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Sample records for iskin ili mozhet

  1. International Literacy Year (ILY). Unesco Adult Education Information Notes. Special Number--No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Primary Educ., Literacy & Adult Educ., Educ. in Rural Areas

    This issue contains several articles dealing with the International Literacy Year (ILY) proclaimed the United Nations (UN) for the year 1990. The first article, "1990, Proclaimed International Literacy Year by the United Nations," discusses the purpose of the observance of the ILY, namely the contribution to greater understanding by…

  2. Extremely arid soils of the Ili Depression in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, M. P.; Gerasimova, M. I.; Golovanov, D. L.; Yamnova, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of macro- and micromorphological and analytical studies of extremely arid soils of the Ili Depression in Kazakhstan, a comparative analysis of pedogenetic processes shaping these soils on piedmont plains of different ages and heights is performed. The types of soil horizons and their combinations are analyzed in the context opf modern Russian and international soil classification systems. The genesis of extremely arid soils is controlled by the climatic conditions and by their geomorphic position on alluvial fans of piedmont plains. The following processes are diagnosed in these soils: soil crusting with vesicular porosity, the development of desert pavements with rock varnish, rubification, surface salinization, and iron depletion around the pores. It is suggested that the initial factor-based name (extremely arid) of these soils can be replaced by the name vesicular-crusty soils with the corresponding AKL diagnostic horizon, which is more consistent with the principles of substantive-genetic classification systems. In order to determine the classification position of these soils in terms of the new Russian soil classification system, new diagnostic horizons—AKL and CS—have to be introduced in this system. According to the WRB classification, the studied soils belong to the group of Gypsisols; the soil with strong salinization fits the criteria of the group of Solonchaks. A qualifier [yermic] is to be added to reflect the development of desert pavement and vesicular layer under extreme arid conditions.

  3. Estimation of carbon storage and carbon density of forest vegetation in Ili River Valley, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jing, Guo; renping, Zhang; ranghui, Wang; aimaiti, Yusupujiang; tuerdi, Asiyemu; dongya, Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Study on the forest carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution characteristic are helpful for improving the accuracy of carbon estimation and providing the practical basis for better policy making. In this research, the compiled data of 'Xinjiang Forest Resources Survey Results' in 2011 was used as a source data, by using the biomass-volume regression model and average biomass method, the carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution of forest resources in Ili River Valley region were analyzed. Results show that, the total biomass, carbon storage and average carbon density in Ili River valley were 69.647Tg, 34.823Tg and 41.45Mg/hm2 C respectively. From the aspect of spatial distribution, the northwest region of Ili River Valley has high carbon storage and the southeast region has low carbon storage. The southwest region has low carbon density and the northeast region has high carbon density. The value of forest Carbon storage from high to low was: Arbor > Shrub > Sparse forest > Odd tree > Economic forest > Scattered trees. Mature arbor forest plays an important role in maintaining the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in Ili River Valley region.

  4. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for <i>l> ≤ 20

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to <i>l> ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < <i>l> ≤ 7. In most cases for <i>l> > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for <i>l> ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  5. Analyzing Idioms and Their Frequency in Three Advanced ILI Textbooks: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Sepideh; Rajabpoor, Aboozar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying and quantifying the idioms used in three ILI "Advanced" level textbooks based on three different English corpora; MICASE, BNC and the Brown Corpus, and comparing the frequencies of the idioms across the three corpora. The first step of the study involved searching the books to find multi-word…

  6. Rapid identification of Streptococcus intermedius by PCR with the ily gene as a species marker gene.

    PubMed

    Goto, Takatsugu; Nagamune, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Aiko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Ohnishi, Ooki; Hattori, Kanako; Ohkura, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Ezaki, Takayuki; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Miyake, Yoichiro; Maeda, Takuya; Kourai, Hiroki

    2002-02-01

    Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the anginosus group of streptococci (AGS) and is associated with endogenous infections leading to abscesses in the oral cavity and at deepseated sites, such as the brain and liver. Two other species, S. anginosus and S. constellatus, and some presently unnamed taxa, are also classified as AGS. Recently, S. constellatus subsp. pharyngis, a new subspecies with biochemical characteristics similar to S. intermedius, was described with the potential for causing confusion when trying to identify isolates of these two species routinely with commercial identification kits, such as Rapid ID32 Strep and Fluo-Card Milleri. To correctly identify S. intermedius, this study attempted to develop an accurate PCR identification system with the ily gene as a species marker. This approach relies on amplification of an 819-bp fragment of the ily gene and its 3'-flanking region and is shown here to be specific for S. intermedius strains among all other streptococcal species. Moreover, this PCR system was applicable in direct rapid PCR with whole bacterial cells and TaKaRa Z-Taq (TaKaRa), a highly efficient DNA polymerase, as the template and DNA amplification enzyme, respectively.

  7. The Invertebrate Lysozyme Effector ILYS-3 Is Systemically Activated in Response to Danger Signals and Confers Antimicrobial Protection in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material. PMID:27525822

  8. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Ili Basin (northern Tien Shan, Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Seib, N.; Kober, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Tien Shan active intraplate orogen of Central Asia exhibits strong along-strike variations in structure. Its northern front in southeastern Kazakhstan is characterized by a fragmented array of anticlinal basement highs whose wavelengths range from c. 5 to 30 km. Range-bounding faults are mostly E- to ENE-trending thrust or reverse faults and SE-trending dextral strike-slip faults. Faults of large displacement (more than several tens of meters) are conspicuously absent. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Oligocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of Tien Shan uplift. Very gentle, long-wavelength folds affect the Cenozoic strata. As far as visible, the basement is always folded conformably. The basin fill starts in the middle Oligocene (mammal fossils; Indricotherium horizon). The facies of these oldest deposits is characterized by fluvial deposits of a large river system and varying flood-plain deposits with intense soil formation (calcretes and gypsisols). Transport directions and quartz content of the sediments suggest they were not sourced from the nearby mountain ranges present today. The fluvial succession is followed by late Oligocene to early Miocene lake deposits which reflect the transition from an evaporitic lake/playa system to freshwater lacustrine conditions. The Oligocene to Early Miocene deposits are limited to a small area in the core of the Aktau anticline and show no relationship to the sediment succession overlying the basement in the uplifts surrounding the Aktau mountains in the north and west. There, alluvial and fluvial deposits of middle Miocene(?) age rest on deeply weathered paleosurfaces. Transport is mainly to the south. Changes in colour, grain size and ratio of channel to interchannel deposits probably reflect climatic changes. Rapid facies and thickness-changes allow the reconstruction of several alluvial fans

  9. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  10. Land-use impacts on profile distribution of labile and recalcitrant carbon in the Ili River Valley, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanhai; Qi, Zhiming; Han, Jiangang; Zhu, Yongli

    2017-05-15

    There is a growing evidence that the decomposition of recalcitrant carbon (C) can be stimulated by environmental changes, such as fresh C supply and increased temperature. However, the effect of land-use on profile distribution of recalcitrant C content is still poorly understood. In this study, soil samples were collected to a depth of 100cm from pastures and four major croplands including maize field, wheat field, paddy and apple orchard in the Ili River Valley, northwest China, to investigate the effects of land-use on profile distribution of labile organic C (LOC), semi-labile organic C (SLOC), recalcitrant organic C (ROC) and their relative proportions in total organic C (TOC), and evaluate whether such effects can be different between topsoil (0-20cm) and subsoil (20-100cm). The results showed that soil ROC accounting for 49.4-66.3% of TOC for different land-uses, implying that ROC is the major form of soil organic C (SOC). Soil TOC contents of croplands were 20.4-85.2% lower than those of pastures along the soil profile, indicating that SOC pool may be decreased by agricultural land-uses. The lower contents of LOC, SLOC and ROC in croplands than in pastures suggested that the decreases in TOC content in croplands are not only due to the decreases in labile C pool but also the reductions in recalcitrant C pool. The differences in SOC fractions among land-uses were similar in topsoil and subsoil, while the proportions of each SOC fraction in TOC did not differ significantly between the two soil layers in most cases, indicating that each SOC fraction in subsoil can be also influenced by land-use types. Therefore, it is suggested that the ROC in subsoil, which plays a crucial role in C sequestration, should be taken into account when estimating the effect of land-use on SOC kinetic.

  11. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater in the Horgos River Watershed in the NorthWestern Ili Basin in Sinkiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. H.; Jiang, J. Y.; Rao, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, hydrogeochemical and stable environmental isotopic (oxygen-18 and deuterium) data of groundwater in the Horgos River watershed in the north-western Ili Basin were examined to determine the groundwater chemical characteristics, as well as the origins of the groundwater and surface water. The quaternary aquifer's structure and spatial distribution is complex. Hydrogeochemical data shows that the groundwater is alkaline due to the presence of bicarbonate as the dominant anion. In the north, the dominant groundwater cation was Ca2+ while Mg2+ ions were highest in the south. In addition, water types varied from HCO3-SO4-Ca and HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg to HCO3-SO4-Mg-Ca and SO4-HCO3-Mg-Ca. Overall, the groundwater in this study showed high total hardness. The dissolving and evaporation inspissation were considered the main controlling factors. Isotopic data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) indicated that the Horgos River was the main recharge source for the groundwater, which rapidly infiltrated across sandstone macropores. Furthermore, surface water and shallow groundwater were significantly affected by evaporation.

  12. Geochemistry of the Miocene oil shale (Hançili Formation) in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, Central Turkey: Implications for Paleoclimate conditions, source-area weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosoughi Moradi, A.; Sarı, A.; Akkaya, P.

    2016-07-01

    The geochemistry of oil shale units of Hançili Formation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin (Central Turkey) was studied using various chemical analyses. The mineralogical composition of the samples were preliminarily investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficients of selected elements, indicating that the samples contain abundant clay minerals as well as K-feldspar and carbonate. The K2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicate that the major proportion of clay minerals is composed of smectite. Si, Al, Ti, K, Na, and Fe reside in clay minerals, while Ca, Mg, and Mn are mostly associated with carbonates (e.g., calcite and dolomite) and phosphorous (P) is present as apatite. The total REE content of the oil shale range from 19 to 113 ppm. The chondrite-normalized patterns of the oil shale show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. In general, major, trace and rare earth element abundances suggest that the studied oil shale in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin are mainly from the intermediate rocks, mixed with small amounts of basic rocks, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental collision setting. The REE geochemistry of the oil shale suggests that these samples were derived from a consistent terrigenous source and the Eu anomaly was inherited from the source rocks. The paleoclimate index (C-value), varies between 0.07 and 1.22 reflecting a generally semi-arid to humid conditions. In addition, Rb/Sr ( 0.22) and Sr/Cu ( 9.09) ratios support the idea that warm and humid conditions prevailed during deposition of the Hançili Formation. Sr/Ba ratios (0.54-3.7) of the studied samples suggest a paleoenvironment with variable salinity. The co-variation among this factor and paleoclimate indicators suggest that variations in climatic conditions exerted a primary control on salinity. The substantially low C-value and Rb/Sr ratio and significantly high ratios of Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba and also elevated carbonate

  13. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Segregation of cargo from surrounding waters (Line 1 of Table 151.05). i=Skin of vessel (single skin) only required. Cargo tank wall can be vessel's hull. ii=Double skin required. Cargo tank wall cannot be...

  14. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Segregation of cargo from surrounding waters (Line 1 of Table 151.05). i=Skin of vessel (single skin) only required. Cargo tank wall can be vessel's hull. ii=Double skin required. Cargo tank wall cannot be...

  15. Recollections of a translator (Russian title: Vstrecha v verhah ili vospominania perevodchika)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    The article includes recollections of the author-translator from few meetings in Moscow during 70-th years of the XX-th century. The recollections includes a visit to Moscow of a Romanian delegation of trade-unions, a visit of Nicolae Ceausescu and Elena Ceausescu to Moscow in november 1977 in view of the 60-th years of the Revolution of October celebration. A visit by Nicu Ceausescu, physicist and the leader of the Union of Communist Youth of Romania, to Central Comitee of the All Union Communist Youth Organization of the USSR (Komsomol) in Moscow during a transit fly to Beijing (China) is reported also. The recollections reffers also the following persons: Andrey Gromyko- minister of the foreign office of the USSR, Geidar Aliev - 1-st secretary of the Central Commitee of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. Communist party, Grigor'ev- a secretary of the Soviet Komsomol (All Union Organization of Communist Youth) and other.

  16. The identification of medieval fevers according to Al-Isra'ili, Avenzoar and Bernard Gordon.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Carmen Peña; Irueste, Fernando Girón

    2005-12-01

    In this work, which derives from a study into the prevention of illness in medieval Spain, and which forms part of a larger work on medieval fevers in all their aspects, we concern ourselves with their causes, symptoms, prognostications and treatment. We are grateful for the support of the British Academy and The Wellcome Trust in funding this study. Through this work we aim to establish a certain order in the fevers which figure in medical texts of the Middle Ages which we have analysed. We have grouped them, following the example of Galen, according to their point of origin: spirits, humours and solid matter. Then, within each of these categories, we have classified them by the spirit or humour affected. The basic elements of each fever are described in order to differentiate them. We offer, finally, over one hundred names by which the different fevers can be known.

  17. Istoriya al'ternativnykh techenij v planetnoj kosmogonii (gomogennaya ili geterogennaya akkretsiya) %t The history of two alternative concepts in planetary cosmogony (homogeneous of heterogeneous accretion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanov, I. A.

    Initially the hypotheses of Kant, Laplace, and other authors implied homogeneous accretion of planets from uniform material. O. Yu. Schmidt shared this idea. The idea of heterogeneous accretion was proposed in the mid-1940s by V. G. Fesenkov, who demonstrated that the iron cores of planets started to form prior to their silicate mantles. The obvious increase in average planet density with decreasing distance from the Sun suggests that the protoplanetary nebula was also heterogeneous - iron concentrated closer to the Sun, probably under the effect of its magnetic field. In the second half of the 20th century, planetary cosmogony developed against the background of continuous dispute between the adherents of homogeneous and heterogeneous planetary accretion. The confrontation still exists, although arguments in favour of heterogeneous accretion increase in weight. The dilemma under discussion is directly related to modern tectonic concepts, because it is necessary to find an answer to the question whether the core originated from the differentiation of the Earth's material or our planet had a core from the beginning.

  18. Examining Secondary School Students' Safe Computer and Internet Usage Awareness: An Example from Bartin Province=Lise Ögrencilerinin Güvenli Bilgisayar ve Internet Kullanim Farkindaliklarinin Incelenmesi: Bartin Ili Örnegi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ramazan; Karaoglan Yilmaz, F. Gizem; Özturk, H. Tugba; Karademir, Tugra

    2017-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been rapidly prevailed among the children and youths. Personal technologies facilitating the students to gain some learning experiences both in and out of the schools also include many threats. It is important for students to have high awareness of safe internet and computer use to overcome…

  19. Influenza like Illness among Medical Residents Anticipates Influenza Diffusion in General Population: Data from a National Survey among Italian Medical Residents

    PubMed Central

    Restivo, Vincenzo; Costantino, Claudio; Mammina, Caterina; Vitale, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this multicentre study was to assess incidence of influenza like illness (ILI) among Italian medical residents (MRs) during 2011–2012 influenza season, to detect variables associated with ILI and to compare estimated ILI incidence among MRs and general population. A cross-sectional survey was carried out throughout an anonymous questionnaire administered to all MRs attending the post-graduate medical schools of 18 Italian Universities. At the same time an analysis of the ILI incidence in the Italian general population was conducted through the Italian Influenza Surveillance Network. Of a total of 2,506 MRs, 1,191 (47.5%) reported at least one ILI episode. A higher proportion of ILIs was reported by MRs of Central (25.0% with ILI vs 20.2% without ILI) and Southern Italy (40.2% with ILI vs. 36.4 without ILI) compared to Northern Italy (34.8% with ILI vs. 43.4% without ILI) (p<0.001). Italian MRs had a higher cumulative incidence of ILIs (546.7 episodes per 1,000 vs. 75.9 episodes per 1,000) and an earlier peak (January 2012 vs. February 2012), compared to general population due to higher number of contacts in hospital setting. MRs reported a high rate of ILI infection probably in association with their working activities. These data suggest the need to offer an earlier influenza vaccination to HCWs than general population with the aim to both prevent ILI and its transmission to patients. PMID:27997602

  20. Emergency department and 'Google flu trends' data as syndromic surveillance indicators for seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L H; Malik, M T; Gumel, A; Strome, T; Mahmud, S M

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated syndromic indicators of influenza disease activity developed using emergency department (ED) data - total ED visits attributed to influenza-like illness (ILI) ('ED ILI volume') and percentage of visits attributed to ILI ('ED ILI percent') - and Google flu trends (GFT) data (ILI cases/100 000 physician visits). Congruity and correlation among these indicators and between these indicators and weekly count of laboratory-confirmed influenza in Manitoba was assessed graphically using linear regression models. Both ED and GFT data performed well as syndromic indicators of influenza activity, and were highly correlated with each other in real time. The strongest correlations between virological data and ED ILI volume and ED ILI percent, respectively, were 0·77 and 0·71. The strongest correlation of GFT was 0·74. Seasonal influenza activity may be effectively monitored using ED and GFT data.

  1. Influenza-like illness in a Vietnamese province: epidemiology in correlation with weather factors and determinants from the surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Thi; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza affects from 5 to 15% of the world's population annually and causes an estimated 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends ‘sentinel surveillance’ for influenza-like illness (ILI) because it is simple and calls for standardized methods at a relatively low cost that can be implemented throughout the world. In Vietnam, ILI is a key priority for public health also because of its annually recurring temporal pattern. Two major factors, on which the spread of influenza depends, are the strain of the virus and its rate of mutation, since flu strains constantly mutate as they compete with host immune systems. In the context of global climate change, the role of climatic factors has been discussed, as they may significantly contribute to the cause of large outbreaks of ILI. Objectives 1) To describe the epidemiology of ILI in Ha Nam province, Vietnam; 2) to seek scientific evidence on the association of ILI occurrence with weather factors in Ha Nam province; and 3) to analyze factors from the Ha Nam ILI surveillance system that contribute to explaining the correlation between the ILI and the weather factors. Design A data set of 89,270 monthly reported ILI cases from 2008 to 2012 in Ha Nam was used to describe ILI epidemiological characteristics. Spearman correlation analyses between ILI cases and weather factors were conducted to identify which preceding period of months and weather patterns influenced the occurrence of ILI cases. Ten in-depth interviews with health workers in charge of recording and reporting ILI cases at different levels of the ILI surveillance system were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of factors contributing to explaining the relation between the ILI and the weather factors. Results The results indicated that the ILI occurred annually in all districts of the Ha Nam province in the five studied years. An epidemic occurred in 2009 with the number of cases three times

  2. Intermedilysin induces EGR-1 expression through calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Susilowati, Heni; Okamura, Hirohiko; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Shono, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kaya; Murakami, Keiji; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Haneji, Tatsuji; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ILY leads to the accumulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in the nucleus in HuCCT1 cells. {yields} ILY induced activation of NFAT1 through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. {yields} Calcineuri/NFAT pathway is involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY treatment. -- Abstract: Intermedilysin (ILY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which is associated with human brain and liver abscesses. Although intrahepatic bile duct cells play a valuable role in the pathogenesis of liver abscess, the molecular mechanism of ILY-treated intrahepatic bile duct cells remains unknown. In this study, we report that ILY induced a nuclear accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]i) in human cholangiocellular cells HuCCT1. We also demonstrate that 10 ng/ml ILY induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation and its nuclear translocation in HuCCT1 cells. In contrast to the result that ILY induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in human hepatic HepG2 cells, ILY did not affect NF-{kappa}B localization in HuCCT1 cells. Dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT1 caused by ILY were prevented by [Ca{sup 2+}]i calcium chelator, BAPTA/AM, and calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. ILY induced early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression and it was inhibited by the pre-treatment with cyclosporine A, indicating that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway was involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY. ILY-induced calcineurin/NFAT1 activation and sequential EGR-1 expression might be related to the pathogenesis of S. intermedius in human bile duct cells.

  3. Influenza surveillance using electronic health records in the American Indian and Alaska Native population

    PubMed Central

    Keck, James W; Redd, John T; Cheek, James E; Layne, Larry J; Groom, Amy V; Kitka, Sassa; Bruce, Michael G; Suryaprasad, Anil; Amerson, Nancy L; Cullen, Theresa; Bryan, Ralph T; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs) provides new opportunities for public health surveillance. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic, we developed a new EHR-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system designed to be resource sparing, rapidly scalable, and flexible. 4 weeks after the first pandemic case, ILI data from Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities were being analyzed. Materials and methods The system defines ILI as a patient visit containing either an influenza-specific International Classification of Disease, V.9 (ICD-9) code or one or more of 24 ILI-related ICD-9 codes plus a documented temperature ≥100°F. EHR-based data are uploaded nightly. To validate results, ILI visits identified by the new system were compared to ILI visits found by medical record review, and the new system's results were compared with those of the traditional US ILI Surveillance Network. Results The system monitored ILI activity at an average of 60% of the 269 IHS electronic health databases. EHR-based surveillance detected ILI visits with a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 97.8% based on chart review (N=2375) of visits at two facilities in September 2009. At the peak of the pandemic (week 41, October 17, 2009), the median time from an ILI visit to data transmission was 6 days, with a mode of 1 day. Discussion EHR-based ILI surveillance was accurate, timely, occurred at the majority of IHS facilities nationwide, and provided useful information for decision makers. EHRs thus offer the opportunity to transform public health surveillance. PMID:23744788

  4. Age-Related Differences in the Accuracy of Web Query-Based Predictions of Influenza-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Signori, Alessio; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background Web queries are now widely used for modeling, nowcasting and forecasting influenza-like illness (ILI). However, given that ILI attack rates vary significantly across ages, in terms of both magnitude and timing, little is known about whether the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related queries is comparable across different age-groups. The present study aimed to investigate features of the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related query volume from the perspective of age. Methods Since Google Flu Trends is unavailable in Italy, Google Trends was used to identify entry terms that correlated highly with official ILI surveillance data. All-age and age-class-specific modeling was performed by means of linear models with generalized least-square estimation. Hold-out validation was used to quantify prediction accuracy. For purposes of comparison, predictions generated by exponential smoothing were computed. Results Five search terms showed high correlation coefficients of > .6. In comparison with exponential smoothing, the all-age query-based model correctly predicted the peak time and yielded a higher correlation coefficient with observed ILI morbidity (.978 vs. .929). However, query-based prediction of ILI morbidity was associated with a greater error. Age-class-specific query-based models varied significantly in terms of prediction accuracy. In the 0–4 and 25–44-year age-groups, these did well and outperformed exponential smoothing predictions; in the 15–24 and ≥ 65-year age-classes, however, the query-based models were inaccurate and highly overestimated peak height. In all but one age-class, peak timing predicted by the query-based models coincided with observed timing. Conclusions The accuracy of web query-based models in predicting ILI morbidity rates could differ among ages. Greater age-specific detail may be useful in flu query-based studies in order to account for age-specific features of the epidemiology of ILI. PMID:26011418

  5. DoD Influenza Surveillance and Vaccine Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    characterization capabilities within the DoD • Culture, HAI , PCR (battery), Sequencing, Serology (HI, MN) – Rapid sharing of results with CDC and/or...unspecified vaccination types Collect 2 Swabs from Each Pt with “Influenza-Like Illness” (ILI) Follow DoD case definition for ILI: • FEVER ≥100.5°F

  6. Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

  7. The Implementation of Web 2.0 Technology for Information Literacy Instruction in Thai University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawetrattanasatian, Oranuch

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology has drawn much attention recently as a fascinating tool for Information Literacy Instruction (ILI), especially in academic libraries. This research was aimed to investigate the implementation of Web 2.0 technology for ILI in Thai university libraries, in terms of information literacy skills being taught, types of Web 2.0…

  8. Release of Multiple Hormones by a Direct Action of Interleukin-1 on Pituitary Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-23

    monolayer culture was investigated. Recombinant human IL-I beta stimulated the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone, luteinizing hormone, growth ... hormone , and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Prolactin secretion by the monolayers was inhibited by similar doses. These concentrations of IL-I are within

  9. Association of indoor air pollution from coal combustion with influenza-like illness in housewives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Yingying; Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Zhiwen

    2016-09-01

    An association of influenza-like illness (ILI) with outdoor air pollution has been reported. However, the effect of indoor air pollution on ILI was rarely investigated. We aimed to determine an association of indoor air pollution from coal combustion (IAPCC) and lifestyle with ILI risk in housewives, and the modification effect of phase II metabolic enzyme genes. We recruited 403 housewives for a cross-sectional study in Shanxi Province, China, including 135 with ILI frequency (≥1 time per year in the past ten years) as the case group and 268 with ILI frequency (<1 times per year) as the control group. Information on their energy usage characteristics and lifestyle was collected by questionnaires, as well as the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of epoxide hydrolase 1 (rs1051740 and rs2234922), N-acetyltransferase 2 (rs1041983), and glutathione S-transferase (rs1695). We used exposure index to indicate the level of IAPCC among housewives. Our results revealed that the exposure index was positively correlated with ILI frequency. A significant dose-response trend between the exposure index and ILI risk was found with or without adjusting for confounders. Cooking frequency in kitchen with coal as primary fuel and ventilation frequency in the living room or bedroom with a coal-fueled stove for heating during the heating season were two important risk factors to affect ILI frequency. Only rs1051740 was found to be associated with exposure index, whereas it didn't have interaction effect with exposure index on ILI frequency. In conclusion, IAPCC and SNPs of rs1051740 were both associated with ILI frequency.

  10. Effects of school breaks on influenza-like illness incidence in a temperate Chinese region: an ecological study from 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yanhui; Wu, Zhenyu; Ji, Jiayi; Sun, Jingyi; Sun, Xiaoyu; Qin, Guoyou; Qin, Jingning; Xiao, Zheng; Ren, Jian; Qin, Di; Zheng, Xueying; Wang, Xi-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of winter/summer school breaks on occurrences of influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods We jointly analysed ILI surveillance data with the timing of school breaks in a temperate district in Beijing, China from 2008 to 2015. ILI incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of schoolchildren (5–14 and 15–24 years of age) to adults (25–59 and >60 years of age) were used to measure the age shift of ILI incidence before, during and after the 4-week winter/7-week summer breaks. Serfling-based Poisson regression model with adjustment for unmeasured confounders was built to further assess the effect of winter school breaks. Results ILI incidences were consistently lower during winter breaks than before winter breaks for all age groups. IRRs of younger schoolchildren aged 5–14 to adults were higher during winter school breaks than before breaks, while the opposite was true for the IRRs of older schoolchildren aged 15–24 to adults. Schoolchildren-to-adults IRRs during summer breaks were significantly lower than before or after school breaks (p<0.001). Conclusions Both winter and summer breaks were associated with reductions of ILI incidences among schoolchildren and adults. Our study contributes additional evidence on the effects of school breaks on ILI incidence, suggesting school closure could be effective in controlling influenza transmission in developing countries. PMID:28264827

  11. The Fine Temporal Structure of the Rat Licking Pattern: What Causes the Variabiliy in the Interlick Intervals and How is it Affected by the Drinking Solution?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Licking is a repetitive behavior controlled by a central pattern generator. Even though interlick intervals (ILIs) within bursts of licks are considered fairly regular, the conditions that affect their variability are unknown. We analyzed the licking pattern in rats that licked water, 10% sucrose solution, or 10% ethanol solution, in 90-min recording sessions after 4h of water deprivation. The histograms of ILIs indicate that licking typically occurred at a preferred ILI of about 130−140ms with evidence of bimodal or multimodal distributions due to occasional licking failures. We found that the longer the pause between bursts of licks, the shorter was the first ILI of the burst. When bursts of licks were preceded by a pause >4 s, the ILI was the shortest (~110ms) at the beginning of the burst, and then it increased rapidly in the first few licks and slowly in subsequent licks. Interestingly, the first ILI of a burst of licks was not significantly different when licking any of the 3 solutions, but subsequent licks exhibited a temporal pattern characteristic of each solution. The rapid deceleration in intraburst licking rate was due to an increase from ~27ms to ~56ms in the tongue-spout contact duration while the intercontact interval was only slightly changed (80−90ms). Therefore, the contact duration seems to be the major factor that increases the variability in the ILIs and could be another means for the rat to adjust the amount of fluid ingested in each individual lick. PMID:23902635

  12. Role of catabolite control protein A in the regulation of intermedilysin production by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Tabata, Atsushi; Hiroshima, Riki; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Whiley, Robert A; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is an opportunistic pathogen of humans that causes purulent infections, including brain and liver abscesses. This pathogen secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin, which has been recognized as a major virulence factor. However, most of the expressional control mechanisms of ily are still unknown. To determine these mechanisms, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the ily promoter region. We found a highly homologous region to the catabolite-repressible element (cre) in the ily promoter region and observed a considerable decrease in the amount of secreted intermedilysin when cells were grown in a culture medium containing high concentrations of glucose/utilizable carbohydrates. Disruption of the ccpA gene, which encodes catabolite control protein A, did not induce catabolite repression of ily by glucose/utilizable carbohydrates. In cre mutants, catabolite repression of ily was partially restored, and purified catabolite control protein A bound to an oligonucleotide containing the cre consensus sequence in the ily promoter region. In addition, a prolonged lag phase and slower doubling time of the ccpA mutant cells were observed. Our data show that S. intermedius can modulate ily expression and growth rate through catabolite control protein A-mediated monitoring of the extracellular glucose/utilizable carbohydrate concentration.

  13. Cationic Ionic Liquids Organic Ligands Based Metal-Organic Frameworks for Fabrication of Core-Shell Microspheres for Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qian; Ma, Junqian; Ma, Siqi; Wang, Shengyu; Li, Lijun; Zhu, Xianghui; Qiao, Xiaoqiang

    In this study, new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanocrystals modified SiO2 core-shell microspheres were designed with cationic ionic liquids (ILs) 1,3-bis(4-carboxybutyl)imidazolium bromide (ILI) as organic ligands. By further adjustment the growth cycles, the new ILI-01@SiO2 core-shell stationary phase was facilely fabricated. The developed stationary phase was respectively characterized via element analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Because the introduction of cationic imidazolium-based ILs ILI for fabrication of the MOFs nanocrystals shell, the new stationary phase exhibits the retention mechanism of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Many polar samples, such as amides, vitamins, nucleic acid bases, and nucleosides, were utilized to investigate the performance of the prepared ILI-01@SiO2 column. Compared to the conventional aminosilica column, the new ILI-01@SiO2 column displays high separation selectivity in a shorter separation time. Furthermore, the new ILI-01@SiO2 column was also used for detection of illegal melamine addition in the baby formula. All the above results demonstrate the new ILI-01@SiO2 core-shell stationary phase is of good potentials for high-selectivity separation the polar samples.

  14. Hospital Triage System for Adult Patients Using an Influenza-Like Illness Scoring System during the 2009 Pandemic—Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Esteban; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Gomez-Abundis, Gerardo F.; Briseño-Ramirez, Jaime; Perez-Gomez, Hector Raul; Lopez-Gatell, Hugo; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Ramírez, Ernesto; López, Irma; Iguala, Miguel; Chapela, Ietza Bojórquez; Zavala, Ethel Palacios; Hernández, Mauricio; Stuart, Tammy L.; Villarino, Margarita Elsa; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Waterman, Steve; Uyeki, Timothy; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged during 2009. To help clinicians triage adults with acute respiratory illness, a scoring system for influenza-like illness (ILI) was implemented at Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Mexico. Methods A medical history, laboratory and radiology results were collected on emergency room (ER) patients with acute respiratory illness to calculate an ILI-score. Patients were evaluated for admission by their ILI-score and clinicians' assessment of risk for developing complications. Nasal and throat swabs were collected from intermediate and high-risk patients for influenza testing by RT-PCR. The disposition and ILI-score of those oseltamivir-treated versus untreated, clinical characteristics of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) patients versus test-negative patients were compared by Pearson's Χ2, Fisher's Exact, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results Of 1840 ER patients, 230 were initially hospitalized (mean ILI-score = 15), and the rest were discharged, including 286 ambulatory patients given oseltamivir (median ILI-score = 11), and 1324 untreated (median ILI-score = 5). Fourteen (1%) untreated patients returned, and 3 were hospitalized on oseltamivir (median ILI-score  = 19). Of 371 patients tested by RT-PCR, 104 (28%) had pandemic influenza and 42 (11%) had seasonal influenza A detected. Twenty (91%) of 22 imaged hospitalized pandemic influenza patients had bilateral infiltrates compared to 23 (38%) of 61 imaged hospital test-negative patients (p<0.001). One patient with confirmed pandemic influenza presented 6 days after symptom onset, required mechanical ventilation, and died. Conclusions The triaging system that used an ILI-score complimented clinicians' judgment of who needed oseltamivir and inpatient care and helped hospital staff manage a surge in demand for services. PMID:20498718

  15. Intermedilysin is essential for the invasion of hepatoma HepG2 cells by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Sukeno, Akiko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Whiley, Robert A; Jafar, Syed I; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Ohkura, Kazuto; Maeda, Takuya; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kourai, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius causes endogenous infections leading to abscesses. This species produces intermedilysin (ILY), a human-specific cytolysin. Because of the significant correlation between higher ILY production levels by S. intermedius and deep-seated abscesses, we constructed ily knockout mutant UNS38 B3 and complementation strain UNS38 B3R1 in order to investigate the role of ILY in deep-seated infections. Strain UNS38 reduced the viability of human liver cell line HepG2 at infection but not of rat liver cell line BRL3A. Isogenic mutant strain UNS38 B3 was not cytotoxic in either cell line. Quantification of S. intermedius revealed that in infected HepG2 cells UNS38 but not UNS38 B3 increased intracellularly concomitantly with increasing cell damage. This difference between UNS38 and UNS38 B3 was not observed with UNS38 B3R1. Invasion and proliferation in BRL3A cells was not observed. Masking UNS38 or UNS38 B3R1 with ILY antibody drastically decreased adherence and invasion of HepG2. Moreover, coating strain UNS38 B3 with ILY partially restored adherence to HepG2 but without subsequent bacterial growth. At 1 day post-infection, many intact UNS38 were detected in the damaged phagosomes of HepG2 with bacterial proliferation observed in the cytoplasm of dead HepG2 after an additional 2 day incubation. These results indicate that surface-bound ILY on S. intermedius is an important factor for invasion of human cells by this bacterium and that secretion of ILY within host cells is essential for subsequent host cell death. These data strongly implicate ILY as an important factor in the pathogenesis of abscesses in vivo by this streptococcus.

  16. LacR mutations are frequently observed in Streptococcus intermedius and are responsible for increased intermedilysin production and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Imaki, Hidenori; Masuda, Sachiko; Okamoto, Ayumi; Kim, Hyejin; Waite, Richard D; Whiley, Robert A; Kikuchi, Ken; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2013-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin (ILY), which is considered to be the major virulence factor of this pathogen. We screened for a repressor of ily expression by using random gene disruption in a low-ILY-producing strain (PC574). Three independent high-ILY-producing colonies that had plasmid insertions within a gene that has high homology to lacR were isolated. Validation of these observations was achieved through disruption of lacR in strain PC574 with an erythromycin cassette, which also led to higher hemolytic activity, increased transcription of ily, and higher cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, compared to the parental strain. The direct binding of LacR within the ily promoter region was shown by a biotinylated DNA probe pulldown assay, and the amount of ILY secreted into the culture supernatant by PC574 cells was increased by adding lactose or galactose to the medium as a carbon source. Furthermore, we examined lacR nucleotide sequences and the hemolytic activity of 50 strains isolated from clinical infections and 7 strains isolated from dental plaque. Of the 50 strains isolated from infections, 13 showed high ILY production, 11 of these 13 strains had one or more point mutations and/or an insertion mutation in LacR, and almost all mutations were associated with a marked decline in LacR function. These results strongly suggest that mutation in lacR is required for the overproduction of ILY, which is associated with an increase in pathogenicity of S. intermedius.

  17. Intensive lifestyle intervention improves physical function among obese adults with knee pain: findings from the Look AHEAD trial.

    PubMed

    Foy, Capri G; Lewis, Cora E; Hairston, Kristen G; Miller, Gary D; Lang, Wei; Jakicic, John M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ribisl, Paul M; Walkup, Michael P; Wagenknecht, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions have resulted in weight loss or improved physical fitness among individuals with obesity, which may lead to improved physical function. This prospective investigation involved participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial who reported knee pain at baseline (n = 2,203). The purposes of this investigation were to determine whether an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) condition resulted in improvement in self-reported physical function from baseline to 12 months vs. a Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) condition, and whether changes in weight or fitness mediated the effect of the ILI. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales, and WOMAC summary score. ILI participants exhibited greater adjusted mean weight loss (s.e.) vs. DSE participants (-9.02 kg (0.48) vs. -0.78 kg (0.49); P < 0.001)). ILI participants also demonstrated more favorable change in WOMAC summary scores vs. DSE participants (β (s.e.) = -1.81 (0.63); P = 0.004). Multiple regression mediation analyses revealed that weight loss was a mediator of the effect of the ILI intervention on change in WOMAC pain, function, and summary scores (P < 0.001). In separate analyses, increased fitness also mediated the effect of the ILI intervention upon WOMAC summary score (P < 0.001). The ILI condition resulted in significant improvement in physical function among overweight and obese adults with diabetes and knee pain. The ILI condition also resulted in significant weight loss and improved fitness, which are possible mechanisms through which the ILI condition improved physical function.

  18. Intensive Lifestyle Intervention Improves Physical Function Among Obese Adults With Knee Pain: Findings From the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Capri G.; Lewis, Cora E.; Hairston, Kristen G.; Miller, Gary D.; Lang, Wei; Jakicic, John M.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Ribisl, Paul M.; Walkup, Michael P.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions have resulted in weight loss or improved physical fitness among individuals with obesity, which may lead to improved physical function. This prospective investigation involved participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial who reported knee pain at baseline (n = 2,203). The purposes of this investigation were to determine whether an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) condition resulted in improvement in self-reported physical function from baseline to 12 months vs. a Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) condition, and whether changes in weight or fitness mediated the effect of the ILI. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales, and WOMAC summary score. ILI participants exhibited greater adjusted mean weight loss (s.e.) vs. DSE participants (−9.02 kg (0.48) vs. −0.78 kg (0.49); P < 0.001)). ILI participants also demonstrated more favorable change in WOMAC summary scores vs. DSE participants (β (s.e.) = −1.81 (0.63); P = 0.004). Multiple regression mediation analyses revealed that weight loss was a mediator of the effect of the ILI intervention on change in WOMAC pain, function, and summary scores (P < 0.001). In separate analyses, increased fitness also mediated the effect of the ILI intervention upon WOMAC summary score (P < 0.001). The ILI condition resulted in significant improvement in physical function among overweight and obese adults with diabetes and knee pain. The ILI condition also resulted in significant weight loss and improved fitness, which are possible mechanisms through which the ILI condition improved physical function. PMID:20559303

  19. Using Web and Social Media for Influenza Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Cook, Diane; Mikler, Armin R.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-01-04

    Analysis of Google influenza-like-illness (ILI) search queries has shown a strongly correlated pattern with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention seasonal ILI reporting data.Web and social media provide another resource to detect increases in ILI. This paper evaluates trends in blog posts that discuss influenza. Our key finding is that from 5-October 2008 to 31-January 2009 a high correlation exists between the frequency of posts, containing influenza keywords, per week and CDC influenza-like-illness surveillance data.

  20. Reduction in Weight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: One-Year Results of the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes one-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events. Research Design and Methods A multi-centered randomized controlled trial of 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 45–74 years, with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (≥27 kg/m2 if taking insulin). An Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) involving group and individual meetings to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity was compared to a Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) condition. Results Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (p<0.001). Mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (p<0.001). A greater proportion of ILI participants had reductions in diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering medicines. Mean HbA1c dropped from 7.3% to 6.6% in ILI (p<0.001) versus from 7.3% to 7.2% in DSE. Systolic and diastolic pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and urine albumin/creatinine improved significantly more in ILI than DSE participants (all p<0.01). Conclusions At 1 year, ILI resulted in clinically significant weight loss in persons with type 2 diabetes. This was associated with improved diabetes control and CVD risk factors and reduced medicine use in ILI versus DSE. Continued intervention and follow-up will determine whether these changes are maintained and will reduce CVD risk. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00017953 PMID:17363746

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections in Older Adults With Moderate to Severe Influenza-like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Falsey, Ann R.; McElhaney, Janet E.; Beran, Jiri; van Essen, Gerrit A.; Duval, Xavier; Esen, Meral; Galtier, Florence; Gervais, Pierre; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Kremsner, Peter; Launay, Odile; Leroux-Roels, Geert; McNeil, Shelly A.; Nowakowski, Andrzej; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo; St Rose, Suzanne; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie; Oostvogels, Lidia; Durviaux, Serge; Taylor, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively assessed viral etiologies of acute respiratory infections in community-based elderly individuals. We assessed viral respiratory pathogens in individuals ≥65 years with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods. Multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction identified viral pathogens in nasal/throat swabs from 556 episodes of moderate-to-severe ILI, defined as ILI with pneumonia, hospitalization, or maximum daily influenza symptom severity score (ISS) >2. Cases were selected from a randomized trial of an adjuvanted vs nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine conducted in elderly adults from 15 countries. Results. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in 7.4% (41/556) moderate-to-severe ILI episodes in elderly adults. Most (39/41) were single infections. There was a significant association between country and RSV detection (P = .004). RSV prevalence was 7.1% (2/28) in ILI with pneumonia, 12.5% (8/64) in ILI with hospitalization, and 6.7% (32/480) in ILI with maximum ISS > 2. Any virus was detected in 320/556 (57.6%) ILI episodes: influenza A (104/556, 18.7%), rhinovirus/enterovirus (82/556, 14.7%), coronavirus and human metapneumovirus (each 32/556, 5.6%). Conclusions. This first global study providing data on RSV disease in ≥65 year-olds confirms that RSV is an important respiratory pathogen in the elderly. Preventative measures such as vaccination could decrease severe respiratory illnesses and complications in the elderly. PMID:24482398

  2. Prism. Volume 2, Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    time to be with their fam- ilies. In addition, Afghan villagers by nature tend to be hostile to outsiders and unwilling to cooperate even with Afghans...or disap- peared for weeks at a time to be with their fam- ilies. In addition, Afghan villagers by nature tend to be hostile to outsiders and...personnel will have access to detailed local knowledge. Challenges The defining characteristic of VSO/ALP operations is their distributed nature

  3. Hepatic macrophage iron aggravates experimental alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shigang; She, Hongyun; Zhang, An-Sheng; Wang, Jiaohong; Mkrtchyan, Hasmik; Dynnyk, Alla; Gordeuk, Victor R.; French, Samuel W.; Enns, Caroline A.; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2008-01-01

    One prime feature of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is iron accumulation in hepatic macrophages/Kupffer cells (KC) associated with enhanced NF-κB activation. Our recent work demonstrates a peroxynitrite-mediated transient rise in intracellular labile iron (ILI) as novel signaling for endotoxin-induced IKK and NF-κB activation in rodent KC. The present study investigated the mechanism of KC iron accumulation and its effects on ILI response in experimental ALD. We also tested ILI response in human blood monocytes. Chronic alcohol feeding in rats results in increased expression of transferrin (Tf) receptor-1 and hemochromatosis gene (HFE), enhanced iron uptake, an increase in nonheme iron content, and accentuated ILI response for NF-κB activation in KC. Ex vivo treatment of these KC with an iron chelator abrogates the increment of iron content, ILI response, and NF-κB activation. The ILI response is evident in macrophages derived from human blood monocytes by PMA treatment but not in vehicle-treated monocytes, and this differentiation-associated phenomenon is essential for maximal TNF-α release. PMA-induced macrophages load iron dextran and enhance ILI response and TNF-α release. These effects are reproduced in KC selectively loaded in vivo with iron dextran in mice and more importantly aggravate experimental ALD. Our results suggest enhanced iron uptake as a mechanism of KC iron loading in ALD and demonstrate the ILI response as a function acquired by differentiated macrophages in humans and as a priming mechanism for ALD. PMID:18599584

  4. Current Trends in Regional Therapy for Melanoma: Lessons Learned from 225 Regional Chemotherapy Treatments between 1995 and 2010 at a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Amanda K; Beasley, Georgia M; Broadwater, Gloria; Augustine, Christina K; Padussis, James C; Turley, Ryan; Peterson, Bercedis; Seigler, Hilliard; Pruitt, Scott K; Tyler, Douglas S

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) and isolated limb infusion (ILI) are utilized to manage advanced extremity melanoma but no consensus exists as to which treatment is preferable and how to monitor patients post-treatment. Study Design Using a prospectively-maintained database, we reviewed our experience with melphalan based HILP (that included 62 first time and 10 second time) and ILI (that included 126 first time and 18 second time) procedures performed in 188 patients. PET/CT was obtained 3 months post regional treatment for one year and then every 6 months thereafter. Results The overall response rate (complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)) of HILP was 81% (80% CI: 73-87%) while the overall response rate from ILI was 43% (80% CI: 37-49%) for first time procedures only. HILP had a CR rate of 55% with a median duration of 32 months, while ILI had a CR rate of 30% with median duration of 24 months. Patients who experienced a regional recurrence after initial regional treatment were more likely to achieve a CR following repeat HILP (50%, n = 10) compared to repeat ILI (28%, n = 18). Although the spectrum of toxicity was similar for ILI and HILP, the likelihood of rare catastrophic complication of limb loss was greater with HILP (2/62) than ILI (0/122). PET/CT was effective for surveillance after regional therapy to identify regional nodal and pulmonary disease that was not clinically evident, but often amenable to surgical resection (25/49, 51% of cases). In contrast, PET/CT was not effective at predicting complete response to treatment with an accuracy of only 50%. Conclusions In the largest single institution regional therapy series reported to date, we found that while ILI is effective, and well-tolerated, HILP is a more definitive way to control advanced disease. PMID:21493111

  5. An Intensive Lifestyle Intervention Is an Effective Treatment of Morbid Obesity: The TRAMOMTANA Study—A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Burguera, Bartolomé; Jesús Tur, Juan; Escudero, Antonio Jorge; Alos, María; Pagán, Alberto; Cortés, Baltasar; González, Xavier Francesc; Soriano, Joan B.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective therapy to induce weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Objective. This controlled, clinical trial with a two-year intervention was aimed at comparing the efficacy of two nonsurgical approaches versus bariatric surgery, on body weight changes and metabolic parameters in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Patients were randomized to an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) (n = 60) or Conventional Obesity Therapy (COT) (n = 46). The ILI group received behavioral therapy and nutritional counseling. The COT group received standard medical treatment. They were compared with a third group, Surgical Obesity Group (SOG) (n = 37). Results. Patients who received ILI had a greater percentage of weight loss than patients receiving COT (−11.3% versus −1.6%; p < 0.0044). Interestingly 31.4% of patients included in the ILI group were no longer morbidly obese after just six months of intervention, increasing to 44.4% after 24 months of intervention. The percentage weight loss in SOG was −29.6% after that same period of time. Conclusions. ILI was associated with significant weight loss when compared to COT, in a group of patients with obesity. An ILI approach could be an alternative therapy to patients with obesity, who are not candidates to undergo bariatric surgery. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2009-013737-24. PMID:26257780

  6. Hygiene Behaviors Associated with Influenza-Like Illness among Adults in Beijing, China: A Large, Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuangsheng; Ma, Chunna; Yang, Zuyao; Yang, Peng; Chu, Yanhui; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Hongjun; Hua, Weiyu; Tang, Yaqing; Li, Chao; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible hygiene behaviors associated with the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing. In January 2011, we conducted a multi-stage sampling, cross-sectional survey of adults living in Beijing using self-administered anonymous questionnaires. The main outcome variable was self-reported ILI within the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with self-reported ILI. A total of 13003 participants completed the questionnaires. 6068 (46.7%) of all participants reported ILI during the past year. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the variables significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting ILI were regular physical exercise (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.74-0.87), optimal hand hygiene (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80-0.94), face mask use when going to hospitals (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80-0.95), and not sharing of towels and handkerchiefs (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.63-0.73). These results highlight that personal hygiene behaviors were potential preventive factors against the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing, and future interventions to improve personal hygiene behaviors are needed in Beijing.

  7. Lifestyle intervention and/or statins for the reduction of C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes: From the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Belalcazar, L.M.; Haffner, S.M.; Lang, W.; Hoogeveen, R.C.; Rushing, J.; Schwenke, D.C.; Tracy, R.P.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Kriska, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular risk remains high despite statin use. Overweight/obese diabetic persons usually have normal/low LDL-cholesterol but high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We aimed to examine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss (ILI) on CRP levels in overweight/obese diabetic individuals by statin use. Design and Methods Look AHEAD was a randomized trial in overweight/obese type 2 diabetic individuals testing whether ILI would reduce cardiovascular mortality, when compared to usual care. We evaluated CRP changes in 1,431 participants with biomarker levels, who remained on or off statin treatment for 1-year. Results The reduction in CRP levels with ILI at 1 year in men and women on statins was −44.9 and −42.3 %, respectively, compared to −13.7 and −21.0 % for those on statins and usual care (p<0.0001). At 1 year, median CRP levels were: 1.8 mg/L in participants randomized to ILI on statin therapy; 2.6 mg/L for those on statins randomized to usual care and 2.9 mg/L for participants not on statins but randomized to ILI. Weight loss was associated with 1-year CRP reduction (p<0.0001) in statin and non-statin users. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in overweight/obese diabetic persons, ILI and statin therapy may have substantial additive anti-inflammatory benefits. PMID:23512860

  8. Impact of Weight Loss on Ankle-Brachial Index and Inter-Artery Blood Pressures in Overweight and Obese Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Bahnson, Judy; Knowler, William C.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Beavers, Daniel; Johnson, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Design and Methods The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE) in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Annual ankle and brachial blood pressures over four years were used compute ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) and to assess inter-artery blood pressure differences in 5018 participants. Results ILI, compared to DSE, produced 7.8% (Year 1) to 3.6% (Year 4) greater weight losses. These did not affect prevalence of low (<0.90) ABI (3.60% in DSE versus 3.14% in ILI; p=0.20) or elevated (>1.40) ABI (7.52% in DSE versus 7.59% in ILI: p=0.90), but produced smaller mean (SE) maximum inter-artery systolic blood pressure differences among ankle sites [19.7 (0.2) mmHg for ILI versus 20.6 (0.2) mmHg for DSE (p<0.001)] and between arms [5.8 (0.1) mmHg for ILI versus 6.1 (0.1) mmHg for DSE (p=0.01)]. Conclusions Four years of intensive behavioral weight loss intervention did not significantly alter prevalence of abnormal ABI, however it did reduce differences in systolic blood pressures among arterial sites. PMID:24174392

  9. Economic losses related to internal diseases in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keiichi; Honda, Takeshi; Oyama, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the direct economic losses due to the condemnation of the liver and large intestine because of internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver (MNL) and inflammation of the large intestine (ILI)), and the indirect losses because of reductions in carcass performance from MNL, bovine abdominal fat necrosis (BFN) and ILI using data from 5383 Japanese Black cattle. Direct losses were estimated by multiplying the price of the condemned part by the frequency of its occurrence owing to the disease. Similarly, indirect losses were estimated as the product of unit carcass price and reduction in carcass weight (CW) due to the disease. The direct impact on the beef cattle industry from MNL and ILI was estimated at around $1.29 million (US$1 = ¥120) per year. A least-squares analysis showed that MNL had no influence on any carcass trait, whereas BFN and ILI significantly reduced CW, rib eye area and darkened the beef. ILI also reduced rib thickness. The indirect losses from BFN and ILI were estimated as a maximum of $131.7 and $256.4 per animal and around $6.26 million and $4.03 million for the industry, respectively, mostly because of the reduction in CW.

  10. Cluster randomised controlled trial to examine medical mask use as source control for people with respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Zhang, Yi; Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Seale, Holly; Zhang, Daitao; Chu, Yanhui; Zhang, Haiyan; Rahman, Bayzidur; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Medical masks are commonly used by sick individuals with influenza-like illness (ILI) to prevent spread of infections to others, but clinical efficacy data are absent. Objective Determine whether medical mask use by sick individuals with ILI protects well contacts from related respiratory infections. Setting 6 major hospitals in 2 districts of Beijing, China. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Participants 245 index cases with ILI. Intervention Index cases with ILI were randomly allocated to medical mask (n=123) and control arms (n=122). Since 43 index cases in the control arm also used a mask during the study period, an as-treated post hoc analysis was performed by comparing outcomes among household members of index cases who used a mask (mask group) with household members of index cases who did not use a mask (no-mask group). Main outcome measure Primary outcomes measured in household members were clinical respiratory illness, ILI and laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infection. Results In an intention-to-treat analysis, rates of clinical respiratory illness (relative risk (RR) 0.61, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.13), ILI (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.03 to 3.13) and laboratory-confirmed viral infections (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.54) were consistently lower in the mask arm compared with control, although not statistically significant. A post hoc comparison between the mask versus no-mask groups showed a protective effect against clinical respiratory illness, but not against ILI and laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections. Conclusions The study indicates a potential benefit of medical masks for source control, but is limited by small sample size and low secondary attack rates. Larger trials are needed to confirm efficacy of medical masks as source control. Trial registration number ACTRN12613000852752; Results. PMID:28039289

  11. Comparison of Influenza Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics between Outpatients and Inpatients in Zhejiang Province, China, March 2011–June 2015

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhao; Liu, Shelan; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Jian; Ling, Feng; Chen, Enfu

    2017-01-01

    Given the rapid rate of global spread and consequently healthcare costs related to influenza, surveillance plays an important role in monitoring the emerging pandemics in China. However, the characteristics of influenza in Southeast of China haven’t been fully studied. Our study use the surveillance data collected from 16 sentinel hospitals across Zhejiang Province during March 2011 through June 2015, including the demographic information and respiratory specimens from influenza-like illness (ILI) patients and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) patients. As analysis results, most SARI and ILI patients were in the age group of 0–4 years old (62.38% of ILI and 71.54% of SARI). The respiratory specimens have statistically significantly higher positive rate for influenza among ILI patients than that among SARI patients (p < 0.001). The comparison between ILI patients and SARI patients shows no statistically significantly difference in detecting influenza virus type and influenza A virus subtype. The SARI and ILI patients were found to be positively correlated for overall positive rate (r = 0.63, p < 0.001), the weekly percentage of A(H1N1)pdm09 (r = 0.51, p < 0.001), influenza B virus (r = 0.17, p = 0.013), and A/H3N2 (r = 0.43, p < 0.001) among all the positive numbers. Our study demonstrated that the activities of influenza virus, including its subtypes, had a similar temporal pattern between ILI and SARI cases. PMID:28241447

  12. Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project.

    PubMed

    Paget, W John; Balderston, Catherine; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Gé; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone

    2010-08-01

    The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003-2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0-4 and 5-14 years in England, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0-4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47-83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making concerning

  13. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at one year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Miller, Gary D.; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement (PMR) plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a PMR plan in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI). Objective Compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in ILI and diabetes support and education (DSE) groups at 12 months. Design Randomized controlled trial, comparing ILI to DSE, at 0- and 12-months. Participants/setting From 16 United States sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available on 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to DSE and 1,211 randomized to ILI. Main outcome measures A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and saturated fats; trans fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements (MRs); and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Statistical analyses performed Mixed-factor analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted chi-square tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. Results At 12 months, ILI had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than DSE. ILI consumed more servings/day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt & cheese; and fewer servings/day of fats, oils & sweets than DSE. A greater percentage of ILI than DSE participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within ILI, a greater percentage of participants consuming ≥ 2 MRs/day than < 1 MR/day met most

  14. Reversible lipid accumulation and associated division arrest of Mycobacterium avium in lipoprotein-induced foamy macrophages may resemble key events during latency and reactivation of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Caire-Brändli, Irène; Papadopoulos, Alexia; Malaga, Wladimir; Marais, David; Canaan, Stéphane; Thilo, Lutz; de Chastellier, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    During the dormant phase of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists in lung granulomas by residing in foamy macrophages (FM) that contain abundant lipid bodies (LB) in their cytoplasm, allowing bacilli to accumulate lipids as intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions (ILI). An experimental model of FM is presented where bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages are infected with M. avium and exposed to very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) as a lipid source. Quantitative analysis of detailed electron microscope observations showed the following results. (i) Macrophages became foamy, and mycobacteria formed ILI, for which host triacylglycerides, rather than cholesterol, was essential. (ii) Lipid transfer occurred via mycobacterium-induced fusion between LB and phagosomes. (iii) Mycobacteria showed a thinned cell wall and became elongated but did not divide. (iv) Upon removal of VLDL, LB and ILI declined within hours, and simultaneous resumption of mycobacterial division restored the number of mycobacteria to the same level as that found in untreated control macrophages. This showed that the presence of ILI resulted in a reversible block of division without causing a change in the mycobacterial replication rate. Fluctuation between ILI either partially or fully extending throughout the mycobacterial cytoplasm was suggestive of bacterial cell cycle events. We propose that VLDL-driven FM constitute a well-defined cellular system in which to study changed metabolic states of intracellular mycobacteria that may relate to persistence and reactivation of tuberculosis.

