Science.gov

Sample records for island group key

  1. Group key management

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  2. Christmas Island, Line Island Group, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Christmas Island (2.0N,158.0W), mid central Pacific Ocean, is considered to be the largest atoll in the world, about 25 km in diameter, and is part of the Line Island Group, a northwest-southeast trending chain of volcanic islands on some of the oldest ocean crust in the Pacific. The lagoon is nearly filled with reef growth leaving only a narrow entrance from the sea and large cocoanut groves are found along the fringes of the lagoon.

  3. Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the difficulties students have when they are expected to learn functional groups, which are frameworks for chemical and physical properties of molecules. Presents a classification key for functional groups categorized by 10 common functional groups. (YDS)

  4. Scalable and Fault Tolerant Group Key Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    multicast (for the group key management system itself) ∙ performance (load, number of messages per rekey) ∙ key lifetime, escrow , perfect forward...leave. The solution provided in this manuscript borrows only GOSKEY’s dissemina- tion mechanism to achieve whole-group key agreement . It also leverages...classify this design as a legitimate key agreement protocol, the following description addresses the properties and actions of the proposed design. The

  5. Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P.

    2001-10-01

    Teaching functional groups to high school and college chemistry students is often accomplished by having students memorize the functional groups from a table. Using this approach, students typically forget what they have memorized shortly after the examination and fail to transfer the memorized material to other topics in chemistry such as nomenclature, VSEPR theory, and chemical reactions. This method is frustrating for both the teacher and the students. To facilitate the learning of functional groups and to avoid a strictly memorization approach, we developed a classification key based on discernible characteristics that students can identify and consequently key out. This key can be used by the teacher in a variety of ways: as an introduction, a review, or a homework assignment. The functional group classification key is well received by students and provides an engaging alternative for teachers to use when introducing functional groups to their classes.

  6. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″ 64°57′38...

  7. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″ 64°57′38...

  8. Evolution of Florida Bay islands from a supratidal precursor: evidence from westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, T.M.; Merriam, D.F.

    1988-05-01

    Cores from the interior portions of westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key document island nucleation from a supratidal precursor developed on a paralic peat deposit; whereas cores from exterior portions of these islands document development of marine mudbanks, progradation or colonization by mangroves, and supratidal sedimentation. The supratidal precursor beneath these islands consists of eroded remnants of coastal tidal flats or local topographic highs that remained supratidal throughout the Holocene sea-level rise. Sedimentologic and biostratigraphic evidence suggest erosion of mangroves by storms or inundation of mangroves by storm deposits is a common precursor to subsequent sediment aggradation on both islands. If other Florida Bay islands develop from mangrove colonization of marine mudbanks, then data from westernmost Bob Allen Key and Sid Key indicate that nucleation from a supratidal precursor and mangrove colonization of marine mudbanks are both viable mechanisms for island initiation. The absence of evidence of a supratidal nucleus beneath an island can result from (a) island migration and subsequent erosion or (b) insufficient sampling density. Stratigraphic data from Florida Bay are insufficient to discriminate between the relative importance of these two models of island evolution; the authors contend that any model of the evolution of Florida Bay islands must incorporate island nucleation from a supratidal precursor as a viable mechanism for island evolution.

  9. Formalizing GDOI Group Key Management Requirements in NPATRL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Controller and Key Server ( GCKS ) to distribute keys to members of a group. Although it does not specify any mechanisms such as key hierarchies [2] for...soundness. GDOI uses three categories of keys. Category 1 keys are the pairwise keys shared between the GCKS and potential members. Category 2 keys are key...Phase 1, which is described in [7, 5]. Key-encryption keys and traffic-encryption keys are created by the GCKS . The GCKS distributes these keys to

  10. Seven Keys for Small Group Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most commonly used instructional methods in adult education is the small group. Small group learning is a staple of the adult education enterprise. Small groups are used in higher education, adult literacy and basic education, and many forms of training (Taylor, Marienau, & Fiddler, 2000). Some write solely about it (Brookfield…

  11. Seven Keys for Small Group Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most commonly used instructional methods in adult education is the small group. Small group learning is a staple of the adult education enterprise. Small groups are used in higher education, adult literacy and basic education, and many forms of training (Taylor, Marienau, & Fiddler, 2000). Some write solely about it (Brookfield…

  12. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Areas E Appendix E to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1...

