Science.gov

Sample records for ising axis conversion

  1. First results from the six-axis electron spectrometer on ISEE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A survey, using results from the first 25 orbits of ISEE-1, was made of some aspects of electrons in the dawn magnetosheath. There are indications that the flow of plasma is not uniformly turbulent over this region. The electron heat flux is observed to be directed away from the shock and to have an average value of about twice the interplanetary heat flux. Many magnetopause crossings were observed and usually resemble abrupt transitions from one well-defined plasma state to another. The ejection of plasma from flux tubes convected up against the magnetopause is observed for about half the time, and its thickness and dependance on the solar wind Mach number agrees with theoretical predictions. A full traversal of the whole forward hemisphere of the magnetosheath is required to fully confirm these deductions.

  2. The Conversational Framework and the ISE "Basketball Shot" Video Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Vincent; Crotty, Yvonne; Farren, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Inspiring Science Education (ISE) (http://www.inspiringscience.eu/) is an EU funded initiative that seeks to further the use of inquiry-based science learning (IBSL) through the medium of ICT in the classroom. The Basketball Shot is a scenario (lesson plan) that involves the use of video capture to help the student investigate the concepts of…

  3. The UTRC wind energy conversion system performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines (WECSPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The theory for the UTRC Energy Conversion System Performance Analysis (WECSPER) for the prediction of horizontal axis wind turbine performance is presented. Major features of the analysis are the ability to: (1) treat the wind turbine blades as lifting lines with a prescribed wake model; (2) solve for the wake-induced inflow and blade circulation using real nonlinear airfoil data; and (3) iterate internally to obtain a compatible wake transport velocity and blade loading solution. This analysis also provides an approximate treatment of wake distortions due to tower shadow or wind shear profiles. Finally, selected results of internal UTRC application of the analysis to existing wind turbines and correlation with limited test data are described.

  4. Optical vortex conversion in the elliptic vortex-beam propagating orthogonally to the crystal optical axis: the experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolenko, Bogdan; Kudryavtseva, Maria; Zinovyev, Alexey; Konovalenko, Victor; Rubass, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have experimentally analyzed the topological reactions occurred in the elliptic vortex-beam transmitting orthogonally to the optical axis of the SiO2 crystal. We have revealed that the oscillations of the polarization state when propagating the beam are accompanied by reconstruction of the polarization singularities at the beam cross-section that, in turn, entails the reconstruction of the wavefront in each circularly polarized beam component. Both synchronic oscillations of the spin angular momentum and the sign of the vortex topological charge are expressing in a field structure as birth and annihilation of topological dipoles. Also periodical conversion of the vortex ellipticity along the crystal length z and huge splash of spin angular momentum were analysed. The run of the dislocation reactions in the beam component results in converting the sign of the topological charge in the centered optical vortex, the distance of the vortex conversion being about 0.05 of the wavelength.

  5. Horizontal Axis Wind Energy Conversion System with Aerodynamic Blade Pitch Control

    SciTech Connect

    Rossman, W. E.

    1983-12-27

    The horizontal axis wind turbine converts wind into electrical energy and includes a pitch control vane with a flyweight mechanism on each rotor blade to provide aerodynamic efficiency at operating wind velocities, near constant speed and zero lift pitch of the rotor blades when speeds exceed the design speed of the system. A gravity neutralization means composed of a bevel gear and pinions couples the blades together while a flyweight arrangement connected to the bevel gear acts to neutralize centrifugal torque on the blades.

  6. Vertical axis wind rotors: Status and potential. [energy conversion efficiency and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vance, W.

    1973-01-01

    The design and application of a vertical axis wind rotor is reported that operates as a two stage turbine wherein the wind impinging on the concave side is circulated through the center of the rotor to the back of the convex side, thus decreasing what might otherwise be a high negative pressure region. Successful applications of this wind rotor to water pumps, ship propulsion, and building ventilators are reported. Also shown is the feasibility of using the energy in ocean waves to drive the rotor. An analysis of the impact of rotor aspect ratio on rotor acceleration shows that the amount of venting between rotor vanes has a very significant effect on rotor speed for a given wind speed.

  7. Safety and wind energy conversion systems with horizontal axis (HA WECS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggwertz, S.; Carlsson, I.; Gustafsson, A.; Linde, M.; Lundemo, C.; Montgomerie, B.; Thor, S. E.

    1981-03-01

    Hazards imposed by a wind energy conversion system on the general public and on the operator personnel by complete collapse, by separation of fractured parts, or by pieces of ice (flying off) were calculated to provide a manual for safety evaluations. Land based large scale turbine systems with horizontal axes situated in areas with sparse population are considered. Blade material is assumed to be steel, aluminum alloy or fiber reinforced plastics; the tower being built of steel or reinforced concrete. Primary structure, function and failure modes are identified. Statistical information of loads and load combinations, strength properties of materials and geometry deviation are provided. A simplified method of risk analysis is described. The object and function of a safety system, both hardware and software, is reviewed, considering the effects of inspection and repair. The probability of being hit is evaluated, provided a fracture occurs and a risk zone is established.

  8. ISE structural dynamic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

  9. ISE structural dynamic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

  10. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  11. Deterministic Ising dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1986-03-01

    A deterministic cellular automation rule is presented which simulates the Ising model. On each cell in addition to an Ising spin is a space-time parity bit and a variable playing the role of a momentum conjugate to the spin. The procedure permits study of nonequilibrium phenomena, heat flow, mixing, and time correlations. The algorithm can make full use of multispin coding, thus permitting fast programs involving parallel processing on serial machines.

  12. Basal plane dislocation conversion near the epilayer/substrate interface in epitaxial growth of 4° off-axis 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haizheng; Sudarshan, Tangali S.

    2013-05-01

    The conversion of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) is investigated in the epitaxial growth of 4° off-axis SiC by three approaches: (1) regular growth on untreated substrates, (2) growth on pre-etched substrates and (3) growth-etch-regrowth approach. In the regular growth, ˜99.0% of the substrate BPDs are converted to threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in the vicinity of the epilayer/substrate interface and the rest ˜1.0% BPDs are converted throughout the ˜20 μm thick epilayer. A modified KOH-NaOH-MgO eutectic mixture is developed to mildly etch the substrate in approach (2) or a grown buffer-layer in approach (3) to enhance BPD conversion rate. In the subsequent epitaxial growth, the BPD conversion rate near the interface is enhanced up to 99.9% in approach (2) and to 100% in approach (3). Using the modified KOH-NaOH-MgO eutectic mixture, very mild etching of the surfaces (substrate or buffer-layer) for a short duration (2-3 min) will generate very small etch pits, and will not degrade the morphology of the etched surfaces and also that of the subsequently grown epilayer surfaces, but very high (˜100%) BPD conversion rate is still preserved. Post-polishing process is no longer needed for future device fabrication. It is proposed that the opening of a sector plane in the BPD etch pit, which enables lateral epitaxial growth to pinch off the step-flow growth inside the etch pit, is responsible for the high BPD conversion rate near the interface. The degree of anisotropic etching in the <11-20> directions versus the <1-100> directions determines the sector open angle of the BPD etch pits. The degree of anisotropic etching is studied for different KOH formulations—pure KOH, regular KOH-NaOH eutectic and the modified KOH-NaOH-MgO eutectic mixture.

  13. An electromechanical Ising Hamiltonian

    PubMed Central

    Mahboob, Imran; Okamoto, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Solving intractable mathematical problems in simulators composed of atoms, ions, photons, or electrons has recently emerged as a subject of intense interest. We extend this concept to phonons that are localized in spectrally pure resonances in an electromechanical system that enables their interactions to be exquisitely fashioned via electrical means. We harness this platform to emulate the Ising Hamiltonian whose spin 1/2 particles are replicated by the phase bistable vibrations from the parametric resonances of multiple modes. The coupling between the mechanical spins is created by generating two-mode squeezed states, which impart correlations between modes that can imitate a random, ferromagnetic state or an antiferromagnetic state on demand. These results suggest that an electromechanical simulator could be built for the Ising Hamiltonian in a nontrivial configuration, namely, for a large number of spins with multiple degrees of coupling. PMID:28861469

  14. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  15. Learning planar ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason K; Chertkov, Michael; Netrapalli, Praneeth

    2010-11-12

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus our attention on the class of planar Ising models, for which inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics [Kac and Ward; Kasteleyn]. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding [Chrobak and Payne], we propose a simple greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. We present the results of numerical experiments evaluating the performance of our algorithm.

  16. Learning planar Ising models

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Jason K.; Oyen, Diane Adele; Chertkov, Michael; ...

    2016-12-01

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus on the class of planar Ising models, for which exact inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding, we propose a greedy algorithm for learning the bestmore » planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. Finally, we demonstrate our method in simulations and for two applications: modeling senate voting records and identifying geo-chemical depth trends from Mars rover data.« less

  17. Learning planar Ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason K.; Oyen, Diane Adele; Chertkov, Michael; Netrapalli, Praneeth

    2016-12-01

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus on the class of planar Ising models, for which exact inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding, we propose a greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. Finally, we demonstrate our method in simulations and for two applications: modeling senate voting records and identifying geo-chemical depth trends from Mars rover data.

  18. ISE System Development Methodology Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hayhoe, G.F.

    1992-02-17

    The Information Systems Engineering (ISE) System Development Methodology Manual (SDM) is a framework of life cycle management guidelines that provide ISE personnel with direction, organization, consistency, and improved communication when developing and maintaining systems. These guide-lines were designed to allow ISE to build and deliver Total Quality products, and to meet the goals and requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Savannah River Company, and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  19. Characterization of the Dilute Ising Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, Timothy

    2000-09-12

    A spin glass is a magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions compete, thereby creating frustration and a multidegenerate state with no long range order. An Ising system is a system where the spins are constrained to lie parallel or antiparallel to a primary axis. There has been much theoretical interest in the past ten years in the effects of applying a magnetic field transverse to the primary axis in an Ising spin glass at low temperatures and thus study phase transitions at the T=0 limit. The focus of this study is to search for and characterize a new Ising spin glass system. This is accomplished by site diluting yttrium for terbium in the crystalline material TbNi2Ge2. The first part of this work gives a brief overview of the physics of rare earth magnetism and an overview of experimental characteristics of spin glasses. This is followed by the methodology used to manufacture the large single crystals used in this study, as well as the measurement techniques used. Next, a summary of the results of magnetic measurements on across the dilution series from pure terbium to pure yttrium is presented. This is followed by detailed measurements on particular dilutions which demonstrate spin glass behavior. Pure TbNi2Ge2 is an Ising antiferromagnet with a several distinct metamagnetic states below 17 K. As the terbium is alloyed with yttrium, these magnetic states are weakened in a consistent manner, as is seen in measurements of the transition temperatures and analysis of Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature. At low concentrations of terbium, below 35%, long range order is no longer present and a spin-glass-like state emerges. This state is studied through various measurements, dc and ac susceptibility, resistivity, and specific heat. This magnetic behavior was then compared to that of other well characterized spin glasses. It is concluded that there is a region of

  20. Fermions as generalized Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-04-01

    We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.

  1. Limiting shapes in two-dimensional Ising ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Krapivsky, P L; Olejarz, Jason

    2013-06-01

    We consider an Ising model on a square lattice with ferromagnetic spin-spin interactions spanning beyond nearest neighbors. Starting from initial states with a single unbounded interface separating ordered phases, we investigate the evolution of the interface subject to zero-temperature spin-flip dynamics. We consider an interface which is initially (i) the boundary of the quadrant or (ii) the boundary of a semi-infinite bar. In the former case the interface recedes from its original location in a self-similar diffusive manner. After a rescaling by √[t], the shape of the interface becomes more and more deterministic; we determine this limiting shape analytically and verify our predictions numerically. The semi-infinite bar acquires a stationary shape resembling a finger, and this finger translates along its axis. We compute the limiting shape and the velocity of the Ising finger.

  2. ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 fast plasma experiment and the ISEE-1 solar wind experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Felthauser, H. E.; Glore, J. P.; Paschmann, G.; Hemmerich, P.; Lehmann, K.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1978-01-01

    Identical fast plasma experiment (FPE) systems were placed on the ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 spacecraft. The FPE consists of three high efficiency 90 deg spherical section electrostatic analyzers using large secondary emitters and discrete dynode multipliers to detect analyzed particles. Two of them, viewing in opposite directions, produce complete 2D velocity distribution measurements of both protons and electrons every spacecraft revolution. A third FPE analyzer with a divided emitter measures 3D distributions at a slower rate. ISEE-1 also carries a solar-wind experiment (SWE) to measure solar-wind ions with high resolution. The SWE is composed of two 150 deg spherical section analyzers using the same set of plates. The two acceptance fans are tilted with respect to each other so that 3D characteristics of the ion distributions can be derived.

  3. Ising systems with pairwise competing surface fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milchev, A.; DeVirgiliis, A.; Binder, K.

    2005-11-01

    The magnetization distribution and phase behaviour of large but finite Ising simple cubic L × L × L lattices in d = 3 dimensions and square L × L lattices in d = 2 dimensions are studied for the case where four free boundaries are present, at which surface fields +Hs act on one pair of opposite boundaries while surface fields -Hs act on the other pair (in d = 3, periodic boundary conditions are used for the remaining pair). Both the distribution PL(m) of the global magnetization and also the distribution of the local magnetization m(x,z) are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, where x and z denote the coordinates when the boundaries are oriented along the x-axis and z-axis (in d = 2); or along the xy-plane and zy-plane (in d = 3, where the periodic boundary condition applies in the y-direction). Varying the temperature T and linear dimension L it is found that a single bulk rounded phase transition occurs, which converges to the bulk transition temperature Tcb as L \\rightarrow \\infty , unlike other geometric arrangements of competing boundary fields, where a second transition occurs in the bulk due to interface formation or delocalization, related to wedge or corner filling or wetting transitions, respectively. In the present geometry, only precursors of wetting layers form on those boundaries where the field is oppositely oriented to the magnetization in the bulk and the thickness of these layers is found to scale like L1/2 (in d = 2) or lnL (in d = 3), respectively. These findings are explained in terms of a phenomenological theory based on the effective interface Hamiltonian and scaling considerations.

  4. Long-range dependence of the two-dimensional Ising model at critical temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipiras, Vladas; Taqqu, Murad S.

    2015-03-01

    The paper gives probabilists who are unfamiliar with the Ising model a coherent, integrated explanation of why the Ising model displays long-range dependence at critical temperature. The Ising model in two dimensions involves spins σj,k = ±1 located at every node (j,k) of the lattice, with nearest neighbor interactions. We shall focus on the covariances [{E}{σ _0},_0{σ _0}{,_N}] and [{E}{σ _0},_0{σ _N}{,_N}] between the spin at the origin and the spin located either on the axis at (0,N) or located on the diagonal at (N,N), when the temperature equals a critical value. Using a recent formulation of the so-called `Szegö's theorem', we explain why these covariances decrease to zero like N-1/4 as N → ∞, thus at a slow enough rate so as to exhibit long-range dependence.

  5. Melting of an Ising quadrant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone; Sadhu, Tridib

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Ising ferromagnet endowed with zero-temperature spin-flip dynamics and examine the evolution of the Ising quadrant, namely the spin configuration when the minority phase initially occupies one quadrant while the majority phase occupies the three remaining quadrants. The two phases are then always separated by a single interface, which generically recedes into the minority phase in a self-similar diffusive manner. The area of the invaded region grows (on average) linearly with time and exhibits non-trivial fluctuations. We map the interface separating the two phases onto the one-dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process and utilize this isomorphism to compute basic cumulants of the area. First, we determine the variance via an exact microscopic analysis (the Bethe ansatz). Then we turn to a continuum treatment by recasting the underlying exclusion process into the framework of the macroscopic fluctuation theory. This provides a systematic way of analyzing the statistics of the invaded area and allows us to determine the asymptotic behaviors of the first four cumulants of the area.

  6. Signal Acquisition Using AXIe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narciso, Steven J.

    2011-08-01

    An emerging test and measurement standard called AXIe, AdvancedTCA extensions for Instrumentation, is expected to find wide acceptance within the Physics community as it offers many benefits to applications including shock, plasma, particle and nuclear physics. It is expected that many COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) signal conditioning, acquisition and processing modules will become available from a range of different suppliers. AXIe uses AdvancedTCA® as its basis, but then levers test and measurement industry standards such as PXI, IVI, and LXI to facilitate cooperation and plug-and-play interoperability between COTS instrument suppliers. AXIe's large board footprint and power allows high density in a 19" rack, enabling the development of high-performance signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, and data processing, while offering channel count scalability inherent in modular systems. Synchronization between modules is flexible and provided by two triggering structures: a parallel trigger bus, and radially-distributed, time-matched point-to-point trigger lines. Inter-module communication is also provided with an adjacent module local bus allowing data transfer to 600 Gbits/s in each direction, for example between a front-end digitizer and DSP. AXIe allows embedding high performance computing and a range of COTS AdvancedTCA® computer blades are currently available that provide low cost alternatives to the development of custom signal processing modules. The availability of both LAN and PCI Express allow interconnection between modules, as well as industry-standard high-performance data paths to external host computer systems. AXIe delivers a powerful environment for custom module devel opment. As in the case of VXIbus and PXI before it, commercial development kits are expected to be available. This paper will give an overview of the architectural elements of AXIe 1.0, the compatibility model with AdvancedTCA, and signal acquisition performance of many

  7. ISE: An Integrated Search Environment. The manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Lon-Chan

    1992-01-01

    Integrated Search Environment (ISE), a software package that implements hierarchical searches with meta-control, is described in this manual. ISE is a collection of problem-independent routines to support solving searches. Mainly, these routines are core routines for solving a search problem and they handle the control of searches and maintain the statistics related to searches. By separating the problem-dependent and problem-independent components in ISE, new search methods based on a combination of existing methods can be developed by coding a single master control program. Further, new applications solved by searches can be developed by coding the problem-dependent parts and reusing the problem-independent parts already developed. Potential users of ISE are designers of new application solvers and new search algorithms, and users of experimental application solvers and search algorithms. The ISE is designed to be user-friendly and information rich. In this manual, the organization of ISE is described and several experiments carried out on ISE are also described.

  8. Stable Degeneracies for Ising Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauf, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    We introduce and consider the notion of stable degeneracies of translation invariant energy functions, taken at spin configurations of a finite Ising model. By this term we mean the lack of injectivity that cannot be lifted by changing the interaction. We show that besides the symmetry-induced degeneracies, related to spin flip, translation and reflection, there exist additional stable degeneracies, due to more subtle symmetries. One such symmetry is the one of the Singer group of a finite projective plane. Others are described by combinatorial relations akin to trace identities. Our results resemble traits of the length spectrum for closed geodesics on a Riemannian surface of constant negative curvature. There, stable degeneracy is defined w.r.t. Teichmüller space as parameter space.

  9. Observation of Schramm-Loewner evolution on the geometrical clusters of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    Schramm-Loewner Evolution (SLE) is a stochastic process that, by focusing on the geometrical features of the two-dimensional (2D) conformal invariant models, classifies them using one real parameter κ. In this work we apply the SLE formalism to the exterior frontiers of the geometrical clusters (interfaces) of the two-dimensional critical Ising model on the triangular lattice. We first analyze the critical curves going from the real axis to the real axis in the upper half plane geometry and show numerically that SLE(κ, κ - 6) works well to extract the diffusivity parameter κ. We then analyze the conformal loops of the critical Ising model. After determining some geometrical exponents of the critical loops as the interfaces of the model in hand, we address the problem of application of SLE to conformal loops. We numerically show that SLE(κ, κ - 6) is more reliable than previous methods.

  10. Solar wind control of the distant magnetotail: ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    During a 40-day period in 1983, International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) was located about 225 R(sub E) behind the Earth and remained within 12 R(sub E) of the nominal tail axis. During this time the spacecraft spent at least 70% of its time in the magnetotail with occasional excursions into the magnetosheath. However, during five geomagnetically distrubed intervals of 1 - 3 days duration during this period, ISEE 3 remained within the magnetosheath for extended intervals, even when it was very near the center of an average tail. Simultaneous observations of the solar wind direction and thermal pressure suggest that nonradial solar wind flow associated with interacting solar wind streams moves a compressed tail away from the nominal position at these times and explains most of these observations. However, during several few-hour intervals of strongly northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) within these periods, the solar wind is more radial and cannot explain the residence of the spacecraft in the magnetosheath. At these times ISEE 3 seems to be moving back and forth between two regions, one a higher-density, lower-temperature magnetosheathlike region but with density somewhat lower than the normal magnetosheath, the other a lower-density, higher-temperature taillike region but with density higher than the normal tail. Both regions have larger B(sub z) components and B(sub x) components that tend to vary as if the spacecraft were moving from one hemisphere of the tail to the other. It is suggested that the magnetotail at these times of northward IMF consists mostly of field lines that close Earthward of the spacecraft with a narrow remaining tail at 225 R(sub E) waving back and forth across the spacecraft. If relatively rare intervals of long-duration, very northward IMF can eliminate the extended tail, it seems likely that more common, less northward IMF might well have very important, though less drastic, effects on the tail configurations.

  11. Genotoxicity evaluation of Isaria sinclairii (ISE) extract.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mi Young; Ryu, Kang Sun; Jee, Sang Duck; Kim, Iksoo; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, In Sun; Kang, Se C; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Yo An; Choi, Sul Min; Yoo, Eun Jeong; Kwack, Seung Jun; Yoo, Sun Dong; Lee, Byung Mu

    2004-12-01

    The mutagenic potential Isaria sinclairii, a traditional Chinese medicine composed of the fruiting bodies of I. sinclairii and its parasitic host larva, was evaluated using short-term genotoxicity tests, namely, the Ames test, chromosome aberration (CA), and micronuclei (MN) tests. In a Salmonella typhimurium assay, I. sinclairii extract (ISE) did not produce any mutagenic response in the absence or presence of 59 mix with TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537. In the chromosome aberration (CA) test, ISE induced no significant effect on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells compared with control. In the MN test, no significant change in the occurrence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was observed in male ICR mice intraperitoneally administered ISE at doses of 15, 150, or 1500 mg/kg. These results indicate that ISE has no mutagenic potential in these in vitro and in vivo systems.

  12. Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Song, Z

    2015-10-23

    We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic XY model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the XY model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram.

  13. Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Song, Z.

    2015-10-01

    We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic X Y model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the X Y model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram.

  14. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three US satellites designed to study the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. ISEE-1 and 2 were placed into highly elliptical Earth orbits. ISEE-3 was placed in a halo orbit at the L1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and Earth. It gave advance warning of solar storms heading towards Earth. (See also INTERNATIONAL COMETARY EXPLORER and EXPLORER.)...

  15. Ising formulations of many NP problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    We provide Ising formulations for many NP-complete and NP-hard problems, including all of Karp's 21 NP-complete problems. This collects and extends mappings to the Ising model from partitioning, covering and satisfiability. In each case, the required number of spins is at most cubic in the size of the problem. This work may be useful in designing adiabatic quantum optimization algorithms.

  16. Applications of ISES for meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are summarized from an initial assessment of the potential real-time meteorological requirements for the data from Eos systems. Eos research scientists associated with facility instruments, investigator instruments, and interdisciplinary groups with data related to meteorological support were contacted, along with those from the normal operational user and technique development groups. Two types of activities indicated the greatest need for real-time Eos data: technology transfer groups (e.g., NOAA's Forecasting System Laboratory and the DOD development laboratories), and field testing groups with airborne operations. A special concern was expressed by several non-U.S. participants who desire a direct downlink to be sure of rapid receipt of the data for their area of interest. Several potential experiments or demonstrations are recommended for ISES which include support for hurricane/typhoon forecasting, space shuttle reentry, severe weather forecasting (using microphysical cloud classification techniques), field testing, and quick reaction of instrumented aircraft to measure such events as polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic eruptions.

  17. Data from ISEE-3 for the IMS period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    The International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) Project represents a joint effort between the European Space Agency and NASA. The primary objective of the project is the study of the outer magnetosphere. A review is presented concerning the data available from ISEE-3 up to the end of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) period (December 31, 1979), taking into account the approaches used to obtain the data. Attention is given to the ISEE-3 as an upstream monitor, ISEE-3 an an observer of the magnetosphere, aspects of ISEE-3 data availability, questions regarding the data link, and the definitive orbit position of ISEE-3 throughout the IMS.

  18. Loss of INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT (ISE)1 or ISE2 increases the formation of secondary plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2010-06-08

    Plasmodesmata (PD) transport developmentally important nucleic acids and proteins between plant cells. Primary PD form during cell division and are simple, linear channels. Secondary PD form in existing cell walls after cell division and are simple, twinned, or branched. PD function undergoes a marked reduction at the mid-torpedo stage of Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Two mutants, increased size exclusion limit (ise)1 and ise2, fail to undergo this transition, and their null mutations are embryonically lethal. We investigated the ultrastructure of PD in early-, mid-, and late-torpedo-stage embryos and in young leaves. Wild-type (WT) embryos contain twinned and branched (T/B) PD at all stages, but ise1 and ise2 embryos contain significantly higher proportions of T/B PD than WT embryos. WT T/B PD formation occurs in a stage- and tissue-specific pattern that is reversed in ise1 embryos. Silencing ISE1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves increases the frequency of secondary PD in existing cell walls. Silencing ISE2 increases the proportion of T/B secondary PD formed. Silenced tissues exhibit increased PD-mediated movement of green fluorescent protein tracers. Thus, silencing of ISE1 and ISE2 phenocopies ise1 and ise2 mutant embryos: when wild-type ISE1 and ISE2 functions are lost, de novo production of PD occurs, leading to increased intercellular transport.

  19. Multicritical behavior in dissipative Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeck, Vincent R.; Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    We analyze theoretically the many-body dynamics of a dissipative Ising model in a transverse field using a variational approach. We find that the steady-state phase diagram is substantially modified compared to its equilibrium counterpart, including the appearance of a multicritical point belonging to a different universality class. Building on our variational analysis, we establish a field-theoretical treatment corresponding to a dissipative variant of a Ginzburg-Landau theory, which allows us to compute the upper critical dimension of the system. Finally, we present a possible experimental realization of the dissipative Ising model using ultracold Rydberg gases.

  20. Quantum Ising model coupled with conducting electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yasufumi; Yonemitsu, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    The effect of photo-doping on the quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 is studied by using the one-dimensional quantum Ising model, where the Ising spin describes the effective lattice polarization of an optical phonon. Two types of electron-phonon couplings are introduced through the modulation of transfer integral via lattice deformations. After the exact diagonalization and the perturbation studies, we find that photo-induced low-density carriers can drastically alter quantum fluctuations when the system locates near the quantum critical point between the quantum para- and ferro-electric phases.

  1. SMJ's analysis of Ising model correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.; Kohmoto, Mahito

    1980-05-01

    In a series of recent publications Sato, Miwa, and Jimbo (SMJ) have shown how to derive multispin correlation functions of the two-dimensional Ising model in the continuum, or scaling, limit by analyzing the behavior of the solutions to the two-dimensional version of the Dirac equation. The major purpose of the present work is to describe SMJ's analysis more discursively and in terms closer to that used in previous studies of the Ising model. In addition, new and more compact expressions for their basic equations are derived. A single new answer is obtained: the form of the three-spin correlation function at criticality.

  2. Ising spin glasses in dimension five

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ising spin-glass models with bimodal, Gaussian, uniform, and Laplacian interaction distributions in dimension five are studied through detailed numerical simulations. The data are analyzed in both the finite-size scaling regime and the thermodynamic limit regime. It is shown that the values of critical exponents and of dimensionless observables at criticality are model dependent. Models in a single universality class have identical values for each of these critical parameters, so Ising spin-glass models in dimension five with different interaction distributions each lie in different universality classes. This result confirms conclusions drawn from measurements in dimension four and dimension two.

  3. Ising spin glasses in dimension five.

    PubMed

    Lundow, P H; Campbell, I A

    2017-01-01

    Ising spin-glass models with bimodal, Gaussian, uniform, and Laplacian interaction distributions in dimension five are studied through detailed numerical simulations. The data are analyzed in both the finite-size scaling regime and the thermodynamic limit regime. It is shown that the values of critical exponents and of dimensionless observables at criticality are model dependent. Models in a single universality class have identical values for each of these critical parameters, so Ising spin-glass models in dimension five with different interaction distributions each lie in different universality classes. This result confirms conclusions drawn from measurements in dimension four and dimension two.

  4. Optimised simulated annealing for Ising spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, S. V.; Zintchenko, I. N.; Rønnow, T. F.; Troyer, M.

    2015-07-01

    We present several efficient implementations of the simulated annealing algorithm for Ising spin glasses on sparse graphs. In particular, we provide a generic code for any choice of couplings, an optimised code for bipartite graphs, and highly optimised implementations using multi-spin coding for graphs with small maximum degree and discrete couplings with a finite range. The latter codes achieve up to 50 spin flips per nanosecond on modern Intel CPUs. We also compare the performance of the codes to that of the special purpose D-Wave devices built for solving such Ising spin glass problems.

  5. Aneesur Rahman Prize: The Inverse Ising Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swendsen, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Many methods are available for carrying out computer simulations of a model Hamiltonian to obtain thermodynamic information by generating a set of configurations. The inverse problem consists of recreating the parameters of the Hamiltonian, given a set of configurations. The problem arises in a variety of contexts, and there has been much interest recently in the inverse Ising problem, in which the configurations consist of Ising spins. I will discuss an efficient method for solving the problem and what it can tell us about the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

  6. An unusual charging event on ISEE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Whipple, E. C.

    1988-06-01

    Electrostatic cleanliness requirements on ISEE 1 were expected to prevent negative charging in sunlight. This has largely been true, but on three occasions, ISEE 1 has been observed to charge to significant negative potentials in sunlight. Data from the two electric field experiments and from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 show that the spacecraft charged to close to -70 V in sunlight at about 0700 UT on March 17, 1978. Data from the electron spectrometer experiments show that there was a potential barrier of some -10 to -20 V about the spacecraft during this event. The potential barrier was effective in turning back emitted photoelectrons to the spacecraft. Potential barriers can be formed by differential charging on the spacecraft or by the presence of excess space charge in the plasma. The shape of the barrier suggests that it is due to the former, even though electrostatic cleanliness specifications imposed on ISEE were intended to eliminate differential charging. Modeling of this event showed that the barrier could not be produced by the presence of space charge but that it was most likely produced by differential charging of the solar arrays.

  7. ISEE/ICE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed for the period 1 Jan. 1985 to 30 Oct. 1989 is presented. The objective was to provide reduction and analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3)/International Cometary Explorer (ICE) missions.

  8. Ising model of a glass transition.

    PubMed

    Langer, J S

    2013-07-01

    Numerical simulations by Tanaka and co-workers indicate that glass-forming systems of moderately polydisperse hard-core particles, in both two and three dimensions, exhibit diverging correlation lengths. These correlations are described by Ising-like critical exponents, and are associated with diverging, Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann, structural relaxation times. Related simulations of thermalized hard disks indicate that the curves of pressure versus packing fraction for different polydispersities exhibit a sequence of transition points, starting with a liquid-hexatic transition for the monodisperse case, and crossing over with increasing polydispersity to glassy, Ising-like critical points. I propose to explain these observations by assuming that glass-forming fluids contain twofold degenerate, locally ordered clusters of particles, similar to the two-state systems that have been invoked to explain other glassy phenomena. This paper starts with a brief statistical derivation of the thermodynamics of thermalized, hard-core particles. It then discusses how a two-state, Ising-like model can be described within that framework in terms of a small number of statistically relevant, internal state variables. The resulting theory agrees accurately with the simulation data. I also propose a rationale for the observed relation between the Ising-like correlation lengths and the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann formula.

  9. Transverse axis fluid turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, B.

    1983-11-15

    A fluid turbine, the rotation axis of which is transverse to the direction of fluid flow, has at least two blade assemblies mounted for rotation about the rotation axis. Each blade assembly includes a streamlined elongated blade having a span parallel to the rotation axis. Each blade is pivotable about a pivot axis parallel to and spaced from the rotation axis. The pivot axis is located circumferentially ahead of the blade center of pressure with respect to the direction of turbine rotation. Each blade assembly is so constructed that its center of mass is located either at its pivot axis or circumferentially at its pivot axis and radially outboard of its pivot axis.

  10. The 1983 tail-era series. Volume 1: ISEE 3 plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Phillips, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from the ISEE 3 electron analyzer are presented in plots. Electrons were measured in 15 continuous energy levels between 8.5 and 1140 eV during individual 3-sec spacecraft spins. Times associated with each data point are the beginning time of the 3 sec data collection interval. Moments calculated from the measured distribution function are shown as density, temperature, velocity, and velocity azimuthal angle. Spacecraft ephemeris is shown at the bottom in GSE and GSM coordinates in units of Earth radii, with vertical ticks on the time axis corresponding to the printed positions.

  11. The 1983 tail-era series. Volume 1: ISEE 3 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Phillips, J. L.

    1991-04-01

    Observations from the ISEE 3 electron analyzer are presented in plots. Electrons were measured in 15 continuous energy levels between 8.5 and 1140 eV during individual 3-sec spacecraft spins. Times associated with each data point are the beginning time of the 3 sec data collection interval. Moments calculated from the measured distribution function are shown as density, temperature, velocity, and velocity azimuthal angle. Spacecraft ephemeris is shown at the bottom in GSE and GSM coordinates in units of Earth radii, with vertical ticks on the time axis corresponding to the printed positions.

  12. Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraci, Joseph; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-07-01

    We exploit a recently constructed mapping between quantum circuits and graphs in order to prove that circuits corresponding to certain planar graphs can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof uses an expression for the Ising model partition function in terms of quadratically signed weight enumerators (QWGTs), which are polynomials that arise naturally in an expansion of quantum circuits in terms of rotations involving Pauli matrices. We combine this expression with a known efficient classical algorithm for the Ising partition function of any planar graph in the absence of an external magnetic field, and the Robertson-Seymour theorem from graph theory. We give as an example a set of quantum circuits with a small number of non-nearest-neighbor gates which admit an efficient classical simulation.

  13. Anomalously high potentials observed on ISEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C.; Krinsky, I. S.; Torbert, R. B.; Olsen, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Data from the two electric field experiments and from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE-1 show that the spacecraft charged to close to -70 V in sunlight at about 0700 UT on March 17, 1978. Data from the electron spectrometer experiment show that there was a potential barrier of some -10 to -20 V about the spacecraft during this event. The potential barrier was effective in turning back emitted photoelectrons to the spacecraft. Potential barriers can be formed because of differential charging on the spacecraft or because of the presence of space charge. The stringent electrostatic cleanliness specifications imposed on ISEE make the presence of differential charging unlikely, if these precautions were effective. Modeling of this event is required to determine if the barrier was produced by the presence of space charge.

  14. Antiferromagnetic Ising Model in Hierarchical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiang; Boettcher, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The Ising antiferromagnet is a convenient model of glassy dynamics. It can introduce geometric frustrations and may give rise to a spin glass phase and glassy relaxation at low temperatures [ 1 ] . We apply the antiferromagnetic Ising model to 3 hierarchical networks which share features of both small world networks and regular lattices. Their recursive and fixed structures make them suitable for exact renormalization group analysis as well as numerical simulations. We first explore the dynamical behaviors using simulated annealing and discover an extremely slow relaxation at low temperatures. Then we employ the Wang-Landau algorithm to investigate the energy landscape and the corresponding equilibrium behaviors for different system sizes. Besides the Monte Carlo methods, renormalization group [ 2 ] is used to study the equilibrium properties in the thermodynamic limit and to compare with the results from simulated annealing and Wang-Landau sampling. Supported through NSF Grant DMR-1207431.

  15. Distinguishing XY from Ising electron nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, S.; Carlson, E. W.

    2017-08-01

    At low temperatures in ultraclean GaAs-AlGaAs heterojunctions, high Landau levels near half-integral filling break rotational symmetry, leading to increasingly anisotropic transport properties as temperature is lowered below ˜150 mK . While the onset of transport anisotropy is well described by an XY model of an electron nematic in the presence of a weak uniform symmetry-breaking term, the low-temperature behavior deviates significantly from this model. We find that inclusion of interactions between the electron nematic and the underlying crystalline lattice in the form of a fourfold symmetry-breaking term is sufficient to describe the entire temperature dependence of the transport anisotropy at ν =9 /2 . This implies that this electron nematic is in the Ising universality class. We propose new experimental tests that can distinguish whether any two-dimensional electron nematic is in the XY or Ising universality class.

  16. Initial thermal plasma observations from ISEE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Horwitz, J. L.; Shelley, E. G.; Young, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    The initial measurements of magnetospheric thermal ions by the Plasma Composition Experiment on ISEE-1 are presented to demonstrate the surprising variety in this plasma population. The data provide evidence that the adiabatic mapping of the high latitude ionosphere to the equatorial plasma trough provides an insufficient description of the origin, transport, and accumulation processes which supply low energy ions to the outer plasmasphere and plasma trough.

  17. Initial thermal plasma observations from ISEE-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Horwitz, J. L.; Shelley, E. G.; Young, D. T.

    1980-09-01

    The initial measurements of magnetospheric thermal ions by the Plasma Composition Experiment on ISEE-1 are presented to demonstrate the surprising variety in this plasma population. The data provide evidence that the adiabatic mapping of the high latitude ionosphere to the equatorial plasma trough provides an insufficient description of the origin, transport, and accumulation processes which supply low energy ions to the outer plasmasphere and plasma trough.

  18. Ising model for a Brownian donkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleuren, B.; Van den Broeck, C.

    2001-04-01

    We introduce a thermal engine consisting of N interacting Brownian particles moving in a periodic potential, featuring an alternation of hot and cold symmetric peaks. A discretized Ising-like version is solved analytically. In response to an external force, absolute negative mobility is observed for N >= 4. For N → ∞ a nonequilibrium phase transition takes place with a spontaneous symmetry breaking entailing the appearance of a current in the absence of an external force.

  19. Metastable states in homogeneous Ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Achilles, M.; Bendisch, J.; von Trotha, H.

    1987-04-01

    Metastable states of homogeneous 2D and 3D Ising models are studied under free boundary conditions. The states are defined in terms of weak and strict local minima of the total interaction energy. The morphology of these minima is characterized locally and globally on square and cubic grids. Furthermore, in the 2D case, transition from any spin configuration that is not a strict minimum to a strict minimum is possible via non-energy-increasing single flips.

  20. Ising (conformal) fields and cluster area measures

    PubMed Central

    Camia, Federico; Newman, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    We provide a representation for the scaling limit of the d = 2 critical Ising magnetization field as a (conformal) random field by using Schramm–Loewner Evolution clusters and associated renormalized area measures. The renormalized areas are from the scaling limit of the critical Fortuin–Kasteleyn clusters and the random field is a convergent sum of the area measures with random signs. Extensions to off-critical scaling limits, to d = 3, and to Potts models are also considered. PMID:19264967

  1. Ferrimagnetic behaviors in a transverse Ising nanoisland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyoshi, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the phase diagrams and magnetizations of a magnetic nanoisland described by the transverse Ising model (TIM) are investigated by the use of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. A lot of characteristic behaviors observed in standard ferrimagnetic materials as well as novel phenomena have been obtained, although the system consists of two finite spin-1/2 layers coupled antiferromagnetically with a negative interlayer coupling.

  2. A sparse Ising model with covariates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Levina, Elizaveta; Wang, Pei; Zhu, Ji

    2014-12-01

    There has been a lot of work fitting Ising models to multivariate binary data in order to understand the conditional dependency relationships between the variables. However, additional covariates are frequently recorded together with the binary data, and may influence the dependence relationships. Motivated by such a dataset on genomic instability collected from tumor samples of several types, we propose a sparse covariate dependent Ising model to study both the conditional dependency within the binary data and its relationship with the additional covariates. This results in subject-specific Ising models, where the subject's covariates influence the strength of association between the genes. As in all exploratory data analysis, interpretability of results is important, and we use ℓ1 penalties to induce sparsity in the fitted graphs and in the number of selected covariates. Two algorithms to fit the model are proposed and compared on a set of simulated data, and asymptotic results are established. The results on the tumor dataset and their biological significance are discussed in detail.

  3. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    The interval reported on, from Jan. 1990 to Dec. 1991, has been one of continued processing and archiving of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and transition from analysis of ISEE 3 and ICE cometary data to ICE data taken along its cruise trajectory, where coronal mass ejections are the focus of attention. We have continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations was the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data was revisited. While pursuing detailed, second-order scientific inquiries still pending from the late ISEE 3 recordings, we have also sought to position ourselves for study of CME's by instituting a data processing format new to the ISEE 3/ICE pw detector. Processed detector output has always been summarized and archived in 24-hour segments, with all pw channels individually plotted and stacked one above the next down in frequency, with each channel calibrated separately to keep all data patterns equally visible in the plots, regardless of gross differences in energy content at the various frequencies. Since CME's, with their preceding and following solar wind plasmas, can take more than one day to pass by the spacecraft, a more condensed synoptic view of the pw data is required to identify, let alone assess, CME characteristics than has been afforded by the traditional routines. This requirement is addressed in a major new processing initiative in the past two years. Besides our own ongoing and fresh investigations, we have cooperated, within our resources, with studies conducted extramurally by distant colleagues irrespective of the phase of the ISEE 3/ICE mission under scrutiny. The remainder of this report summarizes our processing activities, our

  4. Mode conversion experiments in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeski, R.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Rogers, J. H.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Batha, S.; Darrow, D.; Fisch, N. J.; Herrmann, M. C.; Ignat, D.; Levinton, F.; Mazzucato, E.; Murakami, M.; Nazikian, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Valeo, E. J.

    1996-02-01

    In the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the mode converted ion Bernstein wave (IBW) has been shown to heat electrons, drive current (both on and off axis), and to interact with fusion products. D-3He and D-T-3He plasmas have been used as mode conversion targets. On-axis mode conversion heating increased Te(0) from 3 keV to 10 keV with 4 MW of ICRF. On-axis currents of 125 kA with 2 MW of ICRF, and off axis currents of 100 kA with 4 MW of ICRF, have been driven. A strong interaction of the IBW with fusion products has been observed. Mode conversion current drive (MCCD) for TPX is briefly discussed.

  5. Nuclear and ionic charge distribution experiment on ISEE-1 and ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental work carried out under this contract is a continuation of that originally performed under Contracts NAS5-20062 and NAS5-26739. The data analyzed are from the Max-Planck Institut/Univ. of Maryland experiment on ISEE-1 and ISEE-3. Each spacecraft experiment consists of a nearly identical set of three sensors (designated the ULECA, ULEWAT, and ULEZEQ sensors) designed to measure the energy spectra and composition of suprathermal and energetic ions over a broad energy range (less than 3 keV/e to more than 20 MeV/nucleon). Since the launch of ISEE's 2 and 3, the MPI/Univ. of Maryland experiments have generally performed as expected except for a partial failure of the ULEWAT sensor on ISEE-1 in August 1978. A number of scientific studies have either been completed, initiated or are at various stages of completion. A brief summary of Primary Results is given, followed by a more detailed summary of the major accomplishments at the Univ. of Maryland.

