of c-fos, malondialdehyde and lactate in brain tissue after global cerebral ischemia under different brain temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Li; Xu, Guo-ying; Mei, Yuan-wu; Zhang, Jun-jian; Murong, Shen-xing; Sun, Sheng-gang; Tong, E-tang

    2014-06-01

    Under global cerebral ischemia, the effect of different brain temperature on cerebral ischemic injury was studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normothermic (37-38°C) ischemia, mild hypothermic (31-32°C) ischemia, hyperthermic (41-42°C) ischemia and sham-operated groups. Global cerebral ischemia was established using the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion model and brain temperature was maintained at defined level for 60 min after 20-min ischemia. The expression of c-fos protein and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate in brain regions were detected by immunochemistry and spectrophotometrical methods, respectively. C-fos positive neurons were found in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Mild hypothermia increased the expression of c-fos protein in both areas, whereas hyperthermia decreased the expression of c-fos protein in the hippocampus at 24 h reperfusion, and the cerebral cortex at 48 h reperfusion when compared to normothermic conditions. In normothermic, mild hypothermic and hyperthermic ischemia groups, the levels of MDA and lactate in brain tissue were increased at 24, 48 and 72 h reperfusion following 20-min ischemia as compared with the sham-operated group (P<0.01). The levels of MDA and lactate in mild hypothermic group were significantly lower than those in normothermic group (P<0.01). It is suggested that brain temperature influences the translation of the immunoreactive protein product of c-fos after global cerebral ischemia, and MDA and lactate are also affected by hypothermia and hyperthermia.

  2. Simvastatin inhibits inflammation in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yilin; Feng, Qingzhao; Huang, Zhengjie; Li, Wenpeng; Chen, Baisheng; Jiang, Long; Wu, Binglin; Ding, Weiji; Xu, Gang; Pan, Heng; Wei, Wei; Luo, Weiyuan; Luo, Qi

    2014-10-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is associated with leukocyte accumulation and tissue injury. The aim of this research was to investigate the protective effect of simvastatin on hind limb I/R inflammation and tissue damage. Mice were subjected to hind limb ischemic insult for 2 h and were simultaneously administered an intraperitoneal injection of simvastatin (5 mg/kg); this was followed by 36 h of reperfusion. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the muscles of the hind limb were determined. CXC chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and P-selectin, were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Leukocyte rolling and adhesion in vitro was assessed to indicate leukocyte recruitment at the site of inflammation. Quantitative measurement of skeletal muscle tissue injury was performed. The fluorescent dye level in tissue and serum was used to determine hind limb vascular leakage and tissue edema after I/R. Systemic and differentiated leukocytes were also counted. Simvastatin significantly reduced MIP-2, KC, TNF-α, MPO, IL-6, and P-selectin levels compared to the sham group and I/R plus pretreatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (P<0.05). Compared to the sham group and I/R plus PBS group, the I/R plus simvastatin group had attenuated inflammation, vascular leakage, and muscular damage (P<0.05). Simvastatin also significantly inhibited leukocyte rolling and adhesion compared to PBS (P<0.05). Our results suggest that simvastatin may be an effective protectant against tissue injury associated with I/R.

  3. Effect of minocycline on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury★

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanyin; Xu, Lijuan; Yin, Jinbao; Zhong, Zhichao; Fan, Hongling; Li, Xi; Chang, Quanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Minocylcine, a tetracycline derivate, has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system. In this study, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury models were established using the suture method, and minocycline was immediately injected intraperitoneally after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (22.5 mg/kg, initially 45 mg/kg) at a 12-hour interval. Results showed that after minocycline treatment, the volume of cerebral infarction was significantly reduced, the number of surviving cell in the hippocampal CA1 region increased, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, the expression of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 protein was down-regulated, and the escape latency in the water maze test was significantly shortened compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group. Our experimental findings indicate that minocycline can protect against neuronal injury induced by focal ischemia-reperfusion, which may be mediated by the inhibition of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 protein expression. PMID:25206381

  4. Critical ischemia time in a model of spinal cord section. A study performed on dogs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Martinez, David; Rosales Corral, Sergio A.; Flores Soto, Mario E.; Velarde Silva, Gustavo; Portilla de Buen, Eliseo

    2006-01-01

    Vascular changes after acute spinal cord trauma are important factors that predispose quadriplegia, in most cases irreversible. Repair of the spinal blood flow helps the spinal cord recovery. The average time to arrive and perform surgery is 3 h in most cases. It is important to determine the critical ischemia time in order to offer better functional prognosis. A spinal cord section and vascular clamping of the spinal anterior artery at C5–C6 model was used to determine critical ischemia time. The objective was to establish a critical ischemia time in a model of acute spinal cord section. Four groups of dogs were used, anterior approach and vascular clamp of spinal anterior artery with 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of ischemia and posterior hemisection of spinal cord at C5–C6 was performed. Clinical evaluation was made during 12 weeks and morphological evaluation at the end of this period. We obtained a maximal neurological coordination at 23 days average. Two cases showed sequels of right upper limb paresis at 1 and 3 ischemia hours. There was nerve conduction delay of 56% at 3 h of ischemia. Morphological examination showed 25% of damaged area. The VIII and IX Rexed’s laminae were the most affected. The critical ischemia time was 3 h. Dogs with 4 h did not exhibit any recovery. PMID:17024402

  5. Role of mucus in ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Mojzis, J; Hegedüsová, R; Mirossay, L

    2000-01-01

    Gastric mucus plays an important role in gastric mucosal protection. Apart from its "barrier" function, it has been demonstrated that mucus protects gastric epithelial cells against toxic oxygen metabolites derived from the xanthine/ xanthine oxidase system. In this study, we investigated the effect of malotilate and sucralfate (mucus production stimulators) and N-acetylcysteine (mucolytic agent) on ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury. Gastric ischemia was induced by 30 min clamping of the coeliac artery followed by 30 min of reperfusion. The mucus content was determined by the Alcian blue method. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg), malotilate (100 mg/kg), and N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg) were given orally 30 min before surgery. Both sucralfate and malotilate increased the mucus production in control rats. On the other hand, N-acetyloysteine significantly decreased mucus content in control (sham) group. A significant decrease of mucus content was found in the control and the N-acetylcysteine pretreated group during the period of ischemia. On the other hand, sucralfate and malotilate prevented the decrease the content of mucus during ischemia. A similar result can be seen after ischemia/reperfusion. In the control group and N-acetylcysteine pretreated group a significant decrease of adherent mucus content was found. However, sucralfate and malotilate increased mucus production (sucralfate significantly). Sucralfate and malotilate also significantly protected the gastric mucosa against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. However, N-acetylcysteine significantly increased gastric mucosal injury after ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that gastric mucus may be involved in the protection of gastric mucosa after ischemia/reperfusion.

  6. The role of HIFs in ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Neil J; Tennant, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The reduction or cessation of the blood supply to an organ results in tissue ischemia. Ischemia can cause significant tissue damage, and is observed as a result of a thrombosis, as part of a disease process, and during surgery. However, the restoration of the blood supply often causes more damage to the tissue than the ischemic episode itself. Research is therefore focused on identifying the cellular pathways involved in the protection of organs from the damage incurred by this process of ischemia reperfusion (I/R). The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are a family of heterodimeric transcription factors that are stabilized during ischemia. The genes that are expressed downstream of HIF activity enhance oxygen-independent ATP generation, cell survival, and angiogenesis, amongst other phenotypes. They are, therefore, important factors in the protection of tissues from I/R injury. Interestingly, a number of the mechanisms already known to induce organ protection against I/R injury, including preconditioning, postconditioning, and activation of signaling pathways such as adenosine receptor signaling, converge on the HIF system. This review describes the evidence for HIFs playing a role in I/R protection mediated by these factors, highlights areas that require further study, and discuss whether HIFs themselves are good therapeutic targets for protecting tissues from I/R injury. PMID:27774470

  7. Strategies to Support Recruitment of Patients with Life-limiting illness for Research: The Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura C.; Bull, Janet; Wessell, Kathryn; Massie, Lisa; Bennett, Rachael E.; Kutner, Jean S.; Aziz, Noreen M.; Abernethy, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Context The Palliative Care Research Cooperative group (PCRC) is the first clinical trials cooperative for palliative care in the United States. Objectives To describe barriers and strategies for recruitment during the inaugural PCRC clinical trial. Methods The parent study was a multi-site randomized controlled trial enrolling adults with life expectancy anticipated to be 1–6 months, randomized to discontinue statins (intervention) vs. to continue on statins (control). To study recruitment best practices, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 site Principal Investigators (PI) and Clinical Research Coordinators (CRC), and reviewed recruitment rates. Interviews covered 3 topics – 1) successful strategies for recruitment, 2) barriers to recruitment, and 3) optimal roles of the PI and CRC. Results All eligible site PIs and CRCs completed interviews and provided data on statin protocol recruitment. The parent study completed recruitment of n=381 patients. Site enrollment ranged from 1–109 participants, with an average of 25 enrolled per site. Five major barriers included difficulty locating eligible patients, severity of illness, family and provider protectiveness, seeking patients in multiple settings, and lack of resources for recruitment activities. Five effective recruitment strategies included systematic screening of patient lists, thoughtful messaging to make research relevant, flexible protocols to accommodate patients’ needs, support from clinical champions, and the additional resources of a trials cooperative group. Conclusion The recruitment experience from the multi-site PCRC yields new insights into methods for effective recruitment to palliative care clinical trials. These results will inform training materials for the PCRC and may assist other investigators in the field. PMID:24863152

  8. Inspired by Fieldwork: A Teacher Research Experience Energizes and Ignites a Group of Elementary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a

  9. Academic judgments under uncertainty: A study of collective anchoring effects in Swedish Research Council panel groups.

    PubMed

    Roumbanis, Lambros

    2017-02-01

    This article focuses on anchoring effects in the process of peer reviewing research proposals. Anchoring effects are commonly seen as the result of flaws in human judgment, as cognitive biases that stem from specific heuristics that guide people when they involve their intuition in solving a problem. Here, the cognitive biases will be analyzed from a sociological point of view, as interactional and aggregated phenomena. The article is based on direct observations of ten panel groups evaluating research proposals in the natural and engineering sciences for the Swedish Research Council. The analysis suggests that collective anchoring effects emerge as a result of the combination of the evaluation techniques that are being used (grading scales and average ranking) and the efforts of the evaluators to reach consensus in the face of disagreements and uncertainty in the group. What many commentators and evaluators have interpreted as an element of chance in the peer review process may also be understood as partly a result of the dynamic aspects of collective anchoring effects.

  10. Mucosal injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in the piglet intestine: Influences of age and feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Crissinger, K.D.; Granger, D.N. )

    1989-10-01

    The pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis is unknown, but enteral alimentation, infectious agents, and mesenteric ischemia have been frequently invoked as primary initiators of the disease. To define the vulnerability of the intestinal mucosa to ischemia and reperfusion in the developing piglet, we evaluated changes in mucosal permeability using plasma-to-lumen clearance of chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the ileum of anesthetized 1-day-, 3-day-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets as a function of (a) duration of intestinal ischemia (20, 40, or 60 min of total superior mesenteric artery occlusion), (b) feeding status (fasted or nursed), and (c) composition of luminal perfusate (balanced salt solution vs. predigested cow milk-based formula). Baseline chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance was not significantly altered by ischemia, irrespective of duration, or feeding in all age groups. However, clearances were significantly elevated during reperfusion after 1 h of total intestinal ischemia in all age groups, whether fasted or fed. Reperfusion-induced increases in clearance did not differ among age groups when the bowel lumen was perfused with a balanced salt solution. However, luminal perfusion with formula resulted in higher clearances in 1-day-old piglets compared with all older animals. Thus, the neonatal intestine appears to be more vulnerable to mucosal injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in the presence of formula than the intestine of older animals.

  11. Leukotriene signaling in atherosclerosis and ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Bäck, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The inflammatory process of atherosclerosis is associated with several pathophysiological reactions within the vascular wall. The arachidonic acid released by phospholipase A2 serves as substrate for the production of a group of lipid mediators known as the leukotrienes, which induce pro-inflammatory signaling through activation of specific BLT and CysLT receptors. Discussion Leukotriene signaling has been implicated in early lipid retention and foam cell accumulation, as well as in the development of intimal hyperplasia and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, the association of leukotrienes with degradation of extracellular matrix has suggested a role in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Finally, studies of either myocardial or cerebral ischemia and reperfusion indicate that leukotriene signaling in addition may be involved in the development of ischemic injury. Conclusion Both leukotriene synthesis inhibitors and leukotriene receptor antagonists have been suggested to induce beneficial effects at different stages of the atherosclerosis process. PMID:18949546

  12. Sirtinol abrogates late phase of cardiac ischemia preconditioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Safari, Fereshteh; Shekarforoosh, Shahnaz; Hashemi, Tahmineh; Namvar Aghdash, Simin; Fekri, Asefeh; Safari, Fatemeh

    2016-09-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sirtinol, as an inhibitor of sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury following early and late ischemia preconditioning (IPC). Rats underwent sustained ischemia and reperfusion (IR) alone or proceeded by early or late IPC. Sirtinol (S) was administered before IPC. Arrhythmias were evaluated based on the Lambeth model. Infarct size (IS) was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The transcription level of antioxidant-coding genes was assessed by real-time PCR. In early and late IPC groups, IS and the number of arrhythmia were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 vs IR, respectively). In S + early IPC, incidences of arrhythmia and IS were not different compared with the early IPC group. However, in S + late IPC the IS was different from the late IPC group (P < 0.05). In late IPC but not early IPC, transcription levels of catalase (P < 0.01) and Mn-SOD (P < 0.05) increased, although this upregulation was not significant in the S + late IPC group. Our results are consistent with the notion that different mechanisms are responsible for early and late IPC. In addition, sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases may be implicated in late IPC-induced cardioprotection.

  13. Intracellular Signalling in Retinal Ischemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    36) However, vascularization of the RPE is not known to occur in human diseases of photoreceptor degeneration, such as retinitis pigmentosa ...A.C. (1986) Retinitis pigmentosa and retinal neovascularization. Ophthalmology 91, 1599- 1603. Figure la: Control rat retina, 8 weeks of age, central...TITLE (Include Security Classification) Intracellular Signalling in Retinal Ischemia 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Burns, Margaret Sue; Bellhorn, Roy William

  14. Femorofemoral grafts for lower limb ischemia caused by intra-aortic balloon pump.

    PubMed

    Friedell, M L; Alpert, J; Parsonnet, V; Brief, D K; Brener, B J; Goldenkranz, R J; Nozick, J

    1987-01-01

    From January 1975 to December 1985, 1454 patients had an intra-aortic balloon inserted for cardiac assistance. Eighty balloon-dependent patients had severe limb ischemia and required a femorofemoral graft (FFG) (5% of the total group of patients). Twenty-nine of the 80 patients with grafts (or 36%) left the hospital and 28 were followed up for an average of 40 months to determine late complications associated with the crossover grafts. All grafts remained patent. The 28 patients were classified into five groups according to the degree and type of lower limb ischemia. Group I consisted of 13 asymptomatic patients (46%); group II had four (14%) patients with mild claudication caused by preexisting peripheral arteriosclerosis; group III comprised four patients (14%) without preexisting disease but claudication subsequent to the FFG; group IV had five patients with irreversible ischemic sequelae before grafting ending in amputation, foot drop, or persistent paresthesia; and group V consisted of two patients with graft infection (7%). The perioperative mortality rate of the balloon-dependent patients with an FFG (64%) reflects the gravity of the cardiac condition. Placement of an FFG to relieve limb ischemia in these patients is followed by few immediate or late complications in the survivors and any persistent limb changes were related to the prolonged ischemia present before revascularization. Our data suggest that in balloon-dependent patients with limb-threatening ischemia, aggressive use of the FFG is limb-saving, durable, and allows continuation of balloon support.

  15. Relation between serum ischemia-modified albumin levels and rectus abdominis muscle flap viability.

    PubMed

    Livaoğlu, Murat; Arvas, Leyla; Karaçal, Naci; Menteşe, Ahmet; Karahan, S Caner; Sözen, Emrah

    2011-05-01

    Ischemia is a major cause of flap failure in reconstructive surgery. To detect circulatory compromise, many flap monitoring methods are used; however, there is no any optimal standard method. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is an ischemia marker, which has recently been investigated in many studies and largely validated for early detection of ischemia. In this study, we investigated possible relationship between muscle flap viability and serum IMA levels in experimental flap model. The rectus abdominis muscle flap model was used in 18 New Zealand white rabbits. The study was planned using 3 groups. In group 1, the rectus abdominis muscle flap was harvested as a superior pedicle-based flap in which the inferior pedicle was sacrificed. In group 2, the flap was harvested by severing the superior pedicle. Both pedicles were harvested in group 3. Serum IMA levels were measured before the procedure and 1 hour, 6 hours, and 7 days postoperatively and then compared. In group 3, in which the ischemia was evident, and in group 1, IMA levels were significantly high 1 hour postoperatively (P < 0.05). There was no other significant difference in any of the other studied parameters between the groups. In conclusion, IMA can be used as a biochemical parameter for monitoring muscle flap viability.

  16. Classical and remote post-conditioning effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute oxidant kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Najafi, Atefeh; Seifi, Behjat

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of classical and remote ischemic postconditioning (POC) on rat renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury. After right nephrectomy, male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 8). In the IR group, 45 min of left renal artery occlusion was induced followed by 24 h of reperfusion. In the classical POC group, after induction of 45 min ischemia, 4 cycles of 10 s of intermittent ischemia and reperfusion were applied to the kidney before complete restoring of renal blood. In the remote POC group, 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia and reperfusion of left femoral artery were applied after 45 min renal ischemia and right at the time of renal reperfusion. There was a reduction in renal function (increase in blood urea and creatinine) in the IR group. Application of both forms of POC prevented the IR-induced reduction in renal function and histology. There were also significant improvements in kidney oxidative stress status in both POC groups demonstrated by a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and preservation of antioxidant levels comparing to the IR group. We concluded that both methods of POC have protective effects on renal function and histology possibly by a reduction in IR-induced oxidative stress.

  17. The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) Working Group: 15 years of collaborative focal species research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) Working Group formed spontaneously in 2001 as coastal waterbird biologists recognized the potential for American Oystercatchers to serve as focal species for collaborative research and management. Accomplishments over the past 15 years include the establishment of rangewide surveys, color-banding protocols, mark-resight studies, a revision of the Birds of North America species account, and new mechanisms for sharing ideas and data. Collaborations among State, Federal, and private sector scientists, natural resource managers, and dedicated volunteers have provided insights into the biology and conservation of American Oystercatchers in the United States and abroad that would not have been possible without the relationships formed through the Working Group. These accomplishments illustrate how broad collaborative approaches and the engagement of the public are key elements of effective shorebird conservation programs.

  18. Chronic Gastric Ischemia Leading to Gastric Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lundsmith, Emma; Zheng, Matthew; McCue, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension presented with 3 months of diffuse abdominal pain that worsened with meals, weight loss, and dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography revealed findings consistent with chronic gastric ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis. Gastric ischemia eventually led to perforation. We discuss causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of gastric ischemia, an underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28119945

  19. Predictive Modeling of Cardiac Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Gary T.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the Contextual Alarms Management System (CALMS) project is to develop sophisticated models to predict the onset of clinical cardiac ischemia before it occurs. The system will continuously monitor cardiac patients and set off an alarm when they appear about to suffer an ischemic episode. The models take as inputs information from patient history and combine it with continuously updated information extracted from blood pressure, oxygen saturation and ECG lines. Expert system, statistical, neural network and rough set methodologies are then used to forecast the onset of clinical ischemia before it transpires, thus allowing early intervention aimed at preventing morbid complications from occurring. The models will differ from previous attempts by including combinations of continuous and discrete inputs. A commercial medical instrumentation and software company has invested funds in the project with a goal of commercialization of the technology. The end product will be a system that analyzes physiologic parameters and produces an alarm when myocardial ischemia is present. If proven feasible, a CALMS-based system will be added to existing heart monitoring hardware.

  20. Severe Hypokalemia Masquerading Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Daniel Bogdanov; Sardovski, Svetlozar Ivanov; Milanova, Maria Hristova

    2012-01-01

    An advanced degree of body potassium deficit may produce striking changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG). These changes can result in incidental findings on the 12-lead ECG or precipitate potentially life-threatening dysrhythmias. Although usually readily recognized, at times these abnormalities may be confused with myocardial ischemia. The object was to report a case of severe hypokalemia mimicking myocardial ischemia. A 33-year-old, previously healthy man, presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a progressive weakness and chest discomfort. The electrocardiogram showed a marked ST-segment depression in leads II, III, aVF, V1-V6. The initial diagnosis was non ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Echocardiography was normal and troponin levels were within normal limits. A more detailed history revealed that the patient had an episode of acute gastroenteritis with diarrhea and vomiting. Serum chemistries were notable for a potassium concentration of 1,8 mmol per liter. With aggressive electrolyte correction, the ECG abnormalities reverted as potassium levels normalized. Hypokalemia induced ST-segment depression may simulate myocardial ischemia. The differential diagnosis might be difficult, especially in the cases when ST changes are accompanied with chest discomfort.

