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Sample records for island accident area

  1. Mortality among the residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1979-1992.

    PubMed

    Talbott, E O; Youk, A O; McHugh, K P; Shire, J D; Zhang, A; Murphy, B P; Engberg, R A

    2000-06-01

    The largest U.S. population exposed to low-level radioactivity released by an accident at a nuclear power plant is composed of residents near the Three Mile Island (TMI) Plant on 28 March 1979. This paper (a collaboration of The University of Pittsburgh and the Pennsylvania Department of Health) reports on the mortality experience of the 32,135 members in this cohort for 1979-1992. We analyzed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using a local comparison population and performed relative risk regression modeling to assess overall mortality and specific cancer risks by confounding factors and radiation-related exposure variables. Total mortality was significantly elevated for both men and women (SMRs = 109 and 118, respectively). All heart disease accounted for 43.3% of total deaths and demonstrated elevated SMRs for heart disease of 113 and 130 for men and women, respectively; however, when controlling for confounders and natural background radiation, these elevations in heart disease were no longer evident. Overall cancer mortality was similar in this cohort as compared to the local population (male SMR = 100; female SMR = 101). In the relative risk modeling, there was a significant effect for all lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in males in relation to natural background exposure (p = 0.04). However, no trend was noted. We found a significant linear trend for female breast cancer risk in relation to increasing levels of TMI-related likely [gamma]-exposure (p = 0.02). Although such a relationship has been noted in other investigations, emissions from the TMI incident were significantly lower than in other documented studies. Therefore, it is unlikely that this observed increase is related to radiation exposure on the day of the accident. The mortality surveillance of this cohort does not provide consistent evidence that radioactivity released during the TMI accident has a significant impact on the mortality experience of this cohort to date. However, continued

  2. Cancer incidence among residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1982-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Youk, Ada O.; Sasser, Howell; Talbott, Evelyn O.

    2011-11-15

    Background: The Pennsylvania Department of Health established a registry of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident in 1979. Over 93% of the population present on the day of the accident within a 5-mile radius was enrolled and interviewed. We used the registry to investigate the potential cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure among the TMI population. Methods: Cancer incidence data among the TMI cohort were available from 1982 to 1995. Because more than 97% of the population were white and few cancer cases were reported for those younger than 18 years of age, we included whites of age 18 years and older (10,446 men and 11,048 women) for further analyses. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) per 0.1 m Sv and 95% confident interval (CI) of cancer by radiation-related exposures. The cancers of interest were all malignant neoplasms, cancer of bronchus, trachea, and lung, cancer of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, leukemia, and female breast. Results: Among men and women, there was no evidence of an increased risk for all malignant neoplasms among the TMI cohort exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation (RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.97, 1.01 and RR=0.99, 95% CI=0.94, 1.03, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, and background radiation. Elevation in risk was noted for cancer of the bronchus, trachea, and lung in relation to higher background radiation exposure (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.05 at 8.0-8.8 {mu}R/h compared to 5.2-7.2 {mu}R/h). An increased risk of leukemia was found among men exposed to higher maximum and likely {gamma} radiation related to TMI exposure during the ten days following the accident (RR=1.15, 95% CI=1.04, 1.29 and RR=1.36, 95% CI=1.08, 1.71, respectively). This relationship was not found in women. Conclusion: Increased cancer risks from low-level radiation exposure within the TMI cohort were small and mostly statistically non-significant. However, additional

  3. Mortality among the residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1979-1992.

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, E O; Youk, A O; McHugh, K P; Shire, J D; Zhang, A; Murphy, B P; Engberg, R A

    2000-01-01

    The largest U.S. population exposed to low-level radioactivity released by an accident at a nuclear power plant is composed of residents near the Three Mile Island (TMI) Plant on 28 March 1979. This paper (a collaboration of The University of Pittsburgh and the Pennsylvania Department of Health) reports on the mortality experience of the 32,135 members in this cohort for 1979-1992. We analyzed standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using a local comparison population and performed relative risk regression modeling to assess overall mortality and specific cancer risks by confounding factors and radiation-related exposure variables. Total mortality was significantly elevated for both men and women (SMRs = 109 and 118, respectively). All heart disease accounted for 43.3% of total deaths and demonstrated elevated SMRs for heart disease of 113 and 130 for men and women, respectively; however, when controlling for confounders and natural background radiation, these elevations in heart disease were no longer evident. Overall cancer mortality was similar in this cohort as compared to the local population (male SMR = 100; female SMR = 101). In the relative risk modeling, there was a significant effect for all lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue in males in relation to natural background exposure (p = 0.04). However, no trend was noted. We found a significant linear trend for female breast cancer risk in relation to increasing levels of TMI-related likely [gamma]-exposure (p = 0.02). Although such a relationship has been noted in other investigations, emissions from the TMI incident were significantly lower than in other documented studies. Therefore, it is unlikely that this observed increase is related to radiation exposure on the day of the accident. The mortality surveillance of this cohort does not provide consistent evidence that radioactivity released during the TMI accident has a significant impact on the mortality experience of this cohort to date. However, continued

  4. Long-term follow-up of the residents of the Three Mile Island accident area: 1979-1998.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Youk, Ada O; McHugh-Pemu, Kathleen P; Zborowski, Jeanne V

    2003-03-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident (1979) prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Health to initiate a cohort mortality study in the TMI accident area. This study is significant because of the long follow-up (1979-1998), large cohort size (32,135), and evidence from earlier reports indicating increased cancer risks. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to assess the mortality experience of the cohort compared with a local population. Relative risk (RR) regression modeling was performed to assess cause-specific mortality associated with radiation-related exposure variables after adjustment for individual smoking and lifestyle factors. Overall cancer mortality in this cohort was similar to the local population [SMRs = 103.7 (male); 99.8 (female)]. RR modeling showed neither maximum gamma nor likely gamma exposure was a significant predictor of all malignant neoplasms; bronchus, trachea, and lung; or heart disease mortality after adjusting for known confounders. The RR estimates for maximum gamma exposure (less than or equal to 8, 8-19, 20-34, greater than or equal to 35 mrem) in relation to all lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (LHT) are significantly elevated (RRs = 1.00, 1.16, 2.54, 2.45, respectively) for males and are suggestive of a potential dose-response relationship, although the test for trend was not significant. An upward trend of RRs and SMRs for levels of maximum gamma exposure in relation to breast cancer in females (RRs = 1.00, 1.08, 1.13, 1.31; SMRs = 104.2, 113.2, 117.9) was also noted. Although the surveillance within the TMI cohort provides no consistent evidence that radioactivity released during the nuclear accident has had a significant impact on the overall mortality experience of these residents, several elevations persist, and certain potential dose-response relationships cannot be definitively excluded.

  5. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  6. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers.

  7. Paragliding accidents in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Fasching, G; Schippinger, G; Pretscher, R

    1997-08-01

    Paragliding is an increasingly popular hobby, as people try to find new and more adventurous activities. However, there is an increased and inherent danger with this sport. For this reason, as well as the inexperience of many operators, injuries occur frequently. This retrospective study centers on the helicopter rescue of 70 individuals in paragliding accidents. All histories were examined, and 43 patients answered a questionnaire. Nineteen (42%) pilots were injured when taking off, 20 (44%) during the flight, and six (13%) when landing. Routine and experience did not affect the prevalence of accident. Analysis of the causes of accident revealed pilot errors in all but three cases. In 34 rescue operations a landing of the helicopter near the site of the accident was possible. Half of the patients had to be rescued by a cable winch or a long rope fixed to the helicopter. Seven (10%) of the pilots suffered multiple trauma, 38 (54%) had injuries of the lower extremities, and 32 (84%) of them sustained fractures. Injuries to the spine were diagnosed in 34 cases with a fracture rate of 85%. One patient had an incomplete paraplegia. Injuries to the head occurred in 17 patients. No paraglider pilot died. The average hospitalization was 22 days, and average time of working inability was 14 weeks. Fourteen (34%) patients suffered from a permanent damage to their nerves or joints. Forty-three percent of the paragliders continued their sport despite the accident; two of them had another accident. An improved training program is necessary to lower the incidence of paragliding accidents. Optimal equipment to reduce injuries in case of accidents is mandatory. The helicopter emergency physician must perform a careful examination, provide stabilization of airways and circulation, give analgesics, splint fractured extremities, and transport the victim on a vacuum mattress to the appropriate hospital.

  8. Health-related economic costs of the Three-Mile Island accident.

    PubMed

    Hu, T W; Slaysman, K S

    1984-01-01

    On March 1979, a nuclear power station at Three-Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had a major breakdown. During the two-week period of the accident, about 150,000 residents were evacuated for reasons associated with safety and health. Many residents during and after the accident, regardless of whether they left or stayed, made mental and physical adjustments due to this accident. This paper is to estimate the economic costs incurred by individuals or communities as a result of a change in physical or mental health status and/or a change in health care services due to the TMI accident. The findings indicate that stress symptoms caused by the accident did affect the health-related behaviors of area residents. Of the costs examined, the economic costs of work days lost and physician visits are the largest cost items. There were some increases in consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and tranquilizers immediately following the accident.

  9. Tourist visitation impacts of the accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.; Baughman, M.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper analyzes tourist visitation impacts of the March 27, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island. A review of the literature, supplemented with recollections from Pennsylvanian public officials, are used to specify a conventional tourism impact model which holds that depressed 1979 summer tourism season was more influenced by gasoline shortages and possibly other confounding variables (such as rainy local weather conditions and a polio outbreak) than by the nuclear accident. Regression analysis using monthly visitation data for Hershey Chocolate World, Gettysburg National Park, The Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitor Bureau, and several state parks as dependent variables provide support for this model. Potential tourism implications of an accident at Yucca Mountain are briefly discussed in light of our findings.

  10. Analysis of Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) of the Electric Power Research Institute has analyzed the Three Mile Island-2 accident. Early results of this analysis were a brief narrative summary, issued in mid-May 1979 and an initial version of this report issued later in 1979 as noted in the Foreword. The present report is a revised version of the 1979 report, containing summaries, a highly detailed sequence of events, a comparison of that sequence of events with those from other sources, 25 appendices, references and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. A matrix of equipment and system actions is included as a folded insert.

  11. A Content Analysis of News Media Coverage of the Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mitchell; Edison, Nadyne G.

    A study was conducted for the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to analyze coverage of the accident by ten news organizations: two wire services, three commercial television networks, and five daily newspapers. Copies of all stories and transcripts of news programs during the first week of the accident were examined from…

  12. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result of this study was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments were obtained from reports of tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

  13. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m (2000 ft) is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments was obtained from reports or tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

  14. Blueprint for Breakdown: Three Mile Island and the Media before the Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses media coverage of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant before and during the disaster. Concludes that there was a communication breakdown prior to the accident. Outlines the causes and offers suggestions for avoiding similar breakdowns in the future. (JMF)

  15. Analysis of the TMI-2 source range monitor during the TMI (Three Mile Island) accident

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Horng-Yu; Baratta, A.J.; Hsiao, Ming-Yuan; Bandini, B.R.

    1987-06-01

    The source range monitor (SRM) data recorded during the first 4 hours of the Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 (TMI-2) accident following reactor shutdown were analyzed. An effort to simulate the actual SRM response was made by performing a series of neutron transport calculations. Primary emphasis was placed on simulating the changes in SRM response to various system events during the accident, so as to obtain useful information about core conditions at the various stages. Based on the known end-state reactor conditions, the major system events, and the acutal SRM readings, self-consistent estimates were made of core liquid level, void fraction in the coolant, and locations of core materials. This analysis expands the possible interpretation of the SRM data relative to core damage progression. The results appear to be consistent with other studies of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program, and provide information useful for the developemnt and determination of the TMI-2 accident scenario.

  16. [sup 137]Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W. )

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread [sup 137]Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher [sup 137]Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue [sup 137]Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than [sup 137]Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of [sup 137]Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  17. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  18. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss. PMID:6859357

  19. Long Island sound area contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-03

    The Area Contingency Plan (ACP) describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State, and local response to a discharge or substantial threat of discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, Long Island Sound. This plan addresses response on an average most probable discharge, a maximum most probable discharge, and a worst case discharge including discharges from fire or explosion. Planning for these three scenarios covers the expected range of spills likely to occur in this area. For purpose of this plan, the spill scenarios are based on the best historical data available.

  20. Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.

  1. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, C

    1982-03-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters.

  2. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, C

    1982-01-01

    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters. PMID:7058968

  3. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  8. Road accidents and tourism: the case of the Balearic Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rosselló, Jaume; Saenz-de-Miera, Oscar

    2011-05-01

    The increase in the number of tourists for many destinations and their increased mobility within host countries or regions has implied a rise in tourism-associated externalities, with vehicle crashes as the most common cause of injury for tourists. Within the transport literature, the number and variation in the amount of accidents has been related to a large set of determining variables, including weather conditions, socio-economic characteristics, exposure, physical characteristics of the road and a variety of dummies that try to capture effects such as safety laws and seasonal variations. However, the presence of tourism has been neglected. Using the case study of the Balearic Islands, the present study estimates the role of tourism in determining the number of accidents in a daily context, using the set of variables suggested by the literature and incorporating a daily measure for the stock of tourists at a host destination. Results show how tourism can be associated with a significant amount of the accidents that take place in the Balearics.

  9. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low lighting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-02-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, the low lighting conditions significantly influence the frequency of the traffic accidents in the urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low lighting conditions on the traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca. The dependence degree between lighting and the number of traffic accidents was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the lighting conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injured persons rate for the 0.5 km2 equally-sized areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results have shown a strong linear dependence between the low lighting conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accidents occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions, at the city entrances-exits, which represent also vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low lighting and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence enabled us to identify the high traffic accident risk areas in the city of Cluj-Napoca.

  10. Radiation release and health effects lessons from the Three Mile Island accident. Application to emergency response planning

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt, F.R.; Berger, C.D.

    1980-11-21

    The Three Mile Island-2 accident and the ORNL response are discussed briefly. Three documents are reviewed in relation to emergency response planning for the Zimmer Nuclear Plant: NUREG-0610, NUREG-0654, and the Sequoyah emergency response plan. Distribution of potassium iodide tablets is not recommended. (DLC)

  11. Analysis of the source range monitor during the first four hours of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.Y.; Bandini, B.R. ); Hsiao, M.Y.; Baratta, A.J.; Bandini, B.R. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Tolman, E.L. )

    1989-02-01

    The source range monitor (SRM) data recorded during the first 4 h of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident following reactor shutdown were analyzed. An effort to simulate the actual SRM response was made by performing a series of neutron transport calculations. Primary emphasis was placed on simulating the changes in SRM response to various system events during the accident so as to obtain useful information about core conditions at the various stages. Based on the known end-state reactor conditions, the major system events and the actual SRM readings, self-consistent estimates were made of core liquid level, void fraction in the coolant, and locations of core materials. This analysis expands the possible interpretation of the SRM data relative to core damage progression. The results appear to be consistent with other studies of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program, and provide information useful for the development and determination of the TMI-2 accident scenario.

  12. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. (ACR)

  13. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Areas E Appendix E to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1...

  14. 78 FR 70854 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-7201 Farallon De Medinilla Island; Mariana Islands, GU

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Restricted Area R-7201 Farallon... coordinate in the boundary of restricted area R-7201, Farallon De Medinilla Island, Mariana Islands, Guam... adjustment in the longitude coordinate for R-7201 to take into account the revised positioning of FDM on...

  15. Epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents in a metropolitan area of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Polianna L M M; Silva Junior, Geraldo B; Jacinto, Camilla N; Lima, Caroline B; Lima, Juliana B; Veras, Maria do Socorro B; Daher, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SNAKEBITE ACCIDENTS IN A METROPOLITAN AREA OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Lima, Caroline B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of snakebite accidents reported by the toxicological assistance center in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Database information on snakebite accidents was analyzed regarding the period from January 2003 to December 2011. A total of 1063 cases were found. The accidents occurred during the rainy months (March, April and May), in urban areas (52.3%), affecting individuals younger than 50 years and predominantly among males (70.7%). The lower limbs were the most frequently affected body area (33.7%). Most accidents involved non-venomous snakes (76.1%). The genus Bothrops was the main one involved in venomous accidents (83%). It is expected that this study can be used as the substrate to improve healthcare surveillance and implementing better measures for the treatment of this population. PMID:24037290

  17. Hydrostratigraphy of Tree Island Cores from Water Conservation Area 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNeill, Donald F.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2003-01-01

    Cores and borehole-geophysical logs collected on and around two tree islands in Water Conservation Area 3 have been examined to develop a stratigraphic framework for these ecosystems. Especially important is the potential for the exchange of ground water and surface water within these features. The hydrostratigraphic results from this study document the lithologic nature of the foundation of the tree islands, the distribution of porous intervals, the potential for paleotopographic influence on their formation, and the importance of low-permeability, subaerial-exposure horizons on the vertical exchange of ground water and surface water. Figure 1. Location of Tree Islands 3AS3 and 3BS1. [larger image] Results from this hydrostratigraphic study indicate that subtle differences occur in lithofacies and topography between the on-island and off-island subsurface geologic records. Specifics are described herein. Firstly, at both tree-island sites, the top of the limestone bedrock is slightly elevated beneath the head of the tree islands relative to the off-island core sites and the tail of the tree islands, which suggests that bedrock 'highs' acted as 'seeds' for the development of the tree islands of this study and possibly many others. Secondly, examination of the recovered core and the caliper logs tentatively suggest that the elevated limestone beneath the tree islands may have a preferentially more porous framework relative to limestone beneath the adjacent areas, possibly providing a ground-water-to-surface-water connection that sustains the tree island system. Finally, because the elevation of the top of the limestone bedrock at the head of Tree Island 3AS3 is slightly higher than the surrounding upper surface of the peat, and because the wetland peats have a lower hydraulic conductivity than the limestone bedrock (Miami Limestone and Fort Thompson Formation), it is possible that there is a head difference between surface water of the wetlands and the ground water

  18. Revisiting Insights from Three Mile Island Unit 2 Postaccident Examinations and Evaluations in View of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Joy; Farmer, Mitchell; Corradini, Michael; Ott, Larry; Gauntt, Randall; Powers, Dana

    2012-11-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979, led industry and regulators to enhance strategies to protect against severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants. Investigations in the years after the accident concluded that at least 45% of the core had melted and that nearly 19 tonnes of the core material had relocated to the lower head. Postaccident examinations indicate that about half of that material formed a solid layer near the lower head and above it was a layer of fragmented rubble. As discussed in this paper, numerous insights related to pressurized water reactor accident progression were gained from postaccident evaluations of debris, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) specimens, and nozzles taken from the RPV. In addition, information gleaned from TMI-2 specimen evaluations and available data from plant instrumentation were used to improve severe accident simulation models that form the technical basis for reactor safety evaluations. Finally, the TMI-2 accident led the nuclear community to dedicate considerable effort toward understanding severe accident phenomenology as well as the potential for containment failure. Because available data suggest that significant amounts of fuel heated to temperatures near melting, the events at Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 offer an unexpected opportunity to gain similar understanding about boiling water reactor accident progression. To increase the international benefit from such an endeavor, we recommend that an international effort be initiated to (a) prioritize data needs; (b) identify techniques, samples, and sample evaluations needed to address each information need; and (c) help finance acquisition of the required data and conduct of the analyses.

  19. Using the source range monitor response to determine fuel relocation during the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) accident

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.; Wu, H.Y.; Hsia, M.Y.; Bandini, B.R.; Tolman, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    A number of researchers have analyzed the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) source range monitor (SRM) response during the TMI-2 accident. In each of these analyses, an intact core was assumed. Video and sonar inspections that took place during the defueling effort have shown that the core was extensively damaged. In this paper the authors report on an analysis of the TMI-2 SRM in which the times of fuel relocation were determined.

  20. The Nuclear Accident at Three Mile Island a Practical Lesson in the Fundamental Importance of Effective Communications

    SciTech Connect

    DeVine Jr, J.C.

    2008-07-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident in March 1979 had a profound effect on the course of commercial nuclear generation in the United States and around the world. And while the central elements of the accident were matters of nuclear engineering, design and operations, its consequences were compounded, and in some respects superseded, by extraordinarily ineffective communications by all parties at all levels. Communications failures during the accident and its aftermath caused misunderstanding, distrust, and incorrect emergency response - and seeded or reinforced public opposition to nuclear power that persists to this day. There are communications lessons from TMI that have not yet been fully learned, and some that once were learned but are now gradually being forgotten. The more glaring TMI communications problems were in the arena of external interactions and communications among the plant owner, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the media, and the public. Confusing, fragmented, and contradictory public statements early in the accident, regardless of cause, undermined all possibility for reasonable discourse thereafter. And because the TMI accident was playing out on a world stage, the breakdown in public trust had long term and widespread implications. At the plant site, both TMI-2 cleanup and restart of the undamaged TMI-1 unit met with years of public and political criticism, and attendant regulatory pressure. Across the nation, public trust in nuclear power and those who operate it plummeted, unquestionably contributing to the 25+ year hiatus in new plant orders. There were other, less visible but equally important, consequences of ineffective communications at TMI. The unplanned 'precautionary' evacuation urged by the governor two days after the accident - a life changing, traumatic event for thousands of residents - was prompted primarily by misunderstandings and miscommunications regarding the condition of the plant. And today, nearly 30

  1. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... BABESIOSIS § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana...

  2. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the...

  3. Evaluation of the response to xenon-133 radiations by thermoluminescent dosimeters used during the accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Riley, R J; Zanzonico, P B; Masterson, M E; St Germain, J M; Laughlin, J S

    1982-03-01

    An evaluation is presented of the accuracy and sensitivity of three types of TLD's used during the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This evaluation indicated that, due to the method of calibration, all the dosimeters over-responded to 133Xe radiations. The response ranged from slightly above unity to almost two. Exposures of the TLD's were of two types, namely, the characteristic X-rays either were or were not filtered from the beam. The angular sensitivity of the dosimeters is also reported.

  4. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers; Part I: perceptions and evaluations, behavioral responses, and work-related attitudes and feelings.

    PubMed Central

    Kasl, S V; Chisholm, R F; Eskenazi, B

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI), telephone interviews were conducted six months later with 324 nuclear workers assigned to TMI and 298 workers assigned to a comparison plant at Peach Bottom (PB). Examination of PB-TMI differences, stratified by supervisory status, revealed the following: Part I: TMI workers reported greater exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and felt that their health had been thereby endangered. TMI workers experienced more uncertainty and conflict at the time of the accident. Coping responses such as seeing a doctor, taking drugs, and increasing alcohol consumption were quite infrequent. Leaving the area was more common; however, over 40 per cent of TMI workers wished to leave but did not do so because of work obligations. TMI workers reported much lower job satisfaction and much greater uncertainty about their job future. PMID:7212135

  5. Lower head creep rupture failure analysis associated with alternative accident sequences of the Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sang Lung, Chan

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this lower head creep rupture analysis is to assess the current version of MELCOR 1.8.5-RG against SCDAP/RELAP5 MOD 3.3kz. The purpose of this assessment is to investigate the current MELCOR in-vessel core damage progression phenomena including the model for the formation of a molten pool. The model for stratified molten pool natural heat transfer will be included in the next MELCOR release. Presently, MELCOR excludes the gap heat-transfer model for the cooling associated with the narrow gap between the debris and the lower head vessel wall. All these phenomenological models are already treated in SCDAP/RELAP5 using the COUPLE code to model the heat transfer of the relocated debris with the lower head based on a two-dimensional finite-element-method. The assessment should determine if current MELCOR capabilities adequately cover core degradation phenomena appropriate for the consolidated MELCOR code. Inclusion of these features should bring MELCOR much closer to a state of parity with SCDAP/RELAP5 and is a currently underway element in the MELCOR code consolidation effort. This assessment deals with the following analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) alternative accident sequences. The TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-1 includes the continuation of the base case of the TMI-2 accident with the Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP) tripped, and the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) throttled after approximately 6000 s accident time, while in the TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-2, the reactor coolant pumps is tripped after 6000 s and the HPIS is activated after 12,012 s. The lower head temperature distributions calculated with SCDAP/RELAP5 are visualized and animated with open source visualization freeware 'OpenDX'. (author)

  6. The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, Grover J.

    2012-06-01

    In 2010, the University of Rhode Island (URI) secured $2,000,000 from the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources (OER) to support research studies for the identification of preferred sites for offshore renewable energy development in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. This research will provide the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) with sound technical information to assist in the siting of wind turbines in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. CRMC is the state agency with jurisdiction over development, preservation and restoration of Rhode Island’s coasts out to the three-mile limit, and is the state’s authority for federal consistency. With technical support from URI, CRMC is currently leading the implementation of the Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP) with the purpose of developing policies and standards to guide the development of offshore renewable energy. The justification behind renewable energy development in Rhode Island includes diversifying the energy sources supplying electricity consumed in the state, stabilizing long-term energy prices, enhancing environmental quality – including the reduction of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions – reducing the state’s reliance on fossil fuels, and creating jobs in Rhode Island in the renewable energy sector.

  7. Long Island Sound area contingency plan. Change 3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Contained in this revision are: Updated Marine Firefighting annex; Updated Hazardous Material response annex; Comprehensive update of resource phone numbers; Listing of State Historic Protection Officers (SHPO`s); Response techniques and listing of facilities which handle Group V Oils; and Substantial update to the Sensitive Areas on Long Island.

  8. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report (TMI79c) to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists.

  9. Sediment transport in the nearshore area of Phoenix Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rijun; Ma, Fang; Wu, Jianzheng; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Shenghui; Xu, Yongchen; Zhu, Longhai; Wang, Nan; Liu, Aijiang

    2016-10-01

    Based on the measured data, suspended sediment concentration, surface sediment grain size, current and waves, the sediment transport mechanisms and pathways in the Phoenix Island area were analyzed using methods of flux decomposition and Grain Size Trend Analysis (GSTA). The results show that net suspended sediment is mainly transported by average current, Stokes drift, and gravitational circulation. The transport direction of suspended sediment is varying and basically following the direction of residual tidal currents. Surface sediment transport pathways are primarily parallel to the coastline along with two convergent centers. Waves and longshore currents have a significant influence on sediment transport, but the influence is limited due to a steep and deep underwater bank. Tidal current is the main controlling factor for sediment transport, especially in the deep water area. Neither suspended nor surface sediment is transported towards the southwest. The South Shandong Coastal Current (SSCC) has little effect on sediment transport processes in the nearshore area of Phoenix Island.

  10. Burden, distribution and impact of domestic accidents in a semi-urban area of coastal Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Stalin, P; Senthilvel, V; Kanimozhy, K; Singh, Zile; Rajkamal, R; Purty, Anil J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of domestic accidents, describe the factors associated with domestic accidents and assess the medical and economical consequences of domestic accidents. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-urban area of Tamil Nadu during February 2013. A total of 3947 study participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Study variables included were socio-demography, housing conditions, epidemiological factors, medical and economical consequences of domestic accidents. Means and proportions were calculated. The prevalence of domestic accidents was 12.7%. Out of 500 domestic accidents, falls (54.4%) was the most common type of domestic accident. Females and the respondents in age group of 21-40 years were more commonly affected. About 60% of victims received treatment. Mean duration of hospital stay, mean amount of money spent for treatment and mean number of days away from routine work for falls category were 16 days, US$25 and 8 days, respectively, which are higher than other types of accidents. The burden and impact of domestic accidents was high. Therefore, in order to prevent and control domestic accidents, promotion of house safety measures and creation of awareness among the community using IEC programmes have to be undertaken.

  11. Using Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island Accident as a Case Study to Analyze Newspaper Coverage: A Diary of Events and Suggestions for Teaching Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susskind, Jacob L.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for studying the coverage of the same current news story in several newspapers are outlined. Secondary school students critically examine news reporting, detect false or propagandistic reports, and learn to weigh and judge evidence. An example using the Three Mile Island nuclear accident is provided. (KC)

  12. Determination of the end state of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident using neutron transport analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, B.R.; Baratta, A.J. ); Fricke, V.R. )

    1988-06-01

    Since the March 1979 accident, the source range monitors (SRMs) at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) have been reading several orders of magnitude higher than would be expected in a normal shutdown core. A study in which these anomalous SRM readings are analyzed and the cause determined is reported. Here, the DOT 4.3 two-dimensional transport code was used to simulate the SRM response and the response of an axial string of solid-state track recorders by modeling the neutronics of the damaged TMI-2 core. This modeling has indicated the presence of -- 10 tonnes of fuel material in the lower vessel plenum, a condition that was subsequently verified by direct observation. The computational model, the method of cross-section preparation, and an analysis of the various core neutron sources are described, as well as the results obtained from this effort.

  13. 77 FR 70183 - Notice of Meeting for Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... National Park Service Notice of Meeting for Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council... notice that the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council will hold a meeting. This..., Superintendent, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, at (617) 223-8669 or...

  14. SARNET: Integrating Severe Accident Research in Europe - Safety Issues in the Source Term Area

    SciTech Connect

    Haste, T.; Giordano, P.; Micaelli, J.-C.; Herranz, L.

    2006-07-01

    SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) is a Network of Excellence of the EU 6. Framework Programme that integrates in a sustainable manner the research capabilities of about fifty European organisations to resolve important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future nuclear plant, especially water-cooled reactors, under hypothetical severe accident conditions. It emphasises integrating activities, spreading of excellence (including knowledge transfer) and jointly-executed research. This paper summarises the main results obtained at the middle of the current 4-year term, highlighting those concerning radioactive release to the environment. Integration is pursued through different methods: the ASTEC integral computer code for severe accident modelling, development of PSA level 2 methods, a means for definition, updating and resolution of safety issues, and development of a web database for storing experimental results. These activities are helped by an evolving Advanced Communication Tool, easing communication amongst partners. Concerning spreading of excellence, educational courses covering severe accident analysis methodology and level 2 PSA have been organised for early 2006. A text book on Severe Accident Phenomenology is being written. A mobility programme for students and young researchers has started. Results are disseminated mainly through open conference proceedings, with journal publications planned. The 1. European Review Meeting on Severe Accidents in November 2005 covered SARNET activities during its first 18 months. Jointly executed research activities concern key issues grouped in the Corium, Containment and Source Term areas. In Source Term, behaviour of the highly radio-toxic ruthenium under oxidising conditions, including air ingress, is investigated. Models are proposed for fuel and ruthenium oxidation. Experiments on transport of oxide ruthenium species are performed. Reactor scenario studies assist in defining

  15. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, V.I.; Sokur, T.N.; Volobuev, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. We have concentrated on two well-defined areas: the Chechersky district of the Gomel region in Belorussia and the Polessky district of the Kiev region in the Ukraine. A number of investigations were carried out on 688 pregnant women and their babies, and data were obtained from 7000 labor histories of the development of newborns for a period of 8 years (3 years before the accident and 5 years after it). Parameters examined included birth rate, thyroid pathology, extragenital pathology such as anemias, renal disorders, hypertension, and abnormalities in the metabolism of fats, complications of gestation, spontaneous abortions, premature deliveries, perinatal morbidity and mortality, stillbirths and early neonatal mortality, infections and inflammatory diseases, neurological symptoms and hemic disturbances in both mothers and infants, trophic anomalies, and biochemical and structural changes in the placenta. Several exogenous, complicating influences were also considered such as psycho-emotional factors, stress, lifestyle changes, and others caused directly by the hazardous situation and by its consequences such as treatment, removal from affected areas, etc. 9 figs.

  16. Terrestrial slugs (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in the NATURA 2000 areas of Cyprus island

    PubMed Central

    Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Demetropoulos, Simon; Mylonas, Moissis; A.Triantis, Kostas; Makris, Christodoulos; Georgiou, Gabriel; Wiktor, Andrzej; Demetropoulos, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial slugs of the Island of Cyprus were recently studied in the framework of a study of the whole terrestrial malacofauna of the island. The present work was carried out in the Natura 2000 conservation areas of the island in 155 sampling sites over three years (2004–2007). Museum collections as well as literature references were included. In total six species are present in the Natura 2000 areas of the island, belonging to three families: Limacidae, Agriolimacidae and Milacidae. One of the species, Milax riedeli, is a new record for the island. The distribution of the species across the island and in the surrounding areas is discussed. PMID:22451785

  17. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.011...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  2. Bayesian spatial and ecological models for small-area accident and injury analysis.

    PubMed

    MacNab, Ying C

    2004-11-01

    In this article, recently developed Bayesian spatial and ecological regression models are applied to analyse small-area variation in accident and injury. This study serves to demonstrate how Bayesian modelling techniques can be implemented to assess potential risk factors measured at group (e.g. area) level. Presented here is a unified modelling framework that enables thorough investigations into associations between injury rates and regional characteristics, residual variation and spatial autocorrelation. Using hospital separation data for 83 local health areas in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 1990-1999, we explore and examine ecological/contextual determinants of motor vehicle accident injury (MVAI) among male children and youth aged 0-24 and for those of six age groups (<1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24). Eighteen local health area characteristics are studied. They include a broad spectrum of socio-economic indicators, residential environment indicators (roads and parks), medical services availability and utilisation, population health, proportion of recent immigrants, crime rates, rates of speeding charge and rates of seatbelt violation. Our study indicates a large regional variation in MVAI in males aged 0-24 in British Columbia, Canada, in 1990-1999, and that adjusting for appropriate risk factors eliminates nearly all the variation observed. Socio-economic influence on MVAI was profoundly apparent in young males of all ages with the injury being more common in communities of lower socio-economic status. High adult male crime rates were significantly associated with high injury rates of boys aged 1-14. Seatbelt violations and excess speeding charges were found to be positively associated with the injury rates of young men aged 20-24. This and similar ecological studies shed light on reasons for regional variations in accident occurrence as well as in the resulting injuries and hospital utilisation. Thereby they are potentially useful in identifying

  3. Establishment, management, and maintenance of the phoenix islands protected area.

    PubMed

    Rotjan, Randi; Jamieson, Regen; Carr, Ben; Kaufman, Les; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Obura, David; Pierce, Ray; Rimon, Betarim; Ris, Bud; Sandin, Stuart; Shelley, Peter; Sumaila, U Rashid; Taei, Sue; Tausig, Heather; Teroroko, Tukabu; Thorrold, Simon; Wikgren, Brooke; Toatu, Teuea; Stone, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations-Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance.