  15. Outbreak of influenza in an overseas student travel group--Taiwan 2008.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Tsung-Pei; Lin, Chien-Hui; Lo, Yi-Chun; Li, Yi-Syue; Chiu, Chan-Hsien

    2010-05-01

    Influenza is a frequent cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI). In July 2008, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate an influenza outbreak occurring in an overland travel group of overseas students. ARI was defined as the presence of any respiratory symptom such as cough, rhinorrhoea, sore throat or stuffy nose. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was defined as ARI plus fever > or =38 degrees C. Throat swabs were taken from symptomatic participants and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed. One hundred and seventy participants were interviewed. Forty-four (26%) had an ARI and 22 (13%) had an ILI. Of the 33 specimens collected, 18 (54%) were positive for influenza A/H3N2. Taiwanese group leaders had increased risk of acquiring both ARI and ILI (ARI relative risk (RR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.7 and ILI RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.3). Fifteen participants were vaccinated. The vaccine effectiveness was 52% for ILI (p = 0.70). The outbreak stopped after cohorting and the use of surgical masks. Vaccination appeared to be effective in preventing infection.

  16. Induction of canine in vitro reactivity to alloantigen following intralymphatic immunization.

    PubMed

    Bubbers, J E; Paman, R L; Juillard, G J

    1981-01-01

    An experimental model has been developed using the dog to study the induction of systemic cell-mediated immunity following intralymphatic immunization (ILI) with allogenic cells. As detected in one-way mixed lymphocyte cultures, blastogenically-reactive immune peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed after the third ILI with 10(7) cells. The in vitro reactivity was augmented by a fourth ILI to a node not previously injected indicating that a response in one node was followed by the trafficing of memory cells to other nodes. No immune PBL were detected after four ILI with lower doses of 10(3) cells. However, these dogs subsequently responded to a single injection of 10(7) cells with high levels of immune lymphocytes which were detectable for up to 24 days. Apparently, ILI with 10(3) or 10(5) cells, while insufficient to produce detectable levels of alloreactive lymphocytes were sufficient for lymphocyte priming. Results obtained with this model will aid in ongoing human trials of intralymphatic immunotherapy of malignant disease.

  17. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P; Kriska, Andrea P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-12-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI.

  18. Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness: 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Craig B; Carlson, Sandra J; McCallum, Lisa; Butler, Michelle T; Fejsa, John; Elvidge, Elissa; Durrheim, David N

    2015-09-30

    Flutracking is a national online community influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system that monitors weekly ILI activity and field vaccine effectiveness. This article reports on the 2013 and 2014 findings from Flutracking. From 2013 to 2014 there was a 14.0% increase in participants who completed at least 1 survey to 21,021 participants. By the end of the 2013 and 2014 seasons, respectively 59.7% and 59.1% of all participants had received the seasonal influenza vaccine. The 2013 Flutracking national ILI weekly incidence peaked in late August at 4.3% in the unvaccinated group, 1 week earlier than national counts of laboratory confirmed influenza. The 2014 Flutracking national ILI weekly incidence also peaked in late August at 4.7% in the unvaccinated group, in the same week as national counts of laboratory confirmed influenza. A lower percentage of Flutracking participants took two or more days off from work or normal duties in 2013 (peak level 1.6%) compared with 2014 (peak level 2.5%) and sought health advice in 2013 (peak level of 1.1%) compared with 2014 (peak of 1.6%). Flutracking ILI surveillance suggests that 2014 was a moderately more intense season than 2013 and similar to 2012.

  19. Flu Near You: Crowdsourced Symptom Reporting Spanning 2 Influenza Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Smolinski, Mark S.; Baltrusaitis, Kristin; Chunara, Rumi; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Wójcik, Oktawia; Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, Andre; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We summarized Flu Near You (FNY) data from the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons in the United States. Methods. FNY collects limited demographic characteristic information upon registration, and prompts users each Monday to report symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) experienced during the previous week. We calculated the descriptive statistics and rates of ILI for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 seasons. We compared raw and noise-filtered ILI rates with ILI rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ILINet surveillance system. Results. More than 61 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2012–2013 season, totaling 327 773 reports. Nearly 40 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2013–2014 season, totaling 336 933 reports. Rates of ILI as reported by FNY tracked closely with ILINet in both timing and magnitude. Conclusions. With increased participation, FNY has the potential to serve as a viable complement to existing outpatient, hospital-based, and laboratory surveillance systems. Although many established systems have the benefits of specificity and credibility, participatory systems offer advantages in the areas of speed, sensitivity, and scalability. PMID:26270299

  20. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Long; Ding, Yusong; Su, Deqi

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent) and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  1. Cre-inducible human CD59 mediates rapid cell ablation after intermedilysin administration

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dechun; Dai, Shen; Liu, Fengming; Ohtake, Yosuke; Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Yonggang; Kearns, Alison; Peng, Xiao; Zhu, Faliang; Hayat, Umar; Li, Man; He, Yong; Xu, Mingjiang; Zhao, Chunling; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Ju, Cynthia; Bryda, Elizabeth C.; Gordon, Jennifer; Khalili, Kamel; Hu, Wenhui; Li, Shuxin; Qin, Xuebin

    2016-01-01

    Cell ablation is a powerful tool for studying cell lineage and/or function; however, current cell-ablation models have limitations. Intermedilysin (ILY), a cytolytic pore-forming toxin that is secreted by Streptococcus intermedius, lyses human cells exclusively by binding to the human complement regulator CD59 (hCD59), but does not react with CD59 from nonprimates. Here, we took advantage of this feature of ILY and developed a model of conditional and targeted cell ablation by generating floxed STOP-CD59 knockin mice (ihCD59), in which expression of human CD59 only occurs after Cre-mediated recombination. The administration of ILY to ihCD59+ mice crossed with various Cre-driver lines resulted in the rapid and specific ablation of immune, epithelial, or neural cells without off-target effects. ILY had a large pharmacological window, which allowed us to perform dose-dependent studies. Finally, the ILY/ihCD59-mediated cell-ablation method was tested in several disease models to study immune cell functionalities, hepatocyte and/or biliary epithelial damage and regeneration, and neural cell damage. Together, the results of this study demonstrate the utility of the ihCD59 mouse model for studying the effects of cell ablation in specific organ systems in a variety of developmental and disease states. PMID:27159394

  2. Estimating the influenza vaccine effectiveness in elderly on a yearly basis using the Spanish influenza surveillance network--pilot case-control studies using different control groups, 2008-2009 season, Spain.

    PubMed

    Savulescu, Camelia; Valenciano, Marta; de Mateo, Salvador; Larrauri, Amparo

    2010-04-01

    We conducted a case-control and screening method studies to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) in the age group >or=65 years, based on the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System (SISSS). Cases (influenza laboratory-confirmed) were compared to influenza-negative ILI patients (test-negative) and patients without ILI since the beginning of the season (non-ILI). For the screening method, cases' vaccination coverage was compared to the vaccination coverage of the GPs' catchment population. The results suggested a protective effect of the vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza in elderly in 2008-2009. The screening method and the test-negative control designs enable estimating IVE using exclusively SISSS data.

  3. Spatio-temporal synchrony of influenza in cities across Israel: the "Israel is one city" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Oren; Huppert, Amit; Katriel, Guy; Stone, Lewi

    2014-01-01

    We analysed an 11-year dataset (1998-2009) of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) that was based on surveillance of ∽23% of Israel's population. We examined whether the level of synchrony of ILI epidemics in Israel's 12 largest cities is high enough to view Israel as a single epidemiological unit. Two methods were developed to assess the synchrony: (1) City-specific attack rates were fitted to a simple model in order to estimate the temporal differences in attack rates and spatial differences in reporting rates of ILI. The model showed good fit to the data (R2  =  0.76) and revealed considerable differences in reporting rates of ILI in different cities (up to a factor of 2.2). (2) A statistical test was developed to examine the null hypothesis (H0) that ILI incidence curves in two cities are essentially identical, and was tested using ILI data. Upon examining all possible pairs of incidence curves, 77.4% of pairs were found not to be different (H0 was not rejected). It was concluded that all cities generally have the same attack rate and follow the same epidemic curve each season, although the attack rate changes from season to season, providing strong support for the "Israel is one city" hypothesis. The cities which were the most out of synchronization were Bnei Brak, Beersheba and Haifa, the latter two being geographically remote from all other cities in the dataset and the former geographically very close to several other cities but socially separate due to being populated almost exclusively by ultra-orthodox Jews. Further evidence of assortative mixing of the ultra-orthodox population can be found in the 2001-2002 season, when ultra-orthodox cities and neighborhoods showed distinctly different incidence curves compared to the general population.

  4. Influenza-Like-Illness and Clinically Diagnosed Flu: Disease Burden, Costs and Quality of Life for Patients Seeking Ambulatory Care or No Professional Care at All

    PubMed Central

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011–2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5–6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86–91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51–€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries. PMID:25032688

  5. Gripenet: an internet-based system to monitor influenza-like illness uniformly across Europe.

    PubMed

    van Noort, S P; Muehlen, M; Rebelo de Andrade, H; Koppeschaar, C; Lima Lourenço, J M; Gomes, M G M

    2007-07-01

    Gripenet has been monitoring the activity of influenza-like-illness (ILI) with the aid of volunteers via the internet in the Netherlands and Belgium since 2003 and in Portugal since 2005. In contrast with the traditional system of sentinel networks of mainly primary care physicians coordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS), Gripenet obtains its data directly from the population. Any resident of the three countries can participate in Gripenet by completing an application form on the appropriate websites (http://www.griepmeting.nl for the Netherlands and Belgium, http://www.gripenet.pt for Portugal), which contains various medical, geographic and behavioural questions. Participants report weekly on the website any symptoms they have experienced since their last visit. ILI incidence is determined on the basis of a uniform case definition. In the 2006/2007 season, 19,623 persons participated in Gripenet in the Netherlands, 7,025 in Belgium and 3,118 in Portugal. The rise, peak and decline of ILI activity occurred at similar times according to Gripenet and EISS. However, ILI attack rates in the Netherlands (6.6%), Belgium (6.1%) and Portugal (5.6%) were remarkably more similar in Gripenet than in EISS (0.8%, 3.9%, and 0.6% respectively). Monitoring ILI activity with the direct participation of volunteers provides similar incidence curves compared to the traditional system coordinated by EISS. Whereas EISS provides an established system whose data is validated by virology tests, Gripenet is a fast and flexible monitoring system whose uniformity allows for direct comparison of ILI rates between countries. A current objective of Gripenet is to engage more European countries.

  6. Effects of previous episodes of influenza and vaccination in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in Navarre, Spain, 2013/14 season.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Navascués, Ana; Fernández-Alonso, Mirian; Reina, Gabriel; Albéniz, Esther; Pozo, Francisco; Álvarez, Nerea; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Guevara, Marcela; García-Cenoz, Manuel; Irisarri, Fátima; Casado, Itziar; Ezpeleta, Carmen

    2016-06-02

    We estimated whether previous episodes of influenza and trivalent influenza vaccination prevented laboratory-confirmed influenza in Navarre, Spain, in season 2013/14. Patients with medically-attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) in hospitals (n = 645) and primary healthcare (n = 525) were included. We compared 589 influenza cases and 581 negative controls. MA-ILI related to a specific virus subtype in the previous five seasons was defined as a laboratory-confirmed influenza infection with the same virus subtype or MA-ILI during weeks when more than 25% of swabs were positive for this subtype. Persons with previous MA-ILI had 30% (95% confidence interval (CI): -7 to 54) lower risk of MA-ILI, and those with previous MA-ILI related to A(H1N1)pdm09 or A(H3N2) virus, had a, respectively, 63% (95% CI: 16-84) and 65% (95% CI: 13-86) lower risk of new laboratory-confirmed influenza by the same subtype. Overall adjusted vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 31% (95% CI: 5-50): 45% (95% CI: 12-65) for A(H1N1)pdm09 and 20% (95% CI: -16 to 44) for A(H3N2). While a previous influenza episode induced high protection only against the same virus subtype, influenza vaccination provided low to moderate protection against all circulating subtypes. Influenza vaccine remains the main preventive option for high-risk populations.

  7. Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bancroft, Barbara; Curtis, Jeffery M.; Mathews, Anne; Pereira, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial. Design Randomized clinical trial to compare a lifestyle intervention for weight loss with a diabetes support and education condition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects Data from 4,376 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age = 58.7±6.8 years, BMI = 35.8±5.8 kg/m2) who completed one-year of the Look AHEAD trial and had available fitness data were analyzed. Intervention Subjects were randomly assigned to DSE or ILI. DSE received standard-care plus 3 education sessions over the one-year period. ILI included individual and group contact throughout the year, restriction in energy intake, and 175 min/wk of prescribed physical activity. Measurements Fitness was assessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Physical activity was assessed via questionnaire in a subset of 2,221 subjects. Results Change in fitness was statistically greater in ILI vs. DSE after adjustment for baseline fitness (20.9% vs. 5.7%) (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that change in fitness was greater in overweight vs. obese Class II and III (p<0.05). Physical activity increased by 892±1694 kcal/wk in ILI vs. 108±1254 kcal/wk in DSE (p<0.01). Changes in fitness (r=0.41) and physical activity (r=0.42) were significantly correlated with weight loss (p<0.0001). Conclusions The ILI was effective in increasing physical activity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect may add to weight loss in improving metabolic control in patients in lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:19153582

  8. Cost of intervention delivery in a lifestyle weight loss trial in type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Wing, R.; Wadden, T. A.; Knowler, W. C.; Lawlor, M.; Evans, M.; Killean, T.; Montez, M.; Espeland, M. A.; Zhang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial was a randomized controlled clinical trial to compare the effects of 10 years of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) with a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE) on health outcomes in over 5,000 participants with type 2 diabetes. The ILI had significantly greater weight losses than DSE throughout the trial. The goal of this analysis is to describe the cost of delivering the intervention. Methods The ILI was designed to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. It involved a combination of group plus individual intervention sessions, with decreasing frequency of contact over the 10 years. The intervention incorporated a variety of strategies, including meal replacement products, to improve weight loss outcomes. The costs of intervention delivery were derived from staff surveys of effort and from records of intervention materials from the 16 US academic clinical trial sites. Costs were calculated from the payer perspective and presented in 2012 dollars. Results During the first year, when intervention delivery was most intensive, the annual cost of intervention delivery, averaged (standard deviation) across clinical sites, was $2,864.6 ($513.3) per ILI participant compared with $202.4 ($76.6) per DSE participant. As intervention intensity declined, costs decreased, such that from years 5 to 9 of the trial, the annual cost of intervention was $1,119.8 ($227.7) per ILI participant and $102.9 ($33.0) per DSE participant. Staffing accounted for the majority of costs throughout the trial, with meal replacements and materials to promote adherence accounting for smaller shares. Conclusions The sustained weight losses produced by the Look AHEAD intervention were supported by intervention costs that were within the range of other weight loss programmes. Future work will include an evaluation of the cost‐effectiveness of the ILI and will contain additional follow

  9. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    PubMed

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  10. Effect of 1 year of an intentional weight loss intervention on bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann V; Johnson, Karen C; Kahn, Steven E; Shepherd, John A; Nevitt, Michael C; Peters, Anne L; Walkup, Michael P; Hodges, Amelia; Williams, Carrie C; Bray, George A

    2012-03-01

    Intentional weight loss is an important component of treatment for overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, but the effects on bone density are not known. We used data from the Look AHEAD trial to determine the impact of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over 12 months. Overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to ILI or DSE. In a substudy of BMD conducted at 5 of 16 clinical centers, hip, spine, and whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were obtained at baseline and 1-year later on 642 of 739 ILI and 632 of 740 DSE participants. At baseline, mean age was 58.4 years, and average body mass index was 35.2 kg/m(2). Total hip BMD T-score was <-2.5 in 1% and <-1.0 in 8%. At 1 year, weight loss was greater in ILI than DSE (-8.6% versus -0.7%), and glycemic control and fitness were also improved. Bone loss over 1 year was greater in ILI at the total hip (-1.4% versus -0.4%; p < 0.001) and femoral neck (-1.5% versus -0.8%; p = 0.009), but change in BMD for the lumbar spine and whole body did not differ between groups. In ILI, bone loss at the total hip was independently associated with weight loss in men and women and with poorer glycemic control in men, but was not associated with changes in fitness. One year of an intensive lifestyle intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes, resulting in weight loss, was associated with a modest increase in hip bone loss despite improved fitness and glycemic control.

  11. The Look AHEAD Trial: Implications for Lifestyle Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Gareth R; Lewis, Cora E

    2015-01-01

    Given the array of adverse health consequences of obesity, including increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the Look AHEAD trial (N=5145) was conducted to test the hypothesis that an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss would achieve significantly greater reductions in CVD morbidity and mortality than a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE) among participants with T2DM. A number of significant and long-term improvements were observed for ILI, including body weight, physical fitness and physical function, glucose control, quality-of-life (QoL), and healthcare costs. However, ILI did not significantly reduce CVD-related morbidity/mortality (i.e., CVD death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, hospitalized angina) after nearly 10 years of follow-up. There was a suggestion of heterogeneity of response based on the history of prior CVD at baseline (p=0.06). Despite the overall lack of CVD risk reduction, ILI remains important for care of patients with T2DM, particularly when accompanied by medication management. In particular, ILI may be an appealing option for patients wanting to minimize medication intensification. Also, ILI carries with it other potential benefits important to patients (e.g., improvements in physical functioning and QoL). Based on data from other trials, intensive medication management, such as tight glycemic control, is not without potential risks, which should be weighed in making treatment decisions. Future research is needed to determine if results observed in this trial would be replicated among younger patients, those without established T2DM, and/or those with no pre-existing CVD.

  12. Four-Year Weight Losses in the Look AHEAD Study: Factors Associated with Long-Term Success

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Thomas A.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Wing, Rena R.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Hill, James O.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Otto, Amy; Ryan, Donna H.; Vitolins, Mara Z.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the year 4 weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with long-term success. A total of 5145 overweight/obese men and women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, referred to as Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). ILI participants were provided approximately weekly group or individual treatment in year 1; continued but less frequent contact was provided in years 2–4. DSE participants received three group educational sessions in all years. As reported previously, at year 4, ILI participants lost an average of 4.7% of initial weight, compared with 1.1% for DSE (p<0.0001). More ILI than DSE participants lost ≥5% (46% vs 25%, p<0.0001) and ≥10% (23% vs 10%, p<0.0001) of initial weight. Within the ILI, acheivement of both the 5% and 10% categorical weight losses at year 4 was strongly related to meeting these goals at year 1. A total of 887 participants in ILI lost ≥10% at year 1, of whom 374 (42.2%) achieved this loss at year 4. Participants who maintained the loss, compared with those who did not, attended more treatment sessions and reported more favorable physical activity and food intake at year 4. These results provide critical evidence that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention can induce clinically significant weight loss (i.e., ≥5%) in overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes and maintain this loss in more than 45% of patients at 4 years. PMID:21779086

  13. One-Year Weight Losses in the Look AHEAD Study: Factors Associated with Success

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Thomas A.; West, Delia S.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Wing, Rena R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Foreyt, John; Hill, James O.; Trence, Dace; Vitolins, Mara

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the first year weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with success. Participants were a total of 5,145 men and women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited at 16 sites and randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a control condition, Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). During year 1, participants in ILI received comprehensive diet and physical activity counseling in 42 group and individual sessions, compared with 3 educational sessions for DSE participants. As reported previously, at the end of the year, ILI participants lost 8.6% of initial weight, compared to 0.7% for DSE (p < 0.001). Within the ILI group, all racial/ethnic groups achieved clinically significant weight losses (≥ 5.5%), although there were significant differences among groups. For the year, ILI participants attended an average of 35.4 treatment sessions and reported exercising a mean of 136.6 min/week and consuming a total of 360.9 meal replacement products. Greater self-reported physical activity was the strongest correlate of weight loss, followed by treatment attendance and consumption of meal replacements. The use of orlistat, during the second half of the year, increased weight loss only marginally in those ILI participants who had lost < 5% of initial weight during the first 6 months and chose to take the medication thereafter as a toolbox option. The lifestyle intervention was clinically effective in all subsets of an ethnically and demographically diverse population. PMID:19180071

  14. Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success.

    PubMed

    Wadden, Thomas A; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Wing, Rena R; Clark, Jeanne M; Delahanty, Linda M; Hill, James O; Krakoff, Jonathan; Otto, Amy; Ryan, Donna H; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2011-10-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the year 4 weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with long-term success. A total of 5,145 overweight/obese men and women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, referred to as Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). ILI participants were provided approximately weekly group or individual treatment in year 1; continued but less frequent contact was provided in years 2-4. DSE participants received three group educational sessions in all years. As reported previously, at year 4, ILI participants lost an average of 4.7% of initial weight, compared with 1.1% for DSE (P < 0.0001). More ILI than DSE participants lost ≥ 5% (46% vs. 25%, P < 0.0001) and ≥ 10% (23% vs. 10%, P < 0.0001) of initial weight. Within the ILI, achievement of both the 5% and 10% categorical weight losses at year 4 was strongly related to meeting these goals at year 1. A total of 887 participants in ILI lost ≥ 10% at year 1, of whom 374 (42.2%) achieved this loss at year 4. Participants who maintained the loss, compared with those who did not, attended more treatment sessions and reported more favorable physical activity and food intake at year 4. These results provide critical evidence that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention can induce clinically significant weight loss (i.e., ≥ 5%) in overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes and maintain this loss in more than 45% of patients at 4 years.

  15. One-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with success.

    PubMed

    Wadden, Thomas A; West, Delia S; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Wing, Rena R; Ryan, Donna H; Johnson, Karen C; Foreyt, John P; Hill, James O; Trence, Dace L; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2009-04-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the first year weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with success. Participants were a total of 5,145 men and women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited at 16 sites and randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a control condition, Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). During year 1, participants in ILI received comprehensive diet and physical activity counseling in a total of 42 group and individual sessions, compared with three educational sessions for DSE participants. As reported previously, at the end of the year, ILI participants lost 8.6% of initial weight, compared to 0.7% for DSE (P < 0.001). Within the ILI group, all racial/ethnic groups achieved clinically significant weight losses (>5.5%), although there were significant differences among groups. For the year, ILI participants attended an average of 35.4 treatment sessions and reported exercising a mean of 136.6 min/week and consuming a total of 360.9 meal replacement products. Greater self-reported physical activity was the strongest correlate of weight loss, followed by treatment attendance and consumption of meal replacements. The use of orlistat, during the second half of the year, increased weight loss only marginally in those ILI participants who had lost <5% of initial weight during the first 6 months and chose to take the medication thereafter as a toolbox option. The lifestyle intervention was clinically effective in all subsets of an ethnically and demographically diverse population.

  16. Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Craig B; Carlson, Sandra J; Butler, Michelle T; Feisa, John; Elvidge, Elissa; Durrheim, David N

    2011-12-01

    Flutracking is a national weekly online survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) completed by community members. Flutracking integrates participants' ILI symptom information with their influenza vaccination status to monitor influenza activity and field vaccine effectiveness (FVE). This report summarises results from the 2010 Flutracking season compared with previous seasons. Nationally, participation in Flutracking has more than doubled between 2008 and 2010, with 5,346 new participants enrolled or recruited in 2010 and a peak weekly participation of 10,773. By the end of the 2010 season, 5,904 of 9,109 (64.8%) participants had received the monovalent pandemic vaccine and/or the 2010 seasonal vaccine. From 2007 to 2010 FVE calculations demonstrated that the seasonal vaccine was effective except in 2009 during the pandemic. Peak 2010 ILI activity occurred in early June and August, and peak weekly 2010 ILI rates (4.2% among unvaccinated participants) were lower than the peak ILI rates during the 2009 pandemic (6.0% among unvaccinated participants). However, the decrease in laboratory notifications was much larger than the decrease in Flutracking rates. In summary, the number of Flutracking participants continued to steadily increase over the 2010 influenza season. The system has shown value in providing weekly vaccination uptake data during and beyond the 2009 influenza pandemic, as well as rapid FVE estimates that are qualitatively aligned with findings from other analyses of vaccine efficacy. Flutracking has also provided estimates of weekly community ILI activity that were not biased by health seeking behaviour and clinician testing practices.

  17. Impact of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Depression and Health-Related Quality of Life in Type 2 Diabetes: The Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), compared with a diabetes support and education (DSE) control intervention, on long-term changes in depression symptoms, antidepressant medication (ADM) use, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Look AHEAD was a multisite randomized controlled trial of 5,145 overweight/obese participants assigned to ILI (designed to produce weight loss) or DSE and followed for a median of 9.6 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered at baseline, annually at years 1–4, and again at year 8. Mean BDI scores and incidence of BDI scores ≥10, indicative of likely mild or greater depression, were examined. Annually through year 10, participants reported their ADM use and completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, which yields physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. RESULTS ILI significantly reduced the incidence of mild or greater depression symptoms (BDI scores ≥10) compared with DSE (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.85; 95% CI 0.75–0.97; P = 0.0145). Although SF-36 PCS scores worsened over time in both groups, ILI participants reported better physical function than DSE throughout the first 8 years (all P values <0.01). There were no significant differences between treatment arms in the proportion of participants who used ADMs or in SF-36 MCS scores. CONCLUSIONS ILI for overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes may reduce the risk of developing clinically significant symptoms of depression and preserve physical HRQoL. These findings should be considered when evaluating the potential benefits of ILIs. PMID:24855155

  18. Real-time surveillance of laboratory confirmed influenza based on the Danish microbiology database (MiBa).

    PubMed

    Voldstedlund, Marianne; Haahr, Malene; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bang, Henrik; Krause, Tyra

    2013-01-01

    The Danish microbiology database (MiBa) is a national database that automatically accumulates patient test results from all Danish Departments of Clinical Microbiology. As an example for use of MiBa, we describe the real-time surveillance of laboratory confirmed influenza established in October 2012. It functions without any extra burdens of reporting by laboratories or clinicians. This is an important improvement of the existing surveillance for influenza like illness (ILI) which includes only limited virological testing. The MiBa based surveillance adds complete national virological data which are specific for influenza, in contrast to ILI, and serves as a tool for regional and national preparedness and planning.

  19. The Use of Twitter to Predict the Level of Influenza Activity in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) with influenza surveillance statistics at a lag of 1 to 2 weeks. The CDC requires a tool that can...or novelties. This research explores the correlation between Twitter messages (tweets) and CDC ILI and Virologic surveillance data. Using 17...to have a Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.900 (95% CI: 0.732, 0.965) and 0.833 (95% CI: 0.574, 0.940) against the CDC ILI surveillance data

  20. Staffing Cyber Operations (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    w hi ch p os iti on s co ns tit ut e D ire ct P ar tic ip at io n in C yb er sp ac e H os til iti es (D P H ) = C yb er sp ac e C om ba ta...un ity  ID A a lte rn at iv e la rg el y su bs tit ut es c iv ili an s fo r e nl is te d pe rs on ne l a nd co nt ra ct or s  M ili ta ry a

  1. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For pandemic preparedness, we evaluated the performance of the sentinel system and the others to assess which of the four could be useful additions in the future. We also assessed whether performance of the five systems was influenced by media reports during the pandemic period. Methods The trends in ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs from 20 April 2009 through 3 January 2010 were compared with trends in data from the other systems: ILI cases self-reported through the web-based Great Influenza Survey (GIS); influenza-related web searches through Google Flu Trends (GFT); patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza, and detections of influenza virus by laboratories. In addition, correlations were determined between ILI consultation rates of the sentinel GPs and data from the four other systems. We also compared the trends of the five surveillance systems with trends in pandemic-related newspaper and television coverage and determined correlation coefficients with and without time lags. Results The four other systems showed similar trends and had strong correlations with the ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs. The number of influenza virus detections was the only system to register a summer peak. Increases in the number of newspaper articles and television broadcasts did not precede increases in activity among the five surveillance systems. Conclusions The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. Hospital and virological data are important during a

  2. Application of Superplastic Steels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    fit(. 1 -1 1 Ili - I I, in I I ’i I% I%% d f-F itrl !( It- rct Ii ined I hvir -ri,-, illa I flit Ili. and dri)( int I, 1111( I 1 111 , Ill it fli ... 1 -11 11;1(1 d(+ illd rt., r -t 1 1 i/cd lift, It linc _-,r:imcd rut I tirt I fit- 1;! 11 ;111! _" h , It I I. ’I) I t 0 1 1 1 1 f , 1. I, I ii;t t r

  3. An Evaluation of the Intensity of Mentoring: Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Richard; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Abbott-Shim, Martha

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the intensity effect of a mentoring intervention for Head Start teachers, the Individualised Learning Intervention (ILI), as it impacts child social emotional outcomes. Pairs of Mentor and Protégé teachers across three sites in two states were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Mentors in the intervention…

  4. Feasibility Study of 5.56 MM Folded Ammunition/Weapon System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    DeflectLon at Nodes Located on I.D ............ .. 18 II. Comparison of Internal Diameter Deflections ........... ... 19 Ili. Hardness Readings of Heat...4 2. Ammunition/Weapon System Comparison ......... ............ 5 3. Conventional vs Folded Packing Volume... Comparisons ..... . 4. Ca rtr Ig Compnrtsnris ..l.s ....... ................... . .... List of Illustrations - Cont’d Figure Pae 5. Design Analysis

  5. Evaluation of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) exposures and illness among physicians in training

    PubMed Central

    de Perio, Marie A.; Brueck, Scott E.; Mueller, Charles A.; Milne, Caroline K.; Rubin, Michael A.; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Mayer, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    Background A cluster of influenza-like illness (ILI) among physicians in training during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic (pH1N1) led to a health hazard evaluation. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine exposures, infection control practices, ILI prevalence, and transmission among physicians in training at 4 affiliated hospitals during the pandemic. We administered an electronic survey and met with physicians in training and hospital personnel. Results Of the 88 responding physicians, 85% reported exposure to pH1N1. Exposures occurred at work from patients or coworkers and outside of work from coworkers, household members, or the community. Thirteen cases of ILI were reported in May-June 2009; 10 respondents reported working while ill (duration, 1-4 days). Between 13% and 88% of respondents knew which personal protective equipment (PPE) was recommended when caring for influenza patients at the 4 hospitals. The most common reasons for not using PPE were not knowing that a patient had pH1N1 or ILI and not having PPE readily available. Conclusions Physicians in training have gaps in their knowledge of and adherence to recommended PPE and compliance with work restrictions. Our findings underscore the importance of installing isolation precaution signage, making PPE readily available near patients with influenza, and facilitating work restrictions for ill health care personnel. PMID:22622511

  6. Student Perceptions of Information Literacy Instruction: The Importance of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlor, Brian; Booker, Lorne; Serenko, Alexander; Julien, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the merits of employing active learning strategies in the delivery of information literacy instruction (ILI). Traditional approaches to the teaching of information literacy skills--where students are passive recipients of the information they receive--are challenged. Rather, methods that encourage students to actively…

  7. Utilizing spatiotemporal analysis of influenza-like illness and rapid tests to focus swine-origin influenza virus intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. Gaines; Ballou, Jessica; Yan, Chris; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; Reininger, Belinda; Gay, Jennifer; Salinas, Jennifer; Sanchez, Pablo; Salinas, Yvette; Calvillo, Fidel; Lopez, Leonel; deLima, Ionara P.; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    In the spring of 2009, a novel strain of H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States, and soon after was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. This work examined the ability of real-time reports of influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms and rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) to approximate the spatiotemporal distribution of PCR-confirmed S-OIV cases for the purposes of focusing local intervention efforts. Cluster and age-adjusted relative risk patterns of ILI, RIDT and S-OIV were assessed at a fine spatial scale at different time and space extents within Cameron County, Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Space-time patterns of ILI and RIDT were found to effectively characterize the areas with highest geographical risk of S-OIV within the first two weeks of the outbreak. Based on these results, ILI and/or RIDT may prove to be acceptable indicators of the location of S-OIV hotspots. Given that S-OIV data is often difficult to obtain real-time during an outbreak, these findings may be of use to public health officials targeting prevention and response efforts during future flu outbreaks. PMID:20810301

  8. Four-year change in cardiorespiratory fitness and influence on glycemic control in adults with Type 2 diabetes in a randomized trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE To examine an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) on 4-year change in fitness and physical activity (PA), and to examine the effect of change in fitness and PA, adjusting for potential confounders, on glycemic control in the Look AHEAD ...

  9. Profiling the Youth Leader: Personality and Emotional Intelligence Trends and Their Relationship to Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElravy, L. J.; Hastings, Lindsay J.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of leadership to younger generations is an important factor in agricultural communities and is likely one reason developing leaders is a central mission of many youth organizations, including 4-H and FFA. In adults, researchers have extensively explored the relationship between personality traits and leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies,…

  10. An Infection Control Program for a 2009 Influenza A H1N1 Outbreak in a University-Based Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Cunningham, Hannah M.; Lopez-Marti, Maria G.; Sangvai, Devdutta G.; Purdy, William K.; Anderson, Deverick J.; Thompson, Jessica R.; Brown, Monte; Woods, Christopher W.; Jaggers, L. Brett; Hendershot, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Describe two 2009-H1N1 influenza outbreaks in university-based summer camps and the implementation of an infection control program. Participants: 7,906 campers across 73 residential camps from May 21-August 2, 2009. Methods: Influenza-like-illness (ILI) was defined as fever with cough and/or sore throat. Influenza A was identified…

  11. The Effect of School Dismissal on Rates of Influenza-Like Illness in New York City Schools during the Spring 2009 Novel H1N1 Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, Joseph R.; Konty, Kevin J.; Wilson, Elisha; Karpati, Adam; Matte, Thomas; Weiss, Don; Barbot, Oxiris

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effects of individual school dismissal on influenza transmission have not been well studied. During the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak, New York City implemented an individual school dismissal policy intended to limit influenza transmission at schools with high rates of influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: Active disease…

  12. Flutracking weekly online community survey of influenza-like illness annual report, 2015.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Craig B; Carlson, Sandra J; Durrheim, David N; Butler, Michelle T; Cheng, Allen C; Kelly, Heath A

    2016-12-24

    Flutracking is a national online community influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system that monitors weekly ILI activity and impact in the Australian community. This article reports on the 2015 findings from Flutracking. From 2014 to 2015 there was a 38.5% increase in participants to 27,824 completing at least 1 survey with a peak weekly response of 25,071 participants. The 2015 Flutracking national ILI weekly fever and cough percentages peaked in late August at 5.0% in the unvaccinated group, in the same week as the national counts of laboratory confirmed influenza peaked. A similar percentage of Flutracking participants took two or more days off from work or normal duties in 2015 (peak level 2.3%) compared with 2014 (peak level 2.5%) and the peak weekly percentage of participants seeking health advice was 1.6% in both 2014 and 2015. Flutracking fever and cough peaked in the same week as Influenza Complications Alert Network surveillance system influenza hospital admissions. The percentage of Flutracking participants aged 5 to 19 years with cough and fever in 2015 was the highest since 2011. The 2015 season was marked by a transition to predominantly influenza B strain circulation, which particularly affected younger age groups. However, for those aged 20 years and over, the 2015 national Flutracking influenza season was similar to 2014 in community ILI levels and impact.

  13. Contributions to the American Meteorological Society’s 26th International Conference on Radar Meteorology at Norman, Oklahoma, on May 24-28, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Ms~ns~ ~ Prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration. Documient Is available to dhe public through the National Technical Inforination Service ...detecton iultipe Dopplr aniealy, adjoint iethd Trminal Dopplr Inie.t i, Trmina, ’ ,,thr Temiial Ar , S or,, .ili National Technical Information Service ...Period Covered Department of Transportation Project Report Federal Aviation Administration Systems Research and Development Service 14. Sponsoring Agency

  14. Effect of travel on influenza epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Belderok, Sanne-Meike; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; van den Hoek, Anneke; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2013-06-01

    To assess the attack and incidence rates for influenza virus infections, during October 2006-October 2007 we prospectively studied 1,190 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to tropical and subtropical countries. Participants donated blood samples before and after travel and kept a travel diary. The samples were serologically tested for the epidemic strains during the study period. The attack rate for all infections was 7% (86 travelers) and for influenza-like illness (ILI), 0.8%. The incidence rate for all infections was 8.9 per 100 person-months and for ILI, 0.9%. Risk factors for infection were birth in a non-Western country, age 55-64 years, and ILI. In 15 travelers with fever or ILI, influenza virus infection was serologically confirmed; 7 of these travelers were considered contagious or incubating the infection while traveling home. Given the large number of travelers to (sub)tropical countries, travel-related infection most likely contributes to importation and further influenza spread worldwide.

  15. Combining Search, Social Media, and Traditional Data Sources to Improve Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, André T.; Dredze, Mark; Paul, Michael J.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a machine learning-based methodology capable of providing real-time (“nowcast”) and forecast estimates of influenza activity in the US by leveraging data from multiple data sources including: Google searches, Twitter microblogs, nearly real-time hospital visit records, and data from a participatory surveillance system. Our main contribution consists of combining multiple influenza-like illnesses (ILI) activity estimates, generated independently with each data source, into a single prediction of ILI utilizing machine learning ensemble approaches. Our methodology exploits the information in each data source and produces accurate weekly ILI predictions for up to four weeks ahead of the release of CDC’s ILI reports. We evaluate the predictive ability of our ensemble approach during the 2013–2014 (retrospective) and 2014–2015 (live) flu seasons for each of the four weekly time horizons. Our ensemble approach demonstrates several advantages: (1) our ensemble method’s predictions outperform every prediction using each data source independently, (2) our methodology can produce predictions one week ahead of GFT’s real-time estimates with comparable accuracy, and (3) our two and three week forecast estimates have comparable accuracy to real-time predictions using an autoregressive model. Moreover, our results show that considerable insight is gained from incorporating disparate data streams, in the form of social media and crowd sourced data, into influenza predictions in all time horizons. PMID:26513245

  16. Characteristics of patients with influenza-like illness, severe acture respiratory illness, and laboratory-confirmed influenza at a major children's hospital in Angola, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Yolanda; Oliveira, Erika; Vasconcelos, Jocelyne; Cohen, Adam L; Francisco, Moises

    2012-12-15

    There are no published data on influenza trends in Angola, where pneumonia is a leading cause of death among young children. This study aims to describe the seasonal trends, types, and subtypes of influenza virus recovered from patients with respiratory illness who were admitted to the major children's hospital in Angola from May 2009 through April 2011. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from patients seen in the outpatient clinic with influenza-like illness (ILI) or hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and tested for influenza virus by polymerase chain reaction assays. Of 691 samples collected, 334 (48%) were from case patients with ILI, and 357 (52%) were from case patients with SARI. Most (86%) of these children were <5 years of age. Thirty-nine samples (47% SARI, 53% outpatient) tested positive for influenza virus, including 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09; n = 9), influenza A virus subtype H3, likely H3N2 (n = 12), and influenza B virus (n = 18). The proportion of specimens positive for influenza virus was 5% for ILI cases and 6% for SARI cases. After the peak of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection from May through September of 2009, additional peaks of ILI and SARI were seen, especially during February-April 2010. Influenza virus causes a small but preventable number of pneumonia cases among children in Angola.

  17. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  18. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  19. Midcourse correction to a clinical trial when the event rate is underestimated: The Look AHEAD (Action of health in diabetes) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study is a long-term clinical trial that aims to determine the cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefits of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes. The study was designed to have 90% statistical power to detect an 18%...

  20. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 02/22/1974

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... lll'd ,trip' in Ihl' fi,'ld. hp,',ien<,' h •• , ,1111\\1 n Ih.ll lh('m il.11 mi\\ing in Ih(' ,"i I Il(I Ul\\ 10 .I d"plh .IpIIIII\\im.II,'lv unl' ... di ... ( rn~ to " dt'plh 01 loUr IIH IH· .... ...

  1. Embedded Librarianship and Teacher Education: A Neuroeducational Paradigm Using Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Signia; Templeton, Lolly

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a course-embedded guided inquiry project initiated by a senior librarian and an education professor to promote an understanding of how the brain functions and to experiment with brain-targeted teaching techniques. Information literacy instruction (ILI) takes place in the electronic classroom in the Educational Resources…

  2. Environmental Durability Testing of Structural Adhesives. Part I. AF- 143-2/EC-3917; PL-729-3/PL-728

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    ten analytical wipes with methanol . The last three specimens contained two faces as a result of the lap shear test. One face was yellow (adhesive...8217I;. I I. .. .... . 1.;; 11 !1;: V3M: !M M: H .. .... 11 ... M; 7. -11 Ili: N it -if N .. ....l! itK it :1,:: nrM .. .... ... .. ::ij .. -I is

  3. Combining Search, Social Media, and Traditional Data Sources to Improve Influenza Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, André T; Dredze, Mark; Paul, Michael J; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Brownstein, John S

    2015-10-01

    We present a machine learning-based methodology capable of providing real-time ("nowcast") and forecast estimates of influenza activity in the US by leveraging data from multiple data sources including: Google searches, Twitter microblogs, nearly real-time hospital visit records, and data from a participatory surveillance system. Our main contribution consists of combining multiple influenza-like illnesses (ILI) activity estimates, generated independently with each data source, into a single prediction of ILI utilizing machine learning ensemble approaches. Our methodology exploits the information in each data source and produces accurate weekly ILI predictions for up to four weeks ahead of the release of CDC's ILI reports. We evaluate the predictive ability of our ensemble approach during the 2013-2014 (retrospective) and 2014-2015 (live) flu seasons for each of the four weekly time horizons. Our ensemble approach demonstrates several advantages: (1) our ensemble method's predictions outperform every prediction using each data source independently, (2) our methodology can produce predictions one week ahead of GFT's real-time estimates with comparable accuracy, and (3) our two and three week forecast estimates have comparable accuracy to real-time predictions using an autoregressive model. Moreover, our results show that considerable insight is gained from incorporating disparate data streams, in the form of social media and crowd sourced data, into influenza predictions in all time horizons.

  4. Common Ground: An Interactive Visual Exploration and Discovery for Complex Health Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    pathogens. The ontology also describes five different systems : constitution, respiratory , gastrointestinal, vision and other. The ontology is described...Influenza Like Illnesses (ILI)), system (e.g. respiratory , vision) and additional details information. Software prototype: Developed an interactive visual...only a few are associated with details. Category sign, symptom, syndrome, pathogen System respiratory , gastrointestinal, constitution, vision, other

  5. 76 FR 49486 - Notification of Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for the Pasteur Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... with applicability to other emerging respiratory infections and public health threats in general. The project will focus on building upon existing routine health systems to further develop IHR (2005) core... (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) surveillance. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameroon...

  6. Fuel/Engine/Airframe Trade-Off Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    34Effect of ,IP-5 Properties on Hot Gas Corrosion and Flame Radiation," Phillips Petroleum Company Report 3753-64R. 1%4. 50. Butze, H. F., R. C. Ehlers ...mm - 4444 .𔃾 .- 40im 40 13 The tnk fel tmpertureis masure in he N. 3 ain ank ili coprtet n displayed in the cockpit. The flight crew, therefore, has

  7. Volume I: Select Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    ab ili ty  (degrees) m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ‐60 ‐45 ‐30 ‐15 0 15 30 45 60 Pr ob ab ili ty  (degrees) 0 10 20 30 40...50 60 70 80 ‐60 ‐45 ‐30 ‐15 0 15 30 45 60 Pr ob ab ili ty  (degrees) N5‐N8N4‐N7 N6‐N9 a) b) c) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ‐60 ‐45 ‐30 ‐15 0 15 30 45 60 Pr...ob ab ili ty  (degrees) m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ‐60 ‐45 ‐30 ‐15 0 15 30 45 60 Pr ob

  8. Dynamic Spatial Filtering of Deformable Mirror Commands For Mitigation of the Waffle Mode (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    tlle Sl’lisor aI’’’ pllrtil;ularly proll(’ 10 dc\\’" Jop I Ii" WII III, , lirsl (Illp lot hI’ 100\\’l’r i IIIJ1Ili Ilifl iOIl 1(’I’l’ls HI IE I SII b51

  9. The look AHEAD trial: bone loss at four-year follow-up in type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to sustain weight loss and improve physical fitness in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with bone loss after 4 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This randomized controlled...

  10. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  11. Environmental Studies of Little River Inlet, Horry County, South Carolina and Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Phylum Entoprocta Barentsia .&racilis + Phylum Bryozoa ALejon id Ium hauf [1 + , Table 9. (continued) s ocies_- LRI-1 LRi-2 LRI-3 LRI-4 LRI-5- LRI-6...Phylum Entoprocta Pedicel-lin-a cornla- + + ri Phylum Bryozoa Anguiiella palm-itj + + Bowerhankia gracilis + + *Aeverri Ili i setif-orn + Membranipora

  12. "Pedagogias Del Camaleon"/Pedagogies of the Chameleon: Identity and Strategies of Survival for Transnational Indigenous Latino Immigrants in the US South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado-Casas, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Based on a 3-year qualitative research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript examines the implications of transnational cultural and sociolinguistic patterns of multilingual indigenous Latino immigrants (ILIs), and its effects on their survival in the US. Utilizing narrative analysis, it…

  13. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-30

    M, Zapata, L, PRnero, H. Estudio bacteriologico comparative de lechugas (Lactuca sativa) provenientes de los alrededores de Santiago y region costera...SOSPECHOSO ILI HOSPITALIZACION :SI 17No/7. HlOSPITAL ________________ ____N! OBSERVACION______ RESULTADO EXA±4ENES TIPO PECHA RESULTADO

  14. Effect on polymorphonuclear cell function of a human-specific cytotoxin, intermedilysin, expressed by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Macey, M G; Whiley, R A; Miller, L; Nagamune, H

    2001-10-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the normal flora of the mouth but is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with purulent infections at oral and nonoral sites. Intermedilysin (ILY) has been shown to be a cytolysin capable of generating pores in the cell membrane of erythrocytes demonstrable by electron microscopy. This effect has been shown to be specific for human cells. Since polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are the main cell involved in innate immunity we investigated the effect of purified intermedilysin from Streptococcus intermedius on PMN function. Active ILY at a concentration of 40 ng/microl caused a significant decrease in the number of intact PMNs after 60 min. The active cytolysin, when compared with heat-inactivated ILY, did not appear to be chemotactic for the PMNs but did cause an increase in intracellular calcium, with increased cell surface CD11b expression, metabolic burst, and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. These findings may have implications for the role of ILY in deep-seated abscesses.

  15. Etiology of Influenza-Like Illnesses from Sentinel Network Practitioners in Réunion Island, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Brottet, Elise; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Li-Pat-Yuen, Ghislaine; Filleul, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    In Réunion Island, despite an influenza surveillance established since 1996 by the sentinel general practitioner’s network, little is known about the etiology of Influenza like-illness (ILI) that differs from influenza viruses in a tropical area. We set up a retrospective study using nasal swabs collected by sentinel GPs from ILI patients in 2011 and 2012. A total of 250 swabs were randomly selected and analyzed by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) including research of 18 viruses and 4 bacteria. We detected respiratory viruses in 169/222 (76.1%) samples, mostly rhinovirus (23.4%), influenza A virus (21.2%), influenza B virus (12.6%), coronavirus (4.9%) and Human metapneumovirus (3.6%). Nine swabs (5.3% of positive swabs) revealed co-infections with two viruses identified, among which six concerned co-infections with influenza viruses. We observed important seasonal differences, with circulation of Human Metapneumoviruses, RSV A and B and coronavirus only during summer; whereas parainfluenza viruses were identified only during winter. In conclusion, this study highlights a substantial circulation of multiple respiratory pathogens in Réunion Island throughout the year. It shows that ILI are not only attributable to influenza and underlines the need for biological surveillance. As the use of multiplex RT-PCR showed its efficacy, it is now used routinely in the surveillance of ILI. PMID:27654509

  16. Principles for Dealing with Large Programs and Large Data Files in Policy Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    analyzing large data sets systematically. Acceso ; For NTISCR&I N; ID VI. TA.3[ --,istr.ibo!’.., Dist IQ (I ! o Avft. i..,,ily C eSpecial IA 1-€t "v...compartmentalized. Also, when multiple researchers use the same data set, compertmentalization allows easy comparison (or even standardization) of

  17. Department of Defense In-House RDT&E Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-30

    Electronic Proving Ground ---............... ....-... 20 Electronic Warfare Laboratory- --------.. ...... 21 Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory...Electronic Warfare Laboratory Electronics Command Army Materiel Command Electronics Technology 9 Devices Laboratory Electronics Command Army Materiel Command... TECHNOLOGY 51HM HITVAL PROGRAM FLUIDIC SAFING AND ARMING SYSTEM FOR SURFACE TO SURFACE MISSILE APPL I .~~..FUN T IONSIEGUIPRINT ICAP&R ILI TIES NUC

  18. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates of severe obesity (BMI greater than or equal to 40 kg/m(2)) are on the rise, and effective treatment options are needed. We examined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on weight loss, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and program adherence in participants with type 2 diab...

  19. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVEdRates of severe obesity (BMI$40 kg/m2) are on the rise, and effective treatment options are needed.We examined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on weight loss, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and program adherence in participants with type 2 diabetes who were seve...

  20. Lifestyle intervention and/or statins for the reduction of C-reactive Protein in Type 2 diabetes: From the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Cardiovascular risk remains high despite statin use. Overweight/obese diabetic persons usually have normal/low LDL-cholesterol but high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We aimed to examine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss (ILI) on CRP levels in overweight/ob...

  1. Air Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    though his own theoretical views were more akin to those of Mitchell. This is not surprising when one considers that as early as his plebe year at the...permit the airship the more read- ily to be trimmed. Ballonets are provided, as a rule, for each compartment. The Army airship Roma was of this type

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... ili ovisnost - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Substance Abuse or Dependence 物质滥用或依赖 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  3. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Dependence (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Substance Abuse or Dependence Zloupotreba opojnih ... ili ovisnost - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Substance Abuse or Dependence 物质滥用或依赖 - ...

  4. A Description and Comparative Analysis of Two Competing Automated SHORAD-C2 Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    ongoing modification program to ulgrade all Chaparral systems by adding an idectificaticn friend or foe (Ili) capability. The missile is a supersonic...main TOC (DTOC) ann the tactical command IFost ( AC Cl-). The division airspece management element (DAM!) is an integral yart ot the DfOC and

  5. Integrated Systems of Manufacture (Robotics) Technology Working Group Report (IDA/OSD R&M (Institute for Defense Analyses/Office of the Secretary of Defense Reliability and Maintainability) Study)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    cZ •. " • 𔄁_’#’.,’..𔃻 t6t I ik~i cc_ ro M escc ! 1 l- UQam w M "൓ -- 3..• I~=~~ I -1 ,.. -l A !i mem aw uj 4c cc* a ~IlI i: I U)Iic-’ K U"S LI

  6. Lightning Data Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    was flown in block being initiated in a pre-trigger mode by South Florida in the vicinity of a network an incoming signal exceeding a pre-set thresh- of...froit rectl. nreaSUFred during inrkvs t,)ttuneuJIi ikt 1to iei: 10 Ili,. tire calculated Fourier amplitude sprectra Switzedlnd 1271 it all 11] 28).J

  7. Laboratory Transmission of Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Viruses and Getah by Mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) Collected Near Camp Greaves, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-28

    WNV)arebothmembers of the JEV serogroup (fam- ily Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus). Although most in- fections in humans with either of these viruses...ability to transmitWestNile virus (familyFlaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus, JEV...and Getah virus (family Togaviridae , genus Alphavirus, GETV) under laboratory conditions. Both Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett and Culex

  8. Aircraft Armament for Air-To-Ground Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-11-30

    bomba , Va was set -qual 500 ft./sec.; for guns, V. uas set equal to zero. Actual values of 17-9 as taken fron trajectory Table I are shown for comarison...general- yIly fouind in firing tests corrected for •’y. These values are approximately (6). 9 mile - Bomba 9 midls - Rockets 5 mils - Ouns Release

  9. Impact of weight loss on ankle-brachial index and interartery blood pressures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Methods: The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education...

  10. Estimating the Disease Burden of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) from Surveillance and Household Surveys in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Sypsa, Vana; Bonovas, Stefanos; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Baka, Agoritsa; Efstathiou, Panos; Malliori, Meni; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Nikolakopoulos, Ilias; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the disease burden of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in Greece. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on influenza-like illness (ILI), collected through cross-sectional nationwide telephone surveys of 1,000 households in Greece repeated for 25 consecutive weeks, were combined with data from H1N1 virologic surveillance to estimate the incidence and the clinical attack rate (CAR) of influenza A(H1N1). Alternative definitions of ILI (cough or sore throat and fever>38°C [ILI-38] or fever 37.1–38°C [ILI-37]) were used to estimate the number of symptomatic infections. The infection attack rate (IAR) was approximated using estimates from published studies on the frequency of fever in infected individuals. Data on H1N1 morbidity and mortality were used to estimate ICU admission and case fatality (CFR) rates. The epidemic peaked on week 48/2009 with approximately 750–1,500 new cases/100,000 population per week, depending on ILI-38 or ILI-37 case definition, respectively. By week 6/2010, 7.1%–15.6% of the population in Greece was estimated to be symptomatically infected with H1N1. Children 5–19 years represented the most affected population group (CAR:27%–54%), whereas individuals older than 64 years were the least affected (CAR:0.6%–2.2%). The IAR (95% CI) of influenza A(H1N1) was estimated to be 19.7% (13.3%, 26.1%). Per 1,000 symptomatic cases, based on ILI-38 case definition, 416 attended health services, 108 visited hospital emergency departments and 15 were admitted to hospitals. ICU admission rate and CFR were 37 and 17.5 per 100,000 symptomatic cases or 13.4 and 6.3 per 100,000 infections, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Influenza A(H1N1) infected one fifth and caused symptomatic infection in up to 15% of the Greek population. Although individuals older than 65 years were the least affected age group in terms of attack rate, they had 55 and 185 times higher risk of ICU admission and CFR

  11. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Plasai, Valaikanya; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Viputsiri, Ong-Arj; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Panichpathompong, Usa; Tarnmaneewongse, Veerachai; Baron-Papillon, Florence; Cheunkitmongkol, Sunate

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of influenza vaccinations among the elderly in Bangkok in reducing influenza-like illness (ILI) and influenza-related complications. Using a non-randomized, controlled, prospective methodology, healthy, active people aged 60 years or more, living in the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) area, were studied. The two study cohorts comprised 519 persons in the vaccinated group and 520 in the non-vaccinated group. The outcome under study was influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported by the study volunteers. The two groups were comparable for most socio-demographic characteristics, except for gender, level of education, marital status, and smoking habit. The age range was 60-88 years (mean: 68 years). Females outnumbered males in both groups, with ratio of female to male of 2.6:1 and 1.9:1 in the vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups, respectively. The top three co-morbidities among these groups were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease, in that order. Only 1% of the volunteers reported lung disease as co-morbidity. During the 12-month study period, a total of 107 volunteers reported ILI in both groups, with 38 persons in the vaccinated group and 69 persons in the non-vaccinated group. There were 46 ILI episodes in the vaccinated group, and 86 in the non-vaccinated group, for a total of 132 episodes. The incidence rates rates of influenza in this population, therefore, were 8.9% for the vaccinated and 16.9% for the non-vaccinated groups; with a reduction in the rate of reported ILI and doctor visits of 8%. Vaccine effectiveness was rated at 47.6%, crude risk ratio at 1.9 (1.33-2.75), and adjusted risk ratio at 1.92 (95% CI: 1.25-2.95), after adjustment for gender, marital status, education, and smoking habit. No complications due to ILI were observed in this population during the study period. Hospitalizations during this period were due to non-ILI related causes, such as cancer and accident.