  1. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  2. The Research & Technology Organisation (RTO) and The NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    The Research & Technology Organisation (RTO) The NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG) NATO - OTAN Briefing to the MSG-079 Workshop...Participating to M&S related events – ITEC, I/ITSEC – SISO International Workshops – National M&S Conferences (IberSIM 09, USMOS 09) … NATO - OTAN NMSG...Deadline for abstracts 30 May 2010 C-BML presence in the NMSG Events NMSG: MS3 M&S Standardisation in NATO OTAN - NATO NMSG M&S Standards Activity

  3. The Hampstead Clinic at work. Discussions in the Diagnostic Profile Research Group.

    PubMed

    Koch, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Minutes of the Hampstead Clinic's Diagnostic Profile Research Group during a fifteen-month period (1964-1965) are reviewed and discussed. A wide range of topics were considered and discussed, with a special focus on the affective life, object relations, and ego function of atypical children in comparison to the early ego functions and differentiation of normal and neurotic children. These lively clinical and theoretical discussions and their implications for therapeutic work with a wide range of children, demonstrate the multifaceted leadership and contributions of Anna Freud as teacher, clinician, and thinker, and of the Hampstead Clinic as a major center for psychoanalytic studies.

  4. Research on students and museums: Looking more closely at the students in school groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Janette

    2004-07-01

    This paper surveys research over the past decade on school group visits to museums. By shifting attention to students' views about field trips, to their socially negotiated learning behaviors during field trips and the interaction between learning in the classroom and in the museum, this research has afforded a deeper understanding of the nature of learning in these contexts. This paper explores these aspects through a look at what the literature tells us about the similarities and differences between how families and students learn in museums, then investigates this further through the voices of adults and students in museums. The impact of the valuing and definition of learning in museums by students and teachers leads to discussion of boundary crossings between museums and schools.

  5. Gischig receives 2011 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Valentin Gischig has been awarded the AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Gischig's thesis is entitled “Kinematics and failure mechanisms of the Randa rock slope instability (Switzerland).” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Gischig received his M.Sc. in geophysics and glaciology at Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, in Switzerland, in 2007. In 2011 he attained a Ph.D. in engineering geology/rock mechanics/landslide analysis under the supervision of Simon Loew, Jeffrey R. Moore, Florian Amann, and Keith F. Evans at ETH Zürich. Gischig is currently conducting postdoctoral research at ETH Zürich. His research interests include landslides, induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems, and coupled processes in rock mechanics.

  6. An update to returning genetic research results to individuals: perspectives of the industry pharmacogenomics working group.

    PubMed

    Prucka, Sandra K; Arnold, Lester J; Brandt, John E; Gilardi, Sandra; Harty, Lea C; Hong, Feng; Malia, Joanne; Pulford, David J

    2015-02-01

    The ease with which genotyping technologies generate tremendous amounts of data on research participants has been well chronicled, a feat that continues to become both faster and cheaper to perform. In parallel to these advances come additional ethical considerations and debates, one of which centers on providing individual research results and incidental findings back to research participants taking part in genetic research efforts. In 2006 the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG) offered some 'Points-to-Consider' on this topic within the context of the drug development process from those who are affiliated to pharmaceutical companies. Today many of these points remain applicable to the discussion but will be expanded upon in this updated viewpoint from the I-PWG. The exploratory nature of pharmacogenomic work in the pharmaceutical industry is discussed to provide context for why these results typically are not best suited for return. Operational challenges unique to this industry which cause barriers to returning this information are also explained.

  7. Building Trust: The History and Ongoing Relationships Amongst DSD Clinicians, Researchers, and Patient Advocacy Groups.

    PubMed

    Lossie, A C; Green, J

    2015-05-01

    Individuals born with differences or disorders of sex development (DSD) have been marginalized by society and the health care system. Standards of care in the mid-20(th) century were based on fixing the child with a DSD, using hormonal and surgical interventions; these treatments and the diagnoses were almost never disclosed to the child, and sometimes they were not disclosed to the parents. This led to secrecy, shame, and stigma. When these children became adults and demanded access to their medical records, the realization of the depth of secrecy led to the formation of activism groups that shook the medical community. Despite precarious beginnings, advocates, health care professionals, and researchers were able to elicit changes in the standard of care. The 2006 Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders called for a multidisciplinary approach to care and questioned the evidence for many of the standard procedures. Standard of care moved from a concealment model to a patient-centered paradigm, and funding agencies put resources into determining the future paths of research on DSD. Recognition of the need to address patient priorities led to changing international standards for including patients in research design. Some challenges that remain include: the findings from the Institute of Medicine that sexual and gender minorities experience poor health outcomes; establishing trust across all parties; developing a common language and creating venues where individuals can participate in dialogue that addresses personal experiences, research design, clinical practices and intervention strategies.

  8. Using focus groups to assess presentation methods in a research seminar.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching.

  9. Placental Growth Factor Administration Abolishes Placental Ischemia-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Frank T; Tan, Adelene Y; Joo, Woo S; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Granger, Joey P

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia because placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and vascular endothelial growth factor are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to 4 groups: normal pregnant or RUPP±infusion of recombinant human PlGF (180 μg/kg per day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than normal pregnant rats. Infusion of recombinant human PlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that recombinant human PlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia.

  10. PLACENTAL GROWTH FACTOR ADMINISTRATION ABOLISHES PLACENTAL ISCHEMIA-INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Spradley, Frank T.; Tan, Adelene Y.; Joo, Woo S.; Daniels, Garrett; Kussie, Paul; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Granger, Joey P.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension. Unfortunately, the most effective treatment is early delivery of the fetus and placenta. Placental ischemia appears central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia as placental ischemia/hypoxia induced in animals by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) or in humans stimulates release of hypertensive placental factors into the maternal circulation. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), which antagonizes and reduces bioavailable vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF), is elevated in RUPP rats and preeclampsia. Although PlGF and VEGF are both natural ligands for sFlt-1, VEGF also has high affinity to VEGFR2 (Flk-1) causing side effects like edema. PlGF is specific for sFlt-1. We tested the hypothesis that PlGF treatment reduces placental ischemia-induced hypertension by antagonizing sFlt-1 without adverse consequences to the mother or fetus. On gestational day 14, rats were randomized to four groups: normal pregnant (NP) or RUPP ± infusion of rhPlGF (180 μg/kg/day; AG31, a purified, recombinant human form of PlGF) for 5 days via intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps. On day 19, mean arterial blood pressure and plasma sFlt-1 were higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in RUPP than NP rats. Infusion of rhPlGF abolished these changes seen with RUPP along with reducing oxidative stress. These data indicate that the increased sFlt-1 and reduced PlGF resulting from placental ischemia contribute to maternal hypertension. Our novel finding that rhPlGF abolishes placental ischemia-induced hypertension, without major adverse consequences, suggests a strong therapeutic potential for this growth factor in preeclampsia. PMID:26831193

  11. Effect of retinoic acid on expression of LINGO-1 and neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hong-yi; Meng, Er-yan; Xia, Yuan-peng; Peng, Hai

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the expression of LINGO-1 after cerebral ischemia, investigate the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the expression of LINGO-1 and GAP-43, and the number of synapses, and to emplore the repressive effect of LINGO-1 on neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. The model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia was established by the modified suture method of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The expression of LINGO-1 was detected by Western blotting and that of GAP-43 by immunohistochemistry. The number of synapses was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The SD rats were divided into three groups: sham operation (sham) group, cerebral ischemia (CI) group and RA treatment (RA) group. The results showed that the expression level of LINGO-1 at 7th day after MCAO in sham, CI and RA groups was 0.266 ± 0.019, 1.215 ± 0.063 and 0.702 ± 0.081, respectively (P<0.01). The number of Gap-43-positive nerve cells at 7th day after MCAO in sham, CI and RA group was 0, 59.08 ± 1.76 and 76.20 ± 3.12 per high power field, respectively (P<0.05). The number of synapses at 7th day after MCAO was 8.42 ± 0.13, 1.74 ± 0.37 and 5.39 ± 0.26 per μm², respectively (P<0.05). It is concluded that LINGO-1 expression is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia, and RA inhibits the expression of LINGO-1, promotes the expression of GAP-43 and increases the number of synapses. It suggests that LINGO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, which may provide an experimenal basis for LINGO-1 antogonist, RA, for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.

  12. Endothelin Receptors, Mitochondria and Neurogenesis in Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neurogenesis is most active during pre-natal development, however, it persists throughout the human lifespan. The putative role of mitochondria in neurogenesis and angiogenesis is gaining importance. Since, ETB receptor mediated neurogenesis and angiogenesis has been identified, the role of these receptors with relevance to mitochondrial functions is of interest. Methods: In addition to work from our laboratory, we undertook an extensive search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature. Specific technical terms such as endothelin, mitochondria and neurogenesis were used to seek out and critically evaluate literature that was relevant. Results: The ET family consists of three isopeptides (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) that produce biological actions by acting on two types of receptors (ETA and ETB). In the central nervous system (CNS) ETA receptors are potent constrictors of the cerebral vasculature and appear to contribute in the causation of cerebral ischemia. ETA receptor antagonists have been found to be effective in animal model of cerebral ischemia; however, clinical studies have shown no efficacy. Mitochondrial functions are critically important for several neural development processes such as neurogenesis, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptic formation. ET appears to impair mitochondrial functions through activation of ETA receptors. On the other hand, blocking ETB receptors has been shown to trigger apoptotic processes by activating intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Mitochondria are important for their role in molecular regulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Stimulation of ETB receptors in the adult ischemic brain has been found to promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis mediated through vascular endothelial growth factor and nerve growth factor. It will be interesting to investigate the effect of ETB receptor stimulation on mitochondrial functions in the CNS following cerebral ischemia. Conclusion: The findings of this

  13. Neuroprotection of Ischemic Preconditioning is Mediated by Thioredoxin 2 in the Hippocampal CA1 Region Following a Subsequent Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Geum-Sil; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Soo Young; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Dae Won; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kang, Il Jun; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2016-04-26

    Preconditioning by brief ischemic episode induces tolerance to a subsequent lethal ischemic insult, and it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species are involved in this phenomenon. Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2), a small protein with redox-regulating function, shows cytoprotective roles against oxidative stress. Here, we had focused on the role of Trx2 in ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative stress followed by a subsequent lethal transient cerebral ischemia. Animals used in this study were randomly assigned to six groups; sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated group, IPC + ischemia-operated group, IPC + auranofin (a TrxR2 inhibitor) + sham-operated group and IPC + auranofin + ischemia-operated group. IPC was subjected to a 2 minutes of sublethal transient ischemia 1 day prior to a 5 minutes of lethal transient ischemia. A significant loss of neurons was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia-operated-group 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion; in the IPC + ischemia-operated-group, pyramidal neurons in the SP were well protected. In the IPC + ischemia-operated-group, Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the SP and its protein level in the CA1 were not significantly changed compared with those in the sham-operated-group after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression, superoxide anion radical ( O2-) production, denatured cytochrome c expression and TUNEL-positive cells in the IPC + ischemia-operated-group were similar to those in the sham-operated-group. Conversely, the treatment of auranofin to the IPC + ischemia-operated-group significantly increased cell damage/death and abolished the IPC-induced effect on Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions. Furthermore, the inhibition of Trx2R nearly cancelled the beneficial effects of IPC on SOD2 expression, O2- production, denatured cytochrome c

  14. Evaluation of TRPM (transient receptor potential melastatin) genes expressions in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Demir, Tuncer; Yumrutas, Onder; Cengiz, Beyhan; Demiryurek, Seniz; Unverdi, Hatice; Kaplan, Davut Sinan; Bayraktar, Recep; Ozkul, Nadide; Bagcı, Cahit

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the expression levels of TRPM1, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, and TRPM8 genes were evaluated in heart tissues after ischemia/reperfusion (IR). For this study, 30 albino male Wistar rats were equally divided into three groups as follows: Group 1: control group (n:10), Group II: ischemia group (ischemia for 60 min) (n:10) and Group III: IR (reperfusion 48 h after ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion for 48 h). The expression levels of the TRPM genes were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. When compared to the ischemia control, the expression levels of TRPM2, TRPM4, and TRPM6 did not change, whereas that of TRPM7 increased. However, TRPM1, TRPM3, TRPM5, and TRPM8 were not expressed in heart tissue. Histopathological analysis of the myocardial tissues showed that the structures that were most damaged were those exposed to IR. The findings showed that there is a positive relationship between TRPM7 expression and myocardial IR injury.

  15. Effect of tramadol on lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion: an experimental study*

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Jahanshahi, Amirali; Sotoudeh, Amir; Jahanshahi, Gholamreza; Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Aslani, Kimia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tramadol has a protective effect against lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty Wistar male rats were allocated to one of two groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ischemia-reperfusion + tramadol (IR+T). The animals were anesthetized with intramuscular injections of ketamine and xylazine (50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively). All of the animals underwent 2-h ischemia by occlusion of the femoral artery and 24-h reperfusion. Prior to the occlusion of the femoral artery, 250 IU heparin were administered via the jugular vein in order to prevent clotting. The rats in the IR+T group were treated with tramadol (20 mg/kg i.v.) immediately before reperfusion. After the reperfusion period, the animals were euthanized with pentobarbital (300 mg/kg i.p.), the lungs were carefully removed, and specimens were properly prepared for histopathological and biochemical studies. RESULTS: Myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the IR group than in the IR+T group (p = 0.001 for both). Histological abnormalities, such as intra-alveolar edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration, were significantly more common in the IR group than in the IR+T group. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that tramadol prevents lung tissue injury after skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:24068264

  16. Sport and Physical Activity in the Lives of Looked-After Children: A "Hidden Group" in Research, Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Looked-after children are arguably one of the most disadvantaged groups in society and constitute a "hidden group" in relation to sport and physical activity research, policy and practice. Research on looked-after children has explored the views of caregivers, practitioners and policy-makers who have often been asked to speak for…

  17. Exploring the Relative Lack of Impact of Research on "Ability Grouping" in England: A Discourse Analytic Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky; Archer, Louise; Hodgen, Jeremy; Pepper, David; Taylor, Becky; Travers, Mary-Claire

    2017-01-01

    Grouping students by "ability" is a topic of long-standing contention in English education policy, research and practice. While policy-makers have frequently advocated the practice as reflecting educational "standards", research has consistently failed to find significant benefits of "ability" grouping; and indeed has…

  18. The Start-Up, Evolution and Impact of a Research Group in a University Developing Its Knowledge Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo; Martins, Rui

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the understudied role of research groups contributing to develop the knowledge base of developing universities in regions lagging behind in human, financial and scientific resources. We analyse the evolution of a research group that, in less than 10 years, achieved worldwide recognition in the field of microelectronics,…

  19. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Physics Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; Schollum, Brendan

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Physics action-research group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with force and motion, suggesting that children's ideas of these concepts might…

  20. Classroom management of situated group learning: A research study of two teaching strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod

    2000-06-01

    Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.

  1. IGORR-1: Proceedings of the first meeting of the international group on research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    Many organizations, in several countries, are planning or implementing new or upgraded research reactor projects, but there has been no organized forum devoted entirely to discussion and exchange of information in this field. Over the past year or so, informal discussions resulted in widespread agreement that such a forum would serve a useful purpose. Accordingly, a proposal to form a group was submitted to the leading organizations known to be involved in projects to build or upgrade reactor facilities. Essentially all agreed to join in the formation of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR) and nominated a senior staff member to serve on its international organizing committee. The first IGORR meeting took place on February 28--March 2, 1990. It was very successful and well attended; some 52 scientists and engineers from 25 organizations in 10 countries participated in 2-1/2 days of open and informative presentations and discussions. Two workshop sessions offered opportunities for more detailed interaction among participants and resulted in identification of common R D needs, sources of data, and planned new facilities. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Xenon protects left ventricular diastolic function during acute ischemia, less than ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Baumert, Jan-H.; Roehl, Anna B.; Funcke, Sandra; Hein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetics modify regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion but their effects on global function in this setting are less clear. Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that xenon would limit global LV dysfunction as caused by acute anterior wall ischemia, comparable to ischemic preconditioning. In an open-chest model under thiopental anesthesia, 30 pigs underwent 60-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. A xenon group (constant inhalation from previous to ischemia through end of reperfusion) was compared to control and ischemic preconditioning. Load-independent measures of diastolic function (end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, time constant of relaxation) and systolic function (end-systolic pressure-volume relation, preload-recruitable stroke work) were determined. Heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, and arterial elastance were recorded. Data were compared in 26 pigs. Ischemia impaired global diastolic but not systolic function in control, which recovered during reperfusion. Xenon limited and preconditioning abolished diastolic dysfunction during ischemia. Arterial pressure decreased during reperfusion while arterial elastance increased. Tachycardia and antero-septal wall edema during reperfusion were observed in all groups. In spite of ischemia of 40% of LV mass, global systolic function was preserved. Deterioration in global diastolic function was limited by xenon and prevented by preconditioning. PMID:27867480

  3. Diffractomery analysis of human and rat erythrocytes deformability under ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugovtsov, Andrei E.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Nikitin, Sergei Y.; Koshelev, Vladimir B.

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the analysis of human and rat red blood cells (RBC) deformability, internal viscosity and yield stress of RBC in norm and ischemia was performed by means of laser diffractometry - a modern technique allowing for measuring the flexibility of RBC, which determines the blood flow parameters in vessels. Ischemic diseases of people and animals are accompanied with deterioration of microrheologic properties of their blood, in particular, with impairing the RBC deformability. Human RBCs were obtained from the blood of healthy individuals and from patients suffering from ischemic diseases. The RBC deformability indices from both groups of individuals were measured. Rat RBCs were obtained from a control group of animals and from a group with experimentally induced ischemia (EII). This animal model is frequently used for studying the response of an organism to ischemia. The effect of semax, a medication that is frequently used for therapeutic treatments of human brain diseases in clinical practice, on RBC deformability was studied with its application in vitro and in vivo. It is shown that in human ischemic patients, the deformability index of RBC was lower than that from healthy individuals. Both in vivo and in vitro applied semax positively influences the impaired deformability properties of RBCs of ischemic rats.

  4. Intracerebral adenosine infusion improves neurological outcome after transient focal ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Hisashi; Mori, Atsushi; Shimada, Jun; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2002-04-01

    Second Institute of New Drug Research, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima, Japan In order to elucidate the role of adenosine in brain ischemia, the possible protective effects of adenosine on ischemic brain injury were investigated in a rat model of brain ischemia both in vitro and in vivo. Exogenous adenosine dose-dependently rescued cortical neuronal cells from injury after glucose deprivation in vitro. Adenosine (1 mM) also significantly reduced hypoglycemia/hypoxia-induced glutamate release from the hippocampal slice. In a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), extracellular adenosine concentration was increased immediately after occlusion, and then returned to the baseline by 30 min after reperfusion. Adenosine infusion through a microdialysis probe into the ipsilateral striatum (1 mM adenosine, 2 microl min(-1), total 4.5 h from the occlusion to 3 h after reperfusion) showed a significant improvement in the neurological outcome, and about 25% reduction of infarct volume, although the effect did not reach statistical significance, compared with the vehicle-treated group at 20 h after 90 min of MCAO. These results demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of adenosine against ischemic brain injury both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the possible therapeutic application of adenosine regulating agents, which inhibit adenosine uptake or metabolism to enhance or maintain extracellular endogenous adenosine levels, for stroke treatment.

  5. EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research group statement and recommendations on endothelial precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Distler, J H W; Allanore, Y; Avouac, J; Giacomelli, R; Guiducci, S; Moritz, F; Akhmetshina, A; Walker, U A; Gabrielli, A; Müller-Ladner, U; Tyndall, A; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Distler, O

    2009-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterised by a progressive microangiopathy that contributes significantly to the morbidity of patients with SSc. Besides insufficient angiogenesis, defective vasculogenesis with altered numbers of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) might also contribute to the vascular pathogenesis of SSc. However, different protocols for isolation, enrichment, culture and quantification of EPCs are currently used, which complicate comparison and interpretation of the results from different studies. The aim of the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) group expert panel was to provide recommendations for standardisation of future research on EPCs. Consensus statements and recommendations were developed in a face to face meeting by an expert panel of the basic science working group of EUSTAR. The findings were: cardiovascular risk factors and medications such as statins should be described in detail. A detailed description of methods considering isolation, culture, enrichment and detection of EPCs should be given. For in vitro culture of EPCs, no protocol has been shown to be superior to another, but coating with laminin and type IV collagen would resemble most closely the situation in vivo. The endothelial phenotype should be confirmed in all in vitro cultures at the end of the culture period. We recommend using CD133, vascular endothelial growth factor type 2 receptor (VEGFR2) and CD34 in combination with a viability marker for quantification of EPCs in the blood. Finally, exact standard operating procedures for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis are given that should be strictly followed. In summary, the EUSTAR recommendations will help to unify EPC research and allow better comparison between the results of different studies.