  6. Exact sampling hardness of Ising spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fefferman, B.; Foss-Feig, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of exact classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016), Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

  7. Calibration of the ISEE plasma composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, C. R.; Olsen, R. C.; Reasoner, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Plasma Composition experiment on the ISEE-1 satellite was designed to measure ions from 1 to 16 amu, at energies from near zero to 16 keV. The two nearly identical flight instruments were calibrated by means of preflight laboratory tests and in-flight data comparisons. This document presents most of the details of those efforts, with special emphasis on the low energy (0 to 100 eV) portion of the instrument response. The analysis of the instrument includes a ray-tracing calculation, which follows an ensemble of test particles through the detector.

  8. Three representations of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruis, Joost; Maris, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Statistical models that analyse (pairwise) relations between variables encompass assumptions about the underlying mechanism that generated the associations in the observed data. In the present paper we demonstrate that three Ising model representations exist that, although each proposes a distinct theoretical explanation for the observed associations, are mathematically equivalent. This equivalence allows the researcher to interpret the results of one model in three different ways. We illustrate the ramifications of this by discussing concepts that are conceived as problematic in their traditional explanation, yet when interpreted in the context of another explanation make immediate sense.

  9. Ground states for nonuniform periodic Ising chains.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Garcilazo, J P; Ramírez, C

    2015-04-01

    We generalize Morita's works [J. Phys. A 7, 289 (1974); J. Phys. A 7, 1613 (1974)] on ground states of Ising chains, for chains with a periodic structure and different spins, to any interaction order. The main assumption is translational invariance. The length of the irreducible blocks is a multiple of the period of the chain. If there is parity invariance, it restricts the length in general only in the diatomic case. There are degenerated states and under certain circumstances there could be nonregular ground states. We illustrate the results and give the ground state diagrams in several cases.

  10. Inverse Ising Inference Using All the Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Erik; Ekeberg, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    We show that a method based on logistic regression, using all the data, solves the inverse Ising problem far better than mean-field calculations relying only on sample pairwise correlation functions, while still computationally feasible for hundreds of nodes. The largest improvement in reconstruction occurs for strong interactions. Using two examples, a diluted Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and a two-dimensional lattice, we also show that interaction topologies can be recovered from few samples with good accuracy and that the use of l1 regularization is beneficial in this process, pushing inference abilities further into low-temperature regimes.

  11. Ferrimagnetism in a transverse Ising antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyoshi, T.

    2016-05-01

    The phase diagrams and temperature dependences of total magnetization mT in a transverse Ising antiferromagnet consisting of alternating two (A and B) layers are studied by the uses of the effective-field theory with correlations and the mean-field-theory. A lot of characteristic phenomena, namely ferrimagnetic behaviors, have been found in the mT, when the crystallographically equivalent conditions between the A and B layers are broken. The appearance of a compensation point has been found below its transition temperature.

  12. Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Manish K.; Sengupta, Surajit

    2008-03-01

    We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity ve , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-vet) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large ve the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.

  13. Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Manish K; Sengupta, Surajit

    2008-03-01

    We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity v(e) , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-v(e)t) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large v(e) the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.

  14. Three representations of the Ising model

    PubMed Central

    Kruis, Joost; Maris, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models that analyse (pairwise) relations between variables encompass assumptions about the underlying mechanism that generated the associations in the observed data. In the present paper we demonstrate that three Ising model representations exist that, although each proposes a distinct theoretical explanation for the observed associations, are mathematically equivalent. This equivalence allows the researcher to interpret the results of one model in three different ways. We illustrate the ramifications of this by discussing concepts that are conceived as problematic in their traditional explanation, yet when interpreted in the context of another explanation make immediate sense. PMID:27698356

  15. Three representations of the Ising model.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Joost; Maris, Gunter

    2016-10-04

    Statistical models that analyse (pairwise) relations between variables encompass assumptions about the underlying mechanism that generated the associations in the observed data. In the present paper we demonstrate that three Ising model representations exist that, although each proposes a distinct theoretical explanation for the observed associations, are mathematically equivalent. This equivalence allows the researcher to interpret the results of one model in three different ways. We illustrate the ramifications of this by discussing concepts that are conceived as problematic in their traditional explanation, yet when interpreted in the context of another explanation make immediate sense.

  16. Real-time ISEE data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  17. One-Dimensional Ising Model with "k"-Spin Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yale

    2011-01-01

    We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of "k" adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call ""k"-SAT on a ring", and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external…

  18. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  19. Plasmodesmata formation: poking holes in walls with ise.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Sieburth, Leslie E

    2010-06-08

    Secondary plasmodesmata are cytoplasmic channels connecting adjacent plant cells that arise after cell division. How membrane-delimited channels penetrate cell walls is unknown, but now two genes, ISE1 and ISE2, are shown to be required for pathways that limit their formation.

  20. One-Dimensional Ising Model with "k"-Spin Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yale

    2011-01-01

    We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of "k" adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call ""k"-SAT on a ring", and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external…

  1. Networked Ising-Sznajd AR-β Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tomonori; Ohmiya, Mayumi

    2009-09-01

    The modified Ising-Sznajd model is studied to clarify the machanism of price formation in the stock market. The conventional Ising-Sznajd model is improved as a small world network with the rewireing probability β(t) which depends on the time. Numerical experiments show that phase transition, regarded as a economical crisis, is inevitable in this model.

  2. An Artificial Ising System with Phononic Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Hamed; Griffith, W. Ashley; Benson, Philip; Nasseri, M. H. B.; Young, R. Paul

    Many intractable systems and problems can be reduced to a system of interacting spins. Here, we report mapping collective phononic excitations from different sources of crystal vibrations to spin systems. The phononic excitations in our experiments are due to micro and nano cracking (yielding crackling noises due to lattice distortion). We develop real time mapping of the multi-array senores to a network-space and then mapping the excitation- networks to spin-like systems. We show that new mapped system satisfies the quench (impulsive) characteristics of the Ising model in 2D classical spin systems. In particular, we show that our artificial Ising system transits between two ground states and approaching the critical point accompanies with a very short time frozen regime, inducing formation of domains separated by kinks. For a cubic-test under a true triaxial test (3D case), we map the system to a 6-spin ring under a transversal-driving field where using functional multiplex networks, the vector components of the spin are inferred (i.e., XY model). By visualization of spin patterns of the ring per each event, we demonstrate that ``kinks'' (as defects) proliferate when system approach from above to its critical point. We support our observations with employing recorded acoustic excitations during distortion of crystal lattices in nano-indentation tests on different crystals (silicon and graphite), triaxial loading test on rock (poly-crystal) samples and a true 3D triaxial test.

  3. Topological phases of shaken quantum Ising lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lorenzo, Samuel; José García-Ripoll, Juan; Porras, Diego

    2016-02-01

    The quantum compass model consists of a two-dimensional square spin lattice where the orientation of the spin-spin interactions depends on the spatial direction of the bonds. It has remarkable symmetry properties and the ground state shows topological degeneracy. The implementation of the quantum compass model in quantum simulation setups like ultracold atoms and trapped ions is far from trivial, since spin interactions in those systems typically are independent of the spatial direction. Ising spin interactions, on the contrary, can be induced and controlled in atomic setups with state-of-the art experimental techniques. In this work, we show how the quantum compass model on a rectangular lattice can be simulated by the use of the photon-assisted tunneling induced by periodic drivings on a quantum Ising spin model. We describe a procedure to adiabatically prepare one of the doubly degenerate ground states of this model by adiabatically ramping down a transverse magnetic field, with surprising differences depending on the parity of the lattice size. Exact diagonalizations confirm the validity of this approach for small lattices. Specific implementations of this scheme are presented with ultracold atoms in optical lattices in the Mott insulator regime, as well as with Rydberg atoms.

  4. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of the final processing of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and analysis of late ISEE 3, ICE cometary, and ICE cruise trajectory data, where coronal mass ejections (CME's) were the first locus of attention. Interest in CME's inspired an effort to represent our pw data in a condensed spectrogram format that facilitated rapid digestion of interplanetary phenomena on long (greater than 1 day) time scales. The format serendipitously allowed us to also examine earth-orbiting data from a new perspective, invigorating older areas of investigation in Earth's immediate environment. We, therefore, continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording for days on end conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations has been the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data we revisited.

  5. Inverse Ising inference with correlated samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermayer, Benedikt; Levine, Erel

    2014-12-01

    Correlations between two variables of a high-dimensional system can be indicative of an underlying interaction, but can also result from indirect effects. Inverse Ising inference is a method to distinguish one from the other. Essentially, the parameters of the least constrained statistical model are learned from the observed correlations such that direct interactions can be separated from indirect correlations. Among many other applications, this approach has been helpful for protein structure prediction, because residues which interact in the 3D structure often show correlated substitutions in a multiple sequence alignment. In this context, samples used for inference are not independent but share an evolutionary history on a phylogenetic tree. Here, we discuss the effects of correlations between samples on global inference. Such correlations could arise due to phylogeny but also via other slow dynamical processes. We present a simple analytical model to address the resulting inference biases, and develop an exact method accounting for background correlations in alignment data by combining phylogenetic modeling with an adaptive cluster expansion algorithm. We find that popular reweighting schemes are only marginally effective at removing phylogenetic bias, suggest a rescaling strategy that yields better results, and provide evidence that our conclusions carry over to the frequently used mean-field approach to the inverse Ising problem.

  6. Nonequilibrium antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Mauricio; Figueiredo, Wagner

    2002-09-01

    We studied an antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model on the square lattice subject to two competing stochastic processes. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins sigma=1/2 and S=1, and we take only nearest neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at temperature T, and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip (Glauber dynamics). Besides, the system interacts with an external agency of energy, which supplies energy to it whenever two nearest neighboring spins are simultaneously flipped. By employing Monte Carlo simulations and a dynamical pair approximation, we found the phase diagram for the stationary states of the model in the plane temperature T versus the competition parameter between one- and two-spin flips p. We observed the appearance of three distinct phases, that are separated by continuous transition lines. We also determined the static critical exponents along these lines and we showed that this nonequilibrium model belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model.

  7. Applications of ISES for the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) will offer the opportunity for real-time access to measurements acquired aboard the Earth Observation System (Eos) satellite. These measurements can then be transmitted to remotely located ground based stations. The application of such measurements to issues related to atmospheric science which was presented to a workshop convened to review possible application of the ISES in earth sciences is summarized. The proposed protocol for Eos instruments requires that measurement results be available in a central data archive within 72 hours of acquiring data. Such a turnaround of raw satellite data to the final product will clearly enhance the timeliness of the results. Compared to the time that results from many current satellite programs, the 72 hour turnaround may be considered real time. Examples are discussed showing how real-time measurements from one or more of the proposed Eos instruments could have been applied to the study of certain issues important to global atmospheric chemistry. Each of the examples discussed is based upon a field mission conducted during the past five years. Each of these examples will emphasize how real-time data could have been used to alter the course of a field experiment, thereby enhancing the scientific output. For the examples, brief overviews of the scientific rationale and objectives, the region of operation, the measurements aboard the aircraft, and finally how one or more of the proposed Eos instruments could have provided data to enhance the productivity of the mission are discussed.

  8. Factors controlling degree of correlation between ISEE 1 and ISEE 3 interplanetary magnetic field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooker, N. U.; Siscoe, G. L.; Russell, C. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    Correlation variability between ISEE 1 and 3 IMF measurements is investigated, and factors governing the variability are discussed. About 200 two-hour periods when correlation was good, and 200 when correlation was poor, are examined, and both IMF variance and spacecraft separation distance in the plane perpendicular to the earth-sun line exert substantial control. The scale size of magnetic features is larger when variance is high, and abrupt changes in the correlation coefficient from poor to good or good to poor in adjacent two-hour intervals appear to be governed by the sense of change of IMF variance and vice versa. During periods of low variance, good correlations are most likely to occur when the distance between ISEE 1 and 3 perpendicular to the IMF is less than 20 earth radii.

  9. Factors controlling degree of correlation between ISEE 1 and ISEE 3 interplanetary magnetic field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooker, N. U.; Siscoe, G. L.; Russell, C. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    Correlation variability between ISEE 1 and 3 IMF measurements is investigated, and factors governing the variability are discussed. About 200 two-hour periods when correlation was good, and 200 when correlation was poor, are examined, and both IMF variance and spacecraft separation distance in the plane perpendicular to the earth-sun line exert substantial control. The scale size of magnetic features is larger when variance is high, and abrupt changes in the correlation coefficient from poor to good or good to poor in adjacent two-hour intervals appear to be governed by the sense of change of IMF variance and vice versa. During periods of low variance, good correlations are most likely to occur when the distance between ISEE 1 and 3 perpendicular to the IMF is less than 20 earth radii.

  10. ISEE-C attitude determination using fine sun sensor data only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunshol, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques developed to determine the spin axis attitude using Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) data only are described. At any given time, the Sun angle specifies the orientation of the spin axis relative to the sunline. The instantaneous time rate of change of the sun angle is directly proportional to the orientation of the spin axis relative to a reference plane that is normal to the ecliptic. Thus, the spin axis attitude can be determined when sufficient data has been collected to accurately measure the rate of change of the sun angle. The uncertainties can be computed directly from the uncertainties in the coefficients of the smoothed sun angle curve. The FSS-only technique is unique in that ephemeris vectors are required only to transform the attitude results to more conventional coordinate frames. The combination of the mission geometry and the FSS accuracy make ISEE-C an ideal mission for applying this method. However, the technique can be used on other missions, such as spin stabilized geosynchronous missions.

  11. Conversational Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esau, Helmut; Poth, Annette

    Details of conversational behavior can often not be interpreted until the social interaction, including the rights and obligations of the participants, their intent, the topic, etc., has been defined. This paper presents a model of conversation in which the conversational image a person presents in a given conversational situation is a function of…

  12. Lattice radial quantization: 3D Ising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brower, R. C.; Fleming, G. T.; Neuberger, H.

    2013-04-01

    Lattice radial quantization is introduced as a nonperturbative method intended to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories that can be realized as fixed points of known Lagrangians. As an example, we employ a lattice shaped as a cylinder with a 2D Icosahedral cross-section to discretize dilatations in the 3D Ising model. Using the integer spacing of the anomalous dimensions of the first two descendants (l = 1, 2), we obtain an estimate for η = 0.034 (10). We also observed small deviations from integer spacing for the 3rd descendant, which suggests that a further improvement of our radial lattice action will be required to guarantee conformal symmetry at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the continuum limit.

  13. Hypergeometric Forms for Ising-Class Integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, David; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall,Richard E.

    2006-07-01

    We apply experimental-mathematical principles to analyzecertain integrals relevant to the Ising theory of solid-state physics. Wefind representations of the these integrals in terms of MeijerG-functions and nested-Barnes integrals. Our investigations began bycomputing 500-digit numerical values of Cn,k,namely a 2-D array of Isingintegrals for all integers n, k where n is in [2,12]and k is in [0,25].We found that some Cn,k enjoy exact evaluations involving DirichletL-functions or the Riemann zeta function. In theprocess of analyzinghypergeometric representations, we found -- experimentally and strikingly-- that the Cn,k almost certainly satisfy certain inter-indicialrelations including discrete k-recursions. Using generating functions,differential theory, complex analysis, and Wilf-Zeilberger algorithms weare able to prove some central cases of these relations.

  14. Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Unjong

    2015-06-01

    Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices.

  15. Spacecraft potential control on ISEE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonfalone, A.; Pedersen, A.; Fahleson, U. V.; Faelthammar, C. G.; Mozer, F. S.; Torbert, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Active control of the potential of the ISEE-1 satellite by the use of electron guns is reviewed. The electron guns contain a special cathode capable of emitting an electron current selectable between 10 to the -8th power and 10 to the -3rd power at energies from approximately .6 to 41 eV. Results obtained during flight show that the satellite potential can be stabilized at a value more positive than the normally positive floating potential. The electron guns also reduce the spin modulation of the spacecraft potential which is due to the aspect dependent photoemission of the long booms. Plasma parameters like electron temperature and density can be deduced from the variation of the spacecraft potential as a function of the gun current. The effects of electron beam emission on other experiments are briefly mentioned.

  16. The Ising Spin Glass in dimension four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2015-09-01

    The critical behaviors of the bimodal and Gaussian Ising spin glass (ISG) models in dimension four are studied through extensive numerical simulations, and from an analysis of high temperature series expansion (HTSE) data of Klein et al. (1991). The simulations include standard finite size scaling measurements, thermodynamic limit regime measurements, and analyses which provide estimates of critical exponents without any consideration of the critical temperature. The higher order HTSE series for the bimodal model provide accurate estimates of the critical temperature and critical exponents. These estimates are independent of and fully consistent with the simulation values. Comparisons between ISG models in dimension four show that the critical exponents and the critical constants for dimensionless observables depend on the form of the interaction distribution of the model.

  17. Compressed quantum metrology for the Ising Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, W. L.; Skotiniotis, M.; Dür, W.; Kraus, B.

    2016-12-01

    We show how quantum metrology protocols that seek to estimate the parameters of a Hamiltonian that exhibits a quantum phase transition can be efficiently simulated on an exponentially smaller quantum computer. Specifically, by exploiting the fact that the ground state of such a Hamiltonian changes drastically around its phase-transition point, we construct a suitable observable from which one can estimate the relevant parameters of the Hamiltonian with Heisenberg scaling precision. We then show how, for the one-dimensional Ising Hamiltonian with transverse magnetic field acting on N spins, such a metrology protocol can be efficiently simulated on an exponentially smaller quantum computer while maintaining the same Heisenberg scaling for the squared error, i.e., O (N-2) precision, and derive the explicit circuit that accomplishes the simulation.

  18. The thermodynamic geometry of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotskoff, Grant; Crooks, Gavin

    2015-03-01

    Biological machines have evolved to produce useful work in a finite time by operating out-of-equilibrium, but we do not know how evolution has guided the design of these machines: Are there generic design principles that direct motors towards higher efficiency? To answer this question, one must first calculate a finite-time efficiency, which poses a significant challenge--tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics fail to describe the relationship between a protocol and the efficiency of a machine subject to that protocol. Using a geometric framework, I will describe a procedure for predicting the protocol that minimizes the dissipated work during an irreversible process. My talk will focus on optimal control of the 2D Ising model; this example will provide strategies for employing geometric thermodynamics to models that cannot be solved analytically.

  19. Bootstrapping the Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Ising Model.

    PubMed

    Bobev, Nikolay; El-Showk, Sheer; Mazáč, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F

    2015-07-31

    We implement the conformal bootstrap program for three dimensional conformal field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and find universal constraints on the spectrum of operator dimensions in these theories. By studying the bounds on the dimension of the first scalar appearing in the operator product expansion of a chiral and an antichiral primary, we find a kink at the expected location of the critical three dimensional N=2 Wess-Zumino model, which can be thought of as a supersymmetric analog of the critical Ising model. Focusing on this kink, we determine, to high accuracy, the low-lying spectrum of operator dimensions of the theory, as well as the stress-tensor two-point function. We find that the latter is in an excellent agreement with an exact computation.

  20. Ising antiferromagnet on the 2-uniform lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Unjong

    2016-08-01

    The antiferromagnetic Ising model is investigated on the twenty 2-uniform lattices using the Monte Carlo method based on the Wang-Landau algorithm and the Metropolis algorithm to study the geometric frustration effect systematically. Based on the specific heat, the residual entropy, and the Edwards-Anderson freezing order parameter, the ground states of them were determined. In addition to the long-range-ordered phase and the spin ice phase found in the Archimedean lattices, two more phases were found. The partial long-range order is long-range order with exceptional disordered sites, which give extensive residual entropy. In the partial spin ice phase, the partial freezing phenomenon appears: A majority of sites are frozen without long-range order, but the other sites are fluctuating even at zero temperature. The spin liquid ground state was not found in the 2-uniform lattices.

  1. Ground states for nonuniform periodic Ising chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Garcilazo, J. P.; Ramírez, C.

    2015-04-01

    We generalize Morita's works [J. Phys. A 7, 289 (1974), 10.1088/0305-4470/7/2/014; J. Phys. A 7, 1613 (1974), 10.1088/0305-4470/7/13/015] on ground states of Ising chains, for chains with a periodic structure and different spins, to any interaction order. The main assumption is translational invariance. The length of the irreducible blocks is a multiple of the period of the chain. If there is parity invariance, it restricts the length in general only in the diatomic case. There are degenerated states and under certain circumstances there could be nonregular ground states. We illustrate the results and give the ground state diagrams in several cases.

  2. Series Expansions for Frustrated Quantum Ising Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, M. P.; Priour, D. J.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2000-03-01

    We have computed the phase diagram of a frustrated Ising ladder in a transverse field via the Wolff Monte Carlo Cluster algorithm and by Pad'e Analysis of a series for the excitation spectrum about the large transverse field limit. A comparison of the two methods suggests that analysis of the perturbation series is a viable method for obtaining the phase diagrams of such systems even in cases, such as this one , where there is no phase transition down to arbitrarily small values of the transverse field. We will also discuss the application of the series technique to two dimensional systems of greater experimental interest, such as on the Kagome lattice which is also believed to realize a cooperative paramagnet at small transverse fields.

  3. Transient Loschmidt echo in quenched Ising chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Carla; Schiró, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We study the response to sudden local perturbations of highly excited quantum Ising spin chains. The key quantity encoding this response is the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write as a transient Loschmidt Echo. Its asymptotics at long time differences contain crucial information about the structure of the highly excited nonequilibrium environment induced by the quench. We compute the echo perturbatively for a weak local quench but for arbitrarily large global quench, using a cumulant expansion. Our perturbative results suggest that the echo decays exponentially, rather than power law as in the low-energy orthogonality catastrophe, a further example of quench-induced decoherence already found in the case of quenched Luttinger liquids. The emerging decoherence scale is set by the strength of the local potential and the bulk excitation energy.

  4. Diffusive thermal dynamics for the Ising ferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Buonsante, P; Burioni, R; Cassi, D; Vezzani, A

    2002-09-01

    We introduce a thermal dynamics for the Ising ferromagnet where the energy variations occurring within the system exhibit a diffusive character typical of thermalizing agents such as, e.g., localized excitations. Time evolution is provided by a walker hopping across the sites of the underlying lattice according to local probabilities depending on the usual Boltzmann weight at a given temperature. Despite the canonical hopping probabilities the walker drives the system to a stationary state which is not reducible to the canonical equilibrium state in a trivial way. The system still exhibits a magnetic phase transition occurring at a finite value of the temperature larger than the canonical one. The dependence of the model on the density of walkers realizing the dynamics is also discussed. Interestingly the differences between the stationary state and the Boltzmann equilibrium state decrease with increasing number of walkers.

  5. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  6. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the ISEE-3 mission is presented. The performance of work on the data analysis phase is summarized.

  7. An Ising model for metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen; Martín-Mayor, Victor; Seoane, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    We present a three-dimensional Ising model where lines of equal spins are frozen such that they form an ordered framework structure. The frame spins impose an external field on the rest of the spins (active spins). We demonstrate that this "porous Ising model" can be seen as a minimal model for condensation transitions of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we compare the phase behavior of a porous Ising model with that of a particle-based model for the condensation of methane (CH4) in the isoreticular metal-organic framework IRMOF-16. For both models, we find a line of first-order phase transitions that end in a critical point. We show that the critical behavior in both cases belongs to the 3D Ising universality class, in contrast to other phase transitions in confinement such as capillary condensation.

  8. Exact Solution of Ising Model in 2d Shortcut Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, O.

    We give the exact solution to the Ising model in the shortcut network in the 2D limit. The solution is found by mapping the model to the square lattice model with Brascamp and Kunz boundary conditions.

  9. Frustration in Vicinity of Transition Point of Ising Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Ryoji

    2013-09-01

    We conjecture the existence of a relationship between frustration and the transition point at zero temperature of Ising spin glasses. The relation reveals that, in several Ising spin glass models, the concentration of ferromagnetic bonds is close to the critical concentration at zero temperature when the output of a function about frustration is equal to unity. The function is the derivative of the average number of frustrated plaquettes with respect to the average number of antiferromagnetic bonds. This relation is conjectured in Ising spin glasses with binary couplings on two-dimensional lattices, hierarchical lattices, and three-body Ising spin glasses with binary couplings on two-dimensional lattices. In addition, the same argument in the Sherrington--Kirkpatrick model yields a point that is identical to the replica-symmetric solution of the transition point at zero temperature.

  10. The ising model on the dynamical triangulated random surface

    SciTech Connect

    Aleinov, I.D.; Migelal, A.A.; Zmushkow, U.V. )

    1990-04-20

    The critical properties of Ising model on the dynamical triangulated random surface embedded in D-dimensional Euclidean space are investigated. The strong coupling expansion method is used. The transition to thermodynamical limit is performed by means of continuous fractions.

  11. Linear relaxation in large two-dimensional Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, F.

    2016-02-01

    Critical dynamics in two-dimension Ising lattices up to 2048 ×2048 is simulated on field-programmable-gate-array- based computing devices. Linear relaxation times are measured from extremely long Monte Carlo simulations. The longest simulation has 7.1 ×1016 spin updates, which would take over 37 years to simulate on a general purpose computer. The linear relaxation time of the Ising lattices is found to follow the dynamic scaling law for correlation lengths as long as 2048. The dynamic exponent z of the system is found to be 2.179(12), which is consistent with previous studies of Ising lattices with shorter correlation lengths. It is also found that Monte Carlo simulations of critical dynamics in Ising lattices larger than 512 ×512 are very sensitive to the statistical correlations between pseudorandom numbers, making it even more difficult to study such large systems.

  12. Two-dimensional disordered Ising model within nonextensive statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodikhin, V. N.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the two-dimensional disordered Ising model with nonextensive Tsallis statistics has been studied for the first time. The critical temperatures and critical indices have been determined for both disordered and uniform models. A new type of critical behavior has been revealed for the disordered model with nonextensive statistics. It has been shown that, within the nonextensive statistics of the two-dimensional Ising model, the Harris criterion is also valid.

  13. Barkhausen noise in the random field Ising magnet Nd2Fe14B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Silevitch, D. M.; Dahmen, K. A.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2015-07-01

    With sintered needles aligned and a magnetic field applied transverse to its easy axis, the rare-earth ferromagnet Nd2Fe14B becomes a room-temperature realization of the random field Ising model. The transverse field tunes the pinning potential of the magnetic domains in a continuous fashion. We study the magnetic domain reversal and avalanche dynamics between liquid helium and room temperatures at a series of transverse fields using a Barkhausen noise technique. The avalanche size and energy distributions follow power-law behavior with a cutoff dependent on the pinning strength dialed in by the transverse field, consistent with theoretical predictions for Barkhausen avalanches in disordered materials. A scaling analysis reveals two regimes of behavior: one at low temperature and high transverse field, where the dynamics are governed by the randomness, and the second at high temperature and low transverse field, where thermal fluctuations dominate the dynamics.

  14. Barkhausen noise in the Random Field Ising Magnet NdFeB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Silevitch, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    With the application of a magnetic field transverse to the magnetic easy axis, sintered blocks of the rare-earth ferromagnet Nd2Fe14B form a realization of the Random-Field Ising Model at room temperature. We study domain reversal and avalanche dynamics through an analysis of the Barkhausen noise. Power-law behavior with a cutoff is observed in the avalanche energy spectrum, consistent with theoretical predictions for disordered materials. Two regimes of behavior are found, one at low temperature and high transverse field where the system shows behavior consistent with randomness-dominated dynamics, and a high-temperature, low-transverse-field regime in which thermal fluctuations dominate the dynamics. In the randomness-dominated regime, the critical exponents are consistent with mean-field predictions for heavily disordered system, whereas in the thermal-fluctuation regime, the critical exponents differ substantially from the mean-field predictions.

  15. Double vision: Remote sensing of a flux transfer event with ISEE 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthour, D. W.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    A flux transfer event recorded by the International Sun-Earth Explorers (ISEE) 1 and 2 spacecraft in the northern hemisphere near local noon is examined using analysis techniques developed recently for determination from single satellite magnetometer data of the orientation and cross-sectional shape of a two-dimensional disturbance moving along the magnetopause. The analysis is performed independently on the magnetic field data recorded by each satellite, enabling us to check the consistency of the results and thus to benchmark the method. The analysis is also extended to utilize the dual magnetometer measurements for determination of the event speed and size (which for a single spacecraft requires use of three-dimensional plasma velocity data to obtain a deHoffmann-Teller frame velocity) and for accommodating acceleration of the magnetopause normal to itself, which results in a curved spacecraft trajectory in the frame of reference moving with the disturbance. The analysis of the disturbance reveals that while its overall size is about 34,000 km in a direction parallel to the magnetopause but perpendicular to the event axis, the actual size of the bulge causing the field disturbance may have been as small as 9000 km with a dimension perpendicular to the magnetopause of the order of 1200 km. The bulge is found to be traveling at a speed of about 140 km/s toward the northern dawn quadrant of the dayside magnetopause. While plasma data from ISEE 2 provides evidence of plasma jetting, which suggests the event may be associated with reconnection, the orientation of the flux tube axis obtained from analysis is significantly different from the expected reconnection line direction. A discussion of possible interpretations of this bulge orientation and motion is provided.

  16. Applications of ISES for coastal zone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the discipline- and process-oriented topics addressed, coastal zone studies are defined geographically by the special circumstances inherent in the interface between land and water. The characteristics of coastal zones which make them worthy of separate consideration are: (1) the dynamic nature of natural and anthropogenic processes taking place; (2) the relatively restricted spatial domain of the narrow land/water interface; and (3) the large proportion of the Earth's population living within coastal zones, and the resulting extreme pressure on natural and human resources. These characteristics place special constraints and priorities on remote sensing applications, even though the applications themselves bear close relation to those addressed by other elements of this report (e.g., oceans, ice, vegetation/land use). The discussion which follows first describes the suite of remote sensing activities relevant to coastal zone studies. Potential Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) experiments will then be addressed within two general categories: applications of real-time data transmission and applications of onboard data acquisition and processing.

  17. Metastability in an open quantum Ising model.

    PubMed

    Rose, Dominic C; Macieszczak, Katarzyna; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P

    2016-11-01

    We apply a recently developed theory for metastability in open quantum systems to a one-dimensional dissipative quantum Ising model. Earlier results suggest this model features either a nonequilibrium phase transition or a smooth but sharp crossover, where the stationary state changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic, accompanied by strongly intermittent emission dynamics characteristic of first-order coexistence between dynamical phases. We show that for a range of parameters close to this transition or crossover point the dynamics of the finite system displays pronounced metastability, i.e., the system relaxes first to long-lived metastable states before eventual relaxation to the true stationary state. From the spectral properties of the quantum master operator we characterize the low-dimensional manifold of metastable states, which are shown to be probability mixtures of two, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic, metastable phases. We also show that for long times the dynamics can be approximated by a classical stochastic dynamics between the metastable phases that is directly related to the intermittent dynamics observed in quantum trajectories and thus the dynamical phases.

  18. Metastability in an open quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Dominic C.; Macieszczak, Katarzyna; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2016-11-01

    We apply a recently developed theory for metastability in open quantum systems to a one-dimensional dissipative quantum Ising model. Earlier results suggest this model features either a nonequilibrium phase transition or a smooth but sharp crossover, where the stationary state changes from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic, accompanied by strongly intermittent emission dynamics characteristic of first-order coexistence between dynamical phases. We show that for a range of parameters close to this transition or crossover point the dynamics of the finite system displays pronounced metastability, i.e., the system relaxes first to long-lived metastable states before eventual relaxation to the true stationary state. From the spectral properties of the quantum master operator we characterize the low-dimensional manifold of metastable states, which are shown to be probability mixtures of two, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic, metastable phases. We also show that for long times the dynamics can be approximated by a classical stochastic dynamics between the metastable phases that is directly related to the intermittent dynamics observed in quantum trajectories and thus the dynamical phases.

  19. The Planar Ising Model and Total Positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    A matrix is called totally positive (resp. totally nonnegative) if all its minors are positive (resp. nonnegative). Consider the Ising model with free boundary conditions and no external field on a planar graph G. Let a_1,dots ,a_k,b_k,dots ,b_1 be vertices placed in a counterclockwise order on the outer face of G. We show that the k× k matrix of the two-point spin correlation functions M_{i,j} = < σ _{a_i} σ _{b_j} rangle is totally nonnegative. Moreover, det M > 0 if and only if there exist k pairwise vertex-disjoint paths that connect a_i with b_i. We also compute the scaling limit at criticality of the probability that there are k parallel and disjoint connections between a_i and b_i in the double random current model. Our results are based on a new distributional relation between double random currents and random alternating flows of Talaska [37].

  20. On Complexity of the Quantum Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Hastings, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    We study complexity of several problems related to the Transverse field Ising Model (TIM). First, we consider the problem of estimating the ground state energy known as the Local Hamiltonian Problem (LHP). It is shown that the LHP for TIM on degree-3 graphs is equivalent modulo polynomial reductions to the LHP for general k-local `stoquastic' Hamiltonians with any constant {k ≥ 2}. This result implies that estimating the ground state energy of TIM on degree-3 graphs is a complete problem for the complexity class {StoqMA} —an extension of the classical class {MA}. As a corollary, we complete the complexity classification of 2-local Hamiltonians with a fixed set of interactions proposed recently by Cubitt and Montanaro. Secondly, we study quantum annealing algorithms for finding ground states of classical spin Hamiltonians associated with hard optimization problems. We prove that the quantum annealing with TIM Hamiltonians is equivalent modulo polynomial reductions to the quantum annealing with a certain subclass of k-local stoquastic Hamiltonians. This subclass includes all Hamiltonians representable as a sum of a k-local diagonal Hamiltonian and a 2-local stoquastic Hamiltonian.

  1. Single-Axis Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor); Capo-Lugo, Pedro A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single-axis accelerometer includes a housing defining a sleeve. An object/mass is disposed in the sleeve for sliding movement therein in a direction aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A first piezoelectric strip, attached to a first side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The first piezoelectric strip includes a first strip of a piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A second piezoelectric strip, attached to a second side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The second piezoelectric strip includes a second strip of the piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A voltage sensor is electrically coupled to at least one of the first and second piezoelectric strips.

  2. Interfaces in Random Field Ising Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, Eira

    2001-03-01

    Domain walls are studied in random field Ising magnets at T=0 in two and three dimensions using exact ground state calculations. In 2D below the random field strength dependent length scale Lb the walls exhibit a super-rough behavior with a roughness exponent greater than unity ζ ~= 1.20 ± 0.05. The nearest-neighbor height difference probability distribution depends on the system size below L_b. Above Lb domains become fractal, ζ ~= 1.(E. T. Seppälä, V. Petäjä, and M. J. Alava, Phys. Rev. E 58), R5217 (1998). The energy fluctuation exponent has a value θ=1, contradicting the exponent relation θ = 2ζ -1 due to the broken scale-invariance, below Lb and vanishes for system sizes above L_b. The broken scale-invariance should be manifest also in Kardar-Parisi-Zhang problem with random-field noise.(E. Frey, U. C. Täuber, and H. K. Janssen, Europhys. Lett. 47), 14 (1999). In 3D there exists a transition between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases at the critical random field strength (Δ/J)_c. Below (Δ/J)c the roughness exponent is also greater ζ ~= 0.73 ± 0.03 than the functional-renormalization-group calculation result ζ = (5-d)/3.(D. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56), 1964 (1986).(P. Chauve, P. Le Doussal, and K. Wiese, cond-mat/0006056.) The height differences are system size dependent in 3D, as well. The behavior of the domain walls in 2D below Lb with a constant external field, i.e., the random-bulk wetting, is demonstrated.(E. T. Seppälä, I. Sillanpää, and M. J. Alava, unpublished.)

  3. Contentious Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  4. Contentious Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuidema, Leah A.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of joining a conversation through reading and writing is not new; in his 1941 book "The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action," Kenneth Burke suggests that the acts of reading and writing are like entering a parlor where others are already conversing. The author explores the place of professional debate within NCTE and…

  5. Cosmic ray composition investigations using ICE/ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of data from the high energy cosmic experiment on ISEE-3 and associated modeling and interpretation activities are discussed. The ISEE-3 payload included two instruments capable of measuring the composition of heavy cosmic rays. The designs of these two instruments incorporated innovations which made it possible, for the first time, to measure isotopic as well as the chemical composition for a wide range of elements. As the result of the demonstrations by these two instruments of the capability to resolve individual cosmic ray isotopes, a new generation of detectors was developed using very similar designs, but having improved reliability and increased sensitive area. The composition measurements which were obtained from the ISEE-3 experiment are summarized.

  6. A coherent Ising machine for 2000-node optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Takahiro; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Igarashi, Koji; Sonobe, Tomohiro; Tamate, Shuhei; Honjo, Toshimori; Marandi, Alireza; McMahon, Peter L.; Umeki, Takeshi; Enbutsu, Koji; Tadanaga, Osamu; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Kyo; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Takesue, Hiroki

    2016-11-01

    The analysis and optimization of complex systems can be reduced to mathematical problems collectively known as combinatorial optimization. Many such problems can be mapped onto ground-state search problems of the Ising model, and various artificial spin systems are now emerging as promising approaches. However, physical Ising machines have suffered from limited numbers of spin-spin couplings because of implementations based on localized spins, resulting in severe scalability problems. We report a 2000-spin network with all-to-all spin-spin couplings. Using a measurement and feedback scheme, we coupled time-multiplexed degenerate optical parametric oscillators to implement maximum cut problems on arbitrary graph topologies with up to 2000 nodes. Our coherent Ising machine outperformed simulated annealing in terms of accuracy and computation time for a 2000-node complete graph.

  7. Improved fair sampling of ground states in Ising spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Zhu, Zheng; Ochoa, Andrew J.

    2015-03-01

    Verifying that an optimization approach can sample all solutions that minimize a Hamiltonian is a stringent test for any newly-developed algorithm. While most solvers easily compute the minimum of a cost function for small to moderate input sizes, equiprobable sampling of all ground-state configurations (within Poissonian fluctuations) is much harder to obtain. Most notably, methods such as transverse-field quantum annealing fail in passing this test for certain highly-degenerate problems. Here we present an attempt to sample ground states for Ising spin glasses based on a combination of low-temperature parallel tempering Monte Carlo combined with the cluster algorithm by Houdayer. Because the latter is rejection free and obeys details balance, the ground-state manifold is efficiently sampled. We illustrate the approach for Ising spin glasses on the D-Wave Two quantum annealer topology, known as the Chimera graph, as well as two-dimensional Ising spin glasses.

  8. An Ising spin state explanation for financial asset allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Philip A.; Roos, Kelly R.; Sinha, Amit

    2016-03-01

    We build on the developments in the application of statistical mechanics, notably the identity of the spin degree of freedom in the Ising model, to explain asset price dynamics in financial markets with a representative agent. Specifically, we consider the value of an individual spin to represent the proportional holdings in various assets. We use partial moment arguments to identify asymmetric reactions to information and develop an extension of a plunging and dumping model. This unique identification of the spin is a relaxation of the conventional discrete state limitation on an Ising spin to accommodate a new archetype in Ising model-finance applications wherein spin states may take on continuous values, and may evolve in time continuously, or discretely, depending on the values of the partial moments.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetosheath at 1500 LT: ISEE 1 and ISEE 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gleaves, D.G.; Southwood, D.J. )

    1991-01-01

    In the first study to employ dual-spacecraft cross-spectral techniques in the magnetosheath, the authors have analyzed ISEE 1 and ISEE 2 magnetic field and plasma data from an afternoon magnetosheath crossing to determine dominant MHD wave modes and directions. The principal discovery is of guided MHD waves traveling along the flow-modified wave characteristics. Wave polarizations were determined by transforming the magnetic field to a field- and boundary-aligned coordinate system. They have inferred wave propagation directions using the time delays between the passage of coherent structures across the spacecraft. Weaker broadband coherent oscillations in the direction radial from the planet could be associated with large scale motions of the shock and/or magnetopause, but the dominant signals appear not to be from such a source. Separate broadland Alfven and slow magnetoacoustic waves have been identified in the inner sheath, propagating across the field and flow toward the magnetopause. In the outer magnetosheath the most prominent disturbances were narrow-band Alfven waves propagating downstream and along the field. The phase propagation directions detected for the largest amplitude signals were closely aligned with the flow-modified wave characteristics, the group propagation directions. From this result, they infer that the sources of the dominant wave activity are localized MHD disturbances on the bow shock and not spatially coherent distributed sources such as bulk boundary motion. They suggest that the flow-modified characteristics of the two field-guided MHD modes may play an important role within the magnetosheath, determining the directions along which energy is transmitted between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.

  10. Large Scale Simulations of the Kinetic Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münkel, Christian

    We present Monte Carlo simulation results for the dynamical critical exponent z of the two- and three-dimensional kinetic Ising model. The z-values were calculated from the magnetization relaxation from an ordered state into the equilibrium state at Tc for very large systems with up to (169984)2 and (3072)3 spins. To our knowledge, these are the largest Ising-systems simulated todate. We also report the successful simulation of very large lattices on a massively parallel MIMD computer with high speedups of approximately 1000 and an efficiency of about 0.93.

  11. Ordering and phase transitions in random-field Ising systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritan, Amos; Swift, Michael R.; Cieplak, Marek; Chan, Moses H. W.; Cole, Milton W.; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1991-01-01

    An exact analysis of the Ising model with infinite-range interactions in a random field and a local mean-field theory in three dimensions is carried out leading to a phase diagram with several coexistence surfaces and lines of critical points. The results show that the phase diagram depends crucially on whether the distribution of random fields is symmetric or not. Thus, Ising-like phase transitions in a porous medium (the asymmetric case) are in a different universality class from the conventional random-field model (symmetric case).

  12. Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The green and red lights of a traffic signal can be viewed as the up and down states of an Ising spin. Moreover, traffic signals in a city interact with each other, if they are controlled in a decentralised way. In this paper, a simple model of such interacting signals on a finite-size two-dimensional lattice is shown to have Ising-like dynamics that undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition. Probabilistic behaviour of the model is realised by chaotic billiard dynamics that arises from coupled non-chaotic elements. This purely deterministic model is expected to serve as a starting point for considering statistical mechanics of traffic signals. PMID:23350034

  13. Self-organizing Ising model of financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.-X.; Sornette, D.

    2007-01-01

    We study a dynamical Ising-like model of agents' opinions (buy or sell) with learning, in which the coupling coefficients are re-assessed continuously in time according to how past external news (time-varying magnetic field) have explained realized market returns. By combining herding, the impact of external news and private information, we find that the stylized facts of financial markets are reproduced only when agents misattribute the success of news to predict return to herding effects, thereby providing positive feedbacks leading to the model functioning close to the Ising critical point.

  14. Bootstrapping Critical Ising Model on Three Dimensional Real Projective Space.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-04-08

    Given conformal data on a flat Euclidean space, we use crosscap conformal bootstrap equations to numerically solve the Lee-Yang model as well as the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space. We check the rapid convergence of our bootstrap program in two dimensions from the exact solutions available. Based on the comparison, we estimate that our systematic error on the numerically solved one-point functions of the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space is less than 1%. Our method opens up a novel way to solve conformal field theories on nontrivial geometries.