  4. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, C.J. . Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  5. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: the Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 gm(-2)year(-1) of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may exist.

  6. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  7. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  8. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  9. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  10. Modeling of the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit-2) accident with MELPROG/TRAC and calculation results for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, F.E.; Jenks, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Work has been performed to develop a Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) simulation model for MELPROG/TRAC capable of predicting the observed plant behavior that took place during the accident of March 1979. A description of the TMI-2 plant model is presented and calculation results through 174 min of the accident are discussed. Using the ICBC boundary conditions, the calculation predicts pressurizer draining and core recovering prior to fuel-rod damage. A parametric calculation (reduced makeup flow) is currently underway and is in better agreement with the observed plant behavior. Efforts are underway to resolve current discrepancies and proceed with an accurate simulation through Phases 3 and 4 of the accident (174-227 min and 227-300 min, respectively). 13 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  12. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  13. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  14. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  15. 43 CFR 19.3 - Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... islands. 19.3 Section 19.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.3 Reviews of roadless areas and roadless islands. (a... acres or more and every roadless island in the national wildlife refuges and game ranges of the...

  16. 77 FR 20330 - Disestablishment of Restricted Area; Rhode Island Sound off Newport, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Sound off Newport, RI AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S... located in the waters of Rhode Island Sound, 4 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, Rhode... area in Rhode Island Sound, 4 nautical miles due south of Lands End in Newport, Rhode Island....

  17. Thyroid cancer incidence among people living in areas contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Ron, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, massive amounts of radioactive materials were released into the environment and large numbers of individuals living in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to radioactive iodines, primarily 131I. Iodine-131 concentrated in the thyroid gland of residents of the contaminated areas, with children and adolescents being particularly affected. In the decade after the accident, a substantial increase in thyroid cancer incidence was observed among exposed children in the three affected countries, and compelling evidence of an association between pediatric thyroid cancer incidence and radiation exposure to the thyroid gland accumulated. The data currently available suggest that both the magnitude and patterns of thyroid cancer risk are generally consistent with those reported following external exposure. Based on data from case-control studies, iodine deficiency appeared to enhance the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure from Chernobyl. Results from a recent large cohort study, however, did not support these findings. Data on adult exposure are limited and not entirely consistent. Similarly, information on thyroid cancer risks associated with in utero exposure is insufficient to draw conclusions. The lack of information on these two population groups indicates an important gap that needs to be filled. Twenty years after the accident, excess thyroid cancers are still occurring among persons exposed as children or adolescents, and, if external radiation can be used as a guide, we can expect an excess of radiation-associated thyroid cancers for several more decades. Since considerable uncertainties about the long-term health effects from Chernobyl remain, continued follow-up of the exposed populations should provide valuable information.

  18. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Eric; Angell, Christopher; Chodash, Perry

    2011-10-01

    We observed fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area beginning approximately 1 week after the earthquake. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. Soon after the observation of fallout in rainwater, we also observed low levels of Fukushima fallout in plant and food specimens collected in the the San Francisco area. This work was supported in part by the US Dept. of Homeland Security and by a Nuclear Non-Proliferation International Safeguards Graduate Fellowship (PAC) from the US Dept. of Energy.

  19. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area....

  20. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  1. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  2. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  3. 75 FR 52023 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public... Recreation Area. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a meeting of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council will be held on Wednesday, September 15,...

  4. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  5. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  6. Accident safety analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the accident safety analysis is to identify and analyze a range of credible events, their cause and consequences, and to provide technical justification for the conclusion that uranium billets, fuel assemblies, uranium scrap, and chips and fines drums can be safely stored in the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, the contaminated equipment, High-Efficiency Air Particulate filters, ductwork, stacks, sewers and sumps can be cleaned (decontaminated) and/or removed, the new concretion process in the 304 Building will be able to operate, without undue risk to the public, employees, or the environment, and limited fuel handling and packaging associated with removal of stored uranium is acceptable.

  7. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  8. Support mechanisms for oil spill accident response in costal lagoon areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eduardo R.; Silveira, Bruno; Alves, Fátima L.

    2014-10-01

    Oil spill accidents can be caused by several risk factors associated to maritime transport and port activities, which cannot always be predicted or controlled. Therefore, it is essential to support prevention and contingency plans, whose effectiveness is crucial to produce adequate responses and minimize resulting impacts. Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) is a wide coastal lagoon, within a densely populated area, representing a concentration of important biodiversity resources and several economic activities. This paper presents alternative methodologies to support the optimization of civil protection assets in the occurrence of oil spill events and the results of their application on a section area of the Aveiro Lagoon, using an established geographic information system database containing crucial data. The presented methodologies are based on the Environmental Sensitivity Index developed by the North American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) and the Global Vulnerability Index which were applied on the Bay of Biscay (Spain). However, during the development of this work, neither of these methodologies was considered to entirely assess the study area in its full extent, which led to the need to adapt and define a bespoke approach. The introduced changes include extra categories in shoreline classification, an adapted physical vulnerability index for coastal lagoons, differentiated aspects for highly protected status areas, qualitative assessment of socioeconomic features and an access and operability index created to support emergency operation response. The resulting maps are the subject of analysis, in which considerations regarding control and cleanup methods are introduced, together with guidelines for further integration in local risk management strategies.

  9. Craney Island Disposal Area. Site Operations and Monitoring Report, 1980-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    STCFITE nmpyv FMISCELLANEOUS PAPER EL-90-10 * * *CRANEY ISLAND DISPOSAL AREA SITE OPERATIONS AND MONITORING REPORT, 1980-1987 N by Michael R. Palermo...PROJECT TASK IWORK UNIT Norfolk, Virginia 23510-1096 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. rCCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (dude Security Classifcation) Craney Island Disposal Area...block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP See reverse. 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify b block number) The Craney Island disposal

  10. Impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part II. Job tension, psychophysiological symptoms, and indices of distress

    SciTech Connect

    Kasl, S.V.; Chisholm, R.F.; Eskenazi, B.

    1981-05-01

    Three Mile Island (TMI) workers experienced much greater job tension and lower occupational self-esteem (supervisors only) in comparison with workers interviewed at the Peach Bottom Plant. At the time of the accident, TMI workers reported experiencing more periods of anger, extreme worrry and extreme upset, and more psychophysiological symptoms. Six months after the accident, some persistence of these feelings and symptoms was evident. Demoralization was greater primarily among TMI non-supervisory workers. The impact of the accident was not greater among TMI workers living closer to the plant. Presence of a preschool child at home enhanced the impact of the accident, but primarily among TMI supervisors. 39 references, 17 tables.

  11. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  13. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  14. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  16. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1270 - Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Townsend, Indian Island....1270 Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of Port... is for the exclusive use of the U.S. Navy. No person, vessel, craft, article or thing shall enter...

  19. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... navigable channels, but will serve to control its use in order to protect vital National interests....

  20. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  1. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  2. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  4. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  5. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  7. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  8. [Estimation of radiation exposed area by the nuclear accident occurred at Tokai village using ESR measurements of household sugar].

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, M; Kondo, S; Ito, K; Sawa, T

    2001-04-01

    The area of radiation exposure by the nuclear accident occurred at Tokai village in 1999 was estimated by the ESR measurement of 95 household sugar samples collected from the accident area. These samples were roughly classified into three types of sugar, fine white sugar, fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar. The control fine white sugar showed no radical in the ESR spectrum, while those of fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar showed the presence of a small amount of radicals. It was also shown that, among these three kinds of sugar, the radical concentration of fine white sugar sampled from wooden houses at the area similar to each other did not vary much with the samples, while those of fine brown sugar and coarse brown sugar varied to a considerable extent. Thus, the fine white sugar is considered to be more suitable for the estimation of the level of radiation exposure. The radical concentration of each fine white sugar sample was plotted against the distance from the site of the nuclear accident with a correction of the difference in the shielding effect between concrete houses and wooden houses. The samples obtained at more than 2 km north of the site of nuclear accident showed no ESR spectral signal to a detectable extent. On the other hand, the ESR spectra were observed from the samples obtained within 10 km south and 4 km west of the accident site. These results suggest that the radiation exposure by the contaminant blown by the northeast wind blowing on the day of the accident may occur at the south and west areas.

  9. Soil thermal regime on ice-free areas in Livingston Island and James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Oliva, Marc; Láska, Kamil; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Ángel de Pablo, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Ramos, Miguel; Nývlt, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost and active layer are considered prominent components of the Cryosphere, which react very sensitively to small climate variations. The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) region is considered as one of the fastest warming regions on Earth, where mean annual air temperature locally increased more than 2.5°C over the last 60 years. Significant climate differences are found between the eastern and western sides of the AP. While mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) oscillate around -1 to -2 °C and precipitation reach 800 mm w.e. year-1 in the western AP, the MAAT in the eastern AP are below -6 °C and precipitation does not exceed 500 mm. These differences determine different permafrost thickness and spatial distribution in these two regions, as well as diverse patterns of active layer dynamics. With the purpose to better understand the factors controlling the soil thermal regime in maritime permafrost environments, we examine data from 2014 acquired from several sites in Livingston Island (western AP) and James Ross Island (eastern AP). The study sites show similar characteristics in terms of topography (slope < 7°) and altitude (50 to 100 m a.s.l.). Air temperature, soil thermal regime at 5 cm and 75 cm depth, as well as active layer thickness and its evolution were analysed. Mean air temperature over the study period varied between -2.6 to -2.7 °C on the different monitoring sites in Livingston Island, while in James Ross Island ranged from -7.0 to -7.9 °C. Mean soil temperature at 5 cm depth was slightly higher than air temperature in both areas: -0.7 to -1.3 °C in Livingston Island and -6.2 to -6.3 °C in James Ross Island; the same occurred for soil temperature at 75 cm: -0.4 to -0.7 °C in Livingston Island and -6.0 to -6.6 °C James Ross Island. Significantly lower values of mean daily amplitude of soil temperature at 5 cm depth and the freezing n-factor values observed during the freezing season on Livingston Island suggest a pronounced insulating effect

  10. Chronic Stress and Three Mile Island: Toxic Exposure and Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Laura M.; And Others

    Although many researchers expected the psychological effects of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant to be short-lived, area residents continued to show elevated levels of stress. To examine stress levels of TMI residents 28 months after the accident, 141 subjects were chosen from nearby areas, and from a town 80 miles away.…

  11. Identification of Process Hazards and Accident Scenarios for Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H; Johnson, G

    2001-05-04

    This report describes a hazard and accident analysis conducted for Site 300 operations to support update of the ''Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas Safety Analysis Report'' (SAR) [LLNL 1997]. A significant change since the previous SAR is the construction and the new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). Therefore, this hazard and accident analysis focused on the hazards associated with bunker operations to ensure that the hazards at CFF are properly characterized in the updated SAR. Hazard tables were created to cover both the CFF and the existing bunkers with ''open air'' firing tables.

  12. The German Berufsgenossenschaften (institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention): organisation, mandate and activities in the area of mental health.

    PubMed

    Paridon, Hiltraut M; Paridon, Christoph M; Bindzius, Fritz A

    2007-01-01

    The present article first describes the institution of the German Berufsgenossenschaften (BGs, the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention) and their mandate. Besides rehabilitation and compensation, these comprise the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, and work-related hazards. The main focus within the area of mental health is the prevention work, but rehabilitation and compensation within the German social insurance system in general, and with respect to mental health, will also be explained. Furthermore, the prevention-rehabilitation interface will be illustrated and the cooperation with the health insurance institutions will be described. In the second part, selected results of a survey regarding mental health and stress will be presented.

  13. All-terrain vehicle accidents: the experience of one hospital located near a major recreational area.

    PubMed

    Trager, G W; Grayman, G; Harr, S

    1986-11-01

    In two separate studies, charts of 169 all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accident victims admitted to the emergency department of Desert Hospital in Palm Springs, California, were reviewed. Twenty-four percent of the cases were women, 30% were hospitalized, and 1% (two patients) died. The youngest patient was 3 and the oldest was 76. About 31% had been drinking, and the major type of bony injury (16%) was to the clavicle, ribs, or sternum. The accident rate was calculated as ten accidents per 1,000 ATV rider days, which is comparable to the ski accident rate of six per 1,000 skier days. The three-wheeled variety of ATV is responsible for nearly all the accidents.

  14. Advanced accident research system based on a medical and engineering data in the metropolitan area of Florence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the metropolitan area of Florence, 62% of major traumas involve powered two wheeler rider and pillion passengers, 10% cyclists, and 7% pedestrians. The urban and extra-urban areas are the most dangerous for the vulnerable road user. In-depth investigations are needed for assessing detailed information on road accidents. This type of study has been very limited in time frame in Italy, and completely absent in the Tuscan region. Consequently a study called “In-depth Study of road Accident in FlorencE” (In-SAFE) has been initiated. Methods A network between the Department of Mechanics and Industrial Technologies (University of Florence) and the Intensive Care Unit of the Emergency Department (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence) was created with the aim of collecting information about the road accidents. The data collected includes: on-scene data, data coming from examination of the vehicles, kinematics and dynamic crash data, injuries, treatment, and injury mechanisms. Each injury is codified thorough the AIS score, localized by a three-dimensional human body model based on computer tomography slices, and the main scores are calculated. We then associate each injury with its cause and crash technical parameters. Finally, all the information is collected in the In-SAFE database. Results Patient mean age at the time of the accident was 34.6 years, and 80% were males. The ISS mean is 24.2 (SD 8.7) and the NISS mean is 33.6 (SD 10.5). The main road accident configurations are the “car-to-PTW” (25%) and “pedestrian run over” (17,9%). For the former, the main collision configuration is “head-on crash” (57%). Cyclists and PTW riders-and-pillions-passengers suffer serious injuries (AIS3+) mainly to the head and the thorax. The head (56.4%) and the lower extremities (12.7%) are the most frequently injured pedestrian body regions. Conclusions The aim of the project is to create an in-depth road accident study with special focus on the correlation

  15. Carabid beetle diversity and distribution in Boston Harbor Islands national park area (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Davidson, Robert L; Rykken, Jessica; Farrell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, an inventory of carabid beetles on 13 islands was conducted. Intensive sampling on ten of the islands, using an assortment of passive traps and limited hand collecting, resulted in the capture of 6,194 specimens, comprising 128 species. Among these species were seven new state records for Massachusetts (Acupalpus nanellus,Amara aulica,Amara bifrons, Apenes lucidulus, Bradycellus tantillus, Harpalus rubripes and Laemostenus terricola terricola-the last also a new country record; in passing we report also new state records for Harpalus rubripes from New York and Pennsylvania, Amara ovata from Pennsylvania, and the first mainland New York records for Asaphidion curtum). For most islands, there was a clear relationship between species richness and island area. Two islands, however, Calf and Grape, had far more species than their relatively small size would predict. Freshwater marshes on these islands, along with a suite of hygrophilous species, suggested that habitat diversity plays an important role in island species richness. Introduced species (18) comprised 14.0% of the total observed species richness, compared to 5.5% (17 out of 306 species) documented for Rhode Island. We surmise that the higher proportion of introduced species on the islands is, in part, due to a higher proportion of disturbed and open habitats as well as high rates of human traffic. We predict that more active sampling in specialized habitats would bring the total carabid fauna of the Boston Harbor Islands closer to that of Rhode Island or eastern Massachusetts in richness and composition; however, isolation, human disturbance and traffic, and limited habitat diversity all contribute to reducing the species pool on the islands relative to that on the mainland.

  16. Carabid beetle diversity and distribution in Boston Harbor Islands national park area (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Robert L.; Rykken, Jessica; Farrell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, an inventory of carabid beetles on 13 islands was conducted. Intensive sampling on ten of the islands, using an assortment of passive traps and limited hand collecting, resulted in the capture of 6,194 specimens, comprising 128 species. Among these species were seven new state records for Massachusetts (Acupalpus nanellus, Amara aulica, Amara bifrons, Apenes lucidulus, Bradycellus tantillus, Harpalus rubripes and Laemostenus terricola terricola—the last also a new country record; in passing we report also new state records for Harpalus rubripes from New York and Pennsylvania, Amara ovata from Pennsylvania, and the first mainland New York records for Asaphidion curtum). For most islands, there was a clear relationship between species richness and island area. Two islands, however, Calf and Grape, had far more species than their relatively small size would predict. Freshwater marshes on these islands, along with a suite of hygrophilous species, suggested that habitat diversity plays an important role in island species richness. Introduced species (18) comprised 14.0% of the total observed species richness, compared to 5.5% (17 out of 306 species) documented for Rhode Island. We surmise that the higher proportion of introduced species on the islands is, in part, due to a higher proportion of disturbed and open habitats as well as high rates of human traffic. We predict that more active sampling in specialized habitats would bring the total carabid fauna of the Boston Harbor Islands closer to that of Rhode Island or eastern Massachusetts in richness and composition; however, isolation, human disturbance and traffic, and limited habitat diversity all contribute to reducing the species pool on the islands relative to that on the mainland. PMID:22371673

  17. Natural variation of ambient dose rate in the air of Izu-Oshima Island after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Maedera, Fumihiko; Inoue, Kazumasa; Sugino, Masato; Sano, Ryosuke; Furue, Mai; Shimizu, Hideo; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Le Van, Tan; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The ambient dose rate in air and radioactivity concentration in soil samples collected on Izu-Oshima Island were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014, i.e. 1, 2 and 3 years after the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A car-borne survey for the ambient dose rate in air was carried out for the entire island. Soil samples were collected for the radioactivity concentration measurements from 22 points. The ambient dose rates in air were 36 nGy h(-1) in 2012, 34 nGy h(-1) in 2013 and 29 nGy h(-1) in 2014. The corresponding radioactivity concentrations in those years for (134)Cs were 53, 39 and 29 Bq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs, 87, 73 and 75 Bq kg(-1). All the values have decreased every year.

  18. Geochemistry of manganese nodules from offshore areas of Mariana Islands and Johnston Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ju-chin; Yao, Yung-chang

    The manganese nodules near the Mariana Islands generally range from 2 to 4 cm in diameter and some samples have porous surfaces. The nodules near Johnston Island are larger in size (5-8 cm in diameter) and more compact than the Mariana nodules. The major FeMn minerals found in Mariana Islands samples are todorokite, birnessite and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) while, in the Johnston Island samples, only birnessite and akaganeite are found. The Mariana Islands nodules are higher in Mn, Mg, Na, K, Co, Ni, Pb and Th but lower in Fe, Sr, Zn, Ba, Zr, Y and REEs than the Johnston Island samples. The (Cu + Ni + Co) contents of the Mariana Islands samples are generally higher than 15,000 ppm with {Co}/{Zn} ratios varying from 10 to 15, while the Johnston Island samples generally have (Cu + Ni + Co) between 8000 and 10,000 ppm with {Co}/{Zn} ratios varying from 5 to 7. Therefore these nodules may not be related to hydrothermal activity (Toth, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull.91, 44-54, 1980). Both the Mariana Islands and Johnston Island nodules show similar LREE-enriched patterns with distinct positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly. The positive correlation between the Ce anomaly defined as log {Ce}/{{2}/{3}La+ {1}/{3}Nd } and {Mn}/{Fe} ratios found in the nodules studied suggest that a phosphorus-rich phase with REE pattern similar to that for biogenous apatite may be the third component in considering the source of REEs in the nodules. The growth rate determined by the excess 230Th method for Johnston Island nodule JA-1, from 0.2 to 0.45 mm depth, is 1.12±0.10 mm/Ma but a much higher rate (17.66 ± 7.61 mm/Ma) is observed from 0.45 to 1.8 mm depth. The growth rate of the nodule may be related to its Mn and Fe contents.

  19. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  20. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  1. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, around San... REGULATIONS § 334.980 Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area—(1) Perimeter (restricted). The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicholas Island,...

  2. 76 FR 53941 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a meeting of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  8. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  9. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  10. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  11. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  12. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  13. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  14. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  15. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  16. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  17. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  18. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  19. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  20. Primary care and accident and emergency departments in an urban area

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Philip M.

    1981-01-01

    During one year all initial attendance from one Belfast general practice to local accident and emergency departments was studied. Of the 784 attenders, 616 (78.4 per cent) referred themselves; the remaining 168 (21.6 per cent) were referred by the general practitioners. The clinical and social characteristics of both groups are compared. The discussion focuses on the appropriate use of primary care and accident and emergency services. PMID:7277300

  1. Seafloor magnetotelluric soundings in the Mariana Island Arc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filloux, J. H.

    Two seafloor magnetotelluric soundings have been performed in the Mariana Island arc and subduction area, the first (station 1) in the Mariana Trough near International Phase of Oceanic Drilling (IPOD) hole 454 (position 18° 01'N, 144° 32'E, depth 3770 m), the second (station 2) in the fore arc basin near IPOD hole 458 (position 18° 06'N, 146° 45'E, depth 3602 m). The electrical conductivity beneath the postulated spreading zone of the Mariana Trough appears to be unexpectedly low in the upper 40 km, increasing slowly and monotonically downward, to 1 S m-1 at 700 km. It does not display any significant feature such as lithosphere-asthenosphere or phase transition boundaries. The character of this profile differs considerably from those obtained near the Pacific Rise, suggesting deep as well as shallow structures, generally cooler, and implying less active magmatic processes. Cooler structures may in turn contribute in part to the greater depth versus age of the Mariana Trough compared to that of the main oceanic basins. No indication of the existence of extensive magma concentration of the kind detected on the Pacific Rise at 21°N is recognizable in the magnetic data. This fact, however, may simply result from the distance between station 1 and the spreading axis (˜30 km). A cautious speculation on the cause of the implied overall low conductivity values is presented. The MT sounding from the fore arc basin points to (1) very high conductance in the upper zone (0-10 km), accountable for by the sediment blanket, (2) moderate to high conductance in the fore arc upper mantle wedge below, possibly indicative of a moderately high temperature (composition and hydration by water subducted with sediments may also play a role, (3) a large cross section (300-400 km) of unusually little conducting materials, believed to represent the sinking slab and the cooled down environment adjacent to it, and (4) a 20-fold conductivity increase around 420 km depth, sustained over

  2. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  3. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.153 Section 165.153 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.153 Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR...

  4. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.153 Section 165.153 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.153 Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR...

  5. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.153 Section 165.153 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.153 Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR...

  6. 33 CFR 165.153 - Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.153 Section 165.153 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.153 Regulated Navigation Area: Long Island Sound Marine... Island Sound Marine Inspection and Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, as delineated in 33 CFR...

  7. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  8. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  9. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  10. Ground-water hydrology of the Mormon Island Crane Meadows Wildlife Area near Grand Island, Hall County, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, T.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Platte River in south-central Nebraska flows generally eastward in a broad, flat valley. The river banks and many areas adjacent to the river support thick stands of cottonwood and willow trees. Brush, grass, pasture land, and cultivated fields occupy most of the remaining area. This is the habitat for many types of wildlife that live in the area or stop over in the area during annual migrations. Both sandhill cranes and whooping cranes are part of the annual migration. There is concern that water-management changes, such as surface-water diversions or ground-water withdrawals for irrigation, may alter the hydrologic environment of the wetland areas and be harmful to the wildlife habitat. In order to determine what affect changes in water management might have on ground-water levels in the wetland areas, detailed data were collected from Crane Meadows Wildlife Area, which is on an island in the Platte River near Grand Island, Nebr. Ground-water levels beneath the island respond to changes in river stage, to recharge from snowmelt and precipitation, and to evapotranspiration by riparian vegetation and from areas where the water table is close to the land surface. The data show that ground-water levels respond rapidly to changes in river stage--usually within 24 hours for distances up to 2,500 feet from the edge of the river. Thus changes in river stage due to changes in surface-water diversions will not have a long-term effect on ground-water levels. Changes in ground-water withdrawals will have the double effect of changing ground-water levels due to changes in drawdown and due to changes in river stage caused by the effects of pumping on river flow. These effects will develop slowly and be long lasting. (USGS)

  11. Decontamination of the populated areas contaminated as a result of nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voronik, N.I.; Shatilo, N.N.; Davydov, Y.P.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination tests on urban surfaces contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have shown that Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from fallout from nuclear weapons tests and contamination on surfaces in nuclear power plant. The effectiveness of various decontamination compositions for removing Chernobyl fallout from urban surfaces and machinery was determined in a series of laboratory experiments and field trials.

  12. Back-Island and Open-Ocean Shorelines, and Sand Areas of the Undeveloped Areas of New Jersey Barrier Islands, March 9, 1991, to July 30, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-11-09

    This Data Series Report includes open-ocean shorelines, back-island shorelines, back-island shoreline points, sand polygons, and sand lines for the undeveloped areas of New Jersey barrier islands. These data were extracted from orthoimagery (aerial photography) taken between March 9, 1991, and July 30, 2013. The images used were 0.3–1-meter (m)-resolution U.S. Geological Survey Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quads (DOQQ), U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) images, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration images, and New Jersey Geographic Information Network images. The back-island shorelines were hand-digitized at the intersects of the apparent back-island shoreline and transects spaced at 20-m intervals. The open-ocean shorelines were hand-digitized at the approximate still-water level, such as tide level, which was fit through the average position of waves and swash apparent on the beach. Hand-digitizing was done at a scale of approximately 1:2,000. The sand polygons were derived by an image-processing unsupervised classification technique that separates images into classes. The classes were then visually categorized as either sand or not sand. Sand lines were taken from the sand polygons. Also included in this report are 20-m-spaced transect lines and the transect base lines.

  13. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in soils of the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Yoschenko, V. I.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Presented are results of the study of radiocesium vertical distribution in the soils of the irrigation pond catchments in the near field 0.25 to 8 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, on sections of the Niida River floodplain, and in a forest ecosystem typical of the territory contaminated after the accident. It is shown that the vertical migration of radiocesium in undisturbed forest and grassland soils in the zone affected by the Fukushima accident is faster than it was in the soils of the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for a similar time interval after the accident. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils are several times higher than those for the Chernobyl soils. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone. In the forest soils the radiocesium dispersion is faster as compared to grassland soils, both in the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones. The study and analysis of the vertical distribution of the Fukushima origin radiocesium in the Niida gawa floodplain soils has made it possible to identify areas of contaminated sediment accumulation on the floodplain. The average accumulation rate for sediments at the study locations on the Niida gawa floodplain varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. Taking into account the sediments accumulation leading to an increase in the radiocesium inventory in alluvial soils is key for predicting redistribution of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima accident on the river catchments, as well as for decision-making on contaminated territories remediation and clean-up. Clean-up of alluvial soils does not seem to be worthwhile because of the following accumulation of contaminated sediments originating from more contaminated areas, including the exclusion zone.

  14. Application of a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method on a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peiyan; Gao, Zhenhui; Cao, Lixin; Wang, Xinping; Zhou, Qing; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Guangmei

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as sz1) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as ky1) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as ms1) collected from the port was significantly different from oil ky1 and oil sz1 and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  15. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    PubMed

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  16. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  17. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  18. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  19. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  3. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  4. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  6. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  7. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius of 4,700 yards, centered at a point bearing 316° true, 3,605 yards, from Mare Island Strait Light...

  8. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Prister, B.; Nasvit, O.; Los, I.; Berkovski, V.

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned form the Chernobyl example. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R. Flint Hughes,; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  10. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. (a) The danger zone. From Punta Resaca on the north coast of Culebra...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. (a) The danger zone. From Punta Resaca on the north coast of Culebra...

  12. Rhode Island and S. E. Massachusetts Area Contigency Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-13

    The Area Contingency Plan (ACP) describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State and local response to a discharge or subtantial threat of discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, Providence. This plan addresses response to an average most probable discharge, a maximum most probable discharge, and a worst case discharge including discharges from fire or explosion. Planning for these three scenarios covers the expected range of spills likely to occur in this area. For purposes of this plan, the spill scenarios are based on the best historical data available.

  13. The Geyser Bight geothermal area, Umnak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J. ); Nye, C.J. Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK . Geophysical Inst.); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs in Alaska, and is the only site in the state with geysers. Heat for the geothermal system is derived from crustal magma associated with Mt. Recheshnoi volcano. Successive injections of magma have probably heated the crust to near its minimum melting point and produced the only high-SiO[sub 2] rhyolites in the oceanic part of the Aleutian arc. At least two hydrothermal reservoirs are postulated to underlie the geothermal area and have temperatures of 165 and 200 C, respectively, as estimated by geothermometry. Sulfate-water isotope geothermometers suggest a deeper reservoir with a temperature of 265 C. The thermal spring waters have relatively low concentrations of Cl (600 ppm) but are rich in B (60 ppm) and As (6 ppm). The As/Cl ratio is among the highest reported for geothermal waters. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Stratigraphic framework maps of the nearshore area of southern Long Island from Fire Island to Montauk Point, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, David S.; Swift, B. Ann; Schwab, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The maps presented in this report (depth to Coastal Plain unconformity, Quaternary sediment thickness, paleochannel thickness, and modern sand thickness) are helpful for determining sand-resource availability for beach nourishment programs and understanding the influence that the inner-shelf framework of southern Long Island has on coastal processes and evolution. The maps showing structure of the Coastal Plain unconformity and thickness of overlying Quaternary sediment delineate the framework of the coastal region. The map showing the distribution and thickness of paleochannel fill indicates areas not suitable as sources for beach nourishment, assuming the channels contain muddy estuarine deposits. The areas between channels are Pleistocene glacial deposits and probably consist of coarse sediment that may be suitable for beach nourishment. These coarser-grained glacial deposits are the source for modern sand deposits. The modern sands have been reworked primarily from glacial deposits and a Cretaceous outcrop off Watch Hill. These reworked deposits provide well-sorted clean sand that have and will provide nourishment for southern Long Island beaches.

  15. Use of Arthropod Rarity for Area Prioritisation: Insights from the Azorean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Fattorini, Simone; Cardoso, Pedro; Rigal, François; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the conservation concern of Azorean forest fragments and the entire Terceira Island surface using arthropod species vulnerability as defined by the Kattan index, which is based on species rarity. Species rarity was evaluated according to geographical distribution (endemic vs. non endemic species), habitat specialization (distribution across biotopes) and population size (individuals collected in standardized samples). Geographical rarity was considered at ‘global’ scale (species endemic to the Azorean islands) and ‘regional’ scale (single island endemics). Measures of species vulnerability were combined into two indices of conservation concern for each forest fragment: (1) the Biodiversity Conservation Concern index, BCC, which reflects the average rarity score of the species present in a site, and (2) one proposed here and termed Biodiversity Conservation Weight, BCW, which reflects the sum of rarity scores of the same species assemblage. BCW was preferable to prioritise the areas with highest number of vulnerable species, whereas BCC helped the identification of areas with few, but highly threatened species due to a combination of different types of rarity. A novel approach is introduced in which BCC and BCW indices were also adapted to deal with probabilities of occurrence instead of presence/absence data. The new probabilistic indices, termed pBCC and pBCW, were applied to Terceira Island for which we modelled species distributions to reconstruct species occurrence with different degree of probability also in areas from which data were not available. The application of the probabilistic indices revealed that some island sectors occupied by secondary vegetation, and hence not included in the current set of protected areas, may in fact host some rare species. This result suggests that protecting marginal non-natural areas which are however reservoirs of vulnerable species may also be important, especially when areas with well preserved

  16. Rate Equation Theory for Island Sizes and Capture Zone Areas in Submonolayer Deposition: Realistic Treatment of Spatial Aspects of Nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W; Li, M; Bartelt, M C

    2002-12-05

    Extensive information on the distribution of islands formed during submonolayer deposition is provided by the joint probability distribution (JPD) for island sizes, s, and capture zone areas, A. A key ingredient determining the form of the JPD is the impact of each nucleation event on existing capture zone areas. Combining a realistic characterization of such spatial aspects of nucleation with a factorization ansatz for the JPD, we provide a concise rate equation formulation for the variation with island size of both the capture zone area and the island density.

  17. Volcanic Hazards Assessment at the Island of Ischia, Within the Neapolitan Area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, G.; de Vita, S.; Marotta, E.; Sansivero, F.