  6. Glucose metabolism and neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Young; Lee, Kwon Young; Park, Joon Ha; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence exists that glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the brain. Most previous studies have been conducted using focal or hypoxic ischemia models and have focused on changes in GLUT3 expression based on protein and mRNA levels rather than tissue levels. In the present study, we observed change in GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the adult gerbil hippocampus at various time points after 5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region was weak, in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region increased in a time-dependent fashion 24 hours after ischemia, and in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased significantly between 2 and 5 days after ischemia, with high level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity observed in the CA1 region 10 days after ischemia. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), we observed strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the astrocytes. GLUT3 immunoreactivity increased after ischemia and peaked 7 days in the dentate gyrus after ischemia/reperfusion. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and doublecortin (DCX), we observed low level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the differentiated neuroblasts of the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus after ischemia. GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the increase in GLUT3 immunoreactivity may be a compensatory mechanism to modulate glucose level in the hippocampal CA1 region and to promote adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. PMID:27651772

  7. A Synthesis and Application Teaching Approach for Group Projects in an Undergraduate Business Course: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Laurena E.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars proposed it would be possible to enhance group effectiveness and functioning if people could develop a better appreciation of the processes surrounding group development (M. K. Smith, 2005). The action research study explored the facilitation of a synthesis and application teaching approach for group projects in the practice of two…

  8. A Comparison of College Performance of Matched AP® and Non-AP Student Groups. Research Report No. 2009-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to compare the college performance of three groups of Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) students who took the AP Exam and either earned course credit, did not earn course credit, or earned course credit but elected to take the entry-level college course to three groups of Non-AP student groups matched on SAT…

  9. The Role of Self-Perception in Predicting the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methodology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the role that self-perception plays in predicting academic performance of cooperative learning groups in graduate-level research methodology courses. A total of 29 groups (n = 102 students) are examined. A series of multiple regression analyses reveals that the groups attaining the lowest scores on the article critique…

  10. Effect of Self-Perception on Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methodology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the role of self-perception in predicting performance of cooperative learning groups in graduate-level research methodology courses. A total of 29 groups was examined (n = 102 students), ranging in size from 2 to 7. A series of multiple regression analyses revealed that the groups attaining …

  11. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  12. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  13. Neuronal damage using fluoro-jade B histofluorescence and gliosis in the striatum after various durations of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Ohk, Taek Geun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Park, Seung Min; Shin, Bich Na; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Hee Cheol; Lee, Young Joo; Kim, Myong Jo; Kim, Tae Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2012-04-01

    Ischemic damage occurs well in vulnerable regions of the brain, including the hippocampus and striatum. In the present study, we examined neuronal damage/death and glial changes in the striatum 4 days after 5, 10, 15 and 20 min of transient cerebral ischemia using the gerbil. Spontaneous motor activity was increased with the duration time of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). To examine neuronal damage, we used Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining. F-J B positive cells were detected only in the 20 min ischemia-group, not in the other groups. In addition, we examined gliosis of astrocytes and microglia using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti- ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), respectively. In the 5 min ischemia-group, GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes were distinctively increased in number, and the immunoreactivity was stronger than that in the sham-group. In the 10, 15 and 20 min ischemia-groups, GFAP-immunoreactivity was more increased with the duration of I-R. On the other hand, the immunoreactivity and the number of Iba-1-immunoreactive microglia were distinctively increased in the 5 and 10 min ischemia-groups. In the 15 min ischemia-group, cell bodies of microglia were largest, and the immunoreactivity was highest; however, in the 20 min ischemia-group, the immunoreactivity was low compared to the 15 min ischemia-group. The results of western blotting for GFAP and Iba-1 were similar to the immunohistochemical data. In brief, these findings showed that neuronal death could be detected only in the 20 min ischemia-group 4 days after I-R, and the change pattern of astrocytes and microglia were apparently different according to the duration time of I-R.

  14. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    PubMed

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  15. Acetyl-L-carnitine and oxaloacetate in post-treatment against LTP impairment in a rat ischemia model. An in vitro electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, K; Knapp, L; Mészáros, J; Kis, Z; Farkas, T; Vécsei, L; Toldi, J

    2015-06-01

    A high proportion of research relating to cerebral ischemia focuses on neuroprotection. The application of compounds normally present in the organism is popular, because they do not greatly influence the synaptic activity by receptor modulation, and can be administered without serious side effects. Oxaloacetate (OxAc) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) are such favorable endogenous molecules. ALC can exert a protective effect by improving the energy state of the neurons under ischemic conditions. A promising neuroprotective strategy is glutamate scavenging, which can be achieved by the intravenous administration of OxAc. This study involved the possible protective effects of ALC and OxAc in different post-treatment protocols against long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment. Ischemia was induced in rats by 2-vessel occlusion, which led to a decreased LTP relative to the control group. High-dose (200 mg/kg) ALC or OxAc post-treatment resulted in a higher potentiation relative to the 2VO group, but it did not reach the control level, whereas low-dose ALC (100 mg/kg) in combination with OxAc completely restored the LTP function. Many previous studies have concluded that ALC can be protective only as pretreatment. The strategy described here reveals that ALC can also be neuroprotective when utilized as post-treatment against ischemia.

  16. Inhalation of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats - A possible new hydrogen resource for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Chen, Xiao; Zhai, Xiao; Shi, Dongchen; Zhang, Rongjia; Zhi, Xin; Li, Xiaoqun; Gu, Zhengrong; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Liping; Sun, Xuejun; Ji, Fang; Hou, Jiong; Su, Jiacan

    2016-10-29

    Hydrogen is a kind of noble gas with the character to selectively neutralize reactive oxygen species. Former researches proved that low-concentration of hydrogen can be used to ameliorating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hydrogen electrolyzed from water has a hydrogen concentration of 66.7%, which is much higher than that used in previous studies. And water electrolysis is a potential new hydrogen resource for regular clinical use. This study was designed and carried out for the determination of safety and neuroprotective effects of water electrolysis-derived hydrogen. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, and middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to make cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Pathologically, tissues from rats in hydrogen inhalation group showed no significant difference compared with the control group in HE staining pictures. The blood biochemical findings matched the HE staining result. TTC, Nissl, and TUNEL staining showed the significant improvement of infarction volume, neuron morphology, and neuron apoptosis in rat with hydrogen treatment. Biochemically, hydrogen inhalation decreased brain caspase-3, 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cells and inflammation factors concentration. Water electrolysis-derived hydrogen inhalation had neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats with the effect of suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, and it is a possible new hydrogen resource to electrolyze water at the bedside clinically.

  17. Quantifying greenhouse gas mitigation potential of cropland management practices: A review of the GRA croplands research group greenhouse gas network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-national greenhouse gas (GHG) flux networks play a central role facilitating model development and verification while concurrently identifying critical research needs. In 2012, a network was established within Component 1 of the Global Research Alliance (GRA) Croplands Research Group. The ne...

  18. Results of the Survey of RP Group Members: An Element in Strategic Planning for the Research & Planning Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    This document focuses on a stakeholder survey for a research unit. Although it covers just one part of the overall planning process that the Research & Planning (RP) Unit at the California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office, the researchers did survey other groups in the strategic planning effort. The stakeholder survey focused on four…

  19. Expanding the scope of medical mission volunteer groups to include a research component

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serving on volunteer groups undertaking medical mission trips is a common activity for health care professionals and students. Although volunteers hope such work will assist underserved populations, medical mission groups have been criticized for not providing sustainable health services that focus on underlying health problems. As members of a volunteer medical mission group, we performed a bed net indicator study in rural Mali. We undertook this project to demonstrate that volunteers are capable of undertaking small-scale research, the results of which offer locally relevant results useful for disease prevention programs. The results of such projects are potentially sustainable beyond the duration of a mission trip. Methods Volunteers with Medicine for Mali interviewed 108 households in Nana Kenieba, Mali during a routine two-week medical mission trip. Interviewees were asked structured questions about family demographics, use of insecticide treated bed nets the previous evening, as well as about benefits of net use and knowledge of malaria. Survey results were analyzed using logistic regression. Results We found that 43.7% of households had any family member sleep under a bed net the previous evening. Eighty seven percent of households owned at least one ITN and the average household owned 1.95 nets. The regression model showed that paying for a net was significantly correlated with its use, while low perceived mosquito density, obtaining the net from the public sector and more than four years of education in the male head of the household were negatively correlated with net use. These results differ from national Malian data and peer-reviewed studies of bed net use. Conclusions We completed a bed net study that provided results that were specific to our service area. Since these results were dissimilar to peer-reviewed literature and Malian national level data on bed net use, the results will be useful to develop locally specific teaching materials

  20. Recipient twin limb ischemia with postnatal onset.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Roland Spencer

    2007-02-01

    After the occurrence of 3 local cases of limb ischemia in newborn twins, we reviewed the literature to investigate this combination systematically. This review reveals a distinct condition: postnatal onset limb ischemia affecting recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

  1. Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane, Ed.; Beswick, Kim, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This is a record of the proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA). The theme of the conference is "Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice." The theme draws attention to the importance of developing and maintaining links between research and practice and…

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bilateral Common Carotid Arteries Occlusion Model of Cerebral Ischemia in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Pourheydar, Bagher; Azimzadeh, Mostafa; Rezaei Moghadam, Adel; Marzban, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy is the most advanced treatment of the cerebral ischemia, nowadays. Herein, we discuss the neuroprotective effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on rat hippocampal cells following intravenous injection of these cells in an ischemia-reperfusion model. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, sham (surgery without blockage of common carotid arteries), ischemia (common carotid arteries were blocked for 30 min prior to reperfusion), vehicle (7 days after ischemia PBS was injected via the tail vein), and treatment (injections of BMSC into the tail veins 7 days after ischemia). We performed neuromuscular and vestibulomotor function tests to assess behavioral function and, finally, brains were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), anti-Brdu immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining. The ischemia group had severe apoptosis. The group treated with BMSCs had a lower mortality rate and also had significant improvement in functional recovery (P < 0.001). Ischemia-reperfusion for 30 min causes damage and extensive neuronal death in the hippocampus, especially in CA1 and CA3 regions, leading to several functional and neurological deficits. In conclusion, intravenous injection of BMSCs can significantly decrease the number of apoptotic neurons and significantly improve functional recovery, which may be a beneficial treatment method for ischemic injuries. PMID:27847404

  3. DNA SEQUENCING RESEARCH GROUP (DSRG) 2003—A GENERAL SURVEY OF CORE DNA SEQUENCING FACILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Glenis J.; Pershad, Rashmi; Escobar, Helaman; Hawes, John W.; Hunter, Timothy; Jackson-Machelski, Emily; Knudtson, Kevin L.; Robertson, Margaret; Thannhauser, Theodore W.

    2003-01-01

    DNA sequencing core facilities serve as centralized resources within both academic and commercial institutions, providing expertise in the area of DNA analysis. The composition and configuration of these facilities continue to evolve in response to new developments in instrumentation and methodology. The goal of the 2003 DNA Sequencing Research Group (DSRG) survey was to identify recent changes in staffing, funding, instrumentation, services, and customer relations. Responses to 58 survey questions from 30 participants are presented to offer a look at the current typical DNA core sequencing facility. The results from this study will serve as a resource for institutions to benchmark their shared core laboratories, and to give facility directors an opportunity to compare and contrast their respective services and experiences.

  4. Summary of the 2014 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Adam M.; Morris, Niya L.; Cannon, Abigail R.; Shults, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda; Casey, Carol A.; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Persidsky, Yuri; Nixon, Kimberly; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.

    2015-01-01

    On November 21, 2014 the 19th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The meeting focused broadly on inflammatory cell signaling responses in the context of alcohol and alcohol use disorders, and was divided into four plenary sessions focusing on the gut and liver, lung infections, general systemic effects of alcohol, and neuro-inflammation. One common theme amongst many talks was the differential roles of macrophages following both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. Macrophages were shown to play significant roles in regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and viral infection following alcohol exposure in the liver, lungs, adipose tissue, and brain. Other work examined the role of alcohol on disease progression in a variety of pathologies including psoriasis, advanced stage lung disease, and cancer. PMID:26520175

  5. The role of the automation development group in analytical research and development at Dupont Merck.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J C; Green, J S; Hovsepian, P K; Reilly, K L; Short, J A

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory robotics has been firmly established in many non-QC laboratories as a valuable tool for automating pharmaceutical dosage form analysis. Often a single project or product line is used to justify an initial robot purchase thus introducing robotics to the laboratory for the first time. However, to gain widespread acceptance within the laboratory and to justify further investment in robotics, existing robots must be used to develop analyses for existing manual methods as well as new projects beyond the scope off the original purchase justification. The Automation Development Group in Analytical Research and Development is a team of analysts primarily devoted to developing new methods and adapting existing methods for the robot. This team approach developed the expertise and synergy necessary to significantly expand the contribution of robotics to automation in the authors' laboratory.

  6. Outcomes research in cancer symptom management trials: the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Health Services Research and Outcomes (HSRO) Committee aims to guide the study of the interactions among clinical, humanistic, and economic variables that optimize patient outcomes on clinical trials. To guide this work, the RTOG Outcomes Model was developed. Within this framework, measurement focuses primarily on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). In the examples presented, these outcomes have served to better quantify the benefit of one therapy over alternative therapies, as in the example of multimodality therapy for lung cancer, and to add evidence to clinical outcomes when clinical outcomes alone have not been strong enough to change clinical practice, as in the example of palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastasis. The unique contribution to the RTOG of the HSRO Committee is the selection and use of PRO measures that give "voice" to the patient in clinical trials as well as provide data to better manage symptoms.

  7. Effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy on skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Shahzamani, Mehran; Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Moayer, Fariborz; Allahverdi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy has been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion injuries in the skeletal muscle by induction of synthesis of antioxidants and other cytoprotective proteins. Recently, the light-emitting diode (LED) has been used instead of laser for the treatment of various diseases because of its low operational cost compared to the use of a laser. The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of LED therapy at 904 nm on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups of ten rats each as follows: normal (N), ischemia-reperfusion (IR), and ischemia-reperfusion + LED (IR + LED) therapy. Ischemia was induced by right femoral artery clipping for 2 h followed by 2 h of reperfusion. The IR + LED group received LED irradiation on the right gastrocnemius muscle (4 J/cm(2)) immediately and 1 h following blood supply occlusion for 10 min. At the end of trial, the animals were euthanized and the right gastrocnemius muscles were submitted to histological and histochemical analysis. The extent of muscle damage in the IR + LED group was significantly lower than that in the IR group (P < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the IR group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The muscle tissue glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels in the IR group were significantly lower than those in the subjects in other groups. From the histological and histochemical perspective, the LED therapy has alleviated the metabolic injuries in the skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion in this experimental model.

  8. Views of academic and community partners regarding participant protections and research integrity: a pilot focus group study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily E

    2013-02-01

    When community partners have direct interaction with human research participants, it is important to consider potential threats to participant protections and research integrity. Few studies have directly compared the views of academic and community partners. This pilot focus group study explores the views of academic partners (APs) and community partners (CPs) regarding challenges to the protection of research participants and research integrity in community-engaged research (CEnR). Data are analyzed to understand how APs and CPs define and think about ethical problems and how meaning and analysis may differ between the two groups. Findings have implications for the development of research ethics training materials for academic-community research partnerships and IRBs; best practices for CEnR; and future research on ethical issues in CEnR.

  9. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm.

  10. The influence of warm ischemia elimination on kidney injury during transplantation – clinical and molecular study

    PubMed Central

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Chudoba, Paweł; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Mazanowska, Oktawia; Gomółkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Drulis-Fajdasz, Dominika; Myszka, Marta; Lepiesza, Agnieszka; Polak, Wojciech; Boratyńska, Maria; Klinger, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Kidney surface cooling was used during implantation to assess the effect of warm ischemia elimination on allograft function, histological changes and immune-related gene expression. 23 recipients were randomly assigned to a group operated on with kidney surface cooling during implantation (ice bag technique, IBT group), and the other 23 recipients receiving the contralateral kidney from the same donor were operated on with a standard technique. Three consecutive kidney core biopsies were obtained during the transplantation procedure: after organ recovery, after cold ischemia and after reperfusion. Gene expression levels were determined using low-density arrays (Format 32, TaqMan). The IBT group showed a significantly lower rate of detrimental events (delayed graft function and/or acute rejection, p = 0.015) as well as higher glomerular filtration rate on day 14 (p = 0.026). A greater decrease of MMP9 and LCN2 gene expression was seen in the IBT group during total ischemia (p = 0.003 and p = 0.018). Elimination of second warm ischemia reduced the number of detrimental events after kidney transplantation, and thus had influence on the short-term but not long-term allograft function. Surface cooling of the kidney during vascular anastomosis may reduce some detrimental effects of immune activation resulting from both brain death and ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27808277

  11. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  12. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:21838872

  13. The effect of prolonged cold ischemia time on estrogen receptor immunohistochemistry in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxian; Deavers, Michael T; Guo, Ming; Liu, Ping; Gong, Yun; Albarracin, Constance T; Middleton, Lavinia P; Huo, Lei

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate accurate detection of estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast tumors, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists recommends that cold ischemia time be kept under 1 h. However, data to address the upper threshold of cold ischemia time are limited. Although it is our routine practice to keep cold ischemia time under 1 h for breast core biopsy specimens, this is difficult for surgical specimens because of the comprehensive intraoperative assessment performed at our institution. In this retrospective study, we compared ER immunohistochemical staining results in paired breast tumor core biopsy specimens and resection specimens with cold ischemia times ranging from 64 to 357 min in 97 patients. The staining category (≥10%, positive; 1-9%, low positive; <1%, negative) between the core biopsy and resection specimens changed for five patients (5%). The weighted Kappa statistic for ER staining category between the two specimen types was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99), indicating good concordance. The difference in the percentage of ER staining between core biopsy and resection was not significantly associated with cold ischemia time (P=0.81, Spearman correlation). Although we did not observe significant associations between the difference in ER staining in the two specimen types and cold ischemia time after placing the patients in three groups of 'increase', 'decrease' and 'no change' using a difference of 25% in ER staining percentage as the cutoff, a trend of decreased ER staining with cold ischemia time >2 h was detected. No statistically significant association was found between the change of ER staining and the history of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings indicate that prolonged cold ischemia time up to 4 h (97% of our cohort) in the practice setting of our institution has minimal clinical impact on ER immunohistochemical expression in breast tumors.

  14. The Effect of Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time on Estrogen Receptor Immunohistochemistry in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxian; Deavers, Michael T.; Guo, Ming; Liu, Ping; Gong, Yun; Albarracin, Constance T.; Middleton, Lavinia P.; Huo, Lei

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate accurate detection of estrogen receptor expression in breast tumors, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists recommends that cold ischemia time be kept under 1 h. However, data to address the upper threshold of cold ischemia time are limited. While it is our routine practice to keep cold ischemia time under 1 h for breast core biopsy specimens, this is difficult for surgical specimens because of the comprehensive intraoperative assessment performed at our institution. In this retrospective study, we compared estrogen receptor immunohistochemical staining results in paired breast tumor core biopsy specimens and resection specimens with cold ischemia times ranging from 64 to 357 min in 97 patients. The staining category (≥10%, positive; 1-9%, low positive; <1%, negative) between the core biopsy and resection specimens changed for 5 patients (5%). The weighted Kappa statistic for estrogen receptor staining category between the two specimen types was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99), indicating good concordance. The difference in the percentage of estrogen receptor staining between core biopsy and resection was not significantly associated with cold ischemia time (P = 0.81, Spearman correlation). Although we did not observe significant associations between the difference in estrogen receptor staining in the two specimen types and cold ischemia time after placing the patients in three groups of ‘increase’, ‘decrease’ and ‘no change’ using a difference of 25% in estrogen receptor staining percentage as the cutoff, a trend of decreased estrogen receptor staining with cold ischemia time > 2 h was detected. No statistically significant association was found between the change of estrogen receptor staining and the history of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings indicate that prolonged cold ischemia time up to 4 h (97% of our cohort) in the practice setting of our institution has minimal clinical impact

  15. Brain ischemia changes the long term response to antidepressant drugs in mice.

    PubMed

    Deplanque, Dominique; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Bordet, Régis

    2011-06-01

    Depression is a frequent but often unrecognized and under treated complication of stroke that has scarcely been investigated in animal models particularly regarding treatment issues. Using the Forced Swim Test (FST) and testing spontaneous motor activity, we studied whether a transient focal cerebral ischemia modifies mice behaviours and antidepressant drug effects. We first evaluated whether FST realized 2 days or 1 week after brain reperfusion may be routinely used in male Swiss mice previously submitted to a 15, 30 or 60-min transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. We then evaluated behavioural changes up to 5 weeks in mice previously submitted to a 15-min ischemia. Behaviours according to the administration of imipramine or fluvoxamine at 1 and 5 weeks after a 15-min ischemia were finally evaluated. Transient ischemia was associated with a decrease in immobility in the FST performed 2 days after reperfusion while no changes were observed in 1 and 5 weeks post-ischemia groups. Changes were related neither to brain ischemia duration nor to infarct volume. At both 1 and 5 weeks after brain ischemia, a dramatic decrease in the antidepressant response to imipramine related to a decrease in climbing behaviour was observed while the effects of fluvoxamine were improved through an increase in both climbing and swimming. Behaviours in the FST were unrelated to any spontaneous motor activity changes. Responses to anti-depressant drugs are strongly modified in mice previously submitted to brain ischemia. Present results underline that not all antidepressant drugs are appropriate after ischemic stroke.