  12. Arterial Stiffness, Lifestyle Intervention and a Low-Calorie Diet in Morbidly Obese Patients—A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrand, N; Gjevestad, E; Hertel, JK; Johnson, LK; Saltvedt, E; Røislien, J; Hjelmesæth, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the 7-week effect of a low-calorie diet (LCD) and an intensive lifestyle intervention program (ILI) on arterial stiffness in morbidly obese individuals. Design and Methods Nonrandomized clinical trial. The LCD provided 900 kcal/day, and participants in the LCD group were instructed to maintain their habitual physical activity level. The ILI included two 90-min supervised training sessions 3 days a week at moderate to high intensity (4-8 METs) and a caloric restriction of 1000 kcal/day. Results A total of 179 individuals completed the study, 88 (56 women) in the ILI group and 91 (57 women) in the LCD group. High-fidelity applanation tonometry (Millar®, Sphygmocor®) was used to measure carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). After adjustment for relevant confounders, the ILI group had a significantly greater reduction in PWV than the LCD group; −0.4 (−0.6, −0.1) m/s, P = 0.004. When compared to the LCD group, the ILI group showed a larger reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure −5 (−9, −1) and −5 (−7, −2) mmHg, P = 0.038 and P ≤ 0.001 respectively, whereas no difference was observed regarding pulse pressure, P = 0.661. No significant differences between groups were found regarding the loss of fat mass, P = 0.259, but the loss of muscle mass was larger in the LCD group, 0.8 (0.5, 1.1) kg, P ≤ 0.001. Conclusion Despite the limitations of a nonrandomized design, our findings indicate that for morbidly obese individuals a moderate caloric restriction combined with aerobic physical exercise is associated with a greater decline in PWV than a LCD alone. PMID:23712971

  13. Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza in Chongqing, China, 2011-2015

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Xiong, Yu; Xiao, Bangzhong; Tang, Wenge; Ling, Hua; Long, Jiang; Xiao, Dayong; Zhao, Han; Ye, Sheng; Chen, Shuang; Yu, Zhen; Li, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chongqing is the largest municipality and located in Southwestern of China, with over 30 million registered inhabitants. There are few reports regarding the epidemiology of influenza in Chongqing. The objective of the paper is to explore the epidemiology of influenza in Chongqing, in order to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of influenza. Methodology /Principal Findings From 2011 to 2015, we collected information on influenza-like illness (ILI) patients fulfilling the case definition, and took nasalpharyngeal or throat swabs specimens from ILI cases per week at the 7 sentinel hospitals. Specimens were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) for influenza. Descriptive epidemiology was applied to analyze the epidemiology and etiology of influenza. A total of 9,696,212 cases were enrolled, of which 111,589 were ILI. Of those 24,868 samples from ILI cases, 13.3% (3,314/24,868) tested positive for influenza virus (65.7% influenza A, 34.1% influenza B, and 0.2% influenza A and B co-infection). Among the influenza A viruses, 71.3% were seasonal influenza A(H3N2) and 28.7% were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. No cases of seasonal A(H1N1) were detected. The isolation rate was highest in children aged 5–14 years old. Influenza activity consistently peaked during January-March in 2011–2015, and June-July in 2012, 2014 and 2015. Conclusions Influenza is an important public health problem among ILI patients in Chongqing, especially among school-aged children. It might be beneficial to prioritize influenza vaccination for school-aged children and implement the school-based intervention to prevent and mitigating influenza outbreaks in Chongqing, particularly during the seasonal peaks. PMID:27936139

  14. Prospective Multicenter Phase II Trial of Systemic ADH-1 in Combination With Melphalan via Isolated Limb Infusion in Patients With Advanced Extremity Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Georgia M.; Riboh, Jonathan C.; Augustine, Christina K.; Zager, Jonathan S.; Hochwald, Steven N.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Peterson, Bercedis; Royal, Richard; Ross, Merrick I.; Tyler, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Isolated limb infusion (ILI) with melphalan (M-ILI) dosing corrected for ideal body weight (IBW) is a well-tolerated treatment for patients with in-transit melanoma with a 29% complete response rate. ADH-1 is a cyclic pentapeptide that disrupts N-cadherin adhesion complexes. In a preclinical animal model, systemic ADH-1 given with regional melphalan demonstrated synergistic antitumor activity, and in a phase I trial with M-ILI it had minimal toxicity. Patients and Methods Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IIIB or IIIC extremity melanoma were treated with 4,000 mg of ADH-1, administered systemically on days 1 and 8, and with M-ILI corrected for IBW on day 1. Drug pharmacokinetics and N-cadherin immunohistochemical staining were performed on pretreatment tumor. The primary end point was response at 12 weeks determined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Results In all, 45 patients were enrolled over 15 months at four institutions. In-field responses included 17 patients with complete responses (CRs; 38%), 10 with partial responses (22%), six with stable disease (13%), eight with progressive disease (18%), and four (9%) who were not evaluable. Median duration of in-field response among the 17 CRs was 5 months, and median time to in-field progression among 41 evaluable patients was 4.6 months (95% CI, 4.0 to 7.1 months). N-cadherin was detected in 20 (69%) of 29 tumor samples. Grade 4 toxicities included creatinine phosphokinase increase (four patients), arterial injury (one), neutropenia (one), and pneumonitis (one). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this phase II trial is the first prospective multicenter ILI trial and the first to incorporate a targeted agent in an attempt to augment antitumor responses to regional chemotherapy. Although targeting N-cadherin may improve melanoma sensitivity to chemotherapy, no difference in response to treatment was seen in this study. PMID:21343562

  15. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Heart Rate Recovery from Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Paul M.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A.; Horton, Edward S.; Jakicic, John M.; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Knowler, William C.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Research Group, Look AHEAD

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  16. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Paul M; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A; Horton, Edward S; Jakicic, John M; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W; Knowler, William C; Stewart, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45-76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR.

  17. A Randomized Study on the Effect of Weight Loss on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Among Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Gary D.; Borradaile, Kelley E.; Sanders, Mark H.; Millman, Richard; Zammit, Gary; Newman, Anne B.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Kelley, David; Wing, Rena R.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Reboussin, David; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2010-01-01

    Background The belief that weight loss improves obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has limited empirical support. The purpose of this 4-center study was to assess the effects of weight loss on OSA over a 1-year period. Methods The study included 264 participants with type 2 diabetes and a mean (SD) age of 61.2 (6.5) years, weight of 102.4 (18.3) kg, body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 36.7 (5.7), and an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 23.2 (16.5) events per hour. The participants were randomly assigned to either a behavioral weight loss program developed specifically for obese patients with type 2 diabetes (intensive lifestyle intervention [ILI]) or 3 group sessions related to effective diabetes management (diabetes support and education [DSE]). Results The ILI participants lost more weight at 1 year than did DSE participants (10.8 kg vs 0.6 kg; P < .00l). Relative to the DSE group, the ILI intervention was associated with an adjusted (SE) decrease in AHI of 9.7 (2.0) events per hour (P < .001). At 1 year, more than 3 times as many participants in the ILI group than in the DSE group had total remission of their OSA, and the prevalence of severe OSA among ILI participants was half that of the DSE group. Initial AHI and weight loss were the strongest predictors of changes in AHI at 1 year (P<.01). Participants with a weight loss of 10 kg or more had the greatest reductions in AHI. Conclusions Physicians and their patients can expect that weight loss will result in significant and clinically relevant improvements in OSA among obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00194259 PMID:19786682

  18. Comparing Prescription Sales, Google Trends and CDC Data as Flu Activity Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Lorber, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine if the prescription sales data from a large retail pharmacy chain in the US were comparable to Google Flu trends and CDC’s US ILI Network data as flu activity indicator. Introduction In a 2007 survey of public health officials in the United States, International Society for Disease Surveillance found that only 7% used pharmacy prescription sales data for surveillance (1). There have been many reports suggesting effective use of prescription sales data in syndromic surveillance (2, 3, 4, 5). Community pharmacies can provide a valuable supplementary tool for syndromic surveillance of infectious diseases. Methods We extracted five years of de-identified prescription sales data from the proprietary pharmacy computer system of a large retail pharmacy chain in the United States. The prescriptions were written for the common drugs for the treatment of influenza: Amantadine, Os-eltamivir, Rimantadine, and Zanamivir. We acquired Google Flu trends national aggregate counts data that represented the estimates of the ILI cases per 100,000 physician visits. We acquired CDC ILINET data for 2007. We calculated Pearson ‘r’ between our data and Google and CDC data. We also created comparable trends graphs after converting the counts of the influenza scripts and the counts of the Google estimated ILI cases to logarithmic scale. Results The Pearson ‘r’ between the aggregate counts of scripts for all the four drugs and the Google estimates of the ILI cases for years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75–0.91), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86–0.95), 0.91(95% CI, 0.85–0.95), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80–0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78–0.92) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94) for years 2007 through 2011 together. The Pearson ‘r’ between the aggregate counts of scripts and the CDC % unweighted ILI (2007) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). Conclusions A strong to very strong correlation between prescription sales data and Google Flu trends and CDC’s ILI

  19. A Case Study of the New York City 2012-2013 Influenza Season With Daily Geocoded Twitter Data From Temporal and Spatiotemporal Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qingyu; Freifeld, Clark C; Santillana, Mauricio; Nojima, Aaron; Chunara, Rumi; Brownstein, John S

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter has shown some usefulness in predicting influenza cases on a weekly basis in multiple countries and on different geographic scales. Recently, Broniatowski and colleagues suggested Twitter’s relevance at the city-level for New York City. Here, we look to dive deeper into the case of New York City by analyzing daily Twitter data from temporal and spatiotemporal perspectives. Also, through manual coding of all tweets, we look to gain qualitative insights that can help direct future automated searches. Objective The intent of the study was first to validate the temporal predictive strength of daily Twitter data for influenza-like illness emergency department (ILI-ED) visits during the New York City 2012-2013 influenza season against other available and established datasets (Google search query, or GSQ), and second, to examine the spatial distribution and the spread of geocoded tweets as proxies for potential cases. Methods From the Twitter Streaming API, 2972 tweets were collected in the New York City region matching the keywords “flu”, “influenza”, “gripe”, and “high fever”. The tweets were categorized according to the scheme developed by Lamb et al. A new fourth category was added as an evaluator guess for the probability of the subject(s) being sick to account for strength of confidence in the validity of the statement. Temporal correlations were made for tweets against daily ILI-ED visits and daily GSQ volume. The best models were used for linear regression for forecasting ILI visits. A weighted, retrospective Poisson model with SaTScan software (n=1484), and vector map were used for spatiotemporal analysis. Results Infection-related tweets (R=.763) correlated better than GSQ time series (R=.683) for the same keywords and had a lower mean average percent error (8.4 vs 11.8) for ILI-ED visit prediction in January, the most volatile month of flu. SaTScan identified primary outbreak cluster of high-probability infection tweets with

  20. Burden of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Pregnant Women and Infants Under 6 Months in Mongolia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaw, Liling; Kamigaki, Taro; Burmaa, Alexanderyn; Urtnasan, Chuluunbatiin; Od, Ishiin; Nyamaa, Gunregjaviin; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnant women and infants under 6 months are at risk of influenza-related complications. Limited information exists on their community burden of respiratory viruses. Methods and Findings This prospective, observational open cohort study was conducted in Baganuur district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia during 2013/14 and 2014/15 influenza seasons. Influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (sARI) were identified by follow-up calls twice a week. For those identified, influenza and respiratory syncytical virus (RSV) were tested by point-of-care test kits. We calculated overall and stratified (by trimester or age group) incidence rates (IR) and used Cox proportional hazard regression for risk factor analyses. Among 1260 unvaccinated pregnant women enrolled, overall IRs for ILI, sARI and influenza A were 11.8 (95% confidence interval (C.I):11.2–12.4), 0.1 (95%C.I:0.0–0.4), and 1.7 (95%C.I:1.5–1.9) per 1,000person-days, respectively. One sARI case was influenza A positive. IRs and adjusted hazard ratios (Adj.HR) for ILI and influenza A were lowest in the third trimester. Those with co-morbidity were 1.4 times more likely to develop ILI [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.9)]. Among 1304 infants enrolled, overall ILI and sARI IRs were 15.2 (95%C.I:14.5–15.8) and 20.5 (95%C.I:19.7–21.3) per 1,000person-days, respectively. From the tested ILI (77.6%) and sARI (30.6%) cases, the overall positivity rates were 6.3% (influenza A), 1.1% (influenza B) and 9.3% (RSV). Positivity rates of influenza A and RSV tend to increase with age. sARI cases were 1.4 times more likely to be male [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.8)]. Among all influenza A and RSV positive infants, 11.8% and 68.0% were respectively identified among sARI hospitalized cases. Conclusion We observed low overall influenza A burden in both groups, though underestimation was likely due to point-of-care tests used. For infants, RSV burden was more significant than influenza A. These findings

  1. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance) for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR) of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum) and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT) of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5%) and 99% specificity, the WCR and threshold methods

  2. Syndromic Surveillance for Influenza in the Emergency Department–A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Katherine M.; Stoneking, Lisa; Min, Alice; Rhodes, Suzanne Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The science of surveillance is rapidly evolving due to changes in public health information and preparedness as national security issues, new information technologies and health reform. As the Emergency Department has become a much more utilized venue for acute care, it has also become a more attractive data source for disease surveillance. In recent years, influenza surveillance from the Emergency Department has increased in scope and breadth and has resulted in innovative and increasingly accepted methods of surveillance for influenza and influenza-like-illness (ILI). We undertook a systematic review of published Emergency Department-based influenza and ILI syndromic surveillance systems. A PubMed search using the keywords “syndromic”, “surveillance”, “influenza” and “emergency” was performed. Manuscripts were included in the analysis if they described (1) data from an Emergency Department (2) surveillance of influenza or ILI and (3) syndromic or clinical data. Meeting abstracts were excluded. The references of included manuscripts were examined for additional studies. A total of 38 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria, describing 24 discrete syndromic surveillance systems. Emergency Department-based influenza syndromic surveillance has been described worldwide. A wide variety of clinical data was used for surveillance, including chief complaint/presentation, preliminary or discharge diagnosis, free text analysis of the entire medical record, Google flu trends, calls to teletriage and help lines, ambulance dispatch calls, case reports of H1N1 in the media, markers of ED crowding, admission and Left Without Being Seen rates. Syndromes used to capture influenza rates were nearly always related to ILI (i.e. fever +/− a respiratory or constitutional complaint), however, other syndromes used for surveillance included fever alone, “respiratory complaint” and seizure. Two very large surveillance networks, the North American DiSTRIBuTE network and

  3. Early Detection for Cases of Enterovirus- and Influenza-Like Illness through a Newly Established School-Based Syndromic Surveillance System in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ting Chia; Chan, Ta Chien; Li, Zheng Rong Tiger; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Chu, Yu-Roo; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yen, Muh-Yong; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS) and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively). The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians’ clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8%) and ILI (98.9%). Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01). Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved). The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help public

  4. Multiple Viral Infection Detected from Influenza-Like Illness Cases in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Adam, Kindi; Pangesti, Krisna Nur Andriana; Setiawaty, Vivi

    2017-01-01

    Influenza is one of the common etiologies of the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). However, influenza virus only contributes about 20 percent of influenza-like illness patients. The aim of the study is to investigate the other viral etiologies from ILI cases in Indonesia. Of the 334 samples, 266 samples (78%) were positive at least for one virus, including 107 (42%) cases of multiple infections. Influenza virus is the most detected virus. The most frequent combination of viruses identified was adenovirus and human rhinovirus. This recent study demonstrated high detection rate of several respiratory viruses from ILI cases in Indonesia. Further studies to determine the relationship between viruses and clinical features are needed to improve respiratory disease control program.

  5. Case series of rash associated with influenza B in school children

    PubMed Central

    Skowronski, Danuta M; Chambers, Catharine; Osei, William; Walker, Jill; Petric, Martin; Naus, Monika; Li, Yan; Krajden, Mel

    2015-01-01

    This case series describes morbilliform and other rash presentations among schoolchildren during a March 2014 outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) in British Columbia, Canada. Multiplex nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal specimens and paired serologic investigations identified that influenza B, characterized as B/Massachusetts/02/2012-like (Yamagata-lineage), was the only viral aetiology and most likely cause of ILI and rash. An association between influenza B and rash has been described infrequently elsewhere, and not previously in North America. Influenza B should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile exanthem. Evaluation of the nature, incidence and contributing agent–host–environment interactions, and immunologic mechanisms to possibly explain influenza-associated rash is warranted. PMID:25382064

  6. Preparedness for the prevention and control of influenza outbreaks on passenger ships in the EU: the SHIPSAN TRAINET project communication.

    PubMed

    Mouchtouri, Va; Black, N; Nichols, G; Paux, T; Riemer, T; Rjabinina, J; Schlaich, C; Menel Lemos, C; Kremastinou, J; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2009-05-28

    Passenger ships carry a large number of people in confined spaces. A case of the new influenza A (H1N1) virus aboard a passenger ship is an expected event and would lead to rapid spread of the virus, if preventive measures are not in place. However, many cruise lines have detailed policies and procedures to deal with cases of influenza like illness (ILI). The EU SHIPSAN and SHIPSAN TRAINET projects include in their objectives guidelines for the prevention and control of communicable diseases aboard passenger ships. A literature review showed that from 1997 to 2005, nine confirmed outbreaks of influenza were linked to passenger ships, with attack rates up to 37%. It is important to establish and maintain a surveillance system for ILI aboard passenger ships, in order to systematically collect data that can help to determine the baseline illness levels. Monitoring these will enable early identification of outbreaks and allow timely implementation of control measures.

  7. Multiple Viral Infection Detected from Influenza-Like Illness Cases in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Kindi

    2017-01-01

    Influenza is one of the common etiologies of the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). However, influenza virus only contributes about 20 percent of influenza-like illness patients. The aim of the study is to investigate the other viral etiologies from ILI cases in Indonesia. Of the 334 samples, 266 samples (78%) were positive at least for one virus, including 107 (42%) cases of multiple infections. Influenza virus is the most detected virus. The most frequent combination of viruses identified was adenovirus and human rhinovirus. This recent study demonstrated high detection rate of several respiratory viruses from ILI cases in Indonesia. Further studies to determine the relationship between viruses and clinical features are needed to improve respiratory disease control program. PMID:28232948

  8. Operation HARDTACK. Volume 2. Radiological Safety. Extracted Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    POJOA , C J~~’/𔄃( Vera )L (Levoy)e ((Oscar) * / (Re RIBAI(Tom)______ (I(Van) (Fred)R iliS~~ ~ ~ OF S;3 IE/1 NYA Avn (I(Henry) DEEP ENTRANC Radiologica...Bikini fer 75 iles and north for 3C mieae, 50 miles outo to confirm thse vstarn- ,. x sn’ o.f tie fallout patte:-n, Ve!!o-:t ara predicZ31 alo g a...Osar ’ (Ruby BIJI (L( Vera ) DEEP ENTRANCE PHOTO TOWERERONU (Osca()M) F Arin 0 /X (V n 4 TADPTE TEAK AND ORANGE EVENT OPERATION HARDTACK - In view of

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Modelling of Interplanetary Disturbances between the Sun and Earth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-21

    34, of W¢:dia l Solor Wind Vrloc ity, i)hnsitx, "]’rTpOT- Iir~u, :InVl I)l;I1 I.MI’ "\\h~ritudr. at 0.3 Al’. (n) - (d) (’Il ol’ flUSO-g(fl(nAVt,’T :h k...no.n - -,0,0 do If-ncon.ry *d ideIly by’ block -el,) 1111) modelling lar wind norplanetnrY disturbhance 20 ABSTRACT (CroIffI, 1n -esrO side It ~cls...magnetosphere. The "canonical" or anzatz series of 3hock wA ves include initial velocities near the sun over the range 500 to 3000 (m sec . The ambient solar wind

  10. [EFFICACY AND SECURITY OF A CONVENTIONAL PROCEDURE OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN COMPLEX OF TREATMENT OF NONBILIARY ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN EARLY PHASE OF THE DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Mishalov, V G; Markulan, L Yu; Matveyev, R M

    2016-02-01

    Abstract Efficacy and security of a plasmapheresis procedure in complex of treatment of nonbiliary acute pancreatitis in early phase of the disease were established, basing on the treatment results analysis in 48 patients. The plasmapheresis results were estimated in accordance to changes revealed in the intoxication leukocytic index (ILI), a general protein (GP) content, general calcium (GC) in the blood plasm and of the activated partial thrombin time (APTHT). Application of plasmapheresis in patients, suffering purulent pancreatitis in the enzymal phase, have guaranteed a staged reduction of ILI by (34.86 ± 1.27)%, the APTHT enhancement from (35.15 ± 0.37) to (52.01 ± 0.62) sec, a trustworthy lowering of the GP by (4.35 ± 0.02) g/L at average and of GC in a blood plasmby (10.45 ± 0.38)%.

  11. Investigating the effect of high spring incidence of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) on early autumn incidence.

    PubMed

    Burkom, H; Kniss, K; Meltzer, M; Brammer, L; Elbert, Y; Finelli, L; Swerdlow, D

    2012-12-01

    A pandemic H1N1 infection wave in the USA occurred during spring 2009. Some hypothesized that for regions affected by the spring wave, an autumn outbreak would be less likely or delayed compared to unaffected regions because of herd immunity. We investigated this hypothesis using the Outpatient Influenza-like Illness (ILI) Network, a collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, health departments, and care providers. We evaluated the likelihood of high early autumn incidence given high spring incidence in core-based statistical areas (CBSAs). Using a surrogate incidence measure based on influenza-related illness ratios, we calculated the odds of high early autumn incidence given high spring incidence. CBSAs with high spring ILI ratios proved more likely than unaffected CBSAs to have high early autumn ratios, suggesting that elevated spring illness did not protect against early autumn increases. These novel methods are applicable to planning and studies involving other infectious diseases.

  12. Forecasting the 2013–2014 influenza season using Wikipedia

    DOE PAGES

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; ...

    2015-05-14

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are appliedmore » to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.« less

  13. Vaccines for Hantaviruses: Progress and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    511ISSN 1476-058410.1586/ERV.12.15www.expert-reviews.com Editorial Hantaviruses , hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome & hantavirus pulmonary...syndrome The Hantavirus genus of the fam- ily Bunyaviridae comprises more than 20 viruses, including several human patho- gens. Hantaviruses are...issues Expert Rev. Vaccines 11(5), 511–513 (2012) Keywords: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome • hantaviruses • hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

  14. The ROSCOE MANUAL. Volume 27. Natural Background Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    kilo, porno -l kl`s) 4. 70. 0.(20 X E -2 po.uoc-tocee/me?. (pci) kilo pascal IliPa 6 8194 7tL? pwnurl-niaS (thi u"i. ~ n. kilurram l1,g) 4. 535 924SF.K...LATER. UPWELL 529 ALPHAC - CHIC - BETA UPWELL 530 CC EXPRESS CHI IN DEGEES ( CHID ) AS REQIIREb FOR INPUT TO UPWELL 531 CC SUBROUTINE CLODT. UPWELL 532 CHID

  15. Surf Zone Properties and On/Offshore Sediment Transport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    wave properties. A review of the previous related works was made. The investigators who developed and applied the surf zone parameter included Iribarren ...breaking wave properties characterized by this parameter are summarized. L~.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ • - Il~i/ l I rT L I - - .- -9- Iribarren and Nogales (1949...where Le is the deep water wave length and rearranging gives 4 a-5_ -10- The derivation given by Iribarren and Nogales sug- gested that the incipient

  16. Detection of influenza vaccine effectiveness among nursery school children: Lesson from a season with cocirculating respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Keiko; Fujieda, Megumi; Miki, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ohfuji, Satoko; Maeda, Akiko; Kase, Tetsuo; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    In the winter influenza epidemic season, patients with respiratory illnesses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections increase among young children. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness (ILI) using a technique to identify outbreaks of RSV infection and to distinguish those patients from ILI patients. The study subjects were 101 children aged 12 to 84 months attending nursery school. We classified the cases into 6 levels based on the definitions of ILI for outcomes. We established observation periods according to information obtained from regional surveillance and rapid diagnostic tests among children. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for each case classification were obtained using a logistic regression model for each observation period. For the entire observation period, ORs for cases with fever plus respiratory symptoms were reduced marginally significantly. For the local influenza epidemic period, only the OR for the most serious cases was significantly decreased (0.20 [95%CI: 0.04-0.94]). During the influenza outbreak among the nursery school children, multivariate ORs for fever plus respiratory symptoms decreased significantly (≥ 38.0°C plus ≥ one symptoms: 0.23 [0.06-0.91), ≥ 38.0°C plus ≥ 2 symptoms: 0.21 [0.05-0.85], ≥ 39.0°C plus ≥ one symptoms: 0.18 [0.04-0.93] and ≥ 39.0°C plus ≥ 2 symptoms: 0.16 [0.03-0.87]). These results suggest that confining observation to the peak influenza epidemic period and adoption of a strict case classification system can minimize outcome misclassification when evaluating the effectiveness of influenza vaccine against ILI, even if influenza and RSV cocirculate in the same season. PMID:25714791

  17. ASOP-3: A Program for the Minimum-Weight Design of Structures Subjected to Strength and Deflection Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    COMMANDER *■ mm L PARHER. Col, USAF Chief, Structural Mechanics Division AF Flight Dynamics Laboratory Copies of this report should not be...tlHiiiiiiilllfh’fcrr-- "-’ i.-.—;lwu,M,UL.,ili.ti1i,,,f,,w K.mu,mmiimmmmimmmmmmm - mmmm IS FOREWORD This report was prepared by the Structural Mechanics ...of the Structural Mechanics Division, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Dr

  18. Optimizing Human Cognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    flOOBa 1. ll..LTC dMPFC vMPFC AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY ENVISIONING THE FUTURE THEORY OF MIND MORAL DECISION MAKING f iGURf 12 . The cleb.d: Ml...1!-.e lilcrature il:; lralc lhogeJ)Cro!ily. (A) Autob;ogrOjlhicol merT-ory: subjecb lO:Co:.onl o lp«i1e.. p~1 ~ from memory . (8) Envisioning rt.e

  19. Forecasting the 2013–2014 Influenza Season Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed. PMID:25974758

  20. Principles and Experience of the On-Condition Application of Oils and Working Fluids to Aeronautical Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    8217: ,..,,~i:..li 1 6.0 5.0 "T• 12 "t3 "tch "t rem Fig. 1 Dynamics of varying the MH-7.5y oil kinematic viscosity taken as the governing parameter in the...Program Technical Support Center".Pensacola,Florids, USA, p. 120,1994. 5. Gerd Koolhaas , Jurgen Frank. "Experiences in the Condition Monitoring

  1. Polar Mesospheric Waves and Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    1 1 1 4:1 93--1.2336 i .* .:: *• lIIlIli hiiIIIl~lii SDL/93-039 Page i May 1993 FORWORD * The Department of the Navy/Office of Naval Research awarded...that the inner scale of the electron fluctuation spectrum decreases at least as fast as e- 1/4, which is the case for neutral turbulence. ŔI I SDL

  2. Development of Oxygen-Carrying Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-10-16

    hydroxy-3-nitrobenzal)ethylene- dlimine Cobelt • 30 - ili - >, > Section Part Subseotlon I* 2-Hydroxy-3-nitro-5- methylbenzaldehyde ...Schiffes bases of 2-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzal- dehyde and of 2-hydroxy-5- methylbenzaldehyde with ethylene- dlamlne had been previously found to carry...at a much lowur temperature has not as yet been definitely ascerteined. to ’--■ ■* o - 32 - I. 2-Hydroxy-3-nltro-5- methylbenzaldehyde . The

  3. Transversus Abdominis Plane Versus Ilioinguinal and Iliohypogastric Nerve Blocks for Analgesia Following Open Inguinal Herniorrhaphy*

    PubMed Central

    Stav, Anatoli; Reytman, Leonid; Stav, Michael-Yohay; Troitsa, Anton; Kirshon, Mark; Alfici, Ricardo; Dudkiewicz, Mickey; Sternberg, Ahud

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that preoperative (pre-op) ultrasound (US)-guided posterior transversus abdominis plane block (TAP) and US-guided ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block (ILI+IHG) will produce a comparable analgesia after Lichtenstein patch tension-free method of open inguinal hernia repair in adult men. The genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve will be blocked separately. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, and observer-blinded clinical study. A total of 166 adult men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a pre-op TAP group, a pre-op ILI+IHG group, and a control group. An intraoperative block of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve was performed in all patients in all three groups, followed by postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine. The pain intensity and morphine consumption immediately after surgery and during the 24 hours after surgery were compared between the groups. Results A total of 149 patients completed the study protocol. The intensity of pain immediately after surgery and morphine consumption were similar in the two “block” groups; however, they were significantly decreased compared with the control group. During the 24 hours after surgery, morphine consumption in the ILI+IHG group decreased compared with the TAP group, as well as in each “block” group versus the control group. Twenty-four hours after surgery, all evaluated parameters were similar. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided ILI+IHG provided better pain control than US-guided posterior TAP following the Lichtenstein patch tension-free method of open inguinal hernia repair in men during 24 hours after surgery. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01429480.) PMID:27487311

  4. The Relationship Between Acoustic Target Strength and Body Length for Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    sturgeon feeding portray them as opportunistic benthivores, feeding primar- ily on mollusks, polychaete worms, amphipods , isopods, shrimp and small bottom...May-July in Canada (Smith 1985; Bain 1997; Smith and Clugston 1997). Substrate is a key spawning habitat parameter for Atlantic sturgeon, as hard...maturity. Since juveniles are known to congregate at fresh and saltwater interfaces, these areas may serve as juvenile nursery habitat . Important

  5. Ramjets and Ramrockets for Military Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    snips. The ce=.fign-’t-or selected involved the raPe beino built knto tbe main aifra -, as sho n e The com ical ce-trebo4 supers.nic intake wh-ich...chargerent rourM-etiiea. a- tris-air na graviti sols porne do ranpIli Its rcuios sans sucum artifice. Ceci -ontr...: awot lea di!! icuiris do n zisi on

  6. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Engineering and Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-26

    From TM 5-809-10/’ NAVFAC P-355,’AFM 88-3, Chapter 13; April 1973 *Elko I 4* 33 San 1906 v Stockton 2 Franisc so< Modesto + 38 󈧎 CBishop. *Fresno 1N 7...wicih have I sear Inisistm1ei with It ilie t welvue mnrth period 49 Stat * 863. lmlrlesiatel prrioir to rthe oiiacttinrt of t his Ac(t Joy a State

  7. Forecasting the 2013–2014 influenza season using Wikipedia

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Salathé, Marcel

    2015-05-14

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.

  8. Segregation of Virulent Influenza A(H1N1) Variants in the Lower Respiratory Tract of Critically Ill Patients during the 2010–2011 Seasonal Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Piralla, Antonio; Pariani, Elena; Rovida, Francesca; Campanini, Giulia; Muzzi, Alba; Emmi, Vincenzo; Iotti, Giorgio A.; Pesenti, Antonio; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Zanetti, Alessandro; Baldanti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Background Since its appearance in 2009, the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus circulated worldwide causing several severe infections. Methods Respiratory samples from patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) and acute respiratory distress attending 24 intensive care units (ICUs) as well as from patients with lower respiratory tract infections not requiring ICU admission and community upper respiratory tract infections in the Lombardy region (10 million inhabitants) of Italy during the 2010–2011 winter-spring season, were analyzed. Results In patients with severe ILI, the viral load was higher in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with respect to nasal swab (NS), (p<0.001) suggesting a higher virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. Four distinct virus clusters (referred to as cluster A to D) circulated simultaneously. Most (72.7%, n = 48) of the 66 patients infected with viruses belonging to cluster A had a severe (n = 26) or moderate ILI (n = 22). Amino acid mutations (V26I, I116M, A186T, D187Y, D222G/N, M257I, S263F, I286L/M, and N473D) were observed only in patients with severe ILI. D222G/N variants were detected exclusively in BAL samples. Conclusions Multiple virus clusters co-circulated during the 2010–2011 winter-spring season. Severe or moderate ILI were associated with specific 2009 influenza A(H1N1) variants, which replicated preferentially in the lower respiratory tract. PMID:22194826

  9. The Department of Defense Statement on Critical Technologies for Export Control by Dr. Ruth M. Davis Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Advanced Technology Before the Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade Committee on Foreign Affairs of the United States House of Representatives 96th Congress, First Session,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-22

    I . fLu presumflpt ion of a set Of ii 1tr Cit i-1t1~ m0 sim I 11"’ in nmmhorv I and re Ia t i veIy% s tabl e overI t imt . 11 i S i ILi aor> no t )’ ~o...and conversion. End Products: o Undersea vehicles Submar ines Bottom crawlers Torpedoes Craft to a1id swimmers o Research and Exploration Seismic

  10. TACOM-TARDEC Tech Base Plan Supporting FCS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Sold ier Perf orm ance Ride Vibration R ide V ibration Shock Motion Sickness M ob ili ty Mission Module Offline reliability models Loads Ground...evaluate mobility, steering , braking, cooling and suspension performance vs. requirements METRIC:* • Increase mobility by 15% TRL=6 Conduct...Affordability metrics from programs impact the concept design and technology selection Technology Protection Plan Is it required? Yes Modeling and

  11. Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease in Northeastern Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    meningococcal meningits in Bamako, Mali: epidemiological features and analysis of vaccine efficacy, Lancet, ii, 315, 1982. 17. Kilpatrickt, MW. E., Maill. 1. A...r LIE) DTIC , . [iE LE CTE ili D PUBLICATION REPORT 1514 33/88 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE IN NORTHEASTERN AFRICA BY John E. Sippel, and...to the southern regions of the Sudan. Like the disease in the sub-Siaharan region, meningococcal meningitis in the Nile Valley is seaso- nal and most

  12. C-141 All Weather Landing System (AWLS) Flight Test Report: Optimization and Pre-Experimental Phases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    run,ra:V Uz-a--s and st11op and -g.. uperations, an accu -rate Runvay Dlistance Reraining Display is needed. 2. smo visibil-tyr linetg the pilotrq~e...The ins trumentation (ADDAS) data was correlated to the tracking data bv time. Since the number of feet per micro- ampereS Can eas ily be calculated...Stalling Velocity WPAFB - right-Patterson AFB, Ohio ,-’A (micro-amp) micro- amperes 140

  13. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part E. Land Use and Secondary Effects of Tocks Island Lake Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    34Conceptual Development Plan" in preparation by Clarke & Rapuano for the National Park Service and the Army Corps of Engineers. IlI-2 The statistics in...state budget funds. Demand for state police services will be * greater than would be needed without a National Recreation Area, although quantification...handled by first aid services within the National Recreation Area. For those emergencies requiring more extensive care, the NPS is depending on

  14. Integrated High-Fidelity CFD/FE FSI Code Development and Benchmark Full-Scale Validation EFD for Slamming Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    Lehigh slamming load test fac ili ty, a.k.a. Numerette, was upgraded with more piezo-resistive film pressure sensors , single-point pressure sensors ...Lehigh slamming load test facility, a.k.a. Numerette, was upgraded with more piezo- resistive film pressure sensors , single-point pressure sensors ...output from an accelerometer mounted on bulkhead #5, as well as by using accelerometer and gyro data from sensors on bulkhead #2 and extrapolating

  15. A Study of the Four-Ball Wear Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-09-01

    JJ&cöm.ilie_tes.t cup and measured. The average of the major and minor axes is considered the measure of wear. Th« reason TO? these OeCUliar scar...iiii*,sKa.ture chart of the three Navy -symbol :petrole>im oils examinee! is A’ ••4 <•• *%+\\*i-I<T lAmnA ^Q4 shown in Figure 22. A

  16. Experimental Polyurethane Foam Roof Systems - II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    hourly temperatures for each day were plotted on graph paper, and areas were measured with a compensating polar planimeter that reads to four digits...INN \\k I, N’. tlir’I’iii V A I \\’A SIurelS42r. K110i tlIe. I ct Ili Solair i imip .\\r nill. Kiw\\\\, tMe. I N I C(I’ 0)1,4 (IC, Ni’rtolk. \\.A ( ( I

  17. Expendable Remotely Piloted Vehicles for Strategic Offensive Airpower Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    nautics. A comparison with the term cyborg may be helpful in under- standing this concept. Webster’s dictionary defines a cyborg as “a human being who...swiveled lasers fore and aft, small tachyon power plants below the lasers. Everything automated; the machine would land us as quickly as possible and then...directs vehicle one towards the next target—an electrical power plant . This particular target has heav­ ily defended aim points, so she selects three

  18. AFOSR/AFRPL Rocket Propulsion Research Meeting Held at Lancaster, California on 12-15 March 1984. Abstracts and Agenda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 1030 31 PLASMA INITIATION MECHANISMS, ABSORPTION OR CW LASER ENERGY AND MIXING FLUID MECHANICS...ILiJIDIZED BED SPACE POWER SYSTEMS. Owen C Jones, Jr, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 0830 Invited: NASA SPONSORED RESEARCH ON NONCONVENTIONAL...founded. Suppressants 0 apparently work by one or more of three mechanisms: (1) energy loss due to viscous dissipation due to drag forces, (2

  19. Forecasting the 2013-2014 influenza season using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Hickmann, Kyle S; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2015-05-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.

  20. Microscopic Study of the Influence of Impurities on Interface Bonding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-25

    using 005 4m alumina and lightly etching the surface in a mild HCI- methanol solution. Oxidized specimens can then be made when requir- .. 49 ONR- 1984, C... Mechanical Engineering/Materials Science and Engineering -I " ilis docujmfnt hi~s Uc -;:, ’--v~- tr, p ublc y .ecf .... sa 2,C, .,.- ...ji 85 03 11 085...Report Office of Naval Research - January 25, 1985 Contract N00014-83-K-0143 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: HARRIS L. MARCUS Mechanical Engineering/Materials

  1. Standardization of Program EAGLE - Numerical Grid Generation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    NA1ILIS( NVAR ) NDIMI( NVAR ) f NDIM2( NVAR v a NAML.ST( 2) C DIMENSION ICHR( NCVAL ),INTGR( NYVAi. ) Y RFAIS ( NRVA! C DIMENSION CI3ATAC NDAT ) TDAT...INTEGER AND RK’AL. IN THE C ARRAY "COATA,. C C NRDAT - TOTAL NUIMBER OF RFAI . VALUES IN THE ARRAY ’RDAI’. C C CHARACTER*(*) STRING , CDATA CHARACTER*20

  2. A History of Russian and Soviet Naval Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    her Eastward expansion. This disquieting period ended with the accession of the Romanov dynasty to the throne 17 ILI 96t Figur 2.317th entuy EAnso ARf...Naval developments during the first two regimes of the Romanov dynasty were small in scale. During the reign of Michael (1613-1645) Cossack pirates...59] By selecting Kiev as his power base, Oleg established the Kievan State, a dynasty which would last until the Mongol invasion of the thirteenth

  3. Analysis of the United States Navy Foreign Area Officer Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    t!U ~· 1 1\\e Stcntlritl cf tbt Y.ili!Jn’ D!p~r~~mem -:tlap c~u]ad P 10 mmpszrt p:apns to mMt tbt DMdJ a! lhC ~ md tbt 011alr 0~ ~mpocvmts md 4.1.1... tbt ~ cc:mrit• OlllpCAi m which th.ty speci&lia 1\\1 .’\

  4. High added value of a population-based participatory surveillance system for community acute gastrointestinal, respiratory and influenza-like illnesses in Sweden, 2013-2014 using the web.

    PubMed

    Pini, A; Merk, H; Carnahan, A; Galanis, I; VAN Straten, E; Danis, K; Edelstein, M; Wallensten, A

    2017-04-01

    In 2013-2014, the Public Health Agency of Sweden developed a web-based participatory surveillance system, Hӓlsorapport, based on a random sample of individuals reporting symptoms weekly online, to estimate the community incidence of self-reported acute gastrointestinal (AGI), acute respiratory (ARI) and influenza-like (ILI) illnesses and their severity. We evaluated Hӓlsorapport's acceptability, completeness, representativeness and its data correlation with other surveillance data. We calculated response proportions and Spearman correlation coefficients (r) between (i) incidence of illnesses in Hӓlsorapport and (ii) proportions of specific search terms to medical-advice website and reasons for calling a medical advice hotline. Of 34 748 invitees, 3245 (9·3%) joined the cohort. Participants answered 81% (139 013) of the weekly questionnaires and 90% (16 351) of follow-up questionnaires. AGI incidence correlated with searches on winter-vomiting disease [r = 0·81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·69-0·89], and ARI incidence correlated with searches on cough (r = 0·77, 95% CI 0·62-0·86). ILI incidence correlated with the web query-based estimated incidence of ILI patients consulting physicians (r = 0·63, 95% CI 0·42-0·77). The high response to different questionnaires and the correlation with other syndromic surveillance systems suggest that Hӓlsorapport offers a reasonable representation of AGI, ARI and ILI patterns in the community and can complement traditional and syndromic surveillance systems to estimate their burden in the community.

  5. Prospective surveillance study of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness and seasonal influenza vaccine in a cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are frequent in children and complications can occur in patients with chronic diseases. We evaluated the frequency and impact of ARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes on disease activity, and the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccine in a cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods Surveillance of respiratory viruses was conducted in JIA patients during ARI season (March to August) in two consecutive years: 2007 (61 patients) and 2008 (63 patients). Patients with ARI or ILI had respiratory samples collected for virus detection by real time PCR. In 2008, 44 patients were immunized with influenza vaccine. JIA activity index (ACRPed30) was assessed during both surveillance periods. Influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured before and 30-40 days after vaccination. Results During the study period 105 ARI episodes were reported and 26.6% of them were ILI. Of 33 samples collected, 60% were positive for at least one virus. Influenza and rhinovirus were the most frequently detected, in 30% of the samples. Of the 50 JIA flares observed, 20% were temporally associated to ARI. Influenza seroprotection rates were higher than 70% (91-100%) for all strains, and seroconversion rates exceeded 40% (74-93%). In general, response to influenza vaccine was not influenced by therapy or disease activity, but patients using anti-TNF alpha drugs presented lower seroconversion to H1N1 strain. No significant differences were found in ACRPed30 after vaccination and no patient reported ILI for 6 months after vaccination. Conclusion ARI episodes are relatively frequent in JIA patients and may have a role triggering JIA flares. Trivalent split influenza vaccine seems to be immunogenic and safe in JIA patients. PMID:23510667

  6. Thyroid Function in Critical Illness and Burn Injury,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    in 46. Palazzo MG, Suter PM: Delivery dependent oxygen Ingbar SH, Braverman LE (eds): Werner’s The Thyroid, consumption in patients with septic...JT, LoPresti JS: Nonthyroidal illness, in 1431-1435, 1985 Braverman LE, Utiger RD (eds): Werner and Ingbar’s The 64, Cavalieri RR, Rapoport B...circulating thyroid hormones, in Braverman Stimulation by IL-I of iodothyronine 5’deiodinatingactiv- LE, Utiger RD (eds): Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid

  7. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory 1 January - 31 December 1992. Volume 18

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-31

    675 1 METAL CUTTING JA-6716 METHYLAMINE JA-6736 METAL EPITAXIAL SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER (See MESFET) JA-6793...1282 Lasers ADA25 1001 6761 Gain and Noise Figure in Cox, C.H. IlI lEE Proc. J, Analogue Fibre -Optic Links Optoelectron., Vol. 139, No. 4, August 1992...9995 FABRY-PEROT INTERFEROMETER FILTER MATCHING MS-9576 JA-6348, JA-6756 FALSE ALARM REJECTION FILTERED NOISE APPROXIMATIONS MS-9280 MS- 10042 FAR

  8. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report Disposal and Reuse of Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Oakland Vision 2000 Maritime Development. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    wattle (Acacia longifolia), myoporum (Myoporum laetum), privet (Ligustrum texanum), Kapuka tree (Griselinia littoralis), India hawthorne (Raphiolepis...Li. ii 0 EE 0 MCI i 7ii ILI 0)PB iiU IUIW li i - A ii I U *cc~ , icai ) a) u, I:, EiO c t i =ii C15 C ii I iiCC l itti Auag ooDs!i u c :i c) a)3 _A up

  9. Cultural Resources Inventory of Lands Adjacent to Lake Winnibigoshish,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    to be replaced by a [- Pinus banksiana (jack pine) dominated forest (probably an eastern immigrant) I C (McAndrews, personal communication). This...Winnibigoshish area, Ilying between these two regions, but close to the eastern edge of the oak- savannah penetration, may offer data on the interaction between...is primarily a lakeshore oriented culture, and shows affinities (though very dilute) with the Havanna Hopewellian cultures of Illinois, eastern Iowa

  10. Final Technical Report for Contract Number N00014-81-K-0457.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    hydration of peridotite at relatively low (< 450’ C) temperatures. Seismic velocities of the peridotites are lowered to crustal values, and hence the...earth called ophiolite model for the oceanic crust. In would serpentinize the mantle peridotites and sciences. The oceanic crust, which we define as that...turn, overlie units of massive ary within the mantle peridotite , and as much ily studied by indirect means, usually seismic and cumulate gabbros, which

  11. Islamic Fundamentalism in Pakistan. Its Characters and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    For although Pakistan was founded as a Muslim homeland, it was not at all the intention of its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah , that the state should be...origin: "* The founder of Pakistan, Muhammad ’ Ali Jinnah , was of Isma’ili background; "* Yahya Khan, former Commander in Chief of the Army, and then...more interested in socialist policies or regional issues. Islam entered more fully into the political debate when former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali

  12. Ovarian Cancer Risk and Survival in BRCA 1/2 Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    7. Gwinn ML, Lee NC, Rhodes PH, Layde PM, Rubin GL (1990) tiveness of OCs and tubal ligation indicate a substantial Pregnancy , breast feeding, and...focus our explorations. Our results to date (4) show that factors protective in general (oral contraceptive use, bearing children, tubal ligation...assays were successful and our preliminary data suggested that the ILI 8-M137 SNP may be associated with tumor stage and histologic subtype, suggesting

  13. Benign Breast Disease: Toward Molecular Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    David W. Hillman, M.S., Vera J. Suman, Ph.D., JoJohnson, R.N., Cassann Blake, M.D, Thea TIsty, PhD., Celine M. Vachon, Ph.D., L.Joseph Melton IlI, M.D...structures. For comparison, a normal lobule is on the left side. Panel C alo shows proliferative hyperplasia without atypia. This is modeiate ductal

  14. One-Year Changes in Symptoms of Depression and Weight in Overweight/Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes in the Look AHEAD study

    PubMed Central

    Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Rubin, Richard R.; Wing, Rena R.; Walkup, Michael P.; Fabricatore, Anthony N.; Coday, Mace; Van Dorsten, Brent; Mount, David L.; Ewing, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Depressed individuals are frequently excluded from weight loss trials because of fears that weight reduction may precipitate mood disorders, as well as concerns that depressed participants will not lose weight satisfactorily. The present study examined participants in the Look AHEAD study to determine whether moderate weight loss would be associated with incident symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, and whether symptoms of depression at baseline would limit weight loss at 1 year. Overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (n=5145) were randomly assigned to an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). Of these, 5129 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and had their weight measured at baseline and 1 year. Potentially significant symptoms of depression were defined by a BDI score ≥10. Participants in ILI lost 8.6±6.9% of initial weight at 1 year, compared to 0.7±4.8% for DSE (P<0.001, effectsize=−1.33), and had a reduction of 1.4±4.7 points on the BDI, compared to 0.4±4.5 for DSE (P<0.001, effectsize=0.23). At 1 year, the incidence of potentially significant symptoms of depression was significantly (RR=0.66, 95%CI=0.5,0.8; P<0.001) lower in the ILI than DSE group (6.3% vs. 9.6%). In the ILI group, participants with and without symptoms of depression lost 7.8±6.7% and 8.7±6.9%, respectively, a difference not considered clinically meaningful. Intentional weight loss was not associated with the precipitation of symptoms of depression, but instead appeared to protect against this occurrence. Mild (or greater) symptoms of depression at baseline did not prevent overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from achieving significant weight loss. PMID:22016099

  15. Applications of Historical Analyses in Combat Modelling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Lanchester’s Equations. The database size used in the previous work and the prodigious amount of data required to undertake frequency analysis with...0.6 0.8 1 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Epoch Representative Year Pr ob ab ili ty A dv at ag e Pr ed ic te d W in ne r C or re ct ly

  16. Cleveland Harbor, Ohio. Section 3. Study. Termination Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Plan Description 18 (2) Cost and Economic Efficiency of Alternative IIA 21 (3) Major Environmental Features/Preliminary 22 Assessment of Alternative...Description 23 (2) Cost and Economic Efficiency of Alternative liB 23 (3) Major Environmental Features/Preliminary 25 Assessment of Alternative lib d...Alternative IliA - Feeder Beach - Reach 8, 25 Bratenahl (1) Plan Description 25 (2) Cost and Economic Efficiency of Alternative IlIA 25 (3) Major

  17. Public Health Colloquium Conference Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    seeing an increased occurrence of patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI): fever, chills, vomiting, headache and backache. A small ...lesions on their face, neck, hands and forearms. In most instances, clinicians begin to suspect a pox -like virus and immediately take steps to...to continue the discussion and follow up on actions. • Add another small group discussion to the agenda and mix the participants so that we have

  18. Effects of Flowfield Turbulence on Asymmetric Vortices over a Slender Body

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    S.V PORT TO #4 73 4510 FOR IL=I TO 3 4520 THYME = TIMER 4530 CALL OUTPUT(RELAY.ACT.01,STEPPER) 4540 CHKTIME = TIMER 4550 IF CHKTIME < ( THYME + DELAY1...TO PORT 8 4620 FOR JJ=l TO 5 4630 CALL OUTPUT(RELAY.ACT.01,STEPPER) 4640 CHKTIME = TIMER 4650 IF CHKTIME < ( THYME + DELAY2) GOTO 4640 4660 REM EACH

  19. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. Volume 19, Number 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    agents and have vary- ing geographic distributions. In the U.S. tickborne diseases include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF...4,6,7 Tick vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) and other diseases Dermacentor variabilis, the American dog tick or wood tick, is found in...more read- ily detected than Ixodes species. Dermacentor andersoni, the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the west- ern and northern U.S. and is a

  20. Extended Appearance Potential Fine Structure Analysis: Oxygen on Aluminum (100),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    applying a high-pass digital filter6 (Fig. 3). Taking a third derivative would serve the sam function, but enhances noise and has less physical basis...Gaithersburg, Md., 1978). One could obtain pasteurized spectra without the preliminary subtraction and with more applications of the digital filter...165, and J. A. Tossell, private comunication . - ._ . . K ....... , . ’. ll ilI - 11 - (23) R. L. Wells and T. Fort, Surface Set. 33, 172 (1972). (24) P

  1. Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RD-A157 917 ACTORS: A MODEL OF CONCURRENT COMPUTATION IN 1/3- DISTRIBUTED SY𔃿TEMS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CRMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...EmmmmmmEmmmmmE mmmmmmmmmmmmmmlfllfllf EEEEEEEmmmmmEE Sa~WNVS AO nflWl ,VNOIJVN 27 n- -o :1 ~ili0 Technical Report 844 Actors: A Model Of Concurrent...Computation In Distributed Systems Gui A. Aghai MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Thsdocument ha. been cipp -oved I= pblicrelease and sale; itsI

  2. Terrain Considerations and Data Base Development for the Design and Testing of Devices to Detect Intruder-Induced Ground Motion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    fill and top-layer soils are poorly compacted. Site 2 is on a hill which is underlair by tonalite (quartz diorite ). Top-layer soils are loose residual...tonalite (quartz diorite ) and diorite . The Recent alluvial deposits are generally unconsolidated. A depth greater than 400 m has been reported for the...the abyssal rocks (tonalite and diorite ) and consist primarIly of sandy loums (SM and SC). Residual soils range in color from dark brown or brown to

  3. Effectiveness and safety of the A-H1N1 vaccine in children: a hospital-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To verify whether vaccination against the A-H1N1 virus in the paediatric population was effective in preventing the occurrence of influenza-like illness (ILI) or was associated with adverse events of special interest. Design, setting and patients A case–control analysis was performed as part of surveillance of children hospitalised through the emergency departments of eight paediatric hospitals/wards for ILI, neurological disorders, non-infectious muco-cutaneous diseases and vasculitis, thrombocytopaenia and gastroduodenal lesions. Results Among 736 children enrolled from November 2009 to August 2010, only 25 had been vaccinated with the pandemic vaccine. Out of 268 children admitted for a diagnosis compatible with the adverse events of special interest, six had received the A-H1N1 vaccine, although none of the adverse events occurred within the predefined risk windows. Only 35 children out of 244 admitted with a diagnosis of ILI underwent laboratory testing: 11 were positive and 24 negative for the A-H1N1 virus. None of the A-H1N1 positive children had received the pandemic vaccine. The OR of ILI associated with any influenza vaccination was 0.9 (95% CI 0.1 to 5.5). Conclusions The study provides additional information on the benefit–risk profile of the pandemic vaccine. No sign of risk associated with the influenza A-H1N1 vaccine used in Italy was found, although several limitations were observed: in Italy, pandemic vaccination coverage was low, the epidemic was almost over by mid December 2009 and the A-H1N1 laboratory test was performed only during the epidemic phase (in <10% of children). This study supports the importance of the existing network of hospitals for the evaluation of signals relevant to new vaccines and drugs. PMID:22021877

  4. A diagnostic one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for accurate detection of influenza virus type A

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Influenza A is known as a public health concern worldwide. In this study, a novel one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assay was designed and optimized for the detection of influenza A viruses. Material and methods The primers and probe were designed based on the analysis of 90 matrix nucleotide sequence data of influenza type A subtypes from the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The influenza virus A/Tehran/5652/2010 (H1N1 pdm09) was used as a reference. The rtRT-PCR assay was optimized, compared with that of the World Health Organization (WHO), and its analytical sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility were evaluated. In total, 64 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and 41 samples without ILI symptoms were tested for the virus, using conventional cell culture, direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) methods, and one-step rtRT-PCR with the designed primer set and probe and the WHO’s. Results The optimized assay results were similar to the WHO’s. The optimized assay results were similar to WHO’s, with non-significant differences for 10–103 copies of viral RNA/reaction (p > 0.05). It detected 10 copies of viral RNA/reaction with high reproducibility and no cross reactivity with other respiratory viruses. A specific cytopathic effect was observed in 6/64 (9.37%) of the ILI group using conventional culture and DFA staining methods; however, it was not seen in non-ILI. Also, the results of our assay and the WHO’s were similar to those of viral isolation and DFA staining. Conclusions Given the high specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of this novel assay, it can serve as a reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of influenza A viruses in clinical specimens and lab experiments. PMID:27904520

  5. Outbreak of H3N2 Influenza at a US Military Base in Djibouti during the H1N1 Pandemic of 2009

    PubMed Central

    Cosby, Michael T.; Pimentel, Guillermo; Nevin, Remington L.; Fouad Ahmed, Salwa; Klena, John D.; Amir, Ehab; Younan, Mary; Browning, Robert; Sebeny, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza pandemics have significant operational impact on deployed military personnel working in areas throughout the world. The US Department of Defense global influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network serves an important role in establishing baseline trends and can be leveraged to respond to outbreaks of respiratory illness. Objective We identified and characterized an operationally unique outbreak of H3N2 influenza at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti occurring simultaneously with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 [A(H1N1)pdm09]. Methods Enhanced surveillance for ILI was conducted at Camp Lemonnier in response to local reports of a possible outbreak during the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Samples were collected from consenting patients presenting with ILI (utilizing a modified case definition) and who completed a case report form. Samples were cultured and analyzed using standard real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rt-RT-PCR) methodology and sequenced genetic material was phylogenetically compared to other published strains. Results rt-RT-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that 25 (78%) of the 32 clinical samples collected were seasonal H3N2 and only 2 (6%) were A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. The highest incidence of H3N2 occurred during the month of May and 80% of these were active duty military personnel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that sequenced H3N2 strains were genetically similar to 2009 strains from the United States of America, Australia, and South east Asia. Conclusions This outbreak highlights challenges in the investigation of influenza among deployed military populations and corroborates the public health importance of maintaining surveillance systems for ILI that can be enhanced locally when needed. PMID:24339995

  6. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-15

    Kis Laszlo Morvai Andras Bato Dr. Gabor Perjes 17 XI Szilard Sasvari Istvan Szigetvari Dr. Margit Buzna Dr. Marius Hal- Dr. Zoltan Katai lama 18 XII...Democratic Party Democrats ____________Party of Hungary 1 I-li Dr. Istvan Kis - Laszlo Udvar- Ivan Vitanyi Mrs. Kiss (Eva Dr. Alajos Dorn- ____________zely...Samuel Beke Dr. Istvan Meszaros 6 IV-XV Gyorgy Pallos Elemer Csaba Ambrus Szantai Dr. Endre Bor- Dr. Ferenc Torok _____________Sarkozy bely Jr. 7 V-XIII

  7. Geomorphological Investigation of the Atchafalaya Basin, Area West, Atchafalaya Delta, and Terrebonne Marsh. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    rl.... eort o’. dpIrIrisaII Of iii r cii iiiiiir i~ili piocidki~s. DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY PRACTICABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO...controlled mosaics of panchromatic photography (1:24,000) flown in December 1955 and October 1956 was also used. The high quality of the color...valley or by flood flow crevassing a short distance upstream of the abandoned channel segment. Abandonment usually occurs because of an improved

  8. Structure of Ordinary Ice I sub h. Part 2: Defects in Ice. Volume 2: Dislocations and Plane Defects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    of formation of pro- D diffusion coefficient tonic defects DH diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in ice yni activation volume of protonic defects’ Di...diffusion coefficient of interstitials motion D, self-diffusion coefficient h separation of the Peierls troughs D. (val) exp(S- J Ili =1-,11for i=1...2,3, 4 D., diffusion coefficient of vacancies ji flux density of defects (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) D electric displacement vector JAdi, displacement current e

  9. Nowcasting influenza outbreaks using open-source media report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jaideep; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-02-01

    We construct and verify a statistical method to nowcast influenza activity from a time-series of the frequency of reports concerning influenza related topics. Such reports are published electronically by both public health organizations as well as newspapers/media sources, and thus can be harvested easily via web crawlers. Since media reports are timely, whereas reports from public health organization are delayed by at least two weeks, using timely, open-source data to compensate for the lag in %E2%80%9Cofficial%E2%80%9D reports can be useful. We use morbidity data from networks of sentinel physicians (both the Center of Disease Control's ILINet and France's Sentinelles network) as the gold standard of influenza-like illness (ILI) activity. The time-series of media reports is obtained from HealthMap (http://healthmap.org). We find that the time-series of media reports shows some correlation ( 0.5) with ILI activity; further, this can be leveraged into an autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs (ARMAX model) to nowcast ILI activity. We find that the ARMAX models have more predictive skill compared to autoregressive (AR) models fitted to ILI data i.e., it is possible to exploit the information content in the open-source data. We also find that when the open-source data are non-informative, the ARMAX models reproduce the performance of AR models. The statistical models are tested on data from the 2009 swine-flu outbreak as well as the mild 2011-2012 influenza season in the U.S.A.