  15. Nonperturbative solution of the Ising model on a random surface

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, D.J.; Migdal, A.A. )

    1990-02-12

    The two-matrix-model representation of the Ising model on a random surface is solved exactly to all orders in the genus expansion. The partition function obeys a fourth-order nonlinear differential equation as a function of the string coupling constant. This equation differs from that derived for the {ital k}=3 multicritical one-matrix model, thus disproving that this model describes the Ising model. A similar equation is derived for the Yang-Lee edge singularity on a random surface, and is shown to agree with the {ital k}=3 multicritical one-matrix model.

  16. ISEE-3/IMP-8 observations of simultaneous upstream proton events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, T. R.; Reinhard, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Upstream 50-200 keV proton events were observed simultaneously by the low energy proton detectors on ISEE-3 and IMP-8, and the gradient from the spin averaged fluxes at the two spacecraft was calculated. The dependence of that gradient upon the angular distributions at IMP-8 was investigated as well as the distance from IMP-8 to the bow shock. The pitch angle distributions are narrow at ISEE-3 and wide and often pancake-shaped at IMP-8 with a peak near 90 degrees. This implies the existence of a weak scattering region about 5-15 earth radii upstream of the earth's bow shock.

  17. Simultaneous observation of the plasma sheet in the near earth and distant magnetotail - ISEE-1 and ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Baumjohann, W.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Baker, D. N.; Zwickl, R. D.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1984-01-01

    Particle data have been acquired by the 1981-025 and 1982-019 spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit, as well as ISEE-1 in the near earth geomagnetic tail, and ISEE-3 in the distant geomagnetic tail. These observations are supplemented by ground-based magnetograms from near local midnight stations. Attention is given to a substorm recovery phase, and to observations of ion beams at the plasma sheet boundary in the near earth and distant tail, respectively, which are found to flow in opposite directions.

  18. Vertical axis windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.S.

    1980-04-08

    A vertical axis windmill is described which involves a rotatable central vertical shaft having horizontal arms pivotally supporting three sails that are free to function in the wind like the main sail on a sail boat, and means for disabling the sails to allow the windmill to be stopped in a blowing wind.

  19. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    ... 1,000,000 1,000,000 micrometers nano- 1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 nanometers ... conversions, see the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publications: NIST Guide to SI Units: ...

  20. Conversation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  1. Internet Access to ISEE-1 and 2 Magnetometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    It is reported that the entire ISEE-1 and -2 magnetometer data are placed on-line, using an 8 Gbyte disk drive. The data are stored at 4-s and 60-s resolution. Also, an interactive world wide web page, which allows to plot, on request, any interval for which magnetometer data are available, is developed.

  2. Some Fruits of Genius: Lars Onsager and the Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Michael E.

    2006-03-01

    The story of the exact solution of the two-dimensional Ising model by Lars Onsager in the 1940's will be sketched and some of the striking developments following from it, especially for the behavior of fluctuating interfaces, will be recounted.

  3. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  4. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the ISEE-3 Mission is provided. Work on the data analysis phase of the contract from 1 October 1982 through 30 March 1983 is summarized.

  5. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive, high resolution plasma probes for analysis of the distribution functions and plasma wave instruments for measurements of electromagnetic and electrostatic wave modes are commonly flown together to provide information on plasma instabilities and wave particle interactions. Analysis of the data for the ISEE 3 mission is provided.

  6. Earth's distant geomagnetic tail explored by ISEE-3 spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.

    1984-02-01

    The ISEE-3 mission is reviewed, with a focus on its exploration of the geomagnetic tail (GT) in 1982 and 1983. The complex orbital maneuvers, including lunar swing-bys to offset precession, used to bring ISEE-3 from its 1978-1982 sunward position and let it cross the GT at various distances are explained and illustrated. The structure of the GT is shown in a diagram, and preliminary results from the ISEE-3 measurements are summarized. The GT beyond about 120 earth radii (Re) has a diameter about 60 Re, two distinct lobes of strength 9 nT, a separating neutral sheet embedded in a plasma sheet, increased turbulence beyond about 180 Re, and plasma and energetic-ion flows away from the earth at up to 500 km/sec from an acceleration region 60-100 Re from the earth. ISEE-3 has now left the earth vicinity to pass through the tail of the comet Giacobini-Zinner in September, 1985, and to monitor solar-wind conditions upstream of comet Halley in March, 1986.

  7. Dynamical response function of the disordered kinetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, Haye

    2008-02-01

    Recently Baumann et al (2007 Preprint 0709.3228v1) studied the phase-ordering kinetics of the two-dimensional Ising model for T

  8. Phase transitions in Ising models on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Gontarek, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    We examine Ising models with heat-bath dynamics on directed networks. Our simulations show that Ising models on directed triangular and simple cubic lattices undergo a phase transition that most likely belongs to the Ising universality class. On the directed square lattice the model remains paramagnetic at any positive temperature as already reported in some previous studies. We also examine random directed graphs and show that contrary to undirected ones, percolation of directed bonds does not guarantee ferromagnetic ordering. Only above a certain threshold can a random directed graph support finite-temperature ferromagnetic ordering. Such behavior is found also for out-homogeneous random graphs, but in this case the analysis of magnetic and percolative properties can be done exactly. Directed random graphs also differ from undirected ones with respect to zero-temperature freezing. Only at low connectivity do they remain trapped in a disordered configuration. Above a certain threshold, however, the zero-temperature dynamics quickly drives the model toward a broken symmetry (magnetized) state. Only above this threshold, which is almost twice as large as the percolation threshold, do we expect the Ising model to have a positive critical temperature. With a very good accuracy, the behavior on directed random graphs is reproduced within a certain approximate scheme.

  9. Metastability for the Ising Model on the Hypercube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovski, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    We consider Glauber dynamics for the low-temperature, ferromagnetic Ising Model on the n-dimensional hypercube. We derive precise asymptotic results for the crossover time (the time it takes for the dynamics to go from the configuration with a "-1" at every vertex, to the configuration with a "+1" at each vertex) in the limit as the inverse temperature β → ∞.

  10. Commuting quantum circuits and complexity of Ising partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2017-03-01

    Instantaneous quantum polynomial-time (IQP) computation is a class of quantum computation consisting only of commuting two-qubit gates and is not universal. Nevertheless, it has been shown that if there is a classical algorithm that can simulate IQP efficiently, the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the third level, which is highly implausible. However, the origin of the classical intractability is still less understood. Here we establish a relationship between IQP and computational complexity of calculating the imaginary-valued partition functions of Ising models. We apply the established relationship in two opposite directions. One direction is to find subclasses of IQP that are classically efficiently simulatable by using exact solvability of certain types of Ising models. Another direction is applying quantum computational complexity of IQP to investigate (im)possibility of efficient classical approximations of Ising partition functions with imaginary coupling constants. Specifically, we show that a multiplicative approximation of Ising partition functions is #P-hard for almost all imaginary coupling constants even on planar lattices of a bounded degree.

  11. Ising Model Reprogramming of a Repeat Protein's Equilibrium Unfolding Pathway.

    PubMed

    Millership, C; Phillips, J J; Main, E R G

    2016-05-08

    Repeat proteins are formed from units of 20-40 aa that stack together into quasi one-dimensional non-globular structures. This modular repetitive construction means that, unlike globular proteins, a repeat protein's equilibrium folding and thus thermodynamic stability can be analysed using linear Ising models. Typically, homozipper Ising models have been used. These treat the repeat protein as a series of identical interacting subunits (the repeated motifs) that couple together to form the folded protein. However, they cannot describe subunits of differing stabilities. Here we show that a more sophisticated heteropolymer Ising model can be constructed and fitted to two new helix deletion series of consensus tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (CTPRs). This analysis, showing an asymmetric spread of stability between helices within CTPR ensembles, coupled with the Ising model's predictive qualities was then used to guide reprogramming of the unfolding pathway of a variant CTPR protein. The designed behaviour was engineered by introducing destabilising mutations that increased the thermodynamic asymmetry within a CTPR ensemble. The asymmetry caused the terminal α-helix to thermodynamically uncouple from the rest of the protein and preferentially unfold. This produced a specific, highly populated stable intermediate with a putative dimerisation interface. As such it is the first step in designing repeat proteins with function regulated by a conformational switch.

  12. Phase transitions in Ising models on directed networks.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Gontarek, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    We examine Ising models with heat-bath dynamics on directed networks. Our simulations show that Ising models on directed triangular and simple cubic lattices undergo a phase transition that most likely belongs to the Ising universality class. On the directed square lattice the model remains paramagnetic at any positive temperature as already reported in some previous studies. We also examine random directed graphs and show that contrary to undirected ones, percolation of directed bonds does not guarantee ferromagnetic ordering. Only above a certain threshold can a random directed graph support finite-temperature ferromagnetic ordering. Such behavior is found also for out-homogeneous random graphs, but in this case the analysis of magnetic and percolative properties can be done exactly. Directed random graphs also differ from undirected ones with respect to zero-temperature freezing. Only at low connectivity do they remain trapped in a disordered configuration. Above a certain threshold, however, the zero-temperature dynamics quickly drives the model toward a broken symmetry (magnetized) state. Only above this threshold, which is almost twice as large as the percolation threshold, do we expect the Ising model to have a positive critical temperature. With a very good accuracy, the behavior on directed random graphs is reproduced within a certain approximate scheme.

  13. On scaling properties of cluster distributions in Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruge, C.; Wagner, F.

    1992-01-01

    Scaling relations of cluster distributions for the Wolff algorithm are derived. We found them to be well satisfied for the Ising model in d=3 dimensions. Using scaling and a parametrization of the cluster distribution, we determine the critical exponent β/ν=0.516(6) with moderate effort in computing time.

  14. Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yichen

    2017-05-01

    We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique.

  15. Ising model on the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    1991-08-01

    The partition function and the correlation functions of the Ising model on the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree are calculated. We computed also the averages of these correlation functions when the corresponding vertices are attached to the boundary of the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree.

  16. Ising model on the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    1990-06-01

    The partition function and the correlation functions of the Ising model on the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree are calculated. We computed also the averages of these correlation functions when the corresponding vertices are attached to the boundary of the generalized Bruhat-Tits tree.

  17. Tricritical behavior of nonequilibrium Ising spins in fluctuating environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Min; Noh, Jae Dong

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the phase transitions in a coupled system of Ising spins and a fluctuating network. Each spin interacts with q neighbors through links of the rewiring network. The Ising spins and the network are in thermal contact with the heat baths at temperatures TS and TL, respectively, so the whole system is driven out of equilibrium for TS≠TL . The model is a generalization of the q -neighbor Ising model [A. Jędrzejewski et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 052105 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.052105], which corresponds to the limiting case of TL=∞ . Despite the mean-field nature of the interaction, the q -neighbor Ising model was shown to display a discontinuous phase transition for q ≥4 . Setting up the rate equations for the magnetization and the energy density, we obtain the phase diagram in the TS-TL parameter space. The phase diagram consists of a ferromagnetic phase and a paramagnetic phase. The two phases are separated by a continuous phase transition belonging to the mean-field universality class or by a discontinuous phase transition with an intervening coexistence phase. The equilibrium system with TS=TL falls into the former case while the q -neighbor Ising model falls into the latter case. At the tricritical point, the system exhibits the mean-field tricritical behavior. Our model demonstrates a possibility that a continuous phase transition turns into a discontinuous transition by a nonequilibrium driving. Heat flow induced by the temperature difference between two heat baths is also studied.

  18. Multiple axis reticle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barns, Chris E. (Inventor); Gunter, William D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A reticle permits the alignment of three orthogonal axes (X, Y and Z) that intersect at a common target point. Thin, straight filaments are supported on a frame. The filaments are each contained in a different orthogonal plane (S sub xy, S sub xz, and S sub yz) and each filament intersects two of the three orthogonal axes. The filaments, as viewed along the frame axis, give the appearance of a triangle with a V extending from each triangle vertex. When axial alignment is achieved, the filament portions adjacent to a triangle vertex are seen (along the axis of interest) as a right-angle cross, whereas these filament portions are seen to intersect at an oblique angle when axial misalignment occurs. The reticle is open in the region near the target point leaving ample space for alignment aids such as a pentaprism or a cube mirror.

  19. Time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations of critical and Lifshitz points of the axial-next-nearest-neighbor Ising model.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Roberto; Alves, Nelson; Drugowich de Felício, Jose Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we study the critical behavior of second-order points, specifically the Lifshitz point (LP) of a three-dimensional Ising model with axial competing interactions [the axial-next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model], using time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations. We use a recently developed technique that helps us localize the critical temperature corresponding to the best power law for magnetization decay over time: (m(0)=1)~t(-β/νz), which is expected of simulations starting from initially ordered states. We obtain original results for the dynamic critical exponent z, evaluated from the behavior of the ratio F(2)(t)=(m(0)=0)/(2)(m(0)=1)~t(3/z), along the critical line up to the LP. We explore all the critical exponents of the LP in detail, including the dynamic critical exponent θ that characterizes the initial slip of magnetization and the global persistence exponent θ(g) associated with the probability P(t) that magnetization keeps its signal up to time t. Our estimates for the dynamic critical exponents at the Lifshitz point are z=2.34(2) and θ(g)=0.336(4), values that are very different from those of the three-dimensional Ising model (the ANNNI model without the next-nearest-neighbor interactions at the z axis, i.e., J(2)=0), i.e., z≈2.07 and θ(g)≈0.38. We also present estimates for the static critical exponents β and ν, obtained from extended time-dependent scaling relations. Our results for static exponents are in good agreement with previous works.

  20. Conversational Telugu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop elementary conversational skills in Telugu. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The first, and most predominant, is the unit microwave cycle. These cycles divide the learning process into two basic phases, the first of which involves mimicry, memorization, and…

  1. Conversational Tamil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinstein, Judith; And Others

    The purpose of this text is to develop conversational skills in Tamil. It is to be used as a review of what has been learned in class and not as a teaching device. The language materials consist of four types of language learning activities. The unit microwave cycle divides the learning process into two basic phases. The first phase involves…

  2. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  3. Single Axis Piezoceramic Gimbal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett C.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication, testing, and analysis of a single axis piezoceramic gimbal. The fabrication process consist of pre-stressing a piezoceramic wafer using a high-temperature thermoplastic polyimide and a metal foil. The differential thermal expansion between the ceramic and metal induces a curvature. The pre-stressed, curved piezoceramic is mounted on a support mechanism and a mirror is attached to the piezoceramic. A plot of gimbal angle versus applied voltage to the piezoceramic is presented. A finite element analysis of the piezoceramic gimbal is described. The predicted gimbal angle versus applied voltage is compared to experimental results.

  4. Exploring ISEE-3 magnetic cloud polarities with electron heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Crooker, N. U.; Gosling, J. T.

    1999-06-01

    We have used solar wind electron heat fluxes to determine the magnetic polarities of the interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) during the ISEE-3 observations in 1978-1982. That period included 14 magnetic clouds (MCs) identified by Zhang and Burlaga. The MCs have been modeled as single magnetic flux ropes, and it is generally assumed that they are magnetically closed structures with each end of the flux rope connected to the Sun. The flux rope model is valid only if the magnetic polarity of each MC does not change during the passage of ISEE-3 through the MC. We test this model with the heat flux data, using the dominant heat flux in bidirectional electron heat fluxes to determine the MC polarities. The polarity changes within at least 2, and possibly 6, of the 14 MCs, meaning that those MCs can not fit the model of a single flux rope.

  5. Plasma waves in the distant geomagnetic tail - ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma wave measurements obtained during ISEE 3's deep passes through the geomagnetic tail found that moderate to intense electric field turbulence occurred in association with the major plasma and magnetic field regions and flow phenomena. In the magnetopause boundary layer the electric field spectral amplitudes are typically sharply peaked at 316 Hz to 562 Hz. The tail lobe region which is upstream of slow shocks and is magnetically connected to the plasma sheet is characterized by wave spectras that peak in the 100- to 316-Hz range and at the electron plasma frequency. Within the plasma sheet, broadband electrostatic noise occurs in regions where the magnetic field strength exceeds 2 nT; this noise can also be found in the plasma sheet boundary layer in association with strong field-aligned plasma flows. As ISEE 3 moved between the different distant tail regions, distinct but often subtle changes occurred in the plasma wave spectra.

  6. Nature versus nurture: Predictability in low-temperature Ising dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J.; Machta, J.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.

    2013-10-01

    Consider a dynamical many-body system with a random initial state subsequently evolving through stochastic dynamics. What is the relative importance of the initial state (“nature”) versus the realization of the stochastic dynamics (“nurture”) in predicting the final state? We examined this question for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet following an initial deep quench from T=∞ to T=0. We performed Monte Carlo studies on the overlap between “identical twins” raised in independent dynamical environments, up to size L=500. Our results suggest an overlap decaying with time as t-θh with θh=0.22±0.02; the same exponent holds for a quench to low but nonzero temperature. This “heritability exponent” may equal the persistence exponent for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet, but the two differ more generally.

  7. Nature versus nurture: predictability in low-temperature Ising dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ye, J; Machta, J; Newman, C M; Stein, D L

    2013-10-01

    Consider a dynamical many-body system with a random initial state subsequently evolving through stochastic dynamics. What is the relative importance of the initial state ("nature") versus the realization of the stochastic dynamics ("nurture") in predicting the final state? We examined this question for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet following an initial deep quench from T=∞ to T=0. We performed Monte Carlo studies on the overlap between "identical twins" raised in independent dynamical environments, up to size L=500. Our results suggest an overlap decaying with time as t(-θ)(h) with θ(h)=0.22 ± 0.02; the same exponent holds for a quench to low but nonzero temperature. This "heritability exponent" may equal the persistence exponent for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet, but the two differ more generally.

  8. The 2014 Earth return of the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; Farquhar, Robert W.; Loucks, Michel; Roberts, Craig E.; Wingo, Dennis; Cowing, Keith L.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Craychee, Tim; Nickel, Craig; Ford, Anthony; Colleluori, Marco; Folta, David C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Nace, Edward; Spohr, John E.; Dove, William; Mogk, Nathan; Furfaro, Roberto; Martin, Warren L.

    2015-05-01

    In 1978, the 3rd International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) became the first libration-point mission, about the Sun-Earth L1 point. Four years later, a complex series of lunar swingbys and small propulsive maneuvers ejected ISEE-3 from the Earth-Moon system, to fly by a comet (Giacobini-Zinner) for the first time in 1985, as the rechristened International Cometary Explorer (ICE). In its heliocentric orbit, ISEE-3/ICE slowly drifted around the Sun to return to the Earth's vicinity in 2014. Maneuvers in 1986 targeted a 2014 August 10th lunar swingby to recapture ISEE-3 into Earth orbit. In 1999, ISEE-3/ICE passed behind the Sun; after that, tracking of the spacecraft ceased and its control center at Goddard was shut down. In 2013, meetings were held to assess the viability of "re-awakening" ISEE-3. The goal was to target the 2014 lunar swingby, to recapture the spacecraft back into a halo-like Sun-Earth L1 orbit. However, special hardware for communicating with the spacecraft via NASA's Deep Space Network stations was discarded after 1999, and NASA had no funds to reconstruct the lost equipment. After ISEE-3's carrier signal was detected on March 1st with the 20 m antenna at Bochum, Germany, Skycorp, Inc. decided to initiate the ISEE-3 Reboot Project, to use software-defined radio with a less costly S-band transmitter that was purchased with a successful RocketHub crowdsourcing effort. NASA granted Skycorp permission to command the spacecraft. Commanding was successfully accomplished using the 300 m radio telescope at Arecibo. New capture trajectories were computed, including trajectories that would target the August lunar swingby and use a second ΔV (velocity change) that could target later lunar swingbys that would allow capture into almost any desired final orbit, including orbits about either the Sun-Earth L1 or L2 points, a lunar distant retrograde orbit, or targeting a flyby of the Earth-approaching active Comet Wirtanen in 2018. A tiny spinup maneuver was

  9. Approaches to numerical solution of 2D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, K. S.; Nefedev, K. V.; Kapitan, V. Yu; Andriushchenko, P. D.

    2016-08-01

    Parallel algorithm of partition function calculation of two-dimensional Ising model for systems with a finite number of spins was developed. Within a method of complete enumeration by using MPI technology with subsequent optimization of a parallel code time of calculations was reduced considerably. Partition function was calculated for systems of 16, 25, 36 Ising spins. Based on the obtained results, main thermodynamic and magnetic values dependences (such as heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, mean square magnetization) for ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions was investigated. The analysis of a different configurations contribution showed, that states with the minimum energy have essential influence on dependences of thermodynamic values. Comparison with the results obtained by the Wang Landau algorithm was performed.

  10. Ecological risk assessment of TBT in Ise Bay.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Joji; Yonezawa, Yoshitaka; Nakata, Kisaburo; Horiguchi, Fumio

    2009-02-01

    An ecological risk assessment of tributyltin (TBT) in Ise Bay was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) method. The assessment endpoint was defined to protect the survival, growth and reproduction of marine organisms. Sources of TBT in this study were assumed to be commercial vessels in harbors and navigation routes. Concentrations of TBT in Ise Bay were estimated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an ecosystem model and a chemical fate model. Estimated MOEs for marine organisms for 1990 and 2008 were approximately 0.1-2.0 and over 100 respectively, indicating a declining temporal trend in the probability of adverse effects. The chemical fate model predicts a much longer persistence of TBT in sediments than in the water column. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the harmful effects of TBT on benthic organisms.

  11. Thermalization, Error Correction, and Memory Lifetime for Ising Anyon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brell, Courtney G.; Burton, Simon; Dauphinais, Guillaume; Flammia, Steven T.; Poulin, David

    2014-07-01

    We consider two-dimensional lattice models that support Ising anyonic excitations and are coupled to a thermal bath. We propose a phenomenological model for the resulting short-time dynamics that includes pair creation, hopping, braiding, and fusion of anyons. By explicitly constructing topological quantum error-correcting codes for this class of system, we use our thermalization model to estimate the lifetime of the quantum information stored in the encoded spaces. To decode and correct errors in these codes, we adapt several existing topological decoders to the non-Abelian setting. We perform large-scale numerical simulations of these two-dimensional Ising anyon systems and find that the thresholds of these models range from 13% to 25%. To our knowledge, these are the first numerical threshold estimates for quantum codes without explicit additive structure.

  12. Universal dynamic scaling in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sandvik, Anders W.; Young, A. P.

    2015-08-01

    We use a nonequilibrium Monte Carlo simulation method and dynamical scaling to study the phase transition in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses. The transition point is repeatedly approached at finite velocity v (temperature change versus time) in Monte Carlo simulations starting at a high temperature. This approach has the advantage that the equilibrium limit does not have to be strictly reached for a scaling analysis to yield critical exponents. For the dynamic exponent we obtain z =5.85 (9 ) for bimodal couplings distribution and z =6.00 (10 ) for the Gaussian case. Assuming universal dynamic scaling, we combine the two results and obtain z =5.93 ±0.07 for generic 3D Ising spin glasses.

  13. A MATLAB GUI to study Ising model phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Curtislee; Datta, Trinanjan

    We have created a MATLAB based graphical user interface (GUI) that simulates the single spin flip Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. The GUI has the capability to study temperature and external magnetic field dependence of magnetization, susceptibility, and equilibration behavior of the nearest-neighbor square lattice Ising model. Since the Ising model is a canonical system to study phase transition, the GUI can be used both for teaching and research purposes. The presence of a Monte Carlo code in a GUI format allows easy visualization of the simulation in real time and provides an attractive way to teach the concept of thermal phase transition and critical phenomena. We will also discuss the GUI implementation to study phase transition in a classical spin ice model on the pyrochlore lattice.

  14. OpenCL Implementation of NeuroIsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapart, C. A.

    Recent advances in graphics card hardware combined with anintroduction of the OpenCL standard promise to accelerate numerical simulations across diverse scientific disciplines. One such field benefiting from new hardware/software paradigms is econophysics. The paper describes an OpenCL implementation of a selected econophysics model: NeuroIsing, which has been designed to execute in parallel on a vendor-independent graphics card. Originally introduced in the paper [C.~A.~Zapart, ``Econophysics in Financial Time Series Prediction'', PhD thesis, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Japan (2009)], at first it was implemented on a CELL processor running inside a SONY PS3 games console. The NeuroIsing framework can be applied to predicting and trading foreign exchange as well as stock market index futures.

  15. Frustrated Ising model on the Cairo pentagonal lattice.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Rojas, Onofre; de Souza, S M

    2012-11-01

    Through the direct decoration transformation approach, we obtain a general solution for the pentagonal Ising model, showing its equivalence to the isotropic free-fermion eight-vertex model. We study the ground-state phase diagram, in which one ferromagnetic (FM) state, one ferrimagnetic (FIM) state, and one frustrated state are found. Using the exact solution of the pentagonal Ising model, we discuss the finite-temperature phase diagrams and find a phase transition between the FIM state and the disordered state as well as a phase transition between the disordered state and the FM state. We also discuss some additional remarkable properties of the model, such as the magnetization, entropy, and specific heat, at finite temperature and at its low-temperature asymptotic limit. Because of the influence of the second-order phase transition between the frustrated and ferromagnetic phases, we obtain surprisingly low values of the entropy and the specific heat until the critical temperature is reached.

  16. Critical region for an Ising model coupled to causal triangulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda-Hernández, J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper extends the results obtained by Hernández et al for the annealed Ising model coupled to two-dimensional causal dynamical triangulations. We employ the Fortuin‑Kasteleyn (FK) representation in order to determine a region in the quadrant of the parameters β,μ >0 where the critical curve for the annealed model is possibly located. This can be done by outlining a region where the model has a unique infinite-volume Gibbs measure, and a region where the finite-volume Gibbs measure does not have weak limit (in fact, does not exist if the volume is large enough). We also improve the region where the model has a one dimensional geometry with respect to the unique weak limit measure, which implies that the Ising model on causal triangulation does not have phase transition in this region. Furthermore, we provide a better approximation of the free energy for the coupled model.

  17. Phase transition of the Ising model on a fractal lattice.

    PubMed

    Genzor, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi

    2016-01-01

    The phase transition of the Ising model is investigated on a planar lattice that has a fractal structure. On the lattice, the number of bonds that cross the border of a finite area is doubled when the linear size of the area is extended by a factor of 4. The free energy and the spontaneous magnetization of the system are obtained by means of the higher-order tensor renormalization group method. The system exhibits the order-disorder phase transition, where the critical indices are different from those of the square-lattice Ising model. An exponential decay is observed in the density-matrix spectrum even at the critical point. It is possible to interpret that the system is less entangled because of the fractal geometry.

  18. Dynamical properties of random-field Ising model.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Suman; Mandal, Pradipta Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed on a two-dimensional random field Ising model. The purpose of the present work is to study the disorder-induced changes in the properties of disordered spin systems. The time evolution of the domain growth, the order parameter, and the spin-spin correlation functions are studied in the nonequilibrium regime. The dynamical evolution of the order parameter and the domain growth shows a power law scaling with disorder-dependent exponents. It is observed that for weak random fields, the two-dimensional random field Ising model possesses long-range order. Except for weak disorder, exchange interaction never wins over pinning interaction to establish long-range order in the system.

  19. Combinatorial approach to exactly solve the 1D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Swarnadeep

    2017-01-01

    The Ising model is a well known statistical model which can be solved exactly by various methods. The most familiar one is the transfer matrix method. Sometimes it can be difficult to approach the open boundary case rather than periodic boundary ones in higher dimensions. But physically it is more intuitive to study the open boundary case, as it gives a closer view of the real system. We have introduced a new method called the pairing method to determine the exact partition function for the simplest case, a 1D Ising lattice. This method simplifies the problem's complexities and reduces it to a pure combinatorial problem. The study also reveals that it is possible to apply this pairing method in the case of a 2D square lattice. The obtained results agree perfectly with the values in the literature and this new approach provides an algorithmic insight to deal with such problems.

  20. Recurrence relations in one-dimensional Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, C. M. Silva; Maia, R. N. P.

    2017-09-01

    The exact finite-size partition function for the nonhomogeneous one-dimensional (1D) Ising model is found through an approach using algebra operators. Specifically, in this paper we show that the partition function can be computed through a trace from a linear second-order recurrence relation with nonconstant coefficients in matrix form. A relation between the finite-size partition function and the generalized Lucas polynomials is found for the simple homogeneous model, thus establishing a recursive formula for the partition function. This is an important property and it might indicate the possible existence of recurrence relations in higher-dimensional Ising models. Moreover, assuming quenched disorder for the interactions within the model, the quenched averaged magnetic susceptibility displays a nontrivial behavior due to changes in the ferromagnetic concentration probability.

  1. A Binomial Approximation Method for the Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streib, Noah; Streib, Amanda; Beichl, Isabel; Sullivan, Francis

    2014-08-01

    A large portion of the computation required for the partition function of the Ising model can be captured with a simple formula. In this work, we support this claim by defining an approximation to the partition function and other thermodynamic quantities of the Ising model that requires no algorithm at all. This approximation, which uses the high temperature expansion, is solely based on the binomial distribution, and performs very well at low temperatures. At high temperatures, we provide an alternative approximation, which also serves as a lower bound on the partition function and is trivial to compute. We provide theoretical evidence and the results of numerical experiments to support the strength of these approximations.

  2. Critical dynamics of cluster algorithms in the dilute Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennecke, M.; Heyken, U.

    1993-08-01

    Autocorrelation times for thermodynamic quantities at T C are calculated from Monte Carlo simulations of the site-diluted simple cubic Ising model, using the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms. Our results show that for these algorithms the autocorrelation times decrease when reducing the concentration of magnetic sites from 100% down to 40%. This is of crucial importance when estimating static properties of the model, since the variances of these estimators increase with autocorrelation time. The dynamical critical exponents are calculated for both algorithms, observing pronounced finite-size effects in the energy autocorrelation data for the algorithm of Wolff. We conclude that, when applied to the dilute Ising model, cluster algorithms become even more effective than local algorithms, for which increasing autocorrelation times are expected.

  3. Critical exponents for the 3D Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.; Tamayo, P. |

    1996-03-01

    The authors present a status report on the ongoing analysis of the 3D Ising model with nearest-neighbor interactions using the Monte Carlo Renormalization Group (MCRG) and finite size scaling (FSS) methods on 64{sup 3}, 128{sup 3}, and 256{sup 3} simple cubic lattices. Their MCRG estimates are K{sup c}{sub nn} = 0.221655(1)(1) and {nu} = 0.625(1). The FSS results for K{sup c} are consistent with those from MCRG but the value of {nu} is not. Their best estimate {eta} = 0.025(6) covers the spread in the MCRG and FSS values. A surprise of their calculation is the estimate {omega} {approx} 0.7 for the correction-to-scaling exponent. The authors also present results for the renormalized coupling g{sub R} along the MCRG flow and argue that the data supports the validity of hyperscaling for the 3D Ising model.

  4. Applications of ISES for vegetation and land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. Gale

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing relative to applications involving vegetation cover and land use is reviewed to consider the potential benefits to the Earth Observing System (Eos) of a proposed Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES). The ISES concept has been proposed as an onboard experiment and computational resource to support advanced experiments and demonstrations in the information and earth sciences. Embedded in the concept is potential for relieving the data glut problem, enhancing capabilities to meet real-time needs of data users and in-situ researchers, and introducing emerging technology to Eos as the technology matures. These potential benefits are examined in the context of state-of-the-art research activities in image/data processing and management.

  5. Partially disordered antiferromagnetism and multiferroic behavior in a frustrated Ising system CoCl2–2SC(NH2)2

    DOE PAGES

    Mun, Eundeok; Weickert, Dagmar Franziska; Kim, Jaewook; ...

    2016-03-01

    We investigate partially disordered antiferromagnetism in CoCl2-2SC(NH2)2, in which ab-plane hexagonal layers are staggered along the c axis rather than stacked. A robust 1/3 state forms in applied magnetic fields in which the spins are locked, varying as a function of neither temperature nor field. By contrast, in zero field and applied fields at higher temperatures, partial antiferromagnetic order occurs, in which free spins are available to create a Curie-like magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the crystallographic structure and the specific heat, magnetization, and electric polarization down to T = 50mK and up to μ0H = 60T. The Co2+more » S = 3/2 spins are Ising-like and form distorted hexagonal layers. The Ising energy scale is well separated from the magnetic exchange, and both energy scales are accessible to the measurements, allowing us to cleanly parametrize them. In transverse fields, a quantum Ising phase transition can be observed at 2 T. Lastly, we find that magnetic exchange striction induces changes in the electric polarization up to 3μC/m2, and single-ion magnetic anisotropy effects induce a much larger electric polarization change of 300μC/m2.« less

  6. Vertical axis wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cubbers, J.

    1993-07-13

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described comprising: a vertically extending axle supported for rotation about a vertical axis; a series of wind vanes arranged around said axle; support means supporting each of said wind vanes on said axle, each of said wind vanes comprising a substantially flat main panel section of flexible material draped vertically by said support means to extend in a circumferential direction; each of said wind vanes including at least one pocket comprised of a substantially flat overlayer panel of flexible material overlying the outside of said wind vane flexible material panel section and attached thereto along a vertical side by a seam and also attached thereto along the top and bottom, but unattached along the other side to form a normally closed pocket which is able to flare open when wind is blowing from the unattached side thereof and thereby catch said wind, said pocket collapsing when wind blows from the attached side of said overlayer by said overlayer panel again overlying said main panel section.

  7. Fibromyxoma of the axis.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Casadei, Roberto; Gambarotti, Marco; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2012-07-01

    Fibromyxoma of bone is a rare benign tumor of fibrous tissue origin. The typical location is the jaws. Sporadic extragnathic cases have been reported, but fibromyxoma of the spine has not been reported. The histological appearance of fibromyxoma is benign and includes abundant extracellular fibrous and myxoid stroma with varying amounts of calcification and ossification. Myxoid changes are usually extensive. Extragnathic fibromyxoma of bone should be distinguished from benign cartilage-forming bone tumors, such as chondromyxoid and myxoid chondrosarcoma and myxoma of bone. It has also been suggested that fibromyxoma is a variant of myxoid fibrous dysplasia, whereas other authors reported extragnathic fibromyxoma resulting from myxoid degeneration of bone tumors, such as chondrosarcoma or fibrosarcoma. The overtreatment of patients with fibromyxoma of bone due to an aggressive imaging appearance should be avoided; the prognosis is excellent compared with the jaw variant and depends on the location and extent of the tumor. This article describes a case of a 21-year-old woman with fibromyxoma of bone originating from the spinous process of the axis. Clinical examination showed a tender mass in the midline of the posterior aspect the neck and slight limitation of neck range of motion; neurologic examination was normal. Diagnosis was obtained with a preoperative biopsy. Marginal excision of the lesion with posterior laminectomy of the axis was performed. The facets were preserved, and no fusion was performed. At last follow-up 2 years after diagnosis and treatment, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of local recurrence.

  8. A review of the ISEE-3 geotail magnetic field results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Goldstein, B. E.; Burton, M. E.; Jones, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    This review presents a summary of past work on the ISEE-3 distant tail magnetic field observations. An attempt has been made to bring the many results together as a coherent whole, in the hope that the reader can envision the direction of future research necessary to achieve an understanding of the dynamics of the magnetotail from 60 to 240 earth radii and perhaps beyond.

  9. Ising model observables and non-backtracking walks

    SciTech Connect

    Helmuth, Tyler

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents an alternative proof of the connection between the partition function of the Ising model on a finite graph G and the set of non-backtracking walks on G. The techniques used also give formulas for spin-spin correlation functions in terms of non-backtracking walks. The main tools used are Viennot's theory of heaps of pieces and turning numbers on surfaces.

  10. Ground state nonuniversality in the random-field Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, P. M.; Meinke, J. H.

    2001-09-01

    Two attractive and often used ideas, namely, universality and the concept of a zero-temperature fixed point, are violated in the infinite-range random-field Ising model. In the ground state we show that the exponents can depend continuously on the disorder and so are nonuniversal. However, we also show that at finite temperature the thermal order-parameter exponent 1/2 is restored so that temperature is a relevant variable. Broader implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Koh, I. G.

    1989-05-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Olive coset-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A(1)1 Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface.

  12. Interfaces in the Ising quantum chain and conformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Gang; Li, Bo-Zang; Zhao, Min-Guang

    1996-04-01

    The Ising quantum chain with multiple interfaces is solved exactly. The model is shown to be conformally invariant only for a commensurate configuration of the critical parameters. The spectra are generated by an irreducible oscillator representation of the shifted SO(2c) Kac-Moody algebra, where the central charge c is a discontinuous function of the critical parameters. The critical exponents associated with these interfaces are determined.

  13. A fast MPP algorithm for Ising spin exchange simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Francis; Mountain, Raymond D.

    1987-01-01

    A very efficient massively parallel processor (MPP) algorithm is described for performing one important class of Ising spin simulations. Results and physical significance of MPP calculations using the method described is discussed elsewhere. A few comments, however, are made on the problem under study and results so far are reported. Ted Einstein provided guidance in interpreting the initial results and in suggesting calculations to perform.

  14. Reentrance and ultrametricity in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Thomas, Creighton K.; Hartmann, Alexander K.

    2012-02-01

    We study the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass with bimodal disorder with a fraction of 22.8% antiferromagnetic bonds. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations down to very low temperatures show that for this fraction of antiferromagnetic bonds the phase diagram of the system is reentrant, in agreement with previous results. Furthemore, using a clustering analysis, we analyze the ultrametric properties of phase space for this model.

  15. Boundary Critical Behaviour of Two-Dimensional Layered Ising Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelizzola, Alessandro

    Layered models are models in which the coupling constants depend in an arbitrary way on one spatial coordinate, usually the distance from a free surface or boundary. Here the theory of the boundary critical behaviour of two-dimensional layered Ising models, including the Hilhorst-van Leeuwen model and models for aperiodic systems, is reviewed, with a particular attention to exact results for the critical behaviour and the boundary order parameter.

  16. Image restoration using the Q-Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Inoue, J; Carlucci, D M

    2001-09-01

    We investigate static and dynamic properties of gray-scale image restoration by making use of the Q-Ising spin glass model, whose ladder symmetry allows us to take in account the distance between two spins. We thus give an explicit expression of the Hamming distance between the original and restored images as a function of the hyperparameters in the mean field limit. Finally, numerical simulations for real-world pictures are carried out to prove the efficiency of our model.

  17. A review of the ISEE-3 geotail magnetic field results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Goldstein, B. E.; Burton, M. E.; Jones, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    This review presents a summary of past work on the ISEE-3 distant tail magnetic field observations. An attempt has been made to bring the many results together as a coherent whole, in the hope that the reader can envision the direction of future research necessary to achieve an understanding of the dynamics of the magnetotail from 60 to 240 earth radii and perhaps beyond.

  18. Thermal diode from two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising lattices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Baowen

    2011-06-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising models consisting of two weakly coupled dissimilar segments, coupled to heat baths with different temperatures at the two ends, are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The heat rectifying effect, namely asymmetric heat conduction, is clearly observed. The underlying mechanisms are the different temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity κ at two dissimilar segments and the match (mismatch) of flipping frequencies of the interface spins.

  19. Stochastic thermodynamics for Ising chain and symmetric exclusion process.

    PubMed

    Toral, R; Van den Broeck, C; Escaff, D; Lindenberg, Katja

    2017-03-01

    We verify the finite-time fluctuation theorem for a linear Ising chain in contact with heat reservoirs at its ends. Analytic results are derived for a chain consisting of two spins. The system can be mapped onto a model for particle transport, namely, the symmetric exclusion process in contact with thermal and particle reservoirs. We modify the symmetric exclusion process to represent a thermal engine and reproduce universal features of the efficiency at maximum power.

  20. Repairing Stevenson's step in the 4d Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Janos; Niedermayer, Ferenc; Weisz, Peter

    2006-05-01

    In a recent paper Stevenson claimed that analysis of the data on the wave function renormalization constant near the critical point of the 4d Ising model is not consistent with analytical expectations. Here we present data with improved statistics and show that the results are indeed consistent with conventional wisdom once one takes into account the uncertainty of lattice artifacts in the analytical computations.

  1. Long range Ising model for credit risk modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, Jordi; Vives, Eduard

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of maximum entropy principle we show that the finite-size long-range Ising model is the adequate model for the description of homogeneous credit portfolios and the computation of credit risk when default correlations between the borrowers are included. The exact analysis of the model suggest that when the correlation increases a first-order-like transition may occur inducing a sudden risk increase.

  2. Kallen Lehman approach to 3D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfora, F.

    2007-03-01

    A “Kallen-Lehman” approach to Ising model, inspired by quantum field theory à la Regge, is proposed. The analogy with the Kallen-Lehman representation leads to a formula for the free-energy of the 3D model with few free parameters which could be matched with the numerical data. The possible application of this scheme to the spin glass case is shortly discussed.

  3. The quantum Ising model: finite sums and hyperbolic functions.

    PubMed

    Damski, Bogdan

    2015-10-30

    We derive exact closed-form expressions for several sums leading to hyperbolic functions and discuss their applicability for studies of finite-size Ising spin chains. We show how they immediately lead to closed-form expressions for both fidelity susceptibility characterizing the quantum critical point and the coefficients of the counterdiabatic Hamiltonian enabling arbitrarily quick adiabatic driving of the system. Our results generalize and extend the sums presented in the popular Gradshteyn and Ryzhik Table of Integrals, Series, and Products.

  4. The quantum Ising model: finite sums and hyperbolic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, Bogdan

    2015-10-01

    We derive exact closed-form expressions for several sums leading to hyperbolic functions and discuss their applicability for studies of finite-size Ising spin chains. We show how they immediately lead to closed-form expressions for both fidelity susceptibility characterizing the quantum critical point and the coefficients of the counterdiabatic Hamiltonian enabling arbitrarily quick adiabatic driving of the system. Our results generalize and extend the sums presented in the popular Gradshteyn and Ryzhik Table of Integrals, Series, and Products.

  5. Stochastic thermodynamics for Ising chain and symmetric exclusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toral, R.; Van den Broeck, C.; Escaff, D.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2017-03-01

    We verify the finite-time fluctuation theorem for a linear Ising chain in contact with heat reservoirs at its ends. Analytic results are derived for a chain consisting of two spins. The system can be mapped onto a model for particle transport, namely, the symmetric exclusion process in contact with thermal and particle reservoirs. We modify the symmetric exclusion process to represent a thermal engine and reproduce universal features of the efficiency at maximum power.

  6. Exact interface model for wetting in the planar Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, P. J.

    1999-10-01

    At the wetting transition in the two-dimensional Ising model the long contour (interface) gets depinned from the substrate. It is found that on sufficiently large length scales the statistics of the long contour are described by a unique probability measure corresponding to a continuous ``interface model'' with an interface binding ``potential'' given by a Dirac δ function supported on the substrate. A lattice solid-on-solid model is shown to give similar results.