  16. Delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after forebrain ischemia in hyperglycemic gerbils: amelioration by indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Kondo, F; Kondo, Y; Makino, H; Ogawa, N

    2000-01-17

    Hyperglycemia worsens ischemic-induced neuronal damage. Many reports argue the delayed neuronal cell death (DND) after forebrain ischemia in gerbils is due to apoptosis. We examined the effects of hyperglycemia and indomethacin on DND after forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Complete occlusion of both common carotid arteries was performed for 3.5 min followed by declamping and reperfusion. Blood glucose levels were maintained at 25-30 mmol/1 for 24 h after reperfusion in the hyperglycemic groups. We examined morphological changes consistent with DND using Nissel-stained sections and DNA fragmentation using TUNEL staining, at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120 h, and 7 days after reperfusion. DND was noted 96-120 h after ischemia in normoglycemic group. Hyperglycemia enhanced the development of DND at an earlier stage (48-84 h after ischemia). TUNEL positive neurons were detected 72-108 h after reperfusion in normoglycemic group, but very few TUNEL positive neurons were detected in hyperglycemic group at 36-48 h. Indomethacin reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in normoglycemia and completely inhibited the appearance of TUNEL-positive cells under hyperglycemia. The number of viable neurons at 7 days after ischemia was markedly higher in indomethacin-treated groups than vehicle-treated group. Our results indicate that hyperglycemia worsens DND after forebrain ischemia in gerbils but such process is not associated with DNA fragmentation. Our results also showed that indomethacin provides a neuroprotective effect in normo- and hyperglycemic conditions.

  17. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  18. Effect of dexmedetomidine on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, LILI; LI, LI; SHEN, JINMEI; QI, ZEYOU; GUO, LIANG

    2014-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a specific selective α2-adrenergic agonist, does not only have the characteristics of being a sedative and analgesic, but also exhibits a protective role in brain ischemia-reperfusion injury and inhibits the inflammation in animals with sepsis. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine is capable of attenuating rat pulmonary damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury, which is a type of acute sterile lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into six groups: The sham-operated (sham) group, the lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, intravenous injection of dexmedetomidine 2.5 μg/kg/h (Dex2.5) or 5 μg/kg/h (Dex5) for 1 h prior to ischemia, combination of α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine prior to dexmedetomidine pre-treatment (Dex+Yoh) and pre-administration of yohimbine alone (Yoh) prior to ischemia. Lung injury was assessed by the histopathological changes, arterial blood gas, wet/dry (w/d) weight ratio and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of the lung. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) mRNA in the lung were determined by quantitative PCR, and phosphorylated levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were determined by western blotting. Pre-treatment with dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the lung injury, w/d weight ratio and MPO activity, and decreased the concentration of TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in BALF compared with the I/R group. The expression of TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA and the levels of phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 in the lung tissue were markedly downregulated by intravenous injection of dexmedetomidne for 1 h prior to lung I/R. The protective effects of dexmedetomidine

  19. [Tonic pupil caused by ischemia].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H

    1989-01-01

    Tonic pupil is usually an idiopathic condition. In some cases, the cause of the ciliary ganglion lesion leading to tonic pupils is obvious. Rarely ischemia causes a lesion of the ciliary ganglion or the short ciliary nerves due to the good blood supply of the ciliary ganglion. Only two cases of tonic pupils in the course of giant cell arteritis are mentioned in the literature, but tonic pupils are probably much more common with this disease. Five cases are demonstrated here. All had associated ischemic optic neuropathy, and stagnation of the blood flow in the supratrochlear artery could be demonstrated in two cases by Doppler sonography. Tonic pupils may also occur when an oclusion of the internal carotid artery resolves, probably because of transient stasis of the orbital blood flow. In another case, tonic pupils were associated with choroidal ischemia (proved by video fluorescent angiography) of unknown origin. The diagnosis of tonic pupils was made by pharmacological testing for cholinergic hypersensitivity with 0.1% pilocarpine.

  20. Metabolic Adaptation to Muscle Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, Marco E.; Coon, Jennifer E.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Saidel, Gerald M.; Stanley, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Although all tissues in the body can adapt to varying physiological/pathological conditions, muscle is the most adaptable. To understand the significance of cellular events and their role in controlling metabolic adaptations in complex physiological systems, it is necessary to link cellular and system levels by means of mechanistic computational models. The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the regulation of energy metabolism during skeletal/cardiac muscle ischemia by combining in vivo experiments and quantitative models of metabolism. Our main focus is to investigate factors affecting lactate metabolism (e.g., NADH/NAD) and the inter-regulation between carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism during a reduction in regional blood flow. A mechanistic mathematical model of energy metabolism has been developed to link cellular metabolic processes and their control mechanisms to tissue (skeletal muscle) and organ (heart) physiological responses. We applied this model to simulate the relationship between tissue oxygenation, redox state, and lactate metabolism in skeletal muscle. The model was validated using human data from published occlusion studies. Currently, we are investigating the difference in the responses to sudden vs. gradual onset ischemia in swine by combining in vivo experimental studies with computational models of myocardial energy metabolism during normal and ischemic conditions.

  1. The effect of ischemic preconditioning on the recovery of skeletal muscle following tourniquet ischemia.

    PubMed

    Whetzel, T P; Stevenson, T R; Sharman, R B; Carlsen, R C

    1997-12-01

    It has been well documented that ischemic preconditioning limits ischemic-reperfusion injury in cardiac muscle, but the ability of ischemic preconditioning to limit skeletal muscle injury is less clear. Previous reports have emphasized the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning on skeletal muscle structure and capillary perfusion but have not evaluated muscle function. We investigated the morphologic and functional consequences of ischemic preconditioning, followed by a 2-hour period of tourniquet ischemia on muscles in the rat hindlimb. The 2-hour ischemia was imposed without preconditioning, or was preceded by three brief (10 minutes on/10 minutes off) preischemic conditioning intervals. We compared muscle morphology, isometric contractile function, and muscle fatigue properties in predominantly fast-twitch, tibialis anterior muscles 3 (n = 8) and 7 (n = 8) days after ischemia-reperfusion. Two hours of ischemia, followed by reperfusion, results in a 20 percent reduction of muscle mass (p < 0.05) and a 33 percent reduction in tetanic tension (p < 0.05) when compared with controls (n = 8) at 3 days. The same protocol, when preceded by ischemic preconditioning, results in similar decreases in muscle mass and contractile function. Neuromuscular transmission was also impaired in both ischemic groups 7 days after ischemia. Nerve-evoked maximum tetanic tension was 69 percent of the tension produced by direct muscle stimulation in the ischemia group and 65 percent of direct tension in the ischemic preconditioning/ischemia group. In summary, ischemic preconditioning, using the same protocol reported to be effective in limiting infarct size in porcine muscle, had no significant benefit in limiting injury or improving recovery in the ischemic rat tibialis anterior. The value of ischemic preconditioning in reducing imposed ischemic-reperfusion-induced functional deficits in skeletal muscle remains to be demonstrated.

  2. Microvascular flow distribution and transcapillary diffusion at the forefoot in patients with peripheral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jünger, M; Frey-Schnewlin, G; Bollinger, A

    1989-02-01

    Transcapillary diffusion of Na-fluorescein injected by the intravenous route was measured by a videomicroscopy system in the skin of the dorsum of the forefoot in healthy controls (n = 21) and in patients with moderate (n = 35) and severe (n = 29) ischemia secondary to lower extremity arterial occlusive disease. Systolic ankle blood pressure and transcutaneous PO2 at the forefoot were significantly decreased in both groups of patients according to the severity of ischemic disease (p less than 0.001). The difference of the mean filling times between the first and last capillaries was used as a parameter for inhomogenous microvascular perfusion. It was significantly increased in moderate and severe ischemia (p less than 0.05). Transcapillary diffusion measured with a large window densitometer in a skin area of 2.8 mm2 was significantly enhanced in both groups of patients. The increase was more pronounced in the patients with severe ischemia (p less than 0.001) than in those with moderate ischemia (p less than 0.05). Among the patients with severe ischemia the diabetics exhibited significantly higher mean values of pericapillary fluorescence light intensity than the non-diabetics (p less than 0.001). At high magnification (550 times) distinct sites of increased transcapillary diffusion were detected in both groups of patients. They were most often localized at the apex of the capillary loops ("candle light phenomenon") and were more frequent in patients with severe than with moderate ischemia. In conclusion microvascular blood flow distribution is inhomogeneous and transcapillary diffusion increases at the level of single capillaries and skin areas in patients with moderate and especially severe foot ischemia.

  3. Sevoflurane pretreatment enhance HIF-2α expression in mice after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Beijie; Zhan, Qionghui; Chen, Jue; Xu, Huan; He, Zhenzhou

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury often occurs, which is one of the major causes of acute kidney injury, thus increasing in-hospital mortality. HIF-2α has a protective role against ischemia of the kidney. Renal ischemia/reperfusion under sevoflurane anesthesia resulted in drastic improvements in renal function. We hypothesized that underlying mechanism responsible for renal protection from sevoflurane pretreatment involves the upregulation of HIF-2α. Sevoflurane pretreatment were performed on WT and HIF-2α knockout mice before renal ischemia/reperfusion. Levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) were determined with a standard clinical automatic analyzer. The left kidneys were taken for morphological examination. Expression of HIF-2α in kidney tissue was examined by western blotting. In WT mice, group I/R injury had significantly higher BUN and Cr levels than group control, whereas group I/R + Sev had significantly lower BUN and Cr levels than group I/R injury. Renal HIF-2α expression levels were significantly higher in WT mice of group I/R + Sev than group control and group I/R. In HIF-2α-/- mice, group I/R + Sev showed much higher BUN and Cr levels and severer histological damage than group I/R and group control. Renal HIF-2α expression levels were significantly higher in WT mice of group I/R + Sev than group control and group I/R. Our findings suggested that HIF-2α might contribute to the beneficial effect of sevoflurane in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26722509

  4. Ellagic acid ameliorates lung injury after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Böyük, Abdullah; Önder, Akin; Kapan, Murat; Gümüş, Metehan; Fιrat, Uğur; Başaralι, Mustafa Kemal; Alp, Harun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with ellagic acid (EA) on lung injury after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury using biochemical and histopatological approaches. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were divided into four groups as control, control + EA, I/R, and I/R + EA. The control and control + EA groups were also anesthetized and subjected to laparotomy, but without clamp application. The control + EA and I/R + EA groups were given EA (85 mg/kg) orally prior to experiment. The I/R and I/R + EA groups underwent 30 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion. In all groups, serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. TAC, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in lung tissue were measured. Lung tissue histopathology was also evaluated by light microscopy. Results: TAC levels were higher in control, EA, and I/R + EA groups while TOS, OSI, and MDA levels were lower in these groups compared with I/R group. Serum MDA levels were significantly higher in I/R + EA group than that of control group. Lung tissue TAC levels were lower in I/R + EA group while OSI values were higher in that groups compared with EA group. Histological tissue damage was milder in the EA treatment group than in the I/R group. Conclusion: These results suggest that EA treatment protected the rats lung tissue against intestinal I/R injury. PMID:21969793

  5. 42nd Congress of the "Groupe Français des Pesticides" (French Group of Pesticide research--GFP 2012) ENSIP, Poitiers, France, 30 May-1 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Jean-François; Couderchet, Michel; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    The 42nd congress of the "Groupe Français des Pesticides" (French Group of Pesticide research--GFP 2012) took place 30 May-1 June at the "École Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Poitiers" (ENSIP), a French generalist engineering grande école in Poitiers. Its focus is on the protection of the environment and is part of the University of Poitiers, one of the oldest universities in Europe. GFP is an annual conference where the latest developments in the field of pesticide research are presented. The topics most commonly discussed mainly concern environmental quality, monitoring, fate, and transfer of pesticides in the environment or risks associated with use of pesticides, but every year a key theme sets the tone. For this 42nd edition, the theme "Innovative strategies for plant protection" was retained.

  6. The effect of cannabidiol on ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias: the role of adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonca, Ersöz; Darıcı, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling. As the adenosine A1 receptor activation confers protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced ventricular arrhythmias, we hypothesized that CBD may have antiarrhythmic effect through the activation of adenosine A1 receptor. Cannabidiol has recently been shown to suppress ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to research the effect of CBD on the incidence and the duration of I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias and to investigate the role of adenosine A1 receptor activation in the possible antiarrhythmic effect of CBD. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was induced in anesthetized male rats by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 minutes and by loosening the bond at the coronary artery, respectively. Cannabidiol alone was given in a dose of 50 µg/kg, 10 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion and coadministrated with adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) in a dose of 100 µg/kg, 15 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion to investigate whether the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD is modified by the activation of adenosine A1 receptors. The experimental groups were as follows: (1) vehicle control (n = 10), (2) CBD (n = 9), (3) DPCPX (n = 7), and (4) CBD + DPCPX group (n = 7). Cannabidiol treatment significantly decreased the incidence and the duration of ventricular tachycardia, total length of arrhythmias, and the arrhythmia scores compared to control during the reperfusion period. The DPCPX treatment alone did not affect the incidence and the duration of any type of arrhythmias. However, DPCPX aborted the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD when it was combined with it. The present results demonstrated that CBD has an antiarrhythmic effect against I/R-induced arrhythmias, and the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD may be mediated through the activation of adenosine

  7. Neuronal damage using fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence and gliosis in the gerbil septum submitted to various durations of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Jae-Chul; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Dae Hwan; Cho, Geum-Sil; Yan, Bing Chun; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Hui Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2013-10-01

    The extent of neuronal damage/death in some brain regions is highly correlated to duration time of transient ischemia. In the present study, we carried out neuronal degeneration/death and glial changes in the septum 4 days after 5, 10, 15, and 20 min of transient cerebral ischemia using gerbils. To examine neuronal damage, Fluoro-Jade B (F-J B, a marker for neuronal degeneration) histofluorescence staining was used. F-J B positive ((+)) cells were detected in the septo-hippocampal nucleus (SHN) of the septum only in the 20 min ischemia-group; the mean number of F-J B(+) neurons was 14.9 ± 2.5/400 μm(2) in a section. Gliosis of astrocytes and microglia was examined using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), respectively. In all the ischemia-groups, GFAP- and Iba-1-immunoreactive astrocytes and microglia, respectively, were increased in number, and apparently tended to be increased in their immunoreactivity. Especially, in the 20 min ischemia-group, the number and immunoreactivity of Iba-immunoreactive microglia was highest and strongest in the ischemic SHN 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion. In brief, our findings showed that neuronal damage/death in the SHN occurred and gliosis was apparently increased in the 20 min ischemia-group at 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion.

  8. Psychological research online: report of Board of Scientific Affairs' Advisory Group on the Conduct of Research on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Robert; Olson, Judith; Banaji, Mahzarin; Bruckman, Amy; Cohen, Jeffrey; Couper, Mick

    2004-01-01

    As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research. Psychologists can observe new or rare phenomena online and can do research on traditional psychological topics more efficiently, enabling them to expand the scale and scope of their research. Yet these opportunities entail risk both to research quality and to human subjects. Internet research is inherently no more risky than traditional observational, survey, or experimental methods. Yet the risks and safeguards against them will differ from those characterizing traditional research and will themselves change over time. This article describes some benefits and challenges of conducting psychological research via the Internet and offers recommendations to both researchers and institutional review boards for dealing with them. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  9. Protective approaches against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchi; Liu, Min; Sun, Rongrong; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Peiying

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is the leading cause for the events of cardiovascular disease, and is considered as a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary occlusion. The myocardial damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury constitutes the primary pathological manifestation of coronary artery disease. It results from the interaction between the substances that accumulate during ischemia and those that are delivered on reperfusion. The level of this damage can range from a small insult resulting in limited myocardial damage to a large injury culminating in myocyte death. Importantly, major ischemia-reperfusion injury to the heart can result in permanent disability or death. Given the worldwide prevalence of coronary artery disease, developing a strategy to provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage is of great importance. Currently, the treatment of reperfusion injury following ischemia is primarily supportive, since no specific target-oriented therapy has been validated thus far. Nevertheless, therapeutic approaches to protect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury remain an active area of investigation given the detrimental effects of this phenomenon. PMID:28101167

  10. Acute mesenteric ischemia in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Gurkan; Aydinli, Bulent; Atamanalp, S Selcuk; Yildirgan, M Ilhan; Ozoğul, Bünyami; Kısaoğlu, Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is commonly seen in old patients. This study was undertaken to show that mesenteric ischemia might be seen in individuals under 40 years of age and that its diagnosis is challenging. Twenty-six patients with acute mesenteric ischemia under the age of 40 were studied. The main symptom on admission was abdominal pain. Symptom duration varied between 12 h and 5 days. The medical history of the patients revealed that 9 had no previous diseases. Other 17 had predisposing factors in the first evaluation. None of the patients had any history of narcotic or drug abuse. Ten patients presented with signs and symptoms of sepsis and septic shock. Preoperative diagnosis was acute intestinal ischemia only in 6 patients. Preoperatively, all the patients had intestinal or colonic ischemia and necrosis; one had additional ischemia of the liver, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas. Six patients had massive intestinal necrosis. The overall postoperative complication and overall mortality rates were 61.5 and 26.9 %, respectively. Complications and mortality were determined to be associated with previous pulmonary disease, acidosis, presence of septic shock, acute renal failure, extent of the ischemia and extent of resection, second look operations, previous cardiac events, and the kind of affected bowel (colon involvement).

  11. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p<0.05). The median correlation was 0.06. A test for whether the distribution of p values deviated from the null distribution under no association was not significant (p>0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  12. Lack of chlorpromazine effect on skeletal muscle metabolism after ischemia and a short reperfusion period.

    PubMed

    Piccinato, Carlos E; Salles Roselino, José E; Massuda, Carlos A; Cherri, Jesualdo

    2004-01-01

    The great resistance of muscle to ischemia was used to study blood flow-dependent phenomena produced by anesthetic drugs in this condition. A short reperfusion period was used in order to favor metabolic changes indicative of an effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on blood flow. Gracilis muscles of dogs were submitted to 5 h of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. CPZ-treated animals were injected I.V. (2 mg/kg) 10 min before the beginning of ischemia. Biopsies provided the material for tissue measurements. Lactate content and pH were determined in blood samples collected from a muscle efferent vein. In both the CPZ-treated and nontreated groups, ischemia induced a decline in muscle glycogen content, with a corresponding increase in muscle lactate and a decrease in mitochondrial respiratory control ratio. After 30 min of reperfusion, tissue levels of lactate did not attain preischemic values but showed a clear decline in the two experimental groups, evidencing the reversible state of the muscle. All other metabolic parameters remained unchanged. Mitochondrial respiratory control remained functional during ischemia and reperfusion. Blood pH displayed similar changes in both groups. There was no metabolic indication that the drug affected blood flow during early reperfusion and/or of a greater sensitivity of muscle endothelial cells to anesthetic drugs.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of Withania coagulans root extract on CA1 hippocampus following cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh- Sagheb, Hamidreza; Valizadeh, Moharram; Doostkami, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxygen free radicals may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion damage. The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients, as well as complex plant extracts, on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries are well known. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydro-alcoholic root extract of Withania coagulans on CA1 hippocampus oxidative damages following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in five groups: control, sham operated, Ischemia/ Reperfiusion (IR), and Withania Coagulans Extract (WCE) 500 and 1000mg/kg + I/R groups. Ischemia was induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min after 30 days of WCE administration. Three days after, the animals were sacrificed, their brains were fixed for histological analysis (NISSL and TUNEL staining) and some samples were prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in hippocampus. Results: WCE showed neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in MDA level and increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activity in pretreated groups as compared to I/R groups (p<0.001). The number of intact neurons was increased while the number of TUNEL positive neurons in CA1 hippocampal region in pretreated groups were decreased as compared to I/R group (p<0.001). Conclusion: WCE showed potent neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced injuries caused by global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion in rats probably by radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:27516980

  14. A Model of Research Group Microclimate: Environmental and Cultural Factors Affecting the Experiences of Overseas Research Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Researchers from outside the European Union represent an increasing proportion of the UK doctoral student body. However, relatively little research exists on their experience from their own perspective. This research, based on interviews with students from a range of countries and scientific and engineering disciplines, seeks to address that…

  15. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans.