  10. Mycobacterium marinum Degrades Both Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Its Dictyostelium Host to Synthesise Its Own Triacylglycerols and Generate Lipid Inclusions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    During a tuberculosis infection and inside lipid-laden foamy macrophages, fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are the major energy and carbon source for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria can be found both inside a vacuole and the cytosol, but how this impacts their access to lipids is not well appreciated. Lipid droplets (LDs) store FAs in form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and are energy reservoirs of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using the Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model we showed that M. marinum accesses host LDs to build up its own intracytosolic lipid inclusions (ILIs). Here, we show that host LDs aggregate at regions of the bacteria that become exposed to the cytosol, and appear to coalesce on their hydrophobic surface leading to a transfer of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2)-GFP onto the bacteria. Dictyostelium knockout mutants for both Dgat enzymes are unable to generate LDs. Instead, the excess of exogenous FAs is esterified predominantly into phospholipids, inducing uncontrolled proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Strikingly, in absence of host LDs, M. marinum alternatively exploits these phospholipids, resulting in rapid reversal of ER-proliferation. In addition, the bacteria are unable to restrict their acquisition of lipids from the dgat1&2 double knockout leading to vast accumulation of ILIs. Recent data indicate that the presence of ILIs is one of the characteristics of dormant mycobacteria. During Dictyostelium infection, ILI formation in M. marinum is not accompanied by a significant change in intracellular growth and a reduction in metabolic activity, thus providing evidence that storage of neutral lipids does not necessarily induce dormancy. PMID:28103313

  11. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.

  12. Mycobacterium marinum Degrades Both Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Its Dictyostelium Host to Synthesise Its Own Triacylglycerols and Generate Lipid Inclusions.

    PubMed

    Barisch, Caroline; Soldati, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    During a tuberculosis infection and inside lipid-laden foamy macrophages, fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are the major energy and carbon source for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria can be found both inside a vacuole and the cytosol, but how this impacts their access to lipids is not well appreciated. Lipid droplets (LDs) store FAs in form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and are energy reservoirs of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using the Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model we showed that M. marinum accesses host LDs to build up its own intracytosolic lipid inclusions (ILIs). Here, we show that host LDs aggregate at regions of the bacteria that become exposed to the cytosol, and appear to coalesce on their hydrophobic surface leading to a transfer of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2)-GFP onto the bacteria. Dictyostelium knockout mutants for both Dgat enzymes are unable to generate LDs. Instead, the excess of exogenous FAs is esterified predominantly into phospholipids, inducing uncontrolled proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Strikingly, in absence of host LDs, M. marinum alternatively exploits these phospholipids, resulting in rapid reversal of ER-proliferation. In addition, the bacteria are unable to restrict their acquisition of lipids from the dgat1&2 double knockout leading to vast accumulation of ILIs. Recent data indicate that the presence of ILIs is one of the characteristics of dormant mycobacteria. During Dictyostelium infection, ILI formation in M. marinum is not accompanied by a significant change in intracellular growth and a reduction in metabolic activity, thus providing evidence that storage of neutral lipids does not necessarily induce dormancy.

  13. Two-Sample Inference for Median Survival Times Based on One-Sample Procedures for Censored Survival Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    BTI ..iLi. CoP The Pennsylvania State University Department of Statistics V111 University Park, Pennsylvania TECHNICAL REPORTS AND PREPRINTS Number...compare confidence intervals for the median survival times of four dosage regimens 5-fluorouracil. Refer to Brookmeyer and Crowley (1982a) for a...ANSFIELD, F., KLOTZ, J., and THE CENTRAL ONCOLOGY GROUP (1977), "A Phase III 4-. Study Comparing the Clincial Utility of Four- Dosage Regimens of 5

  14. Respiratory viral infections and effects of meteorological parameters and air pollution in adults with respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise R; Viana, Vinícius P; Müller, Alice M; Livi, Fernando P; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso R

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are the most common causes of respiratory infections. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults is underestimated. Meteorological variations and air pollution are likely to play a role in these infections. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the number of emergency visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and to evaluate the association between ILI/SARI, RVI prevalence, and meteorological factors/air pollution, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, from November 2008 to October 2010. Methods Eleven thousand nine hundred and fifty-three hospitalizations (adults and children) for respiratory symptoms were correlated with meteorological parameters and air pollutants. In a subset of adults, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected and analyzed through IFI test. The data were analyzed using time-series analysis. Results Influenza-like illness and SARI were diagnosed in 3698 (30·9%) and 2063 (17·7%) patients, respectively. Thirty-seven (9·0%) samples were positive by IFI and 93 of 410 (22·7%) were IFI and/or PCR positive. In a multivariate logistic regression model, IFI positivity was statistically associated with absolute humidity, use of air conditioning, and presence of mold in home. Sunshine duration was significantly associated with the frequency of ILI cases. For SARI cases, the variables mean temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, and mean concentration of pollutants were singnificant. Conclusions At least 22% of infections in adult patients admitted to ER with respiratory complaints were caused by RVI. The correlations among meteorological variables, air pollution, ILI/SARI cases, and respiratory viruses demonstrated the relevance of climate factors as significant underlying contributors to the prevalence of RVI. PMID:24034701

  15. Daily Migraine Prevention and Its Influence on Resource Utilization in the Military Health System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    of migraine and the evolution of treatment. One of the earliest known references comes from a historical Mesopotamian text dated around 3000 B.C...care resource utilization. b. Economic Impact and Resource Utilization Associated with Migraine The Natio t for 3.5 million ambulatory visits...prom aine patients who met one or more of th . T ily Migraine Prevention by the International Headache Consortium oted the use of daily

  16. Influenza surveillance in Europe: comparing intensity levels calculated using the moving epidemic method

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Tomás; Lozano, José E; Meerhoff, Tamara; Snacken, René; Beauté, Julien; Jorgensen, Pernille; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Domegan, Lisa; Mossong, Joël; Nielsen, Jens; Born, Rita; Larrauri, Amparo; Brown, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge. The objective is to compare the intensity of ILI and ARI in some European countries. Design and setting Weekly ILI and ARI incidence rates and proportion of primary care consultations were modeled in 28 countries for the 1996/1997–2013/2014 seasons using the moving epidemic method (MEM). We calculated the epidemic threshold and three intensity thresholds, which delimit five intensity levels: baseline, low, medium, high, and very high. The intensity of 2013/2014 season is described and compared by country. Results The lowest ILI epidemic thresholds appeared in Sweden and Estonia (below 10 cases per 100 000) and the highest in Belgium, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, and Slovakia (above 100 per 100 000). The 2009/2010 season was the most intense, with 35% of the countries showing high or very high intensity levels. The European epidemic period in season 2013/2014 started in January 2014 in Spain, Poland, and Greece. The intensity was between low and medium and only Greece reached the high intensity level, in weeks 7 to 9/2014. Some countries remained at the baseline level throughout the entire surveillance period. Conclusions Epidemic and intensity thresholds varied by country. Influenza-like illnesses and ARI levels normalized by MEM in 2013/2014 showed that the intensity of the season in Europe was between low and medium in most of the countries. Comparing intensity among seasons or countries is essential for understanding patterns in seasonal epidemics. An automated standardized model for comparison should be implemented at national and international levels. PMID:26031655

  17. When Leaders Fail: Living with the Consequences of Missed Coaching Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    performance feedback gathered from the learner’s boss, peers , and sub- ordinates), performance reviews, inter- views, and personality instruments. In...of her work. Still, the person whom I had gotten to know appreciated continuous learning , was approachable, smiled eas- ily, and had a natural...standing that training and a suitable learning curve will backfill the candi- date’s knowledge gaps. And sometimes that development, along with some

  18. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children With Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy of Fast For-Word Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills participated. The children received either FFW-L computerized intervention, a computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), an individualized language intervention (ILI), or an attention control (AC) computer program. Results The children in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI conditions made significantly greater gains in blending sounds in words compared with the AC group at immediate posttest. Long-term gains 6 months after treatment were not significant but yielded a medium effect size for blending sounds in words. None of the interventions led to significant changes in reading skills. Conclusion The improvement in phonemic awareness, but not reading, in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI interventions limits their use with children who have language impairment and poor reading skills. Similar results across treatment conditions suggest that acoustically modified speech was not a necessary component for improving phonemic awareness. PMID:19564439

  19. Outcomes of a Pilot Hand Hygiene Randomized Cluster Trial to Reduce Communicable Infections Among US Office-Based Employees

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Cathy L.Z.; Grey, Scott F.; Kingsbury, Diana M.; Shakya, Sunita; Scofield, Jennifer; Slenkovich, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of an office-based multimodal hand hygiene improvement intervention in reducing self-reported communicable infections and work-related absence. Methods: A randomized cluster trial including an electronic training video, hand sanitizer, and educational posters (n = 131, intervention; n = 193, control). Primary outcomes include (1) self-reported acute respiratory infections (ARIs)/influenza-like illness (ILI) and/or gastrointestinal (GI) infections during the prior 30 days; and (2) related lost work days. Incidence rate ratios calculated using generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson distribution, adjusted for confounders and random cluster effects. Results: A 31% relative reduction in self-reported combined ARI-ILI/GI infections (incidence rate ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.98). A 21% nonsignificant relative reduction in lost work days. Conclusions: An office-based multimodal hand hygiene improvement intervention demonstrated a substantive reduction in self-reported combined ARI-ILI/GI infections. PMID:25719534

  20. Effectiveness of the monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in Navarre, Spain, 2009-2010: cohort and case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Morán, Julio; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Fernández-Alonso, Mirian; Guevara, Marcela; Cenoz, Manuel García; Reina, Gabriel; Alvarez, Nerea; Arriazu, Maite; Elía, Fernando; Salcedo, Esther; Barricarte, Aurelio

    2011-08-11

    We defined a population-based cohort (596,755 subjects) in Navarre, Spain, using electronic records from physicians, to evaluate the effectiveness of the monovalent A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing influenza in the 2009-2010 pandemic season. During the 9-week period of vaccine availability and circulation of the A(H1N1)2009 virus, 4608 cases of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) were registered (46 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for sociodemographic covariables, outpatient visits and major chronic conditions, vaccination was associated with a 32% (95% CI: 8-50%) reduction in the overall incidence of MA-ILI. In a test negative case-control analysis nested in the cohort, swabs from 633 patients were included, and 123 were confirmed for A(H1N1)2009 influenza. No confirmed case had received A(H1N1)2009 vaccine versus 9.6% of controls (p<0.001). The vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 89% (95% CI: 36-100%) after adjusting for age, health care setting, major chronic conditions and period. Pandemic vaccine was effective in preventing MA-ILI and confirmed cases of influenza A(H1N1)2009 in the 2009-2010 season.

  1. Disentangling the roles of cholesterol and CD59 in intermedilysin pore formation

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Courtney M.; Parsons, Edward S.; Smith, Richard A. G.; Seddon, John M.; Ces, Oscar; Bubeck, Doryen

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane provides an essential barrier, shielding a cell from the pressures of its external environment. Pore-forming proteins, deployed by both hosts and pathogens alike, breach this barrier to lyse target cells. Intermedilysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin that requires the human immune receptor CD59, in addition to cholesterol, to form giant β-barrel pores in host membranes. Here we integrate biochemical assays with electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to distinguish the roles of these two receptors in mediating structural transitions of pore formation. CD59 is required for the specific coordination of intermedilysin (ILY) monomers and for triggering collapse of an oligomeric prepore. Movement of Domain 2 with respect to Domain 3 of ILY is essential for forming a late prepore intermediate that releases CD59, while the role of cholesterol may be limited to insertion of the transmembrane segments. Together these data define a structural timeline for ILY pore formation and suggest a mechanism that is relevant to understanding other pore-forming toxins that also require CD59. PMID:27910935

  2. Circulation of human metapneumovirus among children with influenza-like illness in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wenhua; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Honghao; Lin, Xinming; Yu, Bin; Hu, Quan; Yang, Xiaobing; Guo, Deyin; Peng, Jinsong; Zhou, Dunjin

    2016-05-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a worldwide distributed pathogen of the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to identify HMPV infections among children with influenza-like illness (ILI) in Wuhan and to assess circulation patterns and molecular diversity of HMPV in this area. From July 2008 to December 2013, a total of 3,883 throat swab samples were collected from ILI outpatients under 16 years old. HMPV RNA was detected in 171 samples (4.40%). All the four subtypes of HMPV were identified, among which A2 was the most common subtype (61/145, 42.1%), followed by B1, B2, and A1. During the study period, HMPV circulation presented a biennial alternation between high and low incidence in Wuhan and the seasonal peak also shift between winter and spring in two continuous seasons. Subtype A2, B1, and B2 co-circulated during the study period, with genotype A prevailing in epidemic season 2008-2009 and 2012-2013, and genotype B prevailing during other periods. This large-scale analysis of HMPV prevalence in ILI outpatient children improves the understanding of local HMPV circulation patterns and provides molecular epidemic evidence for comparative analysis of HMPV infection.

  3. Clinical presentations for influenza and influenza-like illness in young, immunized soldiers.

    PubMed

    McNeill, K Mills; Vaughn, Beverly L; Brundage, Mary B; Li, Yuanzhang; Poropatich, Ron K; Gaydos, Joel C

    2005-01-01

    Concern about respiratory diseases in soldiers increased in the late 1990s as production of the successful adenovirus vaccines stopped and the possibilities of an emergent pandemic influenza strain and use of bioweapons by terrorists were seriously considered. Current information on the causes and severity of influenza-like illness (ILI) was lacking. Viral agents and clinical presentations were described in a population of soldiers highly immunized for influenza. Using standard virus isolation techniques, 10 agents were identified in 164 (48.2%) of 340 soldiers hospitalized for ILI. Influenza isolates (29) and adenoviruses (98) occurred most frequently. Most influenza cases were caused by influenza A and probably resulted from a mismatch between circulating and vaccine viruses. Most (58.5%) patients with an adenovirus had a chest radiograph; 31.3% of these had an infiltrate. Clinical findings did not differentiate ILI caused by the various agents. Only 29 cases of influenza occurred in approximately 7,200 person-years of observation, supporting the use of influenza vaccine.

  4. Increased Rates of Respiratory and Diarrheal Illnesses in HIV-Negative Persons Living With HIV-Infected Individuals in a Densely Populated Urban Slum in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Joshua M.; Cosmas, Leonard; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Williamson, John M.; Olack, Beatrice; Okoth, George; Njuguna, Henry; Feikin, Daniel R.; Burke, Heather; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative contacts of HIV-infected persons at increased risk of exposure to infectious pathogens. Methods We calculated incidence and longitudinal prevalence (number of days per year) of influenzalike illness (ILI), diarrhea, and nonspecific febrile illness during 2008 from a population-based surveillance program in the urban slum of Kibera (Kenya) that included 1830 HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals and 13 677 individuals living in exclusively HIV-negative households. Results For individuals ≥5 years old, incidence was significantly increased for ILI (risk ratio [RR], 1.47; P < .05) and diarrhea (RR, 1.41; P < .05) in HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals compared with exclusively HIV-negative households. The risk of illness among HIV-negative persons was directly proportional to the number of HIV-infected persons living in the home for ILI (RR, 1.39; P < .05) and diarrhea (RR, 1.36; P < .01). We found no increased rates of illness in children <5 years old who lived with HIV-infected individuals. Conclusions Living with HIV-infected individuals is associated with modestly increased rates of respiratory and diarrheal infections in HIV-negative individuals >5 years old. Targeted interventions are needed, including ensuring that HIV-infected persons are receiving appropriate care and treatment. PMID:25722292

  5. Dissemination of the Look AHEAD Lifestyle Intervention in the United States Air Force: Study Rationale, Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Hare, Marion E.; Talcott, Gerald W.; Johnson, Karen C.; Richey, Phyllis A.; Kocak, Mehmet; Balderas, Jennifer; Colvin, Lauren; Keller, Patrick L.; Waters, Teresa M.; Klesges, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in overweight and obesity similar to the civilian population, there have been few randomized controlled trials examining behavioral weight management interventions in the military settings. This paper describes the design, intervention development and analysis plan of the Fit Blue study, a randomized controlled behavioral weight loss trial taking place in the United States Air Force. This study compares two adapted versions of the efficacious Look AHEAD Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI), a counselor-initiated condition and a self-paced condition. Also described are the unique steps required when conducting military-based health promotion research and adaptations made to the Look AHEAD intervention to accommodate the military environment. To our knowledge, this is the first translation of the Look AHEAD ILI in the military setting and one of the first translations of the ILI in general. If successful, this intervention could be disseminated to the entire U.S. Military as this project is designed to overcome the barriers and utilize the facilitators for weight loss that are unique to a military population. Programs validated in military populations can have a major public health impact given that with 1.4 million active duty personnel, the Department of Defense is the nation’s largest employer. However, while this intervention is designed for a military population and there are unique aspects of the military that may enhance weight loss interventions, the diversity of the study population should help inform obesity efforts in both civilian and military settings. PMID:25545025

  6. Estimating dynamic transmission model parameters for seasonal influenza by fitting to age and season-specific influenza-like illness incidence.

    PubMed

    Goeyvaerts, Nele; Willem, Lander; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Vandendijck, Yannick; Hanquet, Germaine; Beutels, Philippe; Hens, Niel

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic transmission models are essential to design and evaluate control strategies for airborne infections. Our objective was to develop a dynamic transmission model for seasonal influenza allowing to evaluate the impact of vaccinating specific age groups on the incidence of infection, disease and mortality. Projections based on such models heavily rely on assumed 'input' parameter values. In previous seasonal influenza models, these parameter values were commonly chosen ad hoc, ignoring between-season variability and without formal model validation or sensitivity analyses. We propose to directly estimate the parameters by fitting the model to age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) incidence data over multiple influenza seasons. We used a weighted least squares (WLS) criterion to assess model fit and applied our method to Belgian ILI data over six influenza seasons. After exploring parameter importance using symbolic regression, we evaluated a set of candidate models of differing complexity according to the number of season-specific parameters. The transmission parameters (average R0, seasonal amplitude and timing of the seasonal peak), waning rates and the scale factor used for WLS optimization, influenced the fit to the observed ILI incidence the most. Our results demonstrate the importance of between-season variability in influenza transmission and our estimates are in line with the classification of influenza seasons according to intensity and vaccine matching.

  7. Utility of the ESSENCE Surveillance System in Monitoring the H1N1 Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Holtry, Rekha S; Hung, Lang M; Lewis, Sheri H

    2010-01-01

    The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE) enables health care practitioners to detect and monitor health indicators of public health importance. ESSENCE is used by public health departments in the National Capital Region (NCR); a cross-jurisdictional data sharing agreement has allowed cooperative health information sharing in the region since 2004. Emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) in the NCR from 2008 are compared to those of 2009. Important differences in the rates, timing, and demographic composition of ILI visits were found. By monitoring a regional surveillance system, public health practitioners had an increased ability to understand the magnitude and character of different ILI outbreaks. This increased ability provided crucial community-level information on which to base response and control measures for the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. This report underscores the utility of automated surveillance systems in monitoring community-based outbreaks. There are several limitations in this study that are inherent with syndrome-based surveillance, including utilizing chief complaints versus confirmed laboratory data, discerning real disease versus those healthcare-seeking behaviors driven by panic, and reliance on visit counts versus visit rates.

  8. Multi-class determination of around 50 pharmaceuticals, including 26 antibiotics, in environmental and wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Lor, Emma; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

    2011-04-22

    A multi-class method for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 47 pharmaceuticals in environmental and wastewater samples has been developed. The target list of analytes included analgesic and anti-inflammatories, cholesterol lowering statin drugs and lipid regulators, antidepressants, anti-ulcer agents, psychiatric drugs, ansiolitics, cardiovasculars and a high number (26) of antibiotics from different chemical groups. A common pre-concentration step based on solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB cartridges was applied, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) measurement. All compounds were satisfactorily determined in just one single injection, with a chromatographic run time of only 10 min. The process efficiency (combination of the matrix effect and the extraction process recovery) for the 47 selected compounds was evaluated in nine effluent wastewater (EWW) samples, and the use of different isotope-labelled internal standards (ILIS) was investigated to correct unsatisfactory values. Up to 12 ILIS were evaluated in EWW and surface water (SW). As expected, the ILIS provided satisfactory correction for their own analytes. However, the use of these ILIS for the rest of pharmaceuticals was problematic in some cases. Despite this fact, the correction with analogues ILIS was found useful for most of analytes in EWW, while was not strictly required in the SW tested. The method was successfully validated in SW and EWW at low concentration levels, as expected for pharmaceuticals in these matrices (0.025, 0.1 and 0.5 μg/L in SW; 0.1 and 0.5 μg/L in EWW). With only a few exceptions, the instrumental limits of detection varied between 0.1 and 8 pg. The limits of quantification were estimated from sample chromatograms at the lowest spiked levels tested and normally were below 20 ng/L for SW and below 50 ng/L for EWW. The developed method was applied to the analysis of around forty water samples (river

  9. Long Term Effects of a Lifestyle Intervention on Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Four Year Results of the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Lifestyle interventions produce short-term improvements in glycemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but no long-term data are available. We examined the effects of a lifestyle intervention on changes in weight, fitness and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors over 4 years. Research Design and Methods Look AHEAD is a multi-center randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and diabetes support and education (DSE, control group) on the incidence of major CVD events in 5145 individuals with type diabetes, aged 45 to 76 years, who were overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2). Participants have ongoing intervention and annual assessments. Results Averaged across four years of follow-up, participants in ILI had greater percent weight losses than those in DSE (−6.15% vs −0.88%, p<.0001) and greater improvements in fitness (12.74% vs. 1.96%, p < .0001), HbA1c (A1c, −0.36% vs. 0.09%, p<.0001), systolic blood pressure (SBP, −5.33 vs. −2.97 mmHg, p<.0001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, −2.92 vs. −2.48 mmHg, p<.012), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, 3.67 vs. 1.97 mg/dl, p<.0001), and triglycerides (−25.56 vs. −19.75 mg/dl, p<.0006). Reductions in LDL-C were greater in DSE than ILI (−11.27 vs. −12.84 mg/dl, p=.009), but adjusted for medication use, changes in LDL-C did not differ between the two groups. Although the greatest benefits were often seen at 1 year, ILI participants still had greater improvements than DSE in weight, fitness, HbA1c, SBP, and HDL-C at 4 years. Conclusions Intensive lifestyle intervention can produce and maintain significant weight losses and improvements in fitness in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Across four years of follow-up, those in ILI had better overall levels of glycemic control, blood pressure, HDL-C and triglycerides, and thus spent considerable time with lower CVD risk. Whether this translates to reduction in CVD events will

  10. Evaluating Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia as Tools for Influenza Surveillance Using Bayesian Change Point Analysis: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Richard S; Cook, Robert L; Striley, Catherine W

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional influenza surveillance relies on influenza-like illness (ILI) syndrome that is reported by health care providers. It primarily captures individuals who seek medical care and misses those who do not. Recently, Web-based data sources have been studied for application to public health surveillance, as there is a growing number of people who search, post, and tweet about their illnesses before seeking medical care. Existing research has shown some promise of using data from Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia to complement traditional surveillance for ILI. However, past studies have evaluated these Web-based sources individually or dually without comparing all 3 of them, and it would be beneficial to know which of the Web-based sources performs best in order to be considered to complement traditional methods. Objective The objective of this study is to comparatively analyze Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia by examining which best corresponds with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ILI data. It was hypothesized that Wikipedia will best correspond with CDC ILI data as previous research found it to be least influenced by high media coverage in comparison with Google and Twitter. Methods Publicly available, deidentified data were collected from the CDC, Google Flu Trends, HealthTweets, and Wikipedia for the 2012-2015 influenza seasons. Bayesian change point analysis was used to detect seasonal changes, or change points, in each of the data sources. Change points in Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia that occurred during the exact week, 1 preceding week, or 1 week after the CDC’s change points were compared with the CDC data as the gold standard. All analyses were conducted using the R package “bcp” version 4.0.0 in RStudio version 0.99.484 (RStudio Inc). In addition, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated for Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia. Results During the 2012-2015 influenza seasons, a high sensitivity of 92

  11. Can Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography Be a Substitute for Bone Marrow Biopsy in Detection of Bone Marrow Involvement in Patients with Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Çetin, Güven; Çıkrıkçıoğlu, M Ali; Özkan, Tuba; Karatoprak, Cumali; Ar, M Cem; Eşkazan, Ahmet Emre; Ayer, Mesut; Cerit, Abdullah; Gözübenli, Kübra; Uysal, Betül Börkü; Erdem, Simge; Ergül, Nurhan; Tatar, Gamze; Çermik, T Fikret

    2015-09-01

    Amaç: Positron emisyon tomografi ve bilgisayarlı tomografi (PET/CT) lenfomanın tedavi ve evreleme algoritmasının önemli bir parçası oldu. Biz çalışmamız da agresiv seyirli non Hodgkin lenfoma (aNHL) ve Hodgkin lenfomalı (HL) hastalarda kemik iliği tutulumunu göstermede kemik iliği biyopsisi (BMB) ile PET/CT sonuçlarını karşılaştırmayı amaçladık. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmaya 2008-2012 yılları arasında İstanbul’daki 3 büyük hastanede HL ve aNHL tanısı konulan 297 hasta belirlendi. Bu hastaların dosyası retrospektif olarak tarandı ve çalışma kriterlerine uygun 161 hasta çalışmaya alındı. Hastaların başlangıç evrelemesi için PET/CT ve BMB yapıldı. Kemik iliği biyopsisi, kemik iliği tutulumunu değerlendirmede standart referans olarak kabul edildi. Bulgular: Hastaların 61’inde (38%) HL ve 100’ünde (62%) aNHL vardı. Değerlendirilen 126 hastada (78%) (52 HL, 74 aNHL) PET/CT ve BMB arasında uyumlu sonuçlar olduğu görüldü. Bu hastalardan 20’sinde kemik iliği tutulumu bakımından PET/CT ve BMB sonuçları pozitif ve 106 hastanın PET/CT ve BMB negatif bulundu. Diğer taraftan 35 hastada (9 HL, 26 aNHL) uyumsuzluk vardı. Bu hastaların da 16’sında BMB pozitif iken PET/CT sonuçları negatif bulundu. Geri kalan 19 hastada BMB negatif ve PET/CT sonuçları pozitif saptandı. Sonuç: Biz aNHL ve HL hastalarını değerlendirmede tek başına yeterli olmamasına rağmen, PET/CT nin kemik iliği infiltrasyonunu belirlemede etkili olduğunu gözlemledik. Lenfomalı hastalarda kemik iliği infiltrasyonunu belirlemede; BMB ve PET/CT birbirinin tamamlayıcısı olarak düşünülmelidir. Fokal tutulumdan şüphelenildiğinde, BMB ve PET/CT’nin birlikte yapılması hastalığın evrelemesinde daha doğru sonuçlar verebilir.

  12. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  13. Correlation of Minimum Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Maximum Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor with Clinicopathologic Characteristics in Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sürer Budak, Evrim; Toptaş, Tayfun; Aydın, Funda; Öner, Ali Ozan; Çevikol, Can; Şimşek, Tayup

    2017-02-05

    Amaç: Endometrium kanserinde (EK) primer tümörün maksimum standardize tutulum değeri (SUVmaks) ve minimum görünen difüzyon katsayısının (ADCmin) klinikopatolojik özellikler ile olan ilişkisini araştırmak ve bunların öngörü gücünü belirlemektir. Yöntem: 18F-fluorodeoksiglukoz (FDG) pozitron emisyon tomografisi/bilgisayarlı tomografi (PET/BT) ve difüzyon ağırlıklı-manyetik rezonans görüntüleme (DA-MRG) ile preoperatif değerlendirmeyi takiben evreleme cerrahisi yapılan toplamda 45 hasta, planlı veri toplama yapılan prospektif bir olgu serisine dahil edildiler. Çalışma verileri arasındaki ilişkiler çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizi ile araştırıldı. Bulgular: Ortalama ADCmin ve SUVmaks sırasıyla 0,72±0,22 ve 16,54±8,73 olarak bulundu. Tek değişkenli analizde yaş, myometriyal invazyon (Mİ) ve lenfovasküler alan tutulumu (LVAT) ADCmin ile ilişkili potansiyel faktörler olarak bulunurken, yaş, evre, tümör büyüklüğü, LVAT ve metastatik lenf düğümlerinin sayısı SUVmaks ile ilişkili potansiyel değişkenler olarak tespit edildiler. Diğer taraftan, çok değişkenli analizde Mİ, ADCmin (p=0,007) ve SUVmaks (p=0,024) ile ilişkili tek anlamlı değişkendi. Derin Mİ en iyi, ≤0,77’lik [%93,7 duyarlılık, %48,2 özgüllük ve %93,0 negatif öngörü değeri (NPD)] bir ADCmin kesim değeri ve >20,5’lik (%62,5 duyarlılık, %86,2 özgüllük ve %81,0 NPD) bir SUVmaks kesim değeri ile öngörülebiliyordu. Ne var ki, her iki tanısal test birbirlerinden anlamlı şekilde farklı değildi (p=0,266). Sonuç: Klinikopatolojik özelliklerden yalnızca Mİ bağımsız ve anlamlı şekilde SUVmaks ve ADCmin ile ilişkiliydi. Ne var ki, her iki parametrenin ideal olmayan öngörü performansları nedeniyle 18F-FDG PET/BT veya DA-MRG’nin rutin kullanımı şu noktada önerilemez.

  14. The Feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Quantification of Liver, Pancreas, Spleen, Vertebral Bone Marrow, and Renal Cortex R2* and Proton Density Fat Fraction in Transfusion-Related Iron Overload.

    PubMed

    İdilman, İlkay S; Gümrük, Fatma; Haliloğlu, Mithat; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-03-05

    Amaç: Bu çalışmada, transfüzyon ilişkili demir birikimi bulunan hastalarda karaciğer, pankreas, dalak, vertebral kemik iliği ve böbrek korteksi R2* ve manyetik rezonans görüntüleme-proton dansite yağ oranı (MRG-PDYO) ölçümünün uygulanabilirliği ve bunlar arasındaki ilişkiyi değerlendirmeyi amaçladık. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmaya, karaciğer demir birikimi şüphesi ile kliniğimize gönderilmiş olan toplam 9 hasta (5 erkek, 4 kız) dahil edildi. Tüm hastalara T2* düzeltmeli ve spektral yağ modellemeli T1 bağımsız volumetrik multi-eko gradient-eko görüntüleme yapıldı. MRG incelemeleri 1.5 T MRG sistemi ile yapıldı. Bulgular: Tüm hastalarda karaciğerde demir birikimi mevcuttu. Dokuz hastanın beşinde (%56) ağır demir birikimi saptandı ve bu hastaların PDYO haritaları incelendiğinde 4 hastada (R2* değeri 671 Hz’den fazla olanlarda) karaciğerde yaygın yamasal artefaktlar olduğu saptandı. Bu artefaktlara rağmen MRG-PDYO ölçümü yapıldığında normalden çok yüksek MRG-PDYO değerleri belirlendi. Ortalama pankreas R2* ve ortalama pankreas MRG-PDYO arasında (p=0,003, r=0,860), karaciğer R2* and ortalama pankreas R2* arasında (p=0,021, r=0,747), karaciğer R2* ve renal korteks R2* arasında (p=0,020, r=0,750) ve ortalama pankreas R2* ve renal korteks R2* arasında (p=0,003, r=0,858) anlamlı korelasyon saptandı. Vertebral kemik iliği R2* ve yaş arasında anlamlı negatif korelasyon saptandı (p=0,018, r=-0,759). Sonuç: Karaciğerdeki yüksek demir birikimi özellikle de T2* değeri ilk eko zamanından daha kısa olduğunda PDYO hesaplamasını bozabilmektedir. Pankreastaki yağ birikimi pankreatik demir birikimine eşlik edebilmektedir. Karaciğer ve pankreas siderozisi birbiri ile ilişki göstermektedir. Böbrek korteksi ve pankreas siderozisi arasında da ilişki mevcuttur.

  15. Establishing seasonal and alert influenza thresholds in Cambodia using the WHO method: implications for effective utilization of influenza surveillance in the tropics and subtropics

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Sovann; Arashiro, Takeshi; Ieng, Vanra; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Horwood, Paul; Heng, Seng; Hamid, Sarah; Vandemaele, Katelijn; Chin, Savuth; Sar, Borann

    2017-01-01

    Objective To establish seasonal and alert thresholds and transmission intensity categories for influenza to provide timely triggers for preventive measures or upscaling control measures in Cambodia. Methods Using Cambodia’s influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance data from 2009 to 2015, three parameters were assessed to monitor influenza activity: the proportion of ILI patients among all outpatients, proportion of ILI samples positive for influenza and the product of the two. With these parameters, four threshold levels (seasonal, moderate, high and alert) were established and transmission intensity was categorized based on a World Health Organization alignment method. Parameters were compared against their respective thresholds. Results Distinct seasonality was observed using the two parameters that incorporated laboratory data. Thresholds established using the composite parameter, combining syndromic and laboratory data, had the least number of false alarms in declaring season onset and were most useful in monitoring intensity. Unlike in temperate regions, the syndromic parameter was less useful in monitoring influenza activity or for setting thresholds. Conclusion Influenza thresholds based on appropriate parameters have the potential to provide timely triggers for public health measures in a tropical country where monitoring and assessing influenza activity has been challenging. Based on these findings, the Ministry of Health plans to raise general awareness regarding influenza among the medical community and the general public. Our findings have important implications for countries in the tropics/subtropics and in resource-limited settings, and categorized transmission intensity can be used to assess severity of potential pandemic influenza as well as seasonal influenza.

  16. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  17. Agent based modeling of "crowdinforming" as a means of load balancing at emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Neighbour, Ryan; Oppenheimer, Luis; Mukhi, Shamir N; Friesen, Marcia R; McLeod, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    This work extends ongoing development of a framework for modeling the spread of contact-transmission infectious diseases. The framework is built upon Agent Based Modeling (ABM), with emphasis on urban scale modelling integrated with institutional models of hospital emergency departments. The method presented here includes ABM modeling an outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) with concomitant surges at hospital emergency departments, and illustrates the preliminary modeling of 'crowdinforming' as an intervention. 'Crowdinforming', a component of 'crowdsourcing', is characterized as the dissemination of collected and processed information back to the 'crowd' via public access. The objective of the simulation is to allow for effective policy evaluation to better inform the public of expected wait times as part of their decision making process in attending an emergency department or clinic. In effect, this is a means of providing additional decision support garnered from a simulation, prior to real world implementation. The conjecture is that more optimal service delivery can be achieved under balanced patient loads, compared to situations where some emergency departments are overextended while others are underutilized. Load balancing optimization is a common notion in many operations, and the simulation illustrates that 'crowdinforming' is a potential tool when used as a process control parameter to balance the load at emergency departments as well as serving as an effective means to direct patients during an ILI outbreak with temporary clinics deployed. The information provided in the 'crowdinforming' model is readily available in a local context, although it requires thoughtful consideration in its interpretation. The extension to a wider dissemination of information via a web service is readily achievable and presents no technical obstacles, although political obstacles may be present. The 'crowdinforming' simulation is not limited to arrivals of patients at

  18. Use of neuraminidase inhibitors in primary health care during pandemic and seasonal influenza between 2009 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Blanchon, Thierry; Geffrier, Félicité; Turbelin, Clément; Daviaud, Isabelle; Laouénan, Cédric; Duval, Xavier; Lambert, Bruno; Hanslik, Thomas; Mosnier, Anne; Leport, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background In a context of controversy about influenza antiviral treatments, this study assessed primary health care physicians’ prescription of neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) in France during pandemic and seasonal influenza between 2009 and 2013. Methods This observational study, using data recorded in three national databases, estimated the rate of NIs’ prescription among influenza like-illness (ILI) patients seen in GPs’ and paediatricians’ consultations, and determined factors associated with this prescription according to a multivariate analysis. NIs’ delivery by pharmacists was also evaluated. Results Rates of NIs’ prescription were estimated to 61.1% among ILI patients with a severe influenza risk factor seen in GPs’ consultation during the A(H1N1)pdm2009 pandemic versus an average rate of 25.9% during the three following seasonal influenza epidemics. Factors associated with NIs’ prescription were a chronic disease in patients under 65 years (OR, 14.85; 95%CI, 13.00–16.97) and in those aged ≥ 65 and older (OR, 7.54; 5.86–9.70), an age 65 years in patients without chronic disease (OR, 1.35; 1.04–1.74), a pregnancy (OR, 10.63; 7.67–15.76), obesity (OR, 4.67; 3.50–6.22), and a consultation during the pandemic A(H1N1)pdm2009 (OR, 3.19; 2.93–3.48). The number of antiviral treatments delivered by pharmacists during the A(H1N1)pdm2009 pandemic was 835 per 100 000 inhabitants, and an average of 275 per 100 000 inhabitants during the three following seasonal influenza epidemics. Conclusions Although physicians seem to follow the recommended indications for NIs in primary health care practice, this study confirms the low rate of NIs prescription to ILI patients with a severe influenza risk factor, especially during seasonal epidemics. PMID:25687219

  19. Holocene River Dynamics, Climate Change and Floodwater Farming in the Watersheds of the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountains of Inner Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, M. G.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Toonen, W. H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra rivers of Inner Asia are emerging as critical areas for the development of irrigation-based agriculture in the ancient world. Following research by Russian archaeologists in the 1970s it is evident that these watersheds had flourishing riverine civilizations comparable to those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. But unlike these areas where the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming is increasingly underpinned by radiometric dating, the alluvial archaeology of Inner Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a major multi-disciplinary research program was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili river, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken one of the most detailed investigations of Holocene people-river environment interactions in Inner Asia. River development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the Medieval period documented. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water levels in Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar river reached its acme in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 60 settlement sites and 550 burial mounds. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming in the Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra watersheds is proposed, which explains the large scale expansion (down-river) and contraction (up-river) of settlements since the first use of irrigation in the Neolithic through to the late Medieval period.

  20. Enhancing spatial detection accuracy for syndromic surveillance with street level incidence data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Department of Defense Military Health System operates a syndromic surveillance system that monitors medical records at more than 450 non-combat Military Treatment Facilities (MTF) worldwide. The Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE) uses both temporal and spatial algorithms to detect disease outbreaks. This study focuses on spatial detection and attempts to improve the effectiveness of the ESSENCE implementation of the spatial scan statistic by increasing the spatial resolution of incidence data from zip codes to street address level. Methods Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) was used as a test syndrome to develop methods to improve the spatial accuracy of detected alerts. Simulated incident clusters of various sizes were superimposed on real ILI incidents from the 2008/2009 influenza season. Clusters were detected using the spatial scan statistic and their displacement from simulated loci was measured. Detected cluster size distributions were also evaluated for compliance with simulated cluster sizes. Results Relative to the ESSENCE zip code based method, clusters detected using street level incidents were displaced on average 65% less for 2 and 5 mile radius clusters and 31% less for 10 mile radius clusters. Detected cluster size distributions for the street address method were quasi normal and sizes tended to slightly exceed simulated radii. ESSENCE methods yielded fragmented distributions and had high rates of zero radius and oversized clusters. Conclusions Spatial detection accuracy improved notably with regard to both location and size when incidents were geocoded to street addresses rather than zip code centroids. Since street address geocoding success rates were only 73.5%, zip codes were still used for more than one quarter of ILI cases. Thus, further advances in spatial detection accuracy are dependant on systematic improvements in the collection of individual address information. PMID

  1. Türk Lise Öğrencilerinde Okul Terkinin Yordanması: Aracı ve Etkileşim Değişkenleri ile Bir Model Testi

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Arif; Gençtanirim, Dilek; Ergene, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırmada ilk olarak, dürtüsel davranma ile okulu terk etme riski arasındaki ilişkiye disiplin cezası almanın, antisosyal davranışların ve sigara-alkol kullanımının aracılık edip etmediği incelenmiştir. İkinci olarak, öğretmen desteği ve antisosyal davranış etkileşiminin okulu terk etme riski üzerindeki etkisi test edilmiştir. Araştırma grubunu 2009-2010 yılında Ankara İlinde genel liselere devam eden 478 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Sonuçlar okulu terk etme riskini aile ve arkadaş desteğinin azalttığını, dürtüsel davranmanın ise artırdığını göstermiştir. Ayrıca disiplin cezası, alkol-sigara kullanma ve antisosyal davranışlar okulu terk etme riskini artıran aracı değişkenlerdir. Antisosyal davranışlarla okulu terk etme arasındaki ilişki öğretmen desteğine bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Öğrencilerin cinsiyet ve başarıları ile okulu terk etme riskleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamaktadır. PMID:22003257

  2. A common variant in the CLDN7/ELP5 locus predicts adiponectin change with lifestyle intervention and improved fitness in obese individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Papandonatos, George D.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Peter, Inga; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Erar, Bahar; Allred, Nicholette D.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bowden, Donald W.; Brautbar, Ariel; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Huggins, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes have low adiponectin levels, which may improve with lifestyle changes. We investigated whether genetic variants associated with adiponectin levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) would also be related with adiponectin changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), potentially through mechanisms altering the adipose microenvironment via weight loss and/or improved cardiorespiratory fitness. Look AHEAD was a randomized trial comparing the cardiovascular benefits of ILI-induced weight loss and physical activity compared with diabetes support and education among overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. In a subsample of Look AHEAD with adiponectin data and genetic consent (n = 1,351), we evaluated the effects of 24 genetic variants, demonstrated by GWAS to be cross-sectionally associated with adiponectin, on adiponectin change 1-yr postintervention. We explored via mediational analyses whether any differential effects by treatment arm were occurring through weight loss and/or improved fitness. A variant, rs222857, in the CLDN7 locus, potentially associated with epithelial barrier integrity and tight junction physiology, and a putative cis expression quantitative trail locus for elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 5 (ELP5), predicted adiponectin increases within ILI (log-adiponectin in overall sample per copy: β ± SE = 0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.008; in non-Hispanic whites: 0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.009). The favorable effects of rs222857 (minor allele frequency 45.5%) appeared to be mediated by mechanisms associated with improved fitness, and not weight loss. This is the first study to identify a genetic variant that modifies adiponectin response to lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. PMID:25759378

  3. Systolic Blood Pressure Control Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Three Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probstfield, Jeffery; Hire, Donald; Redmon, J. Bruce; Evans, Gregory W.; Coday, Mace; Lewis, Cora E.; Johnson, Karen C.; Wilmoth, Sharon; Bahnson, Judy; Dulin, Michael F.; Green, Jennifer B.; Knowler, William C.; Kitabchi, Abbas; Murillo, Anne L.; Osei, Kwame; Rehman, Shakaib U.; Cushman, William C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The relative effectiveness of 3 approaches to blood pressure control—(i) an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) focused on weight loss, (ii) frequent goal-based monitoring of blood pressure with pharmacological management, and (iii) education and support—has not been established among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who are appropriate for each intervention. METHODS Participants from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) and the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) cohorts who met criteria for both clinical trials were identified. The proportions of these individuals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140mm Hg from annual standardized assessments over time were compared with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS Across 4 years among 480 Look AHEAD and 1,129 ACCORD participants with baseline SBPs between 130 and 159mm Hg, ILI (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = [1.18–1.81]) and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacotherapy (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = [1.16–1.97]) yielded higher rates of blood pressure control compared to education and support. The intensive behavioral-based intervention may have been more effective among individuals with body mass index >30kg/m2, while frequent goal-based monitoring with medication management may be more effective among individuals with lower body mass index (interaction P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, both ILI and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacological management can be successful strategies for blood pressure control. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY clinicaltrials.gov identifiers NCT00017953 (Look AHEAD) and NCT00000620 (ACCORD). PMID:25666468

  4. Paid sick days and stay-at-home behavior for influenza.

    PubMed

    Piper, Kaitlin; Youk, Ada; James, A Everette; Kumar, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    Access to paid sick days (PSD) differs by workplace size, race/ethnicity, gender, and income in the United States. It is not known to what extent decisions to stay home from work when sick with infectious illnesses such as influenza depend on PSD access, and whether access impacts certain demographic groups more than others. We examined demographic and workplace characteristics (including access to PSD) associated with employees' decisions to stay home from work for their own or a child's illness. Linking the 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) consolidated data file to the medical conditions file, we used multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates to identify factors associated with missed work for an employee's own or a child's illness/injury, influenza-like-illness (ILI), and influenza. Controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income, access to PSD was associated with a higher probability of staying home for an employee's own illness/injury, ILI, or influenza, and for a child's illness/injury. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with a lower prevalence of staying home for the employee's own or a child's illness compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Access to PSD was associated with a significantly greater increase in the probability of staying home among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic Whites. Women had a significantly higher probability of staying home for their child's illness compared to men, suggesting that women remain the primary caregivers for ill children. Our results indicate that PSD access is important to encourage employees to stay home from work when sick with ILI or influenza. Also, PSD access may be important to enable stay-at-home behavior among Hispanics. We conclude that access to PSD is likely to reduce the spread of disease in workplaces by increasing the rate at which sick employees stay home from work, and reduce the economic burden of staying home on minorities, women, and families.

  5. Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (~ 1970), Landsat (~ 2000), and ALOS (~ 2007) satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Kääb, Andreas; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2010-03-01

    Geographic variability of the recent changes of glacier coverage in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, is assessed using Corona KH-4B satellite photographs for 1968-1971, Landsat 7 ETM+data for 1999-2002, and ALOS/PRISM and AVNIR data for 2006-2008. The four mountain regions investigated (Pskem, Ili-Kungöy, At-Bashy, and SE-Fergana) cover several distributed glacierized areas in the Tien Shan Mountain system, a region that is affected by highly variable local precipitation regimes. Over the 30 years investigated between ~ 1970 and ~ 2000, glacier area decreased by 19% in the Pskem region, 12% in the Ili-Kungöy region, 12% in the At-Bashy region, and 9% in the SE-Fergana region. In the last 7 years (~ 2000 to ~ 2007), glacier area shrank by 5% in the Pskem region, 4% in the Ili-Kungöy region, 4% in the At-Bashy region, and 0% in the SE-Fergana region. Glacier behavior has varied markedly in these regions. The most dramatic glacier shrinkage has occurred in the outer ranges of the Tien Shan Mountains. Recent glacier area loss has resulted from rising summer temperatures. Regional differences of glacier-area changes related to local climate conditions, to the altitudinal distribution of glacier areas, and to the relative proportion of glaciers in different size classes. The observed accelerated glacier shrinkage is expected to have two impacts on the more populated outer ranges: 1) water shortages during summer and 2) increased threat from glacier hazards such as glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and ice avalanches.

  6. Fatigue 󈨛. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Value of KISCC in Dry H2S Gas K Provisional Fracture Toughness Value Corresponding to a 5% Deviation of the Load/Displacement Relationship from...Crack Depth Relationship for Short Cracks - R.K. BOLINGBROKE AND J.E. KING On the Role of Crack Tip Shielding in 291 Influencing the Behavior of Long...in ili at iot reodins a fihenormetior wh ic ci s ot Well understood yet The issue iq darkened to some extent by the ,tmb I Vu i t y to separate t rut

  7. Acousto-Optic Beam Steering Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    8217111 INK $ 1 1 illl iII Ill i, R L-TR-94-121 !1!1Il t 11I1!I!11! ilI, / Final Technical Report August 1994 ACOUSTO - OPTIC BEAM STEERING STUDY Harris...contractual obligations or notices on a specific document require that it be returned. For i ..........I ,, ACOUSTO - OPTIC BEAM STEERING STUDY H. W...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ACOUSTO - OPTIC BEAM STEERING STUDY C - F30602-91-C-0131 PE - 63215C 6. AUTHOR(S) PR - 1405 TA - 02 H. W

  8. GaAsP Top Solar Cells for Increased Solar Conversion Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    samples were prepared by an aqua regia etch of both faces: some texturing of the Ga > face was observed in all samples. Reflec- tion and transmission...Space Power 19. ABSTRACT 𔃻opnjnue on reverse if nedeuuary and identify by block numbert The development of multijunction solar cells is the key to...approaches have demonstrated good device y~oete. No other approach has made acceptable devic 7.s.etis (See Reverse ) 2o 3i,.;IIIuI0N/AVAILAI3ILi r 7 7 j, ;TstAt

  9. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Locustville Pond Dam (RI 01408) Mass/RI Coastal Basin, Hopkinton, Rhode Island. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Ungated spillway capacity (right) at top of dam. 1,050 CFS b. Ungated spillway capacity (left) at top of dam. 450 CFS 4. Ungated spillway capa- city ...JUNE 14, 1945 INSPECTED ITS j. Vo KE ILY 0. PERRY SARLE DAN No. 26 ANAE LOCUSTVILLE DAM - 8uo -Tow ON CITY HOPKINTON On BRUSH BROOK PAWCATUOC WATERSIEO...SMITH DAN o. ..AND LOCAL RESIDX1T Tow 09 CITY HOPKINTON a. ~,, IOE PAWCATUOC WATEASNES OWNE MR.SISH C/C SAYSROOXE MiFG CO6 vps ET ANI .1 REPORT a. NEW

  10. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    PREDICTED BY THE THEORY WHICH ACCOUNTS ONLY FOR VQLUHi" EFF-(CTSa T"r’I’•E 1S THUS A SUV•CS!I.0N THAT LIFT EFFECTS ON SONIC-aOOM INTEN IlY MAY 6L...5TAT15TICAL ANALYa.S, uAMA4 MS•SE$HMltNTI LOADS(FORCES)o INTEN5ITY, REFLECTIONs PRS•SURFt MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION * STRUCTURES, RESONANT FRLWUENCYs DAMPING...CONSeRVATIVLLY SUMMARILES THE RESULTS IN A QAMAGE PREDICTION TAOLE AND CHART. INSURANCI ADJUSTLAS ARE 4I•EN GUIUANCt ON TtiE TREATMENT OF SONIC BOOM

  11. Investigation of Heat Transfer to a Flat Plate in a Shock Tube.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    as the driven gas whose properties are identified by region 1. The gases of both regions initially have no velocity. When the diaphragm is ruptured... inSe CIc E m ’! i M oV I’)c Ci *C’ C4 P1 *s2ijns o L~EOL191 E L 0 J ILi cu cu ESC. an CI: c.I- S 9 5K * 0 C~ * 6. c i CDT 5~4 I ’- LLJ I: U _ T I 0uC

  12. Further Evaluations of Collateral Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-29

    U.. 44~ £ 40 C P2o bi ILI 04 0 a Zn w Vw LAI -27 1.0 4.60 oa 0.80 C,, 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 DISTANCE IN FEET FIGURE 5. PARACHUTE MINES...The alternative nuclear attack situation assumes offset aim , points where the offset achieves 30 percent fatalities to tank crews at a 3000 rad ...Nuclear Agency ATTN: JLAS National Naval Medical Center ATTN: JLTW ATTN: Director "- F-National Defense University SArmed Forces Staff College ATN

  13. The 1980-81 AFOSR-HTTM (Heat Transfer and Turbulence Mechanics)-Stanford Conference on Complex Turbulent Flows: Comparison of Computation and Experiment. Volume 1. Objectives, Evaluation of Data, Specifications of Test Cases, Discussion, and Position Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Ac Complex Turbulent Flows Kwlo Volume I Objetive, Ealuaionof Data, Spe ili-ctinsc)I T stCases, Discuss!on, ardPosIron,,- Papers V. D Ed: fed b y S ...PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONSBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NU•M’ýER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4 S . TYPE OF REPORT 8 PERIOD...O-AG. REPORT NUMBER 7. A jr-oR(a) , 3. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER( s ) SS J KLINE. SB J CANTWELL F49620-80-C-0027 G M LILLEY 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  14. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program Accomplishments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    OC4T 80 MANUFACTURINGM TEHNOLOGY DIVISION u ~ --US$ ARM.YINDU-STRIA BAEENGINEERING ACIVITY -L~ROC ISLAND ILI7, 6 _ ~~8- 2 1 Best Avai~lable COPY I...Rock Island Arsenal Rock Island, IL 61299 7 or E Mr. Sydney Newman AV 354 5530 US Army Mobility Equipment R&D Command (703) 664 5530 Attn: DRDME-UPE Ft...MERADCOM: PM, Mobile Electric Powef, Attn: o DACPM-MEP (Springfield, VA) Cdr, Attn: DRDNE Cdr, Attn: DRDME-UPE,-fMr. Ri.’G6ehner Technical Library, Ft

  15. Refractive Index of Silicon and Germanium and Its Wavelength and Temperature Derivatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    59. Tauc , J., Abraham, A., Pajasova, L., Grigorovici, R., and Vancu, A., "Optical Properties of Non-Crystalline Semiconductors," in Physics of Non...259 onm 1 84 9!. vojn: .p r us TlI II io L, rinc 11 1US I11L ni . 3 1.98’ ,iii til n i,:n ;Ivvi i Li o i Ili LtI loi ,I ,.kii d.i / T ’I 2 .1) 11 L...index measured using interference method. 40 (T-298 K) Amorphous germanium thin film prepared Tauc , J., Abraham, A., 159) 0.695 4.742 by evaporation

  16. Introducing Products to DoD Using Specifications and Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-18

    Ccrrosion Pr~ntv~ CcmpoLno±l ePC l trhiHur~ - Curwiurr Prt<¥~nl•~ Cunpuu id; Mllltary/F~deral - Qualltl~d Produ cts List (OPL) ClckHere -crrot~ i()li’lr... contractor lab or through another Agency • Agency SMEs Review Lab Characterization Results and Determine Continued Agency Interest • Supplier...Reps Perform Lab Evaluation Tests – In-house, via contractor lab or through another Agency • Agency SMEs Review Lab Characterization Results and

  17. Realization Theory in Hilbert Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    Furthermore, a sufficient condition is that G(t) e R P x m is locally of bounded variation and satisfies an estimate of the form (6.10) VAR G r Me wt [0...not be of bounded variation . In the same way there exist time invariant, causal, linear input-output operators T which cannot be represented in the form...6.12) Tu(t) - f d(s)u(t-s) , t e R 0 for some matrix function U(t) of bounded variation . -29- " " " """. r . .................. .. . . . iliI

  18. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Coastal Engineering Research Board (56th) Held in Newport, Oregon on 9-11 June 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    research program on inlets. The history , will continue to be a driving force. need was established and the Coastal Inlets 12 Houston Proceedings, 56th CERB...rather than the rule. This is true primar- enicians built their famous open-coast port at ily because much of the nation’s coastal Tyre 4,000 to 5,000...constraints (one (Per Bruun 1981). In this country, the evolu- only has to examine a history of the Corps’ re- tion of coastal structures is synonymous

  19. Altered Gastric Emptying and Prevention of Radiation-Induced Vomiting in Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    nausea and vomiting is common10ily oh- of 10 dog$ pt’etrtolted wvith domperidone (p) < 0.01). served. These symptoms can occur after total body Gastric...Gastroenterol of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting . Postgrad Med 1981;16(Suppl 67):33-6. 1979;55(Suppl 1):50-4. V.a, ...00_© 000 ’-- Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs A. Dubois cc I J. P. Jacobus M. P. Grissom R.R. Eng J. J

  20. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) Review of Technical Tasks. Volume 2, Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    tullE ~ 13 2. I IIIIL 140 Il-i 112 .0 -11125 11.4 111. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART kAT,014h BftAv~ OF SWAMS6I- C- 1%. -- F WNwp ’~RADC-TR-86-218...aircraft using the invariant moments of Hu. % Other approaches are described in [9], [12]. .- :,. To test the invariance of both the Fourier descriptors...Fourier and moment descriptors. The full 16 member attributes vector gave the best clustering e.. of the test patterns. Neither the area, perimeter or

  1. Handbook of Aviation Fuel Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Inturfitep2 MAX, Ill ~ I Ill 11) 1I ) 1)1I) 28)) Witter Helm-t~ili Sepalraionlu MAX. 2 2 2 2 11 10114 21)) ADITIVES ’ 1. Aniilelltig Agemonlyol... Gum (mWlOO ml) MAX. 7 7 7 1) a081 Particulates (mgirilter) MAX. 1 1) 22󈨊 (0) Water Reaction Interface MAX. Ilb l1b Ilb D3 1004 Water Separation...STABILITY Potential Gum (mgllO nl) 60 MAX. (4) 1) 873 CONTAMINANTS Iron (parts per million) 10 MAX, 10 MAX. (6) Exiitvnt gum (mg/liter) 310 MAX. 100

  2. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook. Volume 75. C-141A Aircraft, Near and Far-Field Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    ILI 6- #)A.NP . Ni I W.1 ’I I w~ i I * I 0.1, I I I- I N I m - - - - - - - - - --I- - I 𔃾W 24 -- - - - - a---a----- -- 1 C 6 6 S. 2. C 1 6w Iw z w 6...W I 2351 -4 W- - I I _4 0i I . -40 6 C . ... j . .i .(. I AI I2 ’i L. I CDq . c e0 cCD cc cllm-i c3 C2~c i c .o .2 D CD IO MI A %0 N C SM 0. I *$ te

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length

  4. Duration of Influenza Virus Shedding Among HIV-Infected Adults in the cART Era, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Timothy; Kojic, E. Milu; Overton, Edgar T.; Henry, Keith; Önen, Nur; Rhame, Frank; Conley, Lois; Brooks, John T.; Fry, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The duration of influenza virus shedding in HIV-infected adults is unknown and could affect quarantine and treatment recommendations. Participants were monitored for influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as fever and cough or sore throat, using weekly telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Those with ILI were further evaluated at three HIV specialty clinics. For those with influenza, we collected nasopharyngeal washes every 3 days after the date of confirmed influenza infection for 21–28 days; specimens underwent reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture. Duration of influenza virus shedding was the interval from the date of onset (day 0) of ILI to the date of last culture-positive specimen. Characteristics were compared between patients with and without influenza using Fisher's exact test. We used the Wilcoxon rank-sum test to examine factors that may have affected influenza virus shedding. From October 2010 to April 2011, we enrolled 961 participants in syndromic surveillance and diagnosed 20 patients with influenza whose characteristics were as follows: median age 48 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 43–53), 60% male, 50% non-Hispanic black, 95% had been prescribed combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART), 85% were virologically suppressed (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml), median CD4 cell count 317 cells/mm3 (IQR: 190-544), and median follow-up time 21 days (IQR: 19–22). Compared with persons without influenza, persons with influenza were more likely to be older, use injection drugs, and have a lower median CD4 cell count and were less likely to have had an influenza vaccination in the past 12 months. Median durations of shedding, PCR detection, and ILI symptoms were 3 (IQR: 0–5), 10 (IQR: 6–15), and 14 days (IQR: 12–26), respectively. Median days of shedding were similar among patients with and without any prior influenza vaccination (0 vs. 4, p = .448), HIV viral suppression (2 vs

  5. The Electrodynamic, Thermal, and Energetic Character of Intense Sun- Aligned Arcs in the Polar Cap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    IoUit y ( diii 15111 ward flow oil tilie dawnit ed (ge 0 (itth arc Iihjijk like !oCaio)1 of’ S1101 I-f~ ersi IC lt J 00 (C hk:iir driven by (fowrrwir...design is based on what we know of their morphology by combining the optical emissions associated with S-A arcs from optical imagery. The essence of...8217:en h% BrcAW ct al. 119741 and /ca lcilojirdfierc cI (it. 1 1977. I IL! t imirit dei- idijxi.] hull the &OLtl Ck)[ rC~ph) lllt ! Ili Ilt I I . _1lt

  6. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1966, Twenty First Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-09-30

    be known as the RF-ili. 5 December 1965 In 85 flights, Air Reserve and Air National Guard crews completed CHRISTMAS STAR , airlifting almost 470 tons...1QLIl, 86 86 - - ,[Z .1 ..1 - ..1 CIJ,l.10A - - - - 5 - - - - CHi-lOB - - - - J - - - - CQI,<.l)B - - - - 1 - - - - CGM-IJC - - - - 1 - 1 - - CCM -16D...Airlines N. W. Orient Airlines Overseas National Airways Pan American World Airways Saturn Airvays • • • • • Seaboard World Airlines Slick Airways

  7. Papers Selected for Presentation at the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (16th) Held at Buenos Aires, Argentina on 2-9 June 1982. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    improvement of health status and environment conditions of rural and marginal city population, giving particular attention to the children . c. The...of sand in each year and in the process sandblasted the young emerging crops. In many cases the crops were totally destroyed and reseeding was...F. M. die; IIASU I , Y. BRITO MAT~S, B3. B. de; FUCK , R. A. Provincias Lstrul tura is Bras ili iras . In: S 1MPOS1O DI: GLOLOC IA DO NORD:s’ril, 7

  8. Finthen AAF, Germany (West) Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-05

    HIS. of I .. " Ie T..p*- "m"@ R.I.... 4� 9.990 583 s0P SaP .0 4F 93 FNP O .,7.,9 d1 20943 35.94.8731 I__ 8.5 a 3 I 28. 93 wo. 0.1b 701104 1986 3q...e4OP .93P V.T... j , D Sulb ___ ___ ’,. n.B .Ib -- P..., -AL ILI1ATOL05Y IRANCH 2 -_ ET.I EVC C ~ PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY 1 3 3 Fl".’HEN AAF,DL

  9. Time Varying Controller Design for Robot Manipulator Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-25

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBERISI 5 . MONITORING ORG1536900 .QN, UgPOX ’ f NU W - ’IC ; ~ ~1536900 --- :-_._. : .. , ,’ :tl’.. -*/. 6a. %a4m6 OF PERFORMING...manipulators. The most widely used method is the independent joint control ([4],[ 5 ]), where basically each joint is independently controlled by a...examples with computer simulations. Finally, the summary and conclusions are given in chapter " 5 V. L -IlI. a ,• ’’ . ." ." -" - ,’ ".’.. ,,’ . ’ ". . V

  10. Bottom-up assessment of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance of Russian forests in 2010 for comparison to Top-down estimates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Shvidenko, A.; Shchepashchenko, D.