    2006-12-01

    The island of Ischia is one of the three active volcanoes of the Neapolitan area. It hosts a permanent population of about 50,000 people, which increases up to 200,000 in summer time. The volcanic hazard of the island is extremely high also because of its explosive character. The intense population of both island and surrounding Neapolitan area, thriving farms and a complex trade-network with the near city of Naples, contribute to determine a high volcanic risk in the area. Volcanic hazards assessment, including possible eruption scenarios, is critically based on knowledge of the volcano past behavior and the definition of its present structural setting. Volcanism at Ischia began prior to 150 ka bp and continued until the 1302 A.D. last eruption. It is dominated by the Mt. Epomeo Green Tuff caldera-forming eruption (55 ka), followed by resurgence, which has caused a net uplift of the central part of the island of about 900 m over the past 33 ka. The most recent period of activity began at about 10 ka, with volcanism mainly concentrated around 5.5 ka and in the past 2.9 ka. During the past 5.5 ka, about 45 effusive and explosive eruptions took place, with almost all the vents located in the eastern portion of the island. The time-space vents distribution has been directly related to a simple-shearing block resurgence mechanism. Effusive eruptions emplaced lava domes and lava flows moving along the valleys of the north-eastern sector of the island. Explosive eruptions, both magmatic and phreatomagmatic, generated tuff cones, tuff rings and variably dispersed pyroclastic-fall and -current deposits in the eastern sector of the island. Areal distribution maps of these deposits do not permit to estimate the magnitude of the explosive eruptions, as a large amount of tephra was deposited into the sea. Maps of the frequency of deposition show the areas that more frequently have been covered by fallout deposits and invaded by pyroclastic currents. Three classes of frequency

  18. 77 FR 42651 - Disestablishment of Restricted Area, Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, Approximately 4 Nautical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Disestablishment of Restricted Area, Rhode Island Sound, Atlantic Ocean, Approximately 4 Nautical Miles Due South of Lands End in Newport, RI AGENCY:...

  19. Virgin Islands Demonstration Library Network Study: Exploring Library Networking in Remote, Disadvantaged Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Henry C.; And Others

    The Virgin Islands Demonstration Library Network Study (VIDLNS) seeks to determine whether the development of either local or regional library networks would be the key to optimal organization of small library collections in isolated areas. This report describes the research and demonstration components of the exploratory phase of the project: (1)…

  20. [Priority areas for biodiversity conservation in Hainan Island: evaluation and systematic conservation planning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Xiao, Yi; Wu, Wei-hua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

    2011-08-01

    A total of 140 endangered species in Hainan Island were selected as indicator species, and their spatial distribution patterns were analyzed by using mechanism habitat model. Based on the iterative operation with systematic conservation planning tool MARXAN, the priority areas of these species were identified and evaluated. The priority areas had an area of 5383.7 km2, accounting for 15.6% of the total land area of the Island, and mainly distributed in some forest regions (Yinggeling, Jianfengling and Wuzhishan) and in northern part water source regions. In the priority areas, the conservation proportion of 11 1st grade indicator species habitats occupied at least 65% of all the habitats. Through the gap analysis of priority areas and current nature reserves, it was suggested that an expansion of Jianfengling, Yinggeling-Limushan, and Wuzhishan-Diaoluoshan nature reserves and the establishment of Baolonglinchang-Linbiling-Fuwanling protection system should be made, and the protection areas for water source conservation and endangered species should be established in the northern part of the Island.

  1. Current controversies in child accident prevention. An analysis of some areas of dispute in the prevention of child trauma.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J H

    1985-12-01

    The rate of serious child trauma has not been significantly reduced in the last two decades. During this time, both infant mortality rates and the total child death rate have fallen by 30%. Child trauma, as a relative contributor to child mortality in general, continues to increase. Effective prevention depends on a detailed understanding of causes, an appraisal of options, and cost-benefit audit of intervention programmes. Controversial themes are common in accident prevention work; controversies relating to child safety result from both an absence of data about detailed causes, and from philosophical conflicts about whose responsibility it is to prevent child trauma, and who will bear the cost. Five controversial areas have been selected and are discussed to illustrate these current problems. These are the inevitability of accidents, the loss of personal freedom that occurs in the regulation of a safe environment, "drownproofing" of infants, questions of sporting injuries involving children and the progressive upgrading of rules to make sports safer, and problems relating to the assessment of true exposure risks.

  2. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Seal Island... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of...

  3. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Seal Island... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of...

  4. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Seal Island... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of...

  5. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Seal Island... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of...

  6. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  7. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  8. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  9. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  10. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided...

  11. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  12. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  13. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  14. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  15. 33 CFR 334.340 - Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. 334.340 Section 334.340 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.340 Chesapeake Bay off Plumtree Island, Hampton, Va.; Air Force precision test area. (a) The... Command, Langley Air Force Base, Va., shall be responsible for publicizing in advance through the...

  16. Monitoring river discharge with remotely sensed imagery using river island area as an indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Feng; Cai, Xiaobin; Li, Wenbo; Xiao, Fei; Li, Xiaodong; Du, Yun

    2012-01-01

    River discharge is an important parameter in understanding water cycles, and consistent long-term discharge records are necessary for related research. In practice, discharge records based on in situ measurement are often limited because of technological, economic, and institutional obstacles. Satellite remote sensing provides an attractive alternative way to measure river discharge by constructing an empirical rating curve between the parameter provided by remote sensing techniques and simultaneous ground discharge data. River width is a popular parameter for constructing the empirical curve, since change in river discharge can be represented by a change in river width. In some rectangular channels, however, river width does not change significantly with river discharge, so an alternative parameter is necessary. We analyze a novel technique using river island area as an indicator of discharge. A river island often has a flat terrain, and its area decreases with higher discharge. This technique is validated by three river islands in the Yangtze River in China. All 61 remotely sensed images acquired by the HuanJing (HJ) satellites from 2009 to 2010 were correlated with corresponding in situ discharge of the nearby Zhicheng hydrological station. The performance of fitted curves for inferring river discharge is validated using 36 HJ images taken in 2011, and the influence of remotely sensed imagery and river islands is discussed. All three river islands can be used as indicators of river discharge, although their performances are much different. For the river island with the best result, the mean accuracy of the estimates is less than 10% of the observed discharge, and all relative errors are within 20%, validating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  18. Variation of radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen in the Okutama area since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, H; Inoue, K; Sakano, Y; Hamada, M; Shimizu, H; Fukushi, M

    2015-11-01

    Due to releases of radionuclides in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) has been incorporated into large varieties of plant species and soil types. There is a possibility that radiocesium taken into plants is being diffused by pollen. Radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen have been measured in Ome City, located in the Okutama area of metropolitan Tokyo, for the past 3 y. In this research, the variation of radiocesium concentrations was analysed by comparing data from 2011 to 2014. Air dose rates at 1 m above the ground surface in Ome City from 2011 to 2014 showed no significant difference. Concentration of (137)Cs contained in the cedar pollen in 2012 was about half that in 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, the concentration decreased by approximately one-fifth, which was similar to the result of a press release distributed by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

  19. WHPA delineation in Rhode Island: Development and statewide application of methodologies. [WellHead Protection Area

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.D.; Kaczor-Bobiak, S.M. )

    1992-01-01

    Wellhead Protection Areas (WHPAs) were delineated for all 525 public drinking water wells in Rhode Island by RI Department of Environmental Management hydrogeology staff. WHPA delineation is an element of the EPA-approved Rhode Island Wellhead Protection Program (RIWHPP), which is designed to protect areas contributing groundwater to public drinking water wells. For resource protection to proceed, legally defensible WHPAs were needed which could be quickly delineated. The authors incorporated input and feedback from a technical subcommittee in developing Rhode Island WHPA delineation methodologies. Comprehensive databases were compiled, which included well parameters and associated aquifer characteristics. More complex delineation techniques were applied to large-capacity wells (average discharge greater than 10 gpm) than to smaller wells. WHPAs for the smaller wells were limited to a 1750-foot-radius circle based on average characteristics of small bedrock wells in Rhode Island. For the large wells, WHPAs consisted of a combination of analytical modelling and hydrogeologic mapping. The Theis equation was used to map the downgradient WHPA boundary for large wells finished in bedrock. The uniform flow equation was used to calculate the downgradient portion of the WHPA for large wells finished in stratified drift. The upgradient boundary for all large wells was delineated using hydrogeologic mapping based on a technique modified from a USGS method. These WHPAs are being provided to municipalities and public water suppliers, who will use them to carry out the other elements of the RIWHPP, such as pollution source inventories, contingency planning, and management approaches.

  20. ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs radioactivity in soil and moss samples of Jeju Island after Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ho; Kang, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Jik; Park, Jae Woo

    2013-11-01

    Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in surface soil and moss samples were investigated at 12 locations of Jeju Island, Korea. Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil vary from less than MDA to 17 Bq/kg and from 12 Bq/kg to 109 Bq/kg, respectively. Specific activities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in moss samples lie in the range 6 Bq/kg-39 Bq/kg and 15 Bq/kg-41 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity ratios (134)Cs/(137)Cs in the soil samples are much less than the reference value of about 1.0, but they are close to 1.0 in the moss samples. Average amount of (137)Cs added to the surface soil after the Fukushima accident is estimated to be 7.8 ± 1.7 Bq/kg. The depth profile of (137)Cs specific activity has a lognormal shape with a peak between 5 cm and 7.5 cm below the ground. For the cored soil sample, (134)Cs was detected up to 3 cm below the ground.

  1. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  2. Factors affecting phytoplankton distribution and production in the Elephant Island area, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Helbling, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    During the austral summer of four years, 1990 to 1993, studies on phytoplankton were performed in the Elephant Island area as one component of the US Antarctica Marine Living Resources program. In addition to continuous measurements (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, beam attenuation) made on ship's intake water, a profiling CTD-rosette unit was used to obtain water column characteristics (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, attenuation of solar radiation, beam attenuation) from the surface to 750m depth and also water samples from at least 10 depths for chemical and biological analyses. The sampling grid consisted of an average of 70 stations, all of which were occupied two times each year. The Elephant Island area is a transition zone between the rich coastal areas, where phytoplankton can develop dense blooms, and pelagic waters where the phytoplankton biomass is in general very low. A frontal zone was usually found to the north of Elephant Island and over the continental slope, and high phytoplankton biomass was in general associated with this frontal region. Although the location of this frontal system showed seasonal movement in a north-south direction, it seems to be a consistent feature from year to year. There seems to be considerable year-to-year variability in physical (water temperatures and salinity) and phytoplankton characteristics within the study area, in regard to both distributional patterns in surface waters and to profile characteristics in the upper 100m of the water column. With shallow upper mixed layer depths of less than 50 m, phytoplankton can attain relatively high concentrations. Optimum light conditions for growth occurred when the mixed layer was less than 55% of the euphotic zone. As the area around Elephant Island is characterized by relatively strong and frequent winds, the depth of the upper mixed layer at many stations approached the depth of the euphotic zone, with the result that growth of phytoplankton was light limited.

  3. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  4. Radiocesium fallout in the grasslands on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan Islands due to Fukushima accident: the radioactive contamination of soil and plants in 2011.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Goncharova, Yu; Gromov, A; Kaduka, M; Romanovich, I

    2013-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has resulted in radioactive contamination of environmental media and food in the Far East of Russia, particularly in the Sakhalin Region. To obtain the knowledge about the (134)Cs and (137)Cs spatial distribution in the Sakhalin Region, soil samples were collected at 31 representative grassland sites on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan islands (43.80°-46.40° N and 142.73°-146.84° E) in the middle of May and around the end of September to early October 2011. In the autumn, vegetation samples (mixed grass/forb crop and bamboo, Sasa sp.) were collected together with soil samples. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on dry weight) of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil were 30 Bq kg(-1) and 210 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Within soil profile, (134)Cs activity concentrations declined rapidly with depth. Although for both sampling occasions (in the spring and autumn) the radionuclide was completely retained in the upper 3-4 cm of soil, a deeper penetration of the contaminant into the ground was observed in the autumn. In contrast with (134)Cs, activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated a broad range of the vertical distribution in soil; at most sites, the radionuclide was found down to a depth of 20 cm. This resulted from interfering the aged pre-accidental (137)Cs and the new Fukushima-borne (137)Cs. To calculate contribution of these sources to the inventory of (137)Cs, the (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio of 1:1 in Fukushima fallout (the reference date 15 March 2011) was used. The maximum deposition density of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found on Shikotan and Kunashir Islands with average density of 0.124 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2) and 0.086 ± 0.026 kBq m(-2), respectively. Sakhalin Island was less contaminated by Fukushima-derived (137)Cs of 0.021 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2). For the south of Sakhalin Island, the reference inventory of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs was calculated as 1.93 ± 0.25 kBq m(-2

  5. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  6. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    SciTech Connect

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  7. Delineation of a refined wellhead protection area for bedrock public supply wells, Charlestown, Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the refined delineation of the Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) of a wellfield of five public supply wells installed in granitic bedrock in Charlestown, Rhode Island, approximately 32 miles southwest of Providence, RI. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (RIDEM) requested technical assistance from the USEPA-New England office to reevaluate the wellfield`s existing WHPA boundary with respect to the Charlestown Municipal Landfill, less than one mile upgradient from the wellfield. The Town of Charlestown, which owns the solid waste facility, was considering an areal expansion of the site. Based on the best available information, the refined wellhead protection area is approximately one-tenth the size of that delineated by the RIDEM. In addition, despite these modified size, a portion of the waste cell of the Charlestown Municipal Landfill apparently still lies within the refined WHPA.

  8. A method for defining down-wind evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving toxic propellant spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas for accidental spills of toxic propellants along rail and highway shipping routes are defined to help local authorities reduce risks to people from excessive vapor concentrations. These criteria along with other emergency information are shown in propellant spill cards. The evacuation areas are based on current best estimates of propellant evaporation rates from various areas of spill puddles. These rates are used together with a continuous point-source, bi-normal model of plume dispersion. The rate at which the toxic plume disperses is based on a neutral atmospheric condition. This condition, which results in slow plume dispersion, represents the widest range of weather parameters which could occur during the day and nighttime periods. Evacuation areas are defined by the ground level boundaries of the plume within which the concentrations exceed the toxic Threshold Limit Value (TLV) or in some cases the Emergency Exposure Limit (EEL).

  9. Re-evaluating the origins of late Pleistocene fire areas on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Wah, John S.; Erlandson, Jon M.

    2012-09-01

    At the close of the Pleistocene, fire regimes in North America changed significantly in response to climate change, megafaunal extinctions, anthropogenic burning and, possibly, even an extraterrestrial impact. On California's Channel Islands, researchers have long debated the nature of late Pleistocene "fire areas," discrete red zones in sedimentary deposits, interpreted by some as prehistoric mammoth-roasting pits created by humans. Further research found no evidence that these red zones were cultural in origin, and two hypotheses were advanced to explain their origin: natural fires and groundwater processes. Radiocarbon dating, X-ray diffraction analysis, and identification of charcoal from six red zones on Santa Rosa Island suggest that the studied features date between ~ 27,500 and 11,400 cal yr BP and resulted from burning or heating, not from groundwater processes. Our results show that fire was a component of late Pleistocene Channel Island ecology prior to and after human colonization of the islands, with no clear evidence for increased fire frequency coincident with Paleoindian settlement, extinction of pygmy mammoths, or a proposed Younger Dryas impact event.

  10. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  11. A novel framework for improvement of road accidents considering decision-making styles of drivers in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Azadeh, Ali; Zarrin, Mansour; Hamid, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Road accidents can be caused by different factors such as human factors. Quality of the decision-making process of drivers could have a considerable impact on preventing disasters. The main objective of this study is the analysis of factors affecting road accidents by considering the severity of accidents and decision-making styles of drivers. To this end, a novel framework is proposed based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) and statistical methods (SMs) to assess the factors affecting road accidents. In this study, for the first time, dominant decision-making styles of drivers with respect to severity of injuries are identified. To show the applicability of the proposed framework, this research employs actual data of more than 500 samples in Tehran, Iran. The empirical results indicate that the flexible decision style is the dominant style for both minor and severe levels of accident injuries.

  12. Repository preclosure accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Yook, H.R.; Arbital, J.G.; Keeton, J.M.; Mosier, J.E.; Weaver, B.S.

    1984-09-01

    Waste-handling operations at a spent-fuel repository were investigated to identify operational accidents that could occur. The facility was subdivided, through systems engineering procedures, into individual operations that involve the waste and one specific component of the waste package, in one specific area of the handling facility. From this subdivision approximately 600 potential accidents involving waste package components were identified and then discussed. Supporting descriptive data included for each accident scenario are distance of drop, speed of collision, weight of package component, and weight of equipment involved. The energy of impact associated with each potential accident is calculated to provide a basis for comparison of the relative severities of all the accidents. The results and conclusions suggest approaches to accident consequence mitigation through waste package and facility design. 35 figures, 9 tables.

  13. The influence of urban reconstruction in urban heat island effect: Cangxia area of Fuzhou City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fei; Xu, Hanqiu

    2010-09-01

    The urban development is usually accompanied with the re-planning and reconstruction of the old urban area, which is one of the key issues of the urban development program. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian province, SE China, has speeded up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia area, located in the southwestern of the city, was replaned and reconstructed to improve people's living conditions because the area was full of intensively-built squatter settlements. In order to study the thermal environmental changes of the Cangxia area before and after the reconstruction, three Landsat TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2006 were utilized to perform feature extractions of the thermal-related information of the area, such as the land surface temperature (LST), impervious surface area (ISA) and vegetation coverage. The quantitative analysis on the relationship between ISA and LST suggested a positive exponential relationship between the two factors. With the assistance of the Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index (URI), the digital image processing on the three multi-temporal images revealed the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat island (UHI) effect in the investigated area from 1986 to 2006. The results showed that after the launch of the reconstruction project of this squatter settlement-dominated area, the UHI effect in the area had been greatly mitigated in the past 20 years, since the URI value had been decreased from 0.648 in 1986 to 0.245 in 2006. This owes greatly to the significant decrease in high-density ISAs and the notable increase in vegetation covers. The reconstruction is of benefit to the UHI mitigation of the Cangxia area.

  14. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  15. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  16. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  17. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  18. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  19. Investigation report on the powered platform lift-truck accident at the U.S. Department of Energy Pinellas Plant on January 28, 1991, in Area 119 West

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This investigation was performed to collect and examine the evidence associated with an incident occurring on a platform lift-truck inside Building 100 at Pinellas Plant on January 28, 1991. The incident resulted in head injuries to the employee operating the device. The direct cause of the accident was operation of the platform lift-truck in an area incompatible with its design, i.e., in an area with low overhead obstructions.

  20. Protective Behaviour of Citizens to Transport Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials: A Discrete Choice Experiment Applied to Populated Areas nearby Waterways

    PubMed Central

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Bergstra, Arnold D.; Bliemer, Michiel C. J.; Trijssenaar-Buhre, Inge J. M.; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens’ protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens’ protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce. Methods A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19–64 years) living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects’ protective behaviour. Results The response was 44% (881/1,994). The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, ‘escaping’ was more preferred than ‘seeking shelter’, although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people. Conclusion Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects’ protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs

  1. Availability of ground water in the Blackstone River area Rhode Island and Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Herbert E.; Dickerman, David C.

    1974-01-01

    The Blackstone River study area covers 83 square miles of northern Rhode Island and 5 square miles of adjacent Massachusetts (fig. 1). It includes parts of the Blackstone, Moshassuck, and Tenmile River basins, and a coastal area that drains to the brackish Seekonk and Providence Rivers. In Rhode Island, all or parts of the suburban towns of Cumberland, Lincoln, North Smithfield, and Smithfield and all or parts of the cities of Central Falls, East Povidence, Pawtucket, Providence, and Woonsocket are within the study area. Also included are parts of the towns Attleboro and North Attleborough in Massachusetts. In 1970, total population was about 240,000, which was equivalent to about one-fourth of the total population of Rhode Island. Fresh water usage in 1970 by public-supply systems and self-supplied industry was about 33 mgd (million gallons per day), which was equal to 22 percent of total fresh water use in Rhode Island for all purposes except generation of electric power (fig. 2). Anticipated increases in population and per capita water requirements are likely to cause the demand for water to more than double within the next 50 years. A significant part of this demand can be met from wells that tap the principal streams. This aquifer yielded an average of 10 mgd in 1970 and is capable of sustaining a much higher yield. The primary objectives of the study were to determine and map the saturated thickness and transmissivity of the stratified-drift aquifer and to assess the potential sustained yield of those parts of the aquifer favorable for large-scale development of water. A secondary objective was to describe ground-water quality and to evaluate the impact of induced infiltration of polluted stream water on the quality of native ground water. This report is based on analysis of drillers' records of more than 700 wells and borings which include 462 lithologic logs; 35 specific-capacity determinations; 12 aquifer tests, including detailed tests at two sites to

  2. Resident areas and migrations of female green turtles nesting at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Kristen M.; Iverson, Autumn; Benscoter, Allison M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Pollock, Clayton; Lundgren, Ian; Hillis-Starr, Zandy

    2017-01-01

    Satellite tracking in marine turtle studies can reveal much about their spatial use of breeding areas, migration zones, and foraging sites. We assessed spatial habitat-use patterns of 10 adult female green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting at Buck Island Reef National Monument, U.S. Virgin Islands (BIRNM) from 2011 – 2014. Turtles ranged in size from 89.0 – 115.9 cm CCL (mean + SD = 106.8 + 7.7 cm). The inter-nesting period across all turtles ranged from 31 July to 4 November, and sizes of the 50% core-use areas during inter-nesting ranged from 4.2 – 19.0 km2. Inter-nesting core-use areas were located up to1.4 km from shore and had bathymetry values ranging from -17.0 to -13.0 m. Seven of the ten turtles remained locally resident after the nesting season. Five turtles (50%) foraged around Buck Island, two foraged around the island of St. Croix, and the other three (30%) made longer-distance migrations to Antigua, St. Kitts & Nevis, and Venezuela. Further, five turtles had foraging centroids within protected areas. Delineating spatial areas and identifying temporal periods of nearshore habitat-use can be useful for natural resource managers with responsibility for overseeing vulnerable habitats and protected marine turtle populations.

  3. Landsat TM-based analysis of land area and vegetation cover change on six selected Alabama and Mississippi barrier islands (1984-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstanley, Hunter Clark

    Cat Island, West Ship Island, East Ship Island, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island, and Dauphin Island are located 10-20 kilometers south of the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines. These six barrier islands serve as an important shield to southern areas of Mississippi and Alabama from tropical cyclone (hurricane) impacts such as storm surge and destructive waves. The islands are also home to a delicate ecosystem of many different types of flora and fauna. Over the course of the past three decades, all six islands have been subjected to several hurricane events. This, coupled with the natural state of the erosion, has led to the islands losing total land area and vegetation. This thesis research focuses on quantifying the vegetation loss and total land area loss on Cat Island, West Ship Island, East Ship Island, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island, and Dauphin Island during the time period from 1984 to 2011. A special focus is given to impacts of Hurricanes Georges, Ivan, Katrina, Gustav, and Ike which affected the northern Gulf Coast in 1998, 2004, 2005, and 2008, respectively. This research utilizes Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper Imagery. Supervised classifications and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analyses are performed on each scene to analyze the total land area and vegetation cover of each island. The results of this research show the total extent of land and vegetation loss on each island from 1984 to 2011, and which islands are most vulnerable to erosion and vegetation loss. The results also reveal how all five hurricanes affected each individual island.

  4. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act.

  5. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  6. Water use and availability in the West Narragansett Bay area, coastal Rhode Island, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1999 drought in Rhode Island, belowaverage precipitation caused a drop in ground-water levels and streamflow was below long-term averages. The low water levels prompted the U. S. Geological Survey and the Rhode Island Water Resources Board to conduct a series of cooperative water-use studies. The purpose of these studies is to collect and analyze water-use and water-availability data in each drainage area in the State of Rhode Island. The West Narragansett Bay study area, which covers 118 square miles in part or all of 14 towns in coastal Rhode Island, is one of nine areas investigated as part of this effort. The study area includes the western part of Narragansett Bay and Conanicut Island, which is the town of Jamestown. The area was divided into six subbasins for the assessment of water-use data. In the calculation of hydrologic budget and water availability, the Hunt, Annaquatucket, and Pettaquamscutt River Basins were combined into one subbasin because they are hydraulically connected. Eleven major water suppliers served customers in the study area, and they supplied an average of 19.301 million gallons per day during 1995–99. The withdrawals from the only minor supplier, which was in the town of East Greenwich in the Hunt River Basin, averaged 0.002 million gallons per day. The remaining withdrawals were estimated as 1.186 million gallons per day from self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows from self-disposed water (individual sewage-disposal systems) and permitted discharges accounted for 5.623 million gallons per day. Most publicly disposed water (13.711 million gallons per day) was collected by the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation, and by the East Greenwich, Fields Point, Jamestown, Narragansett, and Scarborough wastewater-treatment facilities. This wastewater was disposed in Narragansett Bay outside of the study area. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application

  7. Late cenozoic vertical movements of non-volcanic islands in the Banda Arc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smet, M. E. M.; Fortuin, A. R.; Tjokrosapoetro, S.; Van Hinte, J. E.

    During onshore campaigns of the Snellius-II Expedition late Cenozoic sections were recorded and systematically sampled on the non-volcanic outer Banda Arc Islands of Timor, Buton, Buru, Seram and Kai. Microfaunal studies provided age and palaeobathymetric data to construct geohistory diagrams. Geohistory analysis of field and laboratory data allows to calculate rates of vertical movements of the island basements. The vertical movements were intermittent and differed widely from place to place in the arc; short periods of uplift alternated with longer periods of tectonic rest or subsidence and lateral variations in timing and magnitude seem to be more the rule than the exception. Movements affected larger segments of the arc at about the same time, especially since the late Pliocene, when widespread vertical movements started, which led to the present configuration of the arc. Rates of uplift or subsidence differed within each segment. On an intermediate scale, deformation has the character of tilting or doming of whole islands or parts of islands. On a local scale, various types of deformation occur. Calculated duration of uplift pulses is in the order of a million years where less than 50 cm·ka -1 of vertical movements are involved. Sections, however, with a high time stratigraphic resolutions show pulses of uplift with a duration of only some hundreds of thousands of years and rates of more than 500 cm·ka -1. The duration of such pulses therefore is comparable to that of eustatic third order sea level changes. But because their amplitude is an order of magnitude larger, this implies that in tectonically active areas eustatic signals, preserved in the sedimentary record, will be overprinted by tectonics, i.e. will be difficult to disentangle from the tectonic signal.

  8. 33 CFR 334.10 - Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.10 Gulf of Maine off Seal Island, Maine; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 1.5 nautical miles, having its center just easterly of Seal... of each bombing practice, the area will be patrolled by a naval aircraft or surface vessel to...

  9. Non-indigenous species in Portuguese coastal areas, coastal lagoons, estuaries and islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chainho, Paula; Fernandes, António; Amorim, Ana; Ávila, Sérgio P.; Canning-Clode, João; Castro, João J.; Costa, Ana C.; Costa, José L.; Cruz, Teresa; Gollasch, Stephan; Grazziotin-Soares, Clarissa; Melo, Ricardo; Micael, Joana; Parente, Manuela I.; Semedo, Jorge; Silva, Teresa; Sobral, Dinah; Sousa, Mónica; Torres, Paulo; Veloso, Vera; Costa, Maria J.

    2015-12-01

    Trends in abundance, temporal occurrence and spatial distribution of marine and brackish non-indigenous species (NIS) are part of the indicators to assess the compliance of Good Environmental Status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU-MSFD). European-wide regional and national databases for NIS will be useful for the implementation of the EU-MSFD but there are still spatial gaps for some regions and taxonomic groups. In 2009, Portugal was among the countries with the lowest reported numbers of NIS in Europe and a national online database on NIS was not available. This study provides an updated list of NIS registered in Portuguese coastal and estuarine waters, including mainland Portugal and the Azores and Madeira archipelagos. A list of 133 NIS was cataloged, most of which recorded in the last three decades, showing that this area of the North Atlantic is no less prone to introductions than neighboring areas. Most NIS reported in the current inventory are native in the Indo-Pacific region. Fouling and ballast water are the most likely introduction vectors of NIS in the studied area but shipping routes connecting to the NIS native regions are rare, indicating that most species are secondary introductions. The high number of NIS in the Azores and Madeira islands indicates that this ecosystem type seems to be more susceptible to invasions but these preliminary results might be biased by a higher number of studies and knowledge on the NIS occurrence on the islands.

  10. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  11. Urban heat island and its effect on the cooling and heating demands in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Rizwan Ahmed; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Leung, Michael K. H.

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates the urban heat island characteristics of four major areas of Hong Kong. The areas of study include a densely populated and well-developed commercial area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui) and three suburban areas (i.e., Cheung Chau, Lau Fau Shan and Sha Tin) with differing degrees of development. The weather station data of respective areas were acquired from the Hong Kong Observatory. The urban heat island intensity, determined as the air-temperature difference between the selected urban/suburban area and the reference rural area (i.e., Ta Kuw Ling) with thin population and lush vegetation, was used for the analysis. Results showed stronger heat island effect during winter and nighttime than during summer and daytime. An investigation of the cooling and heating degree days indicate that all areas have observed higher number of cooling degree days. However, the cooling degree days were the maximum while heating degree days were the minimum in the urban area (i.e., Tsim Sha Tsui). Clearly, the minimum heating degree days and the maximum cooling degree days in the urban area were a direct consequence of urban heat island. The 10-year (i.e., from 1995 to 2005) average shows that Cheung Chau experienced the least number of cooling degree days while Lau Fau Shan experienced the highest number of heating degree days. Seemingly, the area of Cheung Chau offers better thermal comfort conditions with the minimum number of cooling and heating degree days.

  12. Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orrock, John L.; Allan, Brian F.; Drost, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans.

  13. Back-island and open-ocean shorelines, and sand areas of Assateague Island, Maryland and Virginia, April 12, 1989, to September 5, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    This Data Series Report includes several open-ocean shorelines, back-island shorelines, back-island shoreline points, sand area polygons, and sand lines for Assateague Island that were extracted from natural-color orthoimagery (aerial photography) dated from April 12, 1989, to September 5, 2013. The images used were 0.3–2-meter (m)-resolution U.S. Geological Survey Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quads (DOQQ), U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) images, and Virginia Geographic Information Network Virginia Base Map Program (VBMP) images courtesy of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The back-island shorelines were hand-digitized at the intersect of the apparent back-island shoreline and transects spaced at 20-m intervals. The open-ocean shorelines were hand-digitized at the approximate still water level, such as tide level, which was fit through the average position of waves and swash apparent on the beach. Hand-digitizing was done at a scale of approximately 1:2,000. The sand polygons were derived by using an image-processing unsupervised classification technique that separates images into classes. The classes were then visually categorized as either sand or not sand. Also included in this report are 20-m-spaced transect lines and the transect base lines.

  14. Using a bank of predatory fish samples for bioindication of radioactive contamination of aquatic food chains in the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, I I; Ryabov, I N; Sazykina, T G

    1993-11-01

    From the analysis of experimental data on radioactive contamination of various fish, it is suggested that predatory fish specimens can be used as bioindicators of radionuclide accumulation in reservoir food chains of the Chernobyl emergency area. The increased content of cesium radionuclides were detected in the muscle tissue of predatory fish collected in various regions of the Chernobyl emergency area. In most of the water bodies studied, maximum contamination levels of predatory fish by radionuclides of cesium occurred in 1987-1988, whereas in 'nonpredatory' fish the concentration of cesium was maximum, as a rule, in the first year following the accident. The exposure doses of fish of various ecological groups and ages are estimated. The exposure doses of various population groups, using fish from contaminated water bodies, are also estimated. When forming the environmental data bank for the Chernobyl accident zone it is suggested that perch, pike-perch and pike be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of food chains.

  15. Remote sensing and GIS based study of potential erosion and degradation areas on the island Fogo (Cape Verde Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olehowski, Claas; Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    The Island of Fogo (Cape Verde) is affected by processes of erosion and degradation, caused mainly by a high population growth and global change. With its small scaled climatic, floristic and geo-ecological differentiation, the island of Fogo is an optimal research space for understanding semiarid island ecosystems in the marginal tropics and their behaviour to erosion and degradation processes. For that reason, a change detection analysis over the past two decades is generated, showing the level and direction of land cover and land use change. Two satellite images from 1984 and 2007 will classified by a Maximum Likelihood approach. In a further step, an image of 1974 will be also integrated in this change detection analysis, enlarging the study over the last three decades.