  7. Exact interface model for wetting in the planar Ising model.

    PubMed

    Upton, P J

    1999-10-01

    At the wetting transition in the two-dimensional Ising model the long contour (interface) gets depinned from the substrate. It is found that on sufficiently large length scales the statistics of the long contour are described by a unique probability measure corresponding to a continuous "interface model" with an interface binding "potential" given by a Dirac delta function supported on the substrate. A lattice solid-on-solid model is shown to give similar results.

  8. Thin Ising films with competing walls: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, K.; Landau, D. P.; Ferrenberg, A. M.

    1995-04-01

    Ising magnets with a nearest neighbor ferromagnetic exchange interaction J on a simple cubic lattice are studied in a thin film geometry using extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The system has two large L×L parallel free surfaces, a distance D apart from each other, at which competing surface fields act, i.e., HD=-H1. In this geometry, the phase transition occurring in the bulk at a temperature Tcb is suppressed, and instead one observes the gradual formation of an interface between coexisting phases stabilized by the surface fields. While this interface is located in the center of the film for temperatures Tc(D)0 (and the total magnetization is negative). As predicted, for large D this transition temperature Tc(D) is close to the wetting transition Tw(H1) of the semi-infinite system, but the transition nevertheless has a two-dimensional Ising character. Due to crossover problems (for D-->∞ the width of the asymptotic Ising region shrinks to zero, and one presumably observes critical wetting in this model) this Ising nature is clearly seen only for rather thin films. For Tc(D)

  9. Effects of random fields in an antiferromagnetic Ising bilayer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyoshi, T.

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic properties (phase diagrams and magnetizations) of an antiferromagnetic Ising bilayer film with random fields are investigated by the use of the effective field theory with correlations. It is examined how an uncompensated magnetization can be realized in the system, due to the effects of random fields in the two layers. They show the tricritical, compensation point and reentrant phenomena, depending on these parameters.

  10. Plasma electrons as tracers of distant magnetotail structure - ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares the electron spectra and phase space densities measured concurrently by ISEE-3 at 200 R(E), with those measured by DMSP at low altitudes. The field-aligned lobe electron phase space densities above 200 eV at ISEE were found to agree well with the DMSP-measured polar rain phase space densities near the polar cap; the spectral slopes above 200 eV were also similar. Below 100-200 eV, a thermal electron population was measured by ISEE in the distant tail, which arose from local entry of plasma through the distant magnetopause, which is not present at DMSP altitudes. These data show that the suprathermal tail lobe electrons are essentially a test particle population which can move freely along field lines to form polar rain; in contrast, the thermal electrons are bound to the tailward-flowing lobe ion population far down the tail and, thus, cannot reach the polar cap regions.

  11. Ising anyons in frustration-free Majorana-dimer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Brayden; Son, Jun Ho; Cheng, Meng; Mishmash, Ryan V.; Alicea, Jason; Bauer, Bela

    2016-09-01

    Dimer models have long been a fruitful playground for understanding topological physics. Here, we introduce a class, termed Majorana-dimer models, wherein bosonic dimers are decorated with pairs of Majorana modes. We find that the simplest examples of such systems realize an intriguing, intrinsically fermionic phase of matter that can be viewed as the product of a chiral Ising theory, which hosts deconfined non-Abelian quasiparticles, and a topological px-i py superconductor. While the bulk anyons are described by a single copy of the Ising theory, the edge remains fully gapped. Consequently, this phase can arise in exactly solvable, frustration-free models. We describe two parent Hamiltonians: one generalizes the well-known dimer model on the triangular lattice, while the other is most naturally understood as a model of decorated fluctuating loops on a honeycomb lattice. Using modular transformations, we show that the ground-state manifold of the latter model unambiguously exhibits all properties of the Ising×(px-i py) theory. We also discuss generalizations with more than one Majorana mode per site, which realize phases related to Kitaev's 16-fold way in a similar fashion.

  12. Two-dimensional XXZ-Ising model with quartic interactions.

    PubMed

    Valverde, J S

    2012-05-01

    In this work we study a two-dimensional XXZ-Ising spin-1/2 model with quartic interactions. The model is composed of a two-dimensional lattice of edge-sharing unitary cells, where each cell consists of two triangular prisms, converging in a basal plane with four Ising spin-1/2 (open circles); the apical positions are also occupied by four Heisenberg spin-1/2 (solid circles). Interaction of the base plane containing the multispin Ising interaction has the parameter J_{4}, and the other pairwise interactions have parameter J. For the proposed model we construct the phase diagram at zero temperature and give all possible spin configurations. In addition, we investigate two regions where the model can be solved exactly, the free fermion condition (FFC) and the symmetrical eight-vertex condition (SEVC). For this purpose we perform a straightforward mapping for a zero-field eight-vertex model. The necessary conditions for the equivalence are analyzed for all ranges of the interaction parameters. Unfortunately, the present model does not satisfy the FFC unless the trivial case; however, it was possible to give a region where the model can be solved approximately. We study the SEVC and verify that this condition is always satisfied. We also explore and discuss the critical conditions giving the region where these critical points are relevant.

  13. ISEE/IMP Observations of simultaneous upstream ion events

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, D.G.; Roelof, E.C.; Sanderson, T.R.; Reinhard, R.; Wenzel, K.

    1983-07-01

    Propagation of upstream energetic (50--200 keV) ions is analyzed in sixteen events observed simulataneously by solid state detectors on ISEE 3 at approx.200 R/sub E/ and on IMP 8 at approx.35 R/sub E/ from the earth. Conclusions are based on comparisons of the pitch angle distributions observed at the two spacecraft and transformed into the solar wind frame. They are beamlike at ISEE 3 and are confined to the outward hemisphere. When IMP 8 is furtherest from the bow shock, they are also usually beamlike, or hemispheric. However, when IMP 8 is closer to the bow shock, pancakelike distributions are observed. This systematic variation in the IMP 8 pitch angle distributions delimits a scattering region l< or approx. =14 R/sub E/ upstream of the earth's bow shock (l measured along the interplanetary magnetic field) that dominates ion propagation, influences the global distribution of fluxes in the foreshock, and may play a role in acceleration of the ions. When IMP 8 is beyond lapprox.15 R/sub E/, the propagation appears to be essentially scatter-free between IMP 8 and ISEE 3; this is deduced from the absence of earthward fluxes at IMP 8 as well as the tendency for the spin-averaged fluxes to be comparable at the two spacecraft.

  14. ISEE/IMP observations of simultaneous upstream ion events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E. C.; Sanderson, T. R.; Reinhard, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    1983-01-01

    Propagation of upstream energetic (50-200 keV) ions is analyzed in sixteen events observed simultaneously by solid state detectors on ISEE 3 at about 200 earth radii and on IMP 8 at about 35 earth radii from the earth. Conclusions are based on comparisons of the pitch angle distributions observed at the two spacecraft and transformed into the solar wind frame. They are beamlike at ISEE 3 and are confined to the outward hemisphere. When IMP 8 is furthest from the bow shock, they are also usually beamlike, or hemispheric. However, when IMP 8 is closer to the bow shock, pancakelike distributions are observed. This systematic variation in the IMP 8 pitch angle distributions delimits a scattering region l less than about 15 earth radii upstream of the earth's bow shock (l measured along the interplanetary magnetic field) that dominates ion propagation, influences the global distribution of fluxes in the foreshock, and may play a role in acceleration of the ions. When IMP 8 is beyond l of about 15 earth radii the propagation appears to be essentially scatter-free between IMP 8 and ISEE 3; this is deduced from the absence of earthward fluxes at IMP 8 as well as the tendency for the spin-averaged fluxes to be comparable at the two spacecraft.

  15. Ising-like patterns of spatial synchrony in population biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Andrew; Hastings, Alan; Machta, Jon

    2014-03-01

    Systems of coupled dynamical oscillators can undergo a phase transition between synchronous and asynchronous phases. In the case of coupled map lattices, the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a temporal-phase order parameter is known to exhibit Ising-like critical behavior. Here, we investigate a noisy coupled map motivated by the study of spatial synchrony in ecological populations far from the extinction threshold. Ising-like patterns of criticality, as well as spinodal decomposition and homogeneous nucleation, emerge from the nonlinear interactions of environmental fluctuations in habitat quality, local density-dependence in reproduction, and dispersal. In the mean-field limit, the correspondence to the Ising model is exact: the fixed points of our dynamical system are given by the equation of state for Weiss mean-field theory under an appropriate mapping of parameters. We have strong evidence that a quantitative correspondence persists, both near and far from the critical point, in the presence of fluctuations. Our results provide a formal connection between equilibrium statistical physics and population biology. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1344187.

  16. Application of an axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model to the description of Mn+1AXn phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouisse, T.; Chaussende, D.

    2012-03-01

    We show that some important features characterizing the Mn+1AXn phases, a family of hexagonal-structure ternary carbides and nitrides (X) including a transition metal (M) and an A-group element (A), can be reproduced by modifying the spin model known as the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model into a form where pseudospin inversion changes the system energy and requires the inclusion of single- and three-spin products. We describe the various MAX phases in terms of M-A or M-X bilayer stacking along the c axis. We discuss the dependence of the cohesive energy and phase stability on coupling parameters which characterize the first- and second-neighbor interactions between those bilayers. We also address the case of “hybrid” MAX phases.

  17. Conversational sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  18. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  19. Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandi, Alireza; Wang, Zhe; Takata, Kenta; Byer, Robert L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    Finding the ground states of the Ising Hamiltonian maps to various combinatorial optimization problems in biology, medicine, wireless communications, artificial intelligence and social network. So far, no efficient classical and quantum algorithm is known for these problems and intensive research is focused on creating physical systems—Ising machines—capable of finding the absolute or approximate ground states of the Ising Hamiltonian. Here, we report an Ising machine using a network of degenerate optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). Spins are represented with above-threshold binary phases of the OPOs and the Ising couplings are realized by mutual injections. The network is implemented in a single OPO ring cavity with multiple trains of femtosecond pulses and configurable mutual couplings, and operates at room temperature. We programmed a small non-deterministic polynomial time-hard problem on a 4-OPO Ising machine and in 1,000 runs no computational error was detected.

  20. Spin-correlation function of the fully frustrated Ising model and ± J Ising spin glass on a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Y. Ali; J, Poulter

    2013-06-01

    In this work we study the correlation function of the ground state of a two-dimensional fully frustrated Ising model as well as spin glass. The Pfaffian method is used to calculate free energy and entropy as well as the correlation function. We estimate the exponent of spin correlation function for the fully frustrated model and spin glass. In this paper an overview of the latest results on the spin correlation function is presented.

  1. Quantum cluster algorithm for frustrated Ising models in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sounak; Rakala, Geet; Damle, Kedar

    2016-06-01

    Working within the stochastic series expansion framework, we introduce and characterize a plaquette-based quantum cluster algorithm for quantum Monte Carlo simulations of transverse field Ising models with frustrated Ising exchange interactions. As a demonstration of the capabilities of this algorithm, we show that a relatively small ferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor coupling drives the transverse field Ising antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice from an antiferromagnetic three-sublattice ordered state at low temperature to a ferrimagnetic three-sublattice ordered state.

  2. Low-temperature spin-glass behavior in a diluted dipolar Ising system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Juan J.

    2015-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the character of the spin-glass (SG) state of a site-diluted dipolar Ising model. We consider systems of dipoles randomly placed on a fraction x of all L3 sites of a simple cubic lattice that point up or down along a given crystalline axis. For x ≲0.65 these systems are known to exhibit an equilibrium spin-glass phase below a temperature Tsg∝x . At high dilution and very low temperatures, well deep in the SG phase, we find spiky distributions of the overlap parameter q that are strongly sample dependent. We focus on spikes associated with large excitations. From cumulative distributions of q and a pair correlation function averaged over several thousands of samples we find that, for the system sizes studied, the average width of spikes, and the fraction of samples with spikes higher than a certain threshold, does not vary appreciably with L . This is compared with the behavior found for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

  3. Magnetic structure of Yb2Pt2Pb: Ising moments on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice

    DOE PAGES

    Miiller, W.; Zaliznyak, I.; Wu, L. S.; ...

    2016-03-22

    Neutron diffraction measurements were carried out on single crystals and powders of Yb2Pt2Pb, where Yb moments form two interpenetrating planar sublattices of orthogonal dimers, a geometry known as Shastry-Sutherland lattice, and are stacked along the c axis in a ladder geometry. Yb2Pt2Pb orders antiferromagnetically at TN=2.07K, and the magnetic structure determined from these measurements features the interleaving of two orthogonal sublattices into a 5×5×1 magnetic supercell that is based on stripes with moments perpendicular to the dimer bonds, which are along (110) and (–110). Magnetic fields applied along (110) or (–110) suppress the antiferromagnetic peaks from an individual sublattice, butmore » leave the orthogonal sublattice unaffected, evidence for the Ising character of the Yb moments in Yb2Pt2Pb that is supported by point charge calculations. Furthermore, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical resistivity measurements concur with neutron elastic scattering results that the longitudinal critical fluctuations are gapped with ΔE≃0.07meV.« less

  4. Dynamical percolation transition in the Ising model studied using a pulsed magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Kundu, Anasuya; Chandra, Anjan Kumar

    2011-02-01

    We study the dynamical percolation transition of the geometrical clusters in the two-dimensional Ising model when it is subjected to a pulsed field below the critical temperature. The critical exponents are independent of the temperature and pulse width and are different from the (static) percolation transition associated with the thermal transition. For a different model that belongs to the Ising universality class, the exponents are found to be same, confirming that the behavior is a common feature of the Ising class. These observations, along with a universal critical Binder cumulant value, characterize the dynamical percolation of the Ising universality class.

  5. A new wind energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    It is presupposed that vertical axis wind energy machines will be superior to horizontal axis machines on a power output/cost basis and the design of a new wind energy machine is presented. The design employs conical cones with sharp lips and smooth surfaces to promote maximum drag and minimize skin friction. The cones are mounted on a vertical axis in such a way as to assist torque development. Storing wind energy as compressed air is thought to be optimal and reasons are: (1) the efficiency of compression is fairly high compared to the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy in storage batteries; (2) the release of stored energy through an air motor has high efficiency; and (3) design, construction, and maintenance of an all-mechanical system is usually simpler than for a mechanical to electrical conversion system.

  6. Globally nilpotent differential operators and the square Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostan, A.; Boukraa, S.; Hassani, S.; Maillard, J.-M.; Weil, J.-A.; Zenine, N.

    2009-03-01

    We recall various multiple integrals with one parameter, related to the isotropic square Ising model, and corresponding, respectively, to the n-particle contributions of the magnetic susceptibility, to the (lattice) form factors, to the two-point correlation functions and to their λ-extensions. The univariate analytic functions defined by these integrals are holonomic and even G-functions: they satisfy Fuchsian linear differential equations with polynomial coefficients and have some arithmetic properties. We recall the explicit forms, found in previous work, of these Fuchsian equations, as well as their Russian-doll and direct sum structures. These differential operators are selected Fuchsian linear differential operators, and their remarkable properties have a deep geometrical origin: they are all globally nilpotent, or, sometimes, even have zero p-curvature. We also display miscellaneous examples of globally nilpotent operators emerging from enumerative combinatorics problems for which no integral representation is yet known. Focusing on the factorized parts of all these operators, we find out that the global nilpotence of the factors (resp. p-curvature nullity) corresponds to a set of selected structures of algebraic geometry: elliptic curves, modular curves, curves of genus five, six,..., and even a remarkable weight-1 modular form emerging in the three-particle contribution χ(3) of the magnetic susceptibility of the square Ising model. Noticeably, this associated weight-1 modular form is also seen in the factors of the differential operator for another n-fold integral of the Ising class, Φ(3)H, for the staircase polygons counting, and in Apéry's study of ζ(3). G-functions naturally occur as solutions of globally nilpotent operators. In the case where we do not have G-functions, but Hamburger functions (one irregular singularity at 0 or ∞) that correspond to the confluence of singularities in the scaling limit, the p-curvature is also found to verify new

  7. Some results on hyperscaling in the 3D Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.A. Jr.; Kawashima, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    The authors review exact studies on finite-sized 2 dimensional Ising models and show that the point for an infinite-sized model at the critical temperature is a point of nonuniform approach in the temperature-size plane. They also illuminate some strong effects of finite-size on quantities which do not diverge at the critical point. They then review Monte Carlo studies for 3 dimensional Ising models of various sizes (L = 2--100) at various temperatures. From these results they find that the data for the renormalized coupling constant collapses nicely when plotted against the correlation length, determined in a system of edge length L, divided by L. They also find that {zeta}{sub L}/L {ge} 0.26 is definitely too large for reliable studies of the critical value, g*, of the renormalized coupling constant. They have reasonable evidence that {zeta}{sub L}/L {approx} 0.1 is adequate for results that are within one percent of those for the infinite system size. On this basis, they have conducted a series of Monte Carlo calculations with this condition imposed. These calculations were made practical by the development of improved estimators for use in the Swendsen-Wang cluster method. The authors found from these results, coupled with a reversed limit computation (size increases with the temperature fixed at the critical temperature), that g* > 0, although there may well be a sharp downward drop in g as the critical temperature is approached in accord with the predictions of series analysis. The results support the validity of hyperscaling in the 3 dimensional Ising model.

  8. In-Space Engine (ISE-100) Development - Design Verification Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Popp, Chris; Bullard, Brad

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, NASA has formulated science mission concepts with an anticipation of landing spacecraft on the lunar surface, meteoroids, and other planets. Advancing thruster technology for spacecraft propulsion systems has been considered for maximizing science payload. Starting in 2010, development of In-Space Engine (designated as ISE-100) has been carried out. ISE-100 thruster is designed based on heritage Missile Defense Agency (MDA) technology aimed for a lightweight and efficient system in terms volume and packaging. It runs with a hypergolic bi-propellant system: MON-25 (nitrogen tetroxide, N2O4, with 25% of nitric oxide, NO) and MMH (monomethylhydrazine, CH6N2) for NASA spacecraft applications. The utilization of this propellant system will provide a propulsion system capable of operating at wide range of temperatures, from 50 C (122 F) down to -30 C (-22 F) to drastically reduce heater power. The thruster is designed to deliver 100 lb(sub f) of thrust with the capability of a pulse mode operation for a wide range of mission duty cycles (MDCs). Two thrusters were fabricated. As part of the engine development, this test campaign is dedicated for the design verification of the thruster. This presentation will report the efforts of the design verification hot-fire test program of the ISE-100 thruster in collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) test teams. The hot-fire tests were conducted at Advance Mobile Propulsion Test (AMPT) facility in Durango, Colorado, from May 13 to June 10, 2016. This presentation will also provide a summary of key points from the test results.

  9. Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

    2004-03-23

    The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model

  10. ISEES: an institute for sustainable software to accelerate environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Schildhauer, M.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Software is essential to the full science lifecycle, spanning data acquisition, processing, quality assessment, data integration, analysis, modeling, and visualization. Software runs our meteorological sensor systems, our data loggers, and our ocean gliders. Every aspect of science is impacted by, and improved by, software. Scientific advances ranging from modeling climate change to the sequencing of the human genome have been rendered possible in the last few decades due to the massive improvements in the capabilities of computers to process data through software. This pivotal role of software in science is broadly acknowledged, while simultaneously being systematically undervalued through minimal investments in maintenance and innovation. As a community, we need to embrace the creation, use, and maintenance of software within science, and address problems such as code complexity, openness,reproducibility, and accessibility. We also need to fully develop new skills and practices in software engineering as a core competency in our earth science disciplines, starting with undergraduate and graduate education and extending into university and agency professional positions. The Institute for Sustainable Earth and Environmental Software (ISEES) is being envisioned as a community-driven activity that can facilitate and galvanize activites around scientific software in an analogous way to synthesis centers such as NCEAS and NESCent that have stimulated massive advances in ecology and evolution. We will describe the results of six workshops (Science Drivers, Software Lifecycles, Software Components, Workforce Development and Training, Sustainability and Governance, and Community Engagement) that have been held in 2013 to envision such an institute. We will present community recommendations from these workshops and our strategic vision for how ISEES will address the technical issues in the software lifecycle, sustainability of the whole software ecosystem, and the critical

  11. Magnetic configuration of the distant plasma sheet - ISEE 3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Daly, P. W.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Lepping, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the IMF orientation and magnitude and substorm activity on the magnetic configuration of the central plasma sheet at 20-240 earth radii down the geomagnetic tail is investigated on the basis of ISEE-3 data. The results are presented graphically, and high-speed antisolar bulk flows threaded by southward magnetic fields are shown to be present in the distant plasma sheet after periods of substorm activity and southward IMF Bz. The effective dayside reconnection efficiency is estimated as 25 + or - 4 percent, in good agreement with theoretical models.

  12. A Coherent Ising Machine Based On Degenerate Optical Parametric Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Marandi, Alireza; Wen, Kai; Byer, Robert L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2014-03-01

    A degenerate optical parametric oscillator network is proposed to solve the NP-hard problem of finding a ground state of the Ising model. The underlying operating mechanism originates from the bistable output phase of each oscillator and the inherent preference of the network in selecting oscillation modes with the minimum photon decay rate. Computational experiments are performed on all instances reducible to the NP-hard MAX-CUT problems on cubic graphs of order up to 20. The numerical results reasonably suggest the effectiveness of the proposed network. This project is supported by the FIRST program of Japanese Government. Zhe Wang is also grateful for the support from Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  13. Restricted Boltzmann machines for the long range Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Tamao

    2016-12-01

    We set up restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) to reproduce the long range Ising (LRI) models of the Ohmic type in one dimension. The RBM parameters are tuned by using the standard machine learning procedure with an additional method of configuration with probability (CwP). The quality of resultant RBM is evaluated through the susceptibility with respect to the magnetic external field. We compare the results with those by block decimation renormalization group (BDRG) method, and our RBM clear the test with satisfactory precision.

  14. Simulating the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Justin R.; Elliott, James B.

    2011-08-26

    The Ising model, implemented with the Metropolis algorithm and Kawasaki dynamics, makes a system with its own physics, distinct from the real world. These physics are sophisticated enough to model behavior similar to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and by better understanding these physics, we can learn how to modify the system to better re ect reality. For example, we could add a vx and a vy to each spin and modify the exchange rules to incorporate them, possibly using two body scattering laws to construct a more realistic system.

  15. Surface critical behavior of the smoothly inhomogeneous Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Theodore W.; Guim, Ihnsouk

    1984-01-01

    We consider a semi-infinite two-dimensional Ising model with nearest-neighbor coupling constants that deviate from the bulk coupling by Am-y for large m, m being the distance from the edge. The case A<0 of couplings which are weaker near the surface has been discussed by Hilhorst and van Leeuwen. We report exact results for the boundary magnetization and boundary pair-correlation function when A>0. At the bulk critical temperature there is a rich variety of critical behavior in the A -y plane with both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic surface phases. Some of our results can be derived and generalized with simple scaling arguments.

  16. Theory of quantum annealing of an Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giuseppe E; Martonák, Roman; Tosatti, Erio; Car, Roberto

    2002-03-29

    Probing the lowest energy configuration of a complex system by quantum annealing was recently found to be more effective than its classical, thermal counterpart. By comparing classical and quantum Monte Carlo annealing protocols on the two-dimensional random Ising model (a prototype spin glass), we confirm the superiority of quantum annealing relative to classical annealing. We also propose a theory of quantum annealing based on a cascade of Landau-Zener tunneling events. For both classical and quantum annealing, the residual energy after annealing is inversely proportional to a power of the logarithm of the annealing time, but the quantum case has a larger power that makes it faster.

  17. A new molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent Ising lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianyong; Xin, Qin; Sun, Lei; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying; Jiang, Jianwen

    2006-10-01

    A new molecular thermodynamic model is developed for multicomponent Ising lattice based on a generalized nonrandom factor from binary system. Predictions of the nonrandom factor and the internal energy of mixing for ternary and quaternary systems match accurately with simulation results. Predictions of liquid-liquid phase equilibrium for ternary systems are in nearly perfect agreement with simulation results, and substantially improved from Flory-Huggins theory and the lattice-cluster theory. The model also satisfactorily correlates the experimental data of real ternary systems. The concise expression and the accuracy of the new model make it well suited for practical engineering applications.

  18. Harmonic measure for percolation and ising clusters including rare events.

    PubMed

    Adams, David A; Sander, Leonard M; Ziff, Robert M

    2008-10-03

    We obtain the harmonic measure of the hulls of critical percolation clusters and Ising-model Fortuin-Kastelyn clusters using a biased random-walk sampling technique which allows us to measure probabilities as small as 10{-300}. We find the multifractal D(q) spectrum including regions of small and negative q. Our results for external hulls agree with Duplantier's theoretical predictions for D(q) and his exponent -23/24 for the harmonic measure probability distribution for percolation. For the complete hull, we find the probability decays with an exponent of -1 for both systems.

  19. Study of Ising antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Kallol Kadolkar, Charudatt

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the ground state phase diagram of the Ising model with DM interaction in 1D rings using linear spin wave theory. We have also computed the properties using exact diagonalization of finite rings of sizes up to 32. It is shown that the ground state has two phases, a gapped Neel order phase in the D < J limit and a gapless chiral phase in the D > J limit. The results are in good agreement between spin wave theory and exact diagonalization..

  20. Creep motion in a random-field Ising model.

    PubMed

    Roters, L; Lübeck, S; Usadel, K D

    2001-02-01

    We analyze numerically a moving interface in the random-field Ising model which is driven by a magnetic field. Without thermal fluctuations the system displays a depinning phase transition, i.e., the interface is pinned below a certain critical value of the driving field. For finite temperatures the interface moves even for driving fields below the critical value. In this so-called creep regime the dependence of the interface velocity on the temperature is expected to obey an Arrhenius law. We investigate the details of this Arrhenius behavior in two and three dimensions and compare our results with predictions obtained from renormalization group approaches.

  1. Magnetic properties of a single transverse Ising ferrimagnetic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhou, S.; El Hamri, M.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Ahuja, R.

    2015-01-01

    Using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation function, the thermal and the magnetic properties of a single Ising nanoparticle consisting of a ferromagnetic core, a ferromagnetic surface shell and a ferrimagnetic interface coupling are examined. The effect of the transverse field in the surface shell, the exchange interactions between core/shell and in surface shell on the free energy, thermal magnetization, specific heat and susceptibility are studied. A number of interesting phenomena have been found such as the existence of the compensation phenomenon and the magnetization profiles exhibit P-type, N-type and Q-type behaviors.

  2. Overlap distribution of the three-dimensional Ising model.

    PubMed

    Berg, Bernd A; Billoire, Alain; Janke, Wolfhard

    2002-10-01

    We study the Parisi overlap probability density P(L)(q) for the three-dimensional Ising ferromagnet by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. At the critical point, P(L)(q) is peaked around q=0 in contrast with the double peaked magnetic probability density. We give particular attention to the tails of the overlap distribution at the critical point, which we control over up to 500 orders of magnitude by using the multioverlap MC algorithm. Below the critical temperature, interface tension estimates from the overlap probability density are given and their approach to the infinite volume limit appears to be smoother than for estimates from the magnetization.

  3. Non-equilibrium critical behavior of thin Ising films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Maria A.; Prudnikov, Pavel V.; Elin, Alexey S.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we study the non-equilibrium properties of Ising ferromagnetic films using Monte Carlo simulations by short-time dynamic method. We have found thickness dependency of critical exponents z, θ ‧ and β / ν . Ageing effects were observed in non-equilibrium critical behavior. Former was carried out both from high-temperature and low-temperature initial states. A characteristic time of relaxation, which diverges at a transition temperature in the thermodynamic limit, is obtained as a function of the system size and waiting time.

  4. Ising model of financial markets with many assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckrot, A.; Jurczyk, J.; Morgenstern, I.

    2016-11-01

    Many models of financial markets exist, but most of them simulate single asset markets. We study a multi asset Ising model of a financial market. Each agent has two possible actions (buy/sell) for every asset. The agents dynamically adjust their coupling coefficients according to past market returns and external news. This leads to fat tails and volatility clustering independent of the number of assets. We find that a separation of news into different channels leads to sector structures in the cross correlations, similar to those found in real markets.

  5. Rare events in a finite 2D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Ning

    The dynamics of physical systems are always subject to thermal fluctuations or noise. These perturbations will make the stable states of the deterministic part of the dynamical system become only metastable states. When the amplitude of the perturbation is small, the transitions from one metastable state to another are rare events. One such example is the magnetization switching between the two metastable states of 2D Ising model at T < Tc. The 2D Ising model displays two metastable states below the critical temperature Tc. These metastable states are characterized by spontaneous magnetization per spin that tend to m = +/-1 as temperature T → 0. A finite-size Ising system performs transitions from one metastable phase to another due to thermal fluctuations. Such phase transitions often involve growth or birth of a thermally activated critical nucleus, which is statistically a rare event when the noise is small. It may occur via homogeneous nucleation or heterogeneous nucleation, depending on whether the nucleus is formed in system with periodic boundary condition or with boundary condition of Dirichlet or Neumann type. In this thesis, we study the influences of an applied bulk field and local boundary fields to the critical points (minimums and saddle) of noised-driven phase transitions arising in a finite 2D Ising system in both frameworks of the Ginzburg-Landau theory and lattice spins. We use the string method to numerically allocate the minimum energy path (MEP) and the profile of the energy barrier along it. In the framework of Ginzburg-Landau, we introduce an interface energy functional as a sharp interface limit of the Ginzburg-Landau energy, and compare the numerical results from the string method to the analytical results from this interface energy. In the framework of lattice spin model, we first applied the Transition Path Theory to the system to get the transition rate functional that is suitable for both theoretical and numerical purpose. Then the

  6. Ising anyonic topological phase of interacting fermions in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guther, K.; Lang, N.; Büchler, H. P.

    2017-09-01

    We study a microscopic model of interacting fermions in a ladder setup, where the total number of particles is conserved. At a special point, the ground state is known and gives rise to a topological state of matter with edge modes obeying the statistics of Ising anyons. Using a combination of bosonization as well as full scale numerical density-matrix renormalization group analysis, we map out the full phase diagram. We find that the topological phase survives in an extended parameter regime. Remarkably, an additional symmetry is required to protect the topological phase.

  7. A parity breaking Ising chain Hamiltonian as a Brownian motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornu, F.; Hilhorst, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    We consider the translationally invariant but parity (left-right symmetry) breaking Ising chain Hamiltonian {\\cal H} =-{U_2}\\sumk sksk+1 - {U_3}\\sumk sksk+1sk+3 and let this system evolve by Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics. Monte Carlo simulations show that perturbations forcing this system off equilibrium make it act as a Brownian molecular motor which, in the lattice gas interpretation, transports particles along the chain. We determine the particle current under various different circumstances, in particular as a function of the ratio {U_3}/{U_2} and of the conserved magnetization M=\\sum_ksk . The symmetry of the U3 term in the Hamiltonian is discussed.

  8. Ising model simulation in directed lattices and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.; Stauffer, D.

    2006-01-01

    On directed lattices, with half as many neighbours as in the usual undirected lattices, the Ising model does not seem to show a spontaneous magnetisation, at least for lower dimensions. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation follows an Arrhenius law on the square and simple cubic lattice. On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, Metropolis and Glauber algorithms give similar results, while for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decays exponentially with time.

  9. Cluster dynamics and universality of Ising lattice gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heringa, J. R.; Blöte, H. W. J.

    Lattice gases with nearest-neighbour exclusion are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations with an efficient cluster algorithm. The critical dynamics is consistent with a dynamical exponent z=0 in the case of Wolff-like cluster updates for square and simple-cubic lattices in the studied range of lattice sizes. We find the critical activity zc=0.72020(4) for the body-centred cubic lattice. The critical exponents yh=2.475(8) and yt=1.61(6) disagree with an earlier study, but they do agree with the known values for the three-dimensional Ising universality class.

  10. Simulation of financial market via nonlinear Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Bonggyun; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    In this research, we propose a practical method for simulating the financial return series whose distribution has a specific heaviness. We employ the Ising model for generating financial return series to be analogous to those of the real series. The similarity between real financial return series and simulated one is statistically verified based on their stylized facts including the power law behavior of tail distribution. We also suggest the scheme for setting the parameters in order to simulate the financial return series with specific tail behavior. The simulation method introduced in this paper is expected to be applied to the other financial products whose price return distribution is fat-tailed.

  11. Complete wetting in the three-dimensional transverse Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. B.; Micheletti, C.; Yeomans, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    We consider a three-dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field h and a bulk field H. An interface is introduced by an appropriate choice of boundary conditions. At the point ( H=0, h=0) spin configurations corresponding to different positions of the interface are degenerate. By studying the phase diagram near this multiphase point using quantum mechanical perturbation theory, we show that the quantum fluctuations, controlled by h, split the multiphase degeneracy giving rise to an infinite sequence of layering transitions.

  12. Corner wetting transition in the two-dimensional Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam

    1998-07-01

    We study the interfacial behavior of the two-dimensional Ising model at the corner of weakened bonds. Monte Carlo simulations results show that the interface is pinned to the corner at a lower temperature than a certain temperature Tcw at which it undergoes a corner wetting transition. The temperature Tcw is substantially lower than the temperature of the ordinary wetting transition with a line of weakened bonds. A solid-on-solid-like model is proposed, which provides a supplementary description of the corner wetting transition.

  13. Non-Abelian anyons: when Ising meets Fibonacci.

    PubMed

    Grosfeld, E; Schoutens, K

    2009-08-14

    We consider an interface between two non-Abelian quantum Hall states: the Moore-Read state, supporting Ising anyons, and the k=2 non-Abelian spin-singlet state, supporting Fibonacci anyons. It is shown that the interface supports neutral excitations described by a (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theory with a central charge c=7/10. We discuss effects of the mismatch of the quantum statistical properties of the quasiholes between the two sides, as reflected by the interface theory.

  14. Conformal symmetry of the critical 3D Ising model inside a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosme, Catarina; Lopes, J. M. Viana Parente; Penedones, João

    2015-08-01

    We perform Monte-Carlo simulations of the three-dimensional Ising model at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. We simulate the system in a ball with free boundary conditions on the two dimensional spherical boundary. Our results for one and two point functions in this geometry are consistent with the predictions from the conjectured conformal symmetry of the critical Ising model.

  15. Cross-Border Traffic: The Scottish "ISE 5-14" Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John

    2003-01-01

    Improving Science Education 5-14 (ISE 5-14) is a national programme in Scotland, which looks to both integrate and improve approaches to learning and teaching in science from early years to early secondary and beyond. The ISE programme is a response to some concern about Scottish science education, over the past decade, which led to a strategic…

  16. ISE; Catalyst for Change. Expanding Opportunities. Vol. 3, No. 2, July 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Services to Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The major thrust of the Institute for Services to Education (ISE) is to broaden the range of opportunities for Negroes in higher education. ISE does this through long-range programs at predominantly Negro institutions. The institute's major functions are curriculum reform and attracting funds to get new educational programs started. But it also…

  17. Scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    PubMed

    Delamotte, Bertrand; Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Using the Wilson renormalization group, we show that if no integrated vector operator of scaling dimension -1 exists, then scale invariance implies conformal invariance. By using the Lebowitz inequalities, we prove that this necessary condition is fulfilled in all dimensions for the Ising universality class. This shows, in particular, that scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.

  18. Pluralism in the critical phenomena of the one-dimensional continuous-spin Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, George A., Jr.

    1988-05-01

    A concrete example is given which shows that the one-dimensional Ising and Gaussian model universality classes do not exhaust the universality classes of the one-dimensional continuous-spin Ising model. Thus the normal universality hypothesis fails in this simple, readily analyzable model.

  19. Pluralism in the critical phenomena of the one-dimensional continuous-spin Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Baker G.A. Jr.

    1988-05-02

    A concrete example is given which shows that the one-dimensional Ising and Gaussian model universality classes do not exhaust the universality classes of the one-dimensional continuous-spin Ising model. Thus the normal universality hypothesis fails in this simple, readily analyzable model.

  20. Giant magnetocaloric effect, magnetization plateaux and jumps of the regular Ising polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strečka, Jozef; Karľová, Katarína; Madaras, Tomáš

    2015-06-01

    Magnetization process and adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic Ising spin clusters with the shape of regular polyhedra (Platonic solids) are exactly examined within the framework of a simple graph-theoretical approach. While the Ising cube as the only unfrustrated (bipartite) spin cluster shows just one trivial plateau at zero magnetization, the other regular Ising polyhedra (tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron and dodecahedron) additionally display either one or two intermediate plateaux at fractional values of the saturation magnetization. The nature of highly degenerate ground states emergent at intermediate plateaux owing to a geometric frustration is clarified. It is evidenced that the regular Ising polyhedra exhibit a giant magnetocaloric effect in a vicinity of magnetization jumps, whereas the Ising octahedron and dodecahedron belong to the most prominent geometrically frustrated spin clusters that enable an efficient low-temperature refrigeration by the process of adiabatic demagnetization.

  1. Effective low-energy description of almost Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzhko, Oleg; Krupnitska, Olesia; Lisnyi, Bohdan; Strečka, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    We consider a geometrically frustrated spin-(1/2) Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain, which is an exactly solvable model when assuming part of the exchange interactions as Heisenberg ones and another part as Ising ones. A small XY part is afterwards perturbatively added to the Ising couplings, which enabled us to derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the low-energy behavior of the modified but full quantum version of the initial model. The effective model is much simpler and free of frustration. It is shown that the XY part added to the originally Ising interaction gives rise to the spin-liquid phase with continuously varying magnetization, which emerges between the magnetization plateaus and is totally absent in the initial hybrid diamond-chain model. The elaborated approach can also be applied to other hybrid Ising-Heisenberg spin systems.

  2. Random Ising antiferromagnet on Bethe-like lattices with triangular loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Terufumi

    2016-04-01

    Phase diagrams for a random Ising antiferromagnet on Bethe-like lattices with triangular loops are obtained. Triangular loops cause strong geometrical frustration for the Ising antiferromagnet. Spin glass states appear by introducing randomness in the interaction between Ising spins. The random Ising antiferromagnet is studied by the replica method using global order parameter. The phase diagrams are compared with those for the corresponding random Ising ferromagnet to see the effects of the geometrical frustration. Antiferromagnetic phase does not appear for M ≤ 4 where M is the number of the corner sharing triangles on the Bethe-like lattices. In these cases, spin glass phase appears with a reentrant behavior. Spin glass phase in the random antiferromagnet appears for much weaker randomness than that in the corresponding random ferromagnet.

  3. Identifying differentially expressed genes in cancer patients using a non-parameter Ising model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xumeng; Feltus, Frank A; Sun, Xiaoqian; Wang, James Z; Luo, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Identification of genes and pathways involved in diseases and physiological conditions is a major task in systems biology. In this study, we developed a novel non-parameter Ising model to integrate protein-protein interaction network and microarray data for identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes. We also proposed a simulated annealing algorithm to find the optimal configuration of the Ising model. The Ising model was applied to two breast cancer microarray data sets. The results showed that more cancer-related DE sub-networks and genes were identified by the Ising model than those by the Markov random field model. Furthermore, cross-validation experiments showed that DE genes identified by Ising model can improve classification performance compared with DE genes identified by Markov random field model.

  4. Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states and topological superconductivity in Ising paired superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Girish; Tewari, Sumanta

    2016-09-01

    An unusual form of superconductivity, called Ising superconductivity, has recently been uncovered in mono- and few-layered transition metal dichalcogenides. This 2D superconducting state is characterized by the so-called Ising spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which produces strong oppositely oriented effective Zeeman fields perpendicular to the 2D layer in opposite momentum space valleys. We examine the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) bound states localized at magnetic impurities in Ising superconductors and show that the unusual SOC manifests itself in unusually strong anisotropy in magnetic field response observable in STM experiments. For a chain of magnetic impurities with moments parallel to the plane of Ising superconductors we show that the low energy YSR band hosts topological superconductivity and Majorana excitations as a direct manifestation of topological effects induced by Ising spin-orbit coupling.

  5. Neutral sheet crossings by ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Baker, D. N.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic field data from ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail at crossings of the field reversal (or neutral sheet) region are analyzed to determine the instantaneous direction of the normal component B(z) at the crossing. Crossings in the middle of the aberrated magnetotail near the apogee A2 of the first deep-tail orbit of ISEE-3 in January-February, 1983 were selected. Data for an interval of one hour is discussed at length to illustrate some of the difficulties that can occur. One particular smooth crossing at 15:56 UT, February 4, 1983, shows that complicated microstructure can occur in times shorter than one minute; averaging over long times may eliminate essential information for this purpose. By inspecting the magnetic field data at the highest resolution, however, it is shown that the direction of the plasma sheet flows and the sense of B(z) across the neutral sheet do not always agree with the reconnection models. Rather, they indicate that the low latitude boundary layer may play a significant role in the dynamics of the magnetotail.

  6. The hobbyhorse of magnetic systems: the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-García-Padilla, Eduardo; Gerardo Malanche-Flores, Carlos; Poveda-Cuevas, Freddy Jackson

    2016-11-01

    In undergraduate statistical mechanics courses the Ising model always plays an important role because it is the simplest non-trivial model used to describe magnetic systems. The one-dimensional model is easily solved analytically, while the two-dimensional one can be solved exactly by the Onsager solution. For this reason, numerical simulations are usually used to solve the two-dimensional model. Keeping in mind that the two-dimensional model is the platform for studying phase transitions, it is usually an exercise in computational undergraduate courses because its numerical solution is relatively simple to implement and its critical exponents are perfectly known. The purpose of this article is to present a detailed numerical study of the second-order phase transition in the two-dimensional Ising model at an undergraduate level, allowing readers not only to compare the mean-field solution, the exact solution and the numerical one through a complete study of the order parameter, the correlation function and finite-size scaling, but to present the techniques, along with hints and tips, for solving it themselves. We present the elementary theory of phase transitions and explain how to implement Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations and perform them for different lattice sizes with periodic boundary conditions. Energy, magnetization, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility and the correlation function are calculated and the critical exponents determined by finite-size scaling techniques. The importance of the correlation length as the relevant parameter in phase transitions is emphasized.

  7. Quantum dimensions from local operator excitations in the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Paweł; Rams, Marek M.

    2017-02-01

    We compare the time evolution of entanglement measures after local operator excitation in the critical Ising model with predictions from conformal field theory. For the spin operator and its descendants we find that Rényi entropies of a block of spins increase by a constant that matches the logarithm of the quantum dimension of the conformal family. However, for the energy operator we find a small constant contribution that differs from the conformal field theory answer equal to zero. We argue that the mismatch is caused by the subtleties in the identification between the local operators in conformal field theory and their lattice counterpart. Our results indicate that evolution of entanglement measures in locally excited states not only constraints this identification, but also can be used to extract non-trivial data about the conformal field theory that governs the critical point. We generalize our analysis to the Ising model away from the critical point, states with multiple local excitations, as well as the evolution of the relative entropy after local operator excitation and discuss universal features that emerge from numerics.