    2014-12-01

    The verified full carbon assessment of Russian forests (FCA) is based on an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) that includes a multi-layer and multi-scale GIS with basic resolution of 1 km and corresponding attributive databases. The ILIS aggregates all available information about ecosystems and landscapes, sets of empirical and semi-empirical data and aggregations, data of different inventories and surveys, and multi-sensor remote sensing data. The ILIS serves as an information base for application of the landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) of the FCA and as a systems design for comparison and mutual constraints with other methods of study of carbon cycling of forest ecosystems (eddy covariance; process models; inverse modeling; and multi-sensor application of remote sensing). The LEA is based on a complimentary use of the flux-based method with some elements of the pool-based method. Introduction of climatic parameters of individual years in the LEA, as well as some process-based elements, allows providing a substantial decrease of the uncertainties of carbon cycling yearly indicators of forest ecosystems. Major carbon pools (live biomass, coarse woody debris, soil organic carbon) are estimated based on data on areas, distribution and major biometric characteristics of Russian forests presented in form of the ILIS for the country. The major fluxes accounted for include Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Heterotrophic Respiration (SHR), as well as fluxes caused by decomposition of Coarse Woody Debris (CWD), harvest and use of forest products, fluxes caused by natural disturbances (fire, insect outbreaks, impacts of unfavorable environment) and lateral fluxes to hydrosphere and lithosphere. Use of landscape-ecosystem approach resulted in the NECB at 573±140 Tg C yr-1 (CI 0.9). While the total carbon sink is high, large forest areas, particularly on permafrost, serve as a carbon source. The ratio between net primary production and soil heterotrophic

  11. Annotated Bibliography of Underwater Acoustic Research, 1942-1945.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-02

    COOK ET AL 82 NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED NUSC-TD-6893 F/G 28/1 ML EIhIEEEEEEEEEE EEEEEEEEEEIII ElEEEEEEEllEEE lE~llEEEEEEllE 16 . 0 - u b3 ____ &.A ILI...Naval Underwater Systems Center) Prepared by Kathleen M. Cook Rita Gromal a-Schoenborn Cynthia A. Robinson at Accesion For NITIS CRA&I DrTAI3 Naval...trials because of submarines, and (7) comparative wear on the ball seat. It is test program for equipment proposed that the monel ball seat

  12. Computer Modeling of Direct Path, Backscattered Bottom Reverberations for the Acoustic Reverberation Special Research Program (ARSRP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    34 .. .:. ..... . . ... H3Od KV38 F-0 (cc .ILI 0 L) C7C) LS..i~i *Q p a 5 -- ,s g v -J -J C)c Z1 E~ KV3 K’o - S.- ’ " , ’ , ~~.. .... ..... . ......., , -inn *Q o c "<g - aa...a -IC) | *."I I I I!-) Sa ao <o o3~ INY3U U) CQC CC) -C0 r- 0 - CD C> CC CC)) ZJ3M~d KV3 ct: Loo 00 00 CE~ ~ ~ ..... 43~ NV3 C’,) I 0 I

  13. Ungoverned Territories. Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    La Violencia ” that began in 1948, more than 200,000 people were killed in politically motivated fighting and massacres. Although the National Front...primar- ily the FARC and the ELN, emerged from communist self-defense groups operating during La Violencia . Since the mid-1960s, both groups have had a...Paper 357, Oxford: OUP-IISS, 2003. “El mayor riesgo de ser victima de homicidio en Costa Rica, Guatemala y El Salvador,” Fundacion Genero y Sociedad

  14. One-year changes in symptoms of depression and weight in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Faulconbridge, Lucy F; Wadden, Thomas A; Rubin, Richard R; Wing, Rena R; Walkup, Michael P; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Coday, Mace; Van Dorsten, Brent; Mount, David L; Ewing, Linda J

    2012-04-01

    Depressed individuals are frequently excluded from weight loss trials because of fears that weight reduction may precipitate mood disorders, as well as concerns that depressed participants will not lose weight satisfactorily. The present study examined participants in the Look AHEAD study to determine whether moderate weight loss would be associated with incident symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, and whether symptoms of depression at baseline would limit weight loss at 1 year. Overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). Of these, 5,129 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and had their weight measured at baseline and 1 year. Potentially significant symptoms of depression were defined by a BDI score ≥10. Participants in ILI lost 8.6 ± 6.9% of initial weight at 1 year, compared to 0.7 ± 4.8% for DSE (P < 0.001, effect size = 1.33), and had a reduction of 1.4 ± 4.7 points on the BDI, compared to 0.4 ± 4.5 for DSE (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.23). At 1 year, the incidence of potentially significant symptoms of depression was significantly lower in the ILI than DSE group (6.3% vs. 9.6%) (relative risk (RR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.5, 0.8; P < 0.001). In the ILI group, participants with and without symptoms of depression lost 7.8 ± 6.7% and 8.7 ± 6.9%, respectively, a difference not considered clinically meaningful. Intentional weight loss was not associated with the precipitation of symptoms of depression, but instead appeared to protect against this occurrence. Mild (or greater) symptoms of depression at baseline did not prevent overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from achieving significant weight loss.

  15. In-Plume Emission Test Stand 2: Emission Factors for 10- to 100-kW U.S. Military Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Dust - Trak Model 8520 light scattering...gi st ra tio n (C CR Ti tle 13 , Di vi si on 3, Ch . 5, Ar t. 2) AS TM D2 50 0 Cl ou d po in t o C 11 12 56 56 Cl ou d po in t o F 12 .2 10 .4...05 2 (IP 36 5) AP Ig ra vi ty 15 .5 6 °C , 60 ° F o A PI 35 .0 35 .3 41 .0 41 .2 37 x 51 33 < x < 39 AS TM D8 6 In iti al bo ili ng po in t o F 37

  16. Some Easy ’t’-Statistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    standard error of the critical value is discussed in Horn (1981). The standard error estimates of the critical values Were practiCally ŕ Ll w:y:1 Ili:iih 3...1 )) \\ O-E- - 0 (Y) _r O L\\ ~ ON )0)bO \\ \\0) J 0 c \\ obD Zt- - I n U-\\ 0.1- 4 () -- t.) OZ) \\D4,uN0 -\\z N L\\c . l CjL\\C)\\ .V 7).4-TC’i O a r h 10r o

  17. Oral Historical, Documentary, and Archaeological Investigations of Colbert, Barton, and Vinton, Mississippi: An Interim Report on Phase I of the Tombigbee Historic Townsites Project. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    sugar, and coffee stored in barrels 252 Food Preparation 252 rood Preparation reasons for placing kitchen apart OHIClb ’IH1)2a use of wood stoves 0 HI...baskets 415 kitchen utensils and dishes 425 method of acquiring land, e.g., borrowing, inheriting, renti’.z 438 marketing information: purchasing and...infrmcati good size "ilI iarm7 t ote res idence in S used as camphouse part of house gone axis north and south in L with kitchen and d ininc room on

  18. Installation Restoration Program Phase II - Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-18

    and is presently a Tactical Air Command base. The base is situated in the Tucson basin, a basin, bordered by the Santa Catalina, Rincon , Santa Rita...the Santa Catalina, Rincon , Santa Rita, Tucson, Sierrita, Tortolita, and Empire Mountains and Black Mountain. The Tucson basin typifies the...I. W em em "m O’ _ _ , - It F. LUi FA 0 -.A y Il r - iti we -4 -0 I-, I-,.- *, , I o so 0 ’ 0 ___ - mI I Ili IsIT ’"." U " U , U - -= , , - - - -e

  19. Test and Evaluation of the Radar Thunderstorm Turbulence Detection System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    reflectivity factor, provides a measure of overall storm intensity and reliably identifies damaging hail (reference 3). The Federal Aviation...span over a wide azimuth swath (many 1.2" intervals), while a setting 2 , . Ao - j- cjo C U to --- wn W6 4 ma, ci- ILI- ca *~ A.L.. t * -- *U FIGURE...avoided because of the high probability of damaging hail . The aircraft was flown in an altitude block of 3,000 to 5,000 feet mean sea level (m.s.l.) to

  20. Novel Approaches to the Synthesis of Fluorodinitromethane and Fluorodinitroethanol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-27

    0 N-N0 2 44 0 2 N-N 0 N-NO 2 F 2 N NF 2 NF 2 0-- H 1 The diketone precursor was prepared by a multi-step synthesis outlined below.. 5 KI, Acetone...AD-A269 158 REPORT No. NRO-I-I (Final) PERIOD COVERED: 27 September 1990 through I March 1993 NOVEL APPROACHES TO THE SYNTHESIS OF...release; distribution unlimited." 93-20920 IIHIIIE111i111ili 9 3 9k 1 i0 4 July 1993 REPORT No. NRO-I-I (Final) NOVEL APPROACHES TO THE SYNTHESIS OF

  1. Chemically Defined Medium for Legionella pneumophila Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    for Legionnaires disease bacteriuii I t ’In. Mi- L.egionnaire. dioa bal’teriutn ( Legionella pneumii crobiol. 8:320-32.5. phi/u n to heiiaIly defined... Legionella pneumophila Growth. W 6) JOSElPH D/HISTROPH’ KENNETH W./HEI)LUN. AND SRINIVAS/GOWIA nited States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious... Diseases . Fort Detrick Frederick,~~Maryland 21701 " A chemically defined medium containing 18 amino acids, inorganic salts, E rhamnose, choline, and

  2. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care patients in a season of co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, B and drifted A(H3N2), I-MOVE Multicentre Case-Control Study, Europe 2014/15.

    PubMed

    Valenciano, Marta; Kissling, Esther; Reuss, Annicka; Rizzo, Caterina; Gherasim, Alin; Horváth, Judit Krisztina; Domegan, Lisa; Pitigoi, Daniela; Machado, Ausenda; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona Anna; Bella, Antonino; Larrauri, Amparo; Ferenczi, Annamária; Lazar, Mihaela; Pechirra, Pedro; Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Pozo, Francisco; Moren, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses co-circulated in Europe in 2014/15. We undertook a multicentre case-control study in eight European countries to measure 2014/15 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. General practitioners swabbed all or a systematic sample of ILI patients. We compared the odds of vaccination of ILI influenza positive patients to negative patients. We calculated adjusted VE by influenza type/subtype, and age group. Among 6,579 ILI patients included, 1,828 were A(H3N2), 539 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1,038 B. VE against A(H3N2) was 14.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): -6.3 to 31.0) overall, 20.7% (95%CI: -22.3 to 48.5), 10.9% (95%CI -30.8 to 39.3) and 15.8% (95% CI: -20.2 to 41.0) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and  ≥60  years, respectively. VE against A(H1N1)pdm09 was 54.2% (95%CI: 31.2 to 69.6) overall, 73.1% (95%CI: 39.6 to 88.1), 59.7% (95%CI: 10.9 to 81.8), and 22.4% (95%CI: -44.4 to 58.4) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and  ≥60 years respectively. VE against B was 48.0% (95%CI: 28.9 to 61.9) overall, 62.1% (95%CI: 14.9 to 83.1), 41.4% (95%CI: 6.2 to 63.4) and 50.4% (95%CI: 14.6 to 71.2) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and ≥60 years respectively. VE against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B was moderate. The low VE against A(H3N2) is consistent with the reported mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains.

  3. Effects of Air Pollution on Human Exercise Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Perspective P’ Ilurawn Stindiards mdccx And the National Avcragc Air Quialmt M ~’ost of us would Ili to Ijyc, work Anti u:xcris- Ii A pristInu cnvirinmcnlt...livc Ii or TAO ussun1cltitI takctots .arc nocdcd h ir Ai smog probk ~ m to (c near a1 mctro pol it an Arc’..Thucsc citius. with iir actundant IFInduS...gunucratu. Ani cxamplc of A turrain trapl is thu arca Around I)univcr. C otora- Stagguring m !ounts of* pollution. Natural disaisturs such As firust do

  4. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program: Engineering Design and Environmental Assessment of Dredged Material Overflow from Hydraulically Filled Hopper Barges in Mobile Bay, Alabama

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    26 0370. APO LIGHT* OVERFWLOW3025 3- DEGNRT 03.2H 01- FIX*4 AUTOUT 0 FI SAMPLER SOLR .TH4* 0. AUTO - FIX 5rP 34 o 0 +Y v So0 04.21 NOTENTET SCEETSML...04 00 %c D LIr W) M0 C D 4 % D a’’.OH- C- 0Cl Cc’ LO J N 0 4c.a% 44 -4 00a *r4 a 100 11 W’ ILI a’ a’ aW 11 cc N1 z 4 4W r 4rI PIrlrt 41 00 00 0 00 cu

  5. Powered Wheels in the Turned Mode Operating on Yielding Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    after Schuring , 1966) ... ........ 6 2.2. Conditions of a Wheel on Yielding Soil ..... ........... 7 2.3. Development of Trail Moment SF.C from An...forces and moments applied to the axle and at the interface area. Figure 2.1 (after Schuring , 1966) illustrates the possible combination of torque and...Horizontal Axle Pull P of a Free-Bodied Wheel (after Schuring , 1966). il ll l !ili l I m I U I 1 I II li i~ l6I TORQUE M o PULL P NEGA TI VE SLIP POS1TI

  6. Selective Perception for Robot Driving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    92 Min [1,6] +If-then-els Node function [3, 6] [1, 7] -Node value [2, 3 [1, 31 [ fase ,true] [1, 6] [5, 7] Figure 6-7.- Example of interval value...Max(xy) is UxuU, and Min (xy) is L.nL) " If PL Upper bound= . p=True Ie U p= Fase Lower bound = {L p= TrueILy p=False 23’se Upper bound = I U. U... Sensible Planning- Focusing Perceptual Attention. In Proceedings of AAAI-91. AAAI, 1991. [Clune 881 Clune, E.; Crisman, J.; Klinker, G.; and Webb, J

  7. New Sources of Active Duty Military Personnel: The Prior Service Accessions Pool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    reverse aide it necessry a"d identify by block nmrber) See Reverse Side DO I J’AN75, 1473 EDITION OF INOV 48 1SOSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY...nurse 926 91E 91 Dental Dental hygienist 081 Specialist 94B 94 Food Service Cook, cafeteria 912 Specialist Food service worker 916 95B 95 Military police...houising, subs idized food prices, etc. ). It t heit ad ’justs the new f igure for di fferences in the tax treatment o~f m ili tary an~d cmvilIian

  8. High Burden of Non-Influenza Viruses in Influenza-Like Illness in the Early Weeks of H1N1v Epidemic in France

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, Nathalie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Chaillon, Antoine; Scemla, Anne; Gras, Guillaume; Semoun, Oren; Taboulet, Pierre; Molina, Jean-Michel; Simon, François; Goudeau, Alain; LeGoff, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza-like illness (ILI) may be caused by a variety of pathogens. Clinical observations are of little help to recognise myxovirus infection and implement appropriate prevention measures. The limited use of molecular tools underestimates the role of other common pathogens. Objectives During the early weeks of the 2009–2010 flu pandemic, a clinical and virological survey was conducted in adult and paediatric patients with ILI referred to two French University hospitals in Paris and Tours. Aims were to investigate the different pathogens involved in ILI and describe the associated symptoms. Methods H1N1v pandemic influenza diagnosis was performed with real time RT-PCR assay. Other viral aetiologies were investigated by the molecular multiplex assay RespiFinder19®. Clinical data were collected prospectively by physicians using a standard questionnaire. Results From week 35 to 44, endonasal swabs were collected in 413 patients. Overall, 68 samples (16.5%) were positive for H1N1v. In 13 of them, other respiratory pathogens were also detected. Among H1N1v negative samples, 213 (61.9%) were positive for various respiratory agents, 190 in single infections and 23 in mixed infections. The most prevalent viruses in H1N1v negative single infections were rhinovirus (62.6%), followed by parainfluenza viruses (24.2%) and adenovirus (5.3%). 70.6% of H1N1v cases were identified in patients under 40 years and none after 65 years. There was no difference between clinical symptoms observed in patients infected with H1N1v or with other pathogens. Conclusion Our results highlight the high frequency of non-influenza viruses involved in ILI during the pre-epidemic period of a flu alert and the lack of specific clinical signs associated with influenza infections. Rapid diagnostic screening of a large panel of respiratory pathogens may be critical to define and survey the epidemic situation and to provide critical information for patient management. PMID:21858150

  9. Helical Gears with Circular Arc Teeth: Generation, Geometry, Precision and Adjustment to Errors, Computer Aided Simulation of Conditions of Meshing, and Bearing Contact.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    09 171 HELICAL GEARS NITH CIRCULAR ARC TEETH: GENERATION / GEOMETRY PRECISION AND (U) ILLINOIS UNIV AT CHICAGO CIRCLE F L LITYN ET AL OCT 87 NASA-CR...34",’ . " "" . ".- , ", ", " ",, -. ". , ’.,.,L jILI ..EILE.GO ;. - - . .. . AVSCOM .--NASA Contractor Report�.--TcnclRpr ZC1 i < Helical Gears With Circular Arc Teeth: Generation...AVSCOM Contractor Report 4089 Technical Report 87-C-18 Helical Gears With Circular Arc Teeth: Generation, Geometry, Precision and Adjustment to Errors

  10. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wrap-Around Fins, Including Fold Angle at Mach Numbers from 0.5 to 3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-15

    Iiiiihiii i!iý iI:! i"i Mi Ili; Ill! T!E!I;EVi1 LW L. 1III[NiMi!FiNKIIIE; 1 Milimummum III 4-mm RK20MINTIMI: 0;i; PORN 1 !!it it iI!TiiPii 4i Iiii 1 u...A.Ai:: Tý:i ý11Q- 1-i:T-: it týi ý1ý1 M .. ANI BOOM X ... ... .. . . ..... . . .... I it mug H Q M ...... TMO TENN E No M ii .11 im igloo No gm m iýý

  11. Boots on the Ground: Troop Density in Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Singapore quickly prospered, and in 186 that port as well as Malacca and Penang , two small port enclaves on the western Malay coast, formally became the...operations was clearly indicated in statistical analyses maintained by the British com- mand.90 The British command formed larger Gurkha headquarters...displays the density statistics for the Balkans’ deployments. 5 Ta bl e 6. T ro op D en si ty in th e B al ka ns O pe ra tio ns M ili ta ry Fo

  12. Air Force Maintenance Technician Performance Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-28

    tests utility. An alternative to eith -er usin: exis :n -r or soliciting manager oninions as to aceea-ili_ to develoo critericn-referenced test...34 Educational ind Psycholozica 1 :,’easuremeni, 1950, 10, 159-186. Callanier, Bruce. "Hikes: 1 out of 3 ’ takes r-." ir Fr. Times , July 2, 1o7-, p.4...R G A N I Z A T IO N N A M E A N D A D R S A R E A P HO R U I T N U M B E R AFIT STUDENT AT: Arizona State Univ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND

  13. Molecular characterization of adenovirus circulating in Central and South America during the 2006–2008 period

    PubMed Central

    García, Josefina; Sovero, Merly; Laguna‐Torres, Victor Alberto; Gomez, Jorge; Chicaiza, Wilson; Barrantes, Melvin; Sanchez, Felix; Jimenez, Mirna; Comach, Guillermo; De Rivera, Ivette L.; Agudo, Roberto; Arango, Ana E.; Barboza, Alma; Aguayo, Nicolas; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Human Adenoviruses are recognized pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases. Serotype identification is critical for epidemiological surveillance, detection of new strains and understanding of HAdvs pathogenesis. Little data is available about HAdvs subtypes in Latin America. Methods  In this study, we have molecularly characterized 213 adenoviruses collected from ILI presenting patients, during 2006‐08, in Central and South America. Results  Our results indicate that 161(76%) adenoviruses belong to subgroup C, 45 (21%) to subgroup B and 7 (3%) to subtype E4. PMID:19903214

  14. The Acoustic Model Evaluation Committee (AMEC) Reports. Volume 3. Evaluation of the RAYMODE X Propagation Loss Model. Book 2. Appendices A-D

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    2 of 3 The Acasstic Model Evaluation Committee (AMEC) Reports Vodlme III, Appendices A-i) Elakiaie of Me RAYAODE X f*W#ton Loss Model (U) Prepared by...Richard B. Laer, NORDP Numerical Modefa Division 11N Pylos of RAYNONE X (g) ’T evy •u v ,ap,.,,.,.nDTiC hpWor 1984;& AELE TEfTE Aft 12 W~ LAJ...Activity NSTL Station, Mississippi 39529 84 04 06 511 CONFIDENTIAL .%.. CONFIDENTIAL Appendix IliA. Accuracy Assessment of RAYMODE X Compared to SUDS

  15. Lighting and Astronomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    ago. Bright light is becoming a form of advertising. Figure 1. The sky over Mauna Kea , Hawaii, is affected by outdoor lighting in communit ies from...8217 chris Luginbuhl is an astronomer at the US Naval observatory Flagstaff station in Arizona. connie walker is an associate scientist and education...specialist " tf," N"iio".iOpalut-nraronomy Observatory in Arizona and director of both the lnternational Year of Astrono.my , ;il;;;;i; n*ui"n"rt

  16. The Role of the U.S. Army Forces Command in Project New Arrivals. Reception and Care of Refugees from Vietnam,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    form of a sudden major increase in the price of oil which caused a heavy drawdown in those funds available for the purchase of necessary hardware. ŕ...LIFE, pp. 1-6 -1-8. 26 CHART I p’-., ’. ftf -I3 oiL Iln C,, ’"’’’’ 3 ii U ili ,.~~L C.2illl i * -p4 i / .27 °0c CDC* VIABLE b OPERATION NEW LIFE US...Clothing, Equipment, U.S. Amy Housekeeping, etc. III Petroleum, Oils , and JCS Lubricants IV Construction Materials U.S. Army -- except for U.S. Navy work

  17. Inorganic Halogen Oxidizers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-22

    this series of compounds is needed to verify this effect. The F NMR spectra of these salts were recorded in an- hydrous HF solutions at 29 °C. In...The yield of only 55% for CIF6BF4 can be attributed to the following factors: (i) hang-up of some mother liquor on »he filter cake; (ii) possibly...basis of NF4HF:. With most of ’me Ni4Ili2 * allies losi being due lo hang up of some mother liquor on the CsSbF6 filter cake during the metathc teal

  18. Acquisition, Design Modification, Assembly, and Ground Test of NPS hummingbird Remotely Piloted Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    3019 cite I SIC-SO IC III Calt low0 Seltekbli I SIC-Wi It on cutI 35m1 ltti-il %uIt I "IC-0 I104IlI C1111= a-INt* * Crated A wommit of badh for...WILL REQUIRE RE-ADJUSTMENT OF CARBURETTOR NEEDLE JETS . 57 Fuel Consumption .................. Approx. 5.6 litrcs/hour e 5250 revimin Against propeller...SERVICING. MAKE SURE ALL SAFETY (91tARDS ARE REPLACED AND SECURED. 70 The initial carburettor "Hi" and "Lo" needle jets and the idle- stop screw are

  19. Influenza Risk Management: Lessons Learned from an A(H1N1) pdm09 Outbreak Investigation in an Operational Military Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-10

    Organization/U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influenza-like illness case definition [fever (T > 100.5˚F/38˚C) in addition to cough and/or sore...H1N1) pdm09-positive individuals. While still not ideal, using cough as the sole screening criteria would have increased sensitivity to 73...CDC) ILI case definition [fever (T > 100.5˚F/ 38˚C) in addition to cough and/or sore throat in the previous 72 hours]. History/unknown history of

  20. Evaluation of an Influenza-Like Illness Case Definition in the Diagnosis of Influenza Among Patients with Acute Febrile Illness in Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    ILI) is often defined as fever (>38.0°C) with cough or sore throat. In this study, we tested the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative...include fever, cough , sore throat, headache, muscle aches, nasal congestion and weakness [9]. These symptoms can be non-specific and do not easily distin...include fever (≥ 38°C) with one or more respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough or sore throat). These clinical algorithms have been studied in children and

  1. Data Analysis in Vocational/Technical (VOTEC) Manpower and Personnel Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-24

    Skewness -. 668 5 x Sk*• .637 R-1- 3.000 Mininwa 3.000 Maxi- 6.000 sun S6.000 Valid cases 12 Missing cases 0 • III 10 valid C Value Label Value Fraquency...Ill 15 . 222 ) .2081 .2502 .2912 .6083 IlI 16 .2141 .2649 .2895 .2852 .44ce Ill 17 .1285 .2741 .2141 .2463 .5925 U 1.I 18 .2474 .2885 .31698 .3720 .4469...Diff CI for Diff Equal -. 27 81 .784 .295 (-. 668 , .506)1 Unequal -. 33 17.81 .746 .246 (-.598, .436) Variazle of Canes Mean So SE of Mean 111i20 CONTROL

  2. Immunosuppressive effects of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells on graft-versus-host disease in rats following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nevruz, Oral; Avcu, Ferit; Ural, A Uğur; Pekel, Aysel; Dirican, Bahar; Safalı, Mükerrem; Akdağ, Elvin; Beyzadeoğlu, Murat; Ide, Tayfun; Sengül, Ali

    2013-09-01

    Amaç: Graft versus host hastalığı (GVHH) , başarılı bir kemik iliği nakli için önemli bir engel oluşturmaktadır. Multipotent mezenşimal stromal hücrelerin (MSH) immünsupresif etkileri, in vivo ve in vitro olarak gösterilmiş olmakla birlikte, GVHH’ nı önleme yönünde klinik uygulamalarda bulunmaktadır . Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu çalışmanın amacı ratlarda kemik iliği nakli sonrası oluşturulan GVHH’nı önleme ve tedavi etmede MSH nin etkinliğinin incelenmesidir. Bu amaçla 49 Sprague Dawley cinsi rat rastegele 4 çalışma, 3 kontrol grubuna ayrılmış ve gruplara MSH de içeren farklı GVHH önleyici tedaviler uygulanmıştır. Kemik iliği nakli sonrası GVHH skorlaması ve yaşama süreleri incelenmiştir. Bulgular: Tüm ışınlanmış ve önleyici tedavi verilmemiş ratlar ölmüştür. MSH nin önleyici uygulamaları, standart GVHD önleyici tedavileri kadar etkin bulunmuştur. MSH uygulamaları, GVHH nın gözlemsel ve histolojik bulgularını ve CD4+/CD8+ oranını azaltmaktadır.Ayrıca MSH uygulanan gruplarda CD25+ T hücrelerinin in vivo oranıda daha yüksek olup, Allojeneik kemik iliği nakli sonrası standart GVHH tedavisi uygulananlara göre plazma İnterlökin-2 seviyesinin daha yüksek olarak saptanmıştır. Sonuç: Bulgularımız MSH uygulamasının, GVHH nın hem önlenme hem de tedavi edilmesinde etkin olduğunu göstermiştir. Ancak bu bulguların geniş ölçekli çalışmalarla desteklenmesi gerekmektedir.

  3. Humboldt Bay Wetlands Review and Baylands Analysis. Volume III. Habitat Classification and Mapping and Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    property rights, either in real estate or material, or any exclusive privileges. and that it does not authorize any injury to property or invasion of...been jainsed by tiIa - lry’cfioi:a Clia! litiloria. Ilis.; it-- lsil i~i lte sat Iten~ higher aut hority, and to susm’ild taeriail~s jet Eattitii’i’rs...uLelLid a areas) Zock crab, Cancer antenniarius (oin sand amon-g rocks; may be in bay) (eliow crab, Cancer aiithonyi (under rocks; in bay) ;lender crab

  4. Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A270 956 L11L1I~I1 11 11 :1Ji ili! August 1993 AFRRI 93-5 TECHNICAL REPORT Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water L OCT 1 93 John Dickson Robert...COVER~ED I August 1993 Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE S.FNDN NUMBERS Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water PE: NWED QAXM 6, AUTHOR(S) Dickson...AVAILABIIY STATEMENT 1 2b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT tMaxtm -um 200 words ) 14. SUBJECTTERMS 1S

  5. Neural Control of the Direction of Covert Visual Orienting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-15

    results. The study confirms a sugoestion by Kinsbourne (1977) that each DO IJAN7 P3 1473 coro~oO I NOVS IS OBSOLETE ucasfe SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...location of covert attention prior to the assessment of lateralization of cognitive functions. FAc -;- UI Dis - Avn’,iLi iLt y Codes , avnUuf/or Dist...with the term hemispheric inattention which is commonly applied to the syndrome resulting from parietal lesions (Weinstein & Freedland, 1977). A closely

  6. Analysis of Thermal Imagery Collected at Yuma I, Yuma, Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    ee .~c * cc cc c a t r i C...l n t 1 1 1 n - t i n 1z - z A. a n li in t ,1 n -l ......... .... AD.. 333333 as3 E Ban E2 Apend E IageMeft -Oiuaf0 .. .n...ili ---- - - Ila 10 si V 0 4 .: a ,..*a43 217 a- a a a. .. .A G18 Apend G Iage etris-Oloal -. 00 Wj. 331s 0.000.08 883.8833333.388 1i nI q-f 13 :1f

  7. Presentations at CALS Conference (Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support). Phase 1.2 Conferences. A DoD/Industry/NIST (National Institute of Standards Technology) Conference Held in Philadelphia, PA on 20 Apr 1989, Anaheim, CA on 27 Apr 1989 and Gaithersburg, MD on 2 May 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-02

    Mechanical AEC Etc. Topical ,- Models IDEFIX oIMExrs Life IRDS Cycle Activities Product Levl I Level I Level IlI Level IV Data ,nebon lflfq" dllI" Ivfoo...4.1.oco H W.o o -4.a1 UV M0 0 -:: 4 04.. .4 0C (D toa0 .4 :1 0300 Hd ) V 14 O 0 4 V C𔃺 H - 1 0 0 44 41 : . 󈧄 4 l -- 4 w0 wO.44 a ) 004 A4.V ’a0Ea -M

  8. Influenza vaccine effectiveness among adult patients in a University of Lyon hospital (2004-2009).

    PubMed

    Amour, Sélilah; Voirin, Nicolas; Regis, Corinne; Bouscambert-Duchamp, Maude; Comte, Brigitte; Coppéré, Brigitte; Pires-Cronenberger, Silene; Lina, Bruno; Vanhems, Philippe

    2012-01-20

    The aim of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized patients. A case-control investigation was based on the prospective surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) during five flu seasons. We compared influenza-positive cases and influenza-negative controls. Unadjusted overall IVE was 62% (95% confidence interval 24% to 81%). We found that IVE was lower during the 2004-05 flu season (11%; 95% CI -232% to 76%) when the vaccine and circulating viruses were mismatched. Expansion of the study to other hospitals could provide IVE estimates earlier in the season, for different age groups and emerging virus strains.

  9. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    NREL’s Commercial Buildings Research team, including James Page, Andrew Parker , Michael Deru, and Brent Griffith, provided laboratory and field...ily A ve ra ge E le ct ric al E ff ic ie nc y (k W /t on ) Daily Average Electrical Efficiency, Training Facility 2010 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 0...le ct ric al E ff ic ie nc y (k w /t on ) Daily Average Electrical Efficiency, Training Facility 2011 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 52 The theater and

  10. Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    s T*S IFI /G i’ u A "m = - ILI l ~2 U0k.. ’~la BASIC PROCESSES OF PLASMA PROPULSION Herbert 0. Schrade Institut fir Raumfahrtsysteme Universitat...discharge channel with respect to a small disturbance. IZ4 q, , L No cl W) 03Cii >i 04 -9- Depending on the amouunt of e given in eqs. (la) and (Ib) and...available at the University of Stuttgart about a year ago. H. 0. Schrade, M. Auweter-Kurtz and H. L . Kurtz, "Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion

  11. Induction of TNF-A and IL-1 in Human Tuberculosis (CIC3)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-27

    AD-A259 308 MIPR NO: 90MM0581 TITLE: INDUCTION OF TNF-A AND IL-1 IN HUMAN TUBERCULOSIS (CIC3) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOk: Greg T. Anders CONTRACTING...DATES COVERED 1 27 January 19921 Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Induction of TNF-A and IL-i in Human Tuberculosis MIPR No. (CIC3...SU•4ECT TERMS IS. NUMBER OF PAGES Interleukin-1; Tumor; Tuberculosis ; RAII; Volunteers 16. PRICE COO( 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION I$. SECURITY

  12. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    of the commercial application —usually long-range or long-endurance flights at high altitude and steady cruise conditions with limited maneuverability... application and the Service involved. Table of Contents Ai rc ra ft Su rv iv ab ili ty • S pr in g 20 07 • ht tp s: // ja sp o. w pa fb .a f. m il...experts included the following: n Dr. Peter Disimile, 46 OG/ OGM /OL- AC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH, who described thermocouple and photodiode

  13. Acetylcholine Receptors in Model Membranes: Structure/Function Correlates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    C_222iUWLSIFIED F/G 6/4 U .൘ -. _u wo L L5 M A(.- REPOLUION UEST ( l ~st - ~ ~ I w i ~- w----1--1-.-z-U- e I’s ILI & REPORT DOCUMEN’TATION PAGE 0 READ...Research and Development Command December 1985 Fort Detrick gI.,. NUIBFER O~F PAGES Frederick, MD 21701-5012 /0--4 I Unclassified 0 15, L DEC...construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Accesioni Fcr J _ l NTIS CRAWI DTIC TAO

  14. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 82C. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Army Soldier’s Manual for the MOS/Skill Level designated in the title (item 4). This frequency count reflects only skill levels ]IlI and excludes the... WESIT 7 111r. KIAE4, 6 ArIIIST FC 6 AFIF- f~r ’AI AA AKVt~ A C PSIAI KT 1. MI14 f Al CKtlI f. 901110 r VI III INY 0- tw II 1, 1s 111lt~,0171 A cririI-’L A

  15. Shelf-Life Specifications for Mission Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    TU 003d1002 ,ili:one Rubber Basic MATL 650 GL $3.960 5 gal/pail 002g1207 pct solid coumpound 50: Bitumen Base Aspthal 640 GL $1,564 Liquid 55 gaVpack...packaging only. Artlur D Little 4-3 NSN: 8010001818276 Name: Polyurethane Coating Description: Black, 2 component, oil free, aliphatic isocyanate coating...aliphatic isocyanate . Part B will change chemically if it comes into contact with moisture. Discussion of Shelf Life The polyester base material does

  16. Focused Ion Beam Fabrication of Graded Channel Fet’s in GaAs and Si.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-03

    GRAS AMD SICU) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LAS OF-ILECTRONICS J NELUG ILIS 03 FEB 88 UNCLASSIFIED NDA9B3-85-C-82.- F/G 7/2 ULEEE...Jacob, Graduate Student, Electrical Eng. and Computer Science Henri Lezec, Graduate Student, Electrical Eng. and Computer Science Christian Musil ...Laterally Graded Current Monitoring DC Bias(V) Q Gunn Diode ResistorI-I Frequency Smoothly Tunable w/ DC Bias *-40 dBn !! j ---- 6 Ghz at 35 V 12.2 Ghz

  17. The Impact of Balance of Payment Considerations Upon Logistical Support of U.S. Armed Forces Europe 1960-1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    USAF who prompted my Interest in the subject. Also# Mr. Leonard 0. Campbell , Office of the Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) who furnished valuable...United States Balance of PaY- Monts in I68. (Washington, D.C.: The Bookings Institution, 1 W), pp?. 191-1 i and Leonard Ge Campbells and Robert J. Shue...264.0 $164 62% 48 Campbell and Shus, p. 24. 49U.S., Departmant of CommereU, Balanceof P t, p 73-B. (Also refer to Chapter Ili. Dollar Flow* for an expl

  18. Exploiting Tumor-Activated Testes Proteins to Enhance Efficacy of First-Line Chemotherapeutics in NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Cisplatin (p=0.65, see Figure 3...l) TEX15 HORMAD1 SYCP1 Cisplatin HORMAD1 H1 56 8 H1 15 5 H1 29 9 H5 20 HC C4 4 H2 07 3 H1 57 H1 78 1 Ho p6 2 HC C5 15 A5 49 SK .L U. 1 H3 12 2 Ca lu... Cisplatin Cisplatin Sensitivity (Ranked Low to High) HORMAD1 Expression (green-low Red-high) Cell Line NSCLC Cell Line Vi ab ili ty (R el at iv

  19. Estimates of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe, 2009–2010: Results of Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) Multicentre Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Valenciano, Marta; Kissling, Esther; Cohen, Jean-Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Rizzo, Caterina; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; Larrauri Cámara, Amparro; Mosnier, Anne; Horvath, Judith K.; O'Donnell, Joan; Bella, Antonino; Guiomar, Raquel; Lupulescu, Emilia; Savulescu, Camelia; Ciancio, Bruno C.; Kramarz, Piotr; Moren, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background A multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks from seven European countries was undertaken to estimate the effectiveness of 2009–2010 pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1). Methods and Findings Sentinel practitioners swabbed ILI patients using systematic sampling. We included in the study patients meeting the European ILI case definition with onset of symptoms >14 days after the start of national pandemic vaccination campaigns. We compared pH1N1 cases to influenza laboratory-negative controls. A valid vaccination corresponded to >14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We estimated pooled vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the odds ratio with the study site as a fixed effect. Using logistic regression, we adjusted VE for potential confounding factors (age group, sex, month of onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalizations, smoking history, seasonal influenza vaccinations, practitioner visits in previous year). We conducted a complete case analysis excluding individuals with missing values and a multiple multivariate imputation to estimate missing values. The multivariate imputation (n = 2902) adjusted pandemic VE (PIVE) estimates were 71.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.6–85.5) overall; 78.4% (95% CI 54.4–89.8) in patients <65 years; and 72.9% (95% CI 39.8–87.8) in individuals without chronic disease. The complete case (n = 1,502) adjusted PIVE were 66.0% (95% CI 23.9–84.8), 71.3% (95% CI 29.1–88.4), and 70.2% (95% CI 19.4–89.0), respectively. The adjusted PIVE was 66.0% (95% CI −69.9 to 93.2) if vaccinated 8–14 days before ILI onset. The adjusted 2009–2010 seasonal influenza VE was 9.9% (95% CI −65.2 to 50.9). Conclusions Our results suggest good protection of the pandemic monovalent vaccine against medically attended pH1N1 and no

  20. ’MODESRCH’, An Improved Computer Program for Obtaining ELF/VLF/LF Mode Constants in an Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    0 RHO = O*C i TA-LT=iu.0 RAt T 3. Gt"AX = 50 SEP = 091 TVSt-=-1 .0 LUB=-Io0 C NUFLAG = 0 COEFi’U(1L .) b1 C UL FPU ( 21 *5UF C OEf! U ( 3 te= 4E F)’PNU...Lt20 Ili ITI TLE(K)=I BCD ( K) 11. READ 904vJITtENS(1),ENS(1) 904t FC2RMAT IF7,295XtE9.2tEIO.2) IF (H7 .LT, 0.0) GO TO 15 HTS(J) =E 1T ANC, HTS(J

  1. Nutrient Intakes of the Enlisted Personnel Aboard the USS Saratoga Before and After Implementing ’Fast Food’ to the Food Service System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the . .tract entered In Block 20, I f different Fom Report) Distribution/ Avallabil ity Code IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Dst Special...8217jIN l DS1 H I IliU lIN IS U Cornmancr ’wrh:n ev.pun omnUS A\\rmv, *\\dical 1esir hWnal’.l oretCninn ter 1(ced Army 1nsW JrU r Of lH\\L’ 11, 11 ATTN

  2. The Snow Characteristics of Aircraft Skis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-01-01

    bottoms are given in Table 1. The skis of different shapes were surfaced with beeswax scraped to a very smooth surface. When damaged this surface...could be restored very eas- ily. Since the low friction of smooth beeswax on snow was a relatively small part of the total slid- ing resistance of...different skis unless the skis were tested at the same time. For this reason. Ski B surfaced with beeswax was always used as one of the two skis in a

  3. Remarks on "Comments on 'On q-non-extensive statistics with non-Tsallisian entropy' " [Physica A 466 (2017) 160

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Korbel, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Recently in Ilić and Stanković (2017) have suggested that there may be problem for the class of hybrid entropies introduced in Jizba and Arimitsu (2004). In this Comment we point out that the problem can be traced down to the q-additive entropic chain rule and to a peculiar behavior of the De Finetti-Kolmogorov relation for escort distributions. However, despite this, one can still safely use the proposed hybrid entropies in most of the statistical-thermodynamics considerations.

  4. Concept Evaluation: Field Feedback Computation of Electromagnetic Scattering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    use- fulness of F 3computations because of the great amount of com - puter memory required. In any case, the flexibility of the finite-element method...i-a0 ,- I.- wW -JJ - * ou Z<w 24’-. 4d 7pIW -- 94 en I ILI 4.. . 1 0. 7~ ce 0 U 0-0 I>Om I.- wSj ;Poz MCA) X(.j x O.-. . -C N. .coJ’ - .’’ J a- wW w

  5. The Architecture of an Object Based Personal Computer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Dr . . CI’lar-k wi ti at ’ It vi𔃾 vit it ledl ’A S tmp’ and31k Flex Ill ’ Sv 4t I it Ili t I ’aI I I:A t In 11 ’ l ...ill f’Not pt n-ona I ctillipt v’i . - :t il OFFICIAL DISTRIBUrION LIST Defense Technical Information Center Dr . A. L . Slafkosky Cameron Station...Ph.D.Thesis-Dec.6, 1979 Co e S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER - -. -- ,__I/CS/’rR-23 S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) J l Allen Williwzy/Amliewski

  6. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, Missouri River, Fort Peck Lake, Montana. Volume I. Text Appendix A, Appendix B.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    lt I i I I . .. . . . , . . . . . . TABULATION AND I ,. L RF DR =2. MLE LM P R 1MMAIOM IM=IGATIONS P0R F0N PECK DAM - Contd Peld . ;% Role Book ’ook...I EllIhlllIhl!Il EIIIIIIIIIiil IIIIIIIEEIIIIE IIIIIIIE--EEI 11111j8 13 2 L11L11 2.2IIIIII 1111.25 IlI41. 6IIIII l llt IIl’ MICROCOPY RESOLUTION...AM, MNTAN EMBANKENT CITERI AND PEFORMACE REORT PAT1 son& I IS L ’It K,4 FORT T0 -, DA.MOTN WflAtiK*f NT* CRTE IAN t-i RMNEREOTPLT -- - - --- FORT PECK

  7. Investigation of Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (Li/SO2) Battery Safety Hazards -- Chemical Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    ID-Alla 363 EIC LAOS INC NEWTON MA F/B 10/3 INVESTIGATION OF LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE ILI/SO2) BATTERY SAFETY-ETC(U) APR 82 K M ABRAHAM, H W RUPICH, L...Contract No. N60921-81-C-0084 0o Prepared by K. M. Abraham M. W. Rupich L. Pitts EIC Laboratories, Inc. 67 Chapel Street Newton , Massachusetts 02158...Chapel Street Newton , Massachusetts 02158 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Surface Weapons Center April 1982 Silver Spring

  8. National Interests and Geopolitics: A Primer on the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    alit w it ai ,ii, irms buildl -ut) by other countries. The last groulp of i)1,,, 11 a, (-f uxlerii.il itiii.iiv %- d.i•i •’v iincludes attempts to...For air mobile mis sidn s, an ad(v a neer variant oif Ilie 11-76 will be u se(1. One model will be chosen between two av;iilatile iH’)(el.: cihrtho...ships, new lypes of nledical ttclhnologi-s, commullllnication and information are all affected.48 Priority is given to civilian production. In the

  9. Group Contribution Analysis of the Damping Behavior of Homopolymers, Statistical Copolymers, and Interpenetrating Polymer Networks Based on Acrylic, Vinyl, and Styrenic Mers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    synthesis, mixtures of monomer(s), crosslinker, and benzoin was poured into a glass mold fitted with an EPDM rubber cord gasket and exposed to U.V...dyne/cm2 in comparison with the values of 2.3 to 3.3 * 10 dyne/cm 2 (44) by ASTM test method D638. ILI.... RESULTS All samples were cut to appropriate...homologous series versus number of methylene groups in the ester side group. The asymptotic value is assumed to be the LA of backbone. Fig. 4 Test of

  10. Heavy Lift Helicopter - Cargo Handling ATC Program. Volume I. Detail Design Structural and Weights Analysis, and Static and Dynamic Load Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    o i" CQ 0 -40 Mamie 2 0 0- Ogg ! !2 1 b- .4490 0 0 z ZZ V 0 IL to in zo WM Qe bwow wo ( AfA W19 I- ILI0 V X04 -4 M XO 4@40Idli IL 4444 vw IL u 4( Le...investment castings in stainless steel. The cable length sensing mechanism is shown in Figure 64. A signal that ii a function of the length of cable...Figure 81) shows the span positioning hardware installed on the hoist. The four rollers are machined from stainless steel, with a spherical bearing

  11. Multi-satellite simultaneous observations of magnetopause and atmospheric losses of radiation belt electrons during an intense solar wind dynamic pressure pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Zheng; Ni, Binbin; Zhou, Chen; Zou, Zhengyang; Gu, Xudong; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Xianguo; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Shenyi; Li, Xinlin; Zuo, Pingbing; Spence, Harlan; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2016-05-03

    Radiation belt electron flux dropouts are a kind of drastic variation in the Earth's magnetosphere, understanding of which is of both scientific and societal importance. We report multi-satellite simultaneous observations of magnetopause and atmospheric losses of radiation belt electrons during an event of intense solar wind dynamic pressure pulse, using electron flux data from a group of 14 satellites. Moreover, when the pulse occurred, magnetopause and atmospheric loss could take effect concurrently contributing to the electron flux dropout. Losses through the magnetopause were observed to be efficient and significant at <i>L> ≳ 5, owing to the magnetopause intrusion into <i>L> ~6 and outward radial diffusion associated with sharp negative gradient in electron phase space density. Losses to the atmosphere were directly identified from the precipitating electron flux observations, for which pitch angle scattering by plasma waves could be mainly responsible. While the convection and substorm injections strongly enhanced the energetic electron fluxes up to hundreds of keV, they could delay other than avoid the occurrence of electron flux dropout at these energies. Finally, we demonstrate that the pulse-time radiation belt electron flux dropout depends strongly on the specific interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions and that losses through the magnetopause and to the atmosphere and enhancements of substorm injection play an essential role in combination, which should be incorporated as a whole into future simulations for comprehending the nature of radiation belt electron flux dropouts.

  12. ANS complex of St John's wort PR-10 protein with 28 copies in the asymmetric unit: A fiendish combination of pseudosymmetry with tetartohedral twinning

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwiak, Joanna; Dauter, Zbigniew; Kowiel, Marcin; McCoy, Airlie J.; Read, Randy J.; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2015-03-26

    Hyp-1, a pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), was crystallized in complex with the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The highly pseudosymmetric crystal has 28 unique protein molecules arranged in columns with sevenfold translational noncrystallographic symmetry (tNCS) along c and modulated X-ray diffraction with intensity crests at <i>l> = 7n and <i>l> = 7n ± 3. The translational NCS is combined with pseudotetragonal rotational NCS. The crystal was a perfect tetartohedral twin, although detection of twinning was severely hindered by the pseudosymmetry. The structure determined at 2.4 Å resolution reveals that the Hyp-1 molecules (packed as β-sheet dimers) have three novel ligand-binding sites (two internal and one in a surface pocket), which was confirmed by solution studies. In addition to 60 Hyp-1-docked ligands, there are 29 interstitial ANS molecules distributed in a pattern that violates the arrangement of the protein molecules and is likely to be the generator of the structural modulation. In particular, whenever the stacked Hyp-1 molecules are found closer together there is an ANS molecule bridging them.

  13. Spatial uniformity of the current emitted by an array of passively fed electrospray porous emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Garcia, C.; Krejci, D.; Lozano, P.

    2016-03-01

    Ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) have a broad range of applications ranging from focused ion beams (FIB) to spacecraft propulsion. For space thrusters, having a beam of ions of high velocity and low energy spread results in high specific impulse (a measure of the efficiency of propellant consumption) and high power efficiency. For FIB applications, these traits benefit focusing and resolution respectively. Since typical current levels emitted by individual ILIS range from tens of nA to a few μA, both applications often require using arrays of emitters in order to increase the total beam current; i.e. the thrust level in the case of a thruster or the throughput in ion milling applications. So far, most studies of emitter arrays have dealt with experimental measurements of global, spatially-averaged, properties and theoretical analyses generally assume that all emitters operate in a similar manner, so that scaling of the current is linear with the number of emitters. In this work we use a current probe to explore the uniformity properties of the current emitted by an array of porous emitters. We present measurements of the current density of both the array and individual tips, and analyze the reason and implications of the experimental observations.

  14. Isolation & molecular characterization of human parainfluenza virus in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Indumathi, C.P.; Gunanasekaran, P.; Kaveri, K.; Arunagiri, Kavita; Mohana, S.; Sheriff, A. Khaleefathullah; SureshBabu, B.V.; Padmapriya, P.; Senthilraja, R.; Fathima, Gracy

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) accounts for a significant proportion of lower respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults. This study was done to detect the presence of different subtypes of HPIV from patients having influenza like illness (ILI). Methods: Throat and nasal swabs from 232 patients with ILI who were negative for influenza viruses were tested by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(mRT-PCR) for the detection of human parainfluenza virus. All samples were inoculated in rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK2) cell line. Results: Of the 232 samples, 26(11.2%) were positive by mRT-PCR and nine (34.6%) showed cytopathic effect with syncytium formation for HPIV and all were HPIV-3 serotype, other serotypes like 1,2,4 were negative. The HPIV-3 strains (HN gene) were sequenced and analysed. Two novel mutations were identified at amino acid residues 295 and 297. Interpretation & conclusions: The mRT-PCR assay offers a rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnostic method for detection of HPIV which enables early detection and control. In our study there was a predominance of HPIV among 1-5 yr age group and the school going age group was less affected. Further studies need to be done to characterize HPIV isolated from different parts of the country. PMID:26658594

  15. Google Flu Trends in Canada: a comparison of digital disease surveillance data with physician consultations and respiratory virus surveillance data, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Martin, L J; Lee, B E; Yasui, Y

    2016-01-01

    The value of Google Flu Trends (GFT) remains unclear after it overestimated the proportion of physician visits related to influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States in 2012-2013. However, GFT estimates (%GFT) have not been examined nationally in Canada nor compared with positivity for respiratory viruses other than influenza. For 2010-2014, we compared %GFT for Canada to Public Health Agency of Canada ILI consultation rates (%PHAC) and to positivity for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinoviruses. %GFT correlated well with %PHAC (ρ = 0·77-0·90) and influenza A positivity (ρ = 0·64-0·96) and overestimated the 2012-2013 %PHAC peak by 0·99 percentage points. %GFT peaks corresponded temporally with peaks in positivity for influenza A and rhinoviruses (all seasons) and RSV and hMPV when their peaks preceded influenza peaks. In Canada, %GFT represented traditional surveillance data and corresponded temporally with patterns in circulating respiratory viruses.

  16. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza hospitalizations in Navarre, Spain, 2010-2011: cohort and case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Salcedo, Esther; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Cenoz, Manuel García; Guevara, Marcela; Alvarez, Nerea; Irisarri, Fátima; Morán, Julio; Barricarte, Aurelio

    2012-01-05

    We evaluated the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations. Using healthcare databases we defined the target population for vaccination in Navarre, Spain, consisting of 217,320 people with major chronic conditions or aged 60 years and older. All hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) were swabbed for influenza testing. A total of 269 patients with ILI were hospitalized and 61 of them were found positive for influenza virus: 58 for A(H1N1)2009 and 3 for B virus. The incidence rates of hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were compared by vaccination status. In the Cox regression model adjusted for sex, age, children in the household, urban/rural residence, comorbidity, pandemic vaccination, pneumococcal vaccination, outpatient visits and hospitalization in the previous year, the seasonal vaccine effectiveness was 58% (95% CI: 16-79%). The nested test-negative case-control analysis gave an adjusted estimate of 59% (95% CI: 4-83%). These results suggest a moderate effect of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing hospitalization in a risk population. The close estimates obtained in the cohort and the test-negative case-control analyses suggest good control of biases.