  16. Geologic Map of the Upper Wolf Island Creek Watershed, Reidsville Area, Rockingham County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J. Wright; Geddes, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This geologic map provides a foundation for hydrogeologic investigations in the Reidsville area of Rockingham County, north-central North Carolina. The 16-mi2 area within the Southeast Eden and Reidsville 7.5-min quadrangles includes the watershed of Wolf Island Creek and its tributary, Carroll Creek, upstream of their confluence. Layered metamorphic rocks in this area of the Milton terrane, here informally named the Chinqua-Penn metamorphic suite, include a heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist unit that contains interlayers and lenses of white-mica schist, felsic gneiss, amphibolite, and ultramafic rock; a felsic gneiss that contains interlayers of amphibolite, white-mica schist, and minor ultramafic lenses; and a migmatitic biotite gneiss. Crushed stone is produced from an active quarry in the felsic gneiss. Igneous intrusive rocks include a mafic-ultramafic assemblage that may have originated as mafic intrusive bodies containing ultramafic cumulates, a foliated two-mica granite informally named the granite of Reidsville, and unmetamorphosed Jurassic diabase dikes. The newly recognized Carroll Creek shear zone strikes roughly east-west and separates heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist to the north from structurally overlying felsic gneiss to the south. Regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism accompanied polyphase ductile deformation in the metamorphic rocks. Two phases of isoclinal to tight folding and related penetrative deformation, described as D1 and D2, were followed by phases of high-strain mylonitic deformation in shear zones and late gentle to open folding. Later brittle deformation produced minor faults, steep joints, foliation-parallel parting, and sheeting joints. The metamorphic and igneous rocks are mantled by saprolite and residual soil derived from weathering of the underlying bedrock, and unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium occupies the flood plains of Wolf Island Creek and its tributaries. The geologic map delineates lithologic and structural

  17. Hydrogeology and Simulated Effects of Ground-Water Withdrawals in the Big River Area, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Barlow, Paul M.; Dickerman, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering expanded use of ground-water resources from the Big River area because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. This report describes the hydrology of the area and numerical simulation models that were used to examine effects of ground-water withdrawals during 1964?98 and to describe potential effects of different withdrawal scenarios in the area. The Big River study area covers 35.7 square miles (mi2) and includes three primary surface-water drainage basins?the Mishnock River Basin above Route 3, the Big River Basin, and the Carr River Basin, which is a tributary to the Big River. The principal aquifer (referred to as the surficial aquifer) in the study area, which is defined as the area of stratified deposits with a saturated thickness estimated to be 10 feet or greater, covers an area of 10.9 mi2. On average, an estimated 75 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) of water flows through the study area and about 70 ft3/s flows out of the area as streamflow in either the Big River (about 63 ft3/s) or the Mishnock River (about 7 ft3/s). Numerical simulation models are used to describe the hydrology of the area under simulated predevelopment conditions, conditions during 1964?98, and conditions that might occur in 14 hypothetical ground-water withdrawal scenarios with total ground-water withdrawal rates in the area that range from 2 to 11 million gallons per day. Streamflow depletion caused by these hypothetical ground-water withdrawals is calculated by comparison with simulated flows for the predevelopment conditions, which are identical to simulated conditions during the 1964?98 period but without withdrawals at public-supply wells and wastewater recharge. Interpretation of numerical simulation results indicates that the three basins in the study area are in fact a single ground-water resource. For example, the Carr River Basin above Capwell Mill Pond is naturally losing water

  18. [Carrying capacity of shellfish culture in Dadeng Island sea area of Xiamen].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenbin; Du, Qi; Fang, Minjie; Qian, Xiaoming; Cai, Qinghai; Xu, Cuiya

    2005-05-01

    To fully and rationally exploit local living marine resources while have a sustainable, efficient and healthy development of shellfish culture in the Dadeng Island sea area of Xiamen, this paper determined and analyzed the related model parameters of this area, including chlorophyll a, primary productivity, phytoplankton organic carbon tent, wild filter feeder yields in subtidal and intertidal zones and suspension culture area, cultured shellfish filtration rate and organic carbon content, shellfish's total weight to fresh meat ratio, and adopted the Nutrient namic Model and Coastal Waters' Energy Flow Analysis Model to estimate the ecological capacity of shellfish this area, from which, the wild filter feeder yields were deducted for estimating shellfish carrying capacity. model established by Fang Jianguang was also used to estimate the shellfish carrying capacity. Statistics analysis was used to estimate the suitable culture area of shellfish and other species, aiming at limiting local shellfish ture and optimizing the culture of various species mollusks. According to the estimation of the three models, shellfish carrying capacity in this area should be 35,248-39,990 tons, with an average of 37,488 tons, 140,008 x 10(4) - 158,850 x 10(4) individuals, averaging 148,903 x 10(4). The theoretically suitable culture area 2 145 hm2, 1,900 hm2 for Ostreidae, 81 hm2 for razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta), 20 hm2 for blood (Tegillarca granosa), and 144 hm2 for musculus (Musculus senhousei). In 2000, the actual culture area of shellfish and other species in the waters around Dadeng surpassed the estimated suitable culture area. It is proposed that some measures should be taken to reduce the overexploited area.

  19. Accumulation of accident-derived radiocesium in lake and coastal sediments at 300-700 km distance from Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, S; Miyata, Y; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Murakami, T; Nishimura, S; Itono, T; Suzuki, T; Hamataka, K; Kawano, Y; Hamajima, Y; Kashiwaya, K

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of accident-derived radiocesium was investigated in nine water bodies located 300-700 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). (134)Cs from the accident was detected in surface sediment of five water bodies. The (134)Cs concentration, corrected to the time of the accident in 2011, was generally lower than that of (137)Cs, and its spatial pattern does not fully correspond to that of (137)Cs. These results suggest that radiocesium derived from both FDNPP and past global fallout can be separately observed and that the contributions of both sources are non-uniform within these sites. The (134)Cs inventory in surface sediments is smaller than its deposition, suggesting that almost all deposited (134)Cs remains within the catchment and/or a part has been discharged from the saline and brackish water bodies.

  20. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36-6.23) and 1.00 (0.67-1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident.

  1. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36–6.23) and 1.00 (0.67–1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  2. Prevalence and Diversity of Leptospires in Different Ecological Niches of Urban and Rural Areas of South Andaman Island

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Chandan; Kumar, K. Vinod; Raj, R. Vimal; Vedhagiri, K.; Vijayachari, P.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease around the globe. South Andaman Island is an endemic region for leptospirosis. We herein compared the prevalence of leptospires in urban and rural areas of South Andaman Island. The PCR detection and isolation of Leptospira revealed that pathogenic leptospires were prevalent in sewage water and household drainage water in urban areas and in paddy fields, vegetable field water, and stream water in rural areas. These results demonstrate that intermediates are ubiquitously present in the environment and may be responsible for asymptomatic infections, and also provide an insight into disease ecology. PMID:26936796

  3. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  4. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...

  5. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  8. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  9. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  12. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  13. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1460 - Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 Atlantic Ocean and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...

  17. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) develop when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings. The difference in temperature between the city core and its surroundings is proportional to the size of the city and can be related to differences in vegetation cover, the amount of development, building materials, and the infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, and changes in the local meteorology. To begin to address UHI mitigation strategies, a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of the behavior of urban heat islands is necessary. Because the influence of UHIs is most notable in wintertime, solutions to mitigate them are compounded because of societal resistance to modifying the landscape and urban structures to reduce already low wintertime temperatures. To better understand the UHI behavior of a large northern latitude city and to evaluate mitigation strategies that have the desired effect year round, we have embarked on a comprehensive four-year research program - Islands in the Sun - aimed at 1) analyzing the UHIs of the largest urban areas on the planet, 2) monitoring the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming, and 3) developing a numerical UHI model to quantify the effect of different mitigation strategies. Here we present results from an observational study of the TCMA, a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. The TCMA is home to 2.8 million residents within a seven county area comprising an

  18. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Fork and surrounding areas, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, Christopher E.; Bova, Richard G.; Misut, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water on the North Fork of Long Island is the sole source of drinking water, but the supply is vulnerable to saltwater intrusion and upconing in response to heavy pumping. Information on the area's hydrogeologic framework is needed to analyze the effects of pumping and drought on ground-water levels and the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface. This will enable water-resource managers and water-supply purveyors to evaluate a wide range of water-supply scenarios to safely meet water-use demands. The extent and thickness of hydrogeologic units and position of the freshwater-saltwater interface were interpreted from previous work and from exploratory drilling during this study.The fresh ground-water reservoir on the North Fork consists of four principal freshwater flow systems (referred to as Long Island mainland, Cutchogue, Greenport, and Orient) within a sequence of unconsolidated Pleistocene and Late Cretaceous deposits. A thick glacial-lake-clay unit appears to truncate underlying deposits in three buried valleys beneath the northern shore of the North Fork. Similar glacial-lake deposits beneath eastern and east-central Long Island Sound previously were inferred to be younger than the surficial glacial deposits exposed along the northern shore of Long Island. Close similarities in thickness and upper-surface altitude between the glacial-lake-clay unit on the North Fork and the glacial-lake deposits in Long Island Sound indicate, however, that the two are correlated at least along the North Fork shore.The Matawan Group and Magothy Formation, undifferentiated, is the uppermost Cretaceous unit on the North Fork and constitutes the Magothy aquifer. The upper surface of this unit contains a series of prominent erosional features that can be traced beneath Long Island Sound and the North Fork. Northwest-trending buried ridges extend several miles offshore from areas southeast of Rocky Point and Horton Point. A promontory in the irregular, north

  19. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Fork and surrounding areas, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, Christopher E.; Bova, Richard G.; Misut, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water on the North Fork of Long Island is the sole source of drinking water, but the supply is vulnerable to saltwater intrusion and upconing in response to heavy pumping. Information on the area?s hydrogeologic framework is needed to analyze the effects of pumping and drought on ground-water levels and the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface. This will enable water-resource managers and water-supply purveyors to evaluate a wide range of water-supply scenarios to safely meet water-use demands. The extent and thickness of hydrogeologic units and position of the freshwater-saltwater interface were interpreted from previous work and from exploratory drilling during this study. The fresh ground-water reservoir on the North Fork consists of four principal freshwater flow systems (referred to as Long Island mainland, Cutchogue, Greenport, and Orient) within a sequence of unconsolidated Pleistocene and Late Cretaceous deposits. A thick glacial-lake-clay unit appears to truncate underlying deposits in three buried valleys beneath the northern shore of the North Fork. Similar glacial-lake deposits beneath eastern and east-central Long Island Sound previously were inferred to be younger than the surficial glacial deposits exposed along the northern shore of Long Island. Close similarities in thickness and upper-surface altitude between the glacial-lake-clay unit on the North Fork and the glacial-lake deposits in Long Island Sound indicate, however, that the two are correlated at least along the North Fork shore. The Matawan Group and Magothy Formation, undifferentiated, is the uppermost Cretaceous unit on the North Fork and constitutes the Magothy aquifer. The upper surface of this unit contains a series of prominent erosional features that can be traced beneath Long Island Sound and the North Fork. Northwest-trending buried ridges extend several miles offshore from areas southeast of Rocky Point and Horton Point. A promontory in the irregular, north

  20. Radiocarbon ages of lacustrine deposits in volcanic sequences of the Lomas Coloradas area, Socorro Island, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J. D.; Farmer, M. C.; Berger, R.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive eruptions of alkalic basalt from low-elevation fissures and vents on the southern flank of the dormant volcano, Cerro Evermann, accompanied the most recent phase of volcanic activity on Socorro Island, and created the Lomas Coloradas, a broad, gently sloping terrain comprising the southern part of the island. We obtained 14C ages of 4690 +/- 270 BP (5000-5700 cal BP) and 5040 +/- 460 BP (5300-6300 cal BP) from lacustrine deposits that occur within volcanic sequences of the lower Lomas Coloradas. Apparently, the sediments accumulated within a topographic depression between two scoria cones shortly after they formed. The lacrustine environment was destroyed when the cones were breached by headward erosion of adjacent stream drainages. This was followed by the eruption of a thin basaltic flow from fissures near the base of the northernmost cone. The flow moved downslope for a short distance and into the drainages that presently bound the study area on the east and west. The flow postdates development of the present drainage system and may be very recent. Our 14C data, along with historical accounts of volcanic activity over the last century, including submarine eruptions that occurred a few km west of Socorro in early 1993, underscore the high risk for explosive volcanism in this region and the need for a detailed volcanic hazards plan and seismic monitoring.

  1. Radiocarbon ages of lacustrine deposits in volcanic sequences of the Lomas Coloradas area, Socorro Island, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D. ); Farmer, M.C. . Dept. of Geography and Anthropology); Berger, R. . Depts. of Geography and Anthropology and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    Extensive eruptions of alkalic basalt from low-elevation fissures and vents on the southern flank of the dormant volcano, Cerro Evermann, accompanied the most recent phase of volcanic activity on Socorro Island, and created the Lomas Coloradas, a broad, gently sloping terrain comprising the southern part of the island. The authors obtained [sup 14]C ages of 4690 [plus minus] 270 Bp (5000-5700 cal Bp) and 5040 [plus minus] 460 Bp (53090-6300 cal Bp) from lacustrine deposits that occur within volcanic sequences of the lower Lonas Coloradas. Apparently, the sediments accumulated within a topographic depression between two scoria cones shortly after they formed. The lacustrine environment was destroyed when the cones were breached by headward erosion of adjacent stream drainages. This was followed by the eruption of a thin basaltic flow from fissures near the base of the northernmost cone. The flow moved downslope for a short distance and into the drainages that presently bound the study area on the east and west. The flow postdates development of the present drainage system and may be very recent. These [sup 14]C data, along with historical accounts of volcanic activity over the last century, including submarine eruptions that occurred a few km west of Socorro in early 1993, underscore the high risk for explosive volcanism in the region and the need for a detailed volcanic hazards plan and seismic monitoring.

  2. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    PubMed

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure.

  3. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  4. Some features of traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, G. M.

    1969-01-01

    Some aspects of urban and rural traffic accidents have been studied at the scene of some accidents in Birmingham and the county of Worcestershire. Accidents to pedestrians are essentially an urban problem, occur mainly at low speed, and most of the serious injury comes from the initial contact with the vehicle, rather than from secondary impacts with the road surface. The characteristics of motor-cycle accidents are more varied; in urban areas there are many side impacts, with consequent injury to the lower limbs, while rural collisions are predominantly front on, with a high incidence of head injury. Accidents to car occupants vary according to the environment. PMID:5359948

  5. The TMI-2 accident evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Osetek, D.J.; Broughton, J.M.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of the event. TMI-2 accident research is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide the basis for more accurate calculations of source terms for postulated severe accidents. Research objectives supporting this goal include developing a comprehensive and consistent understanding of the mechanisms that controlled the progression of core damage and subsequent fission product behavior during the TMI-2 accident, and applying that understanding to the resolution of important severe accident safety issues. Developing a best-estimate scenario of the core melt progression during the accident is the focal point of the research and involves analytical work to interpret and integrate: (1) data recorded during the accident from plant instrumentation, (2) the post-accident state of the core, (3) results of the examination of material from the damaged core, and (4) related severe-accident research results. This paper summarizes the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program that is being conducted for the USDOE and briefly describes the important results that have been achieved. The Program is divided into four parts: Sample Acquisition and Plant Examination, Accident Scenario, Standard Problem Exercise, and Information and Industry Coordination.

  6. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Western Coastal Area in Jeju Volcanic Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Koh, G.; Hwang, S.

    2008-12-01

    Residents in Jeju volcanic island use most part of water resources from groundwater. Actually, in the island, there exist no perennial streams or rivers due to extremely high infiltration rate of water into surface soils and rocks (basalt and trachyte). In the western part of Jeju Island, high pumping rate of wells caused great drawdown especially during drought period. By this current trend, great decline of groundwater level as well as seawater intrusion is predictable. According to drill data from 13 wells for monitoring seawater intrusion installed in the western part of the island by the authority of Jeju Special Governed Island, the geology of the western area is composed of five units: lava sequence (hyaloclastic breccia, acicular feldspar basalt, olivine basalt, aphanitic feldspar basalt, augite feldspar basalt, and porphyritic feldspar basalt), sedimentary layer (containing gravel and sand) intercalated in lava sequences, Seoguipo Formation (gravels, unconsolidated sands, shell fossils, and sandy mudstone), trachyandesite and tuff occurring in Seoguipo Formation, and U Formation. Geophysical well logging on the five monitoring wells (Panpo (PP), Kosan (KS), Shindo (SD), Ilgwa (IG), and Hamo (HM)), resulted in approximately 20~40 cps (counts per second) of natural gamma intensity in lava sequence. High gamma intensity of approximately 60 cps is noticeble in the sedimentary layer intercalated in lava sequence, and in Seoguipo Formation, especially clay minerals. Electric conductivity (EC) on PP, KS and IG wells showed 100~400 μS/cm with fresh water range. However, EC on SD and HM wells increased up to around 20,000~10,000 μS/cm with depth, which indicates variation from freshwater to salt water. Pumping tests were performed on nine monitoring wells in the range of 900~2,300m3/d and with an average discharge rate of 1,371m3/d. Among them, data from only five monitoring wells were used for pumping test analysis, since the other four wells were highly

  7. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  8. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Pohukuloa Training Area, Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Lienert, B. R.; Wallin, E.

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of 3D modeling of magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in the Pohakuloa Training Area (PTA) on the saddle between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. We have previously used lower frequency MT data to construct 1D and 2D resistivity profiles in this area and confirmed the presence of a low-resistivity region at depths of about 2 km. One of our drill holes in PTA had previously encountered temperatures of 150 C at a similar depth. However, our 1D and 2D models were unable to fit features of the data that we suspected were due to 3D variations in subsurface resistivity. For the 3D modeling, we reprocessed the higher frequency data (1 kHz sampling rate) which were available at all 20 sites. We were then able to obtain complex impedances at frequencies of 0.5-500 Hz to use for the 3D inversion. We used Siripunvaraporn's 3D inversion method to obtain resistivities in a rectangular array of 0.5x0.5x0.25 km blocks spanning the areal extent of the stations down to a depth of 2.5 km. The results confirmed that much of the anomalous data could be explained by near-surface 3D variations in resistivity. The underlying conductor of 5-10 ohm-m at 2 km depth now appears to extend over the entire survey area.

  9. Reconnaissance Geologic Map of the Duncan Canal-Zarembo Island Area, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    The geologic map of the Duncan Canal-Zarembo Island area is the result of a multidisciplinary investigation of an area where an airborne geophysical survey was flown in the spring of 1997. The area was chosen for the geophysical survey because of its high mineral potential, a conclusion of the Petersburg Mineral Resource Assessment Project, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1978 to 1982. The City of Wrangell, in southeastern Alaska, the Bureau of Land Management, and the State of Alaska provided funding for the airborne geophysical survey. The geophysical data from the airborne survey were released in September 1997. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted field investigations in the spring and fall of 1998 to identify and understand the sources of the geophysical anomalies from the airborne survey. This geologic map updates the geologic maps of the same area published by David A. Brew at 1:63,360 (Brew, 1997a-m; Brew and Koch, 1997). This update is based on 3 weeks of field work, new fossil collections, and the geophysical maps released by the State of Alaska ( DGGS, Staff, and others, 1997a-o). Geologic data from outcrops, fossil ages, radiometric ages, and geochemical signatures were used to identify lithostratigraphic units. Where exposure is poor, geophysical characteristics were used to help control the boundaries of these units. No unit boundaries were drawn based on geophysics alone. The 7200 Hertz resistivity maps (DGGS, Staff, and others, 1997k-o) were particularly helpful for controlling unit boundaries, because different stratigraphic units have distinctive characteristic conductive signatures (Karl and others, 1998). Increased knowledge of unit ages, unit structure, and unit distribution, led to improved understanding of the nature of unit contacts. Northwest- to southwest-directed thrust faults, particularly on Kupreanof Island, are new discovery. Truncated faults and map patterns suggest there were at least 2 generations of thrusting, and

  10. 75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW07 Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and Tanner Crab Fisheries in the Bering...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological variation of waterbird habitats in Dongtan area of Chongming Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuezhong; Zhang, Liquan

    2012-05-01

    Based on Landsat TM images, we explored the pattern of variation of suitable waterbird habitats from 1990 to 2008 in the Dongtan area of Chongming Island at the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth. By applying our highly accurate indicator model ( R=0.999, P<0.01), we quantified the variations of fluctuation intensity for local waterbird habitats during 1990-2008, and for the main waterbird groups (Anatidae, Charadriidae, Ardeidae and Laridae) from 2006 to 2008, to evaluate the impact of habitat quantity change on the waterbird habitat status and the population dynamics of the different waterbird groups. The results show that the aquaculture ponds (AP) and the Scirpus mariqueter zone (SMZ) underwent drastic habitat changes during certain periods (AP: 1997-2000, 2000-2003, 2005-2008; SMZ: 1997-2000), and the fluctuation intensity differed among habitat types in the order AP>SMZ>TSH (total suitable habitat)>BSA (bare mud flat and shallow water area). The abandonment of tracts of aquaculture ponds in Dongtan in mid-2006 brought about an intensive population fluctuation, caused by rapidly changing habitat with the population expanding to adjacent areas. At present, Anatidae and Ardeidae are threatened in the Dongtan area with declining populations because of their very "picky" habitat requirements (i.e., high reliance on AP). The Charadriidae experienced enormous population declines in the late 1990s, however, they have since recovered to normal levels as habitat change has stabilized. Our findings suggest that the current challenges for habitat management are the protection and stabilization of AP and SMZ habitats.

  17. UV nanoimprint lithography for the realization of large-area ordered SiGe/Si(001) island arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Lausecker, E.; Brehm, M.; Grydlik, M.; Hackl, F.; Fromherz, T.; Schaeffler, F.; Bauer, G.; Bergmair, I.; Muehlberger, M.

    2011-04-04

    We use UV nanoimprint lithography for the pit-patterning of silicon substrates. Ordered silicon-germanium islands are grown inside these pits by molecular-beam epitaxy on arrays of 3x3 mm{sup 2} and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. AFM-based statistics reveals an extremely uniform size distribution of the islands in the patterned areas. These results are confirmed by very narrow and uniform PL peaks recorded at various positions across the patterned arrays.

  18. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  19. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  20. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679 Wildlife and... 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open...

  1. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  2. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  3. Ground-water resources of the Laura area, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.; Anthony, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The water system that supplies the heavily populated Dalap-Uliga-Darrit (DUD) area of Majuro atoll, Marshall Island, relies almost entirely upon airstrip catchment of rain water. Droughts cause severe water supply problems and water rationing is required, even during periods of normal rainfall. The Laura area contains a substantial lens of fresh groundwater that could be developed for export to the DUD area 30 mi to the east. Study of the groundwater resource at Laura involved a survey of existing wells, installation of monitoring wells and test holes, compilation of continuous records of rainfall and water level fluctuations, and collection of water quality data. Test hole data permitted the definition of three geohydrologic units which correlate well with similar units in Bikini and Enewetak atolls. The units consist of two layers of unconsolidated reef and lagoon sediments resting on a dense, highly permeable limestone. The potable water zone, or freshwater nucleus, of the lens is contained mostly within the unconsolidated layers, which are much less permeable than the basal limestone. Recharge to the Laura freshwater lens is estimated to be 1.8 mil gal/day, based on an average annual rainfall of 140 in. Sustainable yield is estimated to be about 400,000 gal/day. Shallow skimming wells or infiltration galleries similar to those used on Kwajalein atoll would be appropriate to develop the freshwater lens. The impact of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the salinity in developed water and in a network of monitor wells. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Nettilling Lake area (Baffin Island, Nunavut): A multi-proxy analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Anne; Pienitz, Reinhard; Francus, Pierre; Zdanowicz, Christian; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The paleoclimate and paleolimnological history of several Arctic regions remains poorly known. This is the case for the area around Nettilling Lake (Baffin Island, Nunavut), the largest lake of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. To reconstruct the past environmental history of this area, a highly innovative multi-proxy approach combining physical, magnetic, chemical and biological properties preserved in lake sediments was used. One particular goal of this study was to investigate the possible coupling between sedimentation processes observed in the lake and melt rates of nearby Penny Ice Cap. A 1-m long sediment core was retrieved from a small bay in the northeastern part of Nettilling Lake during the summer of 2010. This sampling area was chosen based on the hypothesis that incoming glacial meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap would leave a strong climate-modulated signal that would be reflected in the sedimentary sequence. The core was analyzed by both non-destructive (X-radiography (X-ray), microfluorescence-X (µ-XRF), magnetic susceptibility) and destructive (Loss On Ignition, grain size, water content, thin sections, diatoms) techniques. Radiometric AMS 14C and 210Pb/137Cs age determinations, as well as paleomagnetic measurements, were used to develop the core chronology, yielding an estimated bottom age of approximately 1365 AD. The sedimentation rate (0.15 cm.yr-1) in Nettilling Lake was found to be high compared to other Arctic lakes, due to inputs of highly turbid meltwaters from Penny Ice Cap with high suspended sediment loads. Significant correlations were found between geochemical profiles of elements linked to detrital inputs (Si, Ti, K, Ca) and melt rates from Penny Ice Cap since the 19th century. This suggests that variations in detrital elements in Nettilling Lake sediments might be used as an indirect indicator of regional climate fluctuations (e.g., summer temperatures) that determine glacier melt rates.

  5. The impact of volcanic gases from Miyake island on the chemical constituents in precipitation in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-04-01

    The volcano on Miyake Island first erupted in July 2000 and continuous emission of volcanic gas from the collapsed caldera has been observed from the middle of August 2000. The large volcanic emission of SO2 had a strong influence on Tokyo metropolitan area, which is located approximately 150 km north of Miyake Island. We measured major ions in precipitation and dry deposition samples which had been collected at five sampling sites (Yokohama, Kashiwa, Fujisawa, Yokosuka, and Hachioji) in the Tokyo metropolitan area for 12 years since 1990. We have evaluated quantitatively the impact of the volcanic SO2 gas emitted from Miyake Island on the Tokyo metropolitan area by comparing depositional ionic constituents in the volcanic degassing period (from September 2000 to August 2001) with those in the normal period of the past 10 years (September 1990 to August 2000). nss-SO4(2-) concentrations in precipitation at the sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area were 59.5-77.0 microeq/L during the degassing period, and 33.3-44.1 microeq/L during the normal period, respectively. The difference of nss-SO4(2-) concentrations between the two periods was statistically significant. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of the other major ions (NH4+, nss-Ca2+, Cl-, and NO3-) between the two periods. The impact of volcanic degassing from Miyake Island on the ionic concentrations in the precipitation of the Tokyo metropolitan area was seen only in the H+ and nss-SO4(2-) concentrations. The annual wet deposition amount of volcanic nss-SO4(2-) into the Tokyo metropolitan area has been quantitatively estimated. The annual wet deposition amounts were calculated as 701+/-277 Meq/year (22.4+/-8.9 kt SO2/year) on the total area of the Tokyo metropolitan area (14,000 km2). The wet deposition amount of nss-SO4(2-) corresponds to only 0.15% of the total annual amount of volcanic SO2 (15 Mt/year) emitted from Miyake Island from September 2000 to August

  6. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  7. [The comparative analysis of gene and structural somatic mutations in inhabitants of Orel district areas contaminated with radionuclides as a result of Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Sevan'kaev, A V; Zamulaeva, I A; Mikhaĭlova, G F; Potetnia, O I; Tsepenko, V V; Khvostunov, I K; Golub, E V; Piatenko, V S; Pozdyshkina, O V; Vereshchagina, A O; Smirnova, S G; Orlova, N V; Saenko, A S; Parshin, V S

    2006-01-01

    The results of comparative analysis of gene and structural mutations found in peripheral blood lymphocytes of inhabitants of Orel district areas contaminated with radionuclides as a result of Chernobyl accident are presented. The average level of 137Cs contamination in those areas ranged about 22-113 kBq/m2. In the study group was found the enhanced frequency of somatic cells with gene and structural mutations compared with laboratory control level by synchronous applying a T-cell receptor (TCR) loci mutation assay and cytogenetic analysis of unstable aberrations. The case-control comparison was carried out using the measured mutation frequencies and cases of various thyroid gland sickness recognized by ultrasonic examination. The cytogenetic assay did not show the statistical difference between healthy group and subjects with thyroid gland sickness. The average frequency of TCR loci mutation cells in the subjects with thyroid gland sickness was found to be statistically higher comparing with healthy persons. This finding was true for each study region and for Orel district in total. The subgroup of subject exposed in utero in 1986, soon after accident was analyzed. Both cytogenetic and TCR loci mutation assays shown enhancement of average mutation frequency in somatic cells in the subjects of this subgroup with thyroid gland sickness comparing with healthy persons.

  8. Plastic litter in sediments from a marine area likely to become protected (Aeolian Archipelago's islands, Tyrrhenian sea).

    PubMed

    Fastelli, Paolo; Blašković, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulia; Romeo, Teresa; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Andaloro, Franco; Russo, Giovanni F; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2016-12-15

    This research aims to define for the first time levels and patterns of different litter groups (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments from a marine area designed for the institution of a new marine protected area (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy). Microplastics resulted the principal group and found in all samples analyzed, with shape and colours variable between different sampling sites. MPs levels measured in this study are similar to values recorded in harbour sites and lower than reported in Adriatic Sea, while macroplastics levels are notably lower than in harbor sites. Sediment grain-size and island extent resulted not significant in determining levels and distribution of plastic debris among islands. In the future, following the establishment of the MPA in the study area, these basic data will be useful to check for potential protective effects on the levels and distribution of plastic debris.

  9. Extensions of Island Biogeography Theory predict the scaling of functional trait composition with habitat area and isolation.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Claire; Mouillot, David; Kulbicki, Michel; Gravel, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    The Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) predicts how area and isolation influence species richness equilibrium on insular habitats. However, the TIB remains silent about functional trait composition and provides no information on the scaling of functional diversity with area, an observation that is now documented in many systems. To fill this gap, we develop a probabilistic approach to predict the distribution of a trait as a function of habitat area and isolation, extending the TIB beyond the traditional species-area relationship. We compare model predictions to the body-size distribution of piscivorous and herbivorous fishes found on tropical reefs worldwide. We find that small and isolated reefs have a higher proportion of large-sized species than large and connected reefs. We also find that knowledge of species body-size and trophic position improves the predictions of fish occupancy on tropical reefs, supporting both the allometric and trophic theory of island biogeography. The integration of functional ecology to island biogeography is broadly applicable to any functional traits and provides a general probabilistic approach to study the scaling of trait distribution with habitat area and isolation.

  10. Influence of new town development on the urban heat island-the case of the Bundang area.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Bae

    2005-01-01

    Five new towns have been developed around the Seoul metropolitan area since 1996. However, these new towns generate lots of traffic and related problems in the areas including those new towns and Seoul as a result of increases in population and a lack of ecological-self-sufficiency. Currently, construction of another new town is under deliberation, and what should be a major consider is the notion that the new town be located within a wide, green zone. Many studies have revealed that green space can play an important role in improving urban eco-meteorological capability and air quality. In order to analyze the urban heat island which will be created by the new urban development, and to investigate the local thermal environment and its negative effects caused by a change of land use type and urbanization, Landsat TM images were used for extraction of urban surface temperature according to changes of land use over the last 15 years. These data are analyzed together with digital land use and topographic information. As a study result, it was found the urban heat island of the study area from 1985 to 1999 rapidly developed which showed a difference of mean temperature above + 2.0. Before the Bundang new town construction the temperature of the residential area was the same as a forest, but during the new town construction in 1991 analysis revealed the creation of an urban heat island. The temperature of a forest whose size is over 50% of the investigation area was lowest, and thus the presence of a forest is believed to have a direct cooling effect on the urban environment and its surroundings. The mean temperature of the residential and commercial areas in the study was found to be + 4.5 higher than the forest, and therefore this part of land use is believed to be the main factor causing the temperature increase of the urban heat island.

  11. Use of precipitation and groundwater isotopes to interpret regional hydrology on a tropical volcanic island: Kilauea volcano area, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, M.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Janik, C.J.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Isotope tracer methods were used to determine flow paths, recharge areas, and relative age for groundwater in the Kilauea volcano area of the Island of Hawaii. A network of up to 66 precipitation collectors was emplaced in the study area and sampled twice yearly for a 3-year period. Stable isotopes in rainfall show three distinct isotopic gradients with elevation, which are correlated with trade wind, rain shadow, and high- elevation climatological patterns. Temporal variations in precipitation isotopes are controlled more by the frequency of storms than by seasonal temperature fluctuations. Results from this study suggest that (1) sampling network design must take into account areal variations in rainfall patterns on islands and in continental coastal areas and (2) isotope/elevation gradients on other tropical islands may be predictable on the basis of similar climatology. Groundwater was sampled yearly in coastal springs, wells, and a few high-elevation springs. Areal contrasts in groundwater stable isotopes and tritium indicate that the volcanic rift zones compartmentalize the regional groundwater system, isolating the groundwater south of Kilauea's summit and rift zones. Part of the Southwest Rift gone appears to act as a conduit for water from higher elevation, but there is no evidence for downrift flow in the springs and shallow wells sampled in the lower East Rift Zone.

  12. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident.

  13. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities.

  14. A 10-year population survey of spinal trauma and spinal cord injuries after road accidents in the Rhône area.

    PubMed

    Lieutaud, Thomas; Ndiaye, Amina; Frost, Fanny; Chiron, Mireille

    2010-06-01

    Fatalities or injuries following motorized and non-motorized vehicle accidents (MNMVA) are reported by police or health care systems. However, limited data exist for spinal injuries. Using an epidemiological database of road accidents occurring in a defined geographic area, we measured the incidence of major spinal trauma (MST, Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score 2 or more), spinal cord injury (SCI, AIS score 4 or more), and associated lesions over a 10-year period (1997-2006). Among the 97,341 victims included, 21,623 (22.2%) suffered spinal trauma, but only 1523 (1.6%) and 144 (0.2%) sustained an MST or SCI, respectively, and among those 10% and 43% died, respectively, before reaching hospital facilities. Men were more likely to have SCI and die. Cervical injuries were more frequently observed for SCI (58%) than for MST (39%; p < 0.001). Motorcyclists were overrepresented in SCI (33%) compared to MST (21%; p < 0.001), and were at significant risk for fatality. Non-restrained car occupants were at risk of MST and SCI, whereas motorcyclists wearing helmets were not. The chest was the most frequently-injured body region. Nearly half of MNMVA victims suffering SCI die quickly after the crash. Young age, male gender, a motorcyclist, and non-restrained car occupant were risk factors for serious injury. These groups should be targeted in specific programs to decrease fatalities, spinal trauma, and SCI after MNMVA.