  16. Effect of ATP-dependent channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia change depending on age and gender.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Ömer; Kaya, Salih Tunç; Yasar, Selçuk; Orallar, Hayriye

    2013-10-01

    The number of ATP-dependent potassium channels in myocardial cells has been previously shown to change depending on gender and age. Different effects of the ATP-dependent potassium channel blocker, glybenclamide and ATP-dependent potassium channel opener, pinacidil on ischemia or reperfusion-induced arrhythmia observed in various research might depend on different ages and genders of the animals used. The aim of this study is to research the effect of ATP-dependent potassium channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia in animals of different ages and genders. Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages and genders were used in this study. Ischemia was produced by the ligation of the left coronary artery for 30 min. Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, infarct area and blood glucose were determined during the 30 min of ischemia. An arrhythmia score from an ECG recorded during 30 min of ischemia was determined by examining the duration and type of arrhythmia. Different effects of glybenclamide and pinacidil on the arrhythmias were observed in male and female young and middle-age rats. Pinacidil decreased the infarct zone in younger female rats, but differences in the type and length of ischemia-induced arrhythmias between females and males disappeared in older age. The results of this study showed that the effect of ATP-dependent potassium channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia changed due to the age and gender of rats.

  17. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  18. 76 FR 39902 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Axis Group, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 31, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open Axis Group, Inc. (``Open Axis'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  19. 76 FR 58540 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Axis Group, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on August 22, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open Axis Group, Inc. (``Open Axis'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General...

  20. 76 FR 23838 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Axis Group, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 22, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open Axis Group, Inc. (``Open Axis'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General...

  1. Exploring a Method for Transference Assessment in Group Therapy Using the Social Relations Model: Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Rayna D.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how group clinicians and researchers might use a methodological and statistical model called the Social Relations Model (SRM) to circumvent common challenges to studying transference in groups. In particular, it examines how this method of transference assessment deals with the distortion aspect of transference and explains…

  2. Investigating the potential for ethnic group harm in collaborative genomics research in Africa: is ethnic stigmatisation likely?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jantina; Jallow, Muminatou; Williams, Thomas N; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    A common assumption in genomics research is that the use of ethnic categories has the potential to lead to ethnic stigmatisation - particularly when the research is done on minority populations. Yet few empirical studies have sought to investigate the relation between genomics and stigma, and fewer still with a focus on Africa. In this paper, we investigate the potential for genomics research to lead to harms to ethnic groups. We carried out 49 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with stakeholders in a current medical genomics research project in Africa, MalariaGEN. Interviews were conducted with MalariaGEN researchers, fieldworkers, members of three ethics committees who reviewed MalariaGEN project proposals, and with members of the two funding bodies providing support to the MalariaGEN project. Interviews were conducted in Kenya, The Gambia and the UK between June 2008 and October 2009. They covered a range of aspects relating to the use of ethnicity in the genomics project, including views on adverse effects of the inclusion of ethnicity in such research. Drawing on the empirical data, we argue that the risk of harm to ethnic groups is likely to be more acute in specific types of genomics research. We develop a typology of research questions and projects that carry a greater risk of harm to the populations included in genomics research. We conclude that the potential of generating harm to ethnic groups in genomics research is present if research includes populations that are already stigmatised or discriminated against, or where the research investigates questions with particular normative implications. We identify a clear need for genomics researchers to take account of the social context of the work they are proposing to do, including understanding the local realities and relations between ethnic groups, and whether diseases are already stigmatised.

  3. 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid mitigates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Juan; Yang, Li-nan; Wu, Yan-yun; Li, Bao-hua; Weng, Sheng-mei; Hu, Chun-lan; Han, Yong-ling

    2016-01-01

    13-Methyltetradecanoic acid can stabilize cell membrane and have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. Previous studies mainly focused on peripheral nerve injury, but seldom on the central nervous system. We investigated whether these properties of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid have a neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and detected the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study established rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion injury by ischemia for 2 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours. At the beginning of reperfusion, 13-methyltetradecanoic acid 10, 40 or 80 mg/kg was injected into the tail vein. Results found that various doses of 13-methyltetradecanoic acid effectively reduced infarct volume, mitigate cerebral edema, and increased the mRNA and protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor at 24 hours of reperfusion. The effect was most significant in the 13-methyltetradecanoic acid 40 and 80 mg/kg groups. The findings suggest that 13-methyltetradecanoic acid can relieve focal ischemia/reperfusion injury immediately after reperfusion, stimulate the upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:27857745

  4. Effect of carnosine on rats under experimental brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gallant, S; Kukley, M; Stvolinsky, S; Bulygina, E; Boldyrev, A

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary carnosine on the behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats under experimental ischemia was studied. Carnosine was shown to improve the animals orientation and learning in "Open Field" and "T-Maze" tests, and this effect was accompanied with an increase in glutamate binding to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in brain synaptosomes. Long-term brain ischemia induced by both sides' occlusion of common carotid arteries resulted in 55% mortality of experimental rats, and those who survived were characterized by partial suppression of orientation in T-maze. In the group of rats treated with carnosine, mortality after ischemic attack was decreased (from 55% to 17%) and most of the learning parameters were kept at the pre-ischemic level. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) activity in brain of the carnosine treated rats was not changed by ischemia significantly (compared to that of ischemic untreated rats) but NMDA binding to brain synaptosomal membranes being increased by ischemic attack was significantly suppressed and reached the level characteristic of normal brain. The suggestion was made that carnosine possesses a dual effect on NMDA receptors resulting in increase in their amount after long-term treatment but decrease the capacity to bind NMDA after ischemic attack.

  5. Multicentre patch testing with compositae mix by the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Hansson, Christer; Inerot, Annica; Lidén, Carola; Matura, Mihaly; Stenberg, Berndt; Möller, Halvor; Bruze, Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone mix detects contact allergy to these compounds present in the plant family Asteraceae. This marker is present in many baseline series. An additional marker is Compositae mix, which is not present in many baseline series. To investigate whether this allergen should be inserted into the Swedish baseline series, six dermatology centres representing the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group included Compositae mix into their baseline series for 1.5 years. Of 2818 patients tested, 31 (1.1%) reacted to Compositae mix and 26 (0.9%) to Sesquiterpene lactone mix. Active sensitization to Compositae mix was noted in two cases. Only 0.4% of Asteraceae contact allergy cases would have been missed if Compositae mix had not been tested, a frequency too low to merit its inclusion in the baseline series. Due to obvious geographical differences in frequency in frequency of simultaneous allergic reactions to Compositae mix and Sesquiterpene lactone mix, the question as to whether specific baseline series (including Compositae mix or not as a "tail" substance) should be used in the different centres must be addressed. Another option could be to remove Sesquiterpene lactone mix from the baseline series and substitute it with Compositae mix.

  6. 76 FR 5610 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research Production Act of 1993--Open Axis... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open Axis Group, Inc. (``Open Axis'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the...

  7. Having Friends--They Help You when You Are Stuck from Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the lived experiences and friendships of a small group of people with a learning disability who live without support in one of the most deprived areas in the UK. The findings are from an inclusive research project, that was named "Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet" and the participants who researched their own…

  8. Using Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Research: Identifying and Understanding Non-Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Harris, Lois R.; O'Quin, Chrissie; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) allows researchers to determine whether a research inventory elicits similar response patterns across samples. If statistical equivalence in responding is found, then scale score comparisons become possible and samples can be said to be from the same population. This paper illustrates the use of…

  9. Time course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative modification of neural proteins in rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lehotský, J; Murín, R; Strapková, A; Uríková, A; Tatarková, Z; Kaplán, P

    2004-12-01

    Time course of oxidative modification of forebrain neural proteins was investigated in the rat model of global and partial cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Animals were subjected to 4-vessel occlusion for 15 min (global ischemia). After the end of ischemia and at different reperfusion times (2, 24 and 48 h), lipoperoxidation-dependent and direct oxidative modification neural protein markers were measured in the forebrain total membrane fraction (tissue homogenate). Ischemia itself causes significant changes only in levels of tryptophan and bityrosine fluorescence when compared to controls. All tested parameters of protein modification altered significantly and were maximal at later reperfusion stage. Content of carbonyl group in re-flow period steadily increased and culminated at 48 h of reperfusion. The highest increase in the fluorescence of bityrosines was detected after 24 h of reperfusion and was statistically significant to both sham operated and ischemic groups. The changes in fluorescence intensity of tryptophan decreased during a reperfusion time dependent manner. Formation of lysine conjugates with lipoperoxidation end-products significantly increased only at later stages of reperfusion. Total forebrain membranes from animals subjected to 3-vessel occlusion model to 15 min (partial ischemia) show no altered content of oxidatively modified proteins compared to controls. Restoration of blood flow for 24 h significantly decreased only fluorescence of aromatic tryptophan. Partial forebrain ischemia/reperfusion resulted in no detectable significant changes in oxidative products formation in extracerebral tissues (liver and kidney) homogenates. Our results suggest that global ischemia/reperfusion initiates both the lipoperoxidation-dependent and direct oxidative modifications of neural proteins. The findings support the view that spatial and temporal injury at later stages of ischemic insult at least partially involves oxidative stress-induced amino acid

  10. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A. )

    1990-10-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01).

  11. Mild Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Reduces the Susceptibility of the Heart to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: Identification of Underlying Gene Expression Changes.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Lehner, Alice; Li, Shiliang; Vater, Adrian; Radovits, Tamás; Hegedűs, Péter; Ruppert, Mihály; Brlecic, Paige; Zorn, Markus; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Despite clinical studies indicating that diabetic hearts are more sensitive to ischemia/reperfusion injury, experimental data is contradictory. Although mild diabetes prior to ischemia/reperfusion may induce a myocardial adaptation, further research is still needed. Nondiabetic Wistar (W) and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (16-week-old) underwent 45 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 24 h reperfusion. The plasma glucose level was significantly higher in diabetic rats compared to the nondiabetics. Diabetes mellitus was associated with ventricular hypertrophy and increased interstitial fibrosis. Inducing myocardial infarction increased the glucose levels in diabetic compared to nondiabetic rats. Furthermore, the infarct size was smaller in GK rats than in the control group. Systolic and diastolic functions were impaired in W + MI and did not reach statistical significance in GK + MI animals compared to the corresponding controls. Among the 125 genes surveyed, 35 genes showed a significant change in expression in GK + MI compared to W + MI rats. Short-term diabetes promotes compensatory mechanisms that may provide cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, at least in part, by increased antioxidants and the upregulation of the prosurvival PI3K/Akt pathway, by the downregulation of apoptotic genes, proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, profibrogenic TGF-β, and hypertrophic marker α-actin-1.

  12. Ischemia Increases the Twitch Latent Period in the Soleus and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Muscles from Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Camilo; Fierro, Leonardo

    2016-10-27

    Complete ischemia and reperfusion effects on twitch force (∫(F·t)), twitch latent period (TLP), maximal rate of rise of twitch tension (δF/δt)max, and twitch maximum relaxation rate (TMRR) were assessed. We divided 36 adult rats into four groups; two control groups (n = 9), a group undergoing 1 hour of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (n = 9), and one group exposed to 2 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (n = 9). We have induced twitch contractions every 10 minutes in the soleus and the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL). Twitch contractions were recorded and then analyzed for ∫(F·t), TLP, (δF/δt)max, and TMRR. During 1 hour and 40 minutes of ischemia, TLP increased to 179 ± 24% (p < 0.05) in the soleus and to 184 ± 16% (p < 0.05) in the ECRL, an effect that was partially recovered during 1 hour of reperfusion. This increase started after 20 minutes of ischemia in the soleus and after 40 minutes of ischemia in the ECRL. The increase was faster in the ECRL and peaked at the same time for both muscular groups. ∫(F·t) and (δF/δt)max decreased during 1 hour of ischemia to 46 ± 7% (p < 0.05) in the soleus and to 40 ± 7% (p < 0.05) in the ECRL. TMRR decreased during 1 hour of ischemia to 39 ± 5% (p < 0.05) in the soleus and to 54 ± 8% (p < 0.05) in the ECRL. During 1 hour of reperfusion all of them recovered close to control values.

  13. Arts and Learning Research, 1995. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, California, April 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diket, Read M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The papers gathered in this volume were presented at the 1995 meeting of the American Educational Research Association; many were part of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group programs. Papers in the volume explore a range of research interests and conceptualizations for the arts. Following an editorial, papers are: "Beyond the Public…

  14. Ischemic preconditioning inhibits expression of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Geum-Sil; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Seung Min; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Bae, Eun Joo; Yong, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul

    2015-04-15

    The participation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) in neuronal damage/death in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) induced by transient forebrain ischemia has not been well established, although acidosis may be involved in neuronal damage/death. In the present study, we examined the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on NHE1 immunoreactivity following a 5min of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. The animals used in the study were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated-group and IPC+ischemia-operated-group). IPC was induced by subjecting animals to 2min of ischemia followed by 1day of recovery. A significant neuronal loss was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the CA1, not the CA2/3, of the ischemia-operated-group at 5days post-ischemia. However, in the IPC+ischemia-operated-group, neurons in the SP of the CA1 were well protected. NHE1 immunoreactivity was not detected in any regions of the CA1-3 of the sham- and IPC+sham-operated-groups. However, the immunoreactivity was apparently expressed in the SP of the CA1-3 after ischemia, and the NHE1immunoreactivity was very weak 5days after ischemia; however, at this point in time, strong NHE1immunoreactivity was found in astrocytes in the CA1. In the CA2/3, NHE1immunoreactivity was slightly changed, although NHE1immunoreactivity was expressed in the SP. In the IPC+ischemia-operated-groups, NHE1 immunoreactivity was also expressed in the SP of the CA1-3; however, the immunoreactivity was more slightly changed than that in the ischemia-operated-groups. In brief, our findings show that IPC dramatically protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and strongly inhibited NHE1 expression in the SP of the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NHE1 expression may be necessary for neuronal survival from transient ischemic damage.

  15. Complementary and alternative medicine research initiatives in the Children's Oncology Group and the role of the pediatric oncology nurse.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Ria

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has emerged as a new area of investigation in cancer research and treatment. CAM modalities are widely used, but little is known about their efficacy. The Children's Oncology Group has made a major commitment to CAM research in childhood and adolescent cancer, beginning with studies of CAM in the area of supportive care. Pediatric oncology nurses, as implementing clinicians and collaborating researchers, are critical to the success of these studies.

  16. UNFEASIBLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF NORMOTHERMIC HEPATIC ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION IN RATS USING THE PRINGLE MANEUVER

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, Helbert Minuncio Pereira; SERIGIOLLE, Leonardo Carvalho; RODRIGUES, Daren Athiê Boy; LOPES, Carolina Marques; STUDART, Sarah do Valle; LEME, Pedro Luiz Squilacci

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative result of a research does not always indicate failure, and when the data do not permit a proper conclusion, or are contrary to the initial project, should not simply be discarded and archived. Aim To report failure after performing experimental model of liver ischemia and reperfusion normothermic, continuous or intermittent, in small animals aiming at the study of biochemical and histological parameters after postoperative recovery. Methods Fifteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups of five animals each; all underwent surgery, the abdomen was sutured after the proposed procedures for each group and the animals were observed for 6 h or until they died, and then were reoperated. In Group 1, control (sham-operated): dissection of the hepatic hilum was performed; in Group 2: clamping of the hepatic hilum for 30 m; in Group 3: clamping of the hepatic hilum for 15 m, reperfusion for 5 m and another 15 m of clamping. Data from Groups 2 and 3 were compared with Student's t test. Results All animals of Group 1 survived for 6 h. Two animals in Group 2 died before the 6 h needed to validate the experiment; two did not recover from anesthesia and one survived until the end. In Group 3, four animals died before the 6 h established and one of them survived the required time. Only one animal in Group 2 and one in Group 3 survived and were able to accomplish the study. There was no statistical significance when the results of Groups 2 and 3 were compared (p>0.05). Conclusion The death of six animals before the necessary period of observation turned the initial proposal of the experiment unfeasible. PMID:25184771

  17. Ethanol-induced myocardial ischemia: close relation between blood acetaldehyde level and myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ando, H; Abe, H; Hisanou, R

    1993-05-01

    A patient with vasospastic angina who developed myocardial ischemia following ethanol ingestion but not after exercise was described. Myocardial ischemia was evidenced by electrocardiograms (ECGs) and thallium-201 scintigrams. The blood acetaldehyde level after ethanol ingestion was abnormally high. The time course and severity of myocardial ischemia coincided with those of the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde level. Coronary arteriography showed ergonovine maleate-induced coronary vasospasm at the left anterior descending coronary artery. ECG changes similar to those induced by ethanol ingestion were observed at the same time. These findings suggest that the high blood acetaldehyde level might be responsible for the development of coronary vasospasm and myocardial ischemia in this patient.

  18. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  19. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group.

  20. Diversity in Collaborative Research Communities: A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Thesis Writing Group in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Cally; Xafis, Vicki; Doda, Diana V.; Gillam, Marianne H.; Larg, Allison J.; Luckner, Helene; Jahan, Nasreen; Widayati, Aris; Xu, Chuangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Writing groups for doctoral students are generally agreed to provide valuable learning spaces for Ph.D. candidates. Here an academic developer and the eight members of a writing group formed in a Discipline of Public Health provide an account of their experiences of collaborating in a multicultural, multidisciplinary thesis writing group. We…

  1. Three Reading Groups: An American Educational Tradition. Literacy Research Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan J.

    Dividing elementary classrooms into three reading groups has become a U.S. educational tradition. Reading groups seem to have been an experiment in meeting the needs of students of different abilities, but the original caveats about flexible groups seem to have been forgotten. With the popularization of leveled basal readers, where changing groups…

  2. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiao-ge; Cheng, Bao-hua; Wang, Xin; Ding, Liang-cai; Liu, Hai-qing; Chen, Jing; Bai, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 μg/g) was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26109951

  3. Isorhamnetin protects rat ventricular myocytes from ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Najuan; Pei, Fei; Wei, Huaying; Zhang, Tongtong; Yang, Chao; Ma, Gang; Yang, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) has been known to cause damages to ventricular myocytes. Isorhamnetin, one member of flavonoid compounds, has cardioprotective effect, the effect that suggests a possible treatment for I/R damages. In the present investigation, we found that isorhamnetin could significantly promote the viability of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes that were exposed to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in vitro. Ventricular myocytes were obtained from neonatal SD rats, and then were divided randomly into three groups, namely I/R-/isor-, I/R+/isor- and I/R+/isor+ group. Before the whole experiment, the most appropriate concentration of isorhamnetin (4 μM) was determined by MTT assay. Our results showed that isorhamnetin could alleviate the damages of I/R to ventricular myocytes through inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and repressing apoptosis. Compared with the counterpart of the I/R+/isor- group, LDH activity in the isorhamnetin-treated group weakened, halving from 24.1 ± 2.3 to 11.4 ± 1.2U/L. Additionally, flow cytometry showed the apparently increased apoptosis rate induced by I/R, the result that was further confirmed by transmission electron microscope. Administration of isorhamnetin, however, assuaged the apoptosis induced by I/R. Corresponding to the reduced apoptosis rate in the I/R+/isor+ group, western blotting assay showed increased amount of Bcl-2 and p53, decreased amount of Bax, and nuclear accumulation of NF-κB/p65.

  4. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N.; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Methods Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Results Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001). Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non–patient group respondents (all p < .05). Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01). Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non–patient group respondents (all p< .01). Conclusions Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with

  5. The role of excessive versus acute administration of erythropoietin in attenuating hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Pappo, Orit; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Shevtsov, Evgeni; Avlas, Orna; Gassmann, Max; Ravid, Amiram; Cheporko, Yelena; Hochhauser, Edith

    2010-12-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) is the main cause of primary graft nonfunction. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of excessive versus acute administration of erythropoietin (EPO) in attenuating the hepatic injury induced by I/R in mice. The effect of segmental (70%) hepatic ischemia was evaluated in a transgenic mouse line with constitutive overexpression of human EPO cDNA and in wild-type (WT) mice. Mice were randomly allocated to 5 main experimental groups: (i) WT-sham, (ii) WT ischemia, (iii) WT ischemia + recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), (iv) transgenic-sham, and (v) transgenic ischemia. The EPO-pretreated mice showed a significant reduction in liver enzyme levels and intrahepatic caspase-3 activity and fewer apoptotic hepatocytes (p < 0.05 for all) compared with the WT untreated I/R group. EPO decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression during I/R. In transgenic I/R livers, baseline histology showed diffused hepatic injury, and no significant beneficial effect was noted between the WT untreated and the transgenic I/R mice. In conclusion, acute pretreatment with EPO in WT mice attenuated in vivo I/R liver injury. However, in excessive EPO overexpression, the initial liver injury abolished the beneficial effect of EPO. These findings have important implications for the potential use of acute EPO in I/R injury during liver transplantation.