  17. Novel use of flu surveillance data: Evaluating potential of sentinel populations for early detection of influenza outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina; Turner, Stephen J.

    2016-07-08

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. In conclusion, this study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.

  18. Multiple estimates of transmissibility for the 2009 influenza pandemic based on influenza-like-illness data from small US military populations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Pete; Ben-Nun, Michal; Armenta, Richard; Linker, Jon A; Eick, Angela A; Sanchez, Jose L; George, Dylan; Bacon, David P; Riley, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly characterizing the amplitude and variability in transmissibility of novel human influenza strains as they emerge is a key public health priority. However, comparison of early estimates of the basic reproduction number during the 2009 pandemic were challenging because of inconsistent data sources and methods. Here, we define and analyze influenza-like-illness (ILI) case data from 2009-2010 for the 50 largest spatially distinct US military installations (military population defined by zip code, MPZ). We used publicly available data from non-military sources to show that patterns of ILI incidence in many of these MPZs closely followed the pattern of their enclosing civilian population. After characterizing the broad patterns of incidence (e.g. single-peak, double-peak), we defined a parsimonious SIR-like model with two possible values for intrinsic transmissibility across three epochs. We fitted the parameters of this model to data from all 50 MPZs, finding them to be reasonably well clustered with a median (mean) value of 1.39 (1.57) and standard deviation of 0.41. An increasing temporal trend in transmissibility ([Formula: see text], p-value: 0.013) during the period of our study was robust to the removal of high transmissibility outliers and to the removal of the smaller 20 MPZs. Our results demonstrate the utility of rapidly available - and consistent - data from multiple populations.

  19. Annual report of the National Influenza Surveillance Scheme, 2008.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Marlena; Owen, Rhonda; Barr, Ian G

    2010-03-01

    The 2008 influenza season was moderate overall, with fewer laboratory-confirmed cases and influenza-like illness (ILI) presentations than in 2007, which was the most severe influenza season since national reporting of influenza began in 2001. In 2008, the number of laboratory-confirmed notifications for influenza was 1.9 times higher than the 5-year mean. High notification rates were reflected in an increase in presentations with ILI to sentinel general practices and emergency departments. Notification rates were highest in the 0-4 year age group. Unusually, the season was predominantly due to influenza B, with 54% of notifications being influenza B and 43% being influenza A (3% type unknown). The rate of influenza B was higher among the younger age groups, compared with influenza A, which was more common in the older age groups. Of influenza viruses circulating during the 2008 season, A(H3) viruses were predominant and were antigenically similar to the 2008 A(H3) vaccine strain, while the majority of A(H1) strains showed significant drift away from the 2008 A(H1) vaccine strain. There were approximately equal proportions of viruses from the 2 influenza B lineages B/Yamagata and B/Victoria.

  20. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-09-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia.

  1. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-09-02

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia.

  2. Pattern selection and super-patterns in the bounded confidence model

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Scheel, A.

    2015-10-26

    We study pattern formation in the bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics. In this random process, opinion is quantified by a single variable. Two agents may interact and reach a fair compromise, but only if their difference of opinion falls below a fixed threshold. Starting from a uniform distribution of opinions with compact support, a traveling wave forms and it propagates from the domain boundary into the unstable uniform state. Consequently, the system reaches a steady state with isolated clusters that are separated by distance larger than the interaction range. These clusters form a quasi-periodic pattern where the sizes of the clusters and the separations between them are nearly constant. We obtain analytically the average separation between clusters <i>L>. Interestingly, there are also very small quasi-periodic modulations in the size of the clusters. Furthermore, the spatial periods of these modulations are a series of integers that follow from the continued-fraction representation of the irrational average separation <i>L>.

  3. Use of Hangeul Twitter to Track and Predict Human Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Ki; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Oh, Jang Seok; Lee, Hyong Woo; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Influenza epidemics arise through the accumulation of viral genetic changes. The emergence of new virus strains coincides with a higher level of influenza-like illness (ILI), which is seen as a peak of a normal season. Monitoring the spread of an epidemic influenza in populations is a difficult and important task. Twitter is a free social networking service whose messages can improve the accuracy of forecasting models by providing early warnings of influenza outbreaks. In this study, we have examined the use of information embedded in the Hangeul Twitter stream to detect rapidly evolving public awareness or concern with respect to influenza transmission and developed regression models that can track levels of actual disease activity and predict influenza epidemics in the real world. Our prediction model using a delay mode provides not only a real-time assessment of the current influenza epidemic activity but also a significant improvement in prediction performance at the initial phase of ILI peak when prediction is of most importance. PMID:23894447

  4. The critical roles of platelet activation and reduced NO bioavailability in fatal pulmonary arterial hypertension in a murine hemolysis model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiguo; Jin, Richard; Zhang, Jinyan; You, Tao; Peng, Zhihai; Ge, Xiaowen; Bronson, Roderick T.; Halperin, Jose A.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is suspected to be a strong mortality determinant of hemolytic disorders. However, direct contribution of acute intravascular hemolysis to fatal PAH has not been investigated. The roles of nitric oxide (NO) insufficiency and platelet activation in hemolysis-associated fatal PAH have been suspected but not been experimentally studied. We recently generated a unique intravascular hemolysis mouse model in which the membrane toxin, intermedilysin (ILY), exclusively lyses the erythrocytes of transgenically expressing human CD59 mice (ThCD59RBC), thereby inducing ILY-dose–dependent massive hemolysis. Using this murine hemolysis model, we found that the acute increase in pulmonary arterial pressure leading to right ventricle failure caused sudden death. Reduced NO bioavailability and massive platelet activation/aggregation leading to the formation of massive thrombosis specifically in the pulmonary microvasculature played the critical roles in pathogenesis of acute hemolysis-associated fatal PAH. Therapeutic interventions enhancing NO bioactivity or inhibiting platelet activation prevented sudden death or prolonged survival time via the suppression of the acute increase in pulmonary arterial pressure and improvement of right ventricle function. These findings further highlight the importance of the inhibition of platelet activation and the enhancement of NO bioavailability for the treatment and prevention of hemolysis-associated (fatal) PAH. PMID:20511540

  5. Novel use of flu surveillance data: Evaluating potential of sentinel populations for early detection of influenza outbreaks

    DOE PAGES

    Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; ...

    2016-07-08

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we comparemore » pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. In conclusion, this study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.« less

  6. Influenza surveillance in Shenzhen, the largest migratory metropolitan city of China, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Cheng, X W; Ma, H W; He, J F; Xie, X; Fang, S S; Wu, C L; Lu, X; Mei, S J; Li, Y; Cheng, J Q

    2011-10-01

    Shenzhen is one of the largest migratory metropolitan cities in China. A standardized influenza surveillance system has been operating in Shenzhen for several years. The objectives of the present study were to describe the epidemiology of influenza in Shenzhen and to assess the impact of pandemic H1N1 on influenza activity. An average rate of 71 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI)/1000 consultations was reported, which was greater than the rate in the preceding 3 years. Laboratory surveillance showed that the annual proportion of specimens positive for influenza was 25·4% in 2009, representing a significant increase over the proportions of 5·4%, 11·6% and 12·2% in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. A total of 414 ILI outbreaks were reported in 2009, which was a marked increase compared to the previous 3 years. Influenza activity reached a record high in Shenzhen in 2009. Seasonal A/H3N2 was the dominant strain during the summer and was gradually replaced by pandemic H1N1. A semi-annual cycle for influenza circulation began to appear due to the emergence of pandemic H1N1.

  7. Risk of infection and associated influenza-like disease among abattoir workers due to two Leptospira species.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P < 0·01). The annualized risk of mild (ILI) or severe clinical disease attributable to the two Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted.

  8. Modelling of seasonal influenza and estimation of the burden in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chlif, S; Aissi, W; Bettaieb, J; Kharroubi, G; Nouira, M; Yazidi, R; El Moussi, A; Maazaoui, L; Slim, A; Salah, A Ben

    2016-10-02

    The burden of influenza was estimated from surveillance data in Tunisia using epidemiological parameters of transmission with WHO classical tools and mathematical modelling. The incidence rates of influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) per 100 000 were 18 735 in 2012/2013 season; 5536 in 2013/14 and 12 602 in 2014/15. The estimated proportions of influenza-associated ILI in the total outpatient load were 3.16%; 0.86% and 1.98% in the 3 seasons respectively. Distribution of influenza viruses among positive patients was: A(H3N2) 15.5%; A(H1N1)pdm2009 39.2%; and B virus 45.3% in 2014/2015 season. From the estimated numbers of symptomatic cases, we estimated that the critical proportions of the population that should be vaccinated were 15%, 4% and 10% respectively. Running the model for the different values of R0, we quantified the number of symptomatic clinical cases, the clinical attack rates, the symptomatic clinical attack rates and the number of deaths. More realistic versions of this model and improved estimates of parameters from surveillance data will strengthen the estimation of the burden of influenza.

  9. A Long-Term Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Physical Function: the Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bray, George A.; Hergenroeder, Andrea L.; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial. METHODS Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) middle-aged and older adults (aged 45–76 years at enrollment) with type 2 diabetes (n=964) at four clinics in Look AHEAD, a trial evaluating an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to achieve weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to diabetes support and education (DSE), underwent standardized assessments of performance-based physical function including an expanded short physical performance battery (SPPBexp), 20-m and 400-m walk, and grip and knee extensor strength 8 years post-randomization, during the trial’s weight maintenance phase. RESULTS Eight years post-randomization, individuals randomized to ILI had better SPPBexp scores (adjusted mean (SE) difference: 0.055 (0.022), p=0.01) and faster 20-m and 400-m walk speeds (0.032 (0.012) m/sec, p=0.01, and 0.025 (0.011) m/sec, p=0.02, respectively) compared to those randomized to DSE. Achieved weight loss greatly attenuated the group differences in physical function and the intervention effect was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS An intensive lifestyle intervention has long-term benefits for mobility function in overweight and obese middle-aged and older individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25452229

  10. A survey of emergency department 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) surge preparedness--Atlanta, Georgia, July-October 2009.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, David; Nadeau, Kelly H; Lafond, Kathryn; Cameron, Wendy; Soetebier, Karl; Jhung, Michael; Isakov, Alexander; Greenwald, Ian; Neil, Karen; Schrag, Stephanie; Fry, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    During August through September 2009, a surge in emergency department (ED) visits for 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) illness occurred in Georgia, particularly among children. To understand surge preparedness and capacity, we obtained influenza-like illness (ILI) ED visit data from the Georgia State Electronic Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (SendSS) and conducted a retrospective, Internet-based survey among all 26 metro Atlanta ED managers with reference to the period 1 July-1 October 2009. SendSS detected a marked and progressive increase in mean monthly ILI visits from 1 July-1 October 2009, which more than tripled (from 399 to 2196) for the 2 participating EDs that cared for pediatric patients during this time. ED managers reported patient volume surges, resulting in space and supply limitations, especially at pediatric EDs. Most (92%) of the facilities had current pandemic influenza plans. Pandemic planning can help to ensure preparedness for natural and man-made disasters and for future influenza pandemics.

  11. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.; Leahey, Tricia; Jeffery, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Hill, James O.; Coday, Mace; Espeland, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g. size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicenter study of the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design and Methods Weight losses and adherence (attendance, use of meal replacement products, and minutes of activity) were examined over one year of intervention in 2329 ILI participants in 209 treatment groups, which all received the same weight loss program. Results Weight losses did not cluster among members of a treatment group (intra-class correlation [ICC] of .007), whereas measures of adherence had small/moderate clustering (ICCs of .05–.11). The 209 groups varied in weight losses, with a mean of 8.64 % (SD=2.35 %, interquartile range=6.82%, 10.32%), but neither size nor baseline homogeneity of members affected the outcome. Conclusions Although these findings suggest that it may not be necessary to control for clustering in behavioral weight loss studies, they also indicate that merely treating individuals in groups is not sufficient to harness social influences on weight loss. PMID:23804576

  12. Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying non-responders to an intensive lifestyle intervention

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Jeffery, Robert; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Nelson, Julie A.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Weight losses in lifestyle interventions are variable, yet prediction of long-term success is difficult. Objective We examined the utility of using various weight loss thresholds in the first 2 months of treatment for predicting 1-year outcomes. Design and Methods Participants included 2327 adults with type 2 diabetes (BMI:35.8±6.0) randomized to the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) of the Look AHEAD trial. ILI included weekly behavioral sessions designed to increase physical activity and reduce caloric intake. 1-month, 2-month, and 1-year weight changes were calculated. Results Participants failing to achieve a ≥2% weight loss at Month 1 were 5.6 (95% CI:4.5,7.0) times more likely to also not achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1, compared to those losing ≥2% initially. These odds were increased to 11.6 (95% CI:8.6,15.6) when using a 3% weight loss threshold at Month 2. Only 15.2% and 8.2% of individuals failing to achieve the ≥2% and ≥3% thresholds at Months 1 and 2 respectively, go on to achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1. Conclusions Given the association between initial and 1-year weight loss, the first few months of treatment may be an opportune time to identify those who are unsuccessful and utilize rescue efforts. PMID:24771618

  13. Prevention of Diabetes Through the Lifestyle Intervention: Lessons Learned from the Diabetes Prevention Program and Outcomes Study and its Translation to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hoskin, Mary A.; Bray, George A.; Hattaway, Kathy; Khare-Ranade, Prajakta A.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Semler, Linda N.; Weinzierl, Valarie A.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2014-01-01

    A number of strategies have been used to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in high-risk adults. Among them were diet, exercise, medications and surgery. This report focuses on the nutritional lessons learned from implementation of the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) in the DPP and its follow-up DPPOS that looked at weight loss through modification of diet and exercise. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a large clinical trial, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, designed to look at several strategies to prevent conversion to type 2 diabetes (T2D) by adults with prediabetes (IGT/IFG) including an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI). The ∼3800 ethnically diverse participants (46% reported non-white race) were overweight, had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Treatments were assigned randomly. The Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) is a follow up study evaluating the long-term outcomes of the clinical trial. PMID:25383256

  14. Simple laser-based pipeline corrosion assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, W.A.; Yapp, D.; Barborak, D.M.; Fingerhut, M.P.; Kania, R.

    1997-03-01

    The article focuses on development and use of a simpler laser-based system for accurately and efficiently measuring and assessing corrosion damage on the external surface of an exposed pipeline. The system uses a laser-based range sensor, which relies on optical spray, sensor movement, and the principal of triangulation to construct a three-dimensional measurement. Baseline subtraction, where a polynomial curve-fit is used to approximate the ideal pipe profile above the corroded area, is used. Future profiles are subtracted from the ideal profile, and when differences are significant, corrosion depth measurements are made by constructing normal vectors at points along the ideal profile. The use of such a system for accurately mapping corrosion damage allows more accurate assessments, thereby reducing the number of unnecessary repairs and cut outs, and reduces the risk of non-conservative assessments. The use of this system also results in reduced labor costs associated with mapping corrosion damage and allows the assessment process to be carried out over a much shorter period of time. The system can also be used to develop an accurate correlation between inline inspection (ILI) results and corrosion geometry during the first few excavations following ILI, resulting in the need to excavate fewer areas.

  15. Influenza vaccine effectiveness among healthcare workers in comparison to hospitalized patients: A 2004-2009 case-test, negative-control, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vanhems, P; Baghdadi, Y; Roche, S; Bénet, T; Regis, C; Lina, B; Robert, O; Voirin, N; Ecochard, R; Amour, S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) in healthcare workers (HCW) and to compare VE between patients and HCW. A case-control investigation based on the prospective study was conducted between 2004 and 2009 in a teaching hospital. All HCW with influenza-like illness (ILI) from participating units (n = 24) were included, and vaccination status was characterized by interview. A total of 150 HCW presented ILI; 130 (87%) were female, 27 (18%) were positive for influenza, and 42 (28%) were vaccinated. Adjusted VE was 89% (95% CI 39 to 98). Among patients, adjusted VE was 42% (95% CI −39 to 76). The difference of VE (VEhcw - VEpat) was 46.15% (95% CI 2.41 to 144). The VE ratio (VEhcw / VEpat) was 2.09 (95% CI −1.60 to 134.17). Influenza VE differed between HCW and patients when the flu season was taken into account. This finding confirms the major impact of host determinants on influenza VE. PMID:26327520

  16. Influenza vaccine effectiveness among healthcare workers in comparison to hospitalized patients: A 2004-2009 case-test, negative-control, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vanhems, P; Baghdadi, Y; Roche, S; Bénet, T; Regis, C; Lina, B; Robert, O; Voirin, N; Ecochard, R; Amour, S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) in healthcare workers (HCW) and to compare VE between patients and HCW. A case-control investigation based on the prospective study was conducted between 2004 and 2009 in a teaching hospital. All HCW with influenza-like illness (ILI) from participating units (n = 24) were included, and vaccination status was characterized by interview. A total of 150 HCW presented ILI; 130 (87%) were female, 27 (18%) were positive for influenza, and 42 (28%) were vaccinated. Adjusted VE was 89% (95% CI 39 to 98). Among patients, adjusted VE was 42% (95% CI -39 to 76). The difference of VE (VEhcw - VEpat) was 46.15% (95% CI 2.41 to 144). The VE ratio (VEhcw / VEpat) was 2.09 (95% CI -1.60 to 134.17). Influenza VE differed between HCW and patients when the flu season was taken into account. This finding confirms the major impact of host determinants on influenza VE.

  17. Multiple Estimates of Transmissibility for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic Based on Influenza-like-Illness Data from Small US Military Populations

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Pete; Ben-Nun, Michal; Armenta, Richard; Linker, Jon A.; Eick, Angela A.; Sanchez, Jose L.; George, Dylan; Bacon, David P.; Riley, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly characterizing the amplitude and variability in transmissibility of novel human influenza strains as they emerge is a key public health priority. However, comparison of early estimates of the basic reproduction number during the 2009 pandemic were challenging because of inconsistent data sources and methods. Here, we define and analyze influenza-like-illness (ILI) case data from 2009–2010 for the 50 largest spatially distinct US military installations (military population defined by zip code, MPZ). We used publicly available data from non-military sources to show that patterns of ILI incidence in many of these MPZs closely followed the pattern of their enclosing civilian population. After characterizing the broad patterns of incidence (e.g. single-peak, double-peak), we defined a parsimonious SIR-like model with two possible values for intrinsic transmissibility across three epochs. We fitted the parameters of this model to data from all 50 MPZs, finding them to be reasonably well clustered with a median (mean) value of 1.39 (1.57) and standard deviation of 0.41. An increasing temporal trend in transmissibility (, p-value: 0.013) during the period of our study was robust to the removal of high transmissibility outliers and to the removal of the smaller 20 MPZs. Our results demonstrate the utility of rapidly available – and consistent – data from multiple populations. PMID:23696723

  18. Human Cardiovascular Disease IBC Chip-Wide Association with Weight Loss and Weight Regain in the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Peter, Inga; Erar, Bahar; Kahn, Steven E.; Knowler, William C.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The present study identified genetic predictors of weight change during behavioral weight loss treatment. Methods Participants were 3,899 overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes. Analyses focused on associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip (minor allele frequency >5%; n = 31,959) with weight change at year 1 and year 4, and weight regain at year 4, among individuals who lost ≥ 3% at year 1. Results Two novel regions of significant chip-wide association with year-1 weight loss in ILI were identified (p < 2.96E-06). ABCB11 rs484066 was associated with 1.16 kg higher weight per minor allele at year 1, whereas TNFRSF11A, or RANK, rs17069904 was associated with 1.70 kg lower weight per allele at year 1. Conclusions This study, the largest to date on genetic predictors of weight loss and regain, indicates that SNPs within ABCB11, related to bile salt transfer, and TNFRSF11A, implicated in adipose tissue physiology, predict the magnitude of weight loss during behavioral intervention. These results provide new insights into potential biological mechanisms and may ultimately inform weight loss treatment. PMID:24081232

  19. Human Apolipoprotein A-I Natural Variants: Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Amyloidogenic Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Ramella, Nahuel A.; Schinella, Guillermo R.; Ferreira, Sergio T.; Prieto, Eduardo D.; Vela, María E.; Ríos, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-derived amyloidosis can present with either wild-type (Wt) protein deposits in atherosclerotic plaques or as a hereditary form in which apoA-I variants deposit causing multiple organ failure. More than 15 single amino acid replacement amyloidogenic apoA-I variants have been described, but the molecular mechanisms involved in amyloid-associated pathology remain largely unknown. Here, we have investigated by fluorescence and biochemical approaches the stabilities and propensities to aggregate of two disease-associated apoA-I variants, apoA-IGly26Arg, associated with polyneuropathy and kidney dysfunction, and apoA-ILys107-0, implicated in amyloidosis in severe atherosclerosis. Results showed that both variants share common structural properties including decreased stability compared to Wt apoA-I and a more flexible structure that gives rise to formation of partially folded states. Interestingly, however, distinct features appear to determine their pathogenic mechanisms. ApoA-ILys107-0 has an increased propensity to aggregate at physiological pH and in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment than Wt apoA-I, whereas apoA-IGly26Arg elicited macrophage activation, thus stimulating local chronic inflammation. Our results strongly suggest that some natural mutations in apoA-I variants elicit protein tendency to aggregate, but in addition the specific interaction of different variants with macrophages may contribute to cellular stress and toxicity in hereditary amyloidosis. PMID:22952757

  20. MAB_3551c encodes the primary triacylglycerol synthase involved in lipid accumulation in Mycobacterium abscessus.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Albertus; Blaise, Mickael; de Chastellier, Chantal; Kremer, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Slow growing pathogenic mycobacteria utilize host-derived lipids and accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the form of intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions (ILI), serving as a source of carbon and energy during prolonged infection. Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging and rapidly growing species capable to induce severe and chronic pulmonary infections. However, whether M. abscessus, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, possesses the machinery to acquire and store host lipids, remains unaddressed. Herein, we aimed at deciphering the contribution of the seven putative M. abscessus TAG synthases (Tgs) in TAG synthesis/accumulation thanks to a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques and a well-defined foamy macrophage (FM) model along with electron microscopy. Targeted gene deletion and functional complementation studies identified the MAB_3551c product, Tgs1, as the major Tgs involved in TAG production. Tgs1 exhibits a preference for long acyl-CoA substrates and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that His144 and Gln145 are essential for enzymatic activity. Importantly, in the lipid-rich intracellular context of FM, M. abscessus formed large ILI in a Tgs1-dependent manner. This supports the ability of M. abscessus to assimilate host lipids and the crucial role of Tgs1 in intramycobacterial TAG production, which may represent important mechanisms for long-term storage of a rich energy supply.

  1. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases. PMID:28158192

  2. Chemodiversity of Epicuticular n-Alkanes and Morphological Traits of Natural Populations of Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. along Dinaric Alps - Ecological and Taxonomic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Dodoš, Tanja; Rajčević, Nemanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2017-02-01

    Morphological characters and the composition of epicuticular leaf n-alkanes of two Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. subspecies (subsp. liburnica Šilić and subsp. subspicata) from nine natural populations along Dinaric Alps range were studied. Morphological characters were chosen based on Šilić's subspecies separation. Seventeen n-alkane homologues (C19 - C35 ) were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/flame ionisation detector (FID). The most abundant n-alkane in all populations was n-nonacosane (C29 ), followed by n-hentriacontane (C31 ), with the exception of Divača population where these two alkanes were co-dominant. Diversity and variability of n-alkane patterns and morphological characters and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters, including exposure, were analysed by several statistical multivariate methods (PCA, HCA, Discriminant Analysis, Mantel test). These tests showed clear separation of subsp. liburnica from subsp. subspicata, even though population Velebit showed separation from other subsp. liburnica populations based on phytochemical characters. Mantel test showed high correlation with geographical distribution in both investigated data sets. High correlation between morphological and phytochemical characters was also established. However, exposure can influence n-alkane profile, suggesting precaution while taking samples from natural habitats.

  3. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset.

    PubMed

    Won, Miguel; Marques-Pita, Manuel; Louro, Carlota; Gonçalves-Sá, Joana

    2017-02-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases.

  4. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia. PMID:27586593

  5. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Ashlynn R; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2-8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009-2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.

  6. in silico Surveillance: evaluating outbreak detection with simulation models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Detecting outbreaks is a crucial task for public health officials, yet gaps remain in the systematic evaluation of outbreak detection protocols. The authors’ objectives were to design, implement, and test a flexible methodology for generating detailed synthetic surveillance data that provides realistic geographical and temporal clustering of cases and use to evaluate outbreak detection protocols. Methods A detailed representation of the Boston area was constructed, based on data about individuals, locations, and activity patterns. Influenza-like illness (ILI) transmission was simulated, producing 100 years of in silico ILI data. Six different surveillance systems were designed and developed using gathered cases from the simulated disease data. Performance was measured by inserting test outbreaks into the surveillance streams and analyzing the likelihood and timeliness of detection. Results Detection of outbreaks varied from 21% to 95%. Increased coverage did not linearly improve detection probability for all surveillance systems. Relaxing the decision threshold for signaling outbreaks greatly increased false-positives, improved outbreak detection slightly, and led to earlier outbreak detection. Conclusions Geographical distribution can be more important than coverage level. Detailed simulations of infectious disease transmission can be configured to represent nearly any conceivable scenario. They are a powerful tool for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems and methods used for outbreak detection. PMID:23343523

  7. Estimating the secondary attack rate and serial interval of influenza-like illnesses using social media

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Johansson-Cox, Ingemar; Lampos, Vasileios; Hayward, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Knowledge of the secondary attack rate (SAR) and serial interval (SI) of influenza is important for assessing the severity of seasonal epidemics of the virus. To date, such estimates have required extensive surveys of target populations. Here, we propose a method for estimating the intrafamily SAR and SI from postings on the Twitter social network. This estimate is derived from a large number of people reporting ILI symptoms in them and\\or their immediate family members. Design We analyze data from the 2012–2013 and the 2013–2014 influenza seasons in England and find that increases in the estimated SAR precede increases in ILI rates reported by physicians. Results We hypothesize that observed variations in the peak value of SAR are related to the appearance of specific strains of the virus and demonstrate this by comparing the changes in SAR values over time in relation to known virology. In addition, we estimate SI (the average time between cases) as 2·41 days for 2012 and 2·48 days for 2013. Conclusions The proposed method can assist health authorities by providing near-real-time estimation of SAR and SI, and especially in alerting to sudden increases thereof. PMID:25962320

  8. The effect of the suppressed levels of uninvolved immunoglobulins on the prognosis of symptomatic multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Sarı, Murat; Sarı, Selma; Nalcacı, Meliha

    2016-10-31

    Amaç: MM tanılı hastaların büyük çoğunluğunda serum ve/veya idrarda yüksek seviyelerde saptanan monoklonal immünglobulinler mevcut iken hastalıkla ilişkili olmayan Ig düzeylerinde ise baskılanma mevcuttur [1]. MM’de bu fenomenin prognostik önemi yeteri kadar değerlendirilmemiştir. Biz bu çalışmada, nefelometrik ölçümler ile belirlenmiş hastalıkla ilişkili olmayan immünglobulin düzeylerindeki baskılanmanın yeni tanı semptomatik MM hastalarında prognoz ve hastalığın diğer özellikleri ile ilişkisini incelemeyi amaçladık. Gereç ve Yöntem: Ağustos 2003 ve Şubat 2015 tarihleri arasında İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi İç Hastalıkları ABD Hematoloji Bilim Dalı polikliniğine yeni semptomatik miyelom tanısı ile başvuran 137 hasta retrospektif olarak çalışmaya alınmıştır. Bu hastaların hepsinde tedavi öncesi nefelometrik yöntemler ile bakılmış immünglobulin düzeyleri mevcuttu. Bulgular: Hastaların %87’sinde hastalıkla ilişkili olmayan Ig düzeylerinden en az birinde baskılanma mevcuttu ve IgA miyelom tanılı hastalarda istatistiki olarak anlamlı olduğu saptanamasa da bu durum daha sık görüldü. Kemik iliği plazma hücre infiltrasyonu ≥ % 40 bulunan, anemi ve hiperkalsemi ile başvuran hastalarda hastalıkla ilişkili olmayan Ig düzeylerinde baskılanma daha sık görüldü (p<0.05). CRAB kriterleri pozitif olan ve ISS evre 3 hastalığı olan hastaların diğerlerine göre genel sağkalımı daha kısa idi (p<0.05). Çoklu değişkenli analizler sonucunda; e-GFR <60 mL/dk, yaş > 65, LDH >300 IU/L, kemik iliği plazma hücre infiltrasyon oranı ≥ %40 ve β2-mikroglobulin>3.5 mg/dL gibi faktörlerin sağkalım açısından olumsuz birer faktörler olduğu ortaya çıktı (p<0.05). Sonuç: Bu çalışmada hastaların %13,1’inde Ig düzeylerinin korunmuş olduğu görüldü. Ig düzeyi korunmuş hastaların daha iyi tedaviye yanıt oranlarına ve daha iyi patolojik bulgulara sahip olduğu g

  9. Quantum Structure of Field Theory and Standard Model Based on Infinity-Free Loop Regularization/renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2014-04-01

    To understand better the quantum structure of field theory and standard model in particle physics, it is necessary to investigate carefully the divergence structure in quantum field theories (QFTs) and work out a consistent framework to avoid infinities. The divergence has got us into trouble since developing quantum electrodynamics in 1930s. Its treatment via the renormalization scheme is satisfied not by all physicists, like Dirac and Feynman who have made serious criticisms. The renormalization group analysis reveals that QFTs can in general be defined fundamentally with the meaningful energy scale that has some physical significance, which motivates us to develop a new symmetry-preserving and infinity-free regularization scheme called loop regularization (LORE). A simple regularization prescription in LORE is realized based on a manifest postulation that a loop divergence with a power counting dimension larger than or equal to the space-time dimension must vanish. The LORE method is achieved without modifying original theory and leads the divergent Feynman loop integrals well-defined to maintain the divergence structure and meanwhile preserve basic symmetries of original theory. The crucial point in LORE is the presence of two intrinsic energy scales which play the roles of ultraviolet cutoff Mc and infrared cutoff μs to avoid infinities. As Mc can be made finite when taking appropriately both the primary regulator mass and number to be infinity to recover the original integrals, the two energy scales Mc and μs in LORE become physically meaningful as the characteristic energy scale and sliding energy scale, respectively. The key concept in LORE is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) on which the regularization prescription acts, which leads to a set of gauge invariance consistency conditions between the regularized tensor-type and scalar-type ILIs. An interesting observation in LORE is that the evaluation of ILIs with ultraviolet

  10. Quantum Structure of Field Theory and Standard Model Based on Infinity-Free Loop Regularization/renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2014-02-01

    To understand better the quantum structure of field theory and standard model in particle physics, it is necessary to investigate carefully the divergence structure in quantum field theories (QFTs) and work out a consistent framework to avoid infinities. The divergence has got us into trouble since developing quantum electrodynamics in 1930s. Its treatment via the renormalization scheme is satisfied not by all physicists, like Dirac and Feynman who have made serious criticisms. The renormalization group analysis reveals that QFTs can in general be defined fundamentally with the meaningful energy scale that has some physical significance, which motivates us to develop a new symmetry-preserving and infinity-free regularization scheme called loop regularization (LORE). A simple regularization prescription in LORE is realized based on a manifest postulation that a loop divergence with a power counting dimension larger than or equal to the space-time dimension must vanish. The LORE method is achieved without modifying original theory and leads the divergent Feynman loop integrals well-defined to maintain the divergence structure and meanwhile preserve basic symmetries of original theory. The crucial point in LORE is the presence of two intrinsic energy scales which play the roles of ultraviolet cutoff Mc and infrared cutoff μs to avoid infinities. As Mc can be made finite when taking appropriately both the primary regulator mass and number to be infinity to recover the original integrals, the two energy scales Mc and μs in LORE become physically meaningful as the characteristic energy scale and sliding energy scale, respectively. The key concept in LORE is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) on which the regularization prescription acts, which leads to a set of gauge invariance consistency conditions between the regularized tensor-type and scalar-type ILIs. An interesting observation in LORE is that the evaluation of ILIs with ultraviolet

  11. Vitamin D3 Supplementation and Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Judy R.; Hendricks, Kristy; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Peacock, Janet L.; Mott, Leila A.; Sandler, Robert S.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M.; Baron, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Randomized controlled trials testing the association between vitamin D status and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) have given mixed results. During a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of colorectal adenoma chemoprevention, we tested whether 1000 IU/day vitamin D3 supplementation reduced winter episodes and duration of URTI and its composite syndromes, influenza-like illness (ILI; fever and ≥2 of sore throat, cough, muscle ache, or headache) and colds (no fever, and ≥2 of runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, cough, swollen or tender neck glands). Methods. The 2259 trial participants were aged 45–75, in good health, had a history of colorectal adenoma, and had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ≥12 ng/mL. They were randomized to vitamin D3 (1000 IU/day), calcium (1200 mg/day), both, or placebo. Of these, 759 participants completed daily symptom diaries. Secondary data included semiannual surveys of all participants. Results. Among those who completed symptom diaries, supplementation did not significantly reduce winter episodes of URTI (rate ratio [RR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], .79–1.09) including colds (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, .78–1.10) or ILI (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, .62–1.46), nor did it reduce winter days of illness (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, .90–1.43). There was no significant benefit according to adherence, influenza vaccination, body mass index, or baseline vitamin D status. Semiannual surveys of all participants (N = 2228) identified no benefit of supplementation on ILI (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% CI, .84–1.54) or colds (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, .87–1.23). Conclusions. Supplementation with 1000 IU/day vitamin D3 did not significantly reduce the incidence or duration of URTI in adults with a baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level ≥12 ng/mL. PMID:24014734

  12. The Efficacy of Fast ForWord-Language Intervention in School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Bohman, Thomas; Champlin, Craig A.; Thibodeau, Linda; Widen, Judith; Brandel, Jayne; Friel-Patti, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to compare the language and auditory processing outcomes of children assigned to Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L) to the outcomes of children assigned to nonspecific or specific language intervention comparison treatments that did not contain modified speech. Method Two hundred and sixteen children between the ages of 6 and 9 years with language impairments were randomly assigned to one of four arms: Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L), academic enrichment (AE), computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), or individualized language intervention (ILI) provided by a speech-language pathologist. All children received 1 hour and 40 minutes of treatment, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks. Language and auditory processing measures were administered to the children by blinded examiners before treatment, immediately after treatment, 3 months after treatment, and 6 months after treatment. Results The children in all four arms improved significantly on a global language test and a test of backward masking. Children with poor backward masking scores who were randomized to the FFW-L arm did not present greater improvement on the language measures than children with poor backward masking scores who were randomized to the other three arms. Effect sizes, analyses of standard error of measurement, and normalization percentages supported the clinical significance of the improvements on the CASL. There was a treatment effect for the Blending Words subtest on the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999). Participants in the FFW-L and CALI arms earned higher phonological awareness scores than children in the ILI and AE arms at the six-month follow-up testing. Conclusion Fast ForWord-Language, the language intervention that provided modified speech to address a hypothesized underlying auditory processing deficit, was not more effective at improving general language skills or temporal processing

  13. Binge eating and weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Amy A.; Niemeier, Heather M.; Hogan, Patricia; Coday, Mace; Davis, Cralen; DiLillo, Vicki G.; Gluck, Marci E.; Wadden, Thomas A.; West, Delia S.; Williamson, Donald; Yanovski, Susan Z.

    2009-01-01

    Context Binge eating (BE) is common in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes yet little is known about how BE affects weight loss in this population. Objective To determine whether BE was related to 1-year weight losses in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in an ongoing clinical trial. Design and Setting Look AHEAD is a randomized controlled trial examining the long-term effect of intentional weight loss on CVD in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants Overweight and obese individuals, 45–76 years old, with type 2 diabetes (n=5145). Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or to enhanced usual care (DSE). Main outcome measures At baseline and 1-year, participants had their weight measured and completed a fitness test and self-report measures of BE and dietary intake. Four groups were created based on BE status at baseline and 1-year (Yes/Yes, No/No, Yes/No, No/Yes). Analyses controlled for baseline differences between binge eaters and non-binge eaters. Results Most individuals (85.4%) did not report BE at baseline or 1-year, 7.5% reported BE only at baseline, 3.7% reported BE at both times, and 3.4% reported BE only at 1-year, with no differences between ILI and DSE conditions (p=.14). Across ILI and DSE, greater weight losses were observed in participants who stopped BE at 1-year (5.3±.4 kg) and in those who reported no BE at either time point (4.8±.1 kg) than in those who continued to BE (3.1±.6 kg) and those who began BE at 1-year (3.0±.6 kg) (p=.0003). Post hoc analyses suggested these differences were due to changes in caloric intake. Conclusions Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes who stop binge eating appear just as successful at weight loss as non-binge eaters after one year of treatment. PMID:19047532

  14. Limiting Severe Outcomes and Impact on Intensive Care Units of Moderate-Intermediate 2009 Pandemic Influenza: Role of Infectious Diseases Units

    PubMed Central

    Carbonara, Sergio; Bruno, Giuseppe; Ciaula, Giuseppe Di; Pantaleo, Anna Donata; Angarano, Gioacchino; Monno, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The rate of severe outcomes of patients with 2009 pandemic (A/H1N1) influenza (2009pI) hospitalized in non-intensive care units (ICUs) has not been defined thus far. This study aims to assess the efficacy of the management of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) of moderate intermediate severity in an infectious diseases unit (IDU) during the first wave of 2009pI and its influence on the burden of ICUs. Methods All patients hospitalized from October 27, 2009, to February 5, 2010, with ILI were included in this prospective observational study. The IDU was organized and the staff was trained to provide intermediate care; patients were transferred to the ICU only if they required invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or advanced cardiovascular support. Demographic data, clinical presentation, coexisting medical conditions, and laboratory and radiological findings were recorded and analyzed, as well as treatment and outcome data. Results Overall, 108 patients (median age 36 years [IQR 27–54], 57.4% males) including 66.7% with ≥1 risk factor for severe influenza, 47.2% with confirmed 2009pI by RT-PCR and 63.9% with pneumonia, were enrolled in the study. All subjects received intravenous fluids and 83.3% were administered oseltamivir, 96.3% antibacterials, 19.4% oxygen therapy without ventilatory support, and 10.2% non-invasive ventilation. A total of 106 (98.1%) subjects were discharged after a 6-day median hospital stay [IQR 4–9]. Two patients (1.9%) were transferred to the ICU. There were no deaths. Conclusions These results suggest that the aggressive treatment of patients with moderate intermediate severity 2009 pandemic ILI in non-ICU wards may result in a low rate of severe outcomes and brief hospitalization. IDUs, if properly organized for intermediate care, may efficiently provide correct disease management, in addition to complying with infection control requirements, thus reducing the burden of the pandemic on ICUs

  15. Paid sick days and stay-at-home behavior for influenza

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Kaitlin; Youk, Ada; James, A. Everette

    2017-01-01

    Access to paid sick days (PSD) differs by workplace size, race/ethnicity, gender, and income in the United States. It is not known to what extent decisions to stay home from work when sick with infectious illnesses such as influenza depend on PSD access, and whether access impacts certain demographic groups more than others. We examined demographic and workplace characteristics (including access to PSD) associated with employees’ decisions to stay home from work for their own or a child’s illness. Linking the 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) consolidated data file to the medical conditions file, we used multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates to identify factors associated with missed work for an employee’s own or a child’s illness/injury, influenza-like-illness (ILI), and influenza. Controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income, access to PSD was associated with a higher probability of staying home for an employee’s own illness/injury, ILI, or influenza, and for a child’s illness/injury. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with a lower prevalence of staying home for the employee’s own or a child’s illness compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Access to PSD was associated with a significantly greater increase in the probability of staying home among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic Whites. Women had a significantly higher probability of staying home for their child’s illness compared to men, suggesting that women remain the primary caregivers for ill children. Our results indicate that PSD access is important to encourage employees to stay home from work when sick with ILI or influenza. Also, PSD access may be important to enable stay-at-home behavior among Hispanics. We conclude that access to PSD is likely to reduce the spread of disease in workplaces by increasing the rate at which sick employees stay home from work, and reduce the economic burden of staying home on minorities, women, and

  16. Agent Based Modeling of “Crowdinforming” as a Means of Load Balancing at Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, Ryan; Oppenheimer, Luis; Mukhi, Shamir N.; Friesen, Marcia R.; McLeod, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This work extends ongoing development of a framework for modeling the spread of contact-transmission infectious diseases. The framework is built upon Agent Based Modeling (ABM), with emphasis on urban scale modelling integrated with institutional models of hospital emergency departments. The method presented here includes ABM modeling an outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) with concomitant surges at hospital emergency departments, and illustrates the preliminary modeling of ‘crowdinforming’ as an intervention. ‘Crowdinforming’, a component of ‘crowdsourcing’, is characterized as the dissemination of collected and processed information back to the ‘crowd’ via public access. The objective of the simulation is to allow for effective policy evaluation to better inform the public of expected wait times as part of their decision making process in attending an emergency department or clinic. In effect, this is a means of providing additional decision support garnered from a simulation, prior to real world implementation. The conjecture is that more optimal service delivery can be achieved under balanced patient loads, compared to situations where some emergency departments are overextended while others are underutilized. Load balancing optimization is a common notion in many operations, and the simulation illustrates that ‘crowdinforming’ is a potential tool when used as a process control parameter to balance the load at emergency departments as well as serving as an effective means to direct patients during an ILI outbreak with temporary clinics deployed. The information provided in the ‘crowdinforming’ model is readily available in a local context, although it requires thoughtful consideration in its interpretation. The extension to a wider dissemination of information via a web service is readily achievable and presents no technical obstacles, although political obstacles may be present. The ‘crowdinforming’ simulation is not limited to

  17. Using sentinel surveillance system to monitor seasonal and novel H1N1 influenza infection in Houston, Texas: outcome analysis of 2008-2009 flu season.

    PubMed

    Khuwaja, Salma; Mgbere, Osaro; Awosika-Olumo, Adebowale; Momin, Fayaz; Ngo, Katherine

    2011-10-01

    The advent of the novel H1N1 virus prompted the Houston Department of Health and Human services (HDHHS) to use the existing sentinel surveillance system to effectively monitor the situation of novel H1N1 virus in the Houston metropolitan area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics and common symptoms associated with confirmed cases of seasonal influenza and Novel H1N1 virus reported to HDHHS between October 2008 and October 2009. A total of 30 providers were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling technique to participate in a sentinel surveillance system. The system was used to effectively monitor both seasonal and novel H1N1 virus in the Houston metropolitan area. These providers collected and submitted specimens for testing at HDHHS laboratory from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms who visited their clinics during the period, October 2008 and October 2009. These data formed the basis of the current study. Data obtained were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses using SAS software version 9.1.3. Overall a total of 1,122 ILI cases were reported to HDHHS by sentinel providers and tested by HDHHS laboratory. Of this number 296 (67.5%) specimens tested positive for influenza A; 140 (32.0%) for influenza B, and 2 (0.46%) for influenza A/B. Two hundred and fifty-nine (59%) were confirmed cases of seasonal influenza and 179 (41%) were novel H1N1 subtype, respectively. The median ages for seasonal influenza and novel H1N1 virus were 7 and 8 years, with majority of the cases reported among children of age 5-9 years. Fever was the most common symptom reported among patients with seasonal flu and novel H1N1 virus, followed by cough. Twenty-three percent (23%) of patients who were vaccinated against seasonal flu prior to the epidemic were infected with seasonal flu virus. The sentinel surveillance system provided timely data on the circulating ILI that

  18. Viral etiology and seasonality of influenza-like illness in Gabon, March 2010 to June 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Central Africa began only recently, and few data are therefore available on the circulation of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. In Gabon, a Central African country, we established a surveillance network in four major towns in order to analyze cases of ILI among patients who visited health centers between March 2010 and June 2011, and to determine the viral etiology. Methods Nasal swabs were sent for analysis to the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, where they were screened for 17 respiratory viruses in a multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for all pathogens according the following pairs: adenovirus/parainfluenza virus 4, respiratory syncytial virus/human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 1/parainfluenza virus 2, pandemic influenza virus A/seasonal influenza virus A (H1N1, H3N2)/seasonal influenza virus B, human coronaviruses 229E/OC43, human coronaviruses NL63/HKU1, rhinovirus/human parechovirus, and enterovirus/parainfluenza virus 3. Results We analyzed a total of 1041 specimens, of which 639 (61%) were positive for at least one virus. Three-quarters of the patients were children under five years old. We therefore focused on this age group, in which 68.1% of patients were positive for at least one virus. The most common viruses were adenoviruses (17.5%), followed by parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) 1–4 (16.8%), enteroviruses (EV) (14.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (13.5%), and influenza virus (11.9%). The prevalence of some viruses was subject to geographic and seasonal variations. One-third of positive samples contained more than one virus. Conclusions Like most studies in the world, the virus PIVs, EV, RSV, Influenza virus, HRV were predominant among children under five years old in Gabon. An exception is made for adenoviruses which have a high prevalence in our study. However adenoviruses can be detected in asymptomatic

  19. Effects of spaceflight on cells of bone marrow origin.

    PubMed

    Ozçivici, Engin

    2013-03-01

    Uzay istasyonları, Ay ve uzak gezegenlerde insan yaşantısının sürdürülmesi her ne kadar bilim kurgu romanlarının öğesi olsa da, bugün uzay ajanslarının kısa vadeli hedefleri arasında yer göstermeye başlamıştır. Bu bilimsel derleme, insanoğlunun uzun süreli uzay uçuşları sırasında karşılaştığı biyomedikal problemleri sunma hedefiyle yazılmıştır. Özellikle kemik iliği kökenli kemik, kan ve bağışıklık hücrelerine yoğunlaşılan derlemede bu hücrelerin ağırlıksız ortamda yaşadığı sayısal ve fonksiyonel değişiklikler sunulmuştur. Mekanik kuvvet yoksunluğunun sadece özelleşmiş hücrelerde değil aynı zamanda kemik iliği içinde varolan öncül kök hücrelere olan etkisi de derlemeye eklenmiştir. Özetle, uzay uçuşları kemik iliğinde bulunan bütün hücrelerin düzenini bozduğu için, uzun süreli uçuşlarının sağlıklı gerçekleşme potansiyelinin ağırlıksız ortamın yarattığı ters etkileri ortadan kaldırabilecek yenilikçi biyomedikal çözümler ve uzay teknolojilerine bağımlı olacağı öngörülmüştür.

  20. Clinical severity of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Feng, Luzhao; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Liao, Qiaohong; Tsang, Tim K.; Peng, Zhibin; Wu, Peng; Liu, Fengfeng; Fang, Vicky J.; Zhang, Honglong; Li, Ming; Zeng, Lingjia; Xu, Zhen; Li, Zhongjie; Luo, Huiming; Li, Qun; Feng, Zijian; Cao, Bin; Yang, Weizhong; Wu, Joseph T.; Wang, Yu; Leung, Gabriel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Characterizing the severity profile of human infections with influenza viruses of animal origin is a part of pandemic risk assessment, and an important part of the assessment of disease epidemiology. Our objective was to assess the clinical severity of human infections with the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus that has recently emerged in China. Methods Among laboratory-confirmed cases of A(H7N9) who were hospitalised, we estimated the risk of fatality, mechanical ventilation, and admission to the intensive care unit based on censored data during the currently ongoing outbreak. We also used information on laboratory-confirmed cases detected through sentinel influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance to estimate the number of symptomatic A(H7N9) virus infections to date and the symptomatic case fatality risk. Findings Among 123 hospitalised cases, 37 cases had died and 69 had recovered by May 28, 2013. Hospitalised cases had high risks of mortality (36%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 26%–45%), mechanical ventilation or mortality (69%; 95% CI: 60%–77%), and ICU admission or mechanical ventilation or mortality (83%; 95% CI: 76%–90%), and the risk of these severe outcomes increased with age. Depending on assumptions about the coverage of the sentinel ILI network and health-care seeking behavior for cases of ILI associated with A(H7N9) virus infection, we estimated that the symptomatic case fatality risk could be between 160 and 2,800 per 100,000 symptomatic cases. Interpretation We estimated that the severity of A(H7N9) is somewhat lower than A(H5N1) but higher than seasonal influenza viruses and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The estimated risks of fatality among hospitalised cases and symptomatic cases are measures of severity that should not be affected by shifts over time in the probability of laboratory-confirmation of mild cases and should inform risk assessment. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, China; Research Fund for the Control of

  1. A Terrestrial Ecosystem Full Verified Carbon Accounting for Russian Land: Results and Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Maksyutov, S.

    2010-12-01

    We present a terrestrial full carbon account (FCA) for Russian land in a spatially explicit form for 2009 and aggregated country-wide annual estimates for 2004-2008. The integrated methodology of the FCA takes into account the fuzzy character of the studied systems. IIASA’s landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) is used for designing the account boundaries and assessment of major pools and fluxes. An Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) serves as the information background of the FCA. The ILIS is based on a system integration of all available ground data and multi-sensor remote sensing applications. The ILIS includes a georeferenced hybrid land cover (~500 land classes, resolution 1 x 1 km), corresponding attributive datasets and sets of empirical and semi-empirical ecosystem and landscape models. The latter are based on long-period measurements of ecological parameters with corrections - if necessary - due to weather specifics of individual growth seasons. On average, terrestrial ecosystems of Russia served as a sink of roughly 0.6 Pg C yr-1 during the last five years which exceeds the technosphere’s emissions of the country by about one third. Two major fluxes (net primary production and heterotrophic respiration) for all productive lands of the country are estimated at 323 and 204 g C yr-1 m-2, respectively. Disturbance and consumption of plant products comprise from 15 to 20% of the net primary production. Forests serve as a major component of the sink (~85% of the country’s total). Disturbed forests and peatlands, as well as cultivated agricultural lands, are a relatively small carbon source. The interannual variability of the net ecosystem carbon balance are mostly driven by climatic conditions and natural disturbance (fire, insects) of the growth periods and is in limits of 10-15% for the country as a whole, but could exceed 25-30% for large regions with weather anomalies of the vegetation periods. Uncertainty within the LEA was assessed for all

  2. Little evidence of avian or equine influenza virus infection among a cohort of Mongolian adults with animal exposures, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia's migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were <1∶80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective study

  3. Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code LOWTRAN 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-28

    far a downward looking path (J12< I1l) when two paths are possible for the samte input parameters. In such a ecase, a comtputer prinitout , state ...ertical Paths to Space and the 1962 11.S. Standard Atmosphere 30 MOth i 1)0 w 0 Al. 40 1 - ~4! 4 .’- 00, .1 ) ,0U C .U • . 0.0 ,-4 0.0 wU0l) .4 .(U.U 1...tadiatice codle tieset ibt’t abovec, tilt’ :gigr’ it’etttt bt’ wett tt’aii’’ittt .tt~ii tadiiattet’ kcaiilatt~otis sitowit ill i nir~tt’s’ ILI ttt’otlýIl

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF NONLINEAR HARMONIC SENSORS FOR DETECTION OF MECHANICAL DAMAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred E. Crouch; Alan Dean; Carl Torres; Jeff Aron

    2004-03-01

    In a joint effort with Tuboscope Pipeline Services of Houston, Texas, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) adapted its nonlinear harmonic (NLH) sensing technology for use on a new in-line inspection system (smart pig). Nonlinear harmonics, an AC magnetic method for detecting local anomalies of stress and plastic deformation, shows promise of improved characterization of mechanical damage defects such as gouged dents, even though the dents may have re-rounded. The SwRI-Tuboscope project produced a sensor design, electronic design, and sensor suspension design that are directly adaptable to a multitechnology ILI system. This report describes the NLH method, the sensor, circuit, and suspension designs, and shows results from the supporting laboratory work.

  5. Physics of High-Altitude Nuclear Burst Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    W., The Representation, Estimation and Design of Radar Signals, General Research Corp., TM -69 AD 822609L May, 1967. 1-17. Berkowitz, R. S. (ed...lerix l l e? ’.twevl Cle~tIVIiij 1! :111ut p l Ili .11)d it I S J)IOJj󈧅t ioII;I lo~ ~ ~ IIito.ciili yll~ tm dcnote, thle %ibrotional pu 1,t o01 tll...y( :IL’s’:o tao tm "::,,-l.,r\\ ," I "’ Oit tt -- S --Of6. I i l*.’l-Y is s.,2cial i zed to the case of motion alonig a streami1 ine The grA ert

  6. GnRH antagonists: a new generation of long acting analogues incorporating p-ureido-phenylalanines at positions 5 and 6.

    PubMed

    Jiang, G; Stalewski, J; Galyean, R; Dykert, J; Schteingart, C; Broqua, P; Aebi, A; Aubert, M L; Semple, G; Robson, P; Akinsanya, K; Haigh, R; Riviere, P; Trojnar, J; Junien, J L; Rivier, J E

    2001-02-01

    A series of antagonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) of the general formula Ac-D2Nal-D4Cpa-D3Pal-Ser-4Aph/4Amf(P)-D4Aph/D4Amf(Q)-Leu-ILys-Pro-DAla-NH2 was synthesized, characterized, and screened for duration of inhibition of luteinizing hormone release in a castrated male rat assay. Selected analogues were tested in a reporter gene assay (IC50 and pA2) and an in vitro histamine release assay. P and Q contain urea/carbamoyl functionalities designed to increase potential intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding opportunities for structural stabilization and peptide/receptor interactions, respectively. These substitutions resulted in analogues with increased hydrophilicity and a lesser propensity to form gels in aqueous solution than azaline B [Ac-D2Nal-D4Cpa-D3Pal-Ser-4Aph(Atz)-D4Aph(Atz)-Leu-ILys-Pro-DAla-NH2 with Atz = 3'-amino-1H-1',2',4'-triazol-5'-yl, 5], and in some cases they resulted in a significant increase in duration of action after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration. Ac-D2Nal-D4Cpa-D3Pal-Ser-4Aph(L-hydroorotyl)-D4Aph(carbamoyl)-Leu-ILys-Pro-DAla-NH2 (acetate salt is FE200486) (31) and eight other congeners (20, 35, 37, 39, 41, 45-47) were identified that exhibited significantly longer duration of action than acyline [Ac-D2Nal-D4Cpa-D3Pal-Ser-4Aph(Ac)-D4Aph(Ac)-Leu-ILys-Pro-DAla-NH2] (6) when administered subcutaneously in castrated male rats at a dose of 50 microg in 100 microL of phosphate buffer. No correlation was found between retention times on a C18 reverse phase column using a triethylammonium phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 (a measure of hydrophilicity) or affinity in an in vitro human GnRH report gene assay (pA2) and duration of action. FE200486 was selected for preclinical studies, and some of its properties were compared to those of other clinical candidates. In the intact rat, ganirelix, abarelix, azaline B, and FE200486 inhibited plasma testosterone for 1, 1, 14, and 57 days, respectively, at 2 mg/kg s.c. in 5% mannitol (injection

  7. Water Resources Development in Louisiana 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    34:cciliitnu M ’iii’ aMLlax loi -lcItIlldIti (11 it il~cx Ill tHeCA lIke ci raic hiCenl:T Ilie \\lixxIIxxppi ( )limchital Rixcf,. Ill peit’ xcontinlued klii,, axA...nhaIriccmcn1tiot thc cnx, rornntI. I h1C NIudCJ\\ ad ohtaiticd permits loi imricnicrmir miipto\\cinctilt nitiated Ii 19𔄃 1 ic Bocul Rioxcr anid I rihulta[ICI...viiiir i Slit! - , tauc ’ tin (atne Riter, the gates muI~st be elosed it) IitI[ict \\uithti. pret ciii back\\w ;i Iltmdfitig: eon-ttsequetlv, f’lttofriinde

  8. Damage Prediction of Projectile Penetration Process Based on Energy Dissipation Rate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    terms of at least a length parameter, say Z in Figure 1(a), that describes the degree of uniformity or homo - geneity of the stress or energy state...but those acting on the plane with the same . , dV/dA value as that in the uniaxial test. In view of equations (5) and (6), homo - geneity of the...i k C~~~~~a zL C -na-u 50 2 C CC 3 i c a s’ CUC~~~- LCI"i -~i. C u -- - C C2 C- C - u-c. a 5ULcta C Cuv -COI-a WEt 1 . EcC i-li ’ t o- C j 2 wC o4 icXl

  9. Propagation of Sound through the Atmosphere: Effects of Ground Cover II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-30

    0tM 46J 0 0 .0 to o 0 N NN 4~ - W . ~ *- 0t rd V 0 ’-4 :3u 4a ’Aj Q) ILI 0 -4 U UlOci v Cdq ’-44 _•~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ .• . .• •r...the experimental impedance values. All impedances are normalized by poc (whether 24 Fore~ j r l.iI VALY 1C w~e i IotI ref I r aigain Lo -i gu ro 4 whicI...100 16 195 - 24 2bl. 228 200 12 258 -17 326 292 400 6 181 - 3 606 394 800 6 3b2 -1I 718 520 avg 39 models must be deduced from measurements of surface

  10. Adaptive Correlation Concepts for Non-Compatible Imagery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-31

    5.4 Ohio Files 26 and 27 Image Segments . . . . 34 5.5 HSV Files 9 and 10 Image Segments ..... . 35 5.6 Scene 1 , Vertical Profiles Through Peak...Simulation Options Summary .e m "lch c .i a ir t.e j-r.-ct cross c t.e"P- lat absclut - differcr.ce a!a .u iy-i.cidd dif’err.c; - metrics. e 1 T0 1ff ct of...cdlf o spectral bands, di~ffe,-,-rurt tie f loy. "Ind d:;7o T hes’,-e -simu lat i onso ae 1 - s o2( 1 r 1 b- in th I s-,sI 31. / / s. ILI Z1.I I SO .& i

  11. Second-Order Belief Attribution in Williams Syndrome: Intact or Impaired?

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kate; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Second-order mental state attribution in a group of children with Williams syndrome was investigated. The children were compared to age, IQ, and language-matched groups of children with Prader-Willi syndrome or nonspecific mental retardation. Participants were given two trials of a second-order reasoning task. No significant differences between the Williams syndrome and Prader-WiIli or mentally retarded groups on any of the test questions were found. Results contrast with the view that individuals with Williams syndrome have an intact theory of mind and suggest that in their attributions of second-order mental states, children with Williams syndrome perform no better than do other groups of children with mental retardation. PMID:10587733

  12. Communist China’s Progress in Inorganic, Organic, and Physical Chemistry in Recent Decade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-03-16

    Ethylenc- butane and butane - butene gaz mixtures are ob- tained by cracking ethane on nickel catalyst, dehydrogerdzation on chromium oxidd-aliinum oxide ...kuA4.ý m tM P, t voci "oer. 1j t I n t tro*4 ic I~- a) -Padv. The -major re- 4--C!!- Fe T d-4 -20 1 2 2. The ili ~ -io f Products fror ’,);3 𔃻reatynent...normal pressureUZnCj-0r;? 3-.4iO2 (2) Ni-C - Ali high pressure_ (3) N -itmcosearthi, high pressure (2) F7 § S-) ~2~ -4c Cl C1 ( 1 ) Go-catalyst, high

  13. Peacetime Replacement and Crash Damage Factors for Army Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    3 .- ~4 -- 4-PI - % c - CI -C 0 m 1 12 l i1 f- Ci Vs I % 4 44 V4c - C) ) *. 40 w, - %D 4m...0c caI cnz wt OZm U) *50 LL4 U1. co* Cq I If LLi t4 .4 .C4 Ul Ul . 44 M- ci coJ v! CflU! m) 0 rs ca a.a Lt w t.t. -1 LI10 LL 0.~ .4q 0q- 3 C4 cLaL (1 P...14 IL . 4C4 .| aJIL ’-4 C0 C Iu IJ I I - -N c z:~ C, C9 t~~ 4 .. . 6"" w1 ILI 00 - ED c~Lc. WA.o. 0% 0 . 3 P - Up t NQ4 0 1. MiN 44 :

  14. Encouraging a Culture of Outreach in Astronomy Clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, J.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G.; Gurton, S.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; Frank, K.; Jones, E.; Yocco, V.; John, M. S.; Castori, P.