  13. The Falkland Islands: A key element in Gondwana paleogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. E. A.

    1994-04-01

    Stratigraphic and sedimentological fieldwork on the Falkland Islands confirms that they were originally part of South Africa. East and West Falkland have contrasting geological and deformation histories and are separated by the Falkland Sound fault, which marks a significant deformation edge to the Cape Fold Belt. The degree of structural deformation and metamorphism in West Falkland is substantially less than that of East Falkland, adjustments to differential shortening between the two islands being reflected by structures developed along the Falkland Sound fault. Prior to fragmentation of Gondwana, the Falkland Platform and Maurice Ewing Bank were positioned in the Natal Valley, adjacent to the east coast of South Africa. This predrift reconstruction shows that the Falkland Islands have subsequently been rotated by 180° relative to South Africa and complements recent paleomagnetic data. There was a complete overlap of the Maurice Ewing Bank and Falkland Platform to the exclusion of the Falkland Plateau Basin which is a small oceanic basin formed during the Jurassic fragmentation of Gondwana. Extension in this basin was accommodated by movements along the Aghulas Falkland Fracture Zone and the Gastre Fault System. Predrift restoration of these faults shows that Patagonia was positioned closer to both Africa and Antarctica. The Falkland Plateau Basin was an integral component of the West Gondwana Jurassic microplate system and provides an invaluable insight into the evolution of its western margin. At some time prior to the main opening of the South Atlantic, the Falkland Platform was rotated clockwise by 120° against the Agulhas Falkland Fracture Zone, such that the Falkland Islands were translated some 300 km to the south. The driving force for this rotation is not known but could possibly have been initiated by periodic stress buildups in the Falkland Plateau Basin as the Gastre Fault System, within continental crust, became unable to accommodate the

  14. 78 FR 70901 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key... proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida... for the safety of life on navigable waters during the event. Persons and vessels are prohibited...

  15. 77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during the Bone... life on navigable waters during the event. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering,...

  16. The Oasis: Nurture Group Provision for Key Stage 3 Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Christine; Yeomans, Jane; Parkes, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an account of The Oasis, which is a nurture group provision for Key Stage 3 pupils in a mainstream high school. A brief account of the underlying theory and principles of nurture groups is given, followed by a discussion of the applicability of these to meeting the emotional needs of adolescents. The account includes discussion of…

  17. Some Key Concerns in Leading Parent Education Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, JoAnna; Riordan, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Presents some key concerns that are frequently raised by parents in parent education groups. Discusses several themes that are relevant in laying a common ground that crosses most of these parent issues. Includes examples of parent concerns and suggestions for the group leader. (Author/PVV)

  18. The Oasis: Nurture Group Provision for Key Stage 3 Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Christine; Yeomans, Jane; Parkes, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an account of The Oasis, which is a nurture group provision for Key Stage 3 pupils in a mainstream high school. A brief account of the underlying theory and principles of nurture groups is given, followed by a discussion of the applicability of these to meeting the emotional needs of adolescents. The account includes discussion of…

  19. Authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange: theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Chevassut, Olivier

    2002-10-01

    Authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals A and B, communicating over a public network, and each holding a pair of matching public/private keys to agree on a session key. Protocols designed to deal with this problem ensure A (B resp.)that no other principals aside from B (A resp.) can learn any information about this value. These protocols additionally often ensure A and B that their respective partner has actually computed the shared secret value. A natural extension to the above cryptographic protocol problem is to consider a pool of principals agreeing on a session key. Over the years several papers have extended the two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange to the multi-party setting but no formal treatments were carried out till recently. In light of recent developments in the formalization of the authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange we have in this thesis laid out the authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange on firmer foundations.

  20. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-02-14

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model.

  1. Strengthening research capacity in the Pacific: an example from the Atoifi Health Research Group, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, David; Asugeni, James; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    To provide an example of one model of research capacity building for mental health from a remote setting in Solomon Islands. The Atoifi Health Research Group is building health research capacity with a health service on the remote east coast of Malaita, Solomon Islands. The group uses a 'learn-by-doing' approach embedded in health service and community-level health projects. The group is eclectic in nature and deliberately engages a variety of partners to discover culturally informed methods of collecting, analysing and disseminating research findings. Key successes of the Atoifi Health Research Group are: that it was initiated by Solomon Islanders with self-expressed desire to learn about research; the learn-by-doing model; inclusion of community people to inform questions and socio-cultural appropriateness; and commitment to ongoing support by international researchers. Given different social, cultural, economic, geographic, spiritual and service contexts across the Pacific, locally appropriate approaches need to be considered. Such approaches challenge the orthodox approach of centralized investment to replicate specialist driven approaches of funder nations. Increasing expertise at all levels through participatory capacity building models that define and address local problems may be more sustainable and responsive to local mental health contexts. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. An island grouping genetic algorithm for fuzzy partitioning problems.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sanz, S; Del Ser, J; Geem, Z W

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel fuzzy clustering technique based on grouping genetic algorithms (GGAs), which are a class of evolutionary algorithms especially modified to tackle grouping problems. Our approach hinges on a GGA devised for fuzzy clustering by means of a novel encoding of individuals (containing elements and clusters sections), a new fitness function (a superior modification of the Davies Bouldin index), specially tailored crossover and mutation operators, and the use of a scheme based on a local search and a parallelization process, inspired from an island-based model of evolution. The overall performance of our approach has been assessed over a number of synthetic and real fuzzy clustering problems with different objective functions and distance measures, from which it is concluded that the proposed approach shows excellent performance in all cases.