  6. Acute limb ischemia due to ergotism.

    PubMed

    Naz, Iram; Sophie, Ziad

    2006-08-01

    Acute ischemia of an extremity potentially threatens limb loss and occasionally the life of the patient. We are reporting two cases of extremity ischemia secondary to ergot poisoning. The first patient was a 60 years old woman, who presented with a 15 days history of ischemia of the left arm with gangrene of the fingers and pain in the resting right hand for one day. Right brachial artery catheterization showed severe spasm of the artery which was resolved by passage of the inflated balloon catheter. She underwent amputation for gangrene of the left hand. The second patient presented with bilateral symmetrical ischemia of the lower extremities which improved upon withdrawal of the ergot containing medicine. She responded to nifedipine.

  7. Mitochondrial Targeted Antioxidant in Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Donovan, Tucker; Yujiao, Lu; Zhang, Quanguang

    There has been much evidence suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in mitochondria during cerebral ischemia play a major role in programming the senescence of organism. Antioxidants dealing with mitochondria slow down the appearance and progression of symptoms in cerebral ischemia and increase the life span of organisms. The mechanisms of mitochondrial targeted antioxidants, such as SKQ1, Coenzyme Q10, MitoQ, and Methylene blue, include increasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, decreasing production of ROS and increasing antioxidant defenses, providing benefits in neuroprotection following cerebral ischemia. A number of studies have shown the neuroprotective role of these mitochondrial targeted antioxidants in cerebral ischemia. Here in this short review we have compiled the literature supporting consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction, and the protective role of mitochondrial targeted antioxidants.

  8. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  9. Effects of hypothermia on skeletal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaldırım, Ümit; Akyıldız, Faruk; Bilgiç, Serkan; Koca, Kenan; Poyrazoğlu, Yavuz; Uysal, Ozgür Selim; Turğut, Hasan; Türkkan, Selim; Erşen, Ömer; Topal, Turgut; Ozkan, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothermia (H) on skeletal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in muscle, and measureing immunohistochemical-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) staining of skeletal muscle. Materials and Methods Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (sham, IR, hypothermia) (n=6). The sham group had all procedures without the IR period. The lower right extremity of rats in the IR and hypothermia groups was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia and 22 hours of reperfusion by applying a clamp on the common iliac artery and a rubber-band at the level of the lesser trochanter under general anesthesia. Rats in the hypothermia group underwent 4 hours of hypothermia during the first four hours of reperfusion in addition to a 2-hour ischemia and 22-hour reperfusion period. All rats were sacrificed at end of the IR period using a high dose of anesthesia. The tibialis anterior muscles were preserved. Immunohistochemical iNOS staining was performed, and MDA, SOD, GSH-Px, NO, and IL-1β were measured in the muscle. Results The level of MDA, NO, and IL-1β in muscle was increased in the IR group compared with that in the sham group, but these parameters were decreased in the hypothermia group compared with the IR group. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px in muscle were decreased in the IR group; however, these parameters were increased in the hypothermia group. The score and intensity of iNOS staining of skeletal muscle was dens in IR group, mild in hypothermia group, and weak in sham group. Conclusion The present study has shown that hypothermia reduced IR injury in the skeletal muscle by decreasing the levels of MDA, NO, and IL-1β, and increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-Px. In addition, hypothermia attenuated the score and intensity of i

  10. [Advance in prevention and treatment of ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease through increased therapeutic angiogenesis induced by traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Li, Lei; Hou, Jin-Cai; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2015-01-01

    Remaining organic and functional damage of ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease is always a main trouble puzzling the clinicians. After the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), researchers realize that postnatal angiogenesis is an important biological process, which play a key role to repair the ischemia tissue and improve the function. So a new concept which names therapeutic angiogenesis supply a new treament way for the ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich experience on treating the ischemia disease, studies found that many Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, howerer the mechanisms were not the same, they mainly manifest in regular the secretion of angiogenic factors, increase the proliferation and differentiation etc. In this paper, we review recent studies, summary the Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients which can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, and analyze the differernt pathway. We view to provide reference for the later researchers.

  11. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia's score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia's score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  12. Hyperglycemia enhances excessive superoxide anion radical generation, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Ono, Takeru; Koda, Yoichi; Koga, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Nanba, Masahiro; Shitara, Masaki; Kasaoka, Shunji; Maruyama, Ikuro; Yuasa, Makoto; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-14

    The aim of this study was to confirm the effect of acute hyperglycemia on the superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) generation, using a novel electrochemical O(2)(-) sensor in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion rats. Fourteen male Wistar rats were allocated to a normoglycemia group (n= 7) and a hyperglycemia group (n=7). Hyperglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of glucose solution. Forebrain ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion with hemorrhagic hypotension for 10 min and then was reperfused. The generated O(2)(-) was measured as the current produced, which was integrated as a quantified partial value of electricity (Q), in the jugular vein using the O(2)(-) sensor. The reacted O(2)(-) current and the Q began to increase gradually during the forebrain ischemia in both groups. These values increased remarkably just after reperfusion in the normoglycemia group and were further increased significantly in the hyperglycemia group after the reperfusion. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the brain and plasma, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the plasma in the hyperglycemia group were significantly higher than those in the normoglycemia group. Brain and plasma MDA, HMGB1, and ICAM-1 were correlated with a sum of Q during ischemia and after reperfusion. In conclusion, acute transient hyperglycemia enhanced the O(2)(-) generation in blood and exacerbated oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury after the forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in the rats.

  13. NATO RTO Space Science and Technology Advisory Group (SSTAG) Recommendations for Space Research Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    4.25 Ionospheric Research 37 4.26 Space-Based Radar Technology and Applications 38 4.27 Space-Based Multi- and Hyperspectral Sensors Technology and...4 24 Upper Atmospheric Research 4 25 Ionospheric Research 3 16 Spacecraft Power Systems and Propulsion 2 23 Satellite and Sensor Protection 2...25 Ionospheric Research The topic will improve use and access to bandwidth and frequency spectrum, as well as worldwide, reliable, precise

  14. Development of Innovative Group Work Practice Using the Intervention Research Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Edna; Meier, Andrea; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2004-01-01

    Rothman and Thomas' intervention research (IR) paradigm provides an alternative, developmental research method that is appropriate for practice research, especially at the early stages. It is more flexible than conventional experimental designs, capitalizes on the availability of small samples, accommodates the dynamism and variation in practice…

  15. Reference, or Advisory, Groups Involving Disabled People: Reflections from Three Contrasting Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah; Robertson, Christopher; Feiler, Anthony; Tarleton, Beth; Watson, Debby; Byers, Richard; Davies, Jill; Fergusson, Ann; Marvin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly in recent years, the involvement of disabled people as co-researchers has been regarded as "good practice." This has been informed by growing participatory and emancipatory research paradigms as well as user-focused policy imperatives. The benefits of these shifts apply to the research itself (improved definition, direction,…

  16. Acute small bowel ischemia: CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Enrica; Mortelé, Koenraad J; Ji, Hoon; Wiesner, Walter; Ros, Pablo R

    2003-10-01

    Small bowel ischemia is a disorder related to a variety of conditions resulting in interruption or reduction of the blood supply of the small intestine. It may present with various clinical and radiologic manifestations, and ranges pathologically from localized transient ischemia to catastrophic necrosis of the intestinal tract. The primary causes of insufficient blood flow to the small intestine are various and include thromboembolism (50% of cases), nonocclusive causes, bowel obstruction, neoplasms, vasculitis, abdominal inflammatory conditions, trauma, chemotherapy, radiation, and corrosive injury. Computed tomography (CT) can demonstrate changes because of ischemic bowel accurately, may be helpful in determining the primary cause of ischemia, and can demonstrate important coexistent findings or complications. However, common CT findings in acute small bowel ischemia are not specific and, therefore, it is often a combination of clinical, laboratory and radiologic signs that may lead to a correct diagnosis. Understanding the pathogenesis of various conditions leading to mesenteric ischemia and being familiar with the spectrum of diagnostic CT signs may help the radiologist recognize ischemic small bowel disease and avoid delayed diagnosis. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the pathogenesis and various causes of acute small bowel ischemia and to demonstrate the contribution of CT in the diagnosis of this complex disease.

  17. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    PubMed

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design.

  18. Sex and gender traps and springboards: a focus group study among gender researchers in medicine and health sciences.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Monica; Alex, Lena; Wiklund, Anncristine Fjellman; Hammarström, Anne; Lundman, Berit

    2012-01-01

    We explored the difficulties that gender researchers encounter in their research and the strategies they use for solving these problems. Sixteen Swedish researchers, all women, took part in focus group discussions; the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The problems reported fell into four main categories: the ambiguity of the concepts of sex and gender; traps associated with dichotomization; difficulties with communication; and issues around publication. Categories of suggested problem-solving strategies were adaptation, pragmatism, addressing the complexities, and definition of terms. Here the specific views of gender researchers in medicine and health sciences-"medical insiders"-bring new challenges into focus.

  19. Research and implementation of group animation based on normal cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Wei, Bin; Peng, Bao

    2011-12-01

    Group Animation is a difficult technology problem which always has not been solved in computer Animation technology, All current methods have their limitations. This paper put forward a method: the Motion Coordinate and Motion Speed of true fish group was collected as sample data, reverse cloud generator was designed and run, expectation, entropy and super entropy are gotten. Which are quantitative value of qualitative concept. These parameters are used as basis, forward cloud generator was designed and run, Motion Coordinate and Motion Speed of two-dimensional fish group animation are produced, And two spirit state variable about fish group : the feeling of hunger, the feeling of fear are designed. Experiment is used to simulated the motion state of fish Group Animation which is affected by internal cause and external cause above, The experiment shows that the Group Animation which is designed by this method has strong Realistic.

  20. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin improves energy metabolism in skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Akira T; Aso, Kensuke; Yamano, Mariko; Minamitani, Haruyuki; Haida, Munetaka

    2012-02-01

    The effect of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) was tested in a rodent model of limb ischemia and reperfusion--causing local reperfusion injury and a cascade of systemic responses. Intracellular pH (pHi) and phosphocreatine (PCr)/inorganic phosphate (Pi) ratio were serially monitored using ³¹P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a 2-cm solenoid coil on a rodent hind limb. After baseline measurements, the right hind limb underwent ischemia for 70 min, followed 10 min later by intravenous administration of LEH (10 mL/kg, n = 6), homologous red blood cells (RBCs, n = 6), saline (n = 6), or no treatment (n = 6). Reperfusion was then observed for an additional 60 min. While pHi decreased precipitously after the onset of ischemia and even following reperfusion, LEH-treated rats had significantly milder intracellular acidosis compared with all other groups during ischemia, and after reperfusion as well throughout the observation with the saline-treated rats. In contrast, the PCr/Pi ratio decreased regardless of treatment after ischemia until reperfusion, when the ratio returned toward normal or the energy status improved only in the LEH-treated rats, while the ratio remained depressed in the control animals receiving RBC, saline, or no treatment. Morphological studies 7 days later revealed a tendency toward suppressed mononuclear cell infiltration with preservation of muscular mass and structure in the LEH-treated rats. LEH treatment after early limb ischemia appeared to improve intracellular energy metabolism and eventually preserve skeletal muscle in a rodent model of limb ischemia and reperfusion.

  1. Prevalence of Ischemia on Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy of Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Daniel Augusto Message; Navarro, Wendy Yasdin Sierraalta; Alexandre, Leonardo Machado; Cestari, Priscila Feitosa; Smanio, Paola Emanuela Poggio

    2013-01-01

    Background In postmenopausal women, the presence of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) increases. However, the difference in prevalence of ischemia between pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD has not been well established. Objectives To compare the prevalence of ischemia on Tc99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in pre-and postmenopausal women, and to evaluate whether menopause can be considered an independent risk predictor of ischemia in women with multiple risk factors for CAD. Methods This study retrospectively assessed 500 MPS of pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD. Statistical analysis was performed by using Fisher exact test and univariate and multivariate analysis, a p value ≤ 0.05 being considered significant. Results Postmenopausal women represented 55.9% of the sample; 83.3% were hypertensive; 28.9%, diabetic; 32.1%, smokers; 25%, obese; 61.2% had high cholesterol levels; and 34.3% had known CAD. Postmenopausal women were more often hypertensive, diabetic and dyslipidemic, and had lower functional capacity on exercise testing (p = < 0.005). The presence of ischemia on MPS did not significantly differ between the pre- and postmenopausal groups (p = 0.395). The only variable associated with ischemia on MPS was known CAD (p = 0.004). Conclusion The results suggest that, in women with multiple risk factors for CAD, menopause was not an independent predictor of ischemia on MPS. Those data support the idea that the investigation of ischemia via MPS in women with multiple risk factors for CAD should begin prior to menopause. PMID:24217403

  2. [Comparative evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of phenibut and piracetam under experimental cerebral ischemia conditions in rats].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetov, M N; Epishina, V V; Borodkina, L E; Voronkov, A V

    2006-01-01

    The neuroprotective properties of phenibut and piracetam were studied in rats with cerebral ischemia caused by bilateral irreversible simultaneous occlusion of carotid arteries and gravitational overload in craniocaudal vector. In addition, the effects of both drugs on microcirculation in brain cortex under ischemic injury conditions were studied. Phenibut and (to a lower extent) piracetam reduced a neuralgic deficiency, amnesia, and the degree of cerebral circulation drop, and improved the spontaneous movement and research activity deteriorated by brain ischemia.

  3. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on a Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Solé, Oriol; Rodó, Joan; García-Aparicio, Lluís; Blanch, Josep; Cusí, Victoria; Albert, Asteria

    2016-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute renal failure, causing renal cell death, a permanent decrease of renal blood flow, organ dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product rich in growth factors, and therefore able to promote tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. This product has proven its efficacy in multiple studies, but has not yet been tested on kidney tissue. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether the application of PRP to rat kidneys undergoing ischemia-reperfusion reduces mid-term kidney damage. A total of 30 monorrenal Sprague-Dawley male rats underwent renal ischemia-reperfusion for 45 minutes. During ischemia, PRP (PRP Group, n = 15) or saline solution (SALINE Group, n = 15) was administered by subcapsular renal injection. Control kidneys were the contralateral organs removed immediately before the start of ischemia in the remaining kidneys. Survival, body weight, renal blood flow on Doppler ultrasound, kidney weight, kidney volume, blood biochemistry and histopathology were determined for all subjects and kidneys, as applicable. Correlations between these variables were searched for. The PRP Group showed significantly worse kidney blood flow (p = 0.045) and more histopathological damage (p<0.0001). Correlations were found between body weight, kidney volume, kidney weight, renal blood flow, histology, and serum levels of creatinine and urea. Our study provides the first evidence that treatment with PRP results in the deterioration of the kidney’s response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27551718

  4. Talking Science: The research evidence on the use of small group discussions in science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the topics used to promote small group discussions. They also demonstrate that students often struggle to formulate and express coherent arguments, and demonstrate a low level of engagement with tasks. The reviews suggest that groups function more purposefully, and understanding improves most, when specifically constituted such that differing views are represented, when some form of training is provided for students on effective group work, and when help in structuring discussions is provided in the form of "cues". Single-sex groups function more purposefully than mixed-sex groups, though improvements in understanding are independent of gender composition of groups. Finally, the reviews demonstrate very clearly that, for small group discussions to be effective, teachers and students need to be given explicit teaching in the skills associated with the development of arguments and the characteristics associated with effective group discussions. In addition to the substantive findings, the paper also reports on key features of the methods employed to gather and analyse data. Of particular note are the two contrasting approaches to data analysis, one adopting a grounded theory approach and the other drawing on established methods of discourse analysis.

  5. Key genes expressed in different stages of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-an; Zan, Chun-fang; Xia, Peng; Zheng, Chang-jun; Qi, Zhi-ping; Li, Chun-xu; Liu, Zhi-gang; Hou, Ting-ting; Yang, Xiao-yu

    2016-01-01

    The temporal expression of microRNA after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we established a model of spinal cord ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats by clamping the abdominal aorta for 90 minutes, before allowing reperfusion for 24 or 48 hours. A sham-operated group underwent surgery but the aorta was not clamped. The damaged spinal cord was removed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and RNA extraction. Neuronal degeneration and tissue edema were the most severe in the 24-hour reperfusion group, and milder in the 48-hour reperfusion group. RNA amplification, labeling, and hybridization were used to obtain the microRNA expression profiles of each group. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed four differentially expressed microRNAs (miR-22-3p, miR-743b-3p, miR-201-5p and miR-144-5p) and their common target genes (Tmem69 and Cxcl10). Compared with the sham group, miR-22-3p was continuously upregulated in all three ischemia groups but was highest in the group with no reperfusion, whereas miR-743b-3p, miR-201-5p and miR-144-5p were downregulated in the three ischemia groups. We have successfully identified the key genes expressed at different stages of spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, which provide a reference for future investigations into the mechanism of spinal cord injury. PMID:28123428

  6. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter-over-groups

  7. Genetic modifiers of ambulation in the cooperative international Neuromuscular research group Duchenne natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Luca; Kesari, Akanchha; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cnaan, Avital; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Punetha, Jaya; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik K; Pegoraro, Elena; McDonald, Craig M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the effects of LTBP4 and SPP1 polymorphisms on age at loss of ambulation (LoA) in a multiethnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort. Methods We genotyped SPP1 rs28357094 and LTBP4 haplotype in 283 of 340 participants in the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study (CINRG-DNHS). Median ages at LoA were compared by Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test. We controlled polymorphism analyses for concurrent effects of glucocorticoid corticosteroid (GC) treatment (time-varying Cox regression) and for population stratification (multidimensional scaling of genome-wide markers). Results Hispanic and South Asian participants (n = 18, 41) lost ambulation 2.7 and 2 years earlier than Caucasian subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001). The TG/GG genotype at SPP1 rs28357094 was associated to 1.2-year-earlier median LoA (p = 0.048). This difference was greater (1.9 years, p = 0.038) in GC-treated participants, whereas no difference was observed in untreated subjects. Cox regression confirmed a significant effect of SPP1 genotype in GC-treated participants (hazard ratio = 1.61, p = 0.016). LTBP4 genotype showed a direction of association with age at LoA as previously reported, but it was not statistically significant. After controlling for population stratification, we confirmed a strong effect of LTBP4 genotype in Caucasians (2.4 years, p = 0.024). Median age at LoA with the protective LTBP4 genotype in this cohort was 15.0 years, 16.0 for those who were treated with GC. Interpretation SPP1 rs28357094 acts as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of GC response, and LTBP4 haplotype modifies age at LoA in the CINRG-DNHS cohort. Adjustment for GC treatment and population stratification appears crucial in assessing genetic modifiers in DMD. PMID:25641372

  8. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin alleviates hearing loss after transient cochlear ischemia and reperfusion in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Akira T; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Shoichiro; Hyodo, Jun; Imai, Kiyohiro; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2012-02-01

    To test liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in transient cochlear ischemia/reperfusion as a model of sudden deafness, Mongolian gerbils were randomly assigned to receive 2 mL/kg of either low-affinity LEH (l-LEH, P₅₀0₂ = 40 mm Hg), high-affinity LEH (h-LEH, P₅₀0₂ = 10 mm Hg), homologous red blood cells (RBCs), or saline (each group n = 6) 30 min before 15-min occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries and reperfusion. Sequential changes in hearing were assessed by auditory brain response 1, 4, and 7 days after ischemia/reperfusion, when the animals were sacrificed for pathological studies. h-LEH was significantly more protective than l-LEH in suppressing hearing loss, in contrast to RBC or saline treatment, at 8, 16, and 32 kHz, where hearing loss was most severe (P < 0.05 between any two groups) on the first day after cochlear ischemia/reperfusion. Thereafter, hearing loss improved gradually in all groups, with a significant difference among groups up to 7 days, when morphological studies revealed that the inner hair cells but not the outer hair cells, were significantly lost in the groups in the same order. The results suggest that pretreatment with h-LEH is significantly more protective than l-LEH in mitigating hearing loss and underlying pathological damage, in contrast to transfusion or saline infusion 7 days after transient cochlear ischemia/reperfusion.