    2014-07-01

    Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable, experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multi-year NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance astronomy education and outreach. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs' abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. This paper shares initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describes ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

  15. Analysis of M16A1 Basic Rifle Marksmanship Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    6 a 16 = e 4IN .4 4. o 4F ~a a z 03 a -~ 4 - A a. of toS. ba4 Cc a4 0 df4 41a 44 1.44. 4 - bILI a fa 0 ol10.0 9L 0 1 0. I.. 1 0 or’ 10...practiced, I ’ " "| ; " " 6-4i eDn C) 24 -o 41 4- v4 0 -4- -- 41 0.l H 0 CI0 0CA 0u 6f%-4..4 .4 * * . v| tt~ t *X, the t I il-les f~ 351 tou’nds (in

  16. Evaluating Syndromic surveillance systems at institutions of higher education (IHEs): A retrospective analysis of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic at two universities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance has been widely adopted as a real-time monitoring tool for timely response to disease outbreaks. During the second wave of the pH1N1 pandemic in Fall 2009, two major universities in Washington, DC collected data that were potentially indicative of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in students and staff. In this study, our objectives were three-fold. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the impact of pH1N1 on the campuses as clearly as possible given the data available and their likely biases. In addition, we sought to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the data series themselves, in order to inform these two universities and other institutions of higher education (IHEs) about real-time surveillance systems that are likely to provide the most utility in future outbreaks (at least to the extent that it is possible to generalize from this analysis). Methods We collected a wide variety of data that covered both student ILI cases reported to medical and non-medical staff, employee absenteeism, and hygiene supply distribution records (from University A only). Communication data were retrieved from university broadcasts, university preparedness websites, and H1N1-related on campus media reports. Regional data based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (CDC ILINet) surveillance network, American College Health Association (ACHA) pandemic influenza surveillance data, and local Google Flu Trends were used as external data sets. We employed a "triangulation" approach for data analysis in which multiple contemporary data sources are compared to identify time patterns that are likely to reflect biases as well as those that are more likely to be indicative of actual infection rates. Results Medical personnel observed an early peak at both universities immediately after school began in early September and a second peak in early November; only the second peak

  17. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2. GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem, Including Santiago Creek. Volume 6. Santiago Creek

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    J A V D E. S E N’ I. II’. Gold ~r MAP 62~ AACO~EB A Lake ~HAfmhtvd f/g Bear Lakeoo i ’\\R K- ___ VICNIT MA 0>- CO V~ET L~𔃺 ff COAC E Ln Jin.or *0 Scm...LYTLE CREEK LEVEE 822 RnnniC. Ct !~keBig Bear Lake ....- BaldwianFacic 0 M TS -- ~d B E IR N ’R , ’:’~a Rrain C. ]SEVE m \\. IL\\I1( 07 VICINITY MA P A...channel. The most significant of these seiswntectonic features, the Newport-Inglewood, Whittier- Elsinore and San :dreas fault zones, are as close as 7

  18. Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance on Twitter through Automated Learning of Naïve Language

    PubMed Central

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; Agricola, Eleonora; Gonfiantini, Michaela V.; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Tozzi, Alberto E.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter has the potential to be a timely and cost-effective source of data for syndromic surveillance. When speaking of an illness, Twitter users often report a combination of symptoms, rather than a suspected or final diagnosis, using naïve, everyday language. We developed a minimally trained algorithm that exploits the abundance of health-related web pages to identify all jargon expressions related to a specific technical term. We then translated an influenza case definition into a Boolean query, each symptom being described by a technical term and all related jargon expressions, as identified by the algorithm. Subsequently, we monitored all tweets that reported a combination of symptoms satisfying the case definition query. In order to geolocalize messages, we defined 3 localization strategies based on codes associated with each tweet. We found a high correlation coefficient between the trend of our influenza-positive tweets and ILI trends identified by US traditional surveillance systems. PMID:24324799

  19. Assessment of Tactical Sonobuoy Computer Programs for Environmental Software Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    liLiAf U c I 4)(jtjt)1 Dcn’iit I~tionU1S 1: f\\ ’’n ;accdl [positionsl N iitoi ll Tin)L-dnpejenlt x U2i ’ itL ati ornial x 1,-p’ii ndih’ norma ~a N Nia...8217ASJ)A 4- 4-4-4 PATTERN 0S1\\ 0-1 4± + 0 44S - -49 22 I.fil i) -I I,,, - . o’ I :I ili tN, of I)etection Im. SccwlriiI I I S APA 7 I~~~~ L1 II I( I7

  20. Measurement of collective excitations in VO2 by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    He, Haowei; Gray, A. X.; Granitzka, P.; Jeong, J. W.; Aetukuri, N. P.; Kukreja, R.; Miao, Lin; Breitweiser, S. Alexander; Wu, Jinpeng; Huang, Y. B.; Olalde-Velasco, P.; Pelliciari, J.; Schlotter, W. F.; Arenholz, E.; Schmitt, T.; Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Dürr, H. A.; Wray, L. Andrew

    2016-10-15

    Vanadium dioxide is of broad interest as a spin-1/2 electron system that realizes a metal-insulator transition near room temperature, due to a combination of strongly correlated and itinerant electron physics. Here, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering is used to measure the excitation spectrum of charge and spin degrees of freedom at the vanadium <i>L> edge under different polarization and temperature conditions, revealing excitations that differ greatly from those seen in optical measurements. Furthermore, these spectra encode the evolution of short-range energetics across the metal-insulator transition, including the low-temperature appearance of a strong candidate for the singlet-triplet excitation of a vanadium dimer.

  1. Immunological Studies on Anti-Aids Drugs in ARC/AIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    l -0..q -9,.Qqio9t Vf -a.. I W0.* ;I~ hfl--nq0h e.l~t #’ ’* .’roP v7e.lV or’C. .w . 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave W dnk) 2. REPORT OATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND...7.20 S-0 6 32.4 3..5 8 66.0 ŗ.37 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----- ---- ------------------- i I il I ~ ll li l ! ! ilI !Il PACE 1...NC HLA-OR* - * NC tic NP tC IL2r * C025 Nr ൮ NC ൣ L3*& L IND.HELP NC NC N. NC L311.S’ IND.SUPP NC NC NC NC L4*&L19 CTL +27 -27 NC NC U& L ൥ NC

  2. Hardware vs. Manpower Comparability Methodology. Volume 5. Step 4: Training Resource Requirements Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    AD- A225 748 *ZsQ OTIC FILE COPY Research Product 90-19E Hardware vs. Manpower Comparability Methodology Step 4: Training Resource Requirements...E Zo o 0Lw0 CL Cr C 0a Lu u0 ci 0. C13 0 00 _ zD CO 0 C Oua = 0 0. Lu a) E z *o c h. - U * c am. E z 0 (0 I o D co0 cc zo 0- .0 a ) qe Y0 a. E. - V 0...4.2-29 SUBSTEP 4.2 WORKSHEETS 4.2-31 z 0. ILI V o a Cr CLC E _ _ _ _ _ 0 s1 c* CA = 0) 0 cc2 0 0 v. w 3 ow z 04 4. -W - 0Z oo~ C 00 4.-3 A C0C 2 c

  3. Surviving the Drought. Corps of Engineers Response to Drought Conditions in 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    K r ’,copy IWAl PAPER 89-P-2 a) Nq US Army Corps ~w i v I~Nof EngineersA rThe Dog c’QIlR 1988 ’eVQVERSRESPONSE TO DROUG’ CIO Dirbrutkos Un~iuit JULY...intakes. Intake owners monitored on the lower Savan.,Ai± R ,, were advised of forecasted lake levels .o ne; r tie Cit’ of Savanwih’, iiL,_ the-, couli... prolec , to meet the shortfall io;, ,e-, IlI: ,,edge from treai, 1;1 C.. it. nra;ni watr soot structure. ai iii rnpactn tue ix , , ,O the SoL hcas I

  4. Influenza-like illness surveillance on Twitter through automated learning of naïve language.

    PubMed

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; Agricola, Eleonora; Gonfiantini, Michaela V; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2013-01-01

    Twitter has the potential to be a timely and cost-effective source of data for syndromic surveillance. When speaking of an illness, Twitter users often report a combination of symptoms, rather than a suspected or final diagnosis, using naïve, everyday language. We developed a minimally trained algorithm that exploits the abundance of health-related web pages to identify all jargon expressions related to a specific technical term. We then translated an influenza case definition into a Boolean query, each symptom being described by a technical term and all related jargon expressions, as identified by the algorithm. Subsequently, we monitored all tweets that reported a combination of symptoms satisfying the case definition query. In order to geolocalize messages, we defined 3 localization strategies based on codes associated with each tweet. We found a high correlation coefficient between the trend of our influenza-positive tweets and ILI trends identified by US traditional surveillance systems.

  5. Sea Ice Climatic Atlas. Volume 3. Arctic West

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    4PROBABILITY M~uMM60- 80% - F𔄁~140 - 60% SON LTIPROBABIUITY rr]20 - 40%jjJPROBABILITY 160W FW 0 - 207 % A- MAY 11 PROBABILITY PERCENT PROBABII OF? yK...PROBABILITY 160 0 - 207 . // •-• OPEN S0 sow • J U NE 1 WATER 3 5 PERCENT PROBABILIT’ OF AN)~ PERCENT PROBABI OF OFTY OF OCCURRENCE c ,Y ICE NLAND...160W I PROBABILITY 160W 0 - 207 . L* "’jjPROBABILITY 180w ’ilOPEN 18ow SEPTEMBER 15 WATER 42 PERCENT PROBABIt OF A I L- %0 .iLI I IU~.DM iI OF ANY

  6. An Examination of the Selection Criteria Used in the Architect-Engineer Selection Process of Air Force Base Civil Engineers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    socially and economically disadvantaged small business firm. N. Number of Prior DOD Awards - DOD projects previously awarded to the A-E within the past...20 5 10 5 20 1 19 AVG 25 22 15 30 28 13 16 24 16 12 15 10 II 8 19 to to 4 It 5 1o Ili PC- USOE 48%’. 21 452 32% 507.2 27’% 45Z 59’ 982 95Z 76% a2’ 19...I 135Z c. Si-, COO to S:5, 000 of : esl =n f. es fo ~zeri orc’Oz last Y 73 d. S250,:00 to 5500,C00 of design fees for rede ;ral ro;ec-.s in l.ast Fy

  7. The levels of nitric oxide in beta-thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Nihayet; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Aydoğdu, İsmet; Başaran, Yalçın

    2008-12-05

    AMAÇ: Bu çalışmada beta talasemi minor ve nitrik oksit arasındaki ilişki araştırıldı YÖNTEMLER: Çalışmaya 30 erkek ve 30 kadın olmak üzere toplam 60 beta talasemi minörlü hasta alındı. Kontrol grubu da tamamen sağlıklı 30 erkek ve 30 kadın toplam 60 denekten oluşturuldu. Plazma nitrit/nitrat seviyeleri Griess reaksiyon metodu kullanılarak ölçüldü ve 545 nanometrede spektrometri ile analiz edildi.

  8. Design and Implementation of the PMS Module for ’Argos’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    I *0 0 al 1117 1 IN.~ 0 . 0 -- -EE I a -~~ Ot . S 208- 11 .1 MI ’a "Co -, ,4 Is " X RO IM Raio 11 "~Z ’ ""-f illl ,,il~i OlI • f.+ ,:I ,I I r: rt ro...MNW #,WC1,WC2,WC3 ...... x If responsibility for a MIP card is modified, the SuperUser deletes the "*" from the 29 beginning of the line the MIP is on...Scholt d ai qIrsm. JWC e Next titrter X done heagr-em WC - N oil 0 N 0 Equiprlunt 1i Bir cnid libel 0 Ext rep req 0 Ad ethryO Del eMrV Figure 21 Personal

  9. The influence of incompetent lip seal on the growth and development of craniofacial complex.

    PubMed

    Drevensek, Martina; Stefanac-Papić, Jadranka; Farcnik, Franc

    2005-12-01

    Abnormal orofacial functions in the period of growth and development can cause morphological anomalies of the craniofacial complex. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between open mouth posture and morphology of craniofacial complex. The shape, size and relationships of skeletal parts of craniofacial complex were determined by analysis of lateral cephalograms in the sample of 84 children--45 girls and 39 boys (aged 8.96 +/- 0.66 years). The sample was divided into two groups--lip competence and lip incompetence group. Differences in cephalometric values between observed groups were found. The values of inclination of lower central incisors (angle ILi/NB), interbasal angle (NL/NSL), angle between occlusal and mandibular plane and anterior lower facial height were significantly higher in the group with open mouth posture. It can be concluded that lip incompetence plays an important role in growth and development of craniofacial complex.

  10. A multi-layer VLC imaging system based on space-time trace-orthogonal coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng-Xu; Yang, Yu-Hong; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Yu

    2017-02-01

    In visible light communication (VLC) imaging systems, different properties of data are usually demanded for transmission with different priorities in terms of reliability and/or validity. For this consideration, a novel transmission scheme called space-time trace-orthogonal coding (STTOC) for VLC is proposed in this paper by taking full advantage of the characteristics of time-domain transmission and space-domain orthogonality. Then, several constellation designs for different priority strategies subject to the total power constraint are presented. One significant advantage of this novel scheme is that the inter-layer interference (ILI) can be eliminated completely and the computation complexity of maximum likelihood (ML) detection is linear. Computer simulations verify the correctness of our theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that both transmission rate and error performance of the proposed scheme greatly outperform the conventional multi-layer transmission system.

  11. Non-Cognitive Predictors and TSC 3B Market Expansion: Examining MOS Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Canal Center Plaza Suite 700 Alexandria, VA 22314 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER FR 10-19 9. SPONSORING...El ig ib ili ty 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 S up pl y G ro up H om og en ei ty fo r A S VA B p ro fil e % MOS_C020...0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 S up pl y G ro up H om og en ei ty fo r A S V AB p ro fil e % MOS_C020 R_C020 % MOS_C015 R_C015 % MOS_C010

  12. New Manning System Field Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    iC -anizat.iuo . The 7th ID(L) merits care£-jl a.tei’tion in future evaluation research. In any caJe., the data at. nand 1joi i. to leadership au Lhe...o ew unItits. IidofuIndad WUtly b j uIliCJ t o Itave di ic u1Lty t al1k I Ig i iot~ f l a1y w i L It theair moldiurt atLsal I I I.tiodad of j ainitig...prelvious war, alterable only by death, wounding, disease , breakdown, or the need to refit end retrain a unit was now changed to one in which a fixed term

  13. Possible Role of GADD45γ Methylation in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Does It Affect the Progression and Tissue Involvement?

    PubMed

    Barış, İkbal Cansu; Caner, Vildan; Şen Türk, Nilay; Sarı, İsmail; Hacıoğlu, Sibel; Doğu, Mehmet Hilmi; Çetin, Ozan; Tepeli, Emre; Can, Özge; Bağcı, Gülseren; Keskin, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Amaç: Diffüz büyük B-hücreli lenfoma (DBBHL) yetişkin bireylerde Hodgkin-dışı lenfomaların en yaygın tipidir ve klinik, immünofenotipik ve genetik özellikler açısından heterojen özellikler taşıması ile karakterizedir. DBBHL patogenezinde hücre döngüsü ve apoptoz regülasyonunu bozan farklı mekanizmalar rol oynamaktadır. Growth arrest DNA damage-inducible 45 (GADD45γ), bu mekanizmalarda yer alan önemli bir gen ailesidir. Bu çalışmanın amaçları DBBHL doku örnekleri ve reaktif lenfoid hiperplazili bireylerin reaktif lenfoid doku örneklerinde GADD45γ metilasyon sıklığını belirlemek, GADD45γ metilasyonu ile protein ekspresyonu arasındaki ilişkiyi değerlendirmek ve DBBHL olgularında metilasyon durumunun klinikopatolojik parametrelerle ilişkisini araştırmaktır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu çalışmada 36 adet DBBHL doku örnekleri ve 40 adet malign-olmayan reaktif lenfoid doku örnekleri analiz edildi. GADD45γ metilasyon durumunu belirlemek için metilasyona-duyarlı yüksek çözünürlüklü erime eğrisi analizi kullanıldı. GADD45γ protein ekspresyonu immünohistokimyasal analiz ile belirlendi. Bulgular: DBBHL’de GADD45γ metilasyonunun sık olduğu belirlendi (%50). Aynı zamanda, erken evre ile karşılaştırıldığında ileri evre tümörlerde GADD45γ metilasyonu istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde yüksekti (p=0,041). Ancak, GADD45γ metilasyon yokluğunun primer anatomik yerleşim olarak nodal tutulumla ilişkili olduğu belirlendi (p=0,040). Sonuç: Bu çalışmanın sonuçları solid tümörlerin aksine, DBBHL’de GADD45γ metilasyon sıklığının yüksek olduğunu ve GADD45γ geninde gözlenen bu epigenetik değişimin, hastalığın progresyonu ile ilişkili olabileceğini göstermektedir. Buna ek olarak, nodal tutulum daha çok GADD45γ metile olmayan olgularda gözlenmektedir.

  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 8. (General Contractor, Inc.-H and H Industrial Instruments)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    flu1 0 00 11 111 020 mo 1 00 11 4) 1 MrI - If - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - J J 4 4 4 - - ~ - - LL 11 - I 02(04 11MnI I U)U .1)L)I r r)W )a ) nw )I n...vt aNNNNNNN - ca C> C> In M NM -- 4 it xooc >Oac> COOOO< MrI "r4NN(1JN :3:W00c if L) I CO -- 4 it -* in V) V) (1) on (A 00 c:> 0 (D _j in (0 CO ID (D...N N Ili NNN N N N 1 14 IN N ZZZZ>- zz zz zzz z >- >- Z>->- IUD - -, 4-=4 Z< <<<<< U U N N <<< IN IN N NNN If 0< < 00 MCD -4 -4 N zzmzm d d < IM 00 on

  15. Non-Contact, Non-Destructive Airport Pavement Profile, Texture and Deflection Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Measurements Milton E. Harr Z David J. Elton School of Civil Engineering00 ’Purdue University Lafayette, Indiana SDTIC SELECTE MAY 2 7 1983 January 1983...01 0 C 0 Si I i1 I E 9l ili. i! i oII11 1 1111 z u " I t iI i liE ,av I: Ii 6 1J4 6-O - 00 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES...1lif ~~~ii. ~ ~ ~ ’ =j ’l 1 t;C1 ’ Ai~.i T :f r: rsi in f~r.t Fr 1 i~ z -1 -: Z:tvI I i f- rr 1 1-4 46 4IxlO r__ ___ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ 6 _ 2 6-9-16 3

  16. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The solar hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Days Inn Motel (120 rooms), I-35/2276 Valley View Lane, Dallas, Texas is described. The solar system was designed by ILI Incorporated to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. The Solar Energy Products, model CU-30WW liquid (water) flat plate collector (1000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. This system is one of eleven systems planned. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers. The operation of this system was begun March 11, 1980. The solar components were partly funded ($15,000 of 30,000 cost) by a Department of Energy grant.

  17. Prevalence and etiological classification of thrombocytopenia among a group of pregnant women in Erbil City, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Shamoon, Rawand Pouls; Muhammed, Nawsherwan Sadiq; Jaff, Muhammed Salih

    2009-09-05

    AMAÇ: Gebelik ile ilişkili trombositopeni prevalansını saptamak ve nedenlerini tanımlamak. YÖNTEMLER: Farklı gebelik haftalarındaki 850 gebe kadın trombositopeni yönünden tarandı. Gebe olmayan ve yaşları eşleştirilmiş 150 kadından oluşan kontrol grubu, trombosit sayısı yönünden değerlendirildi. Trombositopenik kadınların yeni doğan bebekleri doğumun 24 saati içinde test edildi ve kadınların trombositleri doğumdan sonraki 7-10 gün içinde tekrar değerlendirildi.

  18. The Next Generation of NASA Night Sky Network: A Searchable Nationwide Database of Astronomy Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Z.; Berendsen, M.; White, V.

    2010-08-01

    With support from NASA, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) first developed the Night Sky Network (NSN) in 2004. The NSN was created in response to research conducted by the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) to determine what type of support amateur astronomers could use to increase the efficiency and extent of their educational outreach programs. Since its creation, the NSN has grown to include an online searchable database of toolkit resources, Presentation Skills Videos covering topics such as working with kids and how to answer difficult questions, and a searchable nationwide calendar of astronomy events that supports club organization. The features of the NSN have allowed the ASP to create a template that amateur science organizations might use to create a similar support network for their members and the public.

  19. Alpha List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 91 - Sep 92. FY 92. (Thayer Electric Service Inc - Universal Applicators Inc)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    If Na I 400 Nl o 000 -4 -4 -4--4 -lin W-4 0Inon CD-4--4-40 InC.00o InO -0 (-4 Isla I 400 N 0) In In 4044ɜ 1A. 00) 4ILI 0444?.M< .- 4111x -41 m40 I 400...IN S-I S-20 5tO P-44c40 0 OaxnIO-t URO Ru zoo ZO zoo ZOO ROZO i zo ZOO -mOOU I00-I UMN ON :)N (4cm M4 moo :I.4-4 =0 m l C4C C.) ~ - (a) I- : 0S0-I U

  20. [Genetic Differentiation of Balkhash Perch Perca schrenki Kessler, 1874 from Lake Balkhash and Alakol Lake System of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Barmintseva, A E; Shalgimbayeva, G M; Asylbekova, S Z; Isbekov, K B; Danko, E K; Mugue, N S

    2015-09-01

    The genetic differentiation of two populations of Balkhash perch Perca schrenki Kessler, 1874 was examined. The study included (1) the population of Lake Balkhash and the Ili River delta, where this species is protected and it is prohibited to catch them and (2) the population of Alakol Lake system, where it is the main commercial species and forms two morphotypes--pelagic and coastal. Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA COI gene and. six microsatellite loci revealed genetic differentiation at the population level, while no statistically significant differences were found at the morphotype level. The results of this study make it possible with high probability to determine the belonging of caught fish to either the commercial (Alakol Lake system) or protected (Lake Balkhash) population.

  1. George AFB, Victorville, Caifornia Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A -F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-14

    Lu..A:-Aized ill elt -ht -Lur periods correspondin,- to the followuing sets 0of hourly observal iols: .~ J.-AoO, ’iolet .. A.-4et, i~o-i~oLcou-.AAA...8217 _. - -h >_i -6 5/16 c No Elt ,, 7. 7 , 7 92.7 2. 7 ’ .7 -Z. 7 Y?.7 󈧚.7 --. 7 .7 72.7> 20004: 20C 9-u1j 9 4. q - 94 a -4 2. , 94 . 94 . , 54•9 94 94 9...SUMMARY A 1 .TH r. SEFV iCt /MAC 2 1 .3 E F CA 7.,73-81 J AIN STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PAGE 1 1 -y J- IlI:. NOUNS (L. S. T.) T..p. WET BULB

  2. Improved C3 Laboratory Capabilities for Command and Control Research, Analysis and Gaming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 4 81 8 O ". ’" SCUm,, CLASSIFICATION OF TMIS PAGE t~ho Dis ".0m________________ REPOR DOCUMENTATION...OISTRIOUTION STAT NM (of i Sommae ) Amprved for public release, distribution unhilji ted 147. OIST11ISUTON STATEMENT (of The aoboet lmd~i in Me all. Iill...0 54 N ~ q j q Q) 5..0 C:’U t UQJ 4.0,( 0 cu--- N -4 ~4Iw V.0te 4-b .. 0.0 0 -4 -44 0. 00 A- 5-si cl M.. qv-tIII CV QJV) j W - U.1 di ~z 101 -4 ILI

  3. Metagenomic characterization of biodiversity in the extremely arid desert soils of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutovaya, O. V.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Ivanova, E. A.; Andronov, E. E.

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the composition of microbiomes in the biological crust (AKL) horizons of extremely arid desert soils (Aridic Calcisols) developed from saline and nonsaline alluvial deposits in the Ili Depression (eastern Kazakhstan) was analyzed. To describe the diversity of microorganisms in the soil samples, a novel method of pyrosequencing (Roche/454 Life Sciences) was applied. It was shown that bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes phyla predominate in all the samples; these are typical representatives of the microbiome of soil crusts. A distinctive feature of the extremely arid soils is the high contribution of cyanobacteria (25-30%) to the total DNA. In the soils developed from saline sediments, representatives from the Rubrobacteraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Caulobacteraceae families and from the Firmicutes phylum predominated. In the soils developed from nonsaline gypsiferous deposits, bacteria from the class of Acidobacteria, subgroup Gp3, of the Methylobacteriaceae family and the class of Subdivision 3 from the Verrucomicrobia phylum predominated.

  4. Nonstorm time dropout of radiation belt electron fluxes on 24 September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Zhu, Hui; Li, Wen; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belt electron flux dropouts during the main phase of geomagnetic storms have received increasing attention in recent years. Here we focus on a rarely reported nonstorm time dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes on 24 September 2013. Within several hours, the radiation belt electron fluxes exhibited a significant (up to 2 orders of magnitude) depletion over a wide range of radial distances (<i>L> > 4.5), energies (~500 keV to several MeV) and equatorial pitch angles (0° ≤ αe ≤ 180°). STEERB simulations show that the relativistic electron loss in the region L = 4.5–6.0 was primarily caused by the pitch angle scattering of observed plasmaspheric hiss and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. Furthermore, our results emphasize the complexity of radiation belt dynamics and the importance of wave-driven precipitation loss even during nonstorm times.

  5. Safety Career Ladder AFSC 241X0.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    A M- C 0 C\\j ff) in -r..- CO) C’j r- C) M~ t.O r- cji c,, ’. o c\\. r- ico Ln C\\j c\\, oo m’ c,, c) k = - - - U’)koc’) *-jt U...r ) CJ M o -- Cl) Uf) C,:- C’.J LO - LO -zt ’-- e Car-.r L i-L Mi CL) U) C\\ CjLI -t"C: , M0 0 0 .r - k - L) J 4C- ~ ~ ’ J C C’J Li init I-Li aC C)J... o - . . . . . .. . . . l -, - U SURVEY METHODOLOGY Inventory Development Data were collected for this occupational survey using USAF

  6. Respiratory virus surveillance. FluWatch project, 2000-2001. End of season update.

    PubMed

    Macey, J F; Winchester, B; Squires, S G; Tam, T; Zabchuk, P; Li, Y

    2001-06-01

    The 2000-2001 season was a relatively mild season worldwide. In Canada, lower than usual activity was reported for all national indicators of influenza activity, including the rate of influenza-like illness (ILI), the percentage of laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and provincial/territorial influenza activity levels. However, there were a number of interesting characteristics of this year's influenza season. In contrast to the predominance of influenza A, and in particular the A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2)-like virus over the past 3 years, influenza B predominated overall this season. Influenza A (H3N2) accounted for < 1% of all characterized isolates (H1N1 accounted for 49% of isolates). Increased laboratory-confirmed influenza activity began in the West (Yukon, prairie provinces and British Columbia) in mid-December, followed by the Atlantic provinces in mid- to late January and Ontario and Quebec in mid- February and March.

  7. Spatial Relationships between Drug Binding Sites on the Surface of the Acetylcholine Receptor: Preparation and Interaction of Fluorescent Alpha-Toxins and Decidium with the Acetylcholine Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-15

    SC R " V. r "A C C S III O G Mo 3. n, c a• ’ ltt , T ’ C A• T A LO G wu umc ’ L . "TugL (.* s.oo**) L Tr.t" or RaiPo a PC-mo coveano SPATIAL ELATONS...Ti L I *u AwTo4•. S. COGITCACT 05OAA •U•T14UU•OI(.3 David A. Johnson DAM4,-17-84-4187 5. Pgmft O tO u 060 *AD AOCCU W PNOGRAN ILi9iq7r...phencyclidine, Bc3H- l cello, decidium, carbachol, fluorescence probes. ~ T~a report des"crfbe’s IM34 ~e~rpffent 5f 7T~steat Probes of the nico- tinic

  8. National Dam Inspection Program. Placid Lake Dam, (NDS I.D Number PA 00616, DER I.D. Number 13-97), Delaware River Basin, Laurel Run, Carbon County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    134.00 142.00 0.00 0.00 LOIS DATA 13091 113 31113 31101 [A 1 7* 1m30 31303 31011. CulTL ALSIX 31119 0 0.0o 0.00 1.0 0.0 0.00 1.00 3.00 05 0.06 0.0 19...2.40 31119 . 9 12.14 M5.84 61.)( 1016.29) CDM L 4IO111, WiTION MKiIN M l5W Him am INNIcI 1A1uC JPLI joI w IIA tlioEn los INg 1 0 0 0 6 4 0 ILI lm A

  9. Marine Traffic Data for the Port of Boston.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    J r F c <u (0 o n a TJ -p c. a» CO n V PQ 00 _ v a o " HT7 £-2 g-52 5 °? o I o o I -i- E f* CDOOCßifC...MCINTOSH» J J CHERNY» 0 E WATSON C0R/DC-3/77 USC6-D-41-77 F/« 15/ 5 Mb illiglililBGii i •1.0 I.I ilia IM m 12.0 11-25 im 1.4 1.8 1.6 MICROCOPY...i liiti iih ili i s . , * I o •- b <•* 1 iiii c *» i-«> Lull ii 133 I o M •- ^ 5 ,§ 6 +i - o 9 8 >a i Is SI I j ii

  10. Association of over-the-counter pharmaceutical sales with influenza-like-illnesses to patient volume in an urgent care setting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Timothy Y; Sanders, Jason L; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U; Dato, Virginia M; Suyama, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We studied the association between OTC pharmaceutical sales and volume of patients with influenza-like-illnesses (ILI) at an urgent care center over one year. OTC pharmaceutical sales explain 36% of the variance in the patient volume, and each standard deviation increase is associated with 4.7 more patient visits to the urgent care center (p<0.0001). Cross-correlation function analysis demonstrated that OTC pharmaceutical sales are significantly associated with patient volume during non-flu season (p<0.0001), but only the sales of cough and cold (p<0.0001) and thermometer (p<0.0001) categories were significant during flu season with a lag of two and one days, respectively. Our study is the first study to demonstrate and measure the relationship between OTC pharmaceutical sales and urgent care center patient volume, and presents strong evidence that OTC sales predict urgent care center patient volume year round.

  11. Development of Flight Safety Prediction Methodology for U. S. Naval Safety Center. Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-02-01

    U.S. NAVAL SAM C : 6. PERFORMING trtG. REPORT NUMIDERt 753-01-3-982 7. AUTHOR(s) 9. CONT.4ACT OR GRAI. T NUMBl>(sJ D. X. Kell 0960368-A-0317- 01...reverse aide if nocesaary and Identify by block riumber) 20. ABSTR t n rverse side I.|necears d Id IflI by _k_ ;oLnR e h r r Thi’s f !ia report (e lldes...aircraft equipments. DD , .1473 t -o.NoN or , No\\ov,i Lr’ NL fL U NC ’ t ,,LAS I ED At"’ t 11’-"’’Ili,, ’ , .. MtnruI orf thirs atrcv nrye prerimtoi in tt

  12. The Trapped Radiation Handbook. Change 5,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-21

    KM~ ALT. � A5A 2-53A 21 January 1977 010 00 04 r :1I -TI 2-54 rI. I’ 21 January 15 77 , . ILI, , t ’,,,... ,,.....I~tt NNORTH, 3000 KM ALT 0150 ,•30...Title Page (4 January 1977) U -. t ;- e Page (Zl Janua:, t 1.977) ii (4 January 1977) ii (p l January 1•77) ix through x (4 January 1977) ix through x (21...Street Santa Barbara, CA 93102 • --- * I~i Su - !¢, 4 !i THE TRArPPD RADIATION HANDBOOK, Cornilers and Editors-in Chief: /’ John B./Clodis3 "Gerald T

  13. Bangor International/Dow AFB, Maine. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-06

    4? J :𔃿 i L ¢ 3 .: ~ . ,. ; p,..trs -? 1 w t F R C ’ H OU RL . L ;j : . " -. - : ’ 7 1 21 !OR FROM 4,ILI CS: tH 48 - 0, T 4., 5 1 " 1 ’I,.l 4C...34::viSIC: 4: T T , LjT: -5 NOV 0 s 1981 ,’ isIS DOCUqs HAS PEEN APPROVED FEDERAL BUILDING O~ PU LI-~ . 5p- Mi~D SALE;ITIShIBUTIO IS UNLIMITED.’’ ASHEVILLE, N...UNCLASSIFIED 16 OISTRIBuJTION ST ATEMEN T I tin, Ro- Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 𔄁 DISTRIBJTION ST ATEMEN’ oI rho *hottott *,I

  14. Study of ovarian cancer management.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, E; Javaid, T; Cooley, S; Byrne, P; Gaughan, G

    2006-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Many patients present at an advanced stage as the symptoms of early stage disease can be vague. AIM We evaluated the demographics, treatment regimens and survival rates of ovarian cancer patients attending Beaumont Hospital Dublin over a nine year period. A retrospective chart review of ovarian cancer patients attending Beaumont Hospital between 11/10/94 and 30/6/3 was performed. Patients were selected from pathology records. Patients with borderline histology and those who died of unrelated causes were excluded. 31% of individuals presented with distension as their only clinical sign. 20% presented with a mass as their only clinical sign. The most common cell type was papillary serous adenocarcinoma in two thirds of cases. 54% presented with advanced disease [stage IIl-IV]. Treatment involved surgical clearance or debulking +/- chemotherapy. 5 year survival for Stage I was 95% versus 19% for Stage IlI. This highlights the importance of early diagnosis.

  15. Improvements in analytical methodology for the determination of frequently consumed illicit drugs in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Beltrán, Eduardo; Boix, Clara; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

    2014-07-01

    Rapid and sensitive analytical methodology based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of widely consumed drugs of abuse (amphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, opioids, cannabis and ketamine) and their major metabolites in urban wastewaters. Sample clean-up and pre-concentration was performed by a generic off-line SPE procedure using Oasis HLB. Special effort was made to incorporate amphetamine, which was found highly problematic in the wastewater samples tested, including an additional clean-up with Oasis MCX SPE and dispersive primary secondary amine. Correction for possible SPE losses or degradation during storage was made by the use of isotope-labelled internal standards (ILIS), available for all compounds, which were added to the samples as surrogates. Although ILIS were also efficient for matrix effects correction, the strong ionization suppression observed was not eliminated; therefore, a four-fold dilution prior to SPE was applied to influent wastewaters and a low injection volume was selected (3 μL), in order to reach a compromise between matrix effects, chromatographic performance and sensitivity. The method was validated at 25 and 200 ng L(-1) (effluent), and 100 and 800 ng L(-1) (influent), obtaining limits of quantification (i.e. the lowest level that the compound can be quantified and also confirmed with at least two MS/MS transitions) between 0.4-25 ng L(-1) (effluent) and 2-100 ng L(-1) (influent). The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of 14 influent and 14 effluent wastewater samples collected over 2 weeks in Castellón (Spain) within a European collaborative study.

  16. Characteristics of outpatients with pandemic H1N1/09 influenza in a tertiary care university hospital in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Sun; Park, Tae Sung; Suh, Jin Tae; Nam, You Sun; Lee, Mi Suk; Lee, Hee Joo

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic H1N1/09 emerged rapidly in Korea. Here, we describe the clinical characteristics of outpatients in Seoul, Korea who were infected in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We reviewed the cases of outpatients with pandemic H1N1/09 who visited a tertiary care teaching hospital between September 1 and December 31, 2009. Infection with pandemic H1N1/09 was confirmed by molecular tests. Of a total of 7,182 tests, 3,020 (42.0%) were positive. Compared with 473 cases of influenza- like illness (ILI), the 586 confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1/09 differed in age [odds ratio (OR) 0.975] and fulfilling at least one of the following factors: age < 5 or ≥ 65 years, history of contact with other pandemic H1N1/09-infected individuals (OR 0.611), fever ≥ 37.8°C (OR 3.567), cough (OR 2.290), and myalgia (OR 1.559). The sensitivity of the best criteria, "fever (≥ 37.8°C) plus cough" (41.03%) in this study was lower than that of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) criteria (47.95%), whereas the positive likelihood ratio (3.55) and positive predictive value (81.6) of this criteria was higher than those of the KCDC criteria (2.98 and 78.7, respectively). The clinical characteristics of pandemic H1N1/09 are, in many regards, indistinguishable from those of ILI. Moreover, the accuracy and predictability of criteria which include only symptoms or signs were not sufficient to diagnose pandemic H1N1/09 infection. Therefore, use of a combination of symptoms with confirmatory laboratory testing is necessary for accurate diagnosis of pandemic H1N1/09.

  17. Hematological Parameters in Severe Complicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria among Adults in Aden.

    PubMed

    Bakhubaira, Sawsan

    2013-12-01

    Amaç: Komplike ağır sıtmalı hastalarda bazı hematolojik parametrelerin klinik sonuç ile ilişkisinin incelenmesi. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Aden vilayetinde iki yıllık sürede (2010-2012) tanı alan 77 komplike ağır sıtma hastasını içine alan prospektif bir çalışma yapıldı. Bulgular: Ağır sıtmanın çeşitli komplikasyonlarında hemoglobin konsantrasyonları önemli ölçüde farklı idi, bununla birlikte trombosit ve lökosit sayıları bu farklılığı göstermedi. Yaş ortalaması ölen hastalar arasında büyüktü. Hematolojik parametreler, ölen ya da hayatta kalan hastalar arasında önemli derecede farklı değildi. Trombositopeni oranı %42,9 idi ve bunların %18,2’sinde sayı 50,0 x109/L’den küçüktü. Ancak hiçbirinde kanama gelişmedi. Sonuç: Bu çalışma ile, hematolojik değişikliklerin ağır sıtmada sık karşılaşılan komplikasyonlar olduğu fakat klinik sonuç ile ilişkili olmadığı sonucuna varılmıştır.

  18. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Gedi A.; Ahmed, Jamal A.; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010–2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5–14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15–24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  19. Using spatio-temporal surveillance data to test the infectious environment of children before type 1 diabetes diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bougnères, Pierre; Le Fur, Sophie; Valtat, Sophie; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lathrop, Mark; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The "hygiene hypothesis" postulates that reduced exposure to infections favours the development of autoimmunity and childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). But on the other side, viruses, notably enteroviruses, are suspected to trigger T1D. The assessment of the possible relationships between infections and T1D still defies the classical tools of epidemiology. We report the methods and results of a geographical approach that maps the addresses of patients to a communicable diseases surveillance database. We mapped the addresses of patients at birth, infancy and T1D diagnosis to the weekly estimates of the regional incidences of 5 frequent communicable diseases routinely collected since 1984 by the French Sentinel network. The pre-diagnostic infectious environment of 3548 patients with T1D diagnosed between 0.5 and 15 years was compared to those of 100 series of age-matched "virtual controls" drawn randomly on the map. Associations were classified as "suggestive" (summer diarrhea, SD, and varicella, V) when p< 0.05, or "significant" (influenza-like infections, ILI) when they passed the Bonferroni correction for FDR. Exposure to ILI and SD were associated with T1D risk, while V seemed protective. In the subset of 2521 patients for which we had genome wide data, we used a case-only approach to search for interactions between SNPs and the infectious environment as defined by the Sentinel database. Two SNPs, rs116624278 and rs77232854, showed significant interaction with exposure to V between 1 and 3 years of life. The infectious associations found should be taken as possible markers of patients' environment, not as direct causative factors of T1D. They require replication in other populations. The increasing public availability of geographical environmental databases will expand the present approach to map thousands of environmental factors to the lifeline of patients affected by various diseases.

  20. 24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic structure for Chinese Kazak ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other groups.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-09-01

    The Kazak ethnic minority is a large ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and is valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 201 unrelated Kazak male individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Kazak group ranged from 0.0050 to 0.9104. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 113 different haplotypes were obtained, 96 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Kazak group were 0.9578 and 0.5622 at 24 STR loci, respectively. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity at Y-filer 17 loci, extended 11 loci, and minimal 9 loci were reduced to 0.9274 and 0.4279, 0.8459 and 0.3284, and 0.8354 and 0.2985, respectively, which could indicate that the more loci were detected, the higher forensic efficacy was obtained. We evaluated the application value of the 24 loci in forensic sciences and analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Kazak1 (represent our samples from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture) group and other 14 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that the Kazak1 group had the closer genetic relationships with Kazak2 (represent samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), Mongolian, and Uygur ethnic groups. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Kazak1 and other groups.

  1. Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

    2015-05-01

    D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

  2. False-positive PCR results linked to administration of seasonal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Curran, T; McCaughey, C; Ellis, J; Mitchell, S J; Feeney, S A; Watt, A P; Mitchell, F; Fairley, D; Crawford, L; McKenna, J; Coyle, P V

    2012-03-01

    False-positive PCR results usually occur as a consequence of specimen-to-specimen or amplicon-to-specimen contamination within the laboratory. Evidence of contamination at time of specimen collection linked to influenza vaccine administration in the same location as influenza sampling is described. Clinical, circumstantial and laboratory evidence was gathered for each of five cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) with unusual patterns of PCR reactivity for seasonal H1N1, H3N2, H1N1 (2009) and influenza B viruses. Two 2010 trivalent influenza vaccines and environmental swabs of a hospital influenza vaccination room were also tested for influenza RNA. Sequencing of influenza A matrix (M) gene amplicons from the five cases and vaccines was undertaken. Four 2009 general practitioner (GP) specimens were seasonal H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B PCR positive. One 2010 GP specimen was H1N1 (2009), H3N2 and influenza B positive. PCR of 2010 trivalent vaccines showed high loads of detectable influenza A and B RNA. Sequencing of the five specimens and vaccines showed greatest homology with the M gene sequence of Influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1 virus (used in generation of influenza vaccine strains). Environmental swabs had detectable influenza A and B RNA. RNA detection studies demonstrated vaccine RNA still detectable for at least 66 days. Administration of influenza vaccines and clinical sampling in the same room resulted in the contamination with vaccine strains of surveillance swabs collected from patients with ILI. Vaccine contamination should therefore be considered, particularly where multiple influenza virus RNA PCR positive signals (e.g. H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B) are detected in the same specimen.

  3. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing inpatient and outpatient cases in a season dominated by vaccine-matched influenza B virus

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Baz, Iván; Navascués, Ana; Pozo, Francisco; Chamorro, Judith; Albeniz, Esther; Casado, Itziar; Reina, Gabriel; Cenoz, Manuel García; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Studies that have evaluated the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza B cases are uncommon, and few have analyzed the effect in preventing hospitalized cases. We have evaluated the influenza VE in preventing outpatient and hospitalized cases with laboratory-confirmed influenza in the 2012–2013 season, which was dominated by a vaccine-matched influenza B virus. In the population covered by the Navarra Health Service, all hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and all ILI patients attended by a sentinel network of general practitioners were swabbed for influenza testing, and all were included in a test-negative case-control analysis. VE was calculated as (1-odds ratio)×100. Among 744 patients tested, 382 (51%) were positive for influenza virus: 70% for influenza B, 24% for A(H1N1)pdm09, and 5% for A(H3N2). The overall estimate of VE in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 63% (95% confidence interval (CI): 34 to 79), 55% (1 to 80) in outpatients and 74% (33 to 90) in hospitalized patients. The VE was 70% (41 to 85) against influenza B and 43% (−45 to 78) against influenza A. The VE against virus B was 87% (52 to 96) in hospitalized patients and 56% in outpatients (−5 to 81). Adjusted comparison of vaccination status between inpatient and outpatient cases with influenza B did not show statistically significant differences (odds ratio: 1.13; p = 0.878). These results suggest a high protective effect of the vaccine in the 2012–2013 season, with no differences found for the effect between outpatient and hospitalized cases. PMID:25996366

  4. National surveillance for influenza and influenza-like illness in Vietnam, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Yen T; Graitcer, Samuel B; Nguyen, Tuan H; Tran, Duong N; Pham, Tho D; Le, Mai T Q; Tran, Huu N; Bui, Chien T; Dang, Dat T; Nguyen, Long T; Uyeki, Timothy M; Dennis, David; Kile, James C; Kapella, Bryan K; Iuliano, A D; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Nguyen, Hien T

    2013-09-13

    Influenza virus infections result in considerable morbidity and mortality both in the temperate and tropical world. Influenza surveillance over multiple years is important to determine the impact and epidemiology of influenza and to develop a national vaccine policy, especially in countries developing influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity, such as Vietnam. We conducted surveillance of influenza and influenza-like illness in Vietnam through the National Influenza Surveillance System during 2006-2010. At 15 sentinel sites, the first two patients presenting each weekday with influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as fever and cough and/or sore throat with illness onset within 3 days, were enrolled and throat specimens were collected and tested for influenza virus type and influenza A subtype by RT-PCR. De-identified demographic and provider reported subsequent hospitalization information was collected on each patient. Each site also collected information on the total number of patients with influenza-like illness evaluated per week. Of 29,804 enrolled patients presenting with influenza-like illness, 6516 (22%) were influenza positive. Of enrolled patients, 2737 (9.3%) were reported as subsequently hospitalized; of the 2737, 527 (19%) were influenza positive. Across all age groups with ILI, school-aged children had the highest percent of influenza infection (29%) and the highest percent of subsequent hospitalizations associated with influenza infection (28%). Influenza viruses co-circulated throughout most years in Vietnam during 2006-2010 and often reached peak levels multiple times during a year, when >20% of tests were influenza positive. Influenza is an important cause of all influenza-like illness and provider reported subsequent hospitalization among outpatients in Vietnam, especially among school-aged children. These findings may have important implications for influenza vaccine policy in Vietnam.

  5. Timely detection of localized excess influenza activity in Northern California across patient care, prescription, and laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sharon K; Kulldorff, Martin; Huang, Jie; Brand, Richard J; Kleinman, Kenneth P; Hsu, John; Platt, Richard

    2011-02-28

    Timely detection of clusters of localized influenza activity in excess of background seasonal levels could improve situational awareness for public health officials and health systems. However, no single data type may capture influenza activity with optimal sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness, and it is unknown which data types could be most useful for surveillance. We compared the performance of 10 types of electronic clinical data for timely detection of influenza clusters throughout the 2007/08 influenza season in northern California. Kaiser Permanente Northern California generated zip code-specific daily episode counts for: influenza-like illness (ILI) diagnoses in ambulatory care (AC) and emergency departments (ED), both with and without regard to fever; hospital admissions and discharges for pneumonia and influenza; antiviral drugs dispensed (Rx); influenza laboratory tests ordered (Tests); and tests positive for influenza type A (FluA) and type B (FluB). Four credible events of localized excess illness were identified. Prospective surveillance was mimicked within each data stream using a space-time permutation scan statistic, analyzing only data available as of each day, to evaluate the ability and timeliness to detect the credible events. AC without fever and Tests signaled during all four events and, along with Rx, had the most timely signals. FluA had less timely signals. ED, hospitalizations, and FluB did not signal reliably. When fever was included in the ILI definition, signals were either delayed or missed. Although limited to one health plan, location, and year, these results can inform the choice of data streams for public health surveillance of influenza.

  6. Improving Google Flu Trends Estimates for the United States through Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Leah J.; Xu, Biying; Yasui, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) uses Internet search queries in an effort to provide early warning of increases in influenza-like illness (ILI). In the United States, GFT estimates the percentage of physician visits related to ILI (%ILINet) reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, during the 2012–13 influenza season, GFT overestimated %ILINet by an appreciable amount and estimated the peak in incidence three weeks late. Using data from 2010–14, we investigated the relationship between GFT estimates (%GFT) and %ILINet. Based on the relationship between the relative change in %GFT and the relative change in %ILINet, we transformed %GFT estimates to better correspond with %ILINet values. In 2010–13, our transformed %GFT estimates were within ±10% of %ILINet values for 17 of the 29 weeks that %ILINet was above the seasonal baseline value determined by the CDC; in contrast, the original %GFT estimates were within ±10% of %ILINet values for only two of these 29 weeks. Relative to the %ILINet peak in 2012–13, the peak in our transformed %GFT estimates was 2% lower and one week later, whereas the peak in the original %GFT estimates was 74% higher and three weeks later. The same transformation improved %GFT estimates using the recalibrated 2013 GFT model in early 2013–14. Our transformed %GFT estimates can be calculated approximately one week before %ILINet values are reported by the CDC and the transformation equation was stable over the time period investigated (2010–13). We anticipate our results will facilitate future use of GFT. PMID:25551391

  7. I-MOVE multicentre case-control study 2010/11 to 2014/15: Is there within-season waning of influenza type/subtype vaccine effectiveness with increasing time since vaccination?

    PubMed

    Kissling, Esther; Nunes, Baltazar; Robertson, Chris; Valenciano, Marta; Reuss, Annicka; Larrauri, Amparo; Cohen, Jean Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Rizzo, Caterina; Machado, Ausenda; Pitigoi, Daniela; Domegan, Lisa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Buchholz, Udo; Gherasim, Alin; Daviaud, Isabelle; Horváth, Judit Krisztina; Bella, Antonino; Lupulescu, Emilia; O Donnell, Joan; Korczyńska, Monika; Moren, Alain

    2016-04-21

    Since the 2008/9 influenza season, the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study measures influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like-illness (ILI) laboratory confirmed as influenza. In 2011/12, European studies reported a decline in VE against influenza A(H3N2) within the season. Using combined I-MOVE data from 2010/11 to 2014/15 we studied the effects of time since vaccination on influenza type/subtype-specific VE. We modelled influenza type/subtype-specific VE by time since vaccination using a restricted cubic spline, controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, time of onset, chronic conditions). Over 10,000 ILI cases were included in each analysis of influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B; with 4,759, 3,152 and 3,617 influenza positive cases respectively. VE against influenza A(H3N2) reached 50.6% (95% CI: 30.0-65.1) 38 days after vaccination, declined to 0% (95% CI: -18.1-15.2) from 111 days onwards. At day 54 VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 reached 55.3% (95% CI: 37.9-67.9) and remained between this value and 50.3% (95% CI: 34.8-62.1) until season end. VE against influenza B declined from 70.7% (95% CI: 51.3-82.4) 44 days after vaccination to 21.4% (95% CI: -57.4-60.8) at season end. To assess if vaccination campaign strategies need revising more evidence on VE by time since vaccination is urgently needed.

  8. Association of type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci with one-year weight loss in the look AHEAD clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Kopin, Alan S; Huggins, Gondon S

    2012-08-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss.

  9. Prescribing antibiotics to ‘at-risk’ children with influenza-like illness in primary care: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ashdown, Helen F; Räisänen, Ulla; Wang, Kay; Ziebland, Sue; Harnden, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend immediate antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections in ‘at-risk’ individuals with comorbidities. Observational evidence suggests that influenza particularly predisposes children to bacterial complications. This study investigates general practitioners’ (GPs’) accounts of factors influencing their decision-making about antibiotic prescribing in the management of at-risk children with influenza-like illness (ILI). Design Qualitative interview study using a maximum variation sample with thematic analysis through constant comparison. Setting Semistructured telephone interviews with UK GPs using a case vignette of a child with comorbidities presenting with ILI. Participants There were 41 GPs (41.5% men; 40 from England, 1 from Northern Ireland) with a range of characteristics including length of time in practice, paediatrics experience, practice setting and deprivation. Results There was considerable uncertainty and variation in the way GPs responded to the case and difference of opinion about how long-term comorbidities should affect their antibiotic prescribing pattern. Factors influencing their decision included the child's case history and clinical examination; the GP's view of the parent's ability to self-manage; the GP's own confidence and experiences of managing sick children and assessment of individual versus abstract risk. GPs rarely mentioned potential influenza infection or asked about immunisation status. All said that they would want to see the child; views about delayed prescribing varied in relation to local health service provision including options for follow-up and paediatric services. Conclusions The study demonstrates diagnostic uncertainty and wide variation in GP decision-making about prescribing antibiotics to children with comorbidity. Future guidelines might encourage consideration of a specific diagnosis such as influenza, and risk assessment

  10. Using spatio-temporal surveillance data to test the infectious environment of children before type 1 diabetes diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Fur, Sophie; Valtat, Sophie; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lathrop, Mark; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The “hygiene hypothesis” postulates that reduced exposure to infections favours the development of autoimmunity and childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). But on the other side, viruses, notably enteroviruses, are suspected to trigger T1D. The assessment of the possible relationships between infections and T1D still defies the classical tools of epidemiology. We report the methods and results of a geographical approach that maps the addresses of patients to a communicable diseases surveillance database. We mapped the addresses of patients at birth, infancy and T1D diagnosis to the weekly estimates of the regional incidences of 5 frequent communicable diseases routinely collected since 1984 by the French Sentinel network. The pre-diagnostic infectious environment of 3548 patients with T1D diagnosed between 0.5 and 15 years was compared to those of 100 series of age-matched “virtual controls” drawn randomly on the map. Associations were classified as “suggestive” (summer diarrhea, SD, and varicella, V) when p< 0.05, or “significant” (influenza-like infections, ILI) when they passed the Bonferroni correction for FDR. Exposure to ILI and SD were associated with T1D risk, while V seemed protective. In the subset of 2521 patients for which we had genome wide data, we used a case-only approach to search for interactions between SNPs and the infectious environment as defined by the Sentinel database. Two SNPs, rs116624278 and rs77232854, showed significant interaction with exposure to V between 1 and 3 years of life. The infectious associations found should be taken as possible markers of patients’ environment, not as direct causative factors of T1D. They require replication in other populations. The increasing public availability of geographical environmental databases will expand the present approach to map thousands of environmental factors to the lifeline of patients affected by various diseases. PMID:28152013

  11. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci With One-Year Weight Loss in the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Kopin, Alan S.; Huggins, Gondon S.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

  12. FTO predicts weight regain in the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Jeanne; Papandonatos, George D.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Peter, Inga; Kahn, Steven E.; Knowler, William C.; Hudnall, Gina Evans; Lipkin, Edward; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have provided new insights into the genetic factors that contribute to the development of obesity. We hypothesized that these genetic markers would also predict magnitude of weight loss and weight regain after initial weight loss. Methods Established obesity risk alleles available on the Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip were characterized in 3,899 overweight or obese participants with type 2 diabetes from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a randomized trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Primary analyses examined the interaction between 13 obesity-risk polymorphisms in 8 genes and randomized treatment arm in predicting weight change at year 1, and weight regain at year 4 among individuals who lost 3% or more of their baseline weight by year 1. Results No SNPs were significantly associated with magnitude of weight loss or interacted with treatment arm at year 1. However, FTO rs3751812 predicted weight regain within DSE (1.56 kg per risk allele, p = 0.005), but not ILI (p = 0.761), resulting in SNP×treatment arm interaction (p = 0.009). In a partial replication of prior research, the obesity risk (G) allele at BDNF rs6265 was associated with greater weight regain across treatment arms (0.773 kg per risk allele), although results were of borderline statistical significance (p=0.051). Conclusions Variations in the FTO and BDNF loci may contribute risk of weight regain after weight loss. PMID:23628854

  13. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  14. Midcourse correction to a clinical trial when the event rate is underestimated: the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study.