  15. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  16. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  17. Nuclear reactor safety research since Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1982-04-09

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially.

  18. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-09

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially.

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  20. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  1. Numerical simulation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Big River Management Area, central Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering use of groundwater resources from the Big River Management Area in central Rhode Island because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. Previous water-resources investigations in this glacially derived, valley-fill aquifer system have focused primarily on the effects of potential groundwater-pumping scenarios on streamflow depletion; however, the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands have not been assessed, and such assessments are a requirement of the State’s permitting process to develop a water supply in this area. A need for an assessment of the potential effects of pumping on wetlands in the Big River Management Area led to a cooperative agreement in 2008 between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island. This partnership was formed with the goal of developing methods for characterizing wetland vegetation, soil type, and hydrologic conditions, and monitoring and modeling water levels for pre- and post-water-supply development to assess potential effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands. This report describes the hydrogeology of the area and the numerical simulations that were used to analyze the interaction between groundwater and surface water in response to simulated groundwater withdrawals. The results of this analysis suggest that, given the hydrogeologic conditions in the Big River Management Area, a standard 5-day aquifer test may not be sufficient to determine the effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wetlands. Model simulations showed water levels beneath Reynolds Swamp declined by about 0.1 foot after 5 days of continuous pumping, but continued to decline by an additional 4 to 6 feet as pumping times were increased from a 5-day simulation period to a simulation period representative of long-term average monthly conditions. This continued decline in water levels with

  2. A Case Study in the Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): the Islands of Bonaire and Curacao, Dutch Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relles, Noelle J.

    The islands of Bonaire and Curacao, Dutch Caribbean, were both mapped along their leeward coasts for dominant coral community and other benthic cover in the early 1980s. This mapping effort offers a unique baseline for comparing changes in the benthic community of the two islands since that time, particularly given the marked differences between the two islands. Bonaire is well-protected and completely surrounded by a marine protected area (MPA), which includes two no-diving marine reserves; additionally, Bonaire's population is only around 15,000. In contrast, the island of Curacao is home to 140,000 inhabitants and marine protection is limited, with a reef area of 600 ha established as a "paper" park (i.e., little enforcement). Video transects collected by SCUBA over the reefs were collected on Bonaire in January of 2008; when compared to data from 1985, coral cover had declined in the shallowest portion of the reef (< 5 m) and was mostly the result of declines in Acropora spp., whereas head corals increased. Transects closest to the no-diving marine reserves showed higher coral cover and diversity than transects located farther from the reserves. Satellite remote sensing techniques were used to create landscape-scale reef maps along the leeward coasts of both islands, which could differentiate areas of high hard coral cover (> 20%), predominantly sand (> 50%) and areas where hard coral and sand were mixed with soft corals, sea whips and marine plants. These modern maps (2007-09) were groundtruthed using the video data collected on Bonaire for accuracy and then compared to the early 1980s maps of the reefs on both islands. Bonaire experienced declines in coral cover overall and the remaining coral was increasingly patchy; however, changes in patch characteristics were not significant over the time period, but status as a marine reserve and the sheltering of the shoreline did appear to buffer against coral loss. Surprisingly, the island of Curacao did not

  3. Emotional, Behavioral, and Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Andrew; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the psychophysiological impact of Three Mile Island on nearby residents (N=38) compared to people living near an undamaged nuclear plant (N=32), a coal-fired plant (N=24) and a control group. Results indicated that residents of the TMI area exhibited more symptoms of stress a year after the accident. (WAS)

  4. Training of Farmers in Island Agricultural Areas: The Case of Cyclades Prefecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papavasileiou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the views of young farmers regarding the agricultural training, the training needs and content, as well as the implementation of information technology (IT) and the Internet in agricultural training. The research was conducted in the Greek islands of Cyclades. Methodology: A quantitative approach…

  5. Specific Linguistic Profiles in a Creole-Speaking Area: Children's Speech on Reunion Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebon-Eyquem, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Linguists use the concept of "diglossia" to describe any sociolinguistic situation where a low-prestige dialect coexists with a high-prestige one and these dialects are used in different social spheres. Recent observations on Reunion Island have challenged this view because people mix French and Creole extensively in the same utterance…

  6. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  7. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  8. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    4. Economic costs and benefits of artificial closure. This report for breach management presents protocols which specify when breach closures within the FIIS might be desirable and necessary, as well as provides recommendations for structural breach closure engineering operations which are indented to minimize negative impacts to the natural wilderness values and cultural resources within the FIIS, particularly the Otis Pike Wilderness Area. The goal of the plan is to strike a balance between protecting natural resources and allowing natural processes to operate and avoiding loss of life and excessive property damage.

  9. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  10. Weather types and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Klaić, Z B

    2001-06-01

    Traffic accident data for the Zagreb area for the 1981-1982 period were analyzed to investigate possible relationships between the daily number of accidents and the weather conditions that occurred for the 5 consecutive days, starting two days before the particular day. In the statistical analysis of low accident days weather type classification developed by Poje was used. For the high accident days a detailed analyses of surface and radiosonde data were performed in order to identify possible front passages. A test for independence by contingency table confirmed that conditional probability of the day with small number of accidents is the highest, provided that one day after it "N" or "NW" weather types occur, while it is the smallest for "N1" and "Bc" types. For the remaining 4 days of the examined periods dependence was not statistically confirmed. However, northern ("N", "NE" and "NW") and anticyclonic ("Vc", "V4", "V3", "V2" and "mv") weather types predominated during 5-days intervals related to the days with small number of accidents. On the contrary, the weather types with cyclonic characteristics ("N1", "N2", "N3", "Bc", "Dol1" and "Dol"), that are generally accompanied by fronts, were the rarest. For 85% days with large number of accidents, which had not been caused by objective circumstances (such as poor visibility, damaged or slippery road etc.), at least one front passage was recorded during the 3-days period, starting one day before the day with large number of accidents.

  11. Long-term prediction of groundwater recharge by climate changes in the Gosan agricultural area, Jeju Island of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, E. H.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of long-term changes in groundwater recharge due to the climate changes is needed to secure the sustainable use of grounwater. In Jeju Island, which is composed of various formations of porous volcanic rocks, groundwater is a sole resource for water supply because of its hydrogeological characteristics. Therefore, preservation of the groundwater resource is an essential issue in the island. Prior to establishing a management plan for maintaining the groundwater resources in Jeju Island, long-term estimation of influencing factors are necessary. The Gosan study area is located in the western part of the island, where extensive agricultural activity has been performed and groundwater is a main source of supply for watering crops. In this study, we estimated the recharge changes for 100 years (2000~2099) in the Gosan agricultural area based on two climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) by using the HELP3 (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) program. The estimated component of water budget in this study are as follows (averaged in 2000~2014), precipitation: 1.28x108 m3/yr; ET: 6.49x107 m3/yr; runoff: 5.84x106 m3/yr; and recharge: 5.27x107 m3/yr. Over the 100 years of the estimated period, precipitation will have a highest increase among other meteorological parameters to be 6.16x109 m3 (RCP4.5) and 6.34 x109 m3 (RCP8.5). Increase in recharge by RCP8.5 scenario (2.75 x109 m3) will be less than that by RCP4.5 (2.77x109 m3) because ET by RCP 8.5 (ET: 3.34x109 m3; runoff: 2.27x108 m3) is estimated to be higher than ET by RCP4.5 (ET: 3.15x109 m3; runoff: 2.35x108 m3). Jeju volcanic island is known to have higher recharge proportions to the precipitation due to the distributed highly porous volcanic rocks. Therefore, variations in precipitation by climate changes would greatly affect the groundwater resource of the island. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for

  12. Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

  13. Degradation of marine ecosystems and decline of fishery resources in marine protected areas in the US Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, C.S.; Beets, J.

    2001-01-01

    The large number of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Caribbean (over 100) gives a misleading impression of the amount of protection the reefs and other marine resources in this region are receiving. This review synthesizes information on marine resources in two of the first MPAs established in the USA, namely Virgin Islands National Park (1962) and Buck Island Reef National Monument (1961), and provides compelling evidence that greater protection is needed, based on data from some of the longest running research projects on coral reefs, reef fish assemblages, and seagrass beds for the Caribbean. Most of the stresses affecting marine resources throughout the Caribbean (e.g. damage from boats, hurricanes and coral diseases) are also causing deterioration in these MPAs. Living coral cover has decreased and macroalgal cover has increased. Seagrass densities have decreased because of storms and anchor damage. Intensive fishing in the US Virgin Islands has caused loss of spawning aggregations and decreases in mean fish size and abundance. Groupers and snappers are far less abundant and herbivorous fishes comprise a greater proportion of samples than in the 1960s. Effects of intensive fishing are evident even within MPA boundaries. Although only traditional fishing with traps of 'conventional design' is allowed, commercial trap fishing is occurring. Visual samples of fishes inside and outside Virgin Islands National 'Park showed no significant differences in number of species, biomass, or mean size of fishes. Similarly, the number of fishes per trap was statistically similar inside and outside park waters. These MPAs have not been effective because an unprecedented combination of natural and human factors is assaulting the resources, some of the greatest damage is from stresses outside the control of park managers (e.g. hurricanes), and enforcement of the few regulations has been limited. Fully functioning MPAs which prohibit fishing and other extractive uses (e.g. no

  14. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-11-30

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings [direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building [direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements [indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over $11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of $0.084/kWh and $5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent

  15. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature.

  16. Estimated water use and availability in the East Narragansett Bay study area, Rhode Island, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    2007-01-01

    Water availability became a concern in Rhode Island during a drought in 1999, and further investigation was needed to assess the current demands on the hydrologic system from withdrawals during periods of little to no precipitation. The low ground-water levels and streamflows measured in Rhode Island prompted initiation of a series of studies on water use and availability in each major drainage area in Rhode Island for the period 1995–99. The investigation of the East Narragansett Bay area is the last of these studies. The East Narragansett Bay study area (130.9 square miles) includes small sections of the Ten Mile and Westport River Basins in Rhode Island. The area was divided into three regions (islands and contiguous land areas separated by the bay) within each of which the freshwater water use and availability were assessed. During the study period from 1995 through 1999, three major public water suppliers in the study area withdrew 7.601 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) from ground-water and surface-water reservoirs. The estimated water withdrawals by minor public water suppliers during the study period were 0.063 Mgal/d. Total self-supply domestic, industrial, commercial, and agricultural withdrawals from the study area averaged 1.891 Mgal/d. Total water use in the study area averaged 16.48 Mgal/d, of which about 8.750 Mgal/d was imported from other basins. The average return flow to freshwater within the basin was 2.591 Mgal/d, which included effluent from permitted facilities and septic systems. The average return flow to saltwater (Narragansett Bay) outside of the basin was about 45.21 Mgal/d and included discharges by permitted facilities (wastewater-treatment plants and Rhode Island Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems). The PART program, a computerized hydrographseparation application, was used for the data collected at two selected index stream-gaging stations in the East Narragansett Bay study area to determine water availability on the basis of

  17. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  18. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (5) No vessel or craft of any size shall lie-to or anchor in the restricted area at any time other than a...

  19. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (5) No vessel or craft of any size shall lie-to or anchor in the restricted area at any time other than a...

  20. A geological-acoustical framework for an integrated environmental evaluation in Mediterranean marine protected areas. Marettimo Island, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agate, M.; Catalano, R.; Chemello, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Riggio, S.

    2003-04-01

    A GEOLOGICAL-ACOUSTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION IN MEDITERRANEAN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS. MARETTIMO ISLAND, A CASE STUDY. M. Agate (1), R. Catalano (1), R. Chemello (2), C. Lo Iacono (1) &S. Riggio (2) (1)Dipartimento di Geologia e Geodesia dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 26, 90123 Palermo, clageo@katamail.com, rcatal@unipa.it (2)Dipartimento di Biologia animale dell'Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo,rchemello@unipa.it New analytical methods have been designed to support an objective quantitative evaluation of geological components whose results dictate the lines for a sustainable use of the natural resources. We tried to adopt the fundaments of the seascape concept, based on the thematic elements of landscape ecology and translated into terms fitting with the principles of coastal ecology. The seascape concept is central to our view of the environment and is referred to as an integrated unit (Environmental Unit) resulting from a long multidisciplinary approach, carried out in both the field and the laboratory by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Side Scan Sonar and Multi Beam acoustical data collected in the Marettimo and Ustica Islands (south-western Tyrrhenian Sea))inner shelves, make possible to sketch geomorphological and sedimentological maps, whose details have been tested as deep as 45 m in diving surveys. On the basis of the collected data sets, the inner shelf (0-60 m) has been subdivided into different portions, following the concept of the Environmental Unit (E.U). Every E.U. presents constant morphological and sedimentological features that, probably, can be associated to specified biological communities. In order to find the relationships between physical settings and communities, geological thematic maps are eventually overlaid and fitted to macrobenthic and fishery spatial distribution maps. The result, based on the rule of the Environmental Impact Assessment, puts into evidence the

  1. Larviciding offshore islands reduces adulticidal treatment of populated areas adjacent to national wildlife refuges.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Lawrence J; Fussell, Edsel M; Leal, Andrea L

    2011-12-01

    The Florida Keys Mosquito Control District has conducted larvicide missions on uninhabited offshore islands of the Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge and the National Key Deer Refuge since 2003. The objective of these missions is to reduce the need to apply adulticides on nearby populated islands where private lands are interspersed with refuge lands that support a diverse assemblage of native butterflies and insect-pollinated plants on Big Pine Key, No Name Key, Little Torch Key, Middle Torch Key, and Big Torch Key (the Torch Keys). More than 800 visits were made to refuge islands by Florida Keys Mosquito Control District personnel; 334 aerial larvicide missions were flown. From 2003 to 2010, a marked reduction in adult mosquito numbers was seen on Big Pine Key, and to a lesser extent on No Name Key. Seasonal distribution of mosquitoes was not different, however. Number of aerial adulticide missions flown on Big Pine Key, No Name Key, and the Torch Keys was 2, 1, and 2 in 2003; 9, 10, and 7 in 2004; 4, 4, and 2 in 2005; 6, 6, and 7 in 2006; 1, 0, and 0 in 2007; 3, 2, and 4 in 2008; 4, 3, and 4 in 2009; and 1, 1, and 3 in 2010, respectively. This is a dramatic reduction from prior years; from 1998 to 2002, 57 aerial adulticide missions were flown on Big Pine Key, 45 missions were flown on No Name Key, and 38 on the Torch Keys. Larviciding is an important component of an integrated approach to mosquito management that seeks to reduce environmental impacts on the national wildlife refuges.

  2. Simulation of ground-water flow and potential contaminant transport at Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, F. William

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-difference steady-state ground-water flow model was developed to simulate hydraulic conditions at the Area 6 Landfill, Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, near Oak Harbor, Washington. Remediation efforts were started in 1995 in an attempt to contain trichloroethene and other contaminants in the ground water. The model was developed as a tool to test the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat remediation efforts as well as alternative remediation strategies. The model utilized stratigraphic data from approximately 76 Navy and 19 private wells to define the geometry of the shallow, intermediate, and deep aquifers and the intervening confining layers. Initial aquifer parameters and recharge estimates from aquifer tests and published remedial investigation reports were used in the model and then adjusted until simulated water levels closely matched observed water-level data collected prior to the onset of remediation in 1995. The calibrated model was then modified to depict the remedial pump-and-treat system, in which contaminated ground water is extracted, treated, and returned to the ground surface for infiltration. The water levels simulated by the modified model were compared with observed water levels for the 1998 calendar year, during which time the pump-and-treat system was in nearly continuous operation and the ground-water system had equilibrated to steady-state conditions. Although artificial boundaries were used in the model, the choice of model boundary conditions was simulation in the area of primary concern surrounding the western contaminant plume and extraction wells. Particle tracking results indicate that the model can effectively simulate the advective transport of contaminants from the source area to the pumping wells and thus be used to test alternative remedial pumping strategies.

  3. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart

    SciTech Connect

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.O.; Parkinson, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms.

  4. Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Genn Saji

    2006-07-01

    The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition

  5. Use of accident experience in developing criteria for teleoperator equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vallario, E.J.; Selby, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    The 1961 SL-1 reactor accident in Idaho and the Recuplex accident at Hanford are reviewed to identify problems common to emergency situations, lessons learned from accidents, criteria for emergency equipment, and recommendations for using robotics to solve problems during emergencies. Teleoperator equipment could be used to assess the extent of the damage and the condition of the reactor, retrieve dosimeters, evacuate and treat accident victims, clean up debris and decontaminate accident areas. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Radioactive contamination of arthropods from different trophic levels in hilly and mountainous areas after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sota; Hatakeyama, Kaho; Takahashi, Sentaro; Adati, Tarô

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand the influence of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on the ecosystem in hilly and mountainous areas of Fukushima Prefecture, chronological changes in the levels of radiocesium in arthropod species were investigated. From 2012 to 2014, arthropods from different trophic levels were sampled and the air radiation dose rates at the sampling sites were analyzed. The air radiation dose rates showed a significant and constant reduction over the 2 years at the sampling sites in Fukushima. The median radiocesium concentration ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) detected in the rice grasshopper, Oxya yezoensis, and the Emma field cricket, Teleogryllus emma, dropped continuously to 0.080 and 0.078 Bq/g fresh weight, respectively, in 2014. In contrast, no significant reduction in radioactive contamination was observed in the Jorô spider, Nephila clavata, in which the level remained at 0.204 Bq/g in 2014. A significant positive correlation between radiocesium concentration and the air radiation dose rate was observed in the rice grasshopper, the Emma field cricket and the Jorô spider. The highest correlation coefficient (ρ = 0.946) was measured in the grasshopper.

  7. TMI-2 accident: core heat-up analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ardron, K.H.; Cain, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes NSAC study of reactor core thermal conditions during the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The study focuses primarily on the time period from core uncovery (approximately 113 minutes after turbine trip) through the initiation of sustained high pressure injection (after 202 minutes). The transient analysis is based upon established sequences of events; plant data; post-accident measurements; interpretation or indirect use of instrument responses to accident conditions.

  8. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident: Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberg, Charlotte

    From 1990 to 1998, estimations of the effective dose due to irradiation from 137Cs and 134Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia. The villages, situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant received deposition of 137Cs in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq m-2 due to the accident in 1986. The body burden of 137,134Cs was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of caesium radionuclides, together with in vivo measurements using a portable detector. The external effective dose was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent (TL)-dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137Cs via mushrooms grown in the area. During pregnancy the biological half-time of caesium was 54% of that before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq L-1) to that in the mother's body (Bq kg-1) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from urine samples showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the caesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion introduced systematic differences and a larger spread in the calculated values of the 137Cs body burden as compared with calculations without normalisation. The yearly effective dose to inhabitants in the Russian villages varied between 1.2 and 2.5 mSv as a mean for all villages between 1991 and 1998 and the internal effective dose was 30-50% of the total effective dose. The external effective dose decreased on average 15% per year, while the internal effective dose varied, depending to a great extent on the availability of mushrooms. The cumulated effective dose for a 70-year period after the accident was calculated to be 100 m

  9. InSAR imaging of volcanic deformation over cloud-prone areas - Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) is capable of measuring ground-surface deformation with centimeter-tosubcentimeter precision and spatial resolution of tens-of meters over a relatively large region. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, INSAR is an important technique for measuring ground-surface deformation of volcanoes over cloud-prone and rainy regions such as the Aleutian Islands, where only less than 5 percent of optical imagery is usable due to inclement weather conditions. The spatial distribution of surface deformation data, derived from INSAR images, enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. This paper reviews the basics of INSAR for volcanic deformation mapping and the INSAR studies of ten Aleutian volcanoes associated with both eruptive and noneruptive activity. These studies demonstrate that all-weather INSAR imaging can improve our understanding of how the Aleutian volcanoes work and enhance our capability to predict future eruptions and associated hazards.

  10. Density-independent survival of wild lake trout in the Apostle Islands area of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stock at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior was one of only a few stocks of lean lake trout in the Great Lakes that survived overfishing and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Since the mid 1960s, the abundance of wild recruits measured at age 0 and the number of age-7 to -11 wild fish recruited to the fishable stock have increased. We used the Varley-Gradwell method to test for density-dependent survival between these life stages. Survival from age-0 to ages 7–11 was not affected by increasing density, which suggests that further increases in recruitment and stock size are still possible. We suggest that testing for the existence of density-dependent survival can be used to indicate when lake trout populations are rehabilitated.

  11. Service Life of Craney Island Dredged Material Management Area Under Proposed Restricted Use Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Approved For Public Release; Distribution Is Unlimited 94-02097 11y111111111e 9424 050 Prepared for U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk Best Available...Days) Iai yd) itt) Start Time Starts Island "It Jan 2078 11.255 325.000 0.26 44.405 6 0.39 May 2078 44,375 325.000 0.26 44.405 6 0.39 Jan 2079 44.620...0.16 43,675 6 0.24 May 2076 43,645 200.000 0.16 43,675 6 0.24 Sep 2076 43.765 200,000 0.16 43,765 9 0.24 Jan 2078 44,255 766,666 0.62 44,405 6 0.93 May

  12. Identification of the Schools in Which a Considerable Proportion of the Students Come from Disadvantaged Areas. Report on Disadvantaged Schools on the Island of Montreal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depatie, Raymond; And Others

    The focus of this study was to identify schools, located on the Island of Montreal, which may be called "disadvantaged area schools", or, in other words, to identify schools in which a considerable proportion of the students come from disadvantaged areas. Three factors are discussed which are said to produce considerable difficulties in…

  13. Geophysical reconnaissance of prospective geothermal areas on the Island of Hawaii using electrical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kauahikaua, J.; Mattice, M.

    1981-12-01

    Resistivity data from several areas were compiled, analyzed, and interpreted in terms of possible geologic models. On the basis of this analysis alone, two areas have been ruled out for possible geothermal exploitation, two have been interpreted to have a moderate-temperature resource, and two have been interpreted to have a high-temperature resource. The two areas which have been ruled out are the Keaau and South Point areas. The Kawaihae area and the lower northwest rift zone of Hualalai appear to have anomalous resistivity structures which suggest a moderate-temperature resource in each of these areas. Finally, specific areas in the lower southwest and lower east rift zones of Kilaauea have been outlined as locations where high-temperature fluids may exist at depth.

  14. Geophysical reconnaissance of prospective geothermal areas on the island of Hawaii using electrical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kauahikaua, J.; Mattice, M.

    1981-07-01

    Resistivity data from several areas were compiled, analyzed, and interpreted in terms of possible geologic models. On the basis of this analysis alone, two areas have been ruled out for possible geothermal exploitation, two have been interpreted to have a moderate-temperature resource, and two have been interpreted to have a high-temperature resource. The two areas which have been ruled out are the Keaau and South Point areas. The Kawaihae area and the lower northwest rift zone of Hualalai appear to have anomalous resistivity structures, which suggest a moderate-temperature resource in each of these areas. Finally, specific areas in the lower southwest and lower east rift zones of Kilauea have been outlined as locations where high-temperature fluids may exist at depth.

  15. Temporal variation of post-accident atmospheric (137)Cs in an evacuated area of Fukushima Prefecture: Size-dependent behaviors of (137)Cs-bearing particles.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-12-01

    The concentrations of (137)Cs in the air, which were divided into coarse (>1.1 μm ϕ) and fine (<1.1 μm ϕ) fractions of particulate matter (PM), were measured from October 2012 to December 2014 in an area evacuated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Total atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with high concentrations during summer and autumn related to the dominant easterly wind blowing from the highly radioactivity contaminated area. This seasonal peak was dominated by (137)Cs in the coarse PM fraction. The (137)Cs specific activity (massic (137)Cs concentration) in the coarse PM was also found to increase significantly in summer, whereas that in the fine PM showed no variability during the year. These results show that coarse and fine (137)Cs-bearing PM have different origins and behaviors in the resuspension process. The seasonal variation in atmospheric (137)Cs concentration was well correlated with the mean (137)Cs surface contamination (deposition density) around the observation site weighted by the frequency of wind direction, indicating that the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration in the observation site was explained by the distribution of the (137)Cs surface contamination and the frequency of different wind directions. We introduced a resuspension factor corrected for wind direction, consisting of the ratio of the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration to the weighted mean (137)Cs surface contamination, which evaluated the intensity of resuspension better than the conventional resuspension factor. This ratio ranged from 5.7 × 10(-11) to 8.6 × 10(-10) m(-1) and gradually decreased during the study period.

  16. Assessment of the Presence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Seawater Samples from Coastal Area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Torres-Padrón, Mª Esther; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the evaluation of seven pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different commonly used therapeutic classes in seawater samples from coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island. The target compounds include atenolol (antihypertensive), acetaminophen (analgesic), norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (antibiotics), carbamazepine (antiepileptic) and ketoprofen and diclofenac (anti-inflammatory). Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the extraction and preconcentration of the samples, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the determination of the compounds. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 78.3% to 98.2%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.8%. The detection and quantification limits of the method were in the ranges of 0.1–2.8 and 0.3–9.3 ng·L−1, respectively. The developed method was applied to evaluate the presence of these pharmaceutical compounds in seawater from four outfalls in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) during one year. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found in a large number of samples in a concentration range of 9.0–3551.7 ng·L−1. Low levels of diclofenac, acetaminophen and ketoprofen were found sporadically. PMID:27029304

  17. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 53.11 E 51 53.10 N 179 46.55 E 51 48.84 N 179 46.55 E 51 48.89 N 179 53.11 E Note: Each area is... Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Areas Area No. Name Latitude Longitude 1 Great Sitkin I 52 9.56 N 176 6.14 W 52 9.56 N 176 12.44 W 52...

  18. Cancer near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: radiation emissions.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M C; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

    1990-09-01

    As a public charge, cancers among the 159,684 residents living within a 10-mile (16-km) radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant were studied relative to releases of radiation during the March 28, 1979, accident as well as to routine plant emissions. The principal cancers considered were leukemia and childhood malignancies. Estimates of the emissions delivered to small geographic study tracts were derived from mathematical dispersion models which accounted for modifying factors such as wind and terrain; the model of accident emissions was validated by readings from off-site dosimeters. Incident cancers among area residents for the period 1975-1985 (n = 5,493) were identified by a review of the records at all local and regional hospitals; preaccident and postaccident trends in cancer rates were examined. For accident emissions, the authors failed to find definite effects of exposure on the cancer types and population subgroups thought to be most susceptible to radiation. No associations were seen for leukemia in adults or for childhood cancers as a group. For leukemia in children, the odds ratio was raised, but cases were few (n = 4), and the estimate was highly variable. Moreover, rates of childhood leukemia in the Three Mile Island area are low compared with national and regional rates. For exposure to routine emissions, the odds ratios were raised for childhood cancers as a whole and for childhood leukemia, but confidence intervals were wide and included 1.0. For leukemia in adults, there was a negative trend. Trends for two types of cancer ran counter to expectation. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed raised risks relative to both accident and routine emissions; lung cancer (adjusted only indirectly for smoking) showed raised risks relative to accident emissions, routine emissions, and background gamma radiation. Overall, the pattern of results does not provide convincing evidence that radiation releases from the Three Mile Island nuclear facility influenced

  19. Acoustic surveys of Hawaiian Hoary Bats in Kahikinui Forest Reserve and Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the Island of Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Christopher M.; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Kahikinui Forest Reserve and the adjoining Nakula Natural Area Reserve (KFR-NNAR) was established in 2011 as a conservation area on the leeward slope of Haleakalā Volcano on the island of Maui to protect unique natural features and endangered species including the Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus. We recorded bat vocalizations from July 2012 to November 2014 using automated echolocation detectors at 14 point locations in the KFRNNAR. Our study area included remnants of recovering mesic montane forest with interspersed grasses (1,250‒1,850 m elevation, hereafter called “forest”) and xeric subalpine shrubland plant communities (1,860‒2,800 m, hereafter called “shrubland”). Monthly detections of Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, within the KFR-NNAR identified areas of high and low detection probability as well as foraging activity. Sixty per cent of all detector-nights had confirmed bat vocalizations and included detections in every month of the study. Monthly detection probability values were highest from July to November 2012; these values were significantly greater than values measured in any month thereafter. Pooled values of detection probabilities, mean pulses/night, percentage of nights with feeding activity, and acoustic detections all were greater in the recovering forest zone than corresponding values from the shrublands. Our data provide baseline levels of hoary bat echolocation activity that may be compared with future studies in the KFR-NNAR relative to success criteria for Hawaiian hoary bat habitat restoration.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  1. Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts area contingency plan, updated through change 4

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-27

    Change 4 updates the Area Contingency Plan, which describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State, and Local response to a discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, Providence.

  2. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  3. Fluid migration in the Eugene Island block 330 area, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, J.A. ); Roberts, S.J. ); Cathles, L.M. III ); Anderson, R.N. )

    1996-01-01

    In a study funded by industry and the Department of Energy, the Global Basins Research Network has imaged fluid flow pathways that charged shallow, hydropressured, Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs in the Eugene Island 330 field, offshore Louisiana. Hydrocarbons appear to be derived from turbidite stacks within the salt withdrawal mini-basin buried deep within the geopressured zone. Fault zones, with pore pressure dependent permeability, provide conduits for episodic expulsion of fluids out of the geopressured zone. Imaging of present day fluid migration was accomplished using multiple three-dimensional seismic surveys done several years apart. Volume processing and attribute analysis algorithms are used to identify seismic amplitude interconnectivity and changes over time that result from active fluid migration. Pressures and temperatures are used to provide rate and timing constraints. Geochemical variability in reservoirs is attributed to mixing of oils. Using detailed hydrostratigraphic information constructed from seismic and well data, we have simulated the episodic expulsion of fluids from the geopressured zone along faults into individual thin sand layers in the overlying hydropressured zone. Our finite element model, Akcess.Basin[trademark], realistically simulates fluid flow, heat and solute transport and pore pressure dependent permeability of faults and strata. Our results documenting the existence of past and present migration events connecting shallow reservoirs to deep source rocks implies that large, heretofore undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves exist deep within the geopressured zone along the deep water continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Fluid migration in the Eugene Island block 330 area, offshore Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, J.A.; Roberts, S.J.; Cathles, L.M. III; Anderson, R.N.

    1996-12-31

    In a study funded by industry and the Department of Energy, the Global Basins Research Network has imaged fluid flow pathways that charged shallow, hydropressured, Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs in the Eugene Island 330 field, offshore Louisiana. Hydrocarbons appear to be derived from turbidite stacks within the salt withdrawal mini-basin buried deep within the geopressured zone. Fault zones, with pore pressure dependent permeability, provide conduits for episodic expulsion of fluids out of the geopressured zone. Imaging of present day fluid migration was accomplished using multiple three-dimensional seismic surveys done several years apart. Volume processing and attribute analysis algorithms are used to identify seismic amplitude interconnectivity and changes over time that result from active fluid migration. Pressures and temperatures are used to provide rate and timing constraints. Geochemical variability in reservoirs is attributed to mixing of oils. Using detailed hydrostratigraphic information constructed from seismic and well data, we have simulated the episodic expulsion of fluids from the geopressured zone along faults into individual thin sand layers in the overlying hydropressured zone. Our finite element model, Akcess.Basin{trademark}, realistically simulates fluid flow, heat and solute transport and pore pressure dependent permeability of faults and strata. Our results documenting the existence of past and present migration events connecting shallow reservoirs to deep source rocks implies that large, heretofore undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves exist deep within the geopressured zone along the deep water continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Reconnaissance engineering geology of the Metlakatla area, Annette Island, Alaska, with emphasis on evaluation of earthquakes and other geologic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yehle, Lynn A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to study the engineering geology of most larger Alaska coastal communities and to evaluate their earthquake and other geologic hazards was started following the 1964 Alaska earthquake; this report about the Metlakatla area, Annette Island, is a product of that program. Field-study methods were of a reconnaissance nature, and thus the interpretations in the report are tentative. Landscape of the Metlakatla Peninsula, on which the city of Metlakatla is located, is characterized by a muskeg-covered terrane of very low relief. In contrast, most of the rest of Annette Island is composed of mountainous terrane with steep valleys and numerous lakes. During the Pleistocene Epoch the Metlakatla area was presumably covered by ice several times; glaciers smoothed the present Metlakatla Peninsula and deeply eroded valleys on the rest. of Annette Island. The last major deglaciation was completed probably before 10,000 years ago. Rebound of the earth's crust, believed to be related to glacial melting, has caused land emergence at Metlakatla of at least 50 ft (15 m) and probably more than 200 ft (61 m) relative to present sea level. Bedrock in the Metlakatla area is composed chiefly of hard metamorphic rocks: greenschist and greenstone with minor hornfels and schist. Strike and dip of beds are generally variable and minor offsets are common. Bedrock is of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. Six types of surficial geologic materials of Quaternary age were recognized: firm diamicton, emerged shore, modern shore and delta, and alluvial deposits, very soft muskeg and other organic deposits, and firm to soft artificial fill. A combination map unit is composed of bedrock or diamicton. Geologic structure in southeastern Alaska is complex because, since at least early Paleozoic time, there have been several cycles of tectonic deformation that affected different parts of the region. Southeastern Alaska is transected by numerous faults and possible faults that attest to major

  6. Delineation and Prediction Uncertainty of Areas Contributing Recharge to Selected Well Fields in Wetland and Coastal Settings, Southern Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesz, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Areas contributing recharge to four well fields in two study sites in southern Rhode Island were delineated on the basis of steady-state groundwater-flow models representing average hydrologic conditions. The wells are screened in sand and gravel deposits in wetland and coastal settings. The groundwater-flow models were calibrated by inverse modeling using nonlinear regression. Summary statistics from nonlinear regression were used to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predicted areas contributing recharge to the well fields. In South Kingstown, two United Water Rhode Island well fields are in Mink Brook watershed and near Worden Pond and extensive wetlands. Wetland deposits of peat near the well fields generally range in thickness from 5 to 8 feet. Analysis of water-level drawdowns in a piezometer screened beneath the peat during a 20-day pumping period indicated vertical leakage and a vertical hydraulic conductivity for the peat of roughly 0.01 ft/d. The simulated area contributing recharge for average withdrawals of 2,138 gallons per minute during 2003-07 extended to groundwater divides in mostly till and morainal deposits, and it encompassed 2.30 square miles. Most of a sand and gravel mining operation between the well fields was in the simulated contributing area. For the maximum pumping capacity (5,100 gallons per minute), the simulated area contributing recharge expanded to 5.54 square miles. The well fields intercepted most of the precipitation recharge in Mink Brook watershed and in an adjacent small watershed, and simulated streams ceased to flow. The simulated contributing area to the well fields included an area beneath Worden Pond and a remote, isolated area in upland till on the opposite side of Worden Pond from the well fields. About 12 percent of the pumped water was derived from Worden Pond. In Charlestown, the Central Beach Fire District and the East Beach Water Association well fields are on a small (0.85 square mile) peninsula in a

  7. Three Mile Island: meltdown of democracy

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, E.J.