  9. The Nonsignificant Impact of an Agenda Setting Treatment for Groups: Implications for Future Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridbord, Karen; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.; Jones, Edlyn; Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study compared the effect of two writing techniques, Agenda Setting and Group Focus, to a cognitive technique, reading process notes at the start of a group session, to examine their impact on social climate, member involvement, and behavior. Theoretically an intervention that helps members to focus directly on their goals and potential…

  10. Patterns of Ability Factors among Four Ethnic Groups. Project Access Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaugher, Ronald L.; Rock, Donald A.

    Differing patterns of abilities among high school males of four ethnic groups were investigated, as reflected in the interrelationships of scores on a multi-test aptitude battery. If such differences in patterns of ability exist among these groups, their existence and nature should be revealed in the interrelationships of the various test scores…

  11. Item Response Theory at Subject- and Group-Level. Research Report 90-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobi, Hilde

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California Assessment Program. In the Netherlands, these…

  12. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  13. Evidence-Based Practice in Group Care: The Effects of Policy, Research, and Organizational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Carol; Sanders, Larry; Gurevich, Maria; Fulton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effect of a province-wide vision of evidence-based and outcome-based services for children and youth and the challenges of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) and evidence-based treatment (EBT) approaches within group care settings. The paper is based on the results of a survey of group care settings in the…

  14. Disaster Day! Integrating Speech Skills though Impromptu Group Research and Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruim, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Disaster Day (DD) is a single-class activity designed for public speaking classrooms, but could also be applied to courses addressing small group communication. Objectives: DD integrates fundamental skills of the basic speech course, fosters participation through group work, and introduces new concepts and skills. By the end of the…

  15. Minority Versus Majority Group Performance on an Aptitude Test Battery. Project Access Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaugher, Ronald L.

    Black students from two cities and Mexican-American students, both male and female, showed small but consistent tendencies to perform better, relative to White groups, on three nontraditional measures: tests of inductive reasoning, spatial scanning, and associative memory. These measures showed somewhat less discrepancy between the groups than did…

  16. Using the CABLES model to assess and minimize risk in research: control group hazards.

    PubMed

    Koocher, G P

    2002-01-01

    CABLES is both an acronym and metaphor for conceptualizing research participation risk by considering 6 distinct domains in which risks of harm to research participants may exist: cognitive, affective, biological, legal, economic, and social/cultural. These domains are described and illustrated, along with suggestions for minimizing or eliminating the potential hazards to human participants in biomedical and behavioral science research. Adoption of a thoughtful ethical analysis addressing all 6 CABLES strands in designing research provides a strong protective step toward safeguarding and promoting the well-being of study participants.

  17. “It takes a village” to raise research productivity: Impact of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research (TIGR) at an urban, Level 1 trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regina S.; Ferdinand, Colville H.B.; Hawkins, Michael L.; Holsten, Steven B.; Dong, Yanbin; Zhu, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few interdisciplinary research groups include basic scientists, pharmacists, therapists, nutritionists, lab technicians, as well as trauma patients and families, in addition to clinicians. Increasing interprofessional diversity within scientific teams working to improve trauma care is a goal of national organizations and federal funding agencies like the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This paper describes the design, implementation, and outcomes of a Trauma Interdisciplinary Group for Research (TIGR) at a Level 1 trauma center as it relates to increasing research productivity, with specific examples excerpted from an on-going NIH-funded study. METHODS We utilized a pre-test/post-test design with objectives aimed at measuring increases in research productivity following a targeted intervention. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis was used to develop the intervention which included research skill-building activities, accomplished by adding multidisciplinary investigators to an existing NIH-funded project. The NIH project aimed to test the hypothesis that accelerated biologic aging from chronic stress increases baseline inflammation and reduces inflammatory response to trauma (projected N=150). Pre/Post-TIGR data related to participant screening, recruitment, consent, and research processes were compared. Research productivity was measured through abstracts, publications, and investigator-initiated projects. RESULTS Research products increased from N =12 to N=42; (~ 400%). Research proposals for federal funding increased from N=0 to N=3, with success rate of 66%. Participant screenings for the NIH-funded study increased from N=40 to N=313. Consents increased from N=14 to N=70. Lab service fees were reduced from $300/participant to $5/participant. CONCLUSIONS Adding diversity to our scientific team via TIGR was exponentially successful in 1) improving research productivity, 2) reducing research costs, and 3) increasing

  18. Improving participation rates for women of color in health research: the role of group cohesion.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Estabrooks, Paul A; Lee, Rebecca E

    2012-02-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD = 9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD = 7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs-attraction to the group's task (SE = 0.096, CI: -0.599 to -0.221) and group integration around the task (SE = 0.060, CI: -0.092 to -0.328)-and social constructs-attraction to the group's social aspects (SE = 0.046, CI: -0.546 to -0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE = 0.046, CI: -0.546 to -0.366)-significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color.

  19. Nerve Protective Effect of Asiaticoside against Ischemia-Hypoxia in Cultured Rat Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Bin; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background Asiaticoside is one of the main functional components of the natural plant Centella asiatica urban. Studies have reported it has several functions such as anti-depression and nerve cell protection. Asiaticoside can reduce the cerebral infarct size in acute focal cerebral ischemia in a mouse model and asiatic acid glycosides can significantly improve neurobehavioral scores. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of asiaticoside in regard to its neural protective mechanism in cerebral ischemia. This study aimed to solve this problem by using an ischemia-hypoxia cell model in vitro. Material/Methods An in vitro ischemia hypoxia cell model was successfully established by primary cultured newborn rat cortical neurons. After being treated by asiaticoside for 24 h, cell survival rate, lactate dehydrogenase release quantity, and B-cell lymphoma gene-2 (BCL-2), Bax, and caspase-3 protein expressions was detected. Results After 10 nmol/L or 100 nmol/L of asiaticoside were given to the cells, cell survival rate increased significantly and presented concentration dependence. Asiaticoside can reduce lactate dehydrogenase release. Lactate dehydrogenase release in model cells is gradually reduced with the increase of asiaticoside concentration. The lactate dehydrogenase release in asiaticoside 10 nmol/L group, asiaticoside 100 nmol/L group and ischemia hypoxia group were 26.75±1.05, 22.36±2.87 and 52.35±5.46%, respectively (p<0.05). It was also found that asiaticoside could modulate the expression of apoptotic factors, including bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. Conclusions Asiaticoside helps to protect in vitro ischemia hypoxia neurons. This nerve cell protection may be mediated by the BCL-2 protein. PMID:26447863

  20. Sildenafil citrate (viagra) induces cardioprotective effects after ischemia/reperfusion injury in infant rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Yvonne A; Salloum, Fadi; Ockaili, Ramzi; Chou, Eric; Moskowitz, William B; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2005-01-01

    Infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease are at risk for myocardial ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass, circulatory arrest, or low-flow states. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor on myocardial functional improvement and infarct size reduction during ischemia/reperfusion injury in infant rabbits. Infant rabbits (aged 8 wk) were treated with sildenafil citrate (0.7 mg/kg i.v.) or normal saline 30 min before sustained ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 3 h. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was used to assess left ventricular cardiac output (LVCO) and aortic velocity time integral (VTI). After ischemia/reperfusion, risk area was demarcated by Evan's blue dye and infarct size determined by computer morphometry of triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained sections. The sildenafil-treated group had preservation and elevation in LVCO (143% of baseline, p < 0.05) and an elevated aortic VTI (145% of baseline, p < 0.05) after 30 min of ischemia compared with the control group LVCO (72% of baseline, p < 0.05) and aortic VTI (73% of baseline, p < 0.05). This is a statistically significant increase in LVCO and aortic VTI in the sildenafil group compared with controls (n = 6/group, p < 0.05). The sildenafil-treated group had significant reduction in infarct size (15.5 +/- 1.2 versus 33 +/- 2.3 in the saline group, % risk area, mean +/- SEM, n = 10-15/group, p < 0.05). For the first time, we have shown that sildenafil citrate promotes myocardial protection in infant rabbits as evidenced by postischemic preservation and elevation in LVCO and aortic VTI and reduction in infarct size.

  1. Job Opening for Medical Officer in DCP’s Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG), Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), National Cancer Institute (NCI), has an opening for an experienced Medical Officer. BGCRG focuses on fostering the development and conduct of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. Learn more about BGCRG. |

  2. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  3. Implementation of the Southwestern Oncology Group Committee on Women’s Health Research Agenda: A Special Sabbatical for the Chairperson.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    Date TABLE OF CONTENTS Front Cover Page 1 Report Documentation SF 298 Page 2 Foreword Page 3 Table of Contents Page 4 Introduction Page 5 Body Page 7...programs were organized into four Target Areas to address these specific research objectives: 1. Learn if the clinical outcome for very young women...Working Group, Secretary of Health Donna E. Shalala’s National Breast Cancer Action Plan 1995- Co-chair, Research Subcommittee, National Institutes of

  4. Small Group Dynamics in Cross-Cultural Collaborative Field Research: Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Karen A.; Gahungu, Athanase

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) factors that influence effective cross-cultural collaboration, and (b) challenges and issues that face researchers in cross-cultural collaboration. During the summer of 2010, 20 researchers and student interns from Ghana Education Service, Chicago State University (CSU-USA), Winneba University of…

  5. Relationships Matter: Some Benefits, Challenges and Tensions Associated with Forming a Collaborative Educational Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Sandie; Murray, E.; Rivalland, C.; Monk, H.; Piazza-McFarland, L.; Daniel, G.

    2014-01-01

    Growing recognition of the complexity of children's lives has led to strong advocacy in education research literature for greater collaboration between researchers from different paradigms to address the "wicked" problems that face contemporary children and families. There is little literature, however, exploring how collaboration works…

  6. Current Issues in Self-Regulation Research and Their Significance for Therapeutic Intervention in Offender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, theory and research on human self-regulation has made significant progress. While self-regulation may be understood as a generic term comprising a range of different cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes, most research pertains to a subcomponent of self-regulation, namely emotional self-regulation, or emotional…

  7. Comparison Groups in Autism Family Research: Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden; Greenberg, Jan; Swe, April

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines methodological challenges inherent in conducting research on families of children with autism and in comparing these families with others who are coping with different types of disabilities or who have nondisabled children. Although most comparative research has contrasted families whose child has autism with those whose child…

  8. The Benefits of Peer-Mentoring in Undergraduate Group Research Projects at The University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; McGraw, A. M.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Robertson, A.; Smith, C.; Turner, J.; Biddle, L. I.; Thompson, R.

    2013-06-01

    According to the American Institute of Physics, the number of graduate students enrolled in astronomy programs in the US has been steadily increasing in the past 15 years. Research experience is one of the key factors graduate admissions committees look for when choosing students. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club is setting a new precedent in research by having students introduce other students to research. This eases the transition to research projects, and allows students to work in a comfortable setting without the sometimes-overwhelming cognitive disconnect between a professor and their students. The University of Arizona's research projects have many benefits to all students involved. It is well established that people learn a subject best when they have to teach it to others. Students leading the projects learn alongside their peers in a peer-mentoring setting. When project leaders move on in their academic career, other project members can easily take the lead. Students learn how to work in teams, practice effective communication skills, and begin the processes of conducting a full research project, which are essential skills for all budding scientists. These research projects also give students hands-on research experience that supplement and greatly expand on concepts taught in the classroom, and make them more attractive to graduate schools and REU programs.

  9. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  10. Methodological Notes on Quantification, Productivity, and Groups in Administrative Research. Discussion Paper No. 110.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David K.; Prewitt, Kenneth

    This essay presents some of the possibilities for doing systematic quantitative research in the field of African public administration and reviews some of the methodological problems involved. The authors argue that quantitative research is especially desirable because of the gains to be achieved in precision, reliability, comparability, and new…

  11. A comparative investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate on ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative damage in rat ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Sener, Ebru; Cetin, Nihal; Altuner, Durdu; Akcay, Fatih; Suleyman, Halis

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the biochemical and histopathological effects of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate on ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative damage in rat ovarian tissue were investigated. Animals were divided into four groups of six rat each, ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (IR), 25 mg/kg thiamine + ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (TIR), 25 mg/kg thiamine pyrophosphate + ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (TPIR) and Sham group (SG). The results of the biochemical experiments have shown that the rat ovarian tissue with thiamine treatment, the level of MDA, GSH and the 8-hydroxyguanine are almost the same as the IR group; while in the group with thiamine pyrophosphate treatment, the level of MDA, GSH and the 8-hydroxyguanine are almost the same as the SG. Ovarian tissue of rats in the IR group were congested and dilated vessels, edema, hemorrhage, necrotic and apoptotic cells. In this group, the migration and the adhesion of the polymorphonuclear leucocytes to the endothelium were observed. Both ovaries in TPIR group, there was no difference according to the SG. Histopathology of ovarian tissues in the TIR group was almost the same with the IR group. Our results indicate that thiamine pyrophosphate significantly prevents the ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative damage in ovarian tissue, whereas thiamine has no effect. In conclusion, we have found that thiamine pyrophosphate prevents oxidative damage due to ischemia-reperfusion injury, whereas thiamine does not have this effect. Furthermore, we have confirmed that the results of our biochemical analyses are in concordance with the histopathological findings.

  12. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from Supersymmetry, New Phenomena Research of the CDF Exotics Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Exotics group searches for Supersymmetry and other New Phenomena. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  13. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from the Top Group's Top Quark Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The Top group studies the properties of the top quark, the heaviest known fundamental particle. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  14. Hypoxic-Preconditioned Bone Marrow Stem Cell Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Steven; Dreixler, John C.; Mathew, Biji; Balyasnikova, Irina; Mann, Jacob R.; Boddapati, Venkat; Xue, Lai; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We have previously demonstrated the protective effect of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC)-conditioned medium in retinal ischemic injury. We hypothesized here that hypoxic preconditioning of stem cells significantly enhances the neuroprotective effect of the conditioned medium and thereby augments the protective effect in ischemic retina. Methods Rats were subjected to retinal ischemia by increasing intraocular pressure to 130 to 135 mm Hg for 55 minutes. Hypoxic-preconditioned, hypoxic unconditioned, or normoxic medium was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after ischemia ended. Recovery was assessed 7 days after injections by comparing electroretinography measurements, histologic examination, and apoptosis (TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay). To compare proteins secreted into the medium in the groups and the effect of hypoxic exposure, we used rat cytokine arrays. Results Eyes injected with hypoxic BMSC–conditioned medium 24 hours after ischemia demonstrated significantly enhanced return of retinal function, decreased retinal ganglion cell layer loss, and attenuated apoptosis compared to those administered normoxic or hypoxic unconditioned medium. Hypoxic-preconditioned medium had 21 significantly increased protein levels compared to normoxic medium. Conclusions The medium from hypoxic-preconditioned BMSCs robustly restored retinal function and prevented cell loss after ischemia when injected 24 hours after ischemia. The protective effect was even more pronounced than in our previous studies of normoxic conditioned medium. Prosurvival signals triggered by the secretome may play a role in this neuroprotective effect. PMID:27367588

  15. Cerebroprotective activity of Wedelia calendulacea on global cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Prakash, T; Kotresha, D; Rama Rao, N

    2011-12-01

    The present study was to investigate the effect of W. calendulacea on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding right and left common carotid arteries (global cerebral ischemia) for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 1 h and 4 h individually. Various biochemical alterations, produced subsequent to the application of bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) followed by reperfusion viz. increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), level in the brain tissue, Western blot analysis (Cu-Zn-SOD and CAT) and assessment of cerebral infarct size were measured. All those enzymes are markedly reversed and restored to near normal level in the groups pretreated with W. calendulacea (250 and 500 mg/kg given orally in single and double dose/day for 10 days) in dose-dependent way. The effect of W. calendulacea had increased significantly the protein expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD) and CAT in cerebral ischemia. W. claendulacea was markedly decrease cerebral infarct damages but results are not statistically significant. It can be concluded that W. calendulacea possesses a neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia in rat.

  16. Effect of glutamate on inflammatory responses of intestine and brain after focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Sun, Jie; Lu, Ran; Ji, Qing; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the modulation of glutamate on post-ischemic intestinal and cerebral inflammatory responses in a ischemic and excitotoxic rat model. METHODS: Adult male rats were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min and injection of monosodium glutamate intraperitoneally, to decapitate them at selected time points. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), respectively. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored continuously during the whole process of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. RESULTS: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) treated rats displayed statistically significant high levels of TNF-α in cerebral and intestinal tissues within the first 6 h of ischemia. The rats with cerebral ischemia showed a minor decrease of TNF-α production in cerebral and intestinal tissues. The rats with cerebral ischemia and treated with MSG displayed statistically significant low levels of TNF-α in cerebral and intestinal tissues. These results correlated significantly with NF-κB production calculated at the same intervals. During experiment, the mean blood pressure and heart rates in all groups were stable. CONCLUSION: Glutamate is involved in the mechanism of intestinal and cerebral inflammation responses. The effects of glutamate on cerebral and intestinal inflammatory responses after ischemia are up-regulated at the transcriptional level, through the NF-κB signal transduction pathway. PMID:15655833

  17. Protective Effects of Repetitive Injections of Radiographic Contrast Media on the Subsequent Tolerance to Ischemia in the Isolated Rat Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Falck, Geir; Bruvold, Morten; Schjott, Jan; Jynge, Per

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: Despite detailed knowledge of the effects of X-ray contrast media on cardiac function, no studies have examined the effect of contrast media injections on the subsequent tolerance to ischemia in the heart.Methods: Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to repetitive injections of iohexol, iodixanol, or ioxaglate before 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. These groups were compared with control (no pretreatment) and ischemic preconditioning known to reduce infarct size. Physiologic variables and infarct size were measured. Results: Pretreatment with iodixanol reduced infarct size significantly compared with control and thus afforded protection against ischemia. Injections with iohexol and ioxaglate reduced infarct size, although not significantly, compared with control.Conclusion: Pretreatment of the isolated rat heart with commonly used contrast media enhances the cardiac tolerance to subsequent ischemia. The mechanism behind this protective effect could not be determined, but could involve stretching of the heart and/or generation of nitric oxide.

  18. [Comparative proteome analysis of blood plasma of patients with early-stage chronic cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Kisrieva, Y S; Petushkova, N A; Samenkova, N F; Kuznetsova, G P; Larina, O V; Zavialova, M G; Teryaeva, N B; Belyaev, A Y; Karuzina, I I

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we explored the technology of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the proteome analysis of blood plasma of patients with early chronic cerebral ischemia. Analysis of mass-spectrometer data carried out in automatic mode using the software Progenesis LS-MS. As a result of this study identified 43 proteins. The differences identified in the study group compared with the control in 7 proteins. It was found that in the early stages of chronic cerebral ischemia proteome changes in blood plasma affect proteins related to the immune system, the system for the maintenance of hemostasis and lipid metabolism.

  19. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on the expression of c-myb in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Young; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Won, Moo-Ho; Park, Chan Woo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present study, we investigated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on c-myb immunoreactivity as well as neuronal damage/death after a subsequent lethal transient ischemia in gerbils. Materials and Methods: IPC was subjected to a 2 min sublethal ischemia and a lethal transient ischemia was given 5 min transient ischemia. The animals in all of the groups were given recovery times of 1 day, 2 days and 5 days and we examined change in c-myb immunoreactivity as well as neuronal damage/death in the hippocampus induced by a lethal transient ischemia. Results: A lethal transient ischemia induced a significant loss of cells in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region at 5 days post-ischemia, and this insult showed that c-myb immunoreactivity in cells of the SP of the CA1 region was significantly decreased at 2 days post-ischemia and disappeared at 5 days post-ischemia. However, IPC effectively prevented the neuronal loss in the SP and showed that c-myb immunoreactivity was constitutively maintained in the SP after a lethal transient ischemia. Conclusion: Our results show that a lethal transient ischemia significantly decreased c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region and that IPC well preserved c-myb immunoreactivity in the SP of the CA1 region. We suggest that the maintenance of c-myb might be related with IPC-mediated neuroprotection after a lethal ischemic insult. PMID:27482343

  20. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lock, G; Schölmerich, J

    1995-07-01

    Non-occlusive disease of the mesentery is still a rather underdiagnosed and underestimated condition. It is associated with circumstances that may compromise circulation or the intake of drugs that may lower mesenteric blood flow. Pathophysiologically, a "low flow syndrome" of mesenteric circulation is followed by vasoconstriction; a reperfusion injury may contribute to the ischemic injury. Histopathological changes vary between superficial localized lesions and transmural gangrene. Diagnosis within the initial 24 hours of the development of symptoms is crucial for prognosis but remains a difficult task. Clinical presentation, laboratory tests and ultrasound lack specificity; the role of duplex ultrasound, tonometry and reflectance spectophotometry is still under evaluation. Mesenteric angiography remains the only reliable diagnostic tool and should be applied early in all patients in whom acute mesenteric ischemia is a real possibility. Therapy is aimed at the rapid correction of predisposing and precipitating factors and an effective treatment of mesenteric vasoconstriction. Treatment of choice is a papaverine infusion into the superior mesenteric artery via an angiography catheter. Patients with peritoneal signs have to be treated surgically.