  3. Key participants in codeveloped technology pose for group picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Following the presentation of the Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), a new piece of technology developed through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partnership with industry, to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Director Roy Bridges, Jr., key participants in the partnership pose for a group portrait. They are (from left) Bill Larson, NASA; Dr. Pedro Medelius, INET; Roy Bridges, Jr., KSC Director; Ed Gladney and William Saputo, L-3 Communications; Pam Gillespi, representing Congressman Dave Weldon; and Frank Kinney, Technological Research and Development Authority. The USCA is a key component of the codeveloped Automated Data Acquisition System (ADAS) that measures temperature, pressure and vibration at KSC's launch pads. The breakthrough technology is expected to reduce sensor setup and configuration times from hours to seconds. KSC teamed up with Florida's Technological Research and Development Authority and manufacturer L-3 Communications to produce a system that would benefit the aerospace industry and other commercial markets.

  4. Key participants in codeveloped technology pose for group picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Following the presentation of the Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), a new piece of technology developed through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partnership with industry, to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Director Roy Bridges, Jr., key participants in the partnership pose for a group portrait. They are (from left) Bill Larson, NASA; Dr. Pedro Medelius, INET; Roy Bridges, Jr., KSC Director; Ed Gladney and William Saputo, L-3 Communications; Pam Gillespi, representing Congressman Dave Weldon; and Frank Kinney, Technological Research and Development Authority. The USCA is a key component of the codeveloped Automated Data Acquisition System (ADAS) that measures temperature, pressure and vibration at KSC's launch pads. The breakthrough technology is expected to reduce sensor setup and configuration times from hours to seconds. KSC teamed up with Florida's Technological Research and Development Authority and manufacturer L-3 Communications to produce a system that would benefit the aerospace industry and other commercial markets.

  5. Early group bias in the Faroe Islands: Cultural variation in children's group-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Schug, Mariah G; Shusterman, Anna; Barth, Hilary; Patalano, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Recent developmental research demonstrates that group bias emerges early in childhood. However, little is known about the extent to which bias in minimal (i.e., arbitrarily assigned) groups varies with children's environment and experience, and whether such bias is universal across cultures. In this study, the development of group bias was investigated using a minimal groups paradigm with 46 four- to six-year-olds from the Faroe Islands. Children observed in-group and out-group members exhibiting varying degrees of prosocial behaviour (egalitarian or stingy sharing). Children did not prefer their in-group in the pretest, but a pro-in-group and anti-out-group sentiment emerged in both conditions in the posttest. Faroese children's response patterns differ from those of American children [Schug, M. G., Shusterman, A., Barth, H., & Patalano, A. L. (2013). Minimal-group membership influences children's responses to novel experience with group members. Developmental Science, 16(1), 47-55], suggesting that intergroup bias shows cultural variation even in a minimal groups context.

  6. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation of Baffin Island, Arctic Canada: key patterns and chronologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briner, Jason P.; Davis, P. Thompson; Miller, Gifford H.

    2009-10-01

    Melting glaciers and ice caps on Baffin Island contribute roughly half of the sea-level rise from all ice in Arctic Canada, although they comprise only one-fourth of the total ice in the region. The uncertain future response of arctic glaciers and ice caps to climate change motivates the use of paleodata to evaluate the sensitivity of glaciers to past warm intervals and to constrain mechanisms that drive glacier change. We review the key patterns and chronologies of latest Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation on Baffin Island. The deglaciation by the Laurentide Ice Sheet occurred generally slowly and steadily throughout the Holocene to its present margin (Barnes Ice Cap) except for two periods of rapid retreat: An early interval ˜12 to 10 ka when outlet glaciers retreated rapidly through deep fiords and sounds, and a later interval ˜7 ka when ice over Foxe Basin collapsed. In coastal settings, alpine glaciers were smaller during the Younger Dryas period than during the Little Ice Age. At least some alpine glaciers apparently survived the early Holocene thermal maximum, which was several degrees warmer than today, although data on glacier extent during the early Holocene is extremely sparse. Following the early Holocene thermal maximum, glaciers advanced during Neoglaciation, beginning in some places as early as ˜6 ka, although most sites do not record near-Little Ice Age positions until ˜3.5 to 2.5 ka. Alpine glaciers reached their largest Holocene extents during the Little Ice Age, when temperatures were ˜1-1.5 °C cooler than during the late 20th century. Synchronous advances across Baffin Island throughout Neoglaciation indicate sub-Milankovitch controls on glaciation that could involve major volcanic eruptions and solar variability. Future work should further elucidate the state of glaciers and ice caps during the early Holocene thermal maximum and glacier response to climate forcing mechanisms.