    1983-03-01

    Strong local opposition to a start-up of Unit 1 at Three Mile Island continues because citizen distrust of General Public Utilities was found in post-accident studies to have been justified. Several citizen groups have monitored the Unit 2 clean-up activities and have not been reassured by either the President's Commission or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Efforts to improve public relations by distributing radiation kits or other strategies have been outweighed by evidence of government manipulation of early bomb test data and poor industry planning. Arguments over who is responsible for the accident and who is liable for the cost have further undermined credibility. Area residents have received three recent legal signals that their position may prevail. (DCK)

  8. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    PubMed

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  9. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  10. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Groundwater in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on groundwater during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the withdrawing its notice of intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report were collected for the geothermal resource subzones in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to groundwater in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii. Groundwater quality in and adjacent to Kilauea`s east rift zone (KERZ), is compared with that of meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal fluid. Two segments of KERZ lie within the Puna District. These segments are the middle east rift zone (KERZ) and lower east rift zone (LERZ). The degree of mixing between meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal water in and adjacent to the also is discussed.

  11. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Groundwater in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on groundwater during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17,1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its notice of intent (Fed. Regis. 575433) of February 14,1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report were collected for the geothermal resource subzones in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to groundwater in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Groundwater quality inside and outside the lower east rift zone (LERZ) of Kilauea is compared with that of meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal fluid. The degree of mixing between meteoric water, sea water, and geothermal water in and adjacent to the LERZ also is discussed. Finally, groundwater pathways and use in the Puna District are discussed. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey publications and open-file reports.

  12. Local permeability changes, passive degassing and related gas hazard at the Baia di Levante area (Vulcano island, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diliberto, Iole Serena; Cangemi, Marianna; Gagliano, Antonina Lisa; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Madonia, Paolo; Pedone, Maria; Fabio Pisciotta, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    Vulcano, the southernmost island of the Aeolian archipelago (Italy), is presently characterized by active fumarolic fields located along the rim of La Fossa cone and the shoreline of the Baia di Levante beach, in the northern portion of the island.The Baia di Levante fumarolic vents are fed by a shallow hydrothermal aquifer heated by magmatic gases rising from the deep down, with a spatial distribution strongly affected by the local fracture network. These fractures are the expression of a deformation field, dominated by a northward motion to Lipari, abruptly decaying to the Vulcanello peninsula, immediately northward of the Baia di Levante beach. Variable rates of fluid transfer to the surface, following permeability changes affecting the fracture network are among the results of stress field variations over time which induce fluctuations in the pressure state of the hydrothermal system. Under these conditions, increments in hydrothermal gas flow, able to cause an increase of gas hazard, could be determined by a rearrangement of the shallow permeability distribution induced by changes in the deformation field. In this case not associated to any variation in the volcanic activity state. Since 2009 an huge gas flow increment has been noticed in some undersea vents of the Baia di Levante area, leading to increase of gas hazard in their immediate surroundings. On the contrary, the acquired data from the INGV volcanic surveillance program didn't suggest any correlated increase of the magmatic fluid component in the degassing activity.In July 2015, we carried out multi-parametric geochemical surveys in this area, based on direct (thermocouple) and indirect (thermal infrared camera and pyrometer) soil temperature, soil CO2 flux, atmospheric concentration of CO2 and H2S measurements at low elevation (one meter a.s.l.). The chemical and isotopic composition of low temperature fumarole gases was determined too.The comparison of the new data with previous surveys carried out

  13. The impact of green areas in mitigation of urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the project REPUBLICMED (REtroffiting PUBLic spaces in Intelligent MEDiterranean Cities) co-financed by the European Union, the changes in urban structure have to be proposed in order to mitigate the urban heat island in Zadar, Croatia. The intention is to compare thermal perception for selected locations in Zadar in the present situation and after proposed changes in different parts of the year. For that purpose, four days in different seasons were selected. For winter and summer, the days with extreme minimum and maximum temperatures were selected, whilst for spring and autumn the days in the middle of seasons (April and October) with mean temperatures similar to the corresponding mean seasonal temperatures were selected. All selected days were mainly clear or with small cloudiness resulting with maximum solar radiation. The thermal perception was calculated by means of biometeorological index based on energy equilibrium between human body and environment - physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). In the first analysis, daily courses of biometeorological index for selected situations based on hourly data were compared. During warmest parts of the day in summer the thermal perception differs up to 5°C under the tree shadow, while the differences in other seasons are smaller. The second analysis included the differences in the distribution of frequencies of thermal perception in the warmest part of the day (2 p.m.) throughout the year for selected locations. It is performed using meteorological data measured at the meteorological station Zadar in the 30-year climate period 1981-2010. The results have revealed the reduction in the frequency of sensations of hot and very hot (PET > 35°C or 41°C) under the shadow of the trees during summer, at the rate of up to 25% comparing to the situation before modification (without trees).

  14. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    SciTech Connect

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Evidence of Macroalgal Colonization on Newly Ice-Free Areas following Glacial Retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem. PMID:23484000

  16. Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H‧ values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

  17. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem.

  18. [Accidents of toddlers and youngsters].

    PubMed

    von Nicolai, D

    2002-02-01

    The Public Health Department in Biberach an der Riss developed a questionnaire to investigate the incidence of accidents in children under school-starting age (6 years). This questionnaire was presented to the parents of more than 2,300 prospective first-graders from the town and rural district on the occasion of the pre-school medical examination 2000. As this examination is mandatory for all children starting school, and as the questions were answered by all the parents with very few exceptions (language reasons), a complete survey can be assumed. The investigation confirmed the results of last year: The incidence of children who suffered an accident requiring medical attention before reaching school age is approximately 33 %; boys are predominantly involved. The scene of accidents also changes with increasing age from living quarters to outside areas. The most frequent type of accidents are, of course, falls, resulting especially in injuries to the head and face. Scalds and burns, in particular at the age of 2, occur more frequently in the Biberach district than described in other up-to-date investigations in Germany. For this reason efforts have to be made to reduce this number over the next years. About 11 % of accidents occur in the streets or involve traffic, a result which is also higher in comparison to other investigations. According to the statement of parents, more than two-thirds of accidents are caused by the children themselves, including babies and toddlers. At the time of the accident 40 % of the children were without parental control, and 20 % completely alone.A great number of the accidents could certainly have been prevented. That is why the results of the study should be made available to all those responsible for the care and wellbeing of this age group. The last section of the paper deals with the most urgent needs of action to be implemented in the long run for the sake of the health of our children.

  19. The Three Mile Island Population Registry.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhaber, M K; Tokuhata, G K; Digon, E; Caldwell, G G; Stein, G F; Lutz, G; Gur, D

    1983-01-01

    Shortly after the March 28, 1979, accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant outside Harrisburg, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Health, in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, conducted a census of the 35,930 persons residing within 5 miles of the plant. With the help of 150 enumerators, demographic and health-related information was collected on each person to provide baseline data for future short- and long-term epidemiologic studies of the effects of the accident. Individual radiation doses were estimated on the basis of residential location and the amount of time each person spent in the 5-mile area during the 10 days after the accident. Health and behavioral resurveys of the population will be conducted approximately every 5 years. Population-mobility, morbidity, and mortality will be studied yearly by matching the TMI Population Registry with postal records, cancer registry records, and death certificate data. Because the radiation dose from TMI was extremely small, any increase in morbidity or mortality attributable to the accident would be so small as not to be measurable by present methods; however, adverse health effects as a result of psychological stress may occur. Also, a temporary increase in reporting of disease could occur because of increased surveillance and attention to health. PMID:6419276

  20. An Observational Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Greater Thessaloniki Area: Preliminary Results and Development of a Forecasting Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, T. M.; Melas, D.; Kontogianni, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper investigates the characteristics of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in the Greater Thessaloniki Area (GTA). The study is carried out by using and analyzing hourly air temperature data covering the period from June through September 2008. It was found that the urban zone of the city is heated faster and more effectively than the suburban surroundings, especially in early morning hours. Two measuring sites were selected as representative of "urban" and "suburban" areas and the hourly air temperature differences were calculated and classified by magnitude. The analysis of the percentage of occurrences for each class revealed that the city of Thessaloniki is subject to a rather moderate UHI. It was also found that the heat island can be more clearly observed during overnight hours, reaching, however, its maximum magnitude in early morning hours. Last but not least, the current paper introduces the development of an Urban Heat Island Forecasting Service (UHI-FS).

  1. Joint Use of Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 data for Burned Areas Mapping: the Case of the Sardinia Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Antonio; Azar, Ramin; Calò, Fabiana; Stroppiana, Daniela; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Imperatore, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    Fires widely affect Mediterranean regions, causing severe threats to human lives and damages to natural environments. The socio-economic impacts of fires on the affected local communities are significant, indeed, the activation of prevention measures and the extinguishment of fires and reclamation of the pre-fire conditions are very expensive. Moreover, fires have also global impacts: they affect global warming and climate changes due to gas and aerosol emissions to atmosphere. In such a context, fire scars mapping and monitoring are fundamental tasks for a sustainable management of natural resources and for the prevention/mitigation of fire risk. With this respect, remotely sensed data offer the opportunity for a regional-up-to-global scale monitoring of areas prone to fires, on a cost-effective and regular basis. In this work, the potential of a joint use of Sentinel-1A (C-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data for detecting burned areas is investigated. The experimental analyses are conducted by focusing on Sardinia Island, which is one of the Italian regions most affected by fire events during summer. Our analysis shows that the capability of monitoring burned areas in the Mediterranean environment can be improved by exploiting information embedded in OLI multispectral bands in conjunction with multi-temporal dual-polarized SAR data. Indeed, limitations experienced in analyses based on the use of only optical data (e.g., cloud cover, spectral overlap/confusion of burned areas with dark soils, water surfaces and shaded regions) may be overcome by using SAR data, owing to the insensitiveness to sunlight-illumination conditions and the cloud-penetrating capability of microwave radiation. Results prove the effectiveness of an integrated approach based on the combination of optical and microwave imagery for the monitoring and mapping of burned areas in vegetated regions.

  2. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  3. Organization of radio-ecological monitoring of the areas of the Russian Federation contaminated due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (on example of the Bryansk region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Korobova, Elena; Vakulovsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    A severe accident at the Chernobyl NPP on April 26th, 1986 has led to radioactive contamination of many regions of the former USSR, now belonging to the Ukraine, the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation. Both natural and arable ecosystems have been subjected to fallout of radioactive isotopes. However both the distribution of radionuclides that define radioecological situation has depended not only on the initial contamination density but also on the landscape geochemical features of the areas controlling biogenic and abiogenic factors of radionuclide migration. To study and monitor peculiarities of migration of the most radioecologically significant radionuclides of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in different natural landscapes the Russian Scientific and Practical Experimental Center of the former State Chernobyl Committee has organized in 1992 a network of experimental plots in the most contaminated western part of the Bryansk region. It included 19 plots 100 m x 100 m in size which characterized 8 meadow and 11 forested catenas in the basin of the Iput' river. Cs-137 contamination level of the plots varied in 1992 from 740 kBq/m2 to 1850 kBq/m2. Although the study site has been located in the remote zone and the contamination was of condensation type the sampling performed at 11 plots registered some refractory radionuclides (144Ce, 154Eu, 238,239,240Pu and 90Sr) that proved the presence of fuel particles in fallout as far as 200 km from the damaged reactors. The sampling and monitoring scheme was organized to determine: the isotopic composition and contamination density of the plots; 2) estimation of radionuclide vertical and lateral migration; 3) evaluation of radionuclide inventories in different soil horizons; 4) calculation of radionuclide transfer in soil-plant system. Radiation measurements included field gamma-spectrometry using collimated gamma spectrometer "Corad" developed in the Kurchatov Institute and laboratory spectrometry the soil and plant samples

  4. Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Caldow, Chris; Christensen, J.D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, Rafe

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Gas hazard assessment in the touristic area of Levante Beach (Vulcano island, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Di Piazza, Andrea; Gattuso, Alessandro; Ranaldi, Massimo; Sortino, Francesco; Tarchini, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Since the last eruption occurred at "La Fossa" in 1888-1890, Vulcano remained in a quiescence state characterized by an intense fumarolic activity. The main degassing manifestations are concentrated in La Fossa crater area (high temperature fumaroles) and in the area of Vulcano Porto, between Levante Beach and Faraglioni (medium-low temperature fumaroles). In addition the entire volcanic edifice of La Fossa, its base and the area of Vulcano Porto are characterized by en extensive soil CO2 diffuse degassing. In the last century episodic "crises" have occurred with increase of temperature, gas output and compositional changes of the crater fumaroles indicating an increase of the magmatic component in the discharged fluids. These episodic crises occurred in 1916-1924, in 1988-1993, in 1996 and in 2004-2006. During the period 1988-1990, the accumulation of CO2 in morphological depressions or excavation provoked the death for asphyxiation of two children in the area of Vulcano Porto and of some small animals at the base of the crater area. In April 2015, a child lost his senses while playing at Levante Beach; he was rescued by an air ambulance to the hospital of Lipari. According to the national chronicle (La Repubblica, 22 June 2015), doctors attributed the malaise to a high CO2 air concentration. Soon after this event the Major of Lipari installed at Levante Beach some panels informing tourists on gas hazard. In summer 2015 we performed a geochemical survey of the Levante Beach sector (onshore and offshore) and of the mud pool, estimating the diffuse and viscous gas flux and the air gas concentration in order to evaluate the degassing level. The total gas flux in the Levante Beach area, from 0.3 km2, has been estimated in 1 t/day of CO2 and 16,1 kg/day of H2S; values comparable with those of the 2009 and 2011 campaigns. In addition, a soil CO2 flux survey of the target area at La Fossa crater was performed, ascertaining that the degassing rate was within the range of

  6. Repeat Measurements of Seismic Noise at the Waiotapu Geothermal Area, North Island, NZ

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteford, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The amplitudes of seismic ground noise were remeasured at 66 sites in the Waiotapu and Reporoa geothermal areas in 1995 to determine whether amplitudes had changed since the first survey in 1970. In both 1995 and 1970 high levels of seismic noise occurred in two localities, one at Waiotapu and one at Reporoa. The elevated levels of seismic noise at most sites are thought to be caused by surface or near-surface geothermal activity. At seven sites in the Waiotapu area seismic noise levels were almost the same in 1995 as in 1970, indicating no change in the intensity of the source of the geothermal seismic noise. At most other sites the 1995 seismic noise levels were different to those measured in 1970, although at sites with high levels of seismic noise the differences were usually less than at sites with low levels of seismic noise.

  7. Hydrology of the Babylon-Islip area, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pluhowski, Edward J.; Kantrowitz, Irwin H.

    1964-01-01

    The report area comprises 270 square miles, and includes most of the Towns of Babylon and Islip, and parts of the Towns of Huntington, Smithtown, and Brookhaven, in southwestern Suffolk County, New York. Almost all the water used in the area is obtained from wells screened in permeable zones of the ground-water reservoir which consists of unconsolidated deposits of gravel, sand, silt, and clay as much as 1,800 feet thick. The ground-water reservoir contains three principal aquifers. From the surface down these are (a) surficial deposits of sand and gravel of Pleistocene age, (b) sands of the Magothy (?) Formation of Cretaceous age, and (c) the Lloyd Sand Member of the Raritan Formation of Cretaceous age. At present only the upper two aquifers are tapped by wells. Natural replenishment of the ground-water reservoir in the area takes place entirely by infiltration of precipitation and averages about 215 mgd (million gallons per day). Average ground-water runoff to streams above tidewater is 114 mgd, and it is estimated that an additional 54 mgd is discharged into tidal reaches of streams. Ground-water evapotranspiration is computed to be about 10 mgd and submarine outflow from the area is estimated to be 18 mgd. The average streamflow of the area above tidewater is 120 mgd. Because of the permeable soils and low relief, direct runoff is only about 5 percent of the average streamflow. Streams are perennial along their middle and lower reaches and exhibit well-sustained low flows. Flooding rarely occurs although continued urbanization may result in minor flooding problems as additional storm sewers are constructed. Water in most of the area is generally of good quality; however, it may be contaminated locally. Some streams and parts of the water-table aquifer contain low concentrations of synthetic detergents and other dissolved constituents from domestic and industrial wastes. Salty water occurs in parts of the water-table aquifer in the area under and bordering Great

  8. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in

  9. Scientific information in support of water resource management of the Big River area, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Masterson, John P.; Robinson, Keith W.; Crawley, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the RIWRB has conducted a series of cooperative studies with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The goals of these studies have been to (1) evaluate and characterize the water resources of the BRMA and the greater Big River area, and (2) identify sustainable levels of groundwater use that would minimize effects on water resources. This fact sheet describes the major findings of those studies.

  10. Hydrologic, vegetation, and soil data collected in selected wetlands of the Big River Management area, Rhode Island, from 2008 through 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borenstein, Meredith S.; Golet, Francis C.; Armstrong, David S.; Breault, Robert F.; McCobb, Timothy D.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board planned to develop public water-supply wells in the Big River Management Area in Kent County, Rhode Island. Research in the United States and abroad indicates that groundwater withdrawal has the potential to affect wetland hydrology and related processes. In May 2008, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island formed a partnership to establish baseline conditions at selected Big River wetland study sites and to develop an approach for monitoring potential impacts once pumping begins. In 2008 and 2009, baseline data were collected on the hydrology, vegetation, and soil characteristics at five forested wetland study sites in the Big River Management Area. Four of the sites were located in areas of potential drawdown associated with the projected withdrawals. The fifth site was located outside the area of projected drawdown and served as a control site. The data collected during this study are presented in this report.

  11. Surficial Geologic Map of the Pocasset-Provincetown-Cuttyhunk-Nantucket 24-Quadrangle Area of Cape Cod and Islands, Southeast Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Byron D.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (555 mi2 total) in southeast Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. On Cape Cod and adjacent islands, these materials completely cover the bedrock surface. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relations, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  12. Geomorphological dynamics of Deception Island (Maritime Antarctic): a GIS based analysis of the Cerro de la Cruz - Crater Lake area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, R.; Vieira, G.; Rocha, J.; Caselli, A.; Batista, V.; Ramos, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study, based on field surveying from the austral summer of 2007-2008, presents the first results of the detailed geomorphological mapping of Deception Island (South Shetlands, Antarctic Peninsula). The main objective is to provide new geomorphological observations aiming to understand: i) how climate change is affecting permafrost, ii) the interactions between volcanoes and permafrost and also, iii) the present-day geomorphological dynamics in an area of high environmental sensitivity. The detailed geomorphological mapping was made in the area between the Argentinean base of Decepción and the Spanish Base Gabriel de Castilla, corresponding to 4 km2, as well as in the vicinity of the ruins of the Chilean Refuge. Mapping focused on landforms and deposits that may be indicators of permafrost dynamics, such as rockfalls, gullies, debris flows, thermokarst depressions and lag surfaces. Active layer thickness was monitored during the summer in two sites with different topographic conditions using mechanical probing. The spatial distribution of the geomorphological processes and landforms was studied using a GIS, with the objective to study the controls of several independent variables, such as altitude, aspect, slope, topographical parameters and net summer radiation.

  13. Distribution of Legionella spp. in hydrothermal areas in continental Portugal and the island of São Miguel, Azores.

    PubMed Central

    Veríssimo, A; Marrão, G; da Silva, F G; da Costa, M S

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen aquatic environment sites from three hydrothermal areas on continental Portugal and one area on the island of São Miguel, Azores, were examined for the recovery of Legionella spp. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were also determined for each site. Water temperatures varied between 22 and 67.5 degrees C, although the majority had temperatures above 40 degrees C; the pH varied between 5.5 and 9.2. The number of Legionella spp. recovered varied between 5.0 x 10(2) and 2.3 x 10(6) CFU/liter. A total of 288 isolates from 14 sites were identified by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The majority of the isolates belonged to Legionella pneumophila (74.3%), of which most belong to serogroup 1, but the relative proportion of L. pneumophila serogroups varied considerably. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted 96.2% of the isolates in area 2 from central Portugal, but no isolates of this serogroup were recovered from São Miguel, where serogroup 6 strains were the predominant isolates. Ninety-six percent of the L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates belonged to monoclonal antibody subgroups OLDA and Bellingham. Other species identified were L. bozemanii serogroup 2, L. dumoffii, L. micdadei, L. moravica, L. oakridgensis, L. sainticrucis, and L. sainthelensi. Two undescribed species, which react by indirect immunofluorescence assay to antisera to "L. londoniensis" and "L. nautarum" and a group of isolates with strong cross-reaction to L. cincinnatiensis/L. sainticrucis/L. longbeachae by indirect immunofluorescence assay were also recovered. The latter were the only isolates recovered from area 3, in east central Portugal, over a period of 1 year. PMID:1746954

  14. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  15. Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them <1 mmol C m-2 d-1). It appears that nitrate is assimilated in the upper part of the mixed layer (coinciding with the euphotic layer) and regenerated in the lower parts. We suggest that such high contribution of nitrification to nitrate assimilation is driven by (i) a deep mixed layer, extending well below the euphotic layer, allowing nitrifiers to compete with phytoplankton for the assimilation of ammonium, (ii) extremely high rates of primary production for the Southern Ocean, stimulating the release of dissolved organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.

  16. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  17. Water-quality trends in the Scituate reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, 1983-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Upward trends in pH were identified for nearly half of the monitoring stations for WYs 1983-2012 and may reflect regional reductions in acid precipitation. Many upward trends in alkalinity also were identified for both the WYs 1983-2012 and for WYs 2003-12 periods and are likely related to the natural weathering of structures containing concrete or, in some cases, the application of lime or fertilizers on agriculture lands. Significant trends in chloride concentrations at most stations during WYs 1983-2012 were upward; however, results for WYs 2003-12 substantiate few significant upward trends and, in a few cases, downward trends were identified in several tributary drainage areas.

  18. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas.

  19. 75 FR 38926 - Safety Zones; Marine Events Within the Captain of the Port Sector Long Island Sound Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...,000 Foot Safety Zone Shelter Island Fireworks..... Date: July 10, 2010. Rain date: July 11, 2010. Time... Fireworks. Rain date: July 5, 2010. Time: 8:30 pm to 10:30 pm. Location: All waters of Fisher's Island Sound... Date: July 4, 2010. Fireworks. Rain date: July 5, 2010. Time: 8:30 pm to 10:30 pm. Location: All...

  20. "What--me worry?" "Why so serious?": a personal view on the Fukushima nuclear reactor accidents.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Infrequently, it seems that a significant accident precursor or, worse, an actual accident, involving a commercial nuclear power reactor occurs to remind us of the need to reexamine the safety of this important electrical power technology from a risk perspective. Twenty-five years since the major core damage accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, the Fukushima reactor complex in Japan experienced multiple core damages as a result of an earthquake-induced tsunami beyond either the earthquake or tsunami design basis for the site. Although the tsunami itself killed tens of thousands of people and left the area devastated and virtually uninhabitable, much concern still arose from the potential radioactive releases from the damaged reactors, even though there was little population left in the area to be affected. As a lifelong probabilistic safety analyst in nuclear engineering, even I must admit to a recurrence of the doubt regarding nuclear power safety after Fukushima that I had experienced after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This article is my attempt to "recover" my personal perspective on acceptable risk by examining both the domestic and worldwide history of commercial nuclear power plant accidents and attempting to quantify the risk in terms of the frequency of core damage that one might glean from a review of operational history.

  1. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  2. The Sponge Community of a Subtidal Area with Hydrothermal Vents: Milos Island, Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansini, M.; Morri, C.; Bianchi, C. N.

    2000-11-01

    Sponges were sampled by SCUBA diving at six subtidal rocky sites, three of which were close to hydrothermal vents, a common feature on the sea-floor off the south-east coast of Milos. Twenty-five species (2 Calcarea and 23 Demospongiae) were found, few compared with the 589 recorded for the Mediterranean, but an important addition to the scant information on the sponge fauna of the Aegean Sea. The number of species found at vent sites was consistently higher than that found at non-vent sites, but no vent-obligate species could be identified. However, Geodia cydonium and three species of Cliona ( C. copiosa, C. nigricans and C. rhodensis) showed a tendency to colonize vent areas. The former might take advantage of increased silica availability, the latter of the enhanced deposition of carbonates near vents. Substratum cover by sponges (estimated from wire-framed photographs of 0·7 m 2), varied greatly both among and within sites, mostly according to slope. Most sponge species preferred vertical to overhanging, shaded substrata. Proximity to vents seemed to have little or no influence on sponge cover, notwithstanding a primary effect on species diversity.

  3. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  4. Epiphytic bryophytes growing on Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco in three laurel forest areas in Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Mancebo, Juana M.; Romaguera, Francisco; Losada-Lima, Ana; Suárez, Andrés

    2004-05-01

    We examined bryophyte species growing on Laurus azorica, in three localities of the laurel forest in Tenerife (Canary Islands), in order to determine differences in species composition, richness and cover, that depend on variations in mist frequency and density. Among the 35 bryophyte species found (26 liverworts and nine mosses), 16 occurred in all three locations while nine species occurred in only one location. Detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the epiphyte-phorophyte relationship varied in terms of cover, richness and bryophyte composition, depending on the humidity conditions (related to mist frequency and plot height) and tree age. In spite of differences in the dominant species found at each locality, the community types have many species in common and may be seen as a natural unit of the communities involved. Variation in the dominant species at each locality is mainly related to a trade off between humidity conditions and tree diameter, and the speed of the successional processes. Plot aspect was the only variable among those considered with no significant influence, which might be related to the closed canopy conditions. Variation in cover, richness and bryophyte composition related to plot height and tree diameter increased in the drier location. Cover was positively related to species richness in all analyses. This is related to low diversity during initial colonization and the fact that the highest biomass species, related to later successional stages, also occur on younger trees, especially in the more humid areas.

  5. Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater using multivariate statistical analysis and tritium in the mountainous area of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, D.; Chae, G.; Kang, B.; Koh, G.; Yoon, Y.; Ko, K.; Park, K.

    2008-12-01

    The baseline groundwater quality of Jeju volcanic island was investigated for the mountainous area where natural area is dominant and basaltic rocks and hydrovolcanic tuffs are distributed. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that principal component (PC) 1 represented natural mineralization by CO2- charged water and PC 2 corresponded to contamination from nitrate sources among four PCs considered. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to PC scores generated from PCA to reduce clustering biases due to mutually-dependant variables, which resulted in 5 sample groups; high-altitude springs, low- mineral water, nitrate-contaminated water, intermediate-mineral water and high-mineral water which are distinguished by total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate concentration and water type. High-mineral water has higher PCO2 and calcite saturation states than other groups. The high-mineral water also has 3H values lower than 1.5 TU indicating contribution of old groundwater is significant while low-mineral water has 3H values of about 3 TU which is close to those in rainwater. Geographically, the high-mineral water is concentrated in the southwestern area accompanying with intermediate-mineral water. This feature is likely to be related to (1) the presence of extensive trachytic rocks which could form locally isolating aquifers to enable prolonged water-rock interactions under high PCO2 and (2) higher location of low-permeable hydrovolcanic tuffs in subsurface in the southern area which increases chances to tap the aquifers below the hydrovolcanic tuffs. Cumulative probability of TDS showed two break points of 50 and 150 mg/L which distinguished high-altitude springs, low-mineral water and high-mineral water. Cumulative probability of nitrate provided possible threshold values for anthropogenic contamination of 2.5 mg/L and 5.5 mg/L. 32% of samples have nitrate concentration higher than 2.5 mg/L indicating high vulnerability to surface contamination

  6. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  7. Metagenomic profiles of free-living archaea, bacteria and small eukaryotes in coastal areas of Sichang island, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    useful biotechnology gas and enzymes that could also function in high-saline and high-temperature conditions. Tham Phang contained less abundant archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the majority of the extracted metagenomes belonged to animal kingdom. Many microorganisms in Tham Phang were essential for nutrient-recycling and pharmaceuticals, for instances, Streptomyces, Pennicilium and Saccharomyces. Together, the study provided metagenomic profiles of free-living prokaryotes and eukaryotes in coastal areas of Sichang island. PMID:23282134

  8. Accident prevention in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, O

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer. PMID:21614274

  9. Ground Water in Kilauea Volcano and Adjacent Areas of Mauna Loa Volcano, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1993-01-01

    About 1,000 million gallons of water per day moves toward or into ground-water bodies of Kilauea Volcano from the lavas of Mauna Loa Volcano. This movement continues only to the northern boundaries of the east and southwest rift zones of Kilauea, where a substantial quantity of ground water is deflected downslope to other ground-water bodies or to the ocean. In the western part of Kilauea, the kaoiki fault system, which parallels the southwest rift zone, may be the main barrier to ground-water movement. The diversion of the ground water is manifested in the western part of Kilauea by the presence of large springs at the shore end of the Kaoiki fault system, and in the eastern part by the apparently large flow of unheated basal ground water north of the east rift zone. Thus, recharge to ground water in the rift zones of Kilauea and to the areas to the south of the rift zones may be largely by local rainfall. Recharge from rainfall for all of Kilauea is about 1,250 million gallons per day. Beneath the upper slopes of the Kilauea rift zones, ground-water levels are 2,000 feet or more above mean sea level, or more than 1,000 feet below land surface. Ground-water levels are at these high altitudes because numerous and closely spaced dikes at depth in the upper slopes impound the ground water. In the lower slopes, because the number of dikes decreases toward the surface, the presence of a sufficient number of dikes capable of impounding ground water at altitudes substantially above sea level is unlikely. In surrounding basal ground-water reservoirs, fresh basal ground water floats on seawater and, through a transition zone of mixed freshwater and seawater, discharges into the sea. The hydraulic conductivity of the dike-free lavas ranges from about 3,000 to about 7,000 feet per day. The conductivity in the upper slopes of the rift ranges from about 5 to 30 feet per day and that of the lower slopes of the east rift zone was calculated at about 7,000 feet per day. The

  10. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate.

    PubMed

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-03-01

    Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N=171) to various geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N=88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance of speed and traffic volume for traffic accidents with more than one partner involved. The 48 single cyclist accidents were significantly related to the traffic volume of cyclists only. Due to our limited number of observations, the models should be regarded as indicative.

  11. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a radius... Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  12. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to selected receiving surface water bodies for long-term average hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 for Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misut, Paul E.; Monti,, Jack

    2016-10-05

    To assist resource managers and planners in developing informed strategies to address nitrogen loading to coastal water bodies of Long Island, New York, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation initiated a program to delineate a comprehensive dataset of groundwater recharge areas (or areas contributing groundwater), travel times, and outflows to streams and saline embayments on Long Island. A four-layer regional three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model of hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 was used to provide delineations of 48 groundwater watersheds on Long Island. Sixteen particle starting points were evenly spaced within each of the 4,000- by 4,000-foot model cells that receive water-table recharge and tracked using forward particle-tracking analysis modeling software to outflow zones. For each particle, simulated travel times were grouped by age as follows: less than or equal to 10 years, greater than 10 years and less than or equal to 100 years, greater than 100 years and less than or equal to 1,000 years, and greater than 1,000 years; and simulated ending zones were grouped into 48 receiving water bodies, based on the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Waterbody Inventory/Priority Waterbodies List. Areal delineation of travel time zones and groundwater contributing areas were generated and a table was prepared presenting the sum of groundwater outflow for each area.