  1. Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dworrak, Birgit; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Lucia, Alejandro; Buck, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, echocardiography has emerged as a dominant and indispensable technique for the detection and assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, we will describe and discuss this powerful tool of cardiology, especially in the hands of an experienced user, with a focus on myocardial ischemia. Technical development is still on-going, and various new ultrasound techniques have been established in the field of echocardiography in the last several years, including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), contrast echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE), and speckle tracking echocardiography (i.e., strain/strain rate-echocardiography). High-end equipment with harmonic imaging, high frame rates and the opportunity to adjust mechanical indices has improved imaging quality. Like all new techniques, these techniques must first be subjected to comprehensive scientific assessment, and appropriate training that accounts for physical and physiological limits should be provided. These limits will constantly be redefined as echocardiographic techniques continue to change, which will present new challenges for the further development of ultrasound technology. PMID:27500160

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms in cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Sophie; Meisel, Andreas; Märschenz, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Treatment efficacy for ischemic stroke represents a major challenge. Despite fundamental advances in the understanding of stroke etiology, therapeutic options to improve functional recovery remain limited. However, growing knowledge in the field of epigenetics has dramatically changed our understanding of gene regulation in the last few decades. According to the knowledge gained from animal models, the manipulation of epigenetic players emerges as a highly promising possibility to target diverse neurologic pathologies, including ischemia. By altering transcriptional regulation, epigenetic modifiers can exert influence on all known pathways involved in the complex course of ischemic disease development. Beneficial transcriptional effects range from attenuation of cell death, suppression of inflammatory processes, and enhanced blood flow, to the stimulation of repair mechanisms and increased plasticity. Most striking are the results obtained from pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylation in animal models of stroke. Multiple studies suggest high remedial qualities even upon late administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). In this review, the role of epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications as well as DNA methylation, is discussed in the context of known ischemic pathways of damage, protection, and regeneration. PMID:23756691

  3. [Critical limb ischemia--update].

    PubMed

    Melamed, Eitan; Kotyba, Baydousi; Galili, Offer; Karmeli, Ron

    2010-12-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most severe manifestation of peripheral artery occlusive disease. Without timely diagnosis and revascularization, patients with CLI are at risk of devastating complications including loss of limb and life. Therapeutic goals in treating patients with CLI include reducing cardiovascular risk factors, relieving ischemic pain, heating ulcers, preventing major amputation, improving quality of life and increasing survival. These aims may be achieved through medical therapy, revascularization or amputation. The past decade has seen substantial growth in endovascular therapies and options now exist for treating long segment occlusive disease, but surgical bypass may still yield more durable results. Patients who are younger, more active, and at low risk for surgery, may have better outcomes undergoing an operation. This is also indicated for endovascular failures, which may include technical failures or late occlusions after stents or other procedures. In contrast, frail patients with a limited life expectancy may experience better outcomes with endovascular therapy. For patients who are non-ambulatory, demented, or unfit to undergo revascularization, an amputation should be considered.

  4. Melatonin protects N2a against ischemia/reperfusion injury through autophagy enhancement.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanchun; Wang, Jianfei; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Yi; Wang, Ximing; Duan, Qiuhong

    2010-02-01

    Researches have shown that melatonin is neuroprotectant in ischemia/reperfusion-mediated injury. Although melatonin is known as an effective antioxidant, the mechanism of the protection cannot be explained merely by antioxidation. This study was devoted to explore other existing mechanisms by investigating whether melatonin protects ischemia/reperfusion-injured neurons through elevating autophagy, since autophagy has been frequently suggested to play a crucial role in neuron survival. To find it out, an ischemia/reperfusion model in N2a cells was established for examinations. The results showed that autophagy was significantly enhanced in N2a cells treated with melatonin at reperfusion onset following ischemia and greatly promoted cell survival, while autophagy blockage by 3-MA led to the shortened N2a cell survival as assessed by MTT, transmission electron microscopy, and laser confocal scanning microscopy. Besides, the protein levels of LC3II and Beclin1 were remarkably increased in ischemia/reperfusion-injured N2a in the presence of melatonin, whereas the expression of p-PKB, key kinase in PI3K/PKB signaling pathway, showed a decrease when compared with untreated subjects as accessed by immunoblotting. Taken together these data suggest that autophagy is possibly one of the mechanisms underlying neuroprotection of melatonin.

  5. Analysis of temporal dynamics in imagery during acute limb ischemia and reperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Regan, John; Spain, Tammy A.; Caruso, Joseph D.; Rodriquez, Maricela; Luthra, Rajiv; Forsberg, Jonathon; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion injuries present major challenges for both military and civilian medicine. Improved methods for assessing the effects and predicting outcome could guide treatment decisions. Specific issues related to ischemia and reperfusion injury can include complications arising from tourniquet use, such as microvascular leakage in the limb, loss of muscle strength and systemic failures leading to hypotension and cardiac failure. Better methods for assessing the viability of limbs/tissues during ischemia and reducing complications arising from reperfusion are critical to improving clinical outcomes for at-risk patients. The purpose of this research is to develop and assess possible prediction models of outcome for acute limb ischemia using a pre-clinical model. Our model relies only on non-invasive imaging data acquired from an animal study. Outcome is measured by pathology and functional scores. We explore color, texture, and temporal features derived from both color and thermal motion imagery acquired during ischemia and reperfusion. The imagery features form the explanatory variables in a model for predicting outcome. Comparing model performance to outcome prediction based on direct observation of blood chemistry, blood gas, urinalysis, and physiological measurements provides a reference standard. Initial results show excellent performance for the imagery-base model, compared to predictions based direct measurements. This paper will present the models and supporting analysis, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  6. Brain Ischemia in Patients with Intracranial Hemorrhage: Pathophysiological Reasoning for Aggressive Diagnostic Management

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Daniel; Arkuszewski, Michal; Rudzinski, Wojciech; Melhem, Elias R.; Krejza, Jaroslaw

    2013-01-01

    Summary Patients with intracranial hemorrhage have to be managed aggressively to avoid or minimize secondary brain damage due to ischemia, which contributes to high morbidity and mortality. The risk of brain ischemia, however, is not the same in every patient. The risk of complications associated with an aggressive prophylactic therapy in patients with a low risk of brain ischemia can outweigh the benefits of therapy. Accurate and timely identification of patients at highest risk is a diagnostic challenge. Despite the availability of many diagnostic tools, stroke is common in this population, mostly because the pathogenesis of stroke is frequently multifactorial whereas diagnosticians tend to focus on one or two risk factors. The pathophysiological mechanisms of brain ischemia in patients with intracranial hemorrhage are not yet fully elucidated and there are several important areas of ongoing research. Therefore, this review describes physiological and pathophysiological aspects associated with the development of brain ischemia such as the mechanism of oxygen and carbon dioxide effects on the cerebrovascular system, neurovascular coupling and respiratory and cardiovascular factors influencing cerebral hemodynamics. Consequently, we review investigations of cerebral blood flow disturbances relevant to various hemodynamic states associated with high intracranial pressure, cerebral embolism, and cerebral vasospasm along with current treatment options. PMID:24355179

  7. Panic attack triggering myocardial ischemia documented by myocardial perfusion imaging study. A case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chest pain, a key element in the investigation of coronary artery disease is often regarded as a benign prognosis when present in panic attacks. However, panic disorder has been suggested as an independent risk factor for long-term prognosis of cardiovascular diseases and a trigger of acute myocardial infarction. Objective Faced with the extreme importance in differentiate from ischemic to non-ischemic chest pain, we report a case of panic attack induced by inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide triggering myocardial ischemia, documented by myocardial perfusion imaging study. Discussion Panic attack is undoubtedly a strong component of mental stress. Patients with coronary artery disease may present myocardial ischemia in mental stress response by two ways: an increase in coronary vasomotor tone or a sympathetic hyperactivity leading to a rise in myocardial oxygen consumption. Coronary artery spasm was presumed to be present in cases of cardiac ischemia linked to panic disorder. Possibly the carbon dioxide challenge test could trigger myocardial ischemia by the same mechanisms. Conclusion The use of mental stress has been suggested as an alternative method for myocardial ischemia investigation. Based on translational medicine objectives the use of CO2 challenge followed by Sestamibi SPECT could be a useful method to allow improved application of research-based knowledge to the medical field, specifically at the interface of PD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22999016

  8. Effect of regional myocardial ischemia on sympathetic nervous system as assessed by fluorine-18-metaraminol

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, M.; Guibourg, H.; Rosenspire, K.; McClanahan, T.; Gallagher, K.; Hutchins, G.; Wieland, D.M. )

    1990-08-01

    With the introduction of radiolabeled catecholamine analogues, the noninvasive evaluation of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system has become possible. This study evaluated the effect of regional ischemia on myocardial retention of the new norepinephrine analogue 6-({sup 18}F) fluorometaraminol (FMR) in the open chest dog model. Six dogs were injected intravenously with FMR following 30-min occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. Six sham animals served as control group. Regional myocardial blood flow as determined by microspheres decreased 87% during ischemia (p less than 0.01), but was not significantly different from control myocardium following reperfusion. Regional myocardial 18F activity as determined postmortem was significantly reduced in reperfused myocardium (-34%), which paralleled an 18% reduction of tissue norepinephrine concentration. Thus, short time periods of coronary occlusion affect neuronal function indicating the sensitivity of the sympathetic nerve terminals to ischemia. FMR provides a new tracer approach for the characterization of neuronal integrity in postischemic myocardium.

  9. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  10. [Differential effects of isoflurane and nitrous oxide on cerebral blood flow, metabolism and electrocorticogram after incomplete cerebral ischemia in the rat].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Maekawa, T; Shinohara, K; Sakabe, T; Takeshita, H

    1989-07-01

    Differential effects of isoflurane (ISOF) and N2O on cerebral blood flow, metabolism and electrocorticogram (ECoG) were examined in rats subjected to 15 min-incomplete cerebral ischemia. In the first study, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and ECoG were measured during and after ischemia. In the second study, local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and glucose utilization (LCGU) were determined at 60 min after reperfusion. In the N2O group, rCBF in both the cerebral cortex and hippocampus decreased significantly to less than 10% of the pre-ischemic value during ischemia, and it increased to 170% at 10 min after reperfusion. The ECoG became flat during ischemia and reappeared at 21 min after reperfusion. In the ISOF group, rCBF decreased significantly to 25% during ischemia and returned to the preischemic value after reperfusion. The ECoG became flat during ischemia and reappeared at 14 min. In the N2O group, LCBFs decreased significantly to 40-50% of the pre-ischemic values in the forebrain. LCGUs decreased significantly to 30-50% in all structures of the forebrain. In the ISOF group, LCBFs decreased significantly to 60-80% in the forebrain, but were not different in other structures. LCGUs did not differ from pre-ischemic values in all structures except for in the thalamus and habenula. These results may indicate cerebral protective effects of ISOF on incomplete cerebral ischemia in rats.

  11. Autophagy activation attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Li; Cui, Li-Yan; Yang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a common clinical complication but lacks effective therapies. This study investigated the role of autophagy in renal I/R injury and explored potential mechanisms in an established rat renal I/R injury model. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, I/R, I/R pretreated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor), or I/R pretreated with rapamycin (autophagy activator). All rats were subjected to clamping of the left renal pedicle for 45 min after right nephrectomy, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The Sham group underwent the surgical procedure without ischemia. 3-MA and rapamycin were injected 15 min before ischemia. Renal function was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Tissue samples from the kidneys were scored histopathologically. Autophagy was indicated by light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, and p62 levels and the number of autophagic vacuoles. Apoptosis was evaluated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and expression of caspase-3. Autophagy was activated after renal I/R injury. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA before I/R aggravated renal injury, with worsened renal function, higher renal tissue injury scores, and more tubular apoptosis. In contrast, rapamycin pretreatment ameliorated renal injury, with improved renal function, lower renal tissue injury scores, and inhibited apoptosis based on fewer TUNEL-positive cells and lower caspase-3 expression. Our results demonstrate that autophagy could be activated during I/R injury and play a protective role in renal I/R injury. The mechanisms were involved in the regulation of several autophagy and apoptosis-related genes. Furthermore, autophagy activator may be a promising therapy for I/R injury and AKI in the future. PMID:25898836

  12. Simvastatin nanoparticles attenuated intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury by downregulating BMP4/COX-2 pathway in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Dong, Bo; Chai, Rongkui; Tong, Ke; Wang, Yini; Chen, Shipiao; Zhou, Xinmei; Liu, Daojun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to explore the therapeutic action of simvastatin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(gamma-benzyl l-glutamate) (PEG-b-PBLG50) on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (II/RI) through downregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway as compared to free simvastatin (Sim). Sprague Dawley rats were preconditioned with 20 mg/kg Sim or simvastatin/PEG-b-PBLG50 (Sim/P) compounds, and then subjected to 45 min of ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion. The blood and small intestines were collected, serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide (NO) were checked, and the dry/wet intestine ratios, superoxide dismutase activity, myeloperoxidase content, reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, protein 47 kDa phagocyte oxidase (p47phox), BMP4, COX-2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) expressions were measured in intestinal tissues. Both Sim and Sim/P pretreatment reduced intestinal oxidative damnification, restricted inflammatory harm, and downregulated the BMP4 and COX-2 expressions as compared to II/RI groups, while Sim/P remarkably improved this effect.

  13. Beneficial effect of pentoxifylline into the testis of rats in an experimental model of unilateral hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Moayer, Fariborz; Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of pentoxifylline (PTX) on remote testicular injury caused by unilateral hind limb ischemia/reperfusion of rats. Materials and Methods Twenty healthy male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into two groups: ischemia/reperfusion (IR group) and ischemia/reperfusion + pentoxifylline (IR+PTX group). Ischemia was induced by placement of a rubber tourniquet at the greater trochanter for 2h. Rats in IR+PTX group received PTX (40 mg/kg IP) before the reperfusion period. At 24h after reperfusion, testes were removed and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were determined in testicular tissues. Three rats of each group were used for wet/ dry weight ratio measurement. Testicular tissues were also examined histopathologically under light microscopy. Results Activities of SOD and CAT in testicular tissues were decreased by ischemia/ reperfusion (P<0.05). Significantly increased MDA levels in testicular tissues were decreased by PTX treatment (P<0.05). MPO activity in testicular tissues in the IR group was significantly higher than in the IR+PTX group (P<0.05). The wet/dry weight ratio of testicular tissues in the IR group was significantly higher than in the IR+PTX group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, there was a statistically significant difference between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusions According to histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that PTX has preventive effects in the testicular injury induced by hind limb ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:26200554

  14. Health incentive research and social justice: does the risk of long term harms to systematically disadvantaged groups bear consideration?

    PubMed

    Wild, Verina; Pratt, Bridget

    2017-03-01

    The ethics of health incentive research-a form of public health research-are not well developed, and concerns of justice have been least examined. In this paper, we explore what potential long term harms in relation to justice may occur as a result of such research and whether they should be considered as part of its ethical evaluation. 'Long term harms' are defined as harms that contribute to existing systematic patterns of disadvantage for groups. Their effects are experienced on a long term basis, persisting even once an incentive research project ends. We will first establish that three categories of such harms potentially arise as a result of health incentive interventions. We then argue that the risk of these harms also constitutes a morally relevant consideration for health incentive research and suggest who may be responsible for assessing and mitigating these risks. We propose that responsibility should be assigned on the basis of who initiates health incentive research projects. Finally, we briefly describe possible strategies to prevent or mitigate the risk of long term harms to members of disadvantaged groups, which can be employed during the design, conduct and dissemination of research projects.

  15. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on antioxidant status in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Min; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, In Hye

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a condition of sublethal transient global ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective effects against subsequent lethal ischemic insult. We, in this study, examined the neuroprotective effects of IPC and its effects on immunoreactive changes of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of animals died 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC (8.6% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group); however, IPC prevented the pyramidal neurons from subsequent lethal ischemic injury (92.3% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group). SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals were easily detected in pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region, while all of these immunoreactivities were rarely detected in the stratum pyramidale at 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC. Meanwhile, their immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals with IPC were similar to (SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) or higher (GPX) than those in the sham-operated animals without IPC. Furthermore, their immunoreactivities in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemia-operated animals with IPC were steadily maintained after lethal ischemia/reperfusion. Results of western blot analysis for SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX were similar to immunohistochemical data. In conclusion, IPC maintained or increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region after subsequent lethal transient forebrain ischemia and IPC exhibited neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region against transient forebrain ischemia. PMID:27630689

  16. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on antioxidant status in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Min; Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, In Hye

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a condition of sublethal transient global ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective effects against subsequent lethal ischemic insult. We, in this study, examined the neuroprotective effects of IPC and its effects on immunoreactive changes of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and SOD2, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia. Pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale (SP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of animals died 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC (8.6% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group); however, IPC prevented the pyramidal neurons from subsequent lethal ischemic injury (92.3% (ratio of remanent neurons) of the sham-operated group). SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals were easily detected in pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region, while all of these immunoreactivities were rarely detected in the stratum pyramidale at 5 days after lethal transient ischemia without IPC. Meanwhile, their immunoreactivities in the sham-operated animals with IPC were similar to (SOD1, SOD2 and CAT) or higher (GPX) than those in the sham-operated animals without IPC. Furthermore, their immunoreactivities in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemia-operated animals with IPC were steadily maintained after lethal ischemia/reperfusion. Results of western blot analysis for SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPX were similar to immunohistochemical data. In conclusion, IPC maintained or increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region after subsequent lethal transient forebrain ischemia and IPC exhibited neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region against transient forebrain ischemia.

  17. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor ameliorates delayed neuronal death in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus after transient global ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Iijima, T; Sawa, H; Shiokawa, Y; Saito, I; Ishii, H; Nakamura, Z; Sankawa, H

    1996-07-01

    Thromboxane A2 accumulates in the hippocampus after global ischemia and may play a key role in postischemic hypoperfusion. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (OKY-046) inhibits the accumulation of thromboxane A2 and promotes prostacycline production. Therefore, we set out to determine whether the inhibition of thromboxane synthesis would ameriolate postischemic neuronal death. Three groups of six Mongolian gerbils were subjected to different treatments: untreated control, untreated ischemia, and treated ischemia. Immediately after forebrain ischemia, OKY-046 (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into the treated group. After 7 days of survival, the histopathology of the brain was examined. Pyramidal cell density in the CA1 sector in the treated group was 147 +/- 70 nuclei/mm (mean +/- SD), which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than than in the untreated group (33 +/- 10 (nuclei/mm). The findings were 231 +/- 7 nuclei/mm for the control group. No significant difference was seen in the profile of temporal muscle temperature before and after ischemia between the groups. Ultrastructurally, the vessels in the CAI sector showed lumen patency in the treated group, whereas occluded vessels with an extended perivascular space were observed in the untreated group. Thromboxane synthetase inhibitor thus partly ameliorates the selective vulnerability of the hippocampus after forebrain ischemia, suggesting that thromboxane A2 is involved in the development of delayed neuronal death, independently of any thermal effect.

  18. Clinical and dietary outcome changes differ among adherence groups in a community based participatory research (CBPR) lifestyle intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased study participation and adherence to study protocol are cited as two significant research strengths of partnering with the community. Hence, the objective of this study was to test for differences among adherence groups for changes (baseline to 6 months) in clinical and dietary outcomes. ...

  19. Research participation by low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups: how payment may change the balance.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jennifer K; Burke, James F; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-10-01

    Minorities are underenrolled in clinical research trials, and one-third of trials are underenrolled overall. The role of payment has not been studied at the national level as an explanation for enrollment patterns. Our objective was to examine the distribution of self-reported previous research participation across different sociodemographic groups; to assess the public's perception of fair payment for a low-risk medicine trial and the association between requested payment and sociodemographic characteristics; to estimate the amount of payment for a medication trial to achieve proportional representation of minorities and different socioeconomic groups. This was a cross-sectional study with nationally representative data collected in 2011 by the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. To determine the relationship between perceived fair payment and individual-level characteristics, we used multivariable linear regression. With 60% participation rate, in a sample of 2,150 respondents 11% (n = 221) of the sample had previously participated in medical research. Requested payment differed significantly by racial/ethnic group with Hispanics requesting more payment than non-Hispanic whites (0.37 [95%CI 0.02, 0.72]) In contrast to payment at $49, $149, and $249, payment at $349 yielded proportional representation of racial/ethnic minority groups. Hispanics requested higher payment for research participation, suggesting a possible explanation for their underenrollment.

  20. Utilizing Visual/Spatial Techniques and Strategies To Develop an Integrated Curriculum: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurino, Dan R.; Saurino, Penny L.; See, Desiree

    A research group was interested in how an understanding of multiple intelligences might translate into a variety of teaching techniques and strategies directed toward specific intelligences they found in their eighth-grade science classroom. Because of the tremendous effect of mass media and other visual/spatial influences on students, the study…