  8. Inversion symmetry controlled multiferroic response in an Ising Chain Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Younjung; Lee, Seongsu; Yi, Heetaek; Cheong, Sangwook; Balicas, Luis

    2008-03-01

    Recently, Choi et al. [1] discovered that ferroelectricity in the Ising chain magnet results from inversion symmetry breaking due to the formation of an alternating ionic order of two different ions leading to an up-up-down-down spin configuration. Here we report the observation of drastic changes in the multiferroic character as a function of magnetic field in the Ising chain magnet. Application of a magnetic field up to 33 T, leads to two abrupt changes in the dielectric constant, respectively at H1 = 5 T and at H2=20T, with the first one leading to a fast suppression of the dielectric polarization. The saturation values of the magnetic moment observed by using a vibrating sample magnetometer and a cantilever beam magnetometer suggest that the one ionic moments align along the field for fields above 5 T followed by the subsequent alignment of the other ionic moments above 20 T. [1] Y.J. Choi et al. Physical Review Lett. submitted

  9. Generic phase coexistence in the totally asymmetric kinetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godrèche, Claude; Luck, Jean-Marc

    2017-07-01

    The physical analysis of generic phase coexistence in the North-East-Center Toom model was originally given by Bennett and Grinstein. The gist of their argument relies on the dynamics of interfaces and droplets. We revisit the same question for a specific totally asymmetric kinetic Ising model on the square lattice. This nonequilibrium model possesses the remarkable property that its stationary-state measure in the absence of a magnetic field coincides with that of the usual ferromagnetic Ising model. We use both analytical arguments and numerical simulations in order to make progress in the quantitative understanding of the phenomenon of generic phase coexistence. At zero temperature a mapping onto the TASEP allows an exact determination of the time-dependent shape of the ballistic interface sweeping a large square minority droplet of up or down spins. At finite temperature, measuring the mean lifetime of such a droplet allows an accurate measurement of its shrinking velocity v, which depends on temperature T and magnetic field h. In the absence of a magnetic field, v vanishes with an exponent Δ_v≈2.5+/-0.2 as the critical temperature T c is approached. At fixed temperature in the ordered phase, v vanishes at the phase-boundary fields +/- h_b(T) which mark the limits of the coexistence region. The latter fields vanish with an exponent Δ_h≈3.2+/-0.3 as T c is approached.

  10. ISE Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofeng; Polk, Brian J.; Meazell, Liz A.; Hatchett, David W.

    2000-08-01

    Many advanced undergraduate analytical laboratory courses focus on exposing students to various modern instruments. However, students rarely have the opportunity to construct their own analytical tools for solving practical problems. We designed an experiment in which students are required to build their own analytical module, a potentiometric device composed of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Ag/Ag2S ion selective electrode (ISE), and a pH meter used as voltmeter, to determine the amount of hydrogen sulfide in cigarette smoke. Very simple techniques were developed for constructing these electrodes. Cigarette smoke is collected by a gas washing bottle into a 0.1 M NaOH solution. The amount of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution is analyzed by standard addition of sulfide solution while monitoring the response of the Ag/Ag2S ISE. The collected data are further evaluated using the Gran plot technique to determine the concentration of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution. The experiment has been successfully incorporated into the lab course Instrumental Analysis at Georgia Institute of Technology. Students enjoy the idea of constructing an analytical tool themselves and applying their classroom knowledge to solve real-life problems. And while learning electrochemistry they also get a chance to visualize the health hazard imposed by cigarette smoking.

  11. Embedded trees and the support of the ISE.

    PubMed

    Drmota, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Embedded trees are labelled rooted trees, where the root has zero label and where the labels of adjacent vertices differ (at most) by [Formula: see text]. Recently it has been proved (see Chassaing and Schaeffer (2004) [8] and Janson and Marckert (2005) [11]) that the distribution of the maximum and minimum labels are closely related to the support of the density of the integrated superbrownian excursion (ISE). The purpose of this paper is to make this probabilistic limiting relation more explicit by using a generating function approach due to Bouttier et al. (2003) [6] that is based on properties of Jacobi's [Formula: see text]-functions. In particular, we derive an integral representation of the joint distribution function of the supremum and infimum of the support of the ISE in terms of the Weierstrass [Formula: see text]-function. Furthermore we re-derive the limiting radius distribution in random quadrangulations (by Chassaing and Schaeffer (2004) [8]) with the help of exact counting generating functions.

  12. Ising Critical Exponents on Random Trees and Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommers, Sander; Giardinà, Cristian; van der Hofstad, Remco

    2014-05-01

    We study the critical behavior of the ferromagnetic Ising model on random trees as well as so-called locally tree-like random graphs. We pay special attention to trees and graphs with a power-law offspring or degree distribution whose tail behavior is characterized by its power-law exponent τ > 2. We show that the critical inverse temperature of the Ising model equals the hyperbolic arctangent of the reciprocal of the mean offspring or mean forward degree distribution. In particular, the critical inverse temperature equals zero when where this mean equals infinity. We further study the critical exponents δ, β and γ, describing how the (root) magnetization behaves close to criticality. We rigorously identify these critical exponents and show that they take the values as predicted by Dorogovstev et al. (Phys Rev E 66:016104, 2002) and Leone et al. (Eur Phys J B 28:191-197, 2002). These values depend on the power-law exponent τ, taking the same values as the mean-field Curie-Weiss model (Exactly solved models in statistical mechanics, Academic Press, London, 1982) for τ > 5, but different values for.

  13. Defects in the tri-critical Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makabe, Isao; Watts, Gérard M. T.

    2017-09-01

    We consider two different conformal field theories with central charge c = 7 /10. One is the diagonal invariant minimal model in which all fields have integer spins; the other is the local fermionic theory with superconformal symmetry in which fields can have half-integer spin. We construct new conformal (but not topological or factorised) defects in the minimal model. We do this by first constructing defects in the fermionic model as boundary conditions in a fermionic theory of central charge c = 7 /5, using the folding trick as first proposed by Gang and Yamaguchi [1]. We then act on these with interface defects to find the new conformal defects. As part of the construction, we find the topological defects in the fermionic theory and the interfaces between the fermionic theory and the minimal model. We also consider the simpler case of defects in the theory of a single free fermion and interface defects between the Ising model and a single fermion as a prelude to calculations in the tri-critical Ising model.

  14. Asymmetric effects at 3D Ising-like critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsypin, M.

    2003-05-01

    The Standard Model of electroweak interactions has a line of first order phase transition in the plane (higgs mass, temperature) that ends in a critical point belonging to the 3D Ising model universality class [K. Rummukainen et al, hep-lat/9805013. Similar critical points are found in finite-temperature QCD [M. Stephanov et al, hep-ph/9806219; F. Karsch et al, hep-lat/0107020. When these critical points are studied by Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice, one observes certain residual deviations from Z2 symmetry (which is exact for the Ising model). Here we study whether such deviations can be attributed to asymmetric corrections to scaling, which are relatively poorly studied. We compute the critical exponents in the local potential approximation (LPA), that is, in the framework of the Wegner-Houghton equation. We find that the exponent for the leading antisymmetric correction to scaling is approximately 1.691 in the LPA. This high value implies that such corrections cannot explain observed asymmetries.

  15. Heat conduction in one-dimensional aperiodic quantum Ising chains.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Tong, Peiqing

    2011-03-01

    The heat conductivity of nonperiodic quantum Ising chains whose ends are connected with heat baths at different temperatures are studied numerically by solving the Lindblad master equation. The chains are subjected to a uniform transverse field h, while the exchange coupling J{m} between the nearest-neighbor spins takes the two values J{A} and J{B} arranged in Fibonacci, generalized Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and period-doubling sequences. We calculate the energy-density profile and energy current of the resulting nonequilibrium steady states to study the heat-conducting behavior of finite but large systems. Although these nonperiodic quantum Ising chains are integrable, it is clearly found that energy gradients exist in all chains and the energy currents appear to scale as the system size ~N{α}. By increasing the ratio of couplings, the exponent α can be modulated from α > -1 to α < -1 corresponding to the nontrivial transition from the abnormal heat transport to the heat insulator. The influences of the temperature gradient and the magnetic field to heat conduction have also been discussed.

  16. Oscillating hysteresis in the q-neighbor Ising model.

    PubMed

    Jȩdrzejewski, Arkadiusz; Chmiel, Anna; Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    We modify the kinetic Ising model with Metropolis dynamics, allowing each spin to interact only with q spins randomly chosen from the whole system, which corresponds to the topology of a complete graph. We show that the model with q≥3 exhibits a phase transition between ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases at temperature T*, which linearly increases with q. Moreover, we show that for q=3 the phase transition is continuous and that it is discontinuous for larger values of q. For q>3, the hysteresis exhibits oscillatory behavior-expanding for even values of q and shrinking for odd values of q. Due to the mean-field-like nature of the model, we are able to derive the analytical form of transition probabilities and, therefore, calculate not only the probability density function of the order parameter but also precisely determine the hysteresis and the effective potential showing stable, unstable, and metastable steady states. Our results show that a seemingly small modification of the kinetic Ising model leads not only to the switch from a continuous to a discontinuous phase transition, but also to an unexpected oscillating behavior of the hysteresis and a puzzling phenomenon for q=5, which might be taken as evidence for the so-called mixed-order phase transition.

  17. Nonequilibrium relaxation study of Ising spin glass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Yukiyasu; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2001-07-01

    As an analysis of equilibrium phase transitions, the nonequilibrium relaxation method is extended to the spin glass (SG) transition. The +/-J Ising SG model is analyzed for three-dimensional (cubic) lattices up to the linear size of L=127 and for four-dimensional (hypercubic) lattice up to L=41. These sizes of systems are quite large as compared with those calculated, so far, by equilibrium simulations. As a dynamical order parameter, we calculate the clone correlation function (CCF) Q(t,tw)≡[F], which is a spin correlation of two replicas produced after the waiting time tw from a simple starting state. It is found that the CCF shows an exponential decay in the paramagnetic phase, and a power-law decay after aginglike development (t>>tw) in the SG phase. This provides a reliable upper bound of the transition temperature Tg. It is also found that a scaling relation, Q(t,tw)=t-λqwq¯(t/tw), holds just around the transition point providing the lower bound of Tg. Together with these two bounds, we propose a new dynamical way for the estimation of Tg from much larger systems. In the SG phase, the power-law behavior of the CCF for t>>tw suggests that the SG phase in short-range Ising models has a rugged phase space.

  18. Standing magnetic wave on Ising ferromagnet: Nonequilibrium phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Ajay; Acharyya, Muktish

    2016-12-01

    The dynamical response of an Ising ferromagnet to a plane polarised standing magnetic field wave is modelled and studied here by Monte Carlo simulation in two dimensions. The amplitude of standing magnetic wave is modulated along the direction x. We have detected two main dynamical phases namely, pinned and oscillating spin clusters. Depending on the value of field amplitude the system is found to undergo a phase transition from oscillating spin cluster to pinned as the system is cooled down. The time averaged magnetisation over a full cycle of magnetic field oscillations is defined as the dynamic order parameter. The transition is detected by studying the temperature dependences of the variance of the dynamic order parameter, the derivative of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic specific heat. The dependence of the transition temperature on the magnetic field amplitude and on the wavelength of the magnetic field wave is studied at a single frequency. A comprehensive phase boundary is drawn in the plane described by the temperature and field amplitude for two different wavelengths of the magnetic wave. The variation of instantaneous line magnetisation during a period of magnetic field oscillation for standing wave mode is compared to those for the propagating wave mode. Also the probability that a spin at any site, flips, is calculated. The above mentioned variations and the probability of spin flip clearly distinguish between the dynamical phases formed by propagating magnetic wave and by standing magnetic wave in an Ising ferromagnet.

  19. High spacecraft potentials on ISEE-1 in sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.; Olsen, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Data from two electric field experiments and from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE-1 show that the spacecraft charged to close to -70 V in sunlight at about 0700 UT on March 17, 1978. Data from the electron spectrometer experiment show that there was a potential barrier of some -10 to -20 V about the spacecraft during this event. The potential barrier was effective in turning back emitted photoelectrons to the spacecraft. Potential barriers can be formed by differential charging on the spacecraft or by the presence of space charge. The stringent electrostatic cleanliness specifications imposed on ISEE made the presence of differential charging seem unlikely, if these precautions were effective. Modeling of the event to determine if the barrier was produced by the presence of space charge suggested that this could not explain the observed barrier. The angular shape of the distribution could be successfully modeled as a product of differential charging on the solar arrays. This implies that the conductive coating was not completely effective in preventing differential charging, and that differential charging did occur.

  20. Block renormalization study on the nonequilibrium chiral Ising model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina; Park, Su-Chan; Noh, Jae Dong

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study on the ordering dynamics of a one-dimensional nonequilibrium Ising spin system with chirality. This system is characterized by a direction-dependent spin update rule. Pairs of +- spins can flip to ++ or -- with probability (1-u) or to -+ with probability u while -+ pairs are frozen. The system was found to evolve into the ferromagnetic ordered state at any u<1 exhibiting the power-law scaling of the characteristic length scale ξ∼t(1/z) and the domain-wall density ρ∼t(-δ). The scaling exponents z and δ were found to vary continuously with the parameter u. To establish the anomalous power-law scaling firmly, we perform the block renormalization analysis proposed by Basu and Hinrichsen [U. Basu and H. Hinrichsen, J. Stat. Mech.: Theor. Exp. (2011)]. The block renormalization method predicts, under the assumption of dynamic scale invariance, a scaling relation that can be used to estimate the scaling exponent numerically. We find the condition under which the scaling relation is justified. We then apply the method to our model and obtain the critical exponent zδ at several values of u. The numerical result is in perfect agreement with that of the previous study. This study serves as additional evidence for the claim that the nonequilibrium chiral Ising model displays power-law scaling behavior with continuously varying exponents.

  1. Measurements of distributed polarized radio sources from spinning spacecraft - Effect of a tilted axial antenna ISEE-3 application and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainberg, J.; Hoang, S.; Manning, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the system response of a satellite receiver-antenna system to locate a radio source when the satellite is tilted on its axis. The satellite is spin stabilized but experiences a tilt due to either a mechanical misalignment or a shift in the electrical axis caused by parasitic currents in other spacecraft structures. The shorter the antenna, the more significant the effects. Numerical techniques are developed for obtaining the Stokes parameters and the angular parameters of a uniform conical source sensed by a linear antenna in order to derive the average power response of a synthesized dipole to a point on a distributed polarized source. Relative gains are calculated along the antenna at different angles to the source. The techniques are applied to sample ISEE-3 satellite data for Type III solar radio bursts which were sensed by an axial and an equatorial antenna. The two antennas permit localization of the source and quantification of the polarization and angular extent of the source. The resulting high precision in calculations of all three source parameters commends use of the model in analyses of data from the planned ULYSSES mission.

  2. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  3. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  4. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  5. The nuclear and ionic charge distribution particle experiments on the ISEE-1 and ISEE-C spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Arbinger, H.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Cain, J.; Fan, C. Y.; Fisk, L. A.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The ISEE-1 and ISEE-C instruments are designed to measure the elemental abundances, charge state composition, energy spectra, and angular distributions of energetic ions in the energy range 2 keV/charge to 80 MeV/nucleon and electrons between 75 and 1300 keV. The instrument consists of three sensor systems: (1) ULECA which is an electrostatic deflection system with rectangular solid-state detectors for the 3-560 keV/charge range; (2) ULEWATT which is a double dE/dX vs E thin-window flowthrough proportional counter/solid-state detector telescope for the 0.2-80 MeV/nucleon (Fe) range; and (3) ULEZEQ which is a combination of an electrostatic deflection analyzer and a thin-window dE/dX vs E system with thin-window proportional counter and position-sensitive solid-state detector. The applications of the instruments to solar and interplanetary phenomena and to magnetospheric acceleration and trapped particles are discussed.

  6. Toward an Ising model of cancer and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-02-01

    The holy grail of tumor modeling is to formulate theoretical and computational tools that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies to control cancer growth. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for the numerous complex mechanisms involved in tumor growth. Here we review the research work that we have done toward the development of an 'Ising model' of cancer. The Ising model is an idealized statistical-mechanical model of ferromagnetism that is based on simple local-interaction rules, but nonetheless leads to basic insights and features of real magnets, such as phase transitions with a critical point. The review begins with a description of a minimalist four-dimensional (three dimensions in space and one in time) cellular automaton (CA) model of cancer in which cells transition between states (proliferative, hypoxic and necrotic) according to simple local rules and their present states, which can viewed as a stripped-down Ising model of cancer. This model is applied to study the growth of glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant of brain cancers. This is followed by a discussion of the extension of the model to study the effect on the tumor dynamics and geometry of a mutated subpopulation. A discussion of how tumor growth is affected by chemotherapeutic treatment, including induced resistance, is then described. We then describe how to incorporate angiogenesis as well as the heterogeneous and confined environment in which a tumor grows in the CA model. The characterization of the level of organization of the invasive network around a solid tumor using spanning trees is subsequently discussed. Then, we describe open problems and future promising avenues for future research, including the need to develop better molecular-based models that incorporate the true heterogeneous environment over wide range of length and time scales (via imaging data), cell motility

  7. Toward an Ising Model of Cancer and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The holy grail of tumor modeling is to formulate theoretical and computational tools that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies to control cancer growth. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for the numerous complex mechanisms involved in tumor growth. Here we review resarch work that we have done toward the development of an “Ising model” of cancer. The Ising model is an idealized statistical-mechanical model of ferromagnetism that is based on simple local-interaction rules, but nonetheless leads to basic insights and features of real magnets, such as phase transitions with a critical point. The review begins with a description of a minimalist four-dimensional (three dimensions in space and one in time) cellular automaton (CA) model of cancer in which healthy cells transition between states (proliferative, hypoxic, and necrotic) according to simple local rules and their present states, which can viewed as a stripped-down Ising model of cancer. This model is applied to model the growth of glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant of brain cancers. This is followed by a discussion of the extension of the model to study the effect on the tumor dynamics and geometry of a mutated subpopulation. A discussion of how tumor growth is affected by chemotherapeutic treatment, including induced resistance, is then described. How angiogenesis as well as the heterogeneous and confined environment in which a tumor grows is incorporated in the CA model is discussed. The characterization of the level of organization of the invasive network around a solid tumor using spanning trees is subsequently described. Then, we describe open problems and future promising avenues for future research, including the need to develop better molecular-based models that incorporate the true heterogeneous environment over wide range of length and time scales (via imaging data), cell

  8. Toward an Ising model of cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-02-01

    The holy grail of tumor modeling is to formulate theoretical and computational tools that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies to control cancer growth. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for the numerous complex mechanisms involved in tumor growth. Here we review the research work that we have done toward the development of an 'Ising model' of cancer. The Ising model is an idealized statistical-mechanical model of ferromagnetism that is based on simple local-interaction rules, but nonetheless leads to basic insights and features of real magnets, such as phase transitions with a critical point. The review begins with a description of a minimalist four-dimensional (three dimensions in space and one in time) cellular automaton (CA) model of cancer in which cells transition between states (proliferative, hypoxic and necrotic) according to simple local rules and their present states, which can viewed as a stripped-down Ising model of cancer. This model is applied to study the growth of glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant of brain cancers. This is followed by a discussion of the extension of the model to study the effect on the tumor dynamics and geometry of a mutated subpopulation. A discussion of how tumor growth is affected by chemotherapeutic treatment, including induced resistance, is then described. We then describe how to incorporate angiogenesis as well as the heterogeneous and confined environment in which a tumor grows in the CA model. The characterization of the level of organization of the invasive network around a solid tumor using spanning trees is subsequently discussed. Then, we describe open problems and future promising avenues for future research, including the need to develop better molecular-based models that incorporate the true heterogeneous environment over wide range of length and time scales (via imaging data), cell motility

  9. Restoration of dimensional reduction in the random-field Ising model at five dimensions.

    PubMed

    Fytas, Nikolaos G; Martín-Mayor, Víctor; Picco, Marco; Sourlas, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The random-field Ising model is one of the few disordered systems where the perturbative renormalization group can be carried out to all orders of perturbation theory. This analysis predicts dimensional reduction, i.e., that the critical properties of the random-field Ising model in D dimensions are identical to those of the pure Ising ferromagnet in D-2 dimensions. It is well known that dimensional reduction is not true in three dimensions, thus invalidating the perturbative renormalization group prediction. Here, we report high-precision numerical simulations of the 5D random-field Ising model at zero temperature. We illustrate universality by comparing different probability distributions for the random fields. We compute all the relevant critical exponents (including the critical slowing down exponent for the ground-state finding algorithm), as well as several other renormalization-group invariants. The estimated values of the critical exponents of the 5D random-field Ising model are statistically compatible to those of the pure 3D Ising ferromagnet. These results support the restoration of dimensional reduction at D=5. We thus conclude that the failure of the perturbative renormalization group is a low-dimensional phenomenon. We close our contribution by comparing universal quantities for the random-field problem at dimensions 3≤D<6 to their values in the pure Ising model at D-2 dimensions, and we provide a clear verification of the Rushbrooke equality at all studied dimensions.

  10. Restoration of dimensional reduction in the random-field Ising model at five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Martín-Mayor, Víctor; Picco, Marco; Sourlas, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The random-field Ising model is one of the few disordered systems where the perturbative renormalization group can be carried out to all orders of perturbation theory. This analysis predicts dimensional reduction, i.e., that the critical properties of the random-field Ising model in D dimensions are identical to those of the pure Ising ferromagnet in D -2 dimensions. It is well known that dimensional reduction is not true in three dimensions, thus invalidating the perturbative renormalization group prediction. Here, we report high-precision numerical simulations of the 5D random-field Ising model at zero temperature. We illustrate universality by comparing different probability distributions for the random fields. We compute all the relevant critical exponents (including the critical slowing down exponent for the ground-state finding algorithm), as well as several other renormalization-group invariants. The estimated values of the critical exponents of the 5D random-field Ising model are statistically compatible to those of the pure 3D Ising ferromagnet. These results support the restoration of dimensional reduction at D =5 . We thus conclude that the failure of the perturbative renormalization group is a low-dimensional phenomenon. We close our contribution by comparing universal quantities for the random-field problem at dimensions 3 ≤D <6 to their values in the pure Ising model at D -2 dimensions, and we provide a clear verification of the Rushbrooke equality at all studied dimensions.

  11. Neutral sheet crossings by ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Baker, D. N.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic field data from ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail at crossings of the field reversal (or neutral sheet) region were analyzed to determine the instantaneous direction of the normal component Bz at the crossing. A crossing identified as being almost always tailward of the steady-state X-line was selected. Data for 1 hr are discussed to illustrate difficulties. One particular smooth crossing shows that complicated microstructure can occur in times less than 1 min. Averaging over long times may eliminate essential information. Inspection of the magnetic field data at the highest resolution, however, shows that the direction of the plasma sheet flows and the sense of Bz across the neutral sheet do not always agree with the reconnection models. Rather, they indicate that the low latitude boundary layer may play a significant role in the dynamics of the magnetotail.

  12. Propagation of fluctuations in the quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navez, P.; Tsironis, G. P.; Zagoskin, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate entanglement dynamics and correlations in the quantum Ising model in arbitrary dimensions using a large-coordination-number expansion. We start from the pure paramagnetic regime obtained through zero spin-spin coupling and subsequently turn on the interspin interaction in a time-dependent fashion. We investigate analytically and compare results for both the slow adiabatic onset of the interactions and the fast instantaneous switching. We find that in the latter case of an initial excitation mode a quantum correlation wave spreads through the system, propagating with twice the group velocity of the linearized equilibrium modes. This wave establishes the spatiotemporal regime of entangled quantum properties of the system for time scales shorter than the decoherence time and thus provides an indicator for the "quantumness" of the physical system that the specific system models.

  13. Destroying a topological quantum bit by condensing Ising vortices.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhihao; Inglis, Stephen; Melko, Roger

    2014-12-09

    The imminent realization of topologically protected qubits in fabricated systems will provide not only an elementary implementation of fault-tolerant quantum computing architecture, but also an experimental vehicle for the general study of topological order. The simplest topological qubit harbours what is known as a Z2 liquid phase, which encodes information via a degeneracy depending on the system's topology. Elementary excitations of the phase are fractionally charged objects called spinons, or Ising flux vortices called visons. At zero temperature, a Z2 liquid is stable under deformations of the Hamiltonian until spinon or vison condensation induces a quantum-phase transition destroying the topological order. Here we use quantum Monte Carlo to study a vison-induced transition from a Z2 liquid to a valence-bond solid in a quantum dimer model on the kagome lattice. Our results indicate that this critical point is beyond the description of the standard Landau paradigm.

  14. Quantum quench in the transverse-field Ising chain.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Essler, Fabian H L; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2011-06-03

    We consider the time evolution of observables in the transverse-field Ising chain after a sudden quench of the magnetic field. We provide exact analytical results for the asymptotic time and distance dependence of one- and two-point correlation functions of the order parameter. We employ two complementary approaches based on asymptotic evaluations of determinants and form-factor sums. We prove that the stationary value of the two-point correlation function is not thermal, but can be described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). The approach to the stationary state can also be understood in terms of a GGE. We present a conjecture on how these results generalize to particular quenches in other integrable models.

  15. Magnetic properties in an alternating-spin ferromagnetic Ising chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, D.; Ramos, F. B.

    2011-08-01

    Using the transfer matrix technique, we investigated the magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic Ising chain with alternating-spins ( S, S') and single-ion anisotropy. We have calculated some physical quantities of interest such as the z component of the total magnetization per particle ( m) and magnetic susceptibility. In the regime of low temperatures, we observed the existence of magnetization plateaus. We constructed the phase diagrams of the magnetization in terms of the magnetic field and of the single-ion anisotropy for the case {1}/{2}≤(S,S')≤{9}/{2}. We were able to find a general rule for the magnetic transitions. We observed that the saturation value of the magnetization is msat=(S+S')/2.

  16. Detecting multi-spin interactions in the inverse Ising problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Joseph; Swendsen, Robert H.

    2017-10-01

    While the usual goal in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of Ising models is the efficient generation of spin configurations with Boltzmann probabilities, the inverse problem is to determine the coupling constants from a given set of spin configurations. Most recent work has been limited to local magnetic fields and pair-wise interactions. We have extended solutions to multi-spin interactions, using correlation function matching (CFM). A more serious limitation of previous work has been the uncertainty of whether a chosen set of interactions is capable of faithfully representing real data. We show how our confirmation testing method uses an additional MC simulation to detect significant interactions that might be missing in the assumed representation of the data.

  17. Antiferromagnetic Ising model in an imaginary magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcoiti, Vicente; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Follana, Eduardo; Royo-Amondarain, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    We study the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model with a purely imaginary magnetic field, which can be thought of as a toy model for the usual θ physics. Our motivation is to have a benchmark calculation in a system which suffers from a strong sign problem, so that our results can be used to test Monte Carlo methods developed to tackle such problems. We analyze here this model by means of analytical techniques, computing exactly the first eight cumulants of the expansion of the effective Hamiltonian in powers of the inverse temperature, and calculating physical observables for a large number of degrees of freedom with the help of standard multiprecision algorithms. We report accurate results for the free energy density, internal energy, standard and staggered magnetization, and the position and nature of the critical line, which confirm the mean-field qualitative picture, and which should be quantitatively reliable, at least in the high-temperature regime, including the entire critical line.

  18. Robust criticality of an Ising model on rewired directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Gontarek, Krzysztof; Lipowska, Dorota

    2015-06-01

    We show that preferential rewiring, which is supposed to mimic the behavior of financial agents, changes a directed-network Ising ferromagnet with a single critical point into a model with robust critical behavior. For the nonrewired random graph version, due to a constant number of out-links for each site, we write a simple mean-field-like equation describing the behavior of magnetization; we argue that it is exact and support the claim with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. For the rewired version, this equation is obeyed only at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, rewiring leads to strong heterogeneities, which apparently invalidates mean-field arguments and induces large fluctuations and divergent susceptibility. Such behavior is traced back to the formation of a relatively small core of agents that influence the entire system.

  19. Maximum caliber inference and the stochastic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the maximum caliber variational principle as an inference algorithm used to predict dynamical properties of complex nonequilibrium, stationary, statistical systems in the presence of incomplete information. Specifically, we maximize the path entropy over discrete time step trajectories subject to normalization, stationarity, and detailed balance constraints together with a path-dependent dynamical information constraint reflecting a given average global behavior of the complex system. A general expression for the transition probability values associated with the stationary random Markov processes describing the nonequilibrium stationary system is computed. By virtue of our analysis, we uncover that a convenient choice of the dynamical information constraint together with a perturbative asymptotic expansion with respect to its corresponding Lagrange multiplier of the general expression for the transition probability leads to a formal overlap with the well-known Glauber hyperbolic tangent rule for the transition probability for the stochastic Ising model in the limit of very high temperatures of the heat reservoir.

  20. Noise as a Probe of Ising Spin Glass Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare

    2009-03-01

    Noise is ubiquitous and and is often viewed as a nuisance. However, we propose that noise can be used as a probe of the fluctuations of microscopic entities, especially in the vicinity of a phase transition. In recent work we have used simulations to show that the noise increases in the vicinity of phase transitions of ordered systems. We have recently turned our attention to noise near the phase transitions of disordered systems. In particular, we are studying the noise near Ising spin glass transitions using Monte Carlo simulations. We monitor the system as a function of temperature. At each temperature, we obtain the time series of quantities characterizing the properties of the system, i.e., the energy and magnetization. We look at different quantities, such as the noise power spectrum and the second spectrum of the noise, to analyze the fluctuations.

  1. Ising models on the 2 x 2 x {infinity} lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yurishchev, M. A.

    2007-03-15

    Exact analytic solutions are presented for two 2 x 2 x {infinity} Ising etageres. The first model has a simple cubic lattice with fully anisotropic interactions. The second model consists of two different types of linear chains and includes noncrossing diagonal bonds on the side faces of the 2 x 2 x {infinity} parallelepiped. In both cases, the solutions are expressed through square radicals and obtained by using the obvious symmetry of the Hamiltonians, Z{sub 2} x C{sub 2v}, and the hidden algebraic {lambda}{lambda} symmetry of the transfer matrix secular equations. The solution found for the second model is used to analyze the behavior of specific heat in a frustrated many-chain system.

  2. RG boundaries and interfaces in Ising field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konechny, Anatoly

    2017-04-01

    Perturbing a CFT by a relevant operator on a half space and letting the perturbation flow to the far infrared we obtain an RG interface between the UV and IR CFTs. If the IR CFT is trivial we obtain an RG boundary condition. The space of massive perturbations thus breaks up into regions labelled by conformal boundary conditions of the UV fixed point. For the 2D critical Ising model perturbed by a generic relevant operator we find the assignment of RG boundary conditions to all flows. We use some analytic results but mostly rely on TCSA and TFFSA numerical techniques. We investigate real as well as imaginary values of the magnetic field and, in particular, the RG trajectory that ends at the Yang–Lee CFT. We argue that the RG interface in the latter case does not approach a single conformal interface but rather exhibits oscillatory non-convergent behaviour. To the memory of O I Zavialov.

  3. Ising spin glass that closely resembles the physical glass transition.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Marc L

    2002-07-01

    We consider a modification of the one-dimensional Ising model in an external field in which the higher-energy spin state is assumed to be P-fold degenerate. The model shows a transition that becomes first order in the limit of infinite coupling constant. Here we report a study of the dynamical properties of the model by computer simulation in the vicinity of this transition, under the assumption that the model evolves by single spin flips with Metropolis bias, but with certain forbidden flips. The result is a model that exhibits many well-known empirical properties of the physical glass transition, including the "Kauzmann paradox," the Vogel law, stretched-exponential relaxation, and dynamic heterogeneity.

  4. Effects of random fields in an antiferromagnetic Ising spin glass

    PubMed

    Vieira; Nobre; Yokoi

    2000-05-01

    The effects of random fields on the two-sublattice infinite-ranged Ising spin-glass model are investigated. This model is expected to be appropriate as a mean-field description of antiferromagnetic spin glasses such as FexMn1-xTiO3. Within replica-symmetric calculations, we study the influence of Gaussian and bimodal random fields on the phase transitions and phase diagrams. It is shown that, in the presence of random fields, the first-order transitions are weakened and may become continuous. Also, the antiferromagnetic phases are always destroyed by sufficiently strong random fields. A qualitative comparison with existing experimental results and the limitations of the present calculations are discussed.

  5. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Ising Models with Asynchronous Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hong-Li; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik; Hertz, John; Roudi, Yasser

    2013-05-01

    We describe how the couplings in an asynchronous kinetic Ising model can be inferred. We consider two cases: one in which we know both the spin history and the update times and one in which we know only the spin history. For the first case, we show that one can average over all possible choices of update times to obtain a learning rule that depends only on spin correlations and can also be derived from the equations of motion for the correlations. For the second case, the same rule can be derived within a further decoupling approximation. We study all methods numerically for fully asymmetric Sherrington-Kirkpatrick models, varying the data length, system size, temperature, and external field. Good convergence is observed in accordance with the theoretical expectations.

  6. Hysteresis in an Ising model with mobile bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čapeta, D.; Sunko, D. K.

    2005-04-01

    Hysteresis is studied in a disordered Ising model in which diffusion of antiferromagnetic bonds is allowed in addition to spin flips. Saturation behavior changes to a figure-eight loop when diffusion is introduced. The upper and lower fields delimiting the figure-eight are determined by the Hamiltonian, while its surface and the crossing point depend on the temperature and details of the dynamics. The main avalanche is associated with the disappearance of hidden order. Some experimental observations of figure-eight anomalies are discussed. It is argued they are a signal of a transient rearrangement of domain couplings, characteristic of amorphous and/or magnetically soft samples, and similar to evolution of kinetic glasses.

  7. Phase transition in Ising, XY and Heisenberg magnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, R.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.

    2012-01-01

    The phase transition and magnetic properties of a ferromagnet spin-S, a disordered diluted thin and semi-infinite film with a face-centered cubic lattice are investigated using the high-temperature series expansions technique extrapolated with Padé approximants method for Heisenberg, XY and Ising models. The reduced critical temperature of the system τc is studied as function of the thickness of the thin film and the exchange interactions in the bulk, and within the surfaces Jb, Js and J⊥, respectively. It is found that τc increases with the exchange interactions of surface. The magnetic phase diagrams (τc versus the dilution x) and the percolation threshold are obtained. The shifts of the critical temperatures Tc(l) from the bulk value (Tc(∞)/Tc(l) - 1) can be described by a power law l-λ, where λ = 1/υ is the inverse of the correlation length exponent.

  8. Double resonance in the infinite-range quantum Ising model.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Guk; Um, Jaegon; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study quantum resonance behavior of the infinite-range kinetic Ising model at zero temperature. Numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the presence of an external magnetic field in the z direction is performed at various transverse field strengths g. It is revealed that two resonance peaks occur when the energy gap matches the external driving frequency at two distinct values of g, one below and the other above the quantum phase transition. From the similar observations already made in classical systems with phase transitions, we propose that the double resonance peaks should be a generic feature of continuous transitions, for both quantum and classical many-body systems.

  9. Unconventional phenomena in a transverse Ising quadrangular nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyoshi, T.

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic properties (phase diagrams and magnetizations) of a transverse Ising quadrangular nanowire are investigated for the two cases, using the effective field theory with correlations. The first case is that the transverse field ΩS at the surface shell is selected as a finite value and the transverse field ΩC in the core is fixed at ΩC=0.0. The second case is that ΩC=0.0 and the value of ΩS is changed. Many unconventional phenomena have been found for them; such as the reentrant phenomena, the appearance of a compensation point and the unexpected behaviors of a critical transverse field at which the transition temperature reduces to zero. The temperature-induced magnetization sign reverse in an applied magnetic field is also investigated.

  10. Interfaces in driven Ising models: shear enhances confinement.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas H R; Vasilyev, Oleg; Abraham, Douglas B; Maciołek, Anna; Schmidt, Matthias

    2008-08-08

    We use a phase-separated driven two-dimensional Ising lattice gas to study fluid interfaces exposed to shear flow parallel to the interface. The interface is stabilized by two parallel walls with opposing surface fields, and a driving field parallel to the walls is applied which (i) either acts locally at the walls or (ii) varies linearly with distance across the strip. Using computer simulations with Kawasaki dynamics, we find that the system reaches a steady state in which the magnetization profile is the same as that in equilibrium, but with a rescaled length implying a reduction of the interfacial width. An analogous effect was recently observed in sheared phase-separated colloidal dispersions. Pair correlation functions along the interface decay more rapidly with distance under drive than in equilibrium and for cases of weak drive, can be rescaled to the equilibrium result.

  11. The Ising Model Applied on Chronification of Pain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is a hypothesis-article suggesting an entirely new framework for understanding and treating longstanding pain. Most medical and psychological models are described with boxes and arrows. Such models are of little clinical and explanatory use when describing the phenomenon of chronification of pain due to unknown causes. To date no models that have been provided - and tested in a scientific satisfactory way - lays out a plan for specific assessment due to a specific causal explanation, and in the end serves the clinicians, patients and researcher with tools on how to address the specific pain condition to every individual pain patient's condition. By applying the Ising model (from physics) on the phenomenon of chronification of pain, one is able to detangle all these factors, and thus have a model that both suggests an explanation of the condition and outlines how one might target the treatment of chronic pain patients with the use of network science. PMID:26398917

  12. Maximum caliber inference and the stochastic Ising model.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the maximum caliber variational principle as an inference algorithm used to predict dynamical properties of complex nonequilibrium, stationary, statistical systems in the presence of incomplete information. Specifically, we maximize the path entropy over discrete time step trajectories subject to normalization, stationarity, and detailed balance constraints together with a path-dependent dynamical information constraint reflecting a given average global behavior of the complex system. A general expression for the transition probability values associated with the stationary random Markov processes describing the nonequilibrium stationary system is computed. By virtue of our analysis, we uncover that a convenient choice of the dynamical information constraint together with a perturbative asymptotic expansion with respect to its corresponding Lagrange multiplier of the general expression for the transition probability leads to a formal overlap with the well-known Glauber hyperbolic tangent rule for the transition probability for the stochastic Ising model in the limit of very high temperatures of the heat reservoir.

  13. Accelerated rare event sampling: Refinement and Ising model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevick, David; Lee, Yong Hwan

    In this paper, a recently introduced accelerated sampling technique [D. Yevick, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 27, 1650041 (2016)] for constructing transition matrices is further developed and applied to a two-dimensional 32×32 Ising spin system. By permitting backward displacements up to a certain limit for each forward step while evolving the system to first higher and then lower energies within a restricted interval that is steadily displaced toward zero temperature as the computation proceeds, accuracy can be greatly enhanced. Simultaneously, the elements obtained from numerous independent calculations are collected in a single transition matrix. The relative accuracy of this novel method is established through a comparison to a transition matrix procedure based on the Metropolis algorithm in which the temperature is appropriately varied during the calculation and the results interpreted in terms of the distribution of realizations over both energy and magnetization.

  14. Droplet model for autocorrelation functions in an Ising ferromagnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chao; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Langer, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    The autocorrelation function of Ising spins in an ordered phase is studied via a droplet model. Only noninteracting spherical droplets are considered. The Langevin equation which describes fluctuations in the radius of a single droplet is studied in detail. A general description of the transformation to a Fokker-Planck equations and the ways in which a spectral analysis of that equation can be used to compute the autocorrelation function is given. It is shown that the eigenvalues of the Fokker-Planck operator form (1) a continuous spectrum of relaxation rates starting from zero for d = 2, (2) a continuous spectrum with a finite gap for d = 3, and (3) a discrete spectrum for d greater than 4, where d is the spatial dimensionality. Detailed solutions for various cases are presented.

  15. On truncated generalized Gibbs ensembles in the Ising field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, F. H. L.; Mussardo, G.; Panfil, M.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the implementation of two different truncated Generalized Gibbs Ensembles (GGE) describing the stationary state after a mass quench process in the Ising Field Theory. One truncated GGE is based on the semi-local charges of the model, the other on regularized versions of its ultra-local charges. We test the efficiency of the two different ensembles by comparing their predictions for the stationary state values of the single-particle Green’s function G(x)=< {{\\psi}\\dagger}(x)\\psi (0)> of the complex fermion field \\psi (x) . We find that both truncated GGEs are able to recover G(x), but for a given number of charges the semi-local version performs better.

  16. Robust criticality of an Ising model on rewired directed networks.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Adam; Gontarek, Krzysztof; Lipowska, Dorota

    2015-06-01

    We show that preferential rewiring, which is supposed to mimic the behavior of financial agents, changes a directed-network Ising ferromagnet with a single critical point into a model with robust critical behavior. For the nonrewired random graph version, due to a constant number of out-links for each site, we write a simple mean-field-like equation describing the behavior of magnetization; we argue that it is exact and support the claim with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. For the rewired version, this equation is obeyed only at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, rewiring leads to strong heterogeneities, which apparently invalidates mean-field arguments and induces large fluctuations and divergent susceptibility. Such behavior is traced back to the formation of a relatively small core of agents that influence the entire system.

  17. The Ising Model Applied on Chronification of Pain.

    PubMed

    Granan, Lars-Petter

    2016-01-01

    This is a hypothesis-article suggesting an entirely new framework for understanding and treating longstanding pain. Most medical and psychological models are described with boxes and arrows. Such models are of little clinical and explanatory use when describing the phenomenon of chronification of pain due to unknown causes. To date no models that have been provided - and tested in a scientific satisfactory way - lays out a plan for specific assessment due to a specific causal explanation, and in the end serves the clinicians, patients and researcher with tools on how to address the specific pain condition to every individual pain patient's condition. By applying the Ising model (from physics) on the phenomenon of chronification of pain, one is able to detangle all these factors, and thus have a model that both suggests an explanation of the condition and outlines how one might target the treatment of chronic pain patients with the use of network science.

  18. The boundary effects of transverse field Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan; Guo, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Advance in quantum simulations using trapped ions or superconducting elements allows detailed analysis of the transverse field Ising model (TFIM), which can exhibit a quantum phase transition and has been a paradigm in exactly solvable quantum systems. The Jordan–Wigner transformation maps the one-dimensional TFIM to a fermion model, but additional complications arise in finite systems and introduce a fermion-number parity constraint when periodic boundary condition is imposed. By constructing the free energy and spin correlations with the fermion-number parity constraint and comparing the results to the TFIM with open boundary condition, we show that the boundary effects can become significant for the anti-ferromagnetic TFIM with odd number of sites at low temperature.

  19. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Results of analyses of data received from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the ISEE-3 mission are discussed in two papers prepared for publication. A study of plasma wave levels in and interplanetary magnetic field orientation preceding observations of interplanetary shocks by the satellite infers that quasi-parallel, interplanetary shocks are preceded by foreshocks whose presence is not obviously attributable to scattering of ion beams generated at quasi-perpendicular zones of these interplanetary shocks. Investigations of whistler mode turbulence in the disturbed solar wind resulted in various indirect lines of evidence indicating that these whistler waves are generated propagating at large angles to the local interplanetary field, a fact which helps identify possible free energy sources for their growth.

  20. Ising model with short-range correlated dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, N. S.; de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Dos Santos, Raimundo R.