  7. Canary Island Group and von Karman Cloud Vortices.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-75-003 (5-14 June 1991) --- This image shows several of the Canary Islands, located in the North Atlantic Ocean just west of Africa. Low level stratus clouds often form here (and along the west coast of continents at these latitudes) are trapped in vertical movement due to an overlying atmospheric temperature inversion. The islands are generating disturbances in the low-level wind flow which is generally from the north-northeast or from top to bottom in the image. These disturbances travel downstream from the islands and manifest themselves as cloud swirls which are called von Karman vortices. The northern extent of a large dust storm moving off the coast of Africa is apparent at the lower right of the image. The dust, extended across the Atlantic Ocean as far west as the Dominican Republic later in the mission.

  8. Formation of 'Beach Rock' at Siesta Key, Florida and its influence on barrier island development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurgeon, D.; Davis, R.A.; Shinnu, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seaward-dipping strata of carbonate-cemented shell debris located along the coast of Siesta Key on the Gulf Coast of the Florida peninsula have long been interpreted to be beachrock equivalent in age to the Pleistocene Anastasia Formation (Stage 5e) of the east coast of Florida. Detailed examination of thin sections along with radiometric dating and isotopic analyses demonstrates clearly that this is a Holocene deposit that is not beachrock but was lithified in a meteoric environment. Whole rock dates, dates from shells only, and from cement only demonstrate that these beach deposits were in place by at least 1800 yr BP and might have been there as long ago as 4300 yr BP. This means that some type of barrier island was in place at that time. Previous investigations have depicted Siesta Key as having a maximum age of 3000 yr with these deposits being located about 2 km landward of the beach deposits. This suggests that the beach deposits might have been the site of the original position of Siesta Key. These data also indicate that sea level must have been near its present position at the time that these foreshore beach deposits were deposited; sometime between 1800 and 4300 yr ago. This scenario indicates that sea level along this coastal reach probably reached its present level at least about 2000 yr ago. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West. This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03890

  10. Quantitative distribution and functional groups of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Lu; Li, Shuai; Huo, Yuanzi; He, Peimin; Zhang, Zhinan

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate spatial distribution pattern of intertidal macrofauna, quantitative investigation was performed in January to February, 2013 around Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. A total of 34 species were identified, which were dominated by Mollusca, Annelida and Arthropoda. CLUSTER analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages at sand-bottom sites belonged to one group, which was dominated by Lumbricillus sp. and Kidderia subquadrata. Macrofaunal assemblages at gravel-bottom sites were divided into three groups while Nacella concinna was the dominant species at most sites. The highest values of biomass and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were found in gravel sediment and the highest value of abundance was in sand sediment of eastern coast. In terms of functional group, detritivorous and planktophagous groups had the highest values of abundance and biomass, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with contents of sediment chlorophyll a, phaeophorbide and organic matter.

  11. Herbal medicine & healthcare practices among Nicobarese of Nancowry group of Islands - an indigenous tribe of Andaman & Nicobar Islands

    PubMed Central

    Chander, M. Punnam; Kartick, C.; Vijayachari, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Tribal people often depend on herbal medicines and the traditional knowledge practitioners (TKPs) serve as their healthcare service providers. This study was an attempt to document the use of medicinal plants by the Nicobarese of Nancowry group of Islands. Methods: Field survey was conducted in all the five inhabited Islands of the Nancowry group of Islands. All the TKPs were interviewed with a questionnaire-guided ethnomedicinal survey protocol. Voucher specimens of all the cited plants (botanic species) were collected and a Community Biodiversity Register of Nicobarese of Nancowry was prepared. Results: A total of 77 TKPs were identified, who together were using 132 medicinal plant species belonging to 113 genera and 62 families. The TKPs were treating a total of 43 ailments. Seven endemic and three rare plant species were recorded. The most common plant part used was leaves. Remedies were usually prepared using water as the excipient. Routes for administration of medicinal plant preparations were oral, topical and others. The information collected from the TKPs were collated in the form of Community Biodiversity Registers. Interpretation & conclusions: The present survey shows that the medicinal plants play a pivotal role in the healthcare of the Nicobarese tribe of Nancowry group of Islands. Efforts to document the medicinal plant species and the formulations used by them are necessary to prevent the loss of this precious knowledge. PMID:26139792

  12. A new species of Pseudogekko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Romblon Island Group, Central Philippines.