  13. A study of the hourly variability of the urban heat island effect in the Greater Athens Area during summer.

    PubMed

    Kourtidis, K; Georgoulias, A K; Rapsomanikis, S; Amiridis, V; Keramitsoglou, I; Hooyberghs, H; Maiheu, B; Melas, D

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of air temperature and humidity in the urban canopy layer during July 2009 in 26 sites in Athens, Greece, allowed for the mapping of the hourly spatiotemporal evolution of the urban heat island (UHI) effect. City districts neighboring to the mountains to the east were the hottest during the afternoon, while being among the coolest during the early morning hours. While during the early morning some coastal sites were the hottest, the warm air plume slowly moved to the densely urbanized center of the city until 14:00-15:00, moving then further west, to the Elefsis industrial area in the afternoon. Results from the UrbClim model agree fairly well with the observations. Satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST) data from AATSR, ASTER, AVHRR and MODIS, for pixels corresponding to ground stations measuring Tair, showed that LST can be up to 5K lower than the respective Tair during nighttime, while it can be up to 15K higher during the rest of the day. Generally, LST during late afternoon as acquired from AATSR is very near to Tair for all stations and all days, i.e., the AATSR LST afternoon retrieval can be used as a very good approximation of Tair. The hourly evolution of the spatial Tair distribution was almost the same during days with NE Etesian flow as in days with sea breeze circulation, indicating that the mean wind flow was not the main factor controlling the diurnal UHI evolution, although it influenced the temperatures attained. No unambiguous observation of the urban moisture excess (UME) phenomenon could be made.

  14. Life cycle of a geyser discharge apron: Evidence from Waikite Geyser, Whakarewarewa geothermal area, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Renaut, Robin W.; Owen, R. Bernhart

    2011-05-01

    Waikite, a geyser located in the Whakarewarewa geothermal area on the North Island, New Zealand, has a history of eruptive-dormancy cycles that have been attributed to natural and anthropogenic causes. The last cycle involved an active period from ~ 1932 to 1968/69 that was followed by a period of dormancy that continues today. Such cycles are important because they control the temporal development of the discharge apron. When the geyser is active, growth of the discharge apron is dictated by the precipitation of opal-A, which is controlled by factors such as discharge patterns, water chemistry, pH, temperature, rate of cooling, and the resident microbiota. With dormancy, conditions change radically because water no longer flows down the discharge apron. Instead, the discharge apron lapses into a phase of degradation that, on Waikite, is evident from (1) deflation of the apron surface, (2) blocks splaying off the apron margins along margin-parallel fractures, (3) tension fractures, (4) saucer-shaped collapse zones, (5) increasingly unstable surfaces resulting from subsurface opal-A dissolution, (6) fractures, from which steam and other gases emanate, and (7) incursion of native vegetation around the edge of the apron and on the distal parts of the discharge apron. When the geyser becomes active again, silica precipitation will resume and the discharge apron will once again accrete vertically and expand laterally. Analysis of the Waikite system shows that successions that develop on geyser discharge aprons are formed of unconformity-bounded packages of sinter that reflect the eruptive-dormancy history of the parent geyser.

  15. Benefits and Challenges of Scaling Up Expansion of Marine Protected Area Networks in the Verde Island Passage, Central Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Horigue, Vera; Pressey, Robert L.; Mills, Morena; Brotánková, Jana; Cabral, Reniel; Andréfouët, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Locally-established marine protected areas (MPAs) have been proven to achieve local-scale fisheries and conservation objectives. However, since many of these MPAs were not designed to form ecologically-connected networks, their contributions to broader-scale goals such as complementarity and connectivity can be limited. In contrast, integrated networks of MPAs designed with systematic conservation planning are assumed to be more effective—ecologically, socially, and economically—than collections of locally-established MPAs. There is, however, little empirical evidence that clearly demonstrates the supposed advantages of systematic MPA networks. A key reason is the poor record of implementation of systematic plans attributable to lack of local buy-in. An intermediate scenario for the expansion of MPAs is scaling up of local decisions, whereby locally-driven MPA initiatives are coordinated through collaborative partnerships among local governments and their communities. Coordination has the potential to extend the benefits of individual MPAs and perhaps to approach the potential benefits offered by systematic MPA networks. We evaluated the benefits of scaling up local MPAs to form networks by simulating seven expansion scenarios for MPAs in the Verde Island Passage, central Philippines. The scenarios were: uncoordinated community-based establishment of MPAs; two scenarios reflecting different levels of coordinated MPA expansion through collaborative partnerships; and four scenarios guided by systematic conservation planning with different contexts for governance. For each scenario, we measured benefits through time in terms of achievement of objectives for representation of marine habitats. We found that: in any governance context, systematic networks were more efficient than non-systematic ones; systematic networks were more efficient in broader governance contexts; and, contrary to expectations but with caveats, the uncoordinated scenario was slightly more

  16. Flow paths and mixing properties of groundwater using hydrogeochemistry and environmental tracers in the southwestern area of Jeju volcanic island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Dong-Chan; Ha, Kyoochul; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Yoon, Yoon-Yeol; Ko, Kyung-Seok

    2012-04-01

    SummaryGroundwater from springs, test boreholes and domestic wells was investigated to assess the flow system of basaltic aquifers at base-flow conditions in the southwestern part of Jeju Island, South Korea. This study utilized hydrogeochemical parameters and environmental tracers of 18O, 2H, 3H and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which showed that well-connected flow paths exist between coastal springs regardless of flow rates. In contrast, test boreholes near the coastal springs exhibited various flow paths. Nitrate concentrations were much higher than baseline values in mountainous groundwater while those decreased in coastal areas (<50 m asl) despite stronger anthropogenic land uses. Cl- was seemingly contributed from nitrate contamination sources and seawater sources were minimal due to low-permeability layers near sea level. The water-stable isotopes indicated little evaporation and were comparable to the local meteoric water line during the rainy season, which was confirmed by deuterium excess values, demonstrating that effective infiltration primarily occurs during the rainy season. From the effects of altitude on δ18O, the mean recharge altitudes for both mountainous and coastal springs were estimated as 300-400 m, which implies longer flow paths for the coastal springs. The relationship of CFC-12-CFC-113 and that of CFC-12-3H concordantly indicated that the groundwater consists mainly of binary mixtures composed of 15-25-year-old young water and old water with ages greater than 60 years. Lower nitrate levels in the coastal springs were well represented by the mixing models. Recharge altitudes for coastal springs increased up to 700 m, assuming that old water corresponds to high-altitude recharge, using the binary mixing model. Integration of hydrochemical and environmental tracer characteristics revealed that pahoehoe lava flows and hydrovolcanic tuffs play key roles in controlling the groundwater occurrence and quality.

  17. Areas contributing ground water to the Peconic Estuary, and ground-water budgets for the north and south forks and Shelter Island, eastern Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Peconic Estuary, at the eastern end of Long Island, has been plagued by a recurrent algal bloom, locally referred to as ?Brown Tide,? that has caused the severe decline of local marine resources. Although the factors that trigger Brown Tide blooms remain uncertain, groundwater discharge has previously been shown to affect surface-water quality in the western part of the estuary. A U.S. Geological Survey groundwater- flow model of the main body of Long Island indicates that a total of about 7.5 x 106 ft3/d (cubic feet per day) of freshwater discharges to the western part of the estuary, but the model does not include the ground-water flow systems on the North and South Forks and Shelter Island, which contribute significant amounts of freshwater to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. The need for information on freshwater discharge to the entire estuary prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate ground-water discharge from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island. Source areas that contribute ground water to the Peconic Estuary were delineated, and groundwater budgets for these areas were developed, to evaluate the distribution and magnitude of ground-water discharge to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. Contributing-area boundaries that were delineated coincide with the hydraulic boundaries of the fresh ground-water-flow systems of the North and South Forks and Shelter Island; these boundaries are of two types? external (saltwater bodies) and internal (groundwater divides). Hydrologic components that were evaluated include recharge from precipitation, public-supply withdrawal and return flow, and agricultural withdrawal. Values for each of these components were calculated or estimated for the individual freshwater flow subsystems that form each ground-water-budget area, then summed to obtain the total discharge of fresh ground water to tidewater. Ground-water discharge to the Peconic Estuary is about 3.8 x 106 ft3/d from the North

  18. Hydrogeology, water quality, and saltwater intrusion in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the offshore area near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and Tybee Island, Georgia, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Ransom, Camille; Landmeyer, James E.; Reuber, Eric J.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the hydrogeology, water quality, and the potential for saltwater intrusion in the offshore Upper Floridan aquifer, a scientific investigation was conducted near Tybee Island, Georgia, and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Four temporary wells were drilled at 7, 8, 10, and 15 miles to the northeast of Tybee Island, and one temporary well was drilled in Calibogue Sound west of Hilton Head Island. The Upper Floridan aquifer at the offshore and Calibogue sites includes the unconsolidated calcareous quartz sand, calcareous quartz sandstone, and sandy limestone of the Oligocene Lazaretto Creek and Tiger Leap Formations, and the limestone of the late Eocene Ocala Limestone and middle Avon Park Formation. At the 7-, 10-, and 15-mile sites, the upper confining unit between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers correlates to the Miocene Marks Head Formation. Paleochannel incisions have completely removed the upper confining unit at the Calibogue site and all but a 0.8-foot-thick interval of the confining unit at the 8-mile site, raising concern about the potential for saltwater intrusion through the paleochannel-fill sediments at these two sites. The paleochannel incisions at the Calibogue and 8-mile sites are filled with fine- and coarse-grained sediments, respectively. The hydrogeologic setting and the vertical hydraulic gradients at the 7- and 10-mile sites favored the absence of saltwater intrusion during predevelopment. After decades of onshore water use in Georgia and South Carolina, the 0-foot contour in the regional cone of depression of the Upper Floridan aquifer is estimated to have been at the general location of the 7- and 10-mile sites by the mid-1950s and at or past the 15-mile site by the 1980s. The upward vertical hydraulic gradient reversed, but the presence of more than 17 feet of upper confining unit impeded the downward movement of saltwater from the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer at the 7- and 10-mile sites. At the 10

  19. Review of cladding-coolant interactions during LWR accident transients

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the coolant-cladding interactions that can take place during the design basis loss-of-coolant accident and the Three Mile Island loss-of-coolant accident are analyzed. The physical manifestations of the interactions are quite similar, but the time sequences involved can cause very different end results. These results are described and a listing is given of the main research programs that are involved in coolant-cladding interaction research.

  20. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Investigation of Airborne Chemical Concentrations in Certain Work Areas of Naval Air Rework Facility at North Island, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    and leading edge abrasive strips, etc. In the process of doing these jobs, it is necessary to strip and clean surfaces and to prepare them for...cyanide sump i3 another possible source of hydrogen cyanide. The possibility of "accidents" or human failure could lead to conditions where appreciable...termining concentrations of toxic gases and vapors. It has been proven through extensive use by leading industrial companies and government agencies

  2. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  3. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  4. Mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) survey of areas on Dauphin Island, Alabama, in the aftermath of Hurricane Isaac, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic survey data of areas on Dauphin Island on the Alabama coast were collected using a truck-mounted mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging system. This system is composed of a high frequency laser scanner in conjunction with an inertial measurement unit and a position and orientation computer to produce highly accurate topographic datasets. A global positioning system base station was set up on a nearby benchmark and logged vertical and horizontal position information during the survey for post-processing. Survey control points were also collected throughout the study area to determine residual errors. Data were collected 5 days after Hurricane Isaac made landfall in early September 2012 to document sediment deposits prior to clean-up efforts. Three data files in ASCII text format with the extension .xyz are included in this report, and each file is named according to both the acquisition date and the relative geographic location on Dauphin Island (for example, 20120903_Central.xyz). Metadata are also included for each of the files in both Extensible Markup Language with the extension .xml and ASCII text formats. These topographic data can be used to analyze the effects of storm surge on barrier island environments and also serve as a baseline dataset for future change detection analyses.

  5. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  6. Late Quaternary environmental changes inferred from n-alkane evidence in coastal area of southern Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengyuan; Zheng, Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    The studied core was a coastal core in Hainan Island, China. It is in length of 49.01m and divided into four Units (MIS 1~MIS 6) according to lithology description. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) attributes the sediments from Unit 3 to the Oxygen Isotope Stage of MIS 5e (Unit 3b and 3c) and 5d (Unit 3a). To interpret the origination of organic carbons and to reconstruct paleovegetation changes, n-alkane, δ13C and TOC have been used in the present research. The result of n-alkanes distribution indicates a series of changes of sedimentary environment and terrestrial input. The shallow water facies at Unit 2, 3a and 4 is mainly characterized by short carbon chain n-alkanes and relatively low concentration. Contrasting with that of deep-water marine facies of MIS 5e (Unit 3b), the n-alkane pattern is typical bimodal and the main peaks are both in short and long carbon chains. During Unit 3b-1 (MIS 5e), more terrestrial original n-alkanes contribute to the concentration of TOC than oceanic. Organic matter source is mainly terrestrial origination. Total organic matter input mechanism of TLG-01 correlates with sediment grain size (average grain size). Total organic carbon input is enhanced with the increasing of fine grain size component. The variation of CPI (25-33) value in this study correlates with hydrological energy. The highest CPI (25-33) value is shown in the high sea level period of MIS 5e, comparing with that in MIS 5d and MIS 1. High CPI value corresponds to high TOC and average grain size (Φ) value. In the weak hydrological energy sedimentary environment, more terrestrial organic matter, together with TOC, deposit in the study area. ACL (25-33) index display higher values in the interglacial period (MIS 5 and MIS 1) than MIS 3 (sediments weathered during MIS 2) and MIS 6. Paq proxy, together with δ13C, estimates the mangrove growing depth in MIS 5e. The correlation between δ13C and each carbon chain alkane state stabilize and turbulence of

  7. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    PubMed

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  8. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  9. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Smith, Kirk P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB), Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 13 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance and water temperature. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2009 (October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2009). Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 monitoring stations by the USGS during WY 2009 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2009. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2009. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.50 to 17 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,400,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,200,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2009; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 64,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 110,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median

  11. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island,Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamflow-gaging stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2002 (October 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002). Water-quality samples were also collected at 35 of 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2002 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2002. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 12.6 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2002. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.14 to 8.1 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 534,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 851,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2002; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 2,900 to 40,200 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 4,200 to 68,200 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 16.8 milligrams per

  12. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB), Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance and water temperature. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2010 (October 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010). Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 monitoring stations by the USGS during WY 2010 as part of a long sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Waterquality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2010. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 39 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2010. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.7 to 27 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,500,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2010; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 11,000 to 66,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 18,000 to 110,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride

  13. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2003 (October 1, 2002, to September 30, 2003). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2003 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2003. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 31 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2003. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.44 to 20 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2003; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 21.3 milligrams per liter

  14. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2004 (October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2004 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2004. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2004. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,700,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2004; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 12,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 17,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.8 milligrams per liter

  15. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2006 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2006. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 42 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2006. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.60 to 26 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2006; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 15,000 to 100,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 22,000 to 180,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.6 milligrams per liter

  16. Streamflow, water quality and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2016-05-03

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2014 (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2014 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2014.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 23 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2014. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.35 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,100,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2014; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 7,700 to 45,000 kilograms per year per

  17. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2012 (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2012 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB were summarized by using values of central tendency and used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2012. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 26 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2012. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.40 to about 17 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2012; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,700 to 51,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 14,000 to 87,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected

  18. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2011 (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2011 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2011. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 37 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2011. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.5 to about 21 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kg (kilograms) of sodium and 2,600,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2011; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 9,800 to 53,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 90,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were

  19. Reefs and islands of the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean: why it is the world's largest no-take marine protected area.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, C R C; Ateweberhan, M; Bowen, B W; Carr, P; Chen, C A; Clubbe, C; Craig, M T; Ebinghaus, R; Eble, J; Fitzsimmons, N; Gaither, M R; Gan, C-H; Gollock, M; Guzman, N; Graham, N A J; Harris, A; Jones, R; Keshavmurthy, S; Koldewey, H; Lundin, C G; Mortimer, J A; Obura, D; Pfeiffer, M; Price, A R G; Purkis, S; Raines, P; Readman, J W; Riegl, B; Rogers, A; Schleyer, M; Seaward, M R D; Sheppard, A L S; Tamelander, J; Turner, J R; Visram, S; Vogler, C; Vogt, S; Wolschke, H; Yang, J M-C; Yang, S-Y; Yesson, C

    2012-03-01

    The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km(2), with more than 60 000 km(2) shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs.It contains 25-50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world's largest contiguous undamaged reef area. It has suffered from warming episodes, but after the most severe mortality event of 1998, coral cover was restored after 10 years.Coral reef fishes are orders of magnitude more abundant than in other Indian Ocean locations, regardless of whether the latter are fished or protected.Coral diseases are extremely low, and no invasive marine species are known.Genetically, Chagos marine species are part of the Western Indian Ocean, and Chagos serves as a 'stepping-stone' in the ocean.The no-take MPA extends to the 200 nm boundary, and. includes 86 unfished seamounts and 243 deep knolls as well as encompassing important pelagic species.On the larger islands, native plants, coconut crabs, bird and turtle colonies were largely destroyed in plantation times, but several smaller islands are in relatively undamaged state.There are now 10 'important bird areas', coconut crab density is high and numbers of green and hawksbill turtles are recovering.Diego Garcia atoll contains a military facility; this atoll contains one Ramsar site and several 'strict nature reserves'. Pollutant monitoring shows it to be the least polluted inhabited atoll in the world. Today, strict environmental regulations are enforced.Shoreline erosion is significant in many places. Its economic cost in the inhabited part of Diego Garcia is very high, but all islands are vulnerable.Chagos is ideally situated for several monitoring programmes, and use is increasingly being made of the archipelago for this purpose.

  20. Descriptions of selected accidents that have occurred at nuclear reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bertini, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to provide the members of the Commission with some insight into the nature and significance of accidents that have occurred at nuclear reactor facilities in the past. Toward that end, this report presents a brief description of 44 accidents which have occurred throughout the world and which meet at least one of the severity criteria that were established.

  1. Incidence of plastic debris in Sooty Tern nests: A preliminary study on Trindade Island, a remote area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Petersen, Elisa; Krüger, Lucas; Dezevieski, Alexandre; Petry, MariaVirginia; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2016-04-15

    Plastic is abundant in the oceans, reaching pelagic zones away from continents. Here we present the first recordings of plastic used as nest material in Sooty Tern nests, on a remote oceanic island. We describe our findings in terms of quantity, size and color of plastic debris. A total of 78 plastics were noted in 54 nests. Four color categories were found: Blue, White, Green and Red. Blue fragments were the most frequent color, present three times as much as white debris. This pattern was present despite blue fragments being smaller and lighter. The plastic debris of lowest frequency were the larger and heavier pieces (red). To our knowledge this is the first record of plastic in Sooty Tern nests. Trindade Island is on an oceanic zone expected to accumulate garbage due to the dynamic ocean currents. Such findings call for a closer inspection of pollution in the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. {sup 137}Cs concentration among children in areas contaminated with radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident: Mogilev and Gomel oblasts, Belarus

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Fujimura, Kingo; Shibata, Yoshisada; Okajima, Shunzo; Yamashita, Shunichi; Namba, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Naokata; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1994-09-01

    The level of radiation exposure in children in Belarus caused by the Chernobyl accident was investigated on the basis of whole body {sup 137}Cs count. The subjects were 10,062 children (4,762 boys and 5,300 girls) in Mogilev and Gomel, Belarus, who received Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project health examinations from May 1991 to December 1992 and who were 5-16 y old at the time of examination. The median whole body {sup 137}Cs count per body weight varied from 21-48 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} and from 28-126 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in Mogilev oblast and Gomel oblast, respectively. (The {open_quotes}oblast{close_quotes} is the largest administrative district constituting the country. Belarus consists of 6 oblasts). Corresponding annual effective dose equivalents were all less than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}, but the observed levels in the children were considerably higher than the average level of 2.3 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} reported in the past for the former Soviet Union. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).

  4. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  5. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-02

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  6. [Accidents and injuries at work].

    PubMed

    Standke, W

    2014-06-01

    In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

  7. Reefs and islands of the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean: why it is the world’s largest no-take marine protected area

    PubMed Central

    SHEPPARD, C. R. C.; ATEWEBERHAN, M.; BOWEN, B. W.; CARR, P.; CHEN, C. A.; CLUBBE, C.; CRAIG, M. T.; EBINGHAUS, R.; EBLE, J.; FITZSIMMONS, N.; GAITHER, M. R.; GAN, C-H.; GOLLOCK, M.; GUZMAN, N.; GRAHAM, N. A. J.; HARRIS, A.; JONES, R.; KESHAVMURTHY, S.; KOLDEWEY, H.; LUNDIN, C. G.; MORTIMER, J. A.; OBURA, D.; PFEIFFER, M.; PRICE, A. R. G.; PURKIS, S.; RAINES, P.; READMAN, J. W.; RIEGL, B.; ROGERS, A.; SCHLEYER, M.; SEAWARD, M. R. D; SHEPPARD, A. L. S.; TAMELANDER, J.; TURNER, J. R.; VISRAM, S.; VOGLER, C.; VOGT, S.; WOLSCHKE, H.; YANG, J. M-C.; YANG, S-Y.; YESSON, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km2, with more than 60 000 km2 shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs.It contains 25–50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world’s largest contiguous undamaged reef area. It has suffered from warming episodes, but after the most severe mortality event of 1998, coral cover was restored after 10 years.Coral reef fishes are orders of magnitude more abundant than in other Indian Ocean locations, regardless of whether the latter are fished or protected.Coral diseases are extremely low, and no invasive marine species are known.Genetically, Chagos marine species are part of the Western Indian Ocean, and Chagos serves as a ‘stepping-stone’ in the ocean.The no-take MPA extends to the 200 nm boundary, and. includes 86 unfished seamounts and 243 deep knolls as well as encompassing important pelagic species.On the larger islands, native plants, coconut crabs, bird and turtle colonies were largely destroyed in plantation times, but several smaller islands are in relatively undamaged state.There are now 10 ‘important bird areas’, coconut crab density is high and numbers of green and hawksbill turtles are recovering.Diego Garcia atoll contains a military facility; this atoll contains one Ramsar site and several ‘strict nature reserves’. Pollutant monitoring shows it to be the least polluted inhabited atoll in the world. Today, strict environmental regulations are enforced.Shoreline erosion is significant in many places. Its economic cost in the inhabited part of Diego Garcia is very high, but all islands are vulnerable.Chagos is ideally situated for several monitoring programmes, and use is increasingly being made of the archipelago for this purpose. PMID:25505830

  8. Effects of the 1998 Drought on the Freshwater Lens in the Laura Area, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    Lower than average rainfall during late 1997 and early 1998 in Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, caused a drought and severe drinking-water shortage. Majuro depends on a public rainfall catchment system, which uses an airport runway and storage reservoirs. The storage reservoirs can supply water for about 30 to 50 days without replenishment. In February 1998, after a few months with less than one inch of rainfall per month, a drought-related disaster was declared. Reverse-osmosis water-purification systems were brought to Majuro to help alleviate the water shortage. Concurrent with the water-purification program, ground water from a freshwater lens in the Laura area of the atoll was pumped at increased rates. Of the total consumed water during this period, ground water from Laura supplied between 90 percent (March 1998) and 64 percent (May 1998) of the drinking water. Due to public concern, a study was initiated to determine the effects of the drought on the freshwater lens. The areal extent of the freshwater lens is about 350 acres. A monitoring-well network, consisting of multiple wells driven to varying depths at 11 sites, was installed to determine the thickness of the freshwater lens. Similar locations relative to an earlier study were chosen so that the data from this study could be compared to 1984-85 data. At the end of the drought in June 1998, the freshwater near the middle of the lens was about 45 feet thick; and at the north and south ends, the freshwater was about 25 to 38 feet thick, respectively. Monitoring of the freshwater lens was continued through the wet season following the drought. The lens increased in thickness by 1 to 8 feet after 7 months of rainfall. Greater increases in lens thickness were measured on the lagoon side than on the ocean side of the freshwater lens. Lens thickness during August 1998, and seasonal variation of lens thickness in 1998, were compared to data collected in 1984-85. Comparison of lens thickness from

  9. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  10. Government: Nuclear Safety in Doubt a Year after Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1980-01-01

    A year after the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), the signals transmitted to the public are still confused. Industry says that nuclear power is safe and that the aftermath of TMI ushers in a new era of safety. Antinuclear activists say TMI sounded nuclear power's death knell. (Author/RE)

  11. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  12. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  13. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  16. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  18. Radionuclide mass balance for the TMI-2 accident: data-base system and preliminary mass balance. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M I; Davis, R J; Strahl, J F; Arcieri, W C; Tonkay, D W

    1983-04-01

    After the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2), on March 28, 1979, GEND stated its intention to support an effort to determine, as accurately as possible, the current mass balances of significant radiological toxic species. GEND gave two primary reasons for support this effort: (1) such exercises guarantee completeness of the studies, and (2) mass balance determinations ensure that all important sinks and attentuation mechanisms have been identified. The primary objective of the studies conducted by NUS Corporation was to support the goals of the GEND planners and to continue the mass balance effort by generating a preliminary accounting of key radioactive species following the TMI-2 accident. As a result of these studies, secondary objectives, namely a computerized data base and recommendations, have been achieved to support future work in this area.

  19. Review of hydrogen accidents and incidents in NASA operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    A number of the accidents/incidents with hydrogen in NASA operations are reviewed. The cause factors for the mishaps are reviewed and show that although few accidents occurred, the number could have been further reduced if the established NASA rules and regulations had been followed. Requirements for effective safety codes and areas of study for hydrogen safety information are included. The report concludes with a compilation of 96 hydrogen mishaps; a description of the accidents and their causes.

  20. Crisis contained, The Department of Energy at Three Mile Island: a history

    SciTech Connect

    Cantelon, P L; Williams, R C

    1980-12-01

    An account is given of the response of US DOE to the Three Mile Island-2 accident on March 28, 1979. The accident is treated as though it was a military battle. A synoptic chronologgy of the accident events and of DOE and other responses is included. (DLC)

  1. Tempo-spatial variation of nutrient and chlorophyll- α concentrations from summer to winter in the Zhangzi Island Area (Northern Yellow Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiehui; Zhao, Zengxia; Zhang, Guangtao; Wang, Shiwei; Wan, Aiyong

    2013-09-01

    Nutrient and Chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentrations were investigated monthly along three transects extending from a mariculture area to open waters around the Zhangzi Island area from July to December 2009. The objective of this study is to illustrate food availability to the bottom-sowed scallop Patinopecten yessoensis under the influences of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM), freshwater input and feedbacks of cultivated scallops. Significant thermal stratification was present in open waters from July to October, and salinity decreased in July and August in surface layers in the mariculture area. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth in both areas in summer, but were similar through water column in November and December. On average, nutrient increased from summer to autumn in all components except ammonia. Nutrient concentrations lower than the minimum thresholds for phytoplankton growth were present only in upper layers in summer, but stoichiometric nitrogen limitation existed in the entire investigation period. Column-averaged Chl- a concentration was lower in open waters than in mariculture area in all months. It increased significantly in mariculture area in August and October, and was less variable in open waters. Our results show that nutrients limitation to phytoplankton growth is present mainly in upper layer in association with stratification caused by YSCWM in summer. Freshwater input and upwelling of nutrients accumulated in YSCWM can stimulate phytoplankton production in mariculture area. Farming activities may change stoichiometric nutrient ratios but have less influence on Chl- a concentration.

  2. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  3. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  4. Nuclear power beyond Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.

    1980-05-01

    At the Three Mile Island-2 Reactor accident in March, 1979, there was concern expressed over a chemical explosion that might rupture the containment vessel and release radioactive material. The absolute worst possible event that could take place at a nuclear power plant would be a melt-down that breached the containment vessel and allowed radioactive material to escape, but this absolute worst possible case would create less cost and loss of life than many natural disasters. When the anti-nukes talk about a nuclear power plant devastating an area the size of Pennsylvania or California, and leaving a vast wasteland for 10,000 years, they are being grossly dishonest, for even at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where we exploded weapons with the intent of massive destruction, the area has been completely restored and repopulated. The only major threat from nuclear power plant accidents is radiation. The average radiation dose received by every American each year is 170 millirems-130 from natural radiation and 40 millirems from man-made sources. A summary of the risks encountered from the combustion of coal, watching TV, diagnostic x-rays, dams collapsing, etc. making the risk level from nuclear radiation much smaller than most secular activities, is given.

  5. United States Department of Energy severe accident research following the Fukushima Daiichi accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Corradini, M.; Rempe, J.; Reister, R.; Peko, D.

    2016-11-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has played a major role in the U.S. response to the events at Fukushima Daiichi. During the first several weeks following the accident, U.S. assistance efforts were guided by results from a significant and diverse set of analyses. In the months that followed, a coordinated analysis activity aimed at gaining a more thorough understanding of the accident sequence was completed using laboratory-developed, system-level best-estimate accident analysis codes, while a parallel analysis was conducted by U.S. industry. A comparison of predictions for Unit 1 from these two studies indicated significant differences between MAAP and MELCOR results for key plant parameters, such as in-core hydrogen production. On that basis, a crosswalk was completed to determine the key modeling variations that led to these differences. In parallel with these activities, it became clear that there was a need to perform a technology gap evaluation on accident-tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research and augmented by insights from Fukushima. In addition, there is growing international recognition that data from Fukushima could significantly reduce uncertainties related to severe accident progression, particularly for boiling water reactors. On these bases, a group of U. S. experts in LWR safety and plant operations was convened by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to complete technology gap analysis and Fukushima forensics data needs identification activities. The results from these activities were used as the basis for refining DOE-NE's severe accident research and development (R&D) plan. Finally, this paper provides a high-level review of DOE-sponsored R&D efforts in these areas, including planned activities on accident-tolerant components and accident analysis methods.

  6. United States Department of Energy severe accident research following the Fukushima Daiichi accidents

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, M. T.; Corradini, M.; Rempe, J.; ...

    2016-11-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has played a major role in the U.S. response to the events at Fukushima Daiichi. During the first several weeks following the accident, U.S. assistance efforts were guided by results from a significant and diverse set of analyses. In the months that followed, a coordinated analysis activity aimed at gaining a more thorough understanding of the accident sequence was completed using laboratory-developed, system-level best-estimate accident analysis codes, while a parallel analysis was conducted by U.S. industry. A comparison of predictions for Unit 1 from these two studies indicated significant differences between MAAP and MELCORmore » results for key plant parameters, such as in-core hydrogen production. On that basis, a crosswalk was completed to determine the key modeling variations that led to these differences. In parallel with these activities, it became clear that there was a need to perform a technology gap evaluation on accident-tolerant components and severe accident analysis methodologies with the goal of identifying any data and/or knowledge gaps that may exist given the current state of light water reactor (LWR) severe accident research and augmented by insights from Fukushima. In addition, there is growing international recognition that data from Fukushima could significantly reduce uncertainties related to severe accident progression, particularly for boiling water reactors. On these bases, a group of U. S. experts in LWR safety and plant operations was convened by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to complete technology gap analysis and Fukushima forensics data needs identification activities. The results from these activities were used as the basis for refining DOE-NE's severe accident research and development (R&D) plan. Finally, this paper provides a high-level review of DOE-sponsored R&D efforts in these areas, including planned activities on accident-tolerant components and accident analysis methods.« less

  7. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  8. Mapping fumarolic fields in volcanic areas: A methodological approach based on the case study of La Fossa cone, Vulcano island (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonia, Paolo; Cangemi, Marianna; Costa, Michela; Madonia, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the activity state of a volcano can be inferred by monitoring the steam flux from fumarolic fields, in terms of 4D (x, y, z, time) variations in temperature and extension of the zone. During the last decades, several studies in this field have been conducted worldwide, and at Vulcano island (Italy) in particular. Both direct and remotely sensed measurements have been used for identifying thermally anomalous areas, but the possible role of the hydrothermal alteration of volcanic products, producing a sealing effect that obscures the surface thermal evidence of fumarolic activity, have never been explored. The novelty of the present study, carried out at La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island), was the integration of direct and remotely sensed temperature measurements with the evaluation of soil permeability, for the precise mapping of areas where shallow hydrothermal circulation could occur even in the absence of surface evidence. The main results of this study concern the role of a coating found on rock surfaces and regolith in introducing mapping errors, especially during diachronic temperature surveys based on remotely sensed measurements.

  9. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  10. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  11. [Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Sewerin, I

    2001-10-22

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen.

  12. Protected areas in the Atlantic facing the hazards of micro-plastic pollution: first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Current.

    PubMed

    Baztan, Juan; Carrasco, Ana; Chouinard, Omer; Cleaud, Muriel; Gabaldon, Jesús E; Huck, Thierry; Jaffrès, Lionel; Jorgensen, Bethany; Miguelez, Aquilino; Paillard, Christine; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul

    2014-03-15

    Coastal zones and the biosphere as a whole show signs of cumulative degradation due to the use and disposal of plastics. To better understand the manifestation of plastic pollution in the Atlantic Ocean, we partnered with local communities to determine the concentrations of micro-plastics in 125 beaches on three islands in the Canary Current: Lanzarote, La Graciosa, and Fuerteventura. We found that, in spite of being located in highly-protected natural areas, all beaches in our study area are exceedingly vulnerable to micro-plastic pollution, with pollution levels reaching concentrations greater than 100 g of plastic in 1l of sediment. This paper contributes to ongoing efforts to develop solutions to plastic pollution by addressing the questions: (i) Where does this pollution come from?; (ii) How much plastic pollution is in the world's oceans and coastal zones?; (iii) What are the consequences for the biosphere?; and (iv) What are possible solutions?