    PubMed

    Brancati, Frederick L; Evans, Mary; Furberg, Curt D; Geller, Nancy; Haffner, Steven; Kahn, Steven E; Kaufmann, Peter G; Lewis, Cora E; Nathan, David M; Pitt, Bertram; Safford, Monika M

    2012-02-01

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study is a long-term clinical trial that aims to determine the cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefits of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes. The study was designed to have 90% statistical power to detect an 18% reduction in the CVD event rate in the ILI Group compared to the Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) Group over 10.5 years of follow-up. The original power calculations were based on an expected CVD rate of 3.125% per year in the DSE group; however, a much lower-than-expected rate in the first 2 years of follow-up prompted the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) to recommend that the Steering Committee undertake a formal blinded evaluation of these design considerations. The Steering Committee created an Endpoint Working Group (EPWG) that consisted of individuals masked to study data to examine relevant issues. The EPWG considered two primary options: (1) expanding the definition of the primary endpoint and (2) extending follow-up of participants. Ultimately, the EPWG recommended that the Look AHEAD Steering Committee approve both strategies. The DSMB accepted these modifications, rather than recommending that the trial continue with inadequate statistical power. Trialists sometimes need to modify endpoints after launch. This decision should be well justified and should be made by individuals who are fully masked to interim results that could introduce bias. This article describes this process in the Look AHEAD study and places it in the context of recent articles on endpoint modification and recent trials that reported endpoint modification.

  15. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  16. rasbhari: Optimizing Spaced Seeds for Database Searching, Read Mapping and Alignment-Free Sequence Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Lars; Leimeister, Chris-André; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Many algorithms for sequence analysis rely on word matching or word statistics. Often, these approaches can be improved if binary patterns representing match and don’t-care positions are used as a filter, such that only those positions of words are considered that correspond to the match positions of the patterns. The performance of these approaches, however, depends on the underlying patterns. Herein, we show that the overlap complexity of a pattern set that was introduced by Ilie and Ilie is closely related to the variance of the number of matches between two evolutionarily related sequences with respect to this pattern set. We propose a modified hill-climbing algorithm to optimize pattern sets for database searching, read mapping and alignment-free sequence comparison of nucleic-acid sequences; our implementation of this algorithm is called rasbhari. Depending on the application at hand, rasbhari can either minimize the overlap complexity of pattern sets, maximize their sensitivity in database searching or minimize the variance of the number of pattern-based matches in alignment-free sequence comparison. We show that, for database searching, rasbhari generates pattern sets with slightly higher sensitivity than existing approaches. In our Spaced Words approach to alignment-free sequence comparison, pattern sets calculated with rasbhari led to more accurate estimates of phylogenetic distances than the randomly generated pattern sets that we previously used. Finally, we used rasbhari to generate patterns for short read classification with CLARK-S. Here too, the sensitivity of the results could be improved, compared to the default patterns of the program. We integrated rasbhari into Spaced Words; the source code of rasbhari is freely available at http://rasbhari.gobics.de/ PMID:27760124

  17. Applying a New Model for Sharing Population Health Data to National Syndromic Influenza Surveillance: DiSTRIBuTE Project Proof of Concept, 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Olson, Donald R; Paladini, Marc; Lober, William B; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-08-02

    The Distributed Surveillance Taskforce for Real-time Influenza Burden Tracking and Evaluation (DiSTRIBuTE) project began as a pilot effort initiated by the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) in autumn 2006 to create a collaborative electronic emergency department (ED) syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network based on existing state and local systems and expertise. DiSTRIBuTE brought together health departments that were interested in: 1) sharing aggregate level data; 2) maintaining jurisdictional control; 3) minimizing barriers to participation; and 4) leveraging the flexibility of local systems to create a dynamic and collaborative surveillance network. This approach was in contrast to the prevailing paradigm for surveillance where record level information was collected, stored and analyzed centrally. The DiSTRIBuTE project was created with a distributed design, where individual level data remained local and only summarized, stratified counts were reported centrally, thus minimizing privacy risks. The project was responsive to federal mandates to improve integration of federal, state, and local biosurveillance capabilities. During the proof of concept phase, 2006 to 2009, ten jurisdictions from across North America sent ISDS on a daily to weekly basis year-round, aggregated data by day, stratified by local ILI syndrome, age-group and region. During this period, data from participating U.S. state or local health departments captured over 13% of all ED visits nationwide. The initiative focused on state and local health department trust, expertise, and control. Morbidity trends observed in DiSTRIBuTE were highly correlated with other influenza surveillance measures. With the emergence of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009, the project was used to support information sharing and ad hoc querying at the state and local level. In the fall of 2009, through a broadly collaborative effort, the project was expanded to enhance

  18. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp.

  19. Impaired coronary flow reserve evaluated by echocardiography is associated with increased aortic stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Tok, Derya; Özcan, Fırat; Kadife, İskender; Turak, Osman; Çağlı, Kumral; Başar, Nurcan; Gölbaşı, Zehra; Aydoğdu, Sinan

    2013-05-01

    AMAÇ: Metabolik sendrom (MetS) kardiyovasküler olayların güçlü bir belirleyicisidir. Koroner akım rezervi (KAR) mikrovasküler fonksiyonun göstergesidir ve MetS'de bozulduğu gösterilmiştir. Arteriyel elastikiyetin değerlendirilmesinde aortik sertlik (AS) basit ve önemli bir metottur. Bu çalışmada MetS'li hastalarda bozulmuş koroner akım ve aortik elastisite arasında bağımsız bir ilişki olup olmadığının değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. YÖNTEMLER: Enine kesitli gözlemsel çalışmaya güncellenmiş ATP III kriterlerine göre MetS tanısı alan 46 hasta (ortalama yaş 47.3±6.6 yıl) ve 44 kontrol (ortalama yaş 46.0±6.1 yıl) hastası alındı. Pik diyastolik koroner akım, distal sol ön koroner arterden adenozin infüzyonu öncesi ve sonrasında transtorasik nabız dalga Doppler ile ölçüldü ve hiperemik pik diyastolik hızın başlangıç zirve diyastolik hıza oranı KAR olarak kabul edildi. M-mode ekokardiyografi ile aortik strain, distensibilite ve sertlik hesaplandı. İstatistiksel analizde Student t-testi, Ki-kare testi, Pearson korelasyon ve lineer regresyon analizleri kullanıldı. BULGULAR: MetS'li hastalarda kontrol grubuna kıyasla KAR'ı düşük (2.3±0.2'ye karşılık 2.7±0.2, p<0.001), aortik distensibilite düşük (10.4±3.5'e karşılık 12.7±3.4, p=0.002) ve sertlik ise anlamlı yüksek saptandı (6.5±2.0'e karşılık 3.2±0.8, p<0.001). Lineer regresyon analizinde, AS (β=-0.217, p=0.047), sistolik kan basıncı (β=-0.215, p=0.050) ve bel çevresi (β=-0.272, p=0.012) ile KAR'daki bozulma arasında bağımsız bir ilişki olduğu saptandı. SONUÇ: MetS'li hastalarda koroner akım rezervi bozulmuştur ve artmış aort sertliği, bel çevresi ve sistolik kan basıncı ile azalmış koroner akım rezervi arasında bağımsız bir ilişki vardır.

  20. The Early Miocene-Early Pliocene Vegetation and Climate Changes at the north to northwest Çankırı -Çorum Basin (Central Anatolian Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalar, Müge; Kováčová, Marianna; Sezgül Kayseri Ozer, Mine; Utescher, Torsten; Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cosentino, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    The ALErT project targets on climate and tectonic hazards in the densely populated regions in the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP), within the framework of the Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN program, The CAP extends in a wide area in between zone the Aegean extensional zone and Bitlis /Zagros compressional zone. Çankırı Basin (in the middle CAP) is a key to understand aridification plateau interior and it was a deep pelagic Basin from Late Cretaceous -Early Tertiary as a result of the closure of Neo- Tethyan till the Middle Eocene. North to south of the Çankırı Basin; the Plio - Quaternary Deǧim formation (fluvial deposits) consist of massive mudstones and sandstones and it unconformable overlies the Bozkır formation (lacustrine deposits). That is a Messinian succession mainly by a 200 m-thick cyclic sequence of continental gypsum layers, clays and sandy clays in gypsum with different thicknesses crops. Bozkır formation, the lower being the contact with the Süleymanlı formation. It is overlay the Tuǧlu formation with uncomformably, which is an Upper Miocene succession mainly composed of dark grey silty and organic rich clays. Following formation, which outcrops in the northwest of Çankırı basin, is Hançili formation. The unit is covered by grey sediments of the Hançili Formation, showing alternations of channel sandstones and clay stones over 100 m thick in Early - Middle Miocene in the Çankırı basin. In this study, samples were analyzed for biotic proxy data (palynology) to figure the paleo-environmental and paleoclimate changes. Additionally only for Bozkir formation (longest section in the study area) were sampled for geochemical (δ18O - δ13C isotopes analyses and CaCO3) analysis and the rest of the formations were interpreted using the previous study. In the most pollen spectra the herbs and shrubs prevail: in Deǧim formation (50%), in Bozkır formation (75%), in Süleymanlı formation (47%), in Tuǧlu formation (60%) and in Hançili

  1. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses in Turkish patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Durak, Beyhan Aras; Akay, Olga Meltem; Sungar, Gülçin; Bademci, Güney; Aslan, Vahap; Caferler, Jülide; Ozdemir, Muhsin; Cilingir, Oğuz; Artan, Sevilhan; Gülbaş, Zafer

    2012-06-01

    Amaç: Multipl Myelom (MM) plazma hücrelerinin kemik iliğinde birikmesi, proliferasyonu ve monoklonal immunglobulin sekresyonu ile karakterize klonal bir hastalıktır. Çalışmamızda Türk MM hastalarında kromozomal anomali sıklığının interfaz FISH ve klasik kromozom analizi ile belirlenmesi, saptanan yeniden düzenlenmelerle hastalığın evresi ve prognozu arasındaki ilişkinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Multipl myelom tanısı alan toplam 50 olgu klasik sitogenetik ve moleküler sitogenetik (FISH) analizleri ile değerlendirilmiştir. FISH analizi ile; 13q14, 13q32, 17p13 bölgelerindeki delesyonlar, IGH bölgesini içeren yeniden düzenlenmeler ve 5, 9, 15. kromozomların monozomi ve/veya trizomileri incelenmiştir. Bulgular: Konvansiyonel sitogenetik analiz olguların 32 tanesinde gerçekleştirilebilmiş olup 27 olguda (%84.3) normal karyotip izlenirken 5 olguda (%15.6) kromozom aberasyonları gözlenmiştir. FISH analizinde; olguların %18 inde (9/50) değerlendirilen tüm parametreler için normal sonuç bulunmuştur. Olguların %82 sinde ise (41/50) FISH analizi ile en az bir anomali gözlenmiştir. Olguların %54’ünde (27/50) kromozom 13 aberasyonları gözlenmiştir. İkinci en sık gözlenen aberasyon % 50 oranıyla kromozom 15 aberasyonlarıdır. Sonuç: Çalışmamızda 13. kromozom aberasyonları, IGH translokasyonları ve P53 delesyonlarından en az birini bulunduran olguların ortalama median sağ kalım sürelerinin diğerlerinden daha kısa olduğu görülmüştür. Kromozom 15 aberasyonları evre 3 ile ilişkili olduğu görülmüştür (P=0.02). Çalışmamızda elde ettiğimiz verilere göre MM lı olgularda konvansiyonel sitogenetik ve özellikle FISH yönteminin hastalığın takip ve prognozunda birlikte kullanılmasının önemli olduğunu düşünmekteyiz.

  2. Kinematical and Physical Properties of the Central Emission Regions of Active Galaxy Mrk 817

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, D.

    2009-09-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are among the most spectacular objects in the sky since they produce enormous amounts of energy in a tiny volume, having luminosities of L ≈ 10^{42} - 10^{48} erg s^{-1}. AGN emit in the continuum, as well as in the spectral lines, from γ and X-ray to the far infrared and radio domain. Their emission lines can be classified as narrow (NELs) or broad emission lines (BELs) according to their widths, and they are formed in two different emission regions, the narrow line region (NLR) and broad line region (BLR). In this work we study the physical and kinematical properties of the emission line regions of Seyfert 1.5 galaxy Mrk 817. The spectrum of this AGN has both BELs and NELs, which show interesting substructures (such as shoulders or bumps), that classify this galaxy to be Seyfert 1.5 galaxy. The investigation is based on four sets of observations that are obtained with the following telescopes: 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope and 4.2m William Herschel Telescope of the La Palma Observatory at Canary Islands, 2.6m Shain Telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and 2m telescope of the Rozhen Observatory in Bulgaria (Ilić 2006, Ilić et al. 2006). We find that in Mrk 817 the NELs and BELs are very complex, indicating that structure of both the NLR and BLR is stratified and consists of at least two sub-regions with different kinematical properties. The BELs of Mrk 817 can be fitted with the two-component model, where the core of the line is coming from a spherical region with isotropic velocity distribution, and wings are affected by a low inclined accretion disc (or disc-like emitting region). Our analysis of the disc parameters shows that the minimal inner radius of the disc cannot be smaller than 0.4 lt-days and that the disc should be smaller then 39 lt-days (for a black hole mass of 4.9 × 10^7 M_{⊙}), that is in the agreement with the results obtained by Kaspi et al. (2000), who estimated the dimensions of the BLR of Mrk

  3. Expanding Diversity in Molecular Structures and Functions of the IL-6/IL-12 Heterodimeric Cytokine Family

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideaki; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Chiba, Yukino; Ohashi, Mio; Xu, Mingli; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-6/IL-12 family cytokines have pleiotropic functions and play critical roles in multiple immune responses. This cytokine family has very unique characteristics in that they comprise two distinct subunits forming a heterodimer and each cytokine and receptor subunit shares with each other. The members of this cytokine family are increasing; currently, there are more than six cytokines, including the tentatively named cytokines IL-Y (p28/p40), IL-12 (p35/p40), IL-23 (p19/p40), IL-27 [p28/Epstein–Barr virus-induced protein 3 (EBI3)], IL-35 (p35/EBI3), and IL-39 (p19/EBI3). This family of cytokines covers a very broad range of immune responses, including pro-inflammatory responses, such as helper T (Th)1, Th2, and Th17, to anti-inflammatory responses, such as regulatory T (Treg) cells and IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-12 is the first member of this family, and IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 are mainly produced by activated antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. IL-12 plays a critical role in the promotion of Th1 immune responses by inducing interferon-γ production to combat pathogens and malignant tumors. IL-23 induces IL-17 production and is necessary to maintain pathogenic Th17 cells that cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IL-27 was initially reported to play a critical role in promotion of Th1 differentiation; however, subsequent studies revealed that IL-27 has broader stimulatory and inhibitory roles by inducing IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-35 is produced by forkhead box P3+ Treg cells and activated B cells and has immunosuppressive functions to maintain immune tolerance. The most recently identified cytokine, IL-39, is produced by activated B cells and has pro-inflammatory functions. The cytokine tentatively named IL-Y seems to have anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 differentiation. In addition, individual cytokine subunits were also shown to have self-standing activities. Thus

  4. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D.; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G.; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M.; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1–77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light

  5. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza, in the late 2011–2012 season in Spain, among population targeted for vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Spain, the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated in the last three seasons using the observational study cycEVA conducted in the frame of the existing Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System. The objective of the study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (ILI) among the target groups for vaccination in Spain in the 2011–2012 season. We also studied influenza VE in the early (weeks 52/2011-7/2012) and late (weeks 8-14/2012) phases of the epidemic and according to time since vaccination. Methods Medically attended patients with ILI were systematically swabbed to collect information on exposure, laboratory outcome and confounding factors. Patients belonging to target groups for vaccination and who were swabbed <8 days after symptom onset were included. Cases tested positive for influenza and controls tested negative for any influenza virus. To examine the effect of a late season, analyses were performed according to the phase of the season and according to the time between vaccination and symptoms onset. Results The overall adjusted influenza VE against A(H3N2) was 45% (95% CI, 0–69). The estimated influenza VE was 52% (95% CI, -3 to 78), 40% (95% CI, -40 to 74) and 22% (95% CI, -135 to 74) at 3.5 months, 3.5-4 months, and >4 months, respectively, since vaccination. A decrease in VE with time since vaccination was only observed in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Regarding the phase of the season, decreasing point estimates were only observed in the early phase, whereas very low or null estimates were obtained in the late phase for the shortest time interval. Conclusions The 2011–2012 influenza vaccine showed a low-to-moderate protective effect against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in the target groups for vaccination, in a late season and with a limited match between the vaccine and circulating strains. The

  6. Using surveillance data to estimate pandemic vaccine effectiveness against laboratory confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection: two case-control studies, Spain, season 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physicians of the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System report and systematically swab patients attended to their practices for influenza-like illness (ILI). Within the surveillance system, some Spanish regions also participated in an observational study aiming at estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (cycEVA study). During the season 2009-2010, we estimated pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness using both the influenza surveillance data and the cycEVA study. Methods We conducted two case-control studies using the test-negative design, between weeks 48/2009 and 8/2010 of the pandemic season. The surveillance-based study included all swabbed patients in the sentinel surveillance system. The cycEVA study included swabbed patients from seven Spanish regions. Cases were laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009. Controls were ILI patients testing negative for any type of influenza. Variables collected in both studies included demographic data, vaccination status, laboratory results, chronic conditions, and pregnancy. Additionally, cycEVA questionnaire collected data on previous influenza vaccination, smoking, functional status, hospitalisations, visits to the general practitioners, and obesity. We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR), computing pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness as (1-OR)*100. Results We included 331 cases and 995 controls in the surveillance-based study and 85 cases and 351 controls in the cycEVA study. We detected nine (2.7%) and two (2.4%) vaccine failures in the surveillance-based and cycEVA studies, respectively. Adjusting for variables collected in surveillance database and swabbing month, pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness was 62% (95% confidence interval (CI): -5; 87). The cycEVA vaccine effectiveness was 64% (95%CI: -225; 96) when adjusting for common variables with the surveillance system and 75% (95%CI: -293; 98) adjusting for all variables collected. Conclusion

  7. TNF, IL6, and IL1B Polymorphisms Are Associated with Severe Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramírez, Román Alejandro; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger; Camarena, Ángel Eduardo; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypercytokinemia is the main immunopathological mechanism contributing to a more severe clinical course in influenza A (H1N1) virus infections. Most patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus had increased systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; including interleukin IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We propose that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes are associated with the severity of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection. Methods 145 patients with influenza A (H1N1) (pA/H1N1), 133 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and 360 asymptomatic healthy contacts (AHCs) were included. Eleven SNPs were genotyped in six genes (TNF, LT, IL1B, IL6, CCL1, and IL8) using real-time PCR; the ancestral genotype was used for comparison. Genotypes were correlated with 27 clinical severity variables. Ten cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-5, and IL-4) were measured on a Luminex 100. Results The IL6 rs1818879 (GA) heterozygous genotype was associated with severe influenza A (H1N1) virus infection (odds ratio [OR] = 5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.05–11.56), and two IL1B SNPs, rs16944 AG and rs3136558 TC, were associated with a decreased risk of infection (OR = 0.52 and OR = 0.51, respectively). Genetic susceptibility was determined (pA/H1N1 vs. AHC): the LTA rs909253 TC heterozygous genotype conferred greater risk (OR = 1.9), and a similar association was observed with the IL1B rs3136558 CC genotype (OR = 1.89). Additionally, severely ill patients were compared with moderately ill patients. The TNF-238 GA genotype was associated with an increased risk of disease severity (OR = 16.06, p = 0.007). Compared with ILIs, patients with severe pA/H1N1 infections exhibited increased serum IL-5 (p <0.001) and IL-6 (p  =  0.007) levels. Conclusions The TNF gene was associated with disease severity, whereas IL1B and IL6 SNPs were

  8. Respiratory viruses in patients with influenza-like illness in Senegal: Focus on human respiratory adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Diop, Ndeye Sokhna; Fall, Amary; Kiori, Davy E.; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Sy, Sara; Goudiaby, Déborah; Barry, Mamadou Aliou; Fall, Malick; Dia, Ndongo

    2017-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens that are associated with a wide spectrum of human illnesses involving the respiratory tract. In the present study, we investigate the epidemiologic and viral molecular features of HAdVs circulating in Senegal after 4 consecutive years of sentinel surveillance of influenza-like Illness cases. Methodology and results From January 2012 to December 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients. Adenoviral detection is performed by rRT-PCR with the Anyplex™ II RV16 Detection kit (Seegene) and molecular characterization was performed using a partial hexon gene sequence. 6381 samples were collected. More than half of patients (51.7%; 3297/6381) were children of ≤ 5 years. 1967 (30.8%) were positive for HAdV with 1561 (79.4%) found in co-infection with at least one another respiratory virus. The most common co-detections were with influenza viruses (53.1%; 1045/1967), rhinoviruses (30%; 591/1967), enteroviruses (18.5%; 364/1967) and RSV (13.5%; 266/1967). Children under 5 were the most infected group (62.2%; 1224/1967; p <0.05). We noted that HAdV was detected throughout the year at a high level with detection peaks of different amplitudes without any clear seasonality. Phylogenetic analysis revealed species HAdV-C in majority, species HAdV-B and one HAdV- 4 genome type. The 9 HAdV-B species like strains from Senegal grouped with genome types HAdV-7, HAdV-55 and HAdV-11 as shown by a phylogenetic branch with a high bootstrap value of (88%). Conclusion In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest strong year-round HAdV activity in Senegal, especially in children up to 5 years of age. Molecular studies revealed that the dominant species in circulation in patients with ILI appears to be HAdV-C and HAdV-B species. The circulation of though HAdV-7 and HAdV-55 genome types is of note as these serotypes are recognized causes of more severe and even fatal acute respiratory infections

  9. Inorganic nitrogen leaching from organic and conventional rice production on a newly claimed calciustoll in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E; Sun, Xiangping; Wu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N) was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21-42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78%) than did organic treatments (0.32-0.60%), but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21-0.34 kg N Mg(-1) rice grains). Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to be maintained.

  10. Inorganic Nitrogen Leaching from Organic and Conventional Rice Production on a Newly Claimed Calciustoll in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Sun, Xiangping; Wu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N) was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21–42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78%) than did organic treatments (0.32–0.60%), but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21–0.34 kg N Mg−1 rice grains). Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to be

  11. Rapid detection of respiratory tract viral infections and coinfections in patients with influenza-like illnesses by use of reverse transcription-PCR DNA microarray systems.

    PubMed

    Renois, Fanny; Talmud, Déborah; Huguenin, Antoine; Moutte, Lauryane; Strady, Christophe; Cousson, Joel; Lévêque, Nicolas; Andréoletti, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    We prospectively tested 95 nasal swabs or nasopharyngeal aspirates taken from 56 adults and 39 children visiting the Reims University Medical Centre (northern France) for influenza-like illnesses (ILI) during the early stage of the French influenza A/H1N1v pandemic (October 2009). Respiratory samples were tested using a combination of two commercially available reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) DNA microarray systems allowing rapid detection of influenza A virus strains, including the new A/H1N1v strain as well as 20 other common or newly discovered respiratory viruses. Concomitantly, a generic and classical real-time RT-PCR assay was performed to detect all circulating influenza A virus strains in the same samples. Of the 95 respiratory samples tested, 30 (31%) were positive for the detection of influenza A/H1N1v virus infection by both RT-PCR DNA microarray and classical real-time RT-PCR detection assays. Among the infections, 25 (83%) were monoinfections, whereas 5 (17%) were multiple infections associating influenza A/H1N1v virus with coronavirus (CoV), human bocavirus (HBoV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), or human rhinoviruses (HRVs). Of the 95 respiratory samples tested, 35 (37%) were positive for respiratory viruses other than influenza A/H1N1v virus. Among these infections, we observed 30 monoinfections (HRVs [63%], parainfluenza viruses [PIVs] [20%]), influenza A/H3N2 virus [6%], coronavirus [4%], and HBoV [4%]) and 5 multiple infections, in which HRVs and PIVs were the most frequently detected viruses. No specific single or mixed viral infections appeared to be associated significantly with secondary hospitalization in infectious disease or intensive care departments during the study period (P > 0.5). The use of RT-PCR DNA microarray systems in clinical virology practice allows the rapid and accurate detection of conventional and newly discovered viral respiratory pathogens in patients suffering from ILI and therefore could be of major interest for

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-superfamily 15 gene expression in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ozçimen, Ahmet Ata; Unal, Selma; Canacankatan, Necmiye; Antmen, Serife Efsun

    2014-09-05

    Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, orak hücre hastalığı (OHH) olan çocukların klinik bulgularıyla birlikte tümör nekroz faktör süperailesi-15 (TNFSF15) gen ifadesi arasındaki ilişkinin araştırılmasıdır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu amaç için, OHH’li 49 hasta ve 38 sağlıklı kontrol bu çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. TNFSF15 gen ifadesi ve plazma düzeyleri analiz edilmiştir. Aynı zamanda, TNFSF15 gen ifadesi akut göğüs ağrısı ve ağrılı kriz sıklığına göre de alt-gruplar karşılaştırılmıştır. Bulgular: STNFSF15 plazma düzeyleri ile ilişkili olarak kontrol ve OHH’li hastalar arasında anlamalı bir fark bulunmazken, TNFSF15 gen ifadesi düzeyleri OHH hastalarında kontrol grubuna göre anlamlı bir şekilde artmış olarak bulunmuştur (p=0,001). TNFSF15 gen ifadesi aynı zamanda akut göğüs ağrısı olan OHH’li hastalarda anlamlı olarak artmış bulunmuştur (p=0,008). Sonuç: Bu bulgular, TNFSF15 gen ifadesinin özellikle akut göğüs ağrılı OHH patogenezinde bir rolü olacağını düşündürmektedir. Pulmoner hipertansiyonlu ve akut göğüs ağrılı OHH hastalarında TNFSF15 işlevinin belirlenmesi için ileri geniş grup çalışmalarına ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. TNFSF15 gen ifadesi aynı zamanda, OHH tedavisinde yeni bir yaklaşıma da katkı sağlayacaktır.

  13. Outcomes of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection: Results from Two International Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Wentworth, Deborah; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Herman-Lamin, Kathy; Cholewinska, Grazyna; David, Daniel; Kuetter, Stefan; Ternesgen, Zelalem; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Lane, H. Clifford; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were initiated: FLU 002 in outpatients and FLU 003 in hospitalized patients. Methods and Findings Between October 2009 and December 2012, adults with influenza-like illness (ILI) were enrolled; outpatients were followed for 14 days and inpatients for 60 days. Disease progression was defined as hospitalization and/or death for outpatients, and hospitalization for >28 days, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) if enrolled from general ward, and/or death for inpatients. Infection was confirmed by RT-PCR. 590 FLU 002 and 392 FLU 003 patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 were enrolled from 81 sites in 17 countries at 2 days (IQR 1–3) and 6 days (IQR 4–10) following ILI onset, respectively. Disease progression was experienced by 29 (1 death) outpatients (5.1%; 95% CI: 3.4–7.2%) and 80 inpatients [death (32), hospitalization >28 days (43) or ICU transfer (20)] (21.6%; 95% CI: 17.5–26.2%). Disease progression (death) for hospitalized patients was 53.1% (26.6%) and 12.8% (3.8%), respectively, for those enrolled in the ICU and general ward. In pooled analyses for both studies, predictors of disease progression were age, longer duration of symptoms at enrollment and immunosuppression. Patients hospitalized during the pandemic period had a poorer prognosis than in subsequent seasons. Conclusions Patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, particularly when requiring hospital admission, are at high risk for disease progression, especially if they are older, immunodeficient, or admitted late in infection. These data reinforce the need for international trials of novel treatment strategies for influenza infection and serve as a reminder of the need to monitor the severity of seasonal and pandemic

  14. TP53 Staining in Tissue Samples of Chronic Lymphocytic Lymphoma Cases: An Immunohistochemical Survey of 51 Cases.

    PubMed

    Kulaç, İbrahim; Demir, Çetin; Büyükaşık, Yahya; Kutluk, Tezer; Üner, Aysegül

    2016-05-12

    Amaç: Kronik lenfositik lösemi (KLL) erişkin bireylerde en sık görülen lenfoproliferatif hastalıktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı KLL tanısı almış hastaların doku örneklerindeki proliferasyon merkezlerinin yaygınlığı ve p53 ekspresyonu ile prognozları arasında bağlantı olup olmadığını araştırmaktır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu çalışma kapsamında Hacettepe Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Hastanesi Patoloji Anabilim Dalı’nda 2000-2013 yılları arasında KLL tanısı almış̧ 51 hastanın 54 biyopsi örneği yeniden değerlendirilmiştir. Hastaların klinik ve demografik verileri hasta veri tabanından elde edilmiştir. Yapılan incelemede biyopsi örneklerinde proliferasyon merkezlerinin tüm biyopsi alanına oranı (PM/TBA) yarı niceleyici olarak değerlendirilmiş ve seçilen temsili bloklardan elde edilen kesitlerde immünohistokimyasal yöntemle p53 ekspresyonuna bakılmıştır. Sonuç: Hastalar Rai evrelerine göre düşük ve yüksek olmak üzere iki gruba ayrıldığında düşük evreli hastaların genel sağ kalım sürelerinin yüksek evreli hastalara göre daha uzun olduğu görülmüştür (p= 0,030). Ancak, proliferasyon merkezi oranı veya p53 ekspresyon düzeyleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişki gösterilememiştir. Tartışma: Çalışmamıza dahil edilen hasta grubunda PM/TBA oranı ve P53 immunpozitifliginin sağ kalım ile ilişkisi olmadığı görülmüştür.

  15. Healthcare Information Systems to Assess Influenza Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Figar, S.; Aliperti, V.; Salazar, E.; Otero, C.; Schpilberg, M.; Taliercio, V.; Otero, P.; de Quirós, F. González Bernaldo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a private HIS could have detected the influenza epidemic outbreaks earlier through changes in morbidity and mortality patterns. Methods Data Source included a health information system (HIS) from an academic tertiary health care center integrating administrative and clinical applications. It used a local interface terminology server which provides support through data autocoding of clinical documentation. Specific data subsets were created to compare the burden of influenza during the epidemiological week (EW) 21 to 26 for years 2007 to 2009 among 150,000 Health Maintenance Organization members in Argentina. The threshold for identifying an epidemic was considered met when the weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate exceeded 200 per 100,000 visits. Case fatality rates and mortality rates of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) from 2007 to 2009 were retrospectively compared. Case fatality rates and mortality rates for A/H1N1 influenza 2009 also were estimated. Results The HIS detected the outbreak in EW 23 while the government Ministry of Health (MoH) gave a national epidemic alert during EW 25. The number of visits for ILI increased more than fourfold when comparing 2009 to the period 2007-2008. The SARI mortality rate in 2009 was higher than in 2008 (RR 2.8; 95%CI 1.18-6.63) and similar to that of 2007 (RR 1.05; 95%CI 0.56-1.49). 2009 was the first year with mortalities younger than 65 years attributable to SARI. The estimated A/H1N1 case fatality rate for SARI was 6.2% (95%CI 2.5 to 15.5) and A/H1N1 mortality rate was 6 per 100,000 (95%CI 0 to 11.6). Conclusion Our HIS detected the outbreak two weeks before than the MoH gave a national alert. The information system was useful in assessing morbidity and mortality during the 2009 influenza epidemic H1N1 outbreak suggesting that with a private-public integration a more real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system could be implemented. PMID:23616861

  16. Study of multi- and broad-band internal antennas for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung Hoon

    The modified aperture coupled MicroStrip Antenna (MSA) and Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) for mobile applications are studied and presented in this dissertation. The designed antennas are improved multi-band and broad-band characteristics by the modification of radiating elements and/or the ground plane. The novel modified aperture coupling annular-ring antenna fed by stripline is the hybrid structure of the aperture coupling feed MSA and the proximity feed MSA. The proximity feed enable to concentrate the field strength toward the direction of the radiating element and the modified aperture layer contributes to provide the maximum coupling to the radiating element. The measurement bandwidths of the Aperture Coupling Proximity Feed Hybrid MSA #1(ACPF-HMSA#1, design #1) and ACPF-HMSA #2 (design #2) are 185MHz (7%) and 105MHz (4.1%), VSWR in less than 2, respectively. Two layers Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) with the modification of the ground and radiating element was studied. The inserted T-shaped or L-shaped ground and inserted a slot and slits on radiating elements help to adjust the resonant frequencies to the target applications. The result of PIFA #3 (design #3) is presented a significant board-band characteristic on the upper band by 910MHz (from 1.45GHz to 2.36GHz) with VSWR less than 2.5. It covers GPS, DCS, PCS, and UMTS bands. Novel internal loop planar inverted F antennas (L-PIFA) with Inserted Concentrated Annular Rings (ICAR) and Inserted Loop Inductors (ILI) are presented as design #4 (ICAR-L-PIFA #4) and design #5 (ILI-L-PIFA #5), respectively. The simple loop structure consists of a meandered line. It increases the capacitance between adjacent lines. The Inserted annular-rings and loop inductors provide inductance values to the main loop antennas. Therefore, the impedance bandwidth of the design #4 is 570MHz (from 1.69GHz to 2.26GHz) with VSWR less than 2.5. And, the impedance bandwidth of the design #5 is 275MHz (from 1.63GHz to 1.905GHz) and

  17. [Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) was originally isolated from the blood of the patient with fever in the Kyzylorda province, Kazakhstan, in July 1973 and was classified to the Cardiovirus genus (fam. Picornaviridae). Later, SDVFV was isolated from the ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 (Hyalomminae) (1 strain) and Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1929 (Rhipicephalinae) (7 strains), collected in the floodplains of the Syr-Darya river and the Ili river. In this paper, complet genome of the SDVFV (strain LEIV-Tur2833) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (GenBank ID: KJ191558). It was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VMEV). The similarity of the SDVFV with VHEV and TMEV based on P1 region of the polyprotein-precursor (structural proteins VP1-VP4), reaches 75% and 91% for nucleotide sequences and 80% and 93% for putative amino acid sequences, respectively. For nonstructural proteins regions P2 (2A-2C) and P3 (3A-3D) similarity of SDVFV with TMEV and VHEV is 96%-98%.

  18. A Campus Observatory for an Undergraduate Astronomy Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, H. D.; Collins, L. F.; Henson, G. D.; Castelaz, M. W.; Luttermoser, D. G.; Close, D. M.

    1998-05-01

    A new observatory on the campus of East Tennessee State University went into service at the beginning of spring semester 1998. The observatory supports the instructional, research, and service components of the undergraduate astronomy program within the physics department. It consists of a 1000 square-foot building and an outdoor observing area equipped with permanent piers for mounting eight Meade LX-200 8-inch telescopes. These telescopes and accessory CCD cameras may be controlled from computers inside the building via underground cable connections to each pier. The building has a fourteen-foot dome housing a C-14 telescope on an Optomechanics Model 20M mount. The C-14 telescope and its accessories, which include an ST-6 CCD camera, are operated from an adjacent control room. Architectural plans will be available for inspection and discussion. The use of the observatory in the ETSU astronomy program will be presented. Support for the purchase of equipment through NSF ILI grant DUE-9351227 is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Prime Contract Awards by FSC/SVC and Purchasing Office in Excess of $100,000. FY 1992 (K036 Modification of EQ/Special Industry Machinery -- Restoration Activities)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    0 c 00 L. U) *-4U)30 0 >,< 0 "a1 1- 0 0 I LE- L-0-4 -i td (1-4C uI M 0 g -4 -40 Zý C C4 .4 U) 0 L LL W - co00000 -q EUCUC W EýL . Cj U)-i0>4- m (n -i...U 0- .J z ILi 0401 4 0 N I. I- 0) -4- LL ow 0 a) mo . 04A (A td 4) Z - 0 040 4) La. 00 ) W .) 0.0. =: z C.4 .4) oU - 4 to0. to 04 > Z. C.) L06 0 al c...Q4 -QC -M - < -4 U 0 -4 -4 0-.4--4 -4 -4 -C -CC -C - 4 0)~ 0) U._4 - L _[am4 / c. 4ý- - -- ’- -- - - - MUMO 0 0 00 0 - EUQ >. 00 L--C0 -M4CWL

  20. Prime Contract Awards of $100,000 or More by Federal Supply Classification or Service Category and Purchasing Office, FY 85. Part 2 (6015 - K084).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    jL L ) tD (n 4croo coc. LLL p.. a i- In .4L~ 04 ot 00 CL <(to (oYc -OG, (n N o-.** ILI 0f Oul -4 @N C XES 0 Z E0 Z -90cm 01 C Cr -a <C ..s -4-4Q X v 0...00 x >0w2 um . * LL E In EU=W 00 L.X ’- 0-4= i* L ) >1 CaL E MU. moo U U) 0 -< w -IE t-U d C L (am -04 t 44 >"nZ , td U EU -,2, . .w qc L _ - k O...CL1- 9I ZEW~U C W u CA-L_W w4 O5-OCA.. L_4 O4W4 Co 4 U 2(02-JCU C 4.- 4 ->- )-22 i-eI- 3 I ’A (ZDE CA 0 EUQ ’-e moo). nu-. 0.0.U0... x u.n 4--C xo.u

  1. Department of Defense Prime Contracts over $25,000 for Research and Development. Fiscal Year 1992. (AB11 American Science & Engineering-AZ16 Wizdom Systems, Inc)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    0 21 0- td 0. 0. 0. m. =.0 0 0 . 0. Its 0 m 0. a.. m. qA _ q U1 14 U) 0l u) m) U) U ) U f ) U) U ) U ) ) U) >) U 1 1 a 0. Il-I- - - f0 1-11 mS UI La...4 -4 -4 1. 0 -41 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 0111ý I 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 1-0 0 0 0 t -1 i. 4 .4 ’.4 . .4_ -4 _ to 4 td 4 go4 td m. m...411 td do Ui 0A IA IA IA IA 0AU I A I A I A I A w US 0 nm ma . a. a. a. a. a. a. -. a. a. a. a 3.. . a. a. . F0- 0 -4 ýai ~ 4 . -4 9 .4 *- 4 m4 .4 .4

  2. Stimulating student interest in optics via a versatile optics demonstration laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Stephen H.; Beyer, Louis M.; Tarvin, John T.

    1995-10-01

    Funding from a NSF-ILI grant has been used to establish an Optics and Laser Demonstration Laboratory at Murray State University. This facility is proving to be very versatile, with experiments and demonstrations supporting undergraduate courses in geometrical and physical optics, modern physics, and an advanced laboratory instrumentation course. The lab includes a CCD camera system which is used by upper level students to investigate diffraction effects, signal/noise ratios of detection systems, and efficiency of binary optical elements. Also, the lab supports two new courses which have been developed to accompany the grant. One course, Laser Physics, is for upper level physics majors, while the second course, Light and Lasers in Action, will use optical phenomena to introduce physical concepts to non-majors of various disciplines. The lab is receiving recognition as the centerpiece for departmental outreach into the public schools. Local elementary, middle, and high school classes visit the lab on field trips and are given demonstrations in optics and lasers. Faculty also transport lab equipment to area schools for demonstrations, and have loaned equipment to schools for use in the classroom and at science fairs. The content, activities, and reception of the lab are described.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Mechanical Parameters of Different Rock Layers to the Stability of Coal Roadway in Soft Rock Strata

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Wei-ming; Gao, Xin; Yan, Ji-xing

    2013-01-01

    According to the geological characteristics of Xinjiang Ili mine in western area of China, a physical model of interstratified strata composed of soft rock and hard coal seam was established. Selecting the tunnel position, deformation modulus, and strength parameters of each layer as influencing factors, the sensitivity coefficient of roadway deformation to each parameter was firstly analyzed based on a Mohr-Columb strain softening model and nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then the effect laws of influencing factors which showed high sensitivity were further discussed. Finally, a regression model for the relationship between roadway displacements and multifactors was obtained by equivalent linear regression under multiple factors. The results show that the roadway deformation is highly sensitive to the depth of coal seam under the floor which should be considered in the layout of coal roadway; deformation modulus and strength of coal seam and floor have a great influence on the global stability of tunnel; on the contrary, roadway deformation is not sensitive to the mechanical parameters of soft roof; roadway deformation under random combinations of multi-factors can be deduced by the regression model. These conclusions provide theoretical significance to the arrangement and stability maintenance of coal roadway. PMID:24459447

  4. Iodine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, David A.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    The radioisotope 129I, a fission product in spent nuclear fuel, has a long half-life, and can be highly mobile in the environment. Iodine K-edge X-ray absorption spectra were collected to characterize the iodine valence and coordination environment in simulated Hanford low activity waste glasses. Both iodine XANES and EXAFS data for eleven borosilicate glasses indicate iodide-like environments within the glass structure, where I- has Na or Li nearest-neighbors, and where the nearest-neighbor cation-type correlates to the most common network-modifying cation in the glass. This is further supported by the systematic increase of iodine incorporation with the combined Na2O + Li2O content in the glass. EXAFS analyses determined I-Na distances near 3.04 Å with coordination numbers near 4.0 and I-Li distances near 2.80 Å with coordination numbers near 3.0. I-Na environments determined for the glasses are similar to the tetrahedral INa4 coordination found in NaI-sodalite. These weakly bound iodine-alkali configurations may be the only pathways for iodine to be retained in the glass. These environments may be precursors to NaI-sodalite crystallization in Na-rich glass. Iodine also shows distinct differences from chlorine in terms of the preferred sites in the glass structure.

  5. [Family structure of smoking onset and regular smoking among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to present the prevalence of the regular tobacco smoking, the age of Polish adolescents' smoking onset, as well as the trends in these behaviours in 2010-2014, and to identify the fam- ily factors related to early tobacco initiation, and regular smoking. The study was conducted in 2013/2014 as a part of the HBSC--Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO collaborative cross-national study, in a representative sample of Polish students (n=4545; 2263 boys, and 2282 girls), in three age groups, in mean age 11.6; 13.6; 15.6. The international, standard HBSC questionnaire was used. Results showed that prevalence of adolescents smoking onset, as well as regular smoking increased with age. There was no statistically significant difference comparing to HBSC study conducted in 2009/10. The important predictors of early tobacco initiation were: the male gender, living in broken or reconstructed family, and living in the rural area. Considering regular smoking, the most important risk factors were: older age (13,15 y.o.) and living with single parent or in reconstructed family. In planning the prevention strategies there is a need to take into account the family role in children and adolescents' smoking prevention, as well as how to support single parents.

  6. Ineffectiveness of the 2014-2015 H3N2 influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Mandelboim, Michal; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Drori, Yaron; Sherbany, Hilda; Pando, Rakefet; Sefty, Hanna; Zadka, Hila; Shohat, Tamar; Keller, Nathan; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal influenza vaccine is currently the most effective preventive modality against influenza infection. Nasopharyngeal samples of vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients presenting with Influenza-like-illness (ILI) were collected from over 20 outpatient clinics located in different geographic parts of Israel and were tested for the presence of influenza viruses (influenza A and influenza B). Here we show, that in the 2014-2015 season, the vaccine that included the A/Texas/50/2012 H3N2 virus was ineffective. Significant numbers of individuals vaccinated with the 2014-2015 vaccine, of all ages, were infected with influenza A (H3N2), manifesting similar symptoms as the non-vaccinated group. We further demonstrate that the Israeli circulating influenza A(H3N2) virus was different than that included in the 2014-2015 northern hemisphere vaccine, and that antibodies elicited by this vaccine were significantly less efficient in neutralizing influenza A(H3N2) infection. PMID:26716420

  7. Cellular Functions and X-ray Structure of Anthrolysin O, a Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin Secreted by Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Malito, Enrico; Chenal, Alexandre; Bishop, Brian L.; Musch, Mark W.; Villereal, Mitch L.; Chang, Eugene B.; Mosser, Elise M.; Rest, Richard F.; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2009-06-02

    Anthrolysin O (ALO) is a pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax. Growing evidence suggests the involvement of ALO in anthrax pathogenesis. Here, we show that the apical application of ALO decreases the barrier function of human polarized epithelial cells as well as increases intracellular calcium and the internalization of the tight junction protein occludin. Using pharmacological agents, we also found that barrier function disruption requires increased intracellular calcium and protein degradation. We also report a crystal structure of the soluble state of ALO. Based on our analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering studies, ALO exists as a monomer. Our ALO structure provides the molecular basis as to how ALO is locked in a monomeric state, in contrast to other CDCs that undergo antiparallel dimerization or higher order oligomerization in solution. ALO has four domains and is globally similar to perfringolysin O (PFO) and intermedilysin (ILY), yet the highly conserved undecapeptide region in domain 4 (D4) adopts a completely different conformation in all three CDCs. Consistent with the differences within D4 and at the D2-D4 interface, we found that ALO D4 plays a key role in affecting the barrier function of C2BBE cells, whereas PFO domain 4 cannot substitute for this role. Novel structural elements and unique cellular functions of ALO revealed by our studies provide new insight into the molecular basis for the diverse nature of the CDC family.

  8. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  9. Effect of rapid influenza diagnostic testing on antiviral treatment decisions for patients with influenza-like illness: southwestern U.S., May-December 2009.

    PubMed

    Suryaprasad, Anil; Redd, John T; Ricks, Philip M; Podewils, Laura Jean; Brett, Meghan; Oski, Jane; Minenna, Wanda; Armao, Frank; Vize, Barbara J; Cheek, James E

    2014-01-01

    Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) had low test sensitivity for detecting 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1pdm09) infection, causing public health authorities to recommend that treatment decisions be based primarily upon risk for influenza complications. We used multivariate Poisson regression analysis to estimate the contribution of RIDT results and risk for H1N1pdm09 complications to receipt of early antiviral (AV) treatment among 290 people with influenza-like illness (ILI) who received an RIDT ≤48 hours after symptom onset from May to December 2009 at four southwestern U.S. facilities. RIDT results had a stronger association with receipt of early AVs (rate ratio [RR] = 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4, 4.6) than did the presence of risk factors for H1N1pdm09 complications (age <5 years or high-risk medical conditions) (RR=1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.7). Few at-risk people (28/126, 22%) who had a negative RIDT received early AVs, suggesting the need for sustained efforts by public health to influence clinician practices.

  10. Effect of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Testing on Antiviral Treatment Decisions for Patients with Influenza-Like Illness: Southwestern U.S., May–December 2009

    PubMed Central

    Redd, John T.; Ricks, Philip M.; Podewils, Laura Jean; Brett, Meghan; Oski, Jane; Minenna, Wanda; Armao, Frank; Vize, Barbara J.; Cheek, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) had low test sensitivity for detecting 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1pdm09) infection, causing public health authorities to recommend that treatment decisions be based primarily upon risk for influenza complications. We used multivariate Poisson regression analysis to estimate the contribution of RIDT results and risk for H1N1pdm09 complications to receipt of early antiviral (AV) treatment among 290 people with influenza-like illness (ILI) who received an RIDT ≤48 hours after symptom onset from May to December 2009 at four southwestern U.S. facilities. RIDT results had a stronger association with receipt of early AVs (rate ratio [RR] = 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4, 4.6) than did the presence of risk factors for H1N1pdm09 complications (age <5 years or high-risk medical conditions) (RR=1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.7). Few at-risk people (28/126, 22%) who had a negative RIDT received early AVs, suggesting the need for sustained efforts by public health to influence clinician practices. PMID:24982534

  11. Composition of leaf n-alkanes in three Satureja montana L. subspecies from the Balkan peninsula: ecological and taxonomic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dodoš, Tanja; Rajčević, Nemanja; Tešević, Vele; Matevski, Vlado; Janaćković, Pedja; Marin, Petar D

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the epicuticular leaf n-alkanes of eight populations of three Satureja montana subspecies (S. montana L. subsp. pisidica (Wettst.) Šilić, S. montana L. subsp. montana, and S. montana L. subsp. variegata (Host) P. W. Ball), from central and western areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 15 n-alkane homologs with chain-lengths ranging from C21 to C35 were identified. The main n-alkane in almost all samples was n-nonacosane (C29 ), but differences in the contents of three other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. The diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters were analyzed by several statistical methods (principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test). All tests showed a high correlation between the leaf n-alkane pattern and the geographical distribution of the investigated populations, confirming the differentiation between S. montana subsp. pisidica and the other two subspecies. The S. montana subsp. variegata and S. montana subsp. montana populations are geographically closer and their differentiation according to the leaf-n-alkane patterns was not clear, even though there was some indication of discrimination between them. Moreover, most of the bioclimatic parameters related to temperature were highly correlated with the differentiation of the coastal and the continental populations.

  12. Assessing Workshop Models for Informal Educators: ASP's "Astronomy from the Ground Up” Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim; Gurton, S.; Hurst Schmitt, A.; Pompea, S.; Glass, M.; Haley, K.

    2011-01-01

    The classic workshop model for science educators in the past has been largely in situ: you show up somewhere, meet your fellow workshoppers, get personal treatment from instructors over several intensive days of content delivery, illustrative activities, and practice in technique, and try to incorporate what you've learned once you get back. But in an age when everybody's digitally connected, and many can't afford to travel, can an "online” workshop be as effective? This was a key question in the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) NSF-funded project "Astronomy from the Ground Up,” designed to increase astronomy education capacity at small and medium-sized science and nature centers and museums around the U.S. Together with its institutional partners, the Association of Science and Technology Centers (ASTC) and the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI), and a cadre of individual partners, the ASP conducted both on-site and online workshops and created an online community of practice to increase informal educator capacity to present astronomy to their audiences, and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the on-site and online delivery schemes. The presenter(s) will share some initial results and findings of the project.

  13. Alpha List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 91 - Sep 92. FY 92 (Federal Environmental Services - General Hospital Corporation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    xZl-x it (D 0) 0 (T) In In oIn ?-. 01, 0) 0) -4 N)0 (m = 1 w0ILI 0 0 -4 0: C0 000 0> 0 0D 0 C:-4-4 , t 0-410 0 ’ 011 0 .00) II m ca Z co2 m 2a 2a...I M2000 it am"WA-m0IO* c00Om VQm (* a 00 N400-4 -zr , - * I-ý0 00tn) it I MOO0 i II ’-40 (4A-Jd" -I00 C )02 (0 --Jt (0 mOin 0In WIn(0 If WO DO0in)4 Hf...414-4NN.N.N.(10000w 0N (5 IN (D 6i0 (-1 (30 11l 020 -4 o" 0000(0or)000000c00000000 " C320200 (7)002m02 m0)02002020T) 202000 02 co2 )o)C) -) 00 <T) 0

  14. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, Daisuke; Hosono, Eiji; Nanba, Yusuke; Zhou, Haoshen; Okabayashi, Jun; Ban, Chunmei; Glans, Per -Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Mizokawa, Takashi; Chen, Gang; Achkar, Andrew J.; Hawthron, David G.; Regier, Thomas Z.; Wadati, Hiroki

    2016-03-07

    Here, we evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY) modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of several cathodematerials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY) XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the NiL3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY) spectra. We found that, in the cathodematerials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe <i>L> edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the NiL edge which is far from the O K edge.

  15. Fifteen years of epidemiologic, virologic and syndromic influenza surveillance: A focus on type B virus and the effects of vaccine mismatch in Liguria region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Grammatico, Federico; Canepa, Paola

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to estimate the burden of influenza and to describe the genetic evolutionary pattern and antigenic variability of type B viral strains, data deriving from 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria region, Northern Italy, were described. Since the re-emergence of the Victoria lineage in 2001, the clinical-epidemiological and syndromic surveillances demonstrated the heavy burden of influenza like illness (ILI) syndrome. Focusing on type B influenza virus, it predominated or played a relevant epidemic role in the 50% of the evaluated influenza seasons. Furthermore, the virologic surveillance demonstrated the frequent co-circulation of both lineages an heterogeneous circulation of different influenza B strains, determining a partial or complete mismatch in at least 6 influenza seasons. The undemonstrated cross-reactivity between lineages and the unpredictability of predominant lineage arose the scientific debate about the opportunity to include the quadrivalent influenza vaccine among the preventive tools to improve the protection against type B viruses. The integration of different surveillance systems highly contribute to estimate the poorly evaluated burden of type B influenza virus and help to find variants to include in the vaccine formulation. PMID:27924684

  16. Material property relationships for pipeline steels and the potential for application of NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Lucinda; Bond, Leonard J.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry in the USA has an extensive infrastructure of pipelines, 70% of which were installed prior to 1980, and almost half were installed during the 1950s and 1960s. Ideally the mechanical properties (i.e. yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and fracture toughness) of a steel pipe must be known in order to respond to detected defects in an appropriate manner. Neither current in-ditch methods nor the ILI inspection data have yet determined and map the desired mechanical properties with adequate confidence. In the quest to obtain the mechanical properties of a steel pipe using a nondestructive method, it is important to understand that there are many inter-related variables. This paper reports a literature review and an analysis of a sample set of data. There is promise for correlating the results of NDE measurement modalities to the information required to develop relationships between those measurements and the mechanical measurements desired for pipelines to ensure proper response to defects which are of significant threat.

  17. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) A49G polymorphism and autoimmune blood diseases.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, Faruk; Hançer, Veysel Sabri; Küçükkaya, Reyhan

    2010-06-05

    AMAÇ: Sitotoksik T lenfosit antijen-4 (CTLA-4) ifadesi T lenfositlerde gerçekleşir ve T hücre cevabını engeller. Hayvan modellerinde CTLA-4 yokluğunun, dokuların poliklonal çoğalan lenfositler tarafından yoğun infiltrasyonu nedeni ile, ölümcül olduğu gösterilmiştir. Farklı otoimmün hastalıklar ile ilişkilendirilmiş CTLA-4 A49G polimorfizminin, CTLA-4 molekülünün inhibitör fonksiyonunu azalttığı düşünülmektedir. YÖNTEMLER: Bu çalışmada otoimmun hemolitik anemi (OIHA) hastası 46 kişi, immun trombositopenik purpura (ITP) hastası 62 kişi ve 150 sağlıklı kontrol bireyinde CTLA-4 A49G polimorfizmi çalışılmıştır.

  18. Analysis of Influenza and RSV dynamics in the community using a ‘Local Transmission Zone’ approach

    PubMed Central

    Almogy, Gal; Stone, Lewi; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Wolf, Dana G.; Dorozko, Marina; Moses, Allon E.; Nir-Paz, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of pathogen spread within urban areas is critical for the effective prevention and containment of communicable diseases. At these relatively small geographic scales, short-distance interactions and tightly knit sub-networks dominate the dynamics of pathogen transmission; yet, the effective boundaries of these micro-scale groups are generally not known and often ignored. Using clinical test results from hospital admitted patients we analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of Influenza Like Illness (ILI) in the city of Jerusalem over a period of three winter seasons. We demonstrate that this urban area is not a single, perfectly mixed ecology, but is in fact comprised of a set of more basic, relatively independent pathogen transmission units, which we term here Local Transmission Zones, LTZs. By identifying these LTZs, and using the dynamic pathogen-content information contained within them, we are able to differentiate between disease-causes at the individual patient level often with near-perfect predictive accuracy. PMID:28181554

  19. Influence of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway on the habitat selection of wild animals, using satellite data and satellite-based ARGOS system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhe, Aosier

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) was in trial operation since 1 July 2006, is the world's highest-elevation railway and the longest highland railway, extending over 1956 km from Xining (Qinghai's capital in northwestern China) to Lhasa, the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region. This QTR railway was crosses five nature reserves along the route Hoh Xil (COCOX- ILI), Qinghai Sanjiangyuan, Chang Tang, Lin-chou Pengbo, and La-lu, and Hoh xil nature reserve is the important breeding sites of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). In order to clearly the habitat use and habitat selection of the Tibetan Antelope was divided in the north and south by the QTR railway, we planned the capture of ten Tibetan Antelopes and attach a satellite-based ARGOS system platform transmitter terminal (PTT) to the Tibetan Antelopes. And we succeeded in the capture of two Tibetan Antelopes for the first time in the world in 2007a summer and attached an ARGOS PTT. In this study, we estimate RASTER model of habitat change, using satellite-based ARGOS PTT tracking analyst data and satellite (Terra/MODIS, Terra/ASTER, ALOS and SPOT/vegetation instrument data) land cover change data, order to clearly the spatial and temporal characteristics of wide area habitat selection of Tibetan Antelope.

  20. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region.

    PubMed

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response)--17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region.