    PubMed

    Siler, Cameron D; Davis, Drew R; Diesmos, Arvin C; Guinto, Faith; Whitsett, Collin; Brown, Rafe M

    2016-07-20

    We describe a new species of lizard in the genus Pseudogekko from Sibuyan and Tablas islands in the Romblon Island Group of the central Philippines. The new species is diagnosed from other Philippine Pseudogekko by body size and shape, color pattern, and multiple differences in scale characteristics. Pseudogekko isapa sp. nov. has been collected only twice from leaves of shrubs in forested habitat on Sibuyan and Tablas islands. The distinctive new species of false gecko is undoubtedly endemic to this single, isolated island group. The fact that populations of such a distinctive new species of Pseudogekko has escaped notice of herpetologists on the reasonably well-studied and largely protected Sibuyan Island further emphasizes the secretive and forest-dependent habits of Philippine false geckos. These characteristics of their behavior and natural history render them difficult to study and challenge biologists' efforts to accurately assess their conservation status.

  13. Coney Island Hospital focuses on healthcare for ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Since its beginnings as a first aid station on the famous New York beach, Coney Island Hospital has evolved as a well-known public hospital serving a multi-cultural community. Part of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corp. it has made extensive efforts to provide "ethnically correct" services to all of its constituents. These measures have been covered by National Public Radio and recognized as a "best practices" example by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Profile's article offers insights about how it's done and how it is publicized, including what its associate director calls "ethnic marketing on the cheap."

  14. KEY MEASUREMENTS IN THE FUTURE - Working Group Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Connel, J. J.; Decourchelle, A.; Mewaldt, R.; Reynolds, S.; Strong, A.; Völk, H.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2001-10-01

    The experimental basis of cosmic-ray astrophysics consists of detailed measurements of the cosmic-ray intensity arriving near earth, of observations of photons in all wavelength bands generated by cosmic ray interactions in the interstellar medium or in the cosmic-ray sources, and of laboratory studies of high energy particle interactions. In addition, a large body of astronomical information on the composition of stellar atmospheres and of the interstellar medium, including interstellar dust grains, is required to bring cosmic-ray data into context with subjects such as nucleosynthesis and evolution of the galaxy. This report will summarize some of these observational questions, will discuss specific experimental needs in current research, and will review some of the key measurements that can be expected for the near future. This review will neither be complete nor attempt to establish observational priorities. However, it will illustrate the variety of observational activities that are required to achieve progress.

  15. Key Determinants of Student Satisfaction When Undertaking Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Elvy; Tong, Canon; Wong, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The increasing popularity of team structures in business environment coupled with the common practice of including group projects/assignments in university curricula means that business schools should direct efforts towards maximizing team as well as personal results. Yet, most frameworks for studying teams center exclusively on team level…

  16. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    DunnGalvin, A; Chan, C-H; Crevel, R; Grimshaw, K; Poms, R; Schnadt, S; Taylor, S L; Turner, P; Allen, K J; Austin, M; Baka, A; Baumert, J L; Baumgartner, S; Beyer, K; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M; Grinter, K; Houben, G F; Hourihane, J; Kenna, F; Kruizinga, A G; Lack, G; Madsen, C B; Clare Mills, E N; Papadopoulos, N G; Alldrick, A; Regent, L; Sherlock, R; Wal, J-M; Roberts, G

    2015-09-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices. The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated clearly to all stakeholders. The use of PAL should indicate the possible, unintended presence of an allergen in a consumed portion of a food product at or above any proposed action level. This will require combined work by all stakeholders to ensure everyone understands the approach and its limitations. Consumers with food allergy then need to be educated to undertake individualized risk assessments in relation to any PAL present.

  17. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. 407.43 Section 407.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, which are not covered by the SSI...

  18. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. 407.43 Section 407.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, which are not covered by the SSI...

  19. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. 407.43 Section 407.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, which are not covered by the SSI...

  20. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. 407.43 Section 407.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, which are not covered by the SSI...

  1. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. 407.43 Section 407.43 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, which are not covered by the SSI...