  13. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Lutz, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  14. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

  15. Tsunami hazard mitigation in tourism in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas: a case study in the Ryukyu Islands, southwest of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2006-12-01

    Life and economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) are highly relying on the sea. The sea has both "gentle" side to give people healing and "dangerous" side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know all of the sea, including the both sides of the sea: especially the nature of tsunamis. And also we islanders should issue accurate information about the sea towards outsiders, especially tourists visiting the island. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. However, measures against the tsunami disaster by marine tourism industry are still inadequate in these areas. The goal of tsunami hazard mitigation for those engaged in tourism industry in tropical and subtropical coastal areas should be as follows. (1) Preparedness against tsunamis: "Be aware of the characteristics of tsunamis." "Prepare tsunamis when you feel an earthquake." "Prepare tsunamis when an earthquake takes place somewhere in the world." (2) Maintenance of an exact tsunami hazard map under quantitative analyses of the characteristics of tsunamis: "Flooding areas by tsunami attacks are dependent not only on altitude but also on amplification and inundation due to the seafloor topography near the coast and the onland topographic relief." "Tsunami damage happens repeatedly." (3) Maintenance of a tsunami disaster prevention manual and training after the manual: "Who should do what in case of tsunamis?" "How should the resort hotel employees lead the guests to the safe place?" Such a policy for disaster prevention is discussed in the class of the general education of "Ocean Sciences" in University of the Ryukyus (UR) and summer school for high school students. The students (most of them are from Okinawa Prefecture) consider, discuss and make reports about what to do in case of tsunamis as an islander

  16. Dose estimates in a loss of lead shielding truck accident.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John

    2009-08-01

    The radiological transportation risk & consequence program, RADTRAN, has recently added an updated loss of lead shielding (LOS) model to it most recent version, RADTRAN 6.0. The LOS model was used to determine dose estimates to first-responders during a spent nuclear fuel transportation accident. Results varied according to the following: type of accident scenario, percent of lead slump, distance to shipment, and time spent in the area. This document presents a method of creating dose estimates for first-responders using RADTRAN with potential accident scenarios. This may be of particular interest in the event of high speed accidents or fires involving cask punctures.

  17. Extent And Distribution Of Montane Riparian Zone Vegetation And Representation In Protected Areas In The Sky Island Region Of The Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Nicole H.

    The Sky Island region of the southwestern United States hosts some of the richest biodiversity anywhere in the world. In the mountain ranges of the Sky Islands, most vertebrate biodiversity is dependent on riparian areas for all or some of their life cycles. Riparian vegetation is threatened by human impacts and climate change. Though riparian vegetation along rivers and major perennial streams is already mapped in this region, vegetation in ephemeral and intermittent riparian areas, arguably equally important for biodiversity in the mountain ranges, has not been quantified. I developed a Random Forest classification model of riparian vegetation for all three types of riparian areas, mapped this vegetation for each of the 25 mountain ranges, described the spatial distribution and connectivity of the vegetation among and between mountain ranges, and demonstrated enhancement of regional riparian land cover classes with the new model of riparian zone vegetation. The resulting map indicates a much broader distribution of riparian zone vegetation than previous land cover mapping efforts indicate, likely due to inclusion of ephemeral and intermittent riparian types. The spatial distribution and connectivity of riparian zone vegetation varied widely within and between mountain ranges, possibly as a result of variability in environmental factors affecting aridity, temperature, water availability, landscape position, and disturbances. The model can be used with other information to augment understanding of the integrity, connectivity, and vulnerability of riparian zone vegetation in this unique and important region. To analyze the conservation status of riparian zone vegetation, I quantified its representation in protected areas. I then compared the representation relative to the overall amount of riparian zone vegetation in each mountain range. The relationships between representation of riparian zone vegetation in protected areas, degree of mountain range protection, and

  18. Assessment of environmental mercury discharge at a four-year-old artisanal gold mining area on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Krisnayanti, Baiq Dewi; Anderson, Christopher W N; Utomo, Wani Hadi; Feng, Xinbin; Handayanto, Eko; Mudarisna, Nurul; Ikram, Hadiman; Khususiah

    2012-10-26

    Indonesian artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities (ASGM) have been described for the islands of Borneo (Kalimantan) and Sulawesi. But the increased gold price over recent years has seen operations extend to the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa. For the current research, an environmental assessment was conducted across three new ASGM locations. Gold is recovered by miners through a two-stage process of whole-ore amalgamation and cyanidation. Waste (tailings) is discharged to land or sea with no concern for contaminants in the tailings. The gold grade of ore is up to 5000 mg kg(-1). The mean gold grade of the amalgamation tailings is 7 mg kg(-1), dropping to 1.2 mg kg(-1) for the cyanidation tailings. The mean mercury concentration of the amalgamation tailings is about 3000 mg kg(-1) and greater than 1600 mg kg(-1) for the cyanidation tailings. Samples of paddy rice grain collected adjacent to cyanidation tailings ponds showed methyl mercury concentrations greater than 100 ng g(-1). This is five times above the Chinese permissible level for total mercury in food crops. The mean total mercury concentration in hair of Lombok ASGM workers was greater than that in a non-exposed population; however there was no difference in methyl mercury concentration. This indicates the primary pathway of mercury exposure is inhalation of volatile mercury in the atmosphere. Future exposure may come from ingestion of methyl mercury contaminated rice where discharge of cyanide tailings to paddies continues. To protect the environment and to enhance the sustainability of ASGM, appropriate tailings management must be implemented. The gold grade of the tailings indicates that the residual value might be recoverable with appropriate technology. Ongoing research is investigating systems such as phytoextraction that might assist ASGM operators in Lombok and Sumbawa to improve their environmental performance.

  19. Assessment of light water reactor accident management programs and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hammersley, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an assessment of the current light water reactor experience regarding accident management programs and associated technology developments. This assessment for light water reactor (LWR) designs is provided as a resource and reference for the development of accident management capabilities for the production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The specific objectives of this assessment are as follows: 1. Perform a review of the NRC, utility, and industry (NUMARC, EPRI) accident management programs and implementation experience. 2. Provide an assessment of the problems and opportunities in developing an accident management program in conjunction or following the Individual Plant Examination process. 3. Review current NRC, utility, and industry technological developments in the areas of computational tools, severe accident predictive tools, diagnostic aids, and severe accident training and simulation.

  20. Remnants of a Late Triassic ocean island in the Gufeng area, northern Tibet: Implications for the opening and early evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Wang, Ming; Liu, Yi-Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present new major and trace element compositions of basaltic rocks in the Gufeng ocean island (GFOI) area in the western segment of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone, northern Tibet. Our aim was to assess the genesis of these rocks and discuss the implications of this new dataset for the evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean. An ocean-island-type double-layer structure comprising a basaltic basement and an oceanic sedimentary cover sequence found within the GFOI provides direct evidence for the interpretation that the assemblage is a typical ocean island. The basalts in the GFOI can be divided into three types (named G1, G2 and G3 basalts), and these basalts range in composition from MORB to OIB types, which is typical of ocean islands. The G1 basalts have MORB-type affinities, possibly indicating the existence of MORB oceanic crust under the GFOI. The G2 basalts represent the early stage of formation of the GFOI, and are produced by the interaction of rising OIB-type basaltic magma and the existing MORB oceanic crust. The G3 basalts are typical OIB basalts and they are the products of the direct eruption of OIB-type basaltic magmas. The G3 basalts have high (La/Yb)N (12.3-14.4), (Ce/Yb)N (10.8-11.8), (La/Sm)N (2.39-2.76), and (Sm/Yb)N (4.89-5.23) ratios, indicating the presence of oceanic lithosphere below the GFOI with a thickness of 50-60 km. Geochemical analyses of the GFOI cherts show that they contain terrigenous material, indicating the GFOI formed close to a continental margin. Norian conodont fossils within the GFOI limestones indicate the GFOI formed during the Late Triassic. These data, combined with geological evidence and a half-space model of lithosphere cooling, where the thickness of the oceanic lithosphere is determined from the age of the lithosphere, indicate that the western segment of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean opened initially in the late Permian, expanded rapidly during the Early-Middle Triassic, and was a

  1. A Biophysical and Economic Profile of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands as Potential Large-Scale Antarctic Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Yesson, Christopher; Gravestock, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The current hiatus in the establishment of a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Antarctic means that other routes to conservation are required. The protection of overseas territories in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic represents one way to advance the initiation of such a network. This review of the physical and biological features of the United Kingdom (U.K.) overseas territories of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is undertaken to estimate the importance of the islands in terms of marine conservation in the Southern Ocean and globally. The economy and management of SGSSI are also analysed, and the question of whether the islands already have sufficient protection to constitute part of an Antarctic network of MPAs is assessed. The SGSSI comprise unique geological and physical features, a diverse marine biota, including a significant proportion of endemic species and globally important breeding populations of marine predators. Regardless of past exploitation of biotic resources, such as seals, whales and finfish, SGSSI would make a significant contribution to biological diversity in an Antarctic network of MPAs. At present, conservation measures do not adequately protect all of the biological features that render the islands so important in terms of conservation at a regional and global level. However, a general lack of data on Antarctic marine ecosystems (particularly needed for SGSSSI) makes it difficult to assess this fully. One barrier to achieving more complete protection is the continuing emphasis on fishing effort in these waters by U.K. government. Other non-U.K. Antarctic overseas territories of conservation importance are also compromised as MPAs because of the exploitation of fisheries resources in their waters. The possible non-use values of SGSSI as well as the importance of ecosystem services that are indirectly used by people are outlined in this review. Technology is improving the potential for management of remote MPAs

  2. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  3. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

  4. 33 CFR 334.85 - New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND..., New York; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of New York Harbor beginning at a point on shore....5″ N, longitude 074°03′46″ W; thence southwesterly to the shore line at latitude 40°37′24.5″...

  5. Accident rates for heavy truck-tractors in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Blower, D; Campbell, K L; Green, P E

    1993-06-01

    Accident rates of heavy truck-tractors are modelled using log-linear methods. The accident data used are a census of truck-tractor involvements in Michigan from May 1987 to April 1988. Travel data used to calculate the rates were produced by a survey of truck-tractors in Michigan covering the same time period. Both the accident and travel data were limited to Michigan-registered tractors operating in Michigan. Log-linear models of casualty and property-damage-only accident rates were developed using number of trailers, road type, area type, and time of day as predictor variables. Overall, differences between tractors with one and two trailers were not significant. Tractors with no trailers (bobtails) have significantly higher accident rates. Characteristics of the operating environment were found to have larger effects on the accident rate than tractor configuration (except for the bobtail). Rates varied by a factor of up to 6.8, depending on the road type. Casualty accident risk at night was 1.4 times the risk during the day. The risk of a casualty accident in rural areas was 1.6 times that of urban areas.

  6. Rongelap Resettlement Support-Preliminary Report Part 1 - In-Situ Gamma Spectrometric Measurements around the Service and Village Area on Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brunk, J; Gouveia, F; Robison, W

    2001-04-01

    The combined remedial measures of limited soil removal and addition of coral fill have been very effective in reducing the external {sup 137}Cs exposure in and around the proposed service and village area on Rongelap Island. The average effective dose for a year's occupancy within the village has been reduced from about 19 to 0.6 mrem y{sup -1}, and is below the target level of 1 mrem y{sup -1} recommended to RALGOV. Some additional actions could be taken to reduce the external dose around specific sites but on the basis of the data presented in this report, it appears that the resettlement contractor has met the basic requirements for this phase of the project.

  7. Evaluating prediction uncertainty of areas contributing recharge to well fields of multiple water suppliers in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt River Basins, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesz, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Three river basins in central Rhode Island-the Hunt River, the Annaquatucket River, and the Pettaquamscutt River-contain 15 production wells clustered in 4 pumping centers from which drinking water is withdrawn. These high-capacity production wells, operated by three water suppliers, are screened in coarse-grained deposits of glacial origin. The risk of contaminating water withdrawn by these well centers may be reduced if the areas contributing recharge to the well centers are delineated and these areas protected from land uses that may affect the water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Health, began an investigation in 2009 to improve the understanding of groundwater flow and delineate areas contributing recharge to the well centers as part of an effort to protect the source of water to these well centers. A groundwater-flow model was calibrated by inverse modeling using nonlinear regression to obtain the optimal set of parameter values, which provide a single, best representation of the area contributing recharge to a well center. Summary statistics from the calibrated model were used to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predicted areas contributing recharge to the well centers. This uncertainty analysis was done so that the contributing areas to the well centers would not be underestimated, thereby leaving the well centers inadequately protected. The analysis led to contributing areas expressed as a probability distribution (probabilistic contributing areas) that differ from a single or deterministic contributing area. Groundwater flow was simulated in the surficial deposits and the underlying bedrock in the 47-square-mile study area. Observations (165 groundwater levels and 7 base flows) provided sufficient information to estimate parameters representing recharge and horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial deposits and hydraulic conductance of streambeds. The calibrated value for recharge

  8. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will

  9. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  10. Drudgery, accidents and injuries in Indian agriculture.

    PubMed

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Nag, Anjali

    2004-04-01

    The Indian farming employs 225 million workforce to cover 140 million hectares of total cultivated land. In spite of rapid farm mechanization (e.g., 149 million farm machinery), the vast resource-poor family farming has primary dependence on traditional methods (e.g., 520 million hand tools and 37 million animal-drawn implements are in operation). The work drudgery, the traumatic accidents and injuries are the major concerns to examine options for ergonomics intervention and betterment of work in crop production activities. This review summarizes human energy expenditure in crop production activities, to assess the job severity, tools and machinery, and formulate the basis to reorganize work and work methods. While the farm mechanization is more in the northern India, the accidents were more in the villages in southern India. On average of the four regions, the tractor incidents (overturning, falling from the tractor, etc.) were highest (27.7%), followed by thresher (14.6%), sprayer/duster (12.2%), sugarcane crusher (8.1%) and chaff cutter (7.8%) accidents. Most of the fatal accidents resulted from the powered machinery, with the annual fatality rate estimated as 22 per 100,000 farmers. The hand tools related injuries (8% of the total accidents) were non-fatal in nature. In spite of the enactment of legislation, the shortcomings in production and monitoring of the machinery in field use may be responsible for the high rate of accidents (e.g., 42 thresher accidents/1,000 mechanical threshers/year in southern India). Due to the lack of technical capability of the local artisans, adhering to safety and design standards is impractical to the implements fabricated in the rural areas. The analysis emphasizes that the effective safety and health management may be possible through legislative enabling of the local infra-structure, such as block development authority and primary health services, to permeate occupational health and safe work practices in the farming sector.

  11. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

    PubMed

    Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David

    2010-09-01

    Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death.

  12. Criticality accident alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

  13. Biological accidents at work among resident physicians in specialist training at Bari University Hospital, Italy.

    PubMed

    Basso, Antonella; Serra, Rosaria; Drago, Ignazio; Soleo, Leonardo; Lovreglio, Piero

    2016-11-01

    The phenomenon of accidents at work was investigated among the resident physicians of the School of Medicine, Bari University, by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire probing personal details and inquiring about any accidents at work experienced during the training period, and by a comparison with the accidents reported to the Hospital Accidents Registry. At least 1 biological accident was reported by 18.2% of the 450 participants, this percentage being significantly higher in the surgical area (33.3%), where biological accidents were much more rarely reported to either the Residency School Director or the Accidents Registry. In conclusion, despite an overall reduction compared with the past, the frequency both of biological accidents and of underreporting is still high among resident physicians, particularly in the surgical area.

  14. [Travel and accidents].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home.

  15. Accidents and repatriation.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Fischer, Philip R

    2006-01-01

    Accidents and injury contribute greatly to the morbidity and mortality of travellers worldwide, with road traffic accidents being a major contributer. Those travelers with serious illness and injury may need specialised medical evacuation services, which may involve an air ambulance and a specialised medical team. Such aeromedical repatriations require considerable organisation and liaison between the sending and receiving medical services and other interested parties. However, the majority of travellers requiring emergency assistance are stable patients requiring referral for medical or dental attention or special requirements for carriage on scheduled aircraft.

  16. Nitrogen in ground water and surface water from sewered and unsewered areas, Nassau County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragone, Stephen E.; Katz, B.G.; Kimmel, G.E.; Lindner, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Data on nitrogen in groundwater and surface waters in the sewered and unsewered parts of Nassau County were analyzed to evaluate the principal sources of nitrogen and to determine what factors significantly affect its concentration in the upper glacial aquifer and the underlying Magothy aquifer. Nitrate data for water samples collected during 1952-76 show that: (1) median nitrate concentration of water in the sewered part of the entire thickness of the upper glacial aquifer is not significantly different (at the 0.95 confidence limit, N = 1400) from that in the unsewered area, (2) median nitrate concentrations in the upper 3 meters of the upper glacial aquifer are significantly lower (at the 0.90 confidence limit, N = 15) in the sewered area than in the unsewered area, (3) in the sewered area, water from 8 of 10 wells in the upper glacial aquifer shows significantly decreasing nitrate concentration with time, (4) total nitrogen concentrations in streams draining the sewered area are significantly lower than in those draining the unsewered area, (5) from more than 2,000 nitrate analyses of water in the Magothy aquifer collected from 1952-76, it was found that nitrate is present at all depths but that nitrate concentrations decrease with depth, and (6) although water from most Magothy wells having long-term nitrate records shows no significant change in nitrate concentration with time, where the change is significant, nitrate is increasing. (USGS)

  17. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  18. Influences of land cover types, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat and urban area on surface urban heat island in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongyu; Wang, Duoduo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaolei; Qin, Fei; Jiang, Hong; Cai, Yongli

    2016-11-15

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) reflect the localized impact of human activities on thermal fields. In this study, we assessed the surface UHI and its relationship with types of land, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) with the aid of remote sensing data, statistical data and meteorological data. The results showed that the UHI intensity in YRDUA was the strongest (0.84°C) in summer, followed by 0.81°C in autumn, 0.78°C in spring and 0.53°C in winter. The daytime UHI intensity is 0.98°C, which is higher than the nighttime UHI intensity of 0.50°C. Then, the relationship between the UHI intensity and several factors such as meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and the urban area were analysed. The results indicated that there was an insignificant correlation between population density and the UHI intensity. Energy consumption, average temperature and urban area had a significant positive correlation with UHI intensity. However, the average wind speed and average precipitation were significantly negatively correlated with UHI intensity. This study provides insight into the regional climate characteristics and a scientific basis for city layout.

  19. Effects of sea-level rise and pumpage elimination on saltwater intrusion in the Hilton Head Island area, South Carolina, 2004-2104

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Dorothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion of the Upper Floridan aquifer has been observed in the Hilton Head area, South Carolina since the late 1970s and currently affects freshwater supply. Rising sea level in the Hilton Head Island area may contribute to the occurrence of and affect the rate of saltwater intrusion into the Upper Floridan aquifer by increasing the hydraulic gradient and by inundating an increasing area with saltwater, which may then migrate downward into geologic units that presently contain freshwater. Rising sea level may offset any beneficial results from reductions in groundwater pumpage, and thus needs to be considered in groundwater-management decisions. A variable-density groundwater flow and transport model was modified from a previously existing model to simulate the effects of sea-level rise in the Hilton Head Island area. Specifically, the model was used to (1) simulate trends of saltwater intrusion from predevelopment to the present day (1885-2004) and evaluate the conceptual model, (2) project these trends from the present day into the future based on different potential rates of sea-level change, and (3) evaluate the relative influences of pumpage and sea-level rise on saltwater intrusion. Four scenarios were simulated for 2004-2104: (1) continuation of the estimated sea-level rise rate over the last century, (2) a doubling of the sea-level rise, (3) a cessation of sea-level rise, and (4) continuation of the rate over the last century coupled with an elimination of all pumpage. Results show that, if present-day (year 2004) pumping conditions are maintained, the extent of saltwater in the Upper Floridan aquifer will increase, whether or not sea level continues to rise. Furthermore, if all pumpage is eliminated and sea level continues to rise, the simulated saltwater extent in the Upper Floridan aquifer is reduced. These results indicate that pumpage is a strong driving force for simulated saltwater intrusion, more so than sea-level rise at current rates

  20. Island Posterior Thigh Flap Revisited in Covering Extensive Sacral Wounds: Our Experience with Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Deep sacral wounds are best covered by flaps. Posterior thigh flaps have routinely been used to cover such wounds. The flap can however be modified as an island flap. Two patients with extensive sacral wounds were managed with island posterior thigh flaps. Both patients were admitted secondary to road traffic accident with subsequent soft tissue loss of the sacral area. The sacral defects in both patients were approximately 17 cm by 23 cm in dimensions. Unilateral island posterior thigh flap was raised and used to cover the wounds. Postoperatively both patients did well; the donor site and recipient sites healed without any complications. Island posterior thigh flap is thus an option in covering extensive defects of the sacral area. The flap is reliable and easy to raise and has minimal donor site morbidity. By raising it as an island flap the dog ear defect is avoided and the flap is able to be tunneled under the gluteal muscle. This maneuver enables the flap to be advanced further allowing it to cover more distal and extensive defects. PMID:28321356

  1. Impact of ISWEC sea wave energy converter on posidonia oceanica meadows assessed by satellite remote sensing in the coastal areas of Pantelleria island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borfecchia, Flavio; Micheli, Carla; Belmonte, Alessandro; De Cecco, Luigi; Sannino, Gianmaria; Bracco, Giovanni; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Vittoria Struglia, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy extraction plays a key role both in energy security of small islands and in mitigation of climate change, but at the same time poses the important question of monitoring the effects of the interaction of such devices with the marine environment. In this work we present a new methodology, integrating satellite remote sensing techniques with in situ observations and biophysical parameters analysis, for the monitoring and mapping of Posidonia Oceanica (PO) meadows in shallow coastal waters. This methodology has been applied to the coastal area offshore Pantelleria Island (Southern Mediterranean) where the first Italian Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter (ISWEC) prototype has been recently installed. The prototype, developed by the Polytechnic of Turin consists of a platform 8 meters wide, 15 meters long and 4.5 meters high, moored at about 800 meters from the shore and at 31 m depth. It is characterized by high conversion efficiency, resulting from its adaptability to different wave conditions, and a limited environmental impact due to its mooring innovative method with absence of fixed anchors to the seabed. The island of Pantelleria, is characterized by high transparency of coastal waters and PO meadows ecosystems with still significant levels of biodiversity and specific adaptation to accentuated hydrodynamics of these shores. Although ISWEC is a low-impact mooring inertial system able to ensure a reliable connection to the electric grid with minimal impact on seagrass growing in the seabed, the prototype installation and operation involves an interaction with local PO and seagrass meadows and possible water transparency decreasing. In this view monitoring of local PO ecosystem is mandatory in order to allow the detection of potential stress and damages due to ISWEC related activities and/or other factors. However, monitoring and collection of accurate and repetitive information over large areas of the necessary parameters by means of

  2. Structure and present-day compression in the offshore area between Alicante and Ibiza Island (Eastern Iberian Margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Agnès; Mauffret, Alain

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the structure and recent deformation of the Eastern Iberian margin, extending from basement to seafloor and including the south-western margin of the Valencia Basin, the Alicante Shelf, the Ibiza Channel and its southern margin descending into the Algerian Basin. This area underwent a complex tectonic evolution linked to the back-arc opening of the North-western Mediterranean and the concomitant contraction of the Betic belt due to the collision with blocks located between Africa and Europe. This Oligo-Miocene structural heritage gave rise to a complex and continuous deformation through times including Late Miocene post-orogenic extension and Pliocene to Quaternary compression in the western Balearic area and coeval extension in the Valencia basin. This study presents maps of the depth to basement and Base of the Pliocene, as well as bathymetry data and seismic lines, which provide a precise integrated 3D study of the offshore domain. It reveals a major reactivation of the area, represented by the N80 to N60 trending structures, small discontinuous folds and thrusts in the Ibiza Channel and a large flexure on the Alicante shelf. The structures are picked out by erosion surfaces or deposits linked to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). These markers are ubiquitous in the seismic sedimentary sequences and record the lateral and vertical deformation active from the Messinian Salinity Crisis to the Present. The contraction in the western Iberian margin and concomitant extension in the southern Valencia Basin are consistent with the regional stress field as determined from the focal mechanisms of offshore earthquakes or recent GPS measurements. The tectonic compression of the studied area casts doubt on the eventual propagation of the present-day compressive stress from the Algerian margin to the Western Balearic Promontory.

  3. A study of lagoonal and estuarine processes in the area of Merritt Island encompassing the space center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the marine biology and dynamic oceanographic properties of the Indian River in Florida. One of the major areas of concentration involved the compilation of a taxonomic list of marine animals in the river. An important conclusion of the study is that diversity of the benthic community is substantially higher than expected. The effect of major climatic factors on the diversity and structure of the benthic community is analyzed.

  4. Perspectives on Advertising Education: Curricula, Research--Descriptive, Research--Experimental, Industry/Educators' Cooperation, Special Interest Areas, and Instruction; Proceedings of the 1974 National Conference for University Professors of Advertising at the Univ. of Rhode Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Sherilyn K., Ed.

    This document contains all of the presentations given at the 1974 National American Academy of Advertising Conference in Newport, Rhode Island. The theme of the conference was "Perspectives on Advertising" and the areas of focus were curricula and instruction, descriptive and experimental research, cooperation between educators and the advertising…

  5. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula) and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Carrió, Esperança; Rigat, Montse; Garnatje, Teresa; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula) and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-). In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports), Parietaria officinalis (15), Ranunculus parnassifolius (14), Meum athamanticum (13), Olea europaea (13), Quercus ilex (12), Ruta chalepensis (12), Sambucus nigra (10) and Thymus vulgaris (10). According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans. PMID:22829861

  6. Dynamic response of woody vegetation on fencing protection in semi-arid areas; Case study: Pilot exclosure on the Firmihin Plateau, Socotra Island.

    PubMed

    Habrova, Hana; Pavlis, Jindrich

    2017-02-01

    Woody vegetation dynamics and Dracaena cinnabari regeneration have been studied for five years in the conditions of Socotra Island. Woody plants were measured regularly inside and outside the exclosure area, and the growth and survival of D. cinnabari seedlings were observed. In the exclosure of about 1000 m(2) a total of 49 species were identified, including 23 endemics, growing in the average density of 3.82 specimens per m(2). The fenced area was overgrown relatively rapidly by dense grass cover - reaching approx. 2.7 t/ha. Species growth dynamics inside and outside the exclosure shows that grazing had a marked impact, leading to the elimination of trees and shrubs. All grazed species grew noticeably in the exclosure, in the average of 50 cm in 5 years. D. cinnabari as the dominant flagship species of Socotra has been studied with regards to regeneration dynamics. Observations indicate that probability of its seedlings survival increases with their age. No seedlings germinated from the seeds sown in the experiment, however, outplanted seedlings performed relatively well. Field observations show that D. cinnabari seed germination is triggered when the seed reaches a protected micro-habitat with a developed humus layer and high relative humidity in the soil lasts for at least two days.

  7. Good Engineering + Poor Communication = Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, J. C.

    The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant resulted from a communication failure. Following an incident at an Ohio plant a year and a half earlier, B. M. Dunn, manager of Emergency Core Cooling Systems Analysis at Babcock and Wilcox (engineers), wrote a memorandum making specific recommendations on written instructions for nuclear…

  8. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  9. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.

  10. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  11. Planning on a regional basis for a major radiation accident

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the Radiological Assistance Program, members of the Safety and Environmental Protection Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory have served as a response team for many years to the northeastern section of the United States. During this time, responses have been made to several significant incidents, including the accident at Three Mile Island. The planning and preparation for emergency response activities will be discussed. Included will be a review of instrument requirements, analytical and support equipment, modes of response, and communication needs. Interaction with and support from other response teams will be discussed. In particular, the lessons from the respone to Three Mile Island will be reviewed.

  12. Behavior of road accidents: Structural time series approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-12-01

    Road accidents become a major issue in contributing to the increasing number of deaths. Few researchers suggest that road accidents occur due to road structure and road condition. The road structure and condition may differ according to the area and volume of traffic of the location. Therefore, this paper attempts to look up the behavior of the road accidents in four main regions in Peninsular Malaysia by employing a structural time series (STS) approach. STS offers the possibility of modelling the unobserved component such as trends and seasonal component and it is allowed to vary over time. The results found that the number of road accidents is described by a different model. Perhaps, the results imply that the government, especially a policy maker should consider to implement a different approach in ways to overcome the increasing number of road accidents.

  13. Local point sources that affect ground-water quality in the East Meadow area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    The extent and chemical characteristics of ground water affected by three local point sources--a stormwater basin, uncovered road-salt-storage piles, and an abandoned sewage-treatment plant--were delineated during a 3-year study of the chemical characteristics and migration of a body of reclaimed wastewater that was applied to the watertable aquifer during recharge experiments from October 1982 through January 1984 in East Meadow. The timing, magnitude, and chemical quality of recharge from these point sources is highly variable, and all sources have the potential to skew determinations of the quality of ambient ground-water and of the reclaimed-wastewater plume if they are not taken into account. Ground water affected by recharge from the stormwater basin is characterized by low concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (less than 5 mg/L [milligrams per liter] as N) and sulfate (less than 40 mg/L) and is almost entirely within the upper glacial aquifer. The plume derived from road-salt piles is narrow, has high concentrations of chloride (greater than 50 mg/L) and sodium (greater than 75 mg/L), and also is limited to the upper glacial aquifer. The sodium, in high concentrations, could react with aquifer material and exchange for sorbed cations such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Water affected by secondary-treated sewage from the abandoned treatment plant extends 152 feet below land surface into the upper part of the Magothy aquifer and longitudinally beyond the southern edge of the study area, 7,750 feet south of the recharge site. Ground water affected by secondary-treated sewage within the study area typically contains elevated concentrations of reactive chemical constituents, such as potassium and ammonium, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Conservative or minimally reactive constituents such as chloride and sodium have been transported out of the study area in the upper glacial aquifer and the intermediate (transitional) zone but remain in the less

  14. Application of the MOLE in post-nuclear accident characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.J.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Following a nuclear accident there is a need to determine the chemical composition of materials in liquid, solid and gaseous form, the crystalline structure of solids, the size and chemical composition of particles, and the chemical characterization of contaminants on surfaces. This analytical information is required to reconstruct the accident scenario, to select decontamination methods, and to determine future safety requirements. The MOLE (Molecular Optical Laser Examiner) is a Raman microprobe system which has proven to be a valuable analytical tool in providing this type of chemical information. It can determine the chemical species of polyatomic molecules and ions having characteristic Raman spectra. As little as 1 picogram of a component or a 1 ..mu..m particle can be analyzed. The imaging system can also provide mapping of selected components on a surface. A system description, sample handling techniques, and applications are presented. Specific applications to the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident are also addressed.

  15. Source attribution of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface waters from Rhode Island and the New York Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Lohmann, Rainer; Dassuncao, Clifton; Hu, Xindi C; Weber, Andrea K; Vecitis, Chad D; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-09-13

    Exposure to poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Understanding pollution sources is essential for environmental regulation but source attribution for PFASs has been confounded by limited information on industrial releases and rapid changes in chemical production. Here we use principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering, and geospatial analysis to understand source contributions to 14 PFASs measured across 37 sites in the Northeastern United States in 2014. PFASs are significantly elevated in urban areas compared to rural sites except for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-MeFOSAA), perfluoroundecanate (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanate (PFDoDA). The highest PFAS concentrations across sites were for perfluorooctanate (PFOA, 56 ng L(-1)) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFOS, 43 ng L(-1)) and PFOS levels are lower than earlier measurements of U.S. surface waters. PCA and cluster analysis indicates three main statistical groupings of PFASs. Geospatial analysis of watersheds reveals the first component/cluster originates from a mixture of contemporary point sources such as airports and textile mills. Atmospheric sources from the waste sector are consistent with the second component, and the metal smelting industry plausibly explains the third component. We find this source-attribution technique is effective for better understanding PFAS sources in urban areas.

  16. Source attribution of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface waters from Rhode Island and the New York Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Lohmann, Rainer; Dassuncao, Clifton; Hu, Xindi C.; Weber, Andrea K.; Vecitis, Chad D.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Understanding pollution sources is essential for environmental regulation but source attribution for PFASs has been confounded by limited information on industrial releases and rapid changes in chemical production. Here we use principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering, and geospatial analysis to understand source contributions to 14 PFASs measured across 37 sites in the Northeastern United States in 2014. PFASs are significantly elevated in urban areas compared to rural sites except for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-MeFOSAA), perfluoroundecanate (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanate (PFDoDA). The highest PFAS concentrations across sites were for perfluorooctanate (PFOA, 56 ng L−1) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFOS, 43 ng L−1) and PFOS levels are lower than earlier measurements of U.S. surface waters. PCA and cluster analysis indicates three main statistical groupings of PFASs. Geospatial analysis of watersheds reveals the first component/cluster originates from a mixture of contemporary point sources such as airports and textile mills. Atmospheric sources from the waste sector are consistent with the second component, and the metal smelting industry plausibly explains the third component. We find this source-attribution technique is effective for better understanding PFAS sources in urban areas. PMID:28217711

  17. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  18. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  19. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  20. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....