    1988-07-01

    We consider a diluted Ising model in which the absence of a spin affects the exchange coupling of a nearest-neighbor pair along the line joining the three spins; that is, it aquires the value αJ, where α is a phenomenological parameter ɛ[0,1]. This model has been proposed to explain the experimental phase diagram for KNixMg1-xF3. A position-space renormalization-group analysis clearly distinguishes two percolation thresholds depending on whether α=0 or α>0, though both cases seem to be in the same universality class. Further, thermal fluctuations dominate over the geometrical ones as in the uncorrelated case and the critical curve (critical temperature versus concentration of magnetic sites) displays an upward curvature for intermediate degrees of correlation 0<α<1, as experimentally observed.

  1. Entanglement entropy in a periodically driven Ising chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russomanno, Angelo; Santoro, Giuseppe E.; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-07-01

    In this work we study the entanglement entropy of a uniform quantum Ising chain in transverse field undergoing a periodic driving of period τ. By means of Floquet theory we show that, for any subchain, the entanglement entropy tends asymptotically to a value τ-periodic in time. We provide a semi-analytical formula for the leading term of this asymptotic regime: It is constant in time and obeys a volume law. The entropy in the asymptotic regime is always smaller than the thermal one: because of integrability the system locally relaxes to a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) density matrix. The leading term of the asymptotic entanglement entropy is completely determined by this GGE density matrix. Remarkably, the asymptotic entropy shows marked features in correspondence to some non-equilibrium quantum phase transitions undergone by a Floquet state analog of the ground state.

  2. The linear Ising model and its analytic continuation, random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    2004-02-01

    A generalization of Gauss's principle is used to derive the error laws corresponding to Types II and VII distributions in Pearson's classification scheme. Student's r-p.d.f. (Type II) governs the distribution of the internal energy of a uniform, linear chain, Ising model, while the analytic continuation of the uniform exchange energy converts it into a Student t-density (Type VII) for the position of a random walk in a single spatial dimension. Higher-dimensional spaces, corresponding to larger degrees of freedom and generalizations to multidimensional Student r- and t-densities, are obtained by considering independent and identically random variables, having rotationally invariant densities, whose entropies are additive and generating functions are multiplicative.

  3. The 1983 tail-era data series. Volume 2: ISEE 3 magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Phillips, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    ISEE 3 spacecraft measurements within and near the Earth's magnetic tail is presented. Plots are shown of ISEE 3 magnetic field data. The plots in this volume showing observations from the ISEE 3 vector helium magnetometer experiment were produced from a tape of merged plasma/magnetic field data. The magnetometer produced six vector measurements/sec that were subsequently averaged over one minute intervals before merging with plasma data. Merging was accomplished by associating the nearest 1 minute field average with each plasma sample.

  4. Probing strong correlations with light scattering: Example of the quantum Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Babujian, H. M.; Karowski, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    In this article we calculate the nonlinear susceptibility and the resonant Raman cross section for the paramagnetic phase of the ferromagnetic quantum Ising model in one dimension. In this region the spectrum of the Ising model has a gap m. The Raman cross section has a strong singularity when the energy of the outgoing photon is at the spectral gap ωf ≈ m and a square root threshold when the frequency difference between the incident and outgoing photons ωi₋ωf≈2m. Finally, the latter feature reflects the fermionic nature of the Ising model excitations.

  5. Probing strong correlations with light scattering: Example of the quantum Ising model

    DOE PAGES

    Babujian, H. M.; Karowski, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    In this article we calculate the nonlinear susceptibility and the resonant Raman cross section for the paramagnetic phase of the ferromagnetic quantum Ising model in one dimension. In this region the spectrum of the Ising model has a gap m. The Raman cross section has a strong singularity when the energy of the outgoing photon is at the spectral gap ωf ≈ m and a square root threshold when the frequency difference between the incident and outgoing photons ωi₋ωf≈2m. Finally, the latter feature reflects the fermionic nature of the Ising model excitations.

  6. Probing strong correlations with light scattering: Example of the quantum Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Babujian, H. M.; Karowski, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    In this article we calculate the nonlinear susceptibility and the resonant Raman cross section for the paramagnetic phase of the ferromagnetic quantum Ising model in one dimension. In this region the spectrum of the Ising model has a gap m. The Raman cross section has a strong singularity when the energy of the outgoing photon is at the spectral gap ωf ≈ m and a square root threshold when the frequency difference between the incident and outgoing photons ωi₋ωf≈2m. Finally, the latter feature reflects the fermionic nature of the Ising model excitations.

  7. Indentation Size Effect (ISE) of Transparent AION and MgAl2O4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Indentation Size Effect (ISE) of Transparent AlON and MgAl2O4 by Parimal J. Patel, Jeffrey J. Swab, Mark Staley, and George D. Quinn ARL...3852 July 2006 Indentation Size Effect (ISE) of Transparent AlON and MgAl2O4 Parimal J. Patel and Jeffrey J. Swab Weapons and Materials...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Indentation Size Effect (ISE) of Transparent AlON and MgAl2O4 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d

  8. Non-self-averaging in Ising spin glasses and hyperuniversality.

    PubMed

    Lundow, P H; Campbell, I A

    2016-01-01

    Ising spin glasses with bimodal and Gaussian near-neighbor interaction distributions are studied through numerical simulations. The non-self-averaging (normalized intersample variance) parameter U_{22}(T,L) for the spin glass susceptibility [and for higher moments U_{nn}(T,L)] is reported for dimensions 2,3,4,5, and 7. In each dimension d the non-self-averaging parameters in the paramagnetic regime vary with the sample size L and the correlation length ξ(T,L) as U_{nn}(β,L)=[K_{d}ξ(T,L)/L]^{d} and so follow a renormalization group law due to Aharony and Harris [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3700 (1996)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3700]. Empirically, it is found that the K_{d} values are independent of d to within the statistics. The maximum values [U_{nn}(T,L)]_{max} are almost independent of L in each dimension, and remarkably the estimated thermodynamic limit critical [U_{nn}(T,L)]_{max} peak values are also practically dimension-independent to within the statistics and so are "hyperuniversal." These results show that the form of the spin-spin correlation function distribution at criticality in the large L limit is independent of dimension within the ISG family. Inspection of published non-self-averaging data for three-dimensional Heisenberg and XY spin glasses the light of the Ising spin glass non-self-averaging results show behavior which appears to be compatible with that expected on a chiral-driven ordering interpretation but incompatible with a spin-driven ordering scenario.

  9. Non-self-averaging in Ising spin glasses and hyperuniversality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Ising spin glasses with bimodal and Gaussian near-neighbor interaction distributions are studied through numerical simulations. The non-self-averaging (normalized intersample variance) parameter U22(T ,L ) for the spin glass susceptibility [and for higher moments Un n(T ,L ) ] is reported for dimensions 2 ,3 ,4 ,5 , and 7. In each dimension d the non-self-averaging parameters in the paramagnetic regime vary with the sample size L and the correlation length ξ (T ,L ) as Un n(β ,L ) =[Kdξ (T ,L ) /L ] d and so follow a renormalization group law due to Aharony and Harris [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3700 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3700]. Empirically, it is found that the Kd values are independent of d to within the statistics. The maximum values [Unn(T,L ) ] max are almost independent of L in each dimension, and remarkably the estimated thermodynamic limit critical [Unn(T,L ) ] max peak values are also practically dimension-independent to within the statistics and so are "hyperuniversal." These results show that the form of the spin-spin correlation function distribution at criticality in the large L limit is independent of dimension within the ISG family. Inspection of published non-self-averaging data for three-dimensional Heisenberg and X Y spin glasses the light of the Ising spin glass non-self-averaging results show behavior which appears to be compatible with that expected on a chiral-driven ordering interpretation but incompatible with a spin-driven ordering scenario.

  10. Information cascade, Kirman's ant colony model, and kinetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model in which voters can obtain information from a finite number of previous voters. There exist three groups of voters: (i) digital herders and independent voters, (ii) analog herders and independent voters, and (iii) tanh-type herders. In our previous paper Hisakado and Mori (2011), we used the mean field approximation for case (i). In that study, if the reference number r is above three, phase transition occurs and the solution converges to one of the equilibria. However, the conclusion is different from mean field approximation. In this paper, we show that the solution oscillates between the two states. A good (bad) equilibrium is where a majority of r select the correct (wrong) candidate. In this paper, we show that there is no phase transition when r is finite. If the annealing schedule is adequately slow from finite r to infinite r, the voting rate converges only to the good equilibrium. In case (ii), the state of reference votes is equivalent to that of Kirman's ant colony model, and it follows beta binomial distribution. In case (iii), we show that the model is equivalent to the finite-size kinetic Ising model. If the voters are rational, a simple herding experiment of information cascade is conducted. Information cascade results from the quenching of the kinetic Ising model. As case (i) is the limit of case (iii) when tanh function becomes a step function, the phase transition can be observed in infinite size limit. We can confirm that there is no phase transition when the reference number r is finite.

  11. Properties of the Ising magnet confined in a corner geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Ezequiel V.; de Virgiliis, Andres; Müller, Marcus; Binder, Kurt

    2007-10-01

    The properties of Ising square lattices with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic exchange confined in a corner geometry, are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Free boundary conditions at which boundary magnetic fields ±h are applied, i.e., at the two boundary rows ending at the lower left corner a field +h acts, while at the two boundary rows ending at the upper right corner a field -h acts. For temperatures T less than the critical temperature T of the bulk, this boundary condition leads to the formation of two domains with opposite orientation of the magnetization direction, separated by an interface which for T larger than the filling transition temperature T(h) runs from the upper left corner to the lower right corner, while for TT(h) it scales as w∝√{L}. The distribution P(ℓ) of the interface position ℓ (measured along the z-direction from the corners) decays exponentially for TT(h). Unlike the findings for critical wetting in the thin film geometry of the Ising model, the Monte Carlo results for corner wetting are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  12. Three axis attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

  13. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  14. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  15. On the formation and evolution of plasmoids - A survey of ISEE 3 Geotail data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moldwin, Mark B.; Hughes, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic and plasma properties of plasmoids, their evolution with distance downtail, and the effect of the direction of the IMF on the plasmoid magnetic configuration were investigated by examining the ISEE 3 magnetometer and electron plasma measurements of the 1983 ISEE 3 Geotail Mission. Both data sets were systematically examined for the presence of bipolar magnetic signatures that occur while ISEE 3 was in the plasma sheet. Results revealed 366 events consistent with this signature while ISEE was in the plasma sheet. It was found that plasmoids are characterized by high-speed plasma flow and that many of them have a well-defined magnetic core field characterized by a field strength maximum at the center of the pass through the structure. Once completely formed, plasmoids are relatively stable. It was found that the size, velocity, magnetic core strength, and Bz field amplitude of plasmoids do not depend on the distance downtail beyond -100 R(E).

  16. Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Low-Temperature 2-d Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procacci, Aldo; Scoppola, Benedetto; Scoppola, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    We construct a parallel stochastic dynamics with invariant measure converging to the Gibbs measure of the 2-d low-temperature Ising model. The proof of such convergence requires a polymer expansion based on suitably defined Peierls-type contours.

  17. Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations for the depinning transition in Ising-type lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Lisha; Liao, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Nengji

    2016-12-01

    With the developed "extended Monte Carlo" (EMC) algorithm, we have studied the depinning transition in Ising-type lattice models by extensive numerical simulations, taking the random-field Ising model with a driving field and the driven bond-diluted Ising model as examples. In comparison with the usual Monte Carlo method, the EMC algorithm exhibits greater efficiency of the simulations. Based on the short-time dynamic scaling form, both the transition field and critical exponents of the depinning transition are determined accurately via the large-scale simulations with the lattice size up to L = 8912, significantly refining the results in earlier literature. In the strong-disorder regime, a new universality class of the Ising-type lattice model is unveiled with the exponents β = 0.304(5) , ν = 1.32(3) , z = 1.12(1) , and ζ = 0.90(1) , quite different from that of the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson equation.

  18. Some contributions to knowledge of the magnetospheric plasma by ISEE investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.

    1984-01-01

    The ISEE project has made substantial contributions to the knowledge of the magnetosphere during the period of the IMS, especially in the discipline of Space Plasma Physics. Results obtained during approximately the first two years of the operation of ISEE-1 and -2, and touches on relevant results of ISEE-3 are reviewed. The ability to control the separation between ISEE-1 and -2, which are in nearly identical orbits, has permitted study of the motion and structure of the bow shock and magnetopause, the boundary layers, and the plasma sheet. Much evidence was obtained favoring the existence of reconnection and its relevance to the transfer of magnetic flux from the frontside to the rear of the magnetosphere, although not everyone agrees that it is the only important process. The presence of both reflected and accelerated particles was shown to lead to the development of a foreshock region between the bow shock and the interplanetary magnetic field line tangential to it.

  19. Efficient cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for Ising spin glasses in more than two space dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Andrew J.; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2015-03-01

    A cluster algorithm that speeds up slow dynamics in simulations of nonplanar Ising spin glasses away from criticality is urgently needed. In theory, the cluster algorithm proposed by Houdayer poses no advantage over local moves in systems with a percolation threshold below 50%, such as cubic lattices. However, we show that the frustration present in Ising spin glasses prevents the growth of system-spanning clusters at temperatures roughly below the characteristic energy scale J of the problem. Adding Houdayer cluster moves to simulations of Ising spin glasses for T ~ J produces a speedup that grows with the system size over conventional local moves. We show results for the nonplanar quasi-two-dimensional Chimera graph of the D-Wave Two quantum annealer, as well as conventional three-dimensional Ising spin glasses, where in both cases the addition of cluster moves speeds up thermalization visibly in the physically-interesting low temperature regime.

  20. Planelike Interfaces in Long-Range Ising Models and Connections with Nonlocal Minimal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzi, Matteo; Dipierro, Serena; Valdinoci, Enrico

    2017-06-01

    This paper contains three types of results: the construction of ground state solutions for a long-range Ising model whose interfaces stay at a bounded distance from any given hyperplane,

  1. Completeness of the classical 2D Ising model and universal quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Van den Nest, M; Dür, W; Briegel, H J

    2008-03-21

    We prove that the 2D Ising model is complete in the sense that the partition function of any classical q-state spin model (on an arbitrary graph) can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 2D Ising model with complex inhomogeneous couplings and external fields. In the case where the original model is an Ising or Potts-type model, we find that the corresponding 2D square lattice requires only polynomially more spins with respect to the original one, and we give a constructive method to map such models to the 2D Ising model. For more general models the overhead in system size may be exponential. The results are established by connecting classical spin models with measurement-based quantum computation and invoking the universality of the 2D cluster states.

  2. Emergent order in the kagome Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Ong, Harapan S.; Hamp, James O.; Mukherjee, Paromita; Bai, Xiaojian; Tucker, Matthew G.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Castelnovo, Claudio; Mourigal, Martin; Dutton, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ising model--in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)--is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ~0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration.

  3. Numerically exact correlations and sampling in the two-dimensional Ising spin glass.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Creighton K; Middleton, A Alan

    2013-04-01

    A powerful existing technique for evaluating statistical mechanical quantities in two-dimensional Ising models is based on constructing a matrix representing the nearest-neighbor spin couplings and then evaluating the Pfaffian of the matrix. Utilizing this technique and other more recent developments in evaluating elements of inverse matrices and exact sampling, a method and computer code for studying two-dimensional Ising models is developed. The formulation of this method is convenient and fast for computing the partition function and spin correlations. It is also useful for exact sampling, where configurations are directly generated with probability given by the Boltzmann distribution. These methods apply to Ising model samples with arbitrary nearest-neighbor couplings and can also be applied to general dimer models. Example results of computations are described, including comparisons with analytic results for the ferromagnetic Ising model, and timing information is provided.

  4. Suppression of the HPA axis during extrahepatic biliary obstruction induces cholangiocyte proliferation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Pae, Hae Yong; Huang, Li; Frampton, Gabriel; Galindo, Cheryl; Francis, Heather; Horvat, Darijana; McMillin, Matthew; Demorrow, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Cholestatic patients often present with clinical features suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. In the bile duct-ligated (BDL) model of cholestasis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is suppressed. The consequences of this suppression on cholangiocyte proliferation are unknown. We evaluated 1) HPA axis activity in various rat models of cholestasis and 2) effects of HPA axis modulation on cholangiocyte proliferation. Expression of regulatory molecules of the HPA axis was determined after BDL, partial BDL, and α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) intoxication. The HPA axis was suppressed by inhibition of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression by central administration of CRH-specific Vivo-morpholinos or by adrenalectomy. After BDL, the HPA axis was reactivated by 1) central administration of CRH, 2) systemic ACTH treatment, or 3) treatment with cortisol or corticosterone for 7 days postsurgery. There was decreased expression of 1) hypothalamic CRH, 2) pituitary ACTH, and 3) key glucocorticoid synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands. Serum corticosterone and cortisol remained low after BDL (but not partial BDL) compared with sham surgery and after 2 wk of ANIT feeding. Experimental suppression of the HPA axis increased cholangiocyte proliferation, shown by increased cytokeratin-19- and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cholangiocytes. Conversely, restoration of HPA axis activity inhibited BDL-induced cholangiocyte proliferation. Suppression of the HPA axis is an early event following BDL and induces cholangiocyte proliferation. Knowledge of the role of the HPA axis during cholestasis may lead to development of innovative treatment paradigms for chronic liver disease.

  5. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift.

  6. Two-axis angular effector

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.; Phelan, John R.; Van Zuiden, Don M.

    1997-01-21

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

  7. A multifractality analysis of Ising financial markets with small world topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Xue

    2015-03-01

    Following our preceding study [H. Zhao et al., Europhys. Lett. 101, 18001 (2013)], in which a self-organizing Ising-like model of artificial financial markets with underlying small world (SW) network topology was investigated, we continue to proceed a multifractal analysis of the price dynamics of the model in current paper. We find that the price return exhibits multifractal property. This suggests that our Ising-like model reproduces the major stylized facts of real world financial markets.

  8. Surface amorphization in a transverse Ising nanowire; effects of a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyoshi, T.

    2017-05-01

    Using the effective-field theory with correlations, the phase diagrams and the thermal variations of total magnetization in an Ising nanowire with surface amorphization are investigated by applying a magnetic field to the direction perpendicular to the spin direction. Some unconventional and novel phenomena have been found in them. Furthermore, phase diagrams in the two transverse Ising nanowires with surface amorphizations are compared and discussed.

  9. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Matthew J.; Schimmang, Thomas; Lewandoski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is

  10. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Schimmang, Thomas; Lewandoski, Mark

    2016-05-01

    During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is

  11. ISEE 3 plasmoid and TCR observations during an extended interval of substorm activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Smith, M. F.; Mazur, E. L.; Baker, D. N.; Iyemori, T.; Singer, H. J.; Greenstadt, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    On April 9-11, 1983, the ISEE 3 spacecraft was continuously located within the earth's magnetotail for more than 36 hours at downstream distances of X = -76 to -80 R(e). During this span of time, 12 major intervals of substorm activity were observed in the AL index with good ISEE 3 telemetry coverage for 11 of them. In addition, there were two small substorms outside of these intervals, both with complete observations in the distant tail. This unusual ISEE 3 data set provides a unique opportunity to test the predictions of the near-earth neutral line model. In particular, the hypothesis that energy stored in the tail lobes during the growth phase is later dissipated, in part, through the release of one or more plasmoids following expansion phase onset is examined. Clear growth phase enhancements in the lobe magnetic field intensity preceded the onsets of nine of the substorms. Plasmoids, or their lobe signatures, traveling compression regions (TCRs), were observed at ISEE 3 in association with all 11 of the major substorm intervals for which there were ISEE observations, as well as for the two small substorms. No plasmoids or TCRs were observed in the absence of substorm activity. If these ISEE 3 observations are representative, then the release of plasmoids down the tail may be a feature common to all substorms.

  12. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems.

    PubMed

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-09-23

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances.

  13. Statistical mechanics of the inverse Ising problem and the optimal objective function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    The inverse Ising problem seeks to reconstruct the parameters of an Ising Hamiltonian on the basis of spin configurations sampled from the Boltzmann measure. Over the last decade, many applications of the inverse Ising problem have arisen, driven by the advent of large-scale data across different scientific disciplines. Recently, strategies to solve the inverse Ising problem based on convex optimisation have proven to be very successful. These approaches maximise particular objective functions with respect to the model parameters. Examples are the pseudolikelihood method and interaction screening. In this paper, we establish a link between approaches to the inverse Ising problem based on convex optimisation and the statistical physics of disordered systems. We characterise the performance of an arbitrary objective function and calculate the objective function which optimally reconstructs the model parameters. We evaluate the optimal objective function within a replica-symmetric ansatz and compare the results of the optimal objective function with other reconstruction methods. Apart from giving a theoretical underpinning to solving the inverse Ising problem by convex optimisation, the optimal objective function outperforms state-of-the-art methods, albeit by a small margin.

  14. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances. PMID:27659312

  15. Ising computation based combinatorial optimization using spin-Hall effect (SHE) induced stochastic magnetization reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yong; Jaiswal, Akhilesh; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    Ising spin model is considered as an efficient computing method to solve combinatorial optimization problems based on its natural tendency of convergence towards low energy state. The underlying basic functions facilitating the Ising model can be categorized into two parts, "Annealing and Majority vote." In this paper, we propose an Ising cell based on Spin Hall Effect (SHE) induced magnetization switching in a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ). The stochasticity of our proposed Ising cell based on SHE induced MTJ switching can implement the natural annealing process by preventing the system from being stuck in solutions with local minima. Further, by controlling the current through the Heavy-Metal (HM) underlying the MTJ, we can mimic the majority vote function which determines the next state of the individual spins. By solving coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, we demonstrate that our Ising cell can be replicated to map certain combinatorial problems. We present results for two representative problems—Maximum-cut and Graph coloring—to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed device-circuit configuration in solving combinatorial problems. Our proposed solution using a HM based MTJ device can be exploited to implement compact, fast, and energy efficient Ising spin model.

  16. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-09-01

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances.

  17. Monte Carlo tests of renormalization-group predictions for critical phenomena in Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Kurt; Luijten, Erik

    2001-04-01

    A critical review is given of status and perspectives of Monte Carlo simulations that address bulk and interfacial phase transitions of ferromagnetic Ising models. First, some basic methodological aspects of these simulations are briefly summarized (single-spin flip vs. cluster algorithms, finite-size scaling concepts), and then the application of these techniques to the nearest-neighbor Ising model in d=3 and 5 dimensions is described, and a detailed comparison to theoretical predictions is made. In addition, the case of Ising models with a large but finite range of interaction and the crossover scaling from mean-field behavior to the Ising universality class are treated. If one considers instead a long-range interaction described by a power-law decay, new classes of critical behavior depending on the exponent of this power law become accessible, and a stringent test of the ε-expansion becomes possible. As a final type of crossover from mean-field type behavior to two-dimensional Ising behavior, the interface localization-delocalization transition of Ising films confined between “competing” walls is considered. This problem is still hampered by questions regarding the appropriate coarse-grained model for the fluctuating interface near a wall, which is the starting point for both this problem and the theory of critical wetting.

  18. Anatomical study of the gastrointestinal tract in free-living axis deer (Axis axis).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Erdogan, S; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-02-01

    The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach and intestines of adult axis deer (Axis axis), a cervid species considered intermediate/mixed feeder, was observed and recorded. Nine adult wild axis deers of both sexes were used and studied by simple dissection. The ruminal papillae were distributed unevenly in the overall area of the inner surface of rumen and primarily were more large and abundant within the atrium. The ruminal pillars had no papillae. There was an additional ruminal pillar located between the right longitudinal and right coronary ventral pillars connected to the caudal pillar. No dorsal coronary pillars were found, and the ventral coronary pillars are connected. The reticulum was the third compartment in size, and the maximum height of the reticular crests was 1.0 mm. The Cellulae reticuli were not divided and rarely contained secondary crests. There were no Papillae unguiculiformes. The omasum was the smallest gastric compartment. The abomasum had about twelve spiral plicae, and a small pyloric torus was present. The intraruminal papillation was similar to those species that are characterized by a higher proportion of grass in their natural diet. The finding of the small reticular crests is typical for browser ruminants and was coincident with data reported for other deer. The comparative ratio of the small intestine to the large intestine was 1.69, in terms of length measurements in axis deer and appears below of the 'browser range'. We concluded that the gastrointestinal system of axis deer reflected similar morphological characteristics of the both types of ruminants: browser and grazer, and we consider it as an intermediate feeder. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Multi-Axis Test Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-11-01

    Multi-Axis Test Facility, Space Progress Report, November 1, 1959: The Multi Axis Space Test Inertia Facility [MASTIF], informally referred to as the Gimbal Rig, was installed inside the Altitude Wind Tunnel. The rig, which spun on three axis simultaneously, was used to train the Mercury astronauts on how to bring a spinning spacecraft under control and to determine the effects of rapid spinning on the astronaut's eyesight and psyche. Small gaseous nitrogen jets were operated by the pilot to gain control of the rig after it had been set in motion. Part 1 shows pilot Joe Algranti in the rig as it rotates over one, two, and three axis. It also has overall views of the test set-up with researchers and technicians on the test platform. Part 2 shows Algranti being secured in the rig prior to the test. The rig is set in motion and the pilot slowly brings it under control. The Mercury astronauts trained on the MASTIF in early spring of 1960.

  20. Three axis velocity probe system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Smith, Jr., Nelson S.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1992-01-01

    A three-axis velocity probe system for determining three-axis positional velocities of small particles in fluidized bed systems and similar applications. This system has a sensor head containing four closely-spaced sensing electrodes of small wires that have flat ends to establish a two axis plane, e.g. a X-Y plane. Two of the sensing electrodes are positioned along one of the axes and the other two are along the second axis. These four sensing electrodes are surrounded by a guard electrode, and the outer surface is a ground electrode and support member for the sensing head. The electrodes are excited by, for example, sinusoidal voltage having a peak-to-peak voltage of up to 500 volts at a frequency of 2 MHz. Capacitive currents flowing between the four sensing electrodes and the ground electrode are influenced by the presence and position of a particle passing the sensing head. Any changes in these currents due to the particle are amplified and synchronously detected to produce positional signal values that are converted to digital form. Using these digital forms and two values of time permit generation of values of the three components of the particle vector and thus the total velocity vector.

  1. Interfaces in the confined Ising system with competing surface fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Virgiliis, A.; Albano, E. V.; Müller, M.; Binder, K.

    2005-07-01

    When a magnetic Ising film is confined in a L×M geometry (L≪M) short-range competing magnetic fields ( h1) are applied at opposite walls along the M-direction, a (weakly rounded) localization-delocalization transition of the interface between domains of different orientation that runs parallel to walls can be observed. This transition is the precursor of a wetting phase transition that occurs in the limit of infinite film thickness (L→∞) at the critical curve Tw(h1). For TTw(h1)) such an interface is bound to (unbound from) the walls, while right at Tw(h1) the interface is freely fluctuating around the center of the film. We present extensive Monte Carlo simulations of Ising stripes in the L×M geometry, in order to describe both the localization-delocalization transition and the properties of the delocalized interface. To this aim, we take advantage of several available theoretical results. We make use of a suitable algorithm to define the local position of the interface along the film, such that its probability distribution can be used to account for the transition itself and the fluctuations in the local position of the interface (capillary waves). After describing the interface localization-delocalization transition, we pay attention to the properties of the delocalized interface with an emphasis on the effects of confinement. We analyze several quantities of interest in terms of the film thickness L. The width of the capillary waves (s) can be related to the width of the magnetization profiles (w) by means of a simple approximation. From this relation we estimate a value for the intrinsic width (w0) of the interface which agrees with the theoretical one. Also the correlation length ξ∥ along the film is considered, and the behavior ξ∥∼L2 compares very well to available exact results. Additionally, the interfacial stiffness βΓ obtained from the Fourier spectrum of the capillary waves reproduces the asymptotic theoretical value.

  2. Fetal and Neonatal HPA Axis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Charles E; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2015-12-15

    Stress is an integral part of life. Activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the adult can be viewed as mostly adaptive to restore homeostasis in the short term. When stress occurs during development, and specifically during periods of vulnerability in maturing systems, it can significantly reprogram function, leading to pathologies in the adult. Thus, it is critical to understand how the HPA axis is regulated during developmental periods and what are the factors contributing to shape its activity and reactivity to environmental stressors. The HPA axis is not a passive system. It can actively participate in critical physiological regulation, inducing parturition in the sheep for instance or being a center stage actor in the preparation of the fetus to aerobic life (lung maturation). It is also a major player in orchestrating mental function, metabolic, and cardiovascular function often reprogrammed by stressors even prior to conception through epigenetic modifications of gametes. In this review, we review the ontogeny of the HPA axis with an emphasis on two species that have been widely studied-sheep and rodents-because they each share many similar regulatory mechanism applicable to our understanding of the human HPA axis. The studies discussed in this review should ultimately inform us about windows of susceptibility in the developing brain and the crucial importance of early preconception, prenatal, and postnatal interventions designed to improve parental competence and offspring outcome. Only through informed studies will our public health system be able to curb the expansion of many stress-related or stress-induced pathologies and forge a better future for upcoming generations.

  3. Quantum phase transitions and decoupling of magnetic sublattices in the quasi-two-dimensional Ising magnet Co3V2O8 in a transverse magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Fritsch, Katharina; Ehlers, G.; Rule, K. C.; ...

    2015-11-05

    We study the application of a magnetic field transverse to the easy axis, Ising direction in the quasi-two-dimensional kagome staircase magnet, Co3V2O8, induces three quantum phase transitions at low temperatures, ultimately producing a novel high field polarized state, with two distinct sublattices. New time-of-flight neutron scattering techniques, accompanied by large angular access, high magnetic field infrastructure allow the mapping of a sequence of ferromagnetic and incommensurate phases and their accompanying spin excitations. Also, at least one of the transitions to incommensurate phases at μ0Hc1~6.25 T and μ0Hc2~7 T is discontinuous, while the final quantum critical point at μ0Hc3~13 T ismore » continuous.« less

  4. Statistical Mechanics of Coherent Ising Machine — The Case of Ferromagnetic and Finite-Loading Hopfield Models —

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aonishi, Toru; Mimura, Kazushi; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Okada, Masato; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2017-10-01

    The coherent Ising machine (CIM) has attracted attention as one of the most effective Ising computing architectures for solving large scale optimization problems because of its scalability and high-speed computational ability. However, it is difficult to implement the Ising computation in the CIM because the theories and techniques of classical thermodynamic equilibrium Ising spin systems cannot be directly applied to the CIM. This means we have to adapt these theories and techniques to the CIM. Here we focus on a ferromagnetic model and a finite loading Hopfield model, which are canonical models sharing a common mathematical structure with almost all other Ising models. We derive macroscopic equations to capture nonequilibrium phase transitions in these models. The statistical mechanical methods developed here constitute a basis for constructing evaluation methods for other Ising computation models.

  5. On the structure of the distant magnetotail - ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.

    1992-01-01

    The relative frequency of observation of the magnetosheath and magnetotail in the region where a nominal magnetotail is expected is determined on the basis of ISEE-3 magnetic field and electron plasma data. These observations are compared with how frequently a tail of a given radius would be expected to be seen, assuming typical variations in the direction of the solar wind flow relative to the radial. Observations match expectations if the average radius consistent with an open magnetotail where field lines are lost both through the magnetopause and also by closing along the equatorial current sheet. This relatively small radius is consistent with an open magnetotail where field lines are lost both through the magnetopause and also by closing across the equatorial current sheet. The average solar magnetospheric Bz component of the field in the distant plasma sheet is 0.6 nT during quiet times but zero during disturbed times, which suggests that when the polar cap becomes smaller during quiet times, many of the field lines that previously formed the distant tail lobes are converted into closed field lines that cross the equatorial plane earthward of 240 RE.

  6. Zero-temperature relaxation of three-dimensional Ising ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejarz, J.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the properties of the Ising-Glauber model on a periodic cubic lattice of linear dimension L after a quench to zero temperature. The resulting evolution is extremely slow, with long periods of wandering on constant energy plateaus, punctuated by occasional energy-decreasing spin-flip events. The characteristic time scale τ for this relaxation grows exponentially with the system size; we provide a heuristic and numerical evidence that τ~exp(L2). For all but the smallest-size systems, the long-time state is almost never static. Instead, the system contains a small number of “blinker” spins that continue to flip forever with no energy cost. Thus, the system wanders ad infinitum on a connected set of equal-energy blinker states. These states are composed of two topologically complex interwoven domains of opposite phases. The average genus gL of the domains scales as Lγ, with γ≈1.7; thus, domains typically have many holes, leading to a “plumber’s nightmare” geometry.

  7. Critical behavior of the Ising model on random fractals.

    PubMed

    Monceau, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    We study the critical behavior of the Ising model in the case of quenched disorder constrained by fractality on random Sierpinski fractals with a Hausdorff dimension d(f) is approximately equal to 1.8928. This is a first attempt to study a situation between the borderline cases of deterministic self-similarity and quenched randomness. Intensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Scaling corrections are much weaker than in the deterministic cases, so that our results enable us to ensure that finite-size scaling holds, and that the critical behavior is described by a new universality class. The hyperscaling relation is compatible with an effective dimension equal to the Hausdorff one; moreover the two eigenvalues exponents of the renormalization flows are shown to be different from the ones calculated from ε expansions, and from the ones obtained for fourfold symmetric deterministic fractals. Although the space dimensionality is not integer, lack of self-averaging properties exhibits some features very close to the ones of a random fixed point associated with a relevant disorder.

  8. The appropriateness of ignorance in the inverse kinetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Benjamin; Battistin, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    We develop efficient ways to consider and correct for the effects of hidden units for the paradigmatic case of the inverse kinetic Ising model with fully asymmetric couplings. We identify two sources of error in reconstructing the connectivity among the observed units while ignoring part of the network. One leads to a systematic bias in the inferred parameters, whereas the other involves correlations between the visible and hidden populations and has a magnitude that depends on the coupling strength. We estimate these two terms using a mean field approach and derive self-consistent equations for the couplings accounting for the systematic bias. Through application of these methods on simple networks of varying relative population size and connectivity strength, we assess how and under what conditions the hidden portion can influence inference and to what degree it can be crudely estimated. We find that for weak to moderately coupled systems, the effects of the hidden units is a simple rotation that can be easily corrected for. For strongly coupled systems, the non-systematic term becomes large and can no longer be safely ignored, further highlighting the importance of understanding the average strength of couplings for a given system of interest.

  9. Stochastic bifurcations in the nonlinear parallel Ising model.

    PubMed

    Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the phase transitions of a nonlinear, parallel version of the Ising model, characterized by an antiferromagnetic linear coupling and ferromagnetic nonlinear one. This model arises in problems of opinion formation. The mean-field approximation shows chaotic oscillations, by changing the couplings or the connectivity. The spatial model shows bifurcations in the average magnetization, similar to that seen in the mean-field approximation, induced by the change of the topology, after rewiring short-range to long-range connection, as predicted by the small-world effect. These coherent periodic and chaotic oscillations of the magnetization reflect a certain degree of synchronization of the spins, induced by long-range couplings. Similar bifurcations may be induced in the randomly connected model by changing the couplings or the connectivity and also the dilution (degree of asynchronism) of the updating. We also examined the effects of inhomogeneity, mixing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling, which induces an unexpected bifurcation diagram with a "bubbling" behavior, as also happens for dilution.

  10. Ising pairing in superconducting NbSe2 atomic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Zefang; Zhao, Weiwei; Park, Ju-Hyun; Law, Kam Tuen; Berger, Helmuth; Forró, László; Shan, Jie; Mak, Kin Fai

    2016-02-01

    The properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides arising from strong spin-orbit interactions and valley-dependent Berry curvature effects have recently attracted considerable interest. Although single-particle and excitonic phenomena related to spin-valley coupling have been extensively studied, the effects of spin-valley coupling on collective quantum phenomena remain less well understood. Here we report the observation of superconducting monolayer NbSe2 with an in-plane upper critical field of more than six times the Pauli paramagnetic limit, by means of magnetotransport measurements. The effect can be interpreted in terms of the competing Zeeman effect and large intrinsic spin-orbit interactions in non-centrosymmetric NbSe2 monolayers, where the electron spin is locked to the out-of-plane direction. Our results provide strong evidence of unconventional Ising pairing protected by spin-momentum locking, and suggest further studies of non-centrosymmetric superconductivity with unique spin and valley degrees of freedom in the two-dimensional limit.

  11. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Martínez-Cruz, M. A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe; Mena, Baltasar; Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier

    2017-02-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the "magnetization" of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  12. The a-cycle problem for transverse Ising ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Peng; Chen, Qi-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, the transverse Ising model is mapped to the fermionic c-cycle problem, which neglects the boundary effect due to thermodynamic limit. If persisting on a perfect periodic boundary condition, we can get a so-called a-cycle problem that has not been treated seriously so far (Lieb et al 1961 Ann. Phys. 16 407). In this work, we show a little surprising but exact result in this respect. We find the odevity of the number of lattice sites, N, in the a-cycle problem plays an unexpected role even in the thermodynamic limit, N\\to ∞ , due to the boundary constraint. We pay special attention to the system with N(\\in Odd)\\to ∞ , which is in contrast to the one with N(\\in Even)\\to ∞ , because the former suffers a ring frustration. As a new effect, we find the ring frustration induces a low-energy gapless spectrum above the ground state. By proving a theorem for a new type of Toeplitz determinant, we demonstrate that the ground state in the gapless region exhibits a peculiar longitudinal spin-spin correlation. The entangled nature of the ground state is also disclosed by the evaluation of its entanglement entropy. At low temperature, new behavior of specific heat is predicted. We also propose an experimental protocol for observing the new phenomenon due to the ring frustration.

  13. ISEE-3 measurements of solar energetic particle composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Reames, D. V.

    1980-10-01

    Preliminary observations of energetic particles from solar flares beginning on September 23 and November 10, 1978 are reported. The measurements were made from the ISEE-3 spacecraft using very thin, large area solid-state detectors. Charge composition was measured for all elements from Z = 2 to Z = 26 above approximately 2 MeV/nucleon. More than 100,000 nuclei with Z greater than 2 were pulse-height analyzed during the course of the first event, while the second was substantially smaller. These good statistics enable the observation of variations in composition at low energies as a function of time. For example, the Fe/O ratio (2.0-3.1 MeV/n) was observed in the September event to decrease by a factor of approximately 5. By contrast, this same ratio increased by a factor of approximately 1.5 during the November 10 event. Similar variations have been reported earlier by Scholer et al. (1978). These authors, however were unable to observe the He/O ratio which has now been observed also to show significant variation.

  14. Ising spin glasses in two dimensions: Universality and nonuniversality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2017-04-01

    Following numerous earlier studies, extensive simulations and analyses were made on the continuous interaction distribution Gaussian model and the discrete bimodal interaction distribution Ising spin glass (ISG) models in two dimensions [Lundow and Campbell, Phys. Rev. E 93, 022119 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.022119]. Here we further analyze the bimodal and Gaussian data together with data on two other continuous interaction distribution two-dimensional ISG models, the uniform and the Laplacian models, and three other discrete interaction distribution models, a diluted bimodal model, an "antidiluted" model, and a more exotic symmetric Poisson model. Comparisons between the three continuous distribution models show that not only do they share the same exponent η ≡0 but that to within the present numerical precision they share the same critical exponent ν also, and so lie in a single universality class. On the other hand the critical exponents of the four discrete distribution models are not the same as those of the continuous distributions, and the present data strongly indicate that they differ from one discrete distribution model to another. This is evidence that discrete distribution ISG models in two dimensions have nonzero values of the critical exponent η and do not lie in a single universality class.

  15. Low-temperature dynamics of kinks on Ising interfaces.

    PubMed

    Karma, Alain; Lobkovsky, Alexander E

    2005-03-01

    The anisotropic motion of an interface driven by its intrinsic curvature or by an external field is investigated in the context of the kinetic Ising model in both two and three dimensions. We derive in two dimensions (2D) a continuum evolution equation for the density of kinks by a time-dependent and nonlocal mapping to the asymmetric exclusion process. Whereas kinks execute random walks biased by the external field and pile up vertically on the physical 2D lattice, they execute hard-core biased random walks on a transformed 1D lattice. Their density obeys a nonlinear diffusion equation which can be transformed into the standard expression for the interface velocity, v=M [ (gamma+gamma'') kappa+H] , where M , gamma+gamma", and kappa are the interface mobility, stiffness, and curvature, respectively. In 3D, we obtain the velocity of a curved interface near the 100 orientation from an analysis of the self-similar evolution of 2D shrinking terraces. We show that this velocity is consistent with the one predicted from the 3D tensorial generalization of the law for anisotropic curvature-driven motion. In this generalization, both the interface stiffness tensor and the curvature tensor are singular at the 100 orientation. However, their product, which determines the interface velocity, is smooth. In addition, we illustrate how this kink-based kinetic description provides a useful framework for studying more complex situations by modeling the effect of immobile dilute impurities.

  16. Interaction Versus Entropic Repulsion for Low Temperature Ising Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioffe, Dmitry; Shlosman, Senya; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2015-03-01

    Contours associated to many interesting low-temperature statistical mechanics models (2D Ising model, (2+1)D SOS interface model, etc) can be described as self-interacting and self-avoiding walks on . When the model is defined in a finite box, the presence of the boundary induces an interaction, that can turn out to be attractive, between the contour and the boundary of the box. On the other hand, the contour cannot cross the boundary, so it feels entropic repulsion from it. In various situations of interest (in Caputo et al. Ann. Probab., arXiv:1205.6884, J. Eur. Math. Soc., arXiv:1302.6941, arXiv:1406.1206, Ioffe and Shlosman, in preparation), a crucial technical problem is to prove that entropic repulsion prevails over the pinning interaction: in particular, the contour-boundary interaction should not modify significantly the contour partition function and the related surface tension should be unchanged. Here we prove that this is indeed the case, at least at sufficiently low temperature, in a quite general framework that applies in particular to the models of interest mentioned above.

  17. Phase transitions and relaxation dynamics of Ising models exchanging particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Segun; Fortin, Jean-Yves; Choi, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of systems in nature and in society are open and subject to exchanging their constituents with other systems (e.g., environments). For instance, in biological systems, cells collect necessary energy and material by exchange of molecules or ions. Similarly, countries, cities or research institutes evolve as their constituents move in or out. To probe the corresponding particle exchange dynamics in such systems, we consider two Ising models exchanging particles and establish a master equation describing the equilibrium phases as well as the non-equilibrium dynamics of the system. It is found that an additional stable phase emerges as a consequence of the particle exchange process. Furthermore, we formulate the Ginzburg-Landau theory which allows to probe correlation effects. Accordingly, critical slowing down is manifested and the associated dynamic exponent is computed in the linear relaxation regime. In particular, this approach is relevant for investigating the grand canonical description of the system plus environment, with particle exchange and state transitions taken into account explicitly.