  2. Possibilities and Expectations for mHealth in the Pacific Islands: Insights From Key Informants

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Judith; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in mobile phone use across the globe is creating mounting interest for its application in addressing health system constraints. Although still limited, there is growing evidence of success in using mobile phones for health (mHealth) in low- and middle- income countries. The promise of mHealth to address key health system issues presents a huge potential for the Pacific Island countries where mobile use has radically increased. Current projections indicate an improved information and communications technology (ICT) environment to support greater access to mobile and digital devices in the Pacific region. Objective The objective of the study was to explore key stakeholder perspectives on the potential for mHealth in the Pacific region. Methods A series of in-depth interviews were conducted either face-to-face, via Skype or by email, with a series of key informants from the Pacific Rim region. Interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed for detailed thematic analysis. Results We found widespread support for the potential to use mobile phones as a mechanism to facilitate improved health service delivery in the region. Essential elements for the successful development and implementation of mHealth were identified by these stakeholders. These included: developing an understanding of the local context and the problems that may be usefully addressed by the addition of mHealth to existing strategies and services; consideration of local infrastructure, capability, policy, mobile literacy and engagement; learning from others, particularly other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); the importance of building supportive environments and of evaluation to provide evidence of impact and total cost. Conclusions The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the region presents a unique juxtaposition of opportunity and promise. Though the region lags behind other LMICs in the adoption of mHealth technologies, this offers the convenience of learning

  3. Possibilities and Expectations for mHealth in the Pacific Islands: Insights From Key Informants.

    PubMed

    Umali, Elaine; McCool, Judith; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-20

    The increase in mobile phone use across the globe is creating mounting interest for its application in addressing health system constraints. Although still limited, there is growing evidence of success in using mobile phones for health (mHealth) in low- and middle- income countries. The promise of mHealth to address key health system issues presents a huge potential for the Pacific Island countries where mobile use has radically increased. Current projections indicate an improved information and communications technology (ICT) environment to support greater access to mobile and digital devices in the Pacific region. The objective of the study was to explore key stakeholder perspectives on the potential for mHealth in the Pacific region. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted either face-to-face, via Skype or by email, with a series of key informants from the Pacific Rim region. Interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed for detailed thematic analysis. We found widespread support for the potential to use mobile phones as a mechanism to facilitate improved health service delivery in the region. Essential elements for the successful development and implementation of mHealth were identified by these stakeholders. These included: developing an understanding of the local context and the problems that may be usefully addressed by the addition of mHealth to existing strategies and services; consideration of local infrastructure, capability, policy, mobile literacy and engagement; learning from others, particularly other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); the importance of building supportive environments and of evaluation to provide evidence of impact and total cost. The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the region presents a unique juxtaposition of opportunity and promise. Though the region lags behind other LMICs in the adoption of mHealth technologies, this offers the convenience of learning from past mHealth interventions and applying these

  4. Surface Curvature in Island Groups and Discontinuous Cratonic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, M. S.

    2002-05-01

    The Canadian Archipelago includes eight major islands and a host of smaller ones. They are separated by water bodies, of varying widths attributable to glacial activity and ocean currents. Land form varies from relatively rugged mountains (~2000 m) in eastern, glacial, islands, to low lying western, similar to the continental topography adjacent. The Arctic region is thought to have been low average elevation before the Pleistocene. To a picture puzzler, it all looks like it fit together. Experimentally cutting apart the islands from large scale maps shows that the rough edges match fairly well. However, when those independent pieces are sutured together, without restraint, as in free air, the fit is far better. Far more importantly, they consistently form a noticeably concave surface. This tendency is not at all apparent in flat surface or computer screen manipulation; the pieces need to be "hand joined" or on a molded surface to allow the assembly to freely form as it will. Fitting together the coastlines above 60 \\deg north, from 120 \\deg west to 45 \\deg east, and comparing the resulting contracted area to the original, obtains an 8 percent area reduction. The curvature "humps" a trial planar section of 15 cms by 1.6 cm, a substantial difference in the radius of curvature. If you rashly suggest applying that formula globally, the resulting sphere would have a surface area of 4.7 x108,(down from 5 x108), and therefore radius of 6117 km, down from 6400, which is a rather preposterous conclusion. As nobody would believe it, I tested the idea elsewhere. The Huronian succession of six named cratons is adjacent on the south. I cut this map apart, too, and fit it together, once again getting a curvature, this time more pronounced. I am trying it with the Indonesian Archipelago, although this area has volcanic complications, and with Precambrian Basins in western Australia and Nimibia, Africa. Indications are - an essentially similar pattern of fit, but non uniform

  5. H-deficient blood groups ( Bombay) of Reunion Island.

    PubMed Central

    Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Le Pendu, J; Muller, A; Oriol, R

    1982-01-01

    Forty-two H-deficient individuals (lacking H antigen on erythrocytes) with anti-H in their sera were found on Reunion Island. A, B, and AB Bombay subjects had small but detectable amounts of A and/or B antigens on erythrocytes. All the H-deficient phenotypes tested were nonsecretors of ABH in their saliva, and one-third were Lewis negative. Fifty-three of the 108 (49%) unaffected members in the 14 Bombay pedigrees analyzed were se/se, showing that the families were selected for the nonsecretor trait, and suggesting that the Bombay probands used to select the families have se/se genotype. In accordance with this concept, all the children from Bombay nonsecretor x unaffected nonsecretor matings were se/se. Segregation of H and Se is compatible with the genetic model proposing that Se and H are closely linked structural genes, and the analysis of the present and previously published Bombay pedigrees strongly supports this model. PMID:7180848

  6. H-deficient blood groups ( Bombay) of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Le Pendu, J; Muller, A; Oriol, R

    1982-11-01

    Forty-two H-deficient individuals (lacking H antigen on erythrocytes) with anti-H in their sera were found on Reunion Island. A, B, and AB Bombay subjects had small but detectable amounts of A and/or B antigens on erythrocytes. All the H-deficient phenotypes tested were nonsecretors of ABH in their saliva, and one-third were Lewis negative. Fifty-three of the 108 (49%) unaffected members in the 14 Bombay pedigrees analyzed were se/se, showing that the families were selected for the nonsecretor trait, and suggesting that the Bombay probands used to select the families have se/se genotype. In accordance with this concept, all the children from Bombay nonsecretor x unaffected nonsecretor matings were se/se. Segregation of H and Se is compatible with the genetic model proposing that Se and H are closely linked structural genes, and the analysis of the present and previously published Bombay pedigrees strongly supports this model.

  7. Application of a barrier island translation model to the millennial-scale evolution of Sand Key, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, Riccardo; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Montanari, Alberto

    2008-05-01

    The evolution of a barrier island and its stratigraphic architecture is investigated with the numerical model BIT (barrier island translation). The model simulates, with simplified equations, the effects of various processes (wind waves, storm surges, sea-level oscillations) on sediment location and characteristics. The presented formulation is able to reproduce both the cross-shore profile and the distribution of sediment facies in time. The model is based on two appropriate simplifying assumptions: (i) the conservation of the total mass of sediments and (ii) the conservation of the equilibrium cross-shore beach profile. Particular attention is devoted to the treatment of sediment reworking by wind waves and barrier overwash, which is induced by extreme events like storms and hurricanes, and causes a relative transport of sediments from the body of the sand barrier to the top of the island and to the back-barrier area. The model is applied to Sand Key, Florida. Model results show a satisfactory reproduction of the geometry and stratigraphy of the inner shelf, with the correct position of every stratigraphic facies within the barrier island. Simulations under different scenarios of sea-level rise during the last 8000 yr indicate that the rate of overwash and lagoonal deposition are critical for the survival of the barrier island under past sea-level oscillations.

  8. Maternal Mortality in Andaman and Nicobar Group of Islands: 10 Years Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Indu; Saha, Mrinmoy Kumar; Akhtarkharvi, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is an indicator of effectiveness of health care facilities for women of child bearing age group. Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) group of islands are unique as they are situated 1200 km from the mainland India. Healthcare delivery for the these islands is exclusively provided and controlled by only one authority, Directorate of Health Services, A&N Islands. GB Pant Hospital, Port Blair is the only referral hospital with round the clock specialists and surgical services. Aims: To estimate the MMR in A&N islands from 2001 to 2010, and study the causes of maternal mortality. Settings and Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: Data for the estimation of MMR were collected from office of Registrar of Births and Deaths, Hospital and Peripheral Health Centres. Case records of maternal deaths in GB Pant Hospital were reviewed to study the causes of death. Statistical analysis used: Proportions and Ratios. Results: Ten years average MMR for the entire island was 85.42. Analysis of 30 maternal deaths in GB Pant Hospital showed that 63.3% were due to direct obstetric causes (eclampsia 30%, hemorrhage 23.33%, sepsis 6.66%, and 3.33% amniotic fluid embolism). Of the indirect causes, anemia was the commonest (16.66%). Conclusions: The MMR of A&N islands is much lower than the national average of 250. Direct obstetric causes accounted for more than half of maternal deaths 63.33%. PMID:24696538

  9. Improved key integrity checking for high-speed quantum key distribution using combinatorial group testing with strongly selective family design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Junbin; Jiang, Zoe L.; Ren, Kexin; Luo, Yunhan; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Weiping; Wang, Xuan; Niu, Xiamu; Yiu, S. M.; Hui, Lucas C. K.