  18. Periodic Striped Ground States in Ising Models with Competing Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions, with short range ferromagnetic and long range, power-law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. We let J be the ratio between the strength of the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic interactions. The competition between these two kinds of interactions induces the system to form domains of minus spins in a background of plus spins, or vice versa. If the decay exponent p of the long range interaction is larger than d + 1, with d the space dimension, this happens for all values of J smaller than a critical value J c ( p), beyond which the ground state is homogeneous. In this paper, we give a characterization of the infinite volume ground states of the system, for p > 2 d and J in a left neighborhood of J c ( p). In particular, we prove that the quasi-one-dimensional states consisting of infinite stripes ( d = 2) or slabs ( d = 3), all of the same optimal width and orientation, and alternating magnetization, are infinite volume ground states. Our proof is based on localization bounds combined with reflection positivity.

  19. Two coupled, driven Ising spin systems working as an engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Debarshi; Nandi, Joydip; Jayannavar, A. M.; Marathe, Rahul

    2017-05-01

    Miniaturized heat engines constitute a fascinating field of current research. Many theoretical and experimental studies are being conducted that involve colloidal particles in harmonic traps as well as bacterial baths acting like thermal baths. These systems are micron-sized and are subjected to large thermal fluctuations. Hence, for these systems average thermodynamic quantities, such as work done, heat exchanged, and efficiency, lose meaning unless otherwise supported by their full probability distributions. Earlier studies on microengines are concerned with applying Carnot or Stirling engine protocols to miniaturized systems, where system undergoes typical two isothermal and two adiabatic changes. Unlike these models we study a prototype system of two classical Ising spins driven by time-dependent, phase-different, external magnetic fields. These spins are simultaneously in contact with two heat reservoirs at different temperatures for the full duration of the driving protocol. Performance of the model as an engine or a refrigerator depends only on a single parameter, namely the phase between two external drivings. We study this system in terms of fluctuations in efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP). We find full distributions of these quantities numerically and study the tails of these distributions. We also study reliability of the engine. We find the fluctuations dominate mean values of efficiency and COP, and their probability distributions are broad with power law tails.

  20. Two coupled, driven Ising spin systems working as an engine.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debarshi; Nandi, Joydip; Jayannavar, A M; Marathe, Rahul

    2017-05-01

    Miniaturized heat engines constitute a fascinating field of current research. Many theoretical and experimental studies are being conducted that involve colloidal particles in harmonic traps as well as bacterial baths acting like thermal baths. These systems are micron-sized and are subjected to large thermal fluctuations. Hence, for these systems average thermodynamic quantities, such as work done, heat exchanged, and efficiency, lose meaning unless otherwise supported by their full probability distributions. Earlier studies on microengines are concerned with applying Carnot or Stirling engine protocols to miniaturized systems, where system undergoes typical two isothermal and two adiabatic changes. Unlike these models we study a prototype system of two classical Ising spins driven by time-dependent, phase-different, external magnetic fields. These spins are simultaneously in contact with two heat reservoirs at different temperatures for the full duration of the driving protocol. Performance of the model as an engine or a refrigerator depends only on a single parameter, namely the phase between two external drivings. We study this system in terms of fluctuations in efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP). We find full distributions of these quantities numerically and study the tails of these distributions. We also study reliability of the engine. We find the fluctuations dominate mean values of efficiency and COP, and their probability distributions are broad with power law tails.

  1. Domain walls in the quantum transverse Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Malte; Harris, A. Brooks; Cieplak, Marek

    1995-08-01

    We discuss several problems concerning domain walls in the spin-S Ising model at zero temeprature in a magnetic field, H/(2S), applied in the x direction. Some results are also given for the planar (y-z) model in a transverse field. We treat the quantum problem in one dimension by perturbation theory at small H and numerically over a large range of H. We obtain the spin-density profile by fixing the spins at opposite ends of the chain to have opposite signs of Sz. One dimensional is special in that there the quantum width of the wall is proportional to the size L of the system. We also study the quantitative features of the ``particle'' band which extends up to energies of order H above the ground state. Except for the planar limit, this particle band is well separated from excitations having energy J/S involving creation of more walls. At large S this particle band develops energy gaps and the lowest subband has tunnel splittings of order H21-2S. This scale of of energy gives rise to anomalous scaling with respect to (a) finite size, (b) temperature, or (c) random potentials. The intrinsic width of the domain wall and the pinning energy are also defined and calculated in certain limiting cases. The general conclusion is that quantum effects prevent the wall from being sharp and in higher dimension would prevent sudden excursions in the configuration of the wall.

  2. Modeling Dark Energy Through AN Ising Fluid with Network Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luongo, Orlando; Tommasini, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    We show that the dark energy (DE) effects can be modeled by using an Ising perfect fluid with network interactions, whose low redshift equation of state (EoS), i.e. ω0, becomes ω0 = -1 as in the ΛCDM model. In our picture, DE is characterized by a barotropic fluid on a lattice in the equilibrium configuration. Thus, mimicking the spin interaction by replacing the spin variable with an occupational number, the pressure naturally becomes negative. We find that the corresponding EoS mimics the effects of a variable DE term, whose limiting case reduces to the cosmological constant Λ. This permits us to avoid the introduction of a vacuum energy as DE source by hand, alleviating the coincidence and fine tuning problems. We find fairly good cosmological constraints, by performing three tests with supernovae Ia (SNeIa), baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. Finally, we perform the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) selection criteria, showing that our model is statistically favored with respect to the Chevallier-Polarsky-Linder (CPL) parametrization.

  3. Stochastic bifurcations in the nonlinear parallel Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the phase transitions of a nonlinear, parallel version of the Ising model, characterized by an antiferromagnetic linear coupling and ferromagnetic nonlinear one. This model arises in problems of opinion formation. The mean-field approximation shows chaotic oscillations, by changing the couplings or the connectivity. The spatial model shows bifurcations in the average magnetization, similar to that seen in the mean-field approximation, induced by the change of the topology, after rewiring short-range to long-range connection, as predicted by the small-world effect. These coherent periodic and chaotic oscillations of the magnetization reflect a certain degree of synchronization of the spins, induced by long-range couplings. Similar bifurcations may be induced in the randomly connected model by changing the couplings or the connectivity and also the dilution (degree of asynchronism) of the updating. We also examined the effects of inhomogeneity, mixing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling, which induces an unexpected bifurcation diagram with a "bubbling" behavior, as also happens for dilution.

  4. Nanodrop of an Ising magnetic fluid on a solid surface.

    PubMed

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2011-07-19

    The density functional theory of inhomogeneous simple fluids is extended to an Ising magnetic fluid in contact with a solid surface, which is subjected to an external uniform or nonuniform magnetic field. The system is described by two coupled integral equations regarding the magnetic moment and fluid density distributions. The dependence of the contact angle that a nanodrop makes with the solid surface on the parameters involved in the magnetic interactions between the molecules of fluid and between the molecules of fluid and an external magnetic field is calculated. For the uniform magnetic field, the contact angle increases with increasing magnetic field, approaching an asymptotic value that depends on the strength of the fluid-fluid magnetic interactions. In the nonuniform field generated by a permanent magnet, the contact angle first increases with increasing magnetic field B(M) and then decreases, with the decrease being almost linear for large values of B(M). The obtained results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data on the contact angle of magnetic drops on a solid surface available in the literature.

  5. Asymptotic work statistics of periodically driven Ising chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russomanno, Angelo; Sharma, Shraddha; Dutta, Amit; Santoro, Giuseppe E.

    2015-08-01

    We study the work statistics of a periodically-driven integrable closed quantum system, addressing in particular the role played by the presence of a quantum critical point. Taking the example of a one-dimensional transverse Ising model in the presence of a spatially homogeneous but periodically time-varying transverse field of frequency {ω0} , we arrive at the characteristic cumulant generating function G(u), which is then used to calculate the work distribution function P(W). By applying the Floquet theory we show that, in the infinite time limit, P(W) converges, starting from the initial ground state, towards an asymptotic steady state value whose small-W behaviour depends only on the properties of the small-wave-vector modes and on a few important ingredients: the time-averaged value of the transverse field, h0, the initial transverse field, {{h}\\text{i}} , and the equilibrium quantum critical point {{h}\\text{c}} , which we find to generate a sequence of non-equilibrium critical points {{h}*l}={{h}\\text{c}}+l{ω0}/2 , with l integer. When {{h}\\text{i}}\

  6. Hamiltonian truncation approach to quenches in the Ising field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovszky, T.; Mestyán, M.; Collura, M.; Kormos, M.; Takács, G.

    2016-10-01

    In contrast to lattice systems where powerful numerical techniques such as matrix product state based methods are available to study the non-equilibrium dynamics, the non-equilibrium behaviour of continuum systems is much harder to simulate. We demonstrate here that Hamiltonian truncation methods can be efficiently applied to this problem, by studying the quantum quench dynamics of the 1 + 1 dimensional Ising field theory using a truncated free fermionic space approach. After benchmarking the method with integrable quenches corresponding to changing the mass in a free Majorana fermion field theory, we study the effect of an integrability breaking perturbation by the longitudinal magnetic field. In both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of the model we find persistent oscillations with frequencies set by the low-lying particle excitations not only for small, but even for moderate size quenches. In the ferromagnetic phase these particles are the various non-perturbative confined bound states of the domain wall excitations, while in the paramagnetic phase the single magnon excitation governs the dynamics, allowing us to capture the time evolution of the magnetisation using a combination of known results from perturbation theory and form factor based methods. We point out that the dominance of low lying excitations allows for the numerical or experimental determination of the mass spectra through the study of the quench dynamics.

  7. Stress and the Reproductive Axis

    PubMed Central

    Toufexis, Donna; Rivarola, Maria Angelica; Lara, Hernan; Viau, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For instance, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, while activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology and behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors like ERα that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilized by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine (NE) into the ovary, which produces a non-cyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increase 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioral phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hypo-responsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects of oestrogen, and changes in 5-HT

  8. Pashto Conversation Manual and Pashto Conversation Tapescript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This conversation manual and tapescript are part of a set of materials that have been developed to teach oral and written Afghan Pashto to English speakers. In addition to the conversation manual and tapescript, the set consists of a beginning textbook, an intermediate textbook, a reader, and a set of taped lessons that correlate with the…

  9. Raman conversion in intense femtosecond Bessel beams in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheller, Maik; Chen, Xi; Ariunbold, Gombojav O.; Born, Norman; Moloney, Jerome; Kolesik, Miroslav; Polynkin, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that bright and nearly collimated radiation can be efficiently generated in air pumped by an intense femtosecond Bessel beam. We show that this nonlinear conversion process is driven by the rotational Raman response of air molecules. Under optimum conditions, the conversion efficiency from the Bessel pump into the on-axis propagating beam exceeds 15% and is limited by the onset of intensity clamping and plasma refraction on the beam axis. Our experimental findings are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on the standard model for the ultrafast nonlinear response of air.

  10. Magnetic ordering in the frustrated J1 - J2 Ising chain candidate BaNd2O4

    DOE PAGES

    Aczel, Adam A.; Li, Ling; Garlea, Vasile O.; ...

    2014-10-06

    The AR2O4 family (R = rare earth) has recently been attracting interest as a new series of frustrated magnets, with the magnetic R atoms forming zigzag chains running along the c axis. In this paper, we have investigated polycrystalline BaNd2O4 with a combination of magnetization, heat-capacity, and neutron powder diffraction measurements. Magnetic Bragg peaks are observed below TN = 1.7 K, and they can be indexed with a propagation vector of k = (0,1/2,1/2). The signal from magnetic diffraction is well described by long-range ordering of only one of the two types of Nd zigzag chains, with collinear up-up-down-down intrachainmore » spin configurations (double Néel state). Furthermore, low-temperature magnetization and heat-capacity measurements reveal two magnetic-field-induced spin transitions at 2.75 and 4 T for T = 0.46 K. The high-field phase is paramagnetic, while the intermediate-field state may arise from a spin transition of the long-range ordered Nd chains. Finally, one possible candidate for the field-induced ordered state corresponds to an up-up-down intrachain spin configuration, as predicted for a classical J1-J2 Ising chain with a double Néel ground state in zero field.« less

  11. Final Report for Isee/3ICE Data Restoration NAG5-7188 Restoration of ISEE-3/ICE X-Ray Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this project is to take solar flare X-ray data obtained by ISEE-3/ICE (Third International Sun Earth Explorer/ International Cometary Explorer) spacecraft and convert it from its current non-standard format into FITS binary tables. These files will then be made available to the public at the Solar Data Analysis Center (SDAC).

  12. A second harmonic geomagnetic field line resonance at the inner edge of the plasma sheet - GEOS 1, ISEE 1, and ISEE 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. J.; Grard, R. J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A description is provided of observations made by GEOS 1, ISEE 1, and ISEE 2 of a hydromagnetic wave with a period approximately 90 s observed near 0200 LT between L = 9 and L = 6, close to the measured inner boundary of the plasma sheet. The wave magnetic oscillations perpendicular to and along the ambient field had similar amplitudes. Using primarily the transverse magnetic components, it is shown that the wave is a second harmonic resonance of the local geomagnetic field lines. ISEE 1 and 2 observed the opposite sense of polarization for about 30 min, although the spacecraft were separated by only 9 min in their orbit; this remarkable feature cannot be explained by either a stationary spatial boundary or a simple temporal boundary but could result from a rapid movement of the resonant region. It is argued that the most likely energy source is bounce resonance with medium energy (approximately 5 keV) ions. Calculations of the wave Poynting vector at ISEE 1 support this conclusion.

  13. The chloroplast RNA helicase ISE2 is required for multiple chloroplast RNA processing steps in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bobik, Krzysztof; McCray, Tyra N; Ernest, Ben; Fernandez, Jessica C; Howell, Katharine A; Lane, Thomas; Staton, Margaret; Burch-Smith, Tessa M

    2017-03-27

    INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2 (ISE2) is a chloroplast-localized RNA helicase that is indispensable for proper plant development. Chloroplasts in leaves with reduced ISE2 expression have previously been shown to exhibit reduced thylakoid contents and increased stromal volume, indicative of defective development. It has recently been reported that ISE2 is required for the splicing of group II introns from chloroplast transcripts. The current study extends these findings, and presents evidence for ISE2's role in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA processing beyond group II intron splicing. Loss of ISE2 from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves resulted in defects in C-to-U RNA editing, altered accumulation of chloroplast transcripts and chloroplast-encoded proteins, and defective processing of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs. Potential ISE2 substrates were identified by RNA immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing (RIP-seq), and the diversity of RNA species identified supports ISE2's involvement in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA metabolism. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses revealed that ISE2 is a non-canonical Ski2-like RNA helicase that represents a separate sub-clade unique to green photosynthetic organisms, consistent with its function as an essential protein. Thus ISE2's evolutionary conservation may be explained by its numerous roles in regulating chloroplast gene expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Angle interferometer cross axis errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, J. B.; Carter, D. L.; Thompson, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Angle interferometers are commonly used to measure surface plate flatness. An error can exist when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the surface plate and the guide bar for the mirror sled is curved. Typical errors can be one to two microns per meter. A similar error can exist in the calibration of rotary tables when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the axes of rotation of the angle calibrator and the calibrator axis is not parallel to the rotary table axis. Commercial double comer cube assemblies typically have non-parallelism errors of ten milli-radians between their centerlines and their sides and similar values for non-squareness between their centerlines and end surfaces. The authors have developed a simple method for measuring these errors and correcting them.

  15. Angle interferometer cross axis errors

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.B.; Carter, D.L.; Thompson, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    Angle interferometers are commonly used to measure surface plate flatness. An error can exist when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the surface plate and the guide bar for the mirror sled is curved. Typical errors can be one to two microns per meter. A similar error can exist in the calibration of rotary tables when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the axes of rotation of the angle calibrator and the calibrator axis is not parallel to the rotary table axis. Commercial double comer cube assemblies typically have non-parallelism errors of ten milli-radians between their centerlines and their sides and similar values for non-squareness between their centerlines and end surfaces. The authors have developed a simple method for measuring these errors and correcting them by remachining the reference surfaces.

  16. The aging reproductive neuroendocrine axis.

    PubMed

    Brann, Darrell W; Mahesh, Virendra B

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the reproductive system is one of the first biological systems to show age-related decline. While depletion of ovarian follicles clearly relates to the end of reproductive function in females, evidence is accumulating that a hypothalamic defect is critical in the transition from cyclicity to acyclicity. This minireview attempts to present a concise review on aging of the female reproductive neuroendocrine axis and provide thought-provoking analysis and insights into potential future directions for this field. Evidence will be reviewed, which shows that a defect in pulsatile and surge gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion exists in normal cycling middle-aged female rats, which is thought to explain the significantly attenuated pulsatile and surge luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion at middle-age. Evidence is also presented, which supports the age-related defect in GnRH secretion as being due to a reduced activation of GnRH neurons. Along these lines, stimulation of GnRH secretion by the major excitatory transmitter glutamate is shown to be significantly attenuated in middle-aged proestrous rats. Corresponding age-related defects in other major excitatory regulatory factors, such as catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, and astrocytes, have also been demonstrated. Age-related changes in hypothalamic concentrations of neurotransmitter receptors, steroid receptors, and circulating steroid hormone levels are also reviewed, and discussion is presented on the complex interrelationships of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis during aging, with attention to how a defect in one level of the axis can induce defects in other levels, and thereby potentiate the dysfunction of the entire HPO axis.

  17. Large-scale Ising spin network based on degenerate optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Takahiro; Inaba, Kensuke; Hamerly, Ryan; Inoue, Kyo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Takesue, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    Solving combinatorial optimization problems is becoming increasingly important in modern society, where the analysis and optimization of unprecedentedly complex systems are required. Many such problems can be mapped onto the ground-state-search problem of the Ising Hamiltonian, and simulating the Ising spins with physical systems is now emerging as a promising approach for tackling such problems. Here, we report a large-scale network of artificial spins based on degenerate optical parametric oscillators (DOPOs), paving the way towards a photonic Ising machine capable of solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. We generate >10,000 time-division-multiplexed DOPOs using dual-pump four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fibre placed in a cavity. Using those DOPOs, a one-dimensional Ising model is simulated by introducing nearest-neighbour optical coupling. We observe the formation of spin domains and find that the domain size diverges near the DOPO threshold, which suggests that the DOPO network can simulate the behaviour of low-temperature Ising spins.

  18. Inferring structural connectivity using Ising couplings in models of neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Kadirvelu, Balasundaram; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2017-08-15

    Functional connectivity metrics have been widely used to infer the underlying structural connectivity in neuronal networks. Maximum entropy based Ising models have been suggested to discount the effect of indirect interactions and give good results in inferring the true anatomical connections. However, no benchmarking is currently available to assess the performance of Ising couplings against other functional connectivity metrics in the microscopic scale of neuronal networks through a wide set of network conditions and network structures. In this paper, we study the performance of the Ising model couplings to infer the synaptic connectivity in in silico networks of neurons and compare its performance against partial and cross-correlations for different correlation levels, firing rates, network sizes, network densities, and topologies. Our results show that the relative performance amongst the three functional connectivity metrics depends primarily on the network correlation levels. Ising couplings detected the most structural links at very weak network correlation levels, and partial correlations outperformed Ising couplings and cross-correlations at strong correlation levels. The result was consistent across varying firing rates, network sizes, and topologies. The findings of this paper serve as a guide in choosing the right functional connectivity tool to reconstruct the structural connectivity.

  19. ±J Ising model on homogeneous Archimedean lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, J. F.; Lebrecht, W.; Vogel, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    We tackle the problem of finding analytical expressions describing the ground state properties of homogeneous Archimedean lattices over which a generalized Edwards-Anderson model (±J Ising model) is defined. A local frustration analysis is performed based on representative cells for square lattices, triangular lattices and honeycomb lattices. The concentration of ferromagnetic (F) bonds x is used as the independent variable in the analysis (1-x is the concentration for antiferromagnetic (A) bonds), where x spans the range [0.0,1.0]. The presence of A bonds brings frustration, whose clear manifestation is when bonds around the minimum possible circuit of bonds (plaquette) cannot be simultaneously satisfied. The distribution of curved (frustrated) plaquettes within the representative cell is determinant for the evaluation of the parameters of interest such as average frustration segment, energy per bond, and fractional content of unfrustrated bonds. Two methods are developed to cope with this analysis: one based on the direct probability of a plaquette being curved; the other one is based on the consideration of the different ways bonds contribute to the particular plaquette configuration. Exact numerical simulations on a large number of randomly generated samples allow to validate previously described theoretical analysis. It is found that the second method presents slight advantages over the first one. However, both methods give an excellent description for most of the range for x. The small deviations at specific intervals of x for each lattice have to do with the self-imposed limitations of both methods due to practical reasons. A particular discussion for the point x=0.5 for each one of the lattices also shines light on the general trends of the properties described here.

  20. Bimodal and Gaussian Ising spin glasses in dimension two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2016-02-01

    An analysis is given of numerical simulation data to size L =128 on the archetype square lattice Ising spin glasses (ISGs) with bimodal (±J ) and Gaussian interaction distributions. It is well established that the ordering temperature of both models is zero. The Gaussian model has a nondegenerate ground state and thus a critical exponent η ≡0 , and a continuous distribution of energy levels. For the bimodal model, above a size-dependent crossover temperature T*(L ) there is a regime of effectively continuous energy levels; below T*(L ) there is a distinct regime dominated by the highly degenerate ground state plus an energy gap to the excited states. T*(L ) tends to zero at very large L , leaving only the effectively continuous regime in the thermodynamic limit. The simulation data on both models are analyzed with the conventional scaling variable t =T and with a scaling variable τb=T2/(1 +T2) suitable for zero-temperature transition ISGs, together with appropriate scaling expressions. The data for the temperature dependence of the reduced susceptibility χ (τb,L ) and second moment correlation length ξ (τb,L ) in the thermodynamic limit regime are extrapolated to the τb=0 critical limit. The Gaussian critical exponent estimates from the simulations, η =0 and ν =3.55 (5 ) , are in full agreement with the well-established values in the literature. The bimodal critical exponents, estimated from the thermodynamic limit regime analyses using the same extrapolation protocols as for the Gaussian model, are η =0.20 (2 ) and ν =4.8 (3 ) , distinctly different from the Gaussian critical exponents.

  1. Ising model in clustered scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Carlos P

    2015-05-01

    The Ising model in clustered scale-free networks has been studied by Monte Carlo simulations. These networks are characterized by a degree distribution of the form P(k)∼k(-γ) for large k. Clustering is introduced in the networks by inserting triangles, i.e., triads of connected nodes. The transition from a ferromagnetic (FM) to a paramagnetic (PM) phase has been studied as a function of the exponent γ and the triangle density. For γ>3 our results are in line with earlier simulations, and a phase transition appears at a temperature T(c)(γ) in the thermodynamic limit (system size N→∞). For γ≤3, a FM-PM crossover appears at a size-dependent temperature T(co), so the system remains in a FM state at any finite temperature in the limit N→∞. Thus, for γ=3, T(co) scales as lnN, whereas for γ<3, we find T(co)∼JN(z), where the exponent z decreases for increasing γ. Adding motifs (triangles in our case) to the networks causes an increase in the transition (or crossover) temperature for exponent γ>3 (or ≤3). For γ>3, this increase is due to changes in the mean values 〈k〉 and 〈k(2)〉, i.e., the transition is controlled by the degree distribution (nearest-neighbor connectivities). For γ≤3, however, we find that clustered and unclustered networks with the same size and distribution P(k) have different crossover temperature, i.e., clustering favors FM correlations, thus increasing the temperature T(co). The effect of a degree cutoff k(cut) on the asymptotic behavior of T(co) is discussed.

  2. Monte Carlo Studies of the Fcc Ising Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polgreen, Thomas Lee

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed on the antiferromagnetic fcc Ising model which is relevant to the binary alloy CuAu. The model exhibits a first-order ordering transition as a function of temperature. The lattice free energy of the model is determined for all temperatures. By matching free energies of the ordered and disordered phases, the transition temperature is determined to be T(,t) = 1.736 J where J is the coupling constant of the model. The free energy as determined by series expansion and the Kikuchi cluster variation method is compared with the Monte Carlo results. These methods work well for the ordered phase, but not for the disordered phase. A determination of the pair correlation in the disordered phase along the {100} direction indicates a correlation length of (DBLTURN) 2.5a at the phase transition. The correlation length exhibits mean-field-like temperature dependence. The Cowley-Warren short range order parameters are determined as a function of temperature for the first twelve nearest-neighbor shells of this model. The Monte Carlo results are used to determine the free parameter in a mean-field-like class of theories described by Clapp and Moss. The ability of these theories to predict ratios between pair potentials is tested with these results. In addition, evidence of a region of heterophase fluctuations is presented in agreement with x-ray diffuse scattering measurements on Cu(,3)Au. The growth of order following a rapid quench from disorder is studied by means of a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. The results compare favorably with the Landau theory proposed by Chan for temperatures near the first-order phase transition. For lower temperatures, the results are in agreement with the theories of Lifshitz and Allen and Chan. In the intermediate temperature range, our extension of Chan's theory is able to explain our simulation results and recent experimental results.

  3. Novel phase behaviour of a confined fluid or Ising magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, A. O.; Evans, R.

    1992-02-01

    The phase behaviour of a simple fluid or Ising magnet (at temperatures above its roughening transition) confined between parallel walls that exert opposing surface fields h2 = - h1 is found to be markedly different from that which arises for h2 = h1. Whereas critical wetting plays little role for confinement by identical walls, it is of crucial importance for opposing surface fields. Analysis of a Landau functional and other mean-field treatments show that if h1 is such that critical wetting occurs at a single wall ( L = ∞) at a transition temperature Tw, then phase coexistence, for finite wall separation L, is restricted to temperatures T < Tc, L, where the critical temperature Tc, L lies below Tw. In the temperature range Tc, b > T > Tw there is a single soft mode phase that is characterized, for zero bulk field and large L, by a +- interface located at the centre of the slit, a transverse correlation length ξ∼≈ eL and a solvation force that is repulsive. For large h1, Tw can lie arbitrarily far below the bulk critical temperature Tc, b. Scaling arguments, whose validity we have confirmed in two dimensions by comparison with exact solutions for interfacial Hamiltonians, predict that such behaviour persists beyond mean-field for systems with short-ranged forces. They also predict similar phase behaviour for long-ranged forces, but with ξ ξ ∼ increasing algebraically with L in the soft mode phase. The solvation force t˜f s changes from repulsive to attractive (at large L) as the temperature is reduced below Tw, i.e. the sign of t˜f s reflects wetting characteristics.

  4. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  5. Learning through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia R.; Klein, Adria F.; Pinnell, Gay Su

    1996-01-01

    Through teacher-child conversation, experts use oral language to help novices take on more complex tasks; and Reading Recovery children, who are obviously having difficulty with school-based learning, are especially in need of significant conversations with adults. Reading and writing processes are supported through conversation with Reading…

  6. Magnetic structure and dispersion relation of the S =1/2 quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8 in a transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, M.; Onishi, H.; Okutani, A.; Ma, J.; Agrawal, H.; Hong, T.; Pajerowski, D. M.; Copley, J. R. D.; Okunishi, K.; Mori, M.; Kimura, S.; Hagiwara, M.

    2017-07-01

    BaCo2V2O8 consists of Co chains in which a Co2 + ion carries a fictitious spin 1/2 with Ising anisotropy. We performed elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments in BaCo2V2O8 in a magnetic field perpendicular to the c axis which is the chain direction. With applying magnetic field along the a axis at 3.5 K, the antiferromagnetic order with the easy axis along the c axis, observed in zero magnetic field, is completely suppressed at 8 T, while the magnetic field gradually induces an antiferromagnetic order with the spin component along the b axis. We also studied magnetic excitations as a function of transverse magnetic field. The lower boundary of the spinon excitations splits gradually with increasing magnetic field. The overall feature of the magnetic excitation spectra in the magnetic field is reproduced by the theoretical calculation based on the spin 1/2 X X Z antiferromagnetic chain model, which predicts that the dynamic magnetic structure factor of the spin component along the chain direction is enhanced and that along the field direction has clear incommensurate correlations.

  7. Magnetic structure and dispersion relation of the S=12 quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8 in a transverse magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Matsuda, M.; Onishi, H.; Okutani, A.; ...

    2017-07-25

    Here, BaCo2V2O8 consists of Co chains in which a Co2+ ion carries a fictitious spin 1/2 with Ising anisotropy. We performed elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments in BaCo2V2O8 in a magnetic field perpendicular to the c axis which is the chain direction. With applying magnetic field along the a axis at 3.5 K, the antiferromagnetic order with the easy axis along the c axis, observed in zero magnetic field, is completely suppressed at 8 T, while the magnetic field gradually induces an antiferromagnetic order with the spin component along the b axis. We also studied magnetic excitations as amore » function of transverse magnetic field. The lower boundary of the spinon excitations splits gradually with increasing magnetic field. The overall feature of the magnetic excitation spectra in the magnetic field is reproduced by the theoretical calculation based on the spin 1/2 XXZ antiferromagnetic chain model, which predicts that the dynamic magnetic structure factor of the spin component along the chain direction is enhanced and that along the field direction has clear incommensurate correlations.« less

  8. Io's Volcanoes: Possible Influence on Spin Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, P. R.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2002-03-01

    Massive outpourings of lava in short intervals could cause an instability in Io's rotation and a reorientation of its spin axis. The volcanos and mountains exhibit a complementary distribution, with the maximum principal inertia axis for volcanos close to the position of the rotation axis.

  9. The Radical Axis: A Motion Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Ray; McKim, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Interesting problems sometimes have surprising sources. In this paper we take an innocent looking problem from a calculus book and rediscover the radical axis of classical geometry. For intersecting circles the radical axis is the line through the two points of intersection. For nonintersecting, nonconcentric circles, the radical axis still…

  10. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-12-23

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  11. NGL data conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Nobuyasu

    2005-06-01

    We are developing a NGL data conversion system for EPL, for LEEPL, and for EBDW, which is based on our established photomask data conversion system, PATACON PC-cluster. For EPL data conversion, it has SF division, Complementary division, Stitching, Proximity effect correction, Alignment mark insertion, EB stepper control data creation, and Mask inspection data creation. For LEEPL data conversion, it has Pattern checking, Complementary division, Stitching, Stress distortion correction, Alignment mark insertion, and Mask inspection data creation. For EB direct-writing data conversion, it has Proximity effect correction and Extraction of aperture pattern for cell projection exposure.

  12. Quadruple Axis Neutron Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard; Bausenwein, Dominik

    Neutron computed tomography takes more time for a full tomography than X-rays or Synchrotron radiation, because the source intensity is limited. Most neutron imaging detectors have a square field of view, so if tomography of elongated, narrow samples, e.g. fuel rods, sword blades is recorded, much of the detector area is wasted. Using multiple rotation axes, several samples can be placed inside the field of view, and multiple tomographies can be recorded at the same time by later splitting the recorded images into separate tomography data sets. We describe a new multiple-axis setup using four independent miniaturized rotation tables.

  13. Triple axis and spins spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    In the paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, the work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  14. Fate of the one-dimensional Ising quantum critical point coupled to a gapless boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberton, Ori; Ruhman, Jonathan; Berg, Erez; Altman, Ehud

    2017-02-01

    The problem of a quantum Ising degree of freedom coupled to a gapless bosonic mode appears naturally in many one-dimensional systems, yet surprisingly little is known how such a coupling affects the Ising quantum critical point. We investigate the fate of the critical point in a regime, where the weak coupling renormalization group (RG) indicates a flow toward strong coupling. Using a renormalization group analysis and numerical density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations we show that, depending on the ratio of velocities of the gapless bosonic mode and the Ising critical fluctuations, the transition may remain continuous or become fluctuation-driven first order. The two regimes are separated by a tricritical point of a novel type.

  15. Volatility behavior of visibility graph EMD financial time series from Ising interacting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-08-01

    A financial market dynamics model is developed and investigated by stochastic Ising system, where the Ising model is the most popular ferromagnetic model in statistical physics systems. Applying two graph based analysis and multiscale entropy method, we investigate and compare the statistical volatility behavior of return time series and the corresponding IMF series derived from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. And the real stock market indices are considered to be comparatively studied with the simulation data of the proposed model. Further, we find that the degree distribution of visibility graph for the simulation series has the power law tails, and the assortative network exhibits the mixing pattern property. All these features are in agreement with the real market data, the research confirms that the financial model established by the Ising system is reasonable.

  16. Entropy of diluted antiferromagnetic Ising models on frustrated lattices using the Wang-Landau method.

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Yuriy; Nefedev, Konstantin; Okabe, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    We use a Monte Carlo simulation to study the diluted antiferromagnetic Ising model on frustrated lattices including the pyrochlore lattice to show the dilution effects. Using the Wang-Landau algorithm, which directly calculates the energy density of states, we accurately calculate the entropy of the system. We discuss the nonmonotonic dilution concentration dependence of residual entropy for the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the pyrochlore lattice, and compare it to the generalized Pauling approximation proposed by Ke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 137203 (2007)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.99.137203]. We also investigate other frustrated systems, the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice and the kagome lattice, demonstrating the difference in the dilution effects between the system on the pyrochlore lattice and that on other frustrated lattices.

  17. Truncated Wigner theory of coherent Ising machines based on degenerate optical parametric oscillator network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruo, Daiki; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-08-01

    We present the quantum theory of coherent Ising machines based on networks of degenerate optical parametric oscillators (DOPOs). In a simple model consisting of two coupled DOPOs, both positive-P representation and truncated Wigner representation predict quantum correlation and inseparability between the two DOPOs in spite of the open-dissipative nature of the system. Here, we apply the truncated Wigner representation method to coherent Ising machines with thermal, vacuum, and squeezed reservoir fields. We find that the probability of finding the ground state of a one-dimensional Ising model increases substantially as a result of reducing excess thermal noise and squeezing the incident vacuum fluctuation on the out-coupling port.

  18. Two-dimensional Ising model with competing interactions: Phase diagram and low-temperature remanent disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, A.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Kugel, K. I.

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional Ising model with competing nearest-neighbor and diagonal interactions on the square lattice is studied by the transfer-matrix technique and by the Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram of this model is constructed with a special emphasis to the analysis of a glassy state arising as an order to disorder transition at low temperatures. Evidence of the glassy state (based, in particular, on the calculation of the average length of domain walls and on the Edwards-Anderson order parameter) and its characteristics are presented. It was shown that, in the frustrated Ising model, the domain-wall length correlates to the onset of the glassy state, that is, it may play the role of the order parameter for the Ising glass or for glasslike states in other frustrated magnetic systems.

  19. ISEE particle observations of surface waves at the magnetopause boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, D.; Parks, G. K.; Anderson, K. A.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.

    1985-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft ISEE mission provides a unique opportunity to study the motions of the magnetopause and adjacent boundary layer. By comparing high-time-resolution energetic particle data from ISEE 1 to those of ISEE 2, the velocity and orientation of the inner boundary of the boundary layer can be determined. Two cases are presented. In one, tailward propagating sinusoidally shaped surface waves with a wavelength in excess of 42,000 km and an amplitude of approximately 5000 km are found. In the other, surface waves are indicated with a wavelength of approximately 40,000 km and an amplitude of approximately 11,000 km having steepened nonsinusoidal shapes. The existence of such large-amplitude waves suggests that the particle dynamics near the magnetopause support nonlinear processes.

  20. Initial survey of the wave distribution functions for plasmaspheric hiss observed by ISEE 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, L. R. O.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.; Cairo, L.; Anderson, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    The generation mechanism of hiss observed by ISEE 1 satellite in the earth magnetosphere is investigated by analyzing the ELF/VLF wave data obtained from four passes of ISEE 1, all of which occurring during magnetically quiet periods. The results of these measurements, together with those published earlier, indicate that the generation mechanisms proposed by Kennel alnd Petschek (1966), by Thorne et al. (1979), and by Solomon et al. (1988, 1989) are all physically possible and can come into action whenever the necessary conditions exist. However, plasmaspheric hiss was observed by ISEE even when the conditions for any of these mechanisms existed; under these conditions, hiss appears to be generated near the equatorial plane over a wide range of L values, with the wave normals at large angles to the field. The generation mechanism that applies in such cases is still unknown.

  1. Fluctuation behaviors of financial time series by a stochastic Ising system on a Sierpinski carpet lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wen; Wang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    We develop a financial market model using an Ising spin system on a Sierpinski carpet lattice that breaks the equal status of each spin. To study the fluctuation behavior of the financial model, we present numerical research based on Monte Carlo simulation in conjunction with the statistical analysis and multifractal analysis of the financial time series. We extract the multifractal spectra by selecting various lattice size values of the Sierpinski carpet, and the inverse temperature of the Ising dynamic system. We also investigate the statistical fluctuation behavior, the time-varying volatility clustering, and the multifractality of returns for the indices SSE, SZSE, DJIA, IXIC, S&P500, HSI, N225, and for the simulation data derived from the Ising model on the Sierpinski carpet lattice. A numerical study of the model’s dynamical properties reveals that this financial model reproduces important features of the empirical data.

  2. SKRYN: A fast semismooth-Krylov-Newton method for controlling Ising spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaramella, G.; Borzì, A.

    2015-05-01

    The modeling and control of Ising spin systems is of fundamental importance in NMR spectroscopy applications. In this paper, two computer packages, ReHaG and SKRYN, are presented. Their purpose is to set-up and solve quantum optimal control problems governed by the Liouville master equation modeling Ising spin-1/2 systems with pointwise control constraints. In particular, the MATLAB package ReHaG allows to compute a real matrix representation of the master equation. The MATLAB package SKRYN implements a new strategy resulting in a globalized semismooth matrix-free Krylov-Newton scheme. To discretize the real representation of the Liouville master equation, a norm-preserving modified Crank-Nicolson scheme is used. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that the SKRYN code is able to provide fast and accurate solutions to the Ising spin quantum optimization problem.

  3. Parallelism on the Intel 860 Hypercube:. Ising Magnets, Hydrodynamical Cellular Automata and Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohring, G. A.; Stauffer, D.

    Geometric parallelization was tested on the Intel Hypercube with 32 MIMD processors of 1860 type, each with 16 Mbytes of distributed memory. We applied it to Ising models in two and three dimensions as well as to neural networks and two-dimensional hydrodynamic cellular automata. For system sizes suited to this machine, up to 60960*60960 and 1410*1410*1408 Ising spins, we found nearly hundred percent parallel efficiency in spite of the needed inter-processor communications. For small systems, the observed deviations from full efficiency were compared with the scaling concepts of Heermann and Burkitt and of Jakobs and Gerling. For Ising models, we determined the Glauber kinetic exponent z≃2.18 in two dimensions and confirmed the stretched exponential relaxation of the magnetization towards the spontaneous magnetization below Tc. For three dimensions we found z≃2.09 and simple exponential relaxation.

  4. Long-range transverse Ising model built with dipolar condensates in two-well arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyao; Pang, Wei; Xu, Jun; Lee, Chaohong; Malomed, Boris A.; Santos, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in an array of double-well potentials realize an effective transverse Ising model with peculiar inter-layer interactions, that may result under proper conditions in an anomalous first-order ferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic phase transition, and non-trivial phases due to frustration. The considered setup allows as well for the study of Kibble–Zurek defect formation, whose kink statistics follows that expected from the universality class of the mean-field one-dimensional transverse Ising model. Furthermore, random occupation of each layer of the stack leads to random effective Ising interactions and local transverse fields, that may lead to the Anderson-like localization of imbalance perturbations.

  5. GPU-based single-cluster algorithm for the simulation of the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    We present the GPU calculation with the common unified device architecture (CUDA) for the Wolff single-cluster algorithm of the Ising model. Proposing an algorithm for a quasi-block synchronization, we realize the Wolff single-cluster Monte Carlo simulation with CUDA. We perform parallel computations for the newly added spins in the growing cluster. As a result, the GPU calculation speed for the two-dimensional Ising model at the critical temperature with the linear size L = 4096 is 5.60 times as fast as the calculation speed on a current CPU core. For the three-dimensional Ising model with the linear size L = 256, the GPU calculation speed is 7.90 times as fast as the CPU calculation speed. The idea of quasi-block synchronization can be used not only in the cluster algorithm but also in many fields where the synchronization of all threads is required.

  6. Statistical Properties and Multifractal Behaviors of Market Returns by Ising Dynamic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wen; Wang, Jun

    An interacting-agent model of speculative activity explaining price formation in financial markets is considered in the present paper, which based on the stochastic Ising model and the mean field theory. The model describes the interaction strength among the agents as well as an external field, and the corresponding random logarithmic price return process is investigated. According to the empirical research of the model, the time series formed by this Ising model exhibits the bursting typical of volatility clustering, the fat-tail phenomenon, the power-law distribution tails and the long-time memory. The statistical properties of the returns of Hushen 300 Index, Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) Composite Index and Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) Component Index are also studied for comparison between the real time series and the simulated ones. Further, the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is applied to investigate the time series returns simulated by Ising model have the distribution multifractality as well as the correlation multifractality.

  7. Ising model on Cayley trees: a new class of Gibbs measures and their comparison with known ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatullaev, M. M.; Rozikov, U. A.

    2017-09-01

    For the Ising model on Cayley trees we give a very wide class of new Gibbs measures. We show that these new measures are extreme under some conditions on the temperature. We give a review of all known Gibbs measures of the Ising model on trees and compare them with our new measures.

  8. Stress and the HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Mary Ann C.; Wand, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Stress has long been suggested to be an important correlate of uncontrolled drinking and relapse. An important hormonal response system to stress—the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis—may be involved in this process, particularly stress hormones known as glucocorticoids and primarily cortisol. The actions of this hormone system normally are tightly regulated to ensure that the body can respond quickly to stressful events and return to a normal state just as rapidly. The main determinants of HPA axis activity are genetic background, early-life environment, and current life stress. Alterations in HPA axis regulation are associated with problematic alcohol use and dependence; however, the nature of this dysregulation appears to vary with respect to stage of alcohol dependence. Much of this research has focused specifically on the role of cortisol in the risk for, development of, and relapse to chronic alcohol use. These studies found that cortisol can interact with the brain’s reward system, which may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects. Cortisol also can influence a person’s cognitive processes, promoting habit-based learning, which may contribute to habit formation and risk of relapse. Finally, cortisol levels during abstinence may be useful clinical indicators of relapse vulnerability in alcohol-dependent people. PMID:23584113

  9. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  10. Gut microbiota-bone axis.

    PubMed

    Villa, Christopher R; Ward, Wendy E; Comelli, Elena M

    2017-05-24

    The gut microbiota (GM) is an important regulator of body homeostasis, including intestinal and extra-intestinal effects. This review focuses on the GM-bone axis, which we define as the effect of the gut-associated microbial community or the molecules they synthesize, on bone health. While research in this field is limited, findings from preclinical studies support that gut microbes positively impact bone mineral density and strength parameters. Moreover, administration of beneficial bacteria (probiotics) in preclinical models has demonstrated higher bone mineralization and greater bone strength. The preferential bacterial genus that has shown these beneficial effects in bone is Lactobacillus and thus lactobacilli are among the best candidates for future clinical intervention trials. However, their effectiveness is dependent on stage of development, as early life constitutes an important time for impacting bone health, perhaps via modulation of the GM. In addition, sex-specific difference also impacts the efficacy of the probiotics. Although auspicious, many questions regarding the GM-bone axis require consideration of potential mechanisms; sex-specific efficacy; effective dose of probiotics; and timing and duration of treatment.

  11. Consistency check method for sighting axis and laser detection axis based on field testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Zhao, Linfeng; Liu, Yanfang; Yin, Ruiguang

    2016-09-01

    Optical axis consistency is an important index of multi-axes equipment. Most test methods of optical axis consistency are aimed at the consistency of multi sighting axes, or consistency between sighting axis and laser emission axis. It is difficult for consistency test between sighting axis and laser detection axis. A new method based on field testing was put forward to solve the difficulty of consistency check between sighting axis and laser detection axis. At first, sighting axis was set down as base, and high precision numerical turntable was used to adjust laser detection heading, and then the total field of view of laser detection channel was measured. The laser detection axis was gotten subsequently. Finally, the consistency error of sighting axis and laser detection axis was worked out, by comparing sighting axis's angular position with the angular position of laser detection axis. There are many merits of the method, such as high precision, wide applicability, and easy to operate, etc. Meanwhile, the field of view of laser detection channel was checked out. This paper showed that the method we put forward can meet the demand of consistency check between sighting axis and laser detection axis well.

  12. ISEE 3 magnetopause crossings - Evidence for the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in driving magnetopause motion is investigated on the basis of correlated ISEE-3 magnetometer measurements and IMP-8 solar-wind/magnetosheath velocities. The data are presented in graphs and briefly characterized, comparing the daily frequency of magnetopause crossings by ISEE-3 with the velocities. It is found that the instability criterion for longitudinal waves is only rarely satisfied in these measurements, while that for waves with an azimuthal component is satisfied in over 50 percent of the cases. It is inferred that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is probably the cause of motions with magnetotail-boundary interarrival times of 20 min or less.

  13. Ground-state candidate for the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Canals, B.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet using Monte Carlo simulations, in the quest for the ground-state manifold. In spite of the limitations of a single-spin-flip approach, we managed to identify certain ordering patterns in the low-temperature regime and we propose a candidate for this unknown state. This configuration presents some intriguing features and is fully compatible with the extrapolations of the at-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior sampled so far, making it a very likely choice for the dipolar long-range ordered state of the classical kagome Ising antiferromagnet.

  14. The 1D Ising model and the topological phase of the Kitaev chain

    SciTech Connect

    Greiter, Martin Schnells, Vera Thomale, Ronny

    2014-12-15

    It has been noted that the Kitaev chain, a p-wave superconductor with nearest-neighbor pairing amplitude equal to the hopping term Δ=t, and chemical potential μ=0, can be mapped into a nearest neighbor Ising model via a Jordan–Wigner transformation. Starting from the explicit eigenstates of the open Kitaev chain in terms of the original fermion operators, we elaborate that despite this formal equivalence the models are physically inequivalent, and show how the topological phase in the Kitaev chain maps into conventional order in the Ising model.

  15. Cluster algorithms for frustrated two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnets via dual worm constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakala, Geet; Damle, Kedar

    2017-08-01

    We report on the development of two dual worm constructions that lead to cluster algorithms for efficient and ergodic Monte Carlo simulations of frustrated Ising models with arbitrary two-spin interactions that extend up to third-neighbors on the triangular lattice. One of these algorithms generalizes readily to other frustrated systems, such as Ising antiferromagnets on the Kagome lattice with further neighbor couplings. We characterize the performance of both these algorithms in a challenging regime with power-law correlations at finite wave vector.

  16. The hysteresis behavior of an Ising nanowire with core/shell morphology: Monte Carlo treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughazi, B.; Boughrara, M.; Kerouad, M.

    2014-08-01

    We have used Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS) to study the hysteresis behavior of the magnetic nanowire with core/shell morphology described by the spin {1}/{2} Ising particles in the core and the spin {3}/{2} Ising particles in the surface shell. The hysteresis curves are obtained for different temperatures. We find that the hysteresis loop areas decrease when the temperature increases and the hysteresis loops disappear at certain temperatures. Barkhausen jumps are observed for the ferromagnetic nanowire system. An unusual form of triple hysteresis behaviors is observed for the ferrimagnetic nanowire system. The thermal behaviors of the coercivity and the remanent magnetization are also investigated.

  17. Phase diagram of the transverse Ising model in a random field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, F. S.; Hauser, P. R.; Figueiredo, W.

    1991-06-01

    We determine the phase diagram of the transverse Ising model with a trimodal distribution (sum of three δ functions) for a longitudinal random field at T=0, using a mean-field approximation. The phase diagram includes tricritical points, ordered critical points, a fourth-order point, critical end points, and a double critical end point. Our T=0 phase diagram is completely equivalent to the one obtained by Kaufman, Klunzinger, and Khurana for the random-field Ising model. We show that the temperature and the magnitude of the transverse field play a similar role.

  18. Gauge model with Ising vacancies: Multicritical behavior of self-avoiding surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritan, A.; Seno, F.; Stella, A. L.

    1991-08-01

    A openZ2 gauge model with n-component-vector degrees of freedom on a dodecahedral lattice is coupled to an Ising system on the dual lattice. The statistics of interacting self-avoiding surfaces (SAS) is obtained in the n-->0 limit. At the percolative critical point an exact identification of the SAS critical behavior with that of Ising cluster hulls holds. This condition corresponds to a multicritical point for SAS, in universality class different from that of branched polymers. The model allows application of standard statistical methods to SAS. A mean-field calculation gives a phase diagram remarkably consistent with the above results.

  19. Star-triangle approach to boundary behavior in the two-dimensional Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Theodore W.; Guim, Ihnsouk

    Hilhorst and van Leeuwen showed how to calculate boundary properties of the Ising model on the triangular lattice by iterating a mapping based on the star-triangle transformation. We apply this approach to the Ising model with homogeneous initial couplings in both the semi-infinite and strip geometries. Several exact results for the boundary correlation length and the magnetization are reproduced. The correlation-dimensionality transition for enhanced edge couplings (dual of Abraham’s interface-unbinding transition) is also considered.

  20. The ISEE-3 ULEWAT: Flux tape description and heavy ion fluxes 1978-1984. [plasma diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Klecker, B.

    1985-01-01

    The ISEE ULEWAT FLUX tapes contain ULEWAT and ISEE pool tape data summarized over relatively long time intervals (1hr) in order to compact the data set into an easily usable size. (Roughly 3 years of data fit onto one 1600 BPI 9-track magnetic tape). In making the tapes, corrections were made to the ULEWAT basic data tapes in order to, remove rate spikes and account for changes in instrument response so that to a large extent instrument fluxes can be calculated easily from the FLUX tapes without further consideration of instrument performance.

  1. Cyclic period-3 window in antiferromagnetic potts and Ising models on recursive lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananikian, N. S.; Ananikyan, L. N.; Chakhmakhchyan, L. A.

    2011-09-01

    The magnetic properties of the antiferromagnetic Potts model with two-site interaction and the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on recursive lattices have been studied. A cyclic period-3 window has been revealed by the recurrence relation method in the antiferromagnetic Q-state Potts model on the Bethe lattice (at Q < 2) and in the antiferromagnetic Ising model with three-site interaction on the Husimi cactus. The Lyapunov exponents have been calculated, modulated phases and a chaotic regime in the cyclic period-3 window have been found for one-dimensional rational mappings determined the properties of these systems.

  2. Universality class of the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model.

    PubMed

    Martins, P H L; Plascak, J A

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we evaluate the probability distribution function of the order parameter for the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for different spin concentrations p (0.70Ising model seems to be independent of the amount of dilution. Logarithmic corrections of the finite-size critical temperature behavior of the model can also be inferred even for such small lattices.

  3. A new look on the two-dimensional Ising model: thermal artificial spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnalds, Unnar B.; Chico, Jonathan; Stopfel, Henry; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Bärenbold, Oliver; Verschuuren, Marc A.; Wolff, Ulrike; Neu, Volker; Bergman, Anders; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin

    2016-02-01

    We present a direct experimental investigation of the thermal ordering in an artificial analogue of an asymmetric two-dimensional Ising system composed of a rectangular array of nano-fabricated magnetostatically interacting islands. During fabrication and below a critical thickness of the magnetic material the islands are thermally fluctuating and thus the system is able to explore its phase space. Above the critical thickness the islands freeze-in resulting in an arrested thermalized state for the array. Determining the magnetic state we demonstrate a genuine artificial two-dimensional Ising system which can be analyzed in the context of nearest neighbor interactions.

  4. Mixed spin-5/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on the Bethe lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic properties of spins-S and σ Ising model on the Bethe lattice have been investigated by using the Monte Carlo simulation. The thermal total magnetization and magnetization of spins S and σ with the different exchange interactions, different external magnetic field and different temperatures have been studied. The critical temperature and compensation temperature have been deduced. The magnetic hysteresis cycle of Ising ferrimagnetic system on the Bethe lattice has been deduced for different values of exchange interactions between the spins S and σ, for different values of crystal field and for different sizes. The magnetic coercive filed has been deduced.

  5. Monte Carlo Simulations of Compressible Ising Models: Do We Understand Them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, D. P.; Dünweg, B.; Laradji, M.; Tavazza, F.; Adler, J.; Cannavaccioulo, L.; Zhu, X.

    Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have begun to shed light on our understanding of phase transitions and universality classes for compressible Ising models. A comprehensive analysis of a Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson hamiltonian for systems with elastic degrees of freedom resulted in the prediction that there should be four distinct cases that would have different behavior, depending upon symmetries and thermodynamic constraints. We shall provide an account of the results of careful Monte Carlo simulations for a simple compressible Ising model that can be suitably modified so as to replicate all four cases.

  6. Ising-model description of long-range correlations in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Colliva, A; Pellegrini, R; Testori, A; Caselle, M

    2015-05-01

    We model long-range correlations of nucleotides in the human DNA sequence using the long-range one-dimensional (1D) Ising model. We show that, for distances between 10(3) and 10(6) bp, the correlations show a universal behavior and may be described by the non-mean-field limit of the long-range 1D Ising model. This allows us to make some testable hypothesis on the nature of the interaction between distant portions of the DNA chain which led to the DNA structure that we observe today in higher eukaryotes.

  7. Empirical relations between static and dynamic exponents for Ising model cluster algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coddington, Paul D.; Baillie, Clive F.

    1992-02-01

    We have measured the autocorrelations for the Swendsen-Wang and the Wolff cluster update algorithms for the Ising model in two, three, and four dimensions. The data for the Wolff algorithm suggest that the autocorrelations are linearly related to the specific heat, in which case the dynamic critical exponent is zint,EW=α/ν. For the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, scaling the autocorrelations by the average maximum cluster size gives either a constant or a logarithm, which implies that zint,ESW=β/ν for the Ising model.

  8. Dynamic phase transitions of a driven Ising chain in a dissipative cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Yu-Na; Zhou, Xingxiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2016-11-01

    We study the nonequilibrium quantum phase transition of an Ising chain in a dissipative cavity driven by an external transverse light field. When driving and dissipation are in balance, the system can reach a nonequilibrium steady state which undergoes a superradiant phase transition as the driving strength increases. Interestingly, the superradiant field changes the effective bias of the Ising chain in return and drives its own transition between the ferromagnetic and the paramagnetic phase. We study the rich physics in this system with sophisticated behavior and investigate important issues in its dynamics such as the stability of the system and criticality of the phase transition.

  9. Ising-model description of long-range correlations in DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliva, A.; Pellegrini, R.; Testori, A.; Caselle, M.

    2015-05-01

    We model long-range correlations of nucleotides in the human DNA sequence using the long-range one-dimensional (1D) Ising model. We show that, for distances between 103 and 106 bp, the correlations show a universal behavior and may be described by the non-mean-field limit of the long-range 1D Ising model. This allows us to make some testable hypothesis on the nature of the interaction between distant portions of the DNA chain which led to the DNA structure that we observe today in higher eukaryotes.

  10. Cluster equations for the Glauber kinetic Ising ferromagnet: I. Existence and uniqueness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreer, Markus

    The infinite set of cluster equations, proposed by Binder and Müller-Krumbhaar for a Glauber kinetic Ising ferromagnet in 1974, generalize the Becker-Döring equations used in classical nucleation theory. For positive symmetric transition rates satisfying certain growth conditions and a detailed balance condition we prove for sufficiently fast decaying initial cluster distributions the existence of a positive cluster distribution with finite density for all finite times solving the cluster equations. Uniqueness is proven under some further conditions on the transition rates. Our existence and uniqueness results apply e.g. for a Glauber kinetic Ising ferromagnet in two dimensions.

  11. Simultaneous observations of the near-earth and distant geomagnetic tail during a substorm by ISEE-1, ISEE-3 and geostationary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Scholer, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Daly, P. W.; Baker, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the geomagnetic tail during a substorm is investigated by combining plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particle data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft in the deep tail with similar near-earth observations from ISEE-1 and geostationary spacecraft. The observations can be interpreted in terms of the neutral-line model of substorms and indicate the formation of a closed-loop field region (plasmoid) following substorm onset, which is ejected down the tail. The plasmoid is observed to have a double-loop field strucure. This may be the result of a second substorm onset occurring about 25 min after the first, producing a further near-earth neutral line and closed field loop. During the substorm recovery phase, the substorm neutral line moves tailward to beyond 130 earth radii from earth by some 3 h after substorm onset.

  12. Design of multi-energy Helds coupling testing system of vertical axis wind power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    The conversion efficiency of wind energy is the focus of researches and concerns as one of the renewable energy. The present methods of enhancing the conversion efficiency are mostly improving the wind rotor structure, optimizing the generator parameters and energy storage controller and so on. Because the conversion process involves in energy conversion of multi-energy fields such as wind energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy, the coupling effect between them will influence the overall conversion efficiency. In this paper, using system integration analysis technology, a testing system based on multi-energy field coupling (MEFC) of vertical axis wind power system is proposed. When the maximum efficiency of wind rotor is satisfied, it can match to the generator function parameters according to the output performance of wind rotor. The voltage controller can transform the unstable electric power to the battery on the basis of optimizing the parameters such as charging times, charging voltage. Through the communication connection and regulation of the upper computer system (UCS), it can make the coupling parameters configure to an optimal state, and it improves the overall conversion efficiency. This method can test the whole wind turbine (WT) performance systematically and evaluate the design parameters effectively. It not only provides a testing method for system structure design and parameter optimization of wind rotor, generator and voltage controller, but also provides a new testing method for the whole performance optimization of vertical axis wind energy conversion system (WECS).

  13. Conversing with Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    I/NET, Inc., is making the dream of natural human-computer conversation a practical reality. Through a combination of advanced artificial intelligence research and practical software design, I/NET has taken the complexity out of developing advanced, natural language interfaces. Conversational capabilities like pronoun resolution, anaphora and ellipsis processing, and dialog management that were once available only in the laboratory can now be brought to any application with any speech recognition system using I/NET s conversational engine middleware.

  14. Conversation et Television (Conversation and Television)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadde, Jean-Pierre

    1977-01-01

    Czechosovakian television has just presented a series of French Conversation Classes using audiovisual techniques and starring Czech actors and actresses. The setting of each dialog is in Czechoslovakia, and the situations are those in which a Czech would use French in his or her native land. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  15. Multi-satellite observations of plasmoids - IMP 8 and ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moldwin, Mark B.; Hughes, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of IMP 8 and ISEE 3 magnetotail data during the 1983 Geotail Mission yielded one plasmoid event which was observed by both satellites and two other possible cases. These are the first multisatellite observations of plasoids. These observations provide a unique opportunity to examine how plasmoid characteristics change as plasmoids propagate downtail and they show that plasmoids are very stable structures.

  16. Emergent order in the kagome Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14

    PubMed Central

    Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Ong, Harapan S.; Hamp, James O.; Mukherjee, Paromita; Bai, Xiaojian; Tucker, Matthew G.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Castelnovo, Claudio; Mourigal, Martin; Dutton, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Ising model—in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)—is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ∼0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration. PMID:27996012

  17. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics—from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the ‘Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis’ to reconcile the pervasive presence of ‘noise traders’ with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets.

  18. A transmon quantum annealer: decomposing many-body Ising constraints into pair interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leib, Martin; Zoller, Peter; Lechner, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is an analogue quantum computing scheme with various applications in solving optimisation problems. In the parity picture of quantum optimization, the problem is encoded in local fields that act on qubits that are connected via local four-body terms We present an implementation of a parity annealer with Transmon qubits with a specifically tailored Ising interaction from Josephson ring modulators.

  19. Integrated multi-ISE arrays with improved sensitivity, accuracy and precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunling; Yuan, Hongyan; Duan, Zhijuan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in the biological and environmental fields has generated demand for high-sensitivity ISEs. However, improving the sensitivities of ISEs remains a challenge because of the limit of the Nernstian slope (59.2/n mV). Here, we present a universal ion detection method using an electronic integrated multi-electrode system (EIMES) that bypasses the Nernstian slope limit of 59.2/n mV, thereby enabling substantial enhancement of the sensitivity of ISEs. The results reveal that the response slope is greatly increased from 57.2 to 1711.3 mV, 57.3 to 564.7 mV and 57.7 to 576.2 mV by electronic integrated 30 Cl‑ electrodes, 10 F‑ electrodes and 10 glass pH electrodes, respectively. Thus, a tiny change in the ion concentration can be monitored, and correspondingly, the accuracy and precision are substantially improved. The EIMES is suited for all types of potentiometric sensors and may pave the way for monitoring of various ions with high accuracy and precision because of its high sensitivity.

  20. Ising antiferromagnet on a finite triangular lattice with free boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon

    2015-11-01

    The exact integer values for the density of states of the Ising model on an equilateral triangular lattice with free boundary conditions are evaluated up to L = 24 spins on a side for the first time by using the microcanonical transfer matrix. The total number of states is 2 N s = 2300 ≈ 2.037 × 1090 for L = 24, where N s = L( L+1)/2 is the number of spins. Classifying all 2300 spin states according to their energy values is an enormous work. From the density of states, the exact partition function zeros in the complex temperature plane of the triangular-lattice Ising model are evaluated. Using the density of states and the partition function zeros, we investigate the properties of the triangularlattice Ising antiferromagnet. The scaling behavior of the ground-state entropy and the form of the correlation length at T = 0 are studied for the triangular-lattice Ising antiferromagnet with free boundary conditions. Also, the scaling behavior of the Fisher edge singularity is investigated.

  1. Trajectories and orbital maneuvers for the ISEE-3/ICE comet mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R.; Muhonen, D.; Church, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    The ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft, (launched in 1978), and expected to obtain the first measurements of comet Giacobinni-Zinner in September 1985, has undertaken a combination of propulsive maneuvers, lunar swing-bys, and solar perturbations to produce its present trajectory profile. ISEE-3 is a drum-shaped, spin-stabilized spacecraft equipped with a redundant pair of high-resolution sun sensors, a medium-gain S-band antenna, a hydrazine propulsion system and a science experiment payload. After being placed into a sun-earth libration halo orbit in late 1978, ISEE-3 was retargeted to the geomagnetotail in mid-1982 and became the first spacecraft to explore the geomagnetic tail between 80 and 237 earth radii in 1983. These types of maneuvers may prove important for future scientific missions planned as follow-ons to ISEE-3/ICE, such as a joint NASA/ISAS project spacecraft scheduled for Shuttle launch in 1991, and a possible encounter with two comets in 1996 anad 1998.

  2. Universality of the Ising and the S=1 model on Archimedean lattices: A Monte Carlo determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakis, A.; Gulpinar, G.; Karaaslan, Y.; Papakonstantinou, T.; Aslan, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Ising models S=1/2 and S=1 are studied by efficient Monte Carlo schemes on the (3,4,6,4) and the (3,3,3,3,6) Archimedean lattices. The algorithms used, a hybrid Metropolis-Wolff algorithm and a parallel tempering protocol, are briefly described and compared with the simple Metropolis algorithm. Accurate Monte Carlo data are produced at the exact critical temperatures of the Ising model for these lattices. Their finite-size analysis provide, with high accuracy, all critical exponents which, as expected, are the same with the well-known 2D Ising model exact values. A detailed finite-size scaling analysis of our Monte Carlo data for the S=1 model on the same lattices provides very clear evidence that this model obeys, also very well, the 2D Ising model critical exponents. As a result, we find that recent Monte Carlo simulations and attempts to define effective dimensionality for the S=1 model on these lattices are misleading. Accurate estimates are obtained for the critical amplitudes of the logarithmic expansions of the specific heat for both models on the two Archimedean lattices.

  3. Integrated multi-ISE arrays with improved sensitivity, accuracy and precision

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunling; Yuan, Hongyan; Duan, Zhijuan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in the biological and environmental fields has generated demand for high-sensitivity ISEs. However, improving the sensitivities of ISEs remains a challenge because of the limit of the Nernstian slope (59.2/n mV). Here, we present a universal ion detection method using an electronic integrated multi-electrode system (EIMES) that bypasses the Nernstian slope limit of 59.2/n mV, thereby enabling substantial enhancement of the sensitivity of ISEs. The results reveal that the response slope is greatly increased from 57.2 to 1711.3 mV, 57.3 to 564.7 mV and 57.7 to 576.2 mV by electronic integrated 30 Cl− electrodes, 10 F− electrodes and 10 glass pH electrodes, respectively. Thus, a tiny change in the ion concentration can be monitored, and correspondingly, the accuracy and precision are substantially improved. The EIMES is suited for all types of potentiometric sensors and may pave the way for monitoring of various ions with high accuracy and precision because of its high sensitivity. PMID:28303939

  4. Exact solutions to plaquette Ising models with free and periodic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Marco; Johnston, Desmond A.; Janke, Wolfhard

    2017-01-01

    An anisotropic limit of the 3d plaquette Ising model, in which the plaquette couplings in one direction were set to zero, was solved for free boundary conditions by Suzuki (1972) [1], who later dubbed it the fuki-nuke, or "no-ceiling", model. Defining new spin variables as the product of nearest-neighbour spins transforms the Hamiltonian into that of a stack of (standard) 2d Ising models and reveals the planar nature of the magnetic order, which is also present in the fully isotropic 3d plaquette model. More recently, the solution of the fuki-nuke model was discussed for periodic boundary conditions, which require a different approach to defining the product spin transformation, by Castelnovo et al. (2010) [2]. We clarify the exact relation between partition functions with free and periodic boundary conditions expressed in terms of original and product spin variables for the 2d plaquette and 3d fuki-nuke models, noting that the differences are already present in the 1d Ising model. In addition, we solve the 2d plaquette Ising model with helical boundary conditions. The various exactly solved examples illustrate how correlations can be induced in finite systems as a consequence of the choice of boundary conditions.

  5. Integrated multi-ISE arrays with improved sensitivity, accuracy and precision.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunling; Yuan, Hongyan; Duan, Zhijuan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-03-17

    Increasing use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in the biological and environmental fields has generated demand for high-sensitivity ISEs. However, improving the sensitivities of ISEs remains a challenge because of the limit of the Nernstian slope (59.2/n mV). Here, we present a universal ion detection method using an electronic integrated multi-electrode system (EIMES) that bypasses the Nernstian slope limit of 59.2/n mV, thereby enabling substantial enhancement of the sensitivity of ISEs. The results reveal that the response slope is greatly increased from 57.2 to 1711.3 mV, 57.3 to 564.7 mV and 57.7 to 576.2 mV by electronic integrated 30 Cl(-) electrodes, 10 F(-) electrodes and 10 glass pH electrodes, respectively. Thus, a tiny change in the ion concentration can be monitored, and correspondingly, the accuracy and precision are substantially improved. The EIMES is suited for all types of potentiometric sensors and may pave the way for monitoring of various ions with high accuracy and precision because of its high sensitivity.

  6. A Manifold of Pure Gibbs States of the Ising Model on the Lobachevsky Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfo, Daniel; Ruiz, Jean; Shlosman, Senya

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we construct many `new' Gibbs states of the Ising model on the Lobachevsky plane, the millefeuilles. Unlike the usual states on the integer lattices, our foliated states have infinitely many interfaces. The interfaces are rigid and fill the Lobachevsky plane with positive density. We also construct analogous states on the Cayley trees.

  7. Cluster Monte Carlo: Scaling of systematic errors in the two-dimensional Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Shchur, L.N.; Bloete, H.W.

    1997-05-01

    We present an extensive analysis of systematic deviations in Wolff cluster simulations of the critical Ising model, using random numbers generated by binary shift registers. We investigate how these deviations depend on the lattice size, the shift-register length, and the number of bits correlated by the production rule. They appear to satisfy scaling relations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Emergent order in the kagome Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14.

    PubMed

    Paddison, Joseph A M; Ong, Harapan S; Hamp, James O; Mukherjee, Paromita; Bai, Xiaojian; Tucker, Matthew G; Butch, Nicholas P; Castelnovo, Claudio; Mourigal, Martin; Dutton, S E

    2016-12-20

    The Ising model-in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)-is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ∼0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration.

  9. Universality of the Ising and the S=1 model on Archimedean lattices: a Monte Carlo determination.

    PubMed

    Malakis, A; Gulpinar, G; Karaaslan, Y; Papakonstantinou, T; Aslan, G

    2012-03-01

    The Ising models S=1/2 and S=1 are studied by efficient Monte Carlo schemes on the (3,4,6,4) and the (3,3,3,3,6) Archimedean lattices. The algorithms used, a hybrid Metropolis-Wolff algorithm and a parallel tempering protocol, are briefly described and compared with the simple Metropolis algorithm. Accurate Monte Carlo data are produced at the exact critical temperatures of the Ising model for these lattices. Their finite-size analysis provide, with high accuracy, all critical exponents which, as expected, are the same with the well-known 2D Ising model exact values. A detailed finite-size scaling analysis of our Monte Carlo data for the S=1 model on the same lattices provides very clear evidence that this model obeys, also very well, the 2D Ising model critical exponents. As a result, we find that recent Monte Carlo simulations and attempts to define effective dimensionality for the S=1 model on these lattices are misleading. Accurate estimates are obtained for the critical amplitudes of the logarithmic expansions of the specific heat for both models on the two Archimedean lattices.

  10. Increasing Student Performance on the Independent School Entrance Exam (ISEE) Using the Gap Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarshar, Shanon Etty

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this study examined the performance gap experienced by 6th grade students on the math sections of the ISEE (Independent School Entrance Exam). The purpose of the study was to identify and validate the knowledge, motivation, and organization causes of the students' low…

  11. Multi-satellite observations of plasmoids - IMP 8 and ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moldwin, Mark B.; Hughes, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of IMP 8 and ISEE 3 magnetotail data during the 1983 Geotail Mission yielded one plasmoid event which was observed by both satellites and two other possible cases. These are the first multisatellite observations of plasoids. These observations provide a unique opportunity to examine how plasmoid characteristics change as plasmoids propagate downtail and they show that plasmoids are very stable structures.

  12. Red-bond exponents of the critical and the tricritical Ising model in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W. J.

    2004-11-01

    Using the Wolff and geometric cluster algorithms and finite-size scaling analysis, we investigate the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models with nearest-neighbor interactions on the simple-cubic lattice. The sampling procedure involves the decomposition of the Ising configuration into geometric clusters, each of which consists of a set of nearest-neighboring spins of the same sign connected with bond probability p . These clusters include the well-known Kasteleyn-Fortuin clusters as a special case for p=1-exp(-2K) , where K is the Ising spin-spin coupling. Along the critical line K=Kc , the size distribution of geometric clusters is investigated as a function of p . We observe that, unlike in the case of two-dimensional tricriticality, the percolation threshold in both models lies at pc=1-exp(-2Kc) . Further, we determine the corresponding red-bond exponents as yr=0.757(2) and 0.501(5) for the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models, respectively. On this basis, we conjecture yr=1/2 for the latter model.

  13. Energy fluctuations and the singularity of specific heat in a 3D Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaupuzs, Jevgenijs

    2004-05-01

    We study the energy fluctuations in 3D Ising model near the phase transition point. Specific heat is a relevant quantity which is directly related to the mean squared amplitude of the energy fluctuations in the system. We have made extensive Monte Carlo simulations in 3D Ising model to clarify the character of the singularity of the specific heat Cv based on the finite-size scaling of its maximal values Cvmax depending on the linear size of the lattice L. An original iterative method has been used which automatically finds the pseudocritical temperature corresponding to the maximum of Cv. The simulations made up to L <= 128 with application of the Wolff's cluster algorithm allowed us to verify the possible power-like as well as logarithmic singularity of the specific heat predicted by different theoretical treatments. The most challenging and interesting result we have obtained is that the finite-size scaling of Cvmax in 3D Ising model is well described by a logarithmic rather than power-like ansatz, just like in 2D case. Another modification of our iterative method has been considered to estimate the critical coupling of 3D Ising model from the Binder cumulant data within L ɛ [96; 384]. Furthermore, the critical exponent β has been evaluated from the simulated magnetization data within the range of reduced temperatures t >= 0.000086 and system sizes L <= 410.

  14. Multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity: a CSD analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowick, Mark; Falcioni, Marco; Harris, Geoffrey; Marinari, Enzo

    1994-04-01

    We simulate single and multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity and we measure critical slowing down (CSD) with the standard methods. We find that the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms do not eliminate CSD. We interpret the result as an effect of the mesh dynamics.

  15. Red-bond exponents of the critical and the tricritical Ising model in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W J

    2004-11-01

    Using the Wolff and geometric cluster algorithms and finite-size scaling analysis, we investigate the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models with nearest-neighbor interactions on the simple-cubic lattice. The sampling procedure involves the decomposition of the Ising configuration into geometric clusters, each of which consists of a set of nearest-neighboring spins of the same sign connected with bond probability p. These clusters include the well-known Kasteleyn-Fortuin clusters as a special case for p=1-exp(-2K) , where K is the Ising spin-spin coupling. Along the critical line K=Kc , the size distribution of geometric clusters is investigated as a function of p . We observe that, unlike in the case of two-dimensional tricriticality, the percolation threshold in both models lies at pc =1-exp(-2Kc) . Further, we determine the corresponding red-bond exponents as yr =0.757(2) and 0.501(5) for the critical Ising and the tricritical Blume-Capel models, respectively. On this basis, we conjecture yr =1/2 for the latter model.

  16. Critical Dynamics Behavior of the Wolff Algorithm in the Site-Bond-Correlated Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. R. A.; Onody, R. N.

    Here we apply the Wolff single-cluster algorithm to the site-bond-correlated Ising model and study its critical dynamical behavior. We have verified that the autocorrelation time diminishes in the presence of dilution and correlation, showing that the Wolff algorithm performs even better in such situations. The critical dynamical exponents are also estimated.

  17. Fluctuation-dissipation relation in an Ising model without detailed balance.

    PubMed

    Andrenacci, Natascia; Corberi, Federico; Lippiello, Eugenio

    2006-04-01

    We consider the modified Ising model introduced by de Oliveira, Mendes, and Santos [J. Phys. A 26, 2317 (1993)], where the temperature depends locally on the spin configuration and detailed balance and local equilibrium are not obeyed. We derive a relation between the linear response function and correlation functions that generalizes the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In the stationary states of the model, which are the counterparts of the Ising equilibrium states, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem breaks down due to the lack of time reversal invariance. In the nonstationary phase-ordering kinetics, the parametric plot of the integrated response function chi(t,t(w)) vs the autocorrelation function is different from that of the kinetic Ising model. However, splitting chi(t,t(w)) into a stationary and an aging term chi(t,t(w)) = chi(st)(t-t(w)) + chi(ag)(t,t(w)), we find chi(ag)(t,t(w)) approximately t(w)(-a(chi)) f(t/t(w)), and a numerical value of a(chi) consistent with a(chi)= 1/4, as in the kinetic Ising model.

  18. Full reduction of large finite random Ising systems by real space renormalization group.

    PubMed

    Efrat, Avishay; Schwartz, Moshe

    2003-08-01

    We describe how to evaluate approximately various physical interesting quantities in random Ising systems by direct renormalization of a finite system. The renormalization procedure is used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom to a number that is small enough, enabling direct summing over the surviving spins. This procedure can be used to obtain averages of functions of the surviving spins. We show how to evaluate averages that involve spins that do not survive the renormalization procedure. We show, for the random field Ising model, how to obtain Gamma(r)=-, the "connected" correlation function, and S(r)=, the "disconnected" correlation function. Consequently, we show how to obtain the average susceptibility and the average energy. For an Ising system with random bonds and random fields, we show how to obtain the average specific heat. We conclude by presenting our numerical results for the average susceptibility and the function Gamma(r) along one of the principal axes. (In this work, the full three-dimensional (3D) correlation is calculated and not just parameters such nu or eta). The results for the average susceptibility are used to extract the critical temperature and critical exponents of the 3D random field Ising system.

  19. Surprising convergence of the Monte Carlo renormalization group for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    PubMed

    Ron, Dorit; Brandt, Achi; Swendsen, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    We present a surprisingly simple approach to high-accuracy calculations of the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. The method uses a modified block-spin transformation with a tunable parameter to improve convergence in the Monte Carlo renormalization group. The block-spin parameter must be tuned differently for different exponents to produce optimal convergence.

  20. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models.

    PubMed

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics--from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the 'Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis' to reconcile the pervasive presence of 'noise traders' with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets.

  1. Monte Carlo Study of One-Dimensional Ising Models with Long-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yusuke

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Fukui and Todo have proposed a new effective Monte Carlo algorithm for long-range interacting systems. Using the algorithm with the nonequilibrium relaxation method, we investigated long-range interacting one-dimensional Ising models both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic with the nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic interaction. For the antiferromagnetic model, we found the systems are paramagnetic at finite temperatures.

  2. Three-dimensional Ising model of polarity formation in molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavacciuolo, Luigi; Hulliger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Polarity formation in a three-dimensional array of molecules is described as a symmetry breaking effect of a generalized Ising Hamiltonian. Geometrical constraints in conjunction with asymmetric multipole interactions are able to break the spin flip symmetry generating a non-vanishing average local polarization.

  3. Axis perpendicularity measuring method using vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Woo; Song, Jun-Yeob; Ha, Tae-Ho

    2008-11-01

    Perpendicularity measurement is very important in machine assembly and calibration. Axis perpendicularity error often contributes much more to the total error than the linear positioning and straightness errors. This paper presents two new non-contact methods for measuring axis perpendicularity using vision system. In general a perpendicular master and a dial gauge are used to measure the axis perpendicularity. We can obtain the axis perpendicularity by measuring differences from the master. Therefore, its accuracy depends on the accuracy of perpendicular master. The accuracy of the perpendicular master is therefore extremely important and it is impossible that the accuracy of a perpendicularity measurement is superior to the accuracy of the perpendicular master. This paper proposes two new methods that can measure axis perpendicularity without using a perpendicular master. Absolute axis perpendicularity measurement can be achieved by vision system. The feasibility of our developed measurement methods are confirmed by several experimental results.

  4. Automated cell tracking identifies mechanically oriented cell divisions during Drosophila axis elongation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael F Z; Hunter, Miranda V; Wang, Gang; McFaul, Christopher; Yip, Christopher M; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Embryos extend their anterior-posterior (AP) axis in a conserved process known as axis elongation. Drosophila axis elongation occurs in an epithelial monolayer, the germband, and is driven by cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and oriented cell divisions at the posterior germband. Anterior germband cells also divide during axis elongation. We developed image analysis and pattern-recognition methods to track dividing cells from confocal microscopy movies in a generally applicable approach. Mesectoderm cells, forming the ventral midline, divided parallel to the AP axis, while lateral cells displayed a uniform distribution of division orientations. Mesectoderm cells did not intercalate and sustained increased AP strain before cell division. After division, mesectoderm cell density increased along the AP axis, thus relieving strain. We used laser ablation to isolate mesectoderm cells from the influence of other tissues. Uncoupling the mesectoderm from intercalating cells did not affect cell division orientation. Conversely, separating the mesectoderm from the anterior and posterior poles of the embryo resulted in uniformly oriented divisions. Our data suggest that mesectoderm cells align their division angle to reduce strain caused by mechanical forces along the AP axis of the embryo.

  5. Antenna Axis Offset Estimation from VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdubov, Sergey; Skurikhina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The antenna axis offsets were estimated from global solutions and single sessions. We have built a set of global solutions from R1 and R4 sessions and from the sets of sessions between SVETLOE repairs. We compared our estimates with local survey data for the stations of the QUASAR network. Svetloe station axis offset values have changed after repairs. For non-global networks, the axis offset value of a single station can significantly affect the EOP estimations.

  6. Conversations in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardige, Betty; Segal, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Bardige and Segal discuss how teachers can help a toddler's language and literacy development through conversation. They suggest an array of tactics, from asking young children open-ended, intellectually challenging questions to going beyond the here and now when carrying on a conversation. Research has shown that the practice of…

  7. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  8. The Art of Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin-Tripp, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes Dorval and Eckerman (included in this issue) for their findings' lack of generality due to the artificial nature of the conversational groups studied. Also both age changes in the ability to plan large conversational units and the functions of particular kinds of turns within these larger units are left unexplored. (CB)

  9. Recording Conversations in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.; Koerner, Thomas J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In general, because of varying federal and state legislation and a paucity of court decisions, the law governing the recording of conversations is in considerable flux. School personnel desiring to record conversations in school without the consent or knowledge of all parties involved must proceed with considerable caution. (Author)

  10. Content for Conversation Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that a good strategy for helping English language learners to develop communicative competence in English is by pairing them with native English speakers. In such conversation programs, conversation partners should be provided with topics and activities that incorporate the goals, interests, and experiences of the learners. Recommends…

  11. The Conversation Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  12. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  13. Mode conversion in magneto photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    otmani, Hamza; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Hocini, Abdesselam; Boumaza, Touraya; benmerkhi, ahlem

    2017-01-01

    The first concept of an integrated isolator was based on nonreciprocal TE-TM mode conversion, the nonreciprocal coupling between these modes is caused by the Faraday rotation if the magnetization is aligned along the z-axis, parallel to mode propagation. We propose to study this magneto-optical phenomenon, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF), it consists of a periodic triangular lattice of air-holes filled with magnetic fluid which consists of magnetic nanoparticles into a BIG (Bismuth Iron Garnet) fibre. We simulated the influence of gyrotropy and the wavelength, and calculated Faraday rotation and modal birefringence. In this fibre the light is guided by internal total reflection, like classical fibres. However it was shown that they could function on a mode conversion much stronger than conventional fibres.

  14. Principles of the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Thomas; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Rios-Barrera, Daniel; Pearce, Christy F.; Hüfner, Michael; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The hormonal family of vasoinhibins, which derive from the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, are known for their inhibiting effects on blood vessel growth, vasopermeability, and vasodilation. As pleiotropic hormones, vasoinhibins act in multiple target organs and tissues. The generation, secretion, and regulation of vasoinhibins are embedded into the organizational principle of an axis, which integrates the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the target tissue microenvironment. This axis is designated as the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis. Disturbances of the prolactin/vasoinhibin axis are associated with the pathogenesis of retinal and cardiac diseases and with diseases occurring during pregnancy. New phylogenetical, physiological, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26310939

  15. Discomfort criteria for single-axis vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the fundamental relationships governing human subjective discomfort response to single-axis vibrations. The axes investigated were vertical, lateral, longitudinal, roll, and pitch, and the vibrations used were both sinusoidal and random in nature. Results of these investigations provided the basis for: (1) development of a scale of passenger discomfort that is common to all axes of vibration; and (2) generation of discomfort criteria for each axis of each axis and for both types of vibration. Furthermore, empirical equations describing discomfort responses within each axis of vibration are included.

  16. Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils

    DOEpatents

    Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen H.

    1987-01-01

    A helical axis stellarator using only noninterlocking planar, non-circular coils, generates magnetic fields having a magnetic well and large rotational transform with resultant large equilibrium beta.

  17. Two-staged magnetoresistance driven by the Ising-like spin sublattice in SrCo6O11.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, S; Terasaki, I; Ishii, F; Nagaosa, N; Mukuda, H; Kitaoka, Y; Saito, T; Takano, M

    2007-05-25

    A two-staged, uniaxial magnetoresistive effect has been discovered in SrCo6O11 having a layered hexagonal structure. Conduction electrons and localized Ising spins are in different sublattices but their interpenetration makes the conduction electrons sensitively pick up the stepwise field dependence of magnetization. The stepwise field dependence suggests two competitive interlayer interactions between ferromagnetic Ising-spin layers, i.e., a ferromagnetic nearest-layer interaction and an antiferromagnetic next-nearest-layer interaction. This oxide offers a unique opportunity to study nontrivial interplay between conduction electrons and Ising spins, the coupling of which can be finely controlled by a magnetic field of a few Tesla.

  18. Two-Staged Magnetoresistance Driven by the Ising-Like Spin Sublattice in SrCo6O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwata, S.; Terasaki, I.; Ishii, F.; Nagaosa, N.; Mukuda, H.; Kitaoka, Y.; Saito, T.; Takano, M.

    2007-05-01

    A two-staged, uniaxial magnetoresistive effect has been discovered in SrCo6O11 having a layered hexagonal structure. Conduction electrons and localized Ising spins are in different sublattices but their interpenetration makes the conduction electrons sensitively pick up the stepwise field dependence of magnetization. The stepwise field dependence suggests two competitive interlayer interactions between ferromagnetic Ising-spin layers, i.e., a ferromagnetic nearest-layer interaction and an antiferromagnetic next-nearest-layer interaction. This oxide offers a unique opportunity to study nontrivial interplay between conduction electrons and Ising spins, the coupling of which can be finely controlled by a magnetic field of a few Tesla.

  19. Bound states in two-dimensional spin systems near the Ising limit: A quantum finite-lattice study

    SciTech Connect

    Dusuel, Sebastien; Kamfor, Michael; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Thomale, Ronny; Vidal, Julien

    2010-02-01

    We analyze the properties of low-energy bound states in the transverse-field Ising model and in the XXZ model on the square lattice. To this end, we develop an optimized implementation of perturbative continuous unitary transformations. The Ising model is studied in the small-field limit which is found to be a special case of the toric code model in a magnetic field. To analyze the XXZ model, we perform a perturbative expansion about the Ising limit in order to discuss the fate of the elementary magnon excitations when approaching the Heisenberg point.

  20. Morping blade design for vertical axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macphee, David; Beyene, Asfaw

    2015-11-01

    Wind turbines operate at peak efficiency at a certain set of operational conditions. Away from these conditions, conversion efficiency drops significantly, requiring pitch and yaw control schemes to mitigate these losses. These efforts are an example of geometric variability, allowing for increased power production but with an unfortunate increase in investment cost to the energy conversion system. In Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs), the concept of pitch control is especially complicated due to a dependence of attack angle on armature azimuth. As a result, VAWT pitch control schemes, both active and passive, are as of yet unfeasible. This study investigates a low-cost, passive pitch control system, in which VAWT blades are constructed of a flexible material, allowing for continuous shape-morphing in response to local aerodynamic loading. This design is analyzed computationally using a finite-volume fluid-structure interaction routine and compared to a geometrically identical rigid rotor. The results indicate that the flexible blade increases conversion efficiency by reducing the severity of vortex shedding, allowing for greater average torque over a complete revolution.