    2014-06-01

    Key integrity checking is a necessary process in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) to check whether there is any error bit escaped from the previous error correction procedure. The traditional single-hash method may become a bottleneck in high-speed QKD since it has to discard all the key bits even if just one error bit exists. In this paper, we propose an improved scheme using combinatorial group testing (CGT) based on strong selective family design to verify key integrity in fine granularity and consequently improve the total efficiency of key generation after the error correction procedure. Code shortening technique and parallel computing are also applied to enhance the scheme's flexibility and to accelerate the computation. Experimental results show that the scheme can identify the rare error bits precisely and thus avoid dropping the great majority of correct bits, while the overhead is reasonable. For a -bit key, the disclosed information for public comparison is 800 bits (about 0.076 % of the key bits), reducing 256 bits when compared with the previous CGT scheme. Besides, with an Intel® quad-cores CPU at 3.40 GHz and 8 GB RAM, the computational times are 3.0 and 6.3 ms for hashing and decoding, respectively, which are reasonable in real applications and will not cause significant latency in practical QKD systems.

  10. Culex (Acallyntrum) miyagii (Diptera: Culicidae): new species from Seram Island, Indonesia, with keys to the species of the subgenus.

    PubMed

    Mogi, M; Toma, T

    1999-07-01

    Culex (Acallyntrum) miyagii is described as a new species from Seram Island, Indonesia. The adult male, female, pupa, and larva are described in detail, and illustrations of the male genitalia, pupa, and larva are provided. Cx. miyagii is a forest species breeding in inflorescences of Costus sp. (Costaceae). Keys are provided for identifying the females and 4th-instar larvae of the species of Acallyntrum.

  11. The Condition of College & Career Readiness 2016: Rhode Island Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2016

    2016-01-01

    "The Condition of College and Career Readiness" looks at the progress of the 2016 ACT®-tested graduating class relative to college and career readiness. This state briefing begins with statistics in the following categories for Rhode Island: performance, STEM, career readiness, impact, behaviors that impact access and opportunity,…

  12. Offshore Rayleigh group velocity observations of the South Island, New Zealand, from ambient noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, William L.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2017-05-01

    We present azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh group velocity models from 8 to 35 s both offshore and onshore of the South Island of New Zealand. We use MOANA (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa) broad-band ocean seismic data in combination with on land data from the New Zealand National Seismography Network to investigate the seismic structure of the flanks of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary. At 8 s, we observe low offshore group velocities best explained by the influence of the water layer and thick water-laden sediments. At long periods (20-30 s), group velocities are lower on the South Island relative to its offshore flanks, due to thickened crust beneath the island, with the lowest velocities primarily beneath the Southern Alps. Group velocity azimuthal anisotropy fast directions near the Alpine Fault align with the direction of relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. In the southern portion of the island, fast directions rotate anticlockwise, likely in response to a decrease in dextral shearing away from the plate boundary. Azimuthal anisotropy fast directions align with absolute plate motion offshore on the Pacific plate. Based on the depth sensitivity of our observations, we suggest diffuse deformation occurs throughout the crust. Our observations match trends in previous Pn anisotropy and SKS shear wave splitting observations, and therefore suggest a consistent pattern of distributed deformation throughout the lithosphere.

  13. Offshore Rayleigh Group Velocity Observations of the South Island, New Zealand, from Ambient Noise Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, William L.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2017-02-01

    We present azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh group velocity models from 8 - 35 s both offshore and onshore of the South Island of New Zealand. We use MOANA (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa) broadband ocean seismic data in combination with on land data from the New Zealand National Seismography Network (NZNSN) to investigate the seismic structure of the flanks of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary. At 8 s, we observe low offshore group velocities best explained by the influence of the water layer and thick water-laden sediments. At long periods (20-30 s), group velocities are lower on the South Island relative to its offshore flanks, due to thickened crust beneath the island, with the lowest velocities primarily beneath the Southern Alps. Group velocity azimuthal anisotropy fast directions near the Alpine Fault align with the direction of relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. In the southern portion of the island, fast directions rotate anticlockwise, likely in response to a decrease in dextral shearing away from the plate boundary. Azimuthal anisotropy fast directions align with absolute plate motion offshore on the Pacific plate. Based on the depth sensitivity of our observations, we suggest diffuse deformation occurs throughout the crust. Our observations match trends in previous Pn anisotropy and SKS shear wave splitting observations, and therefore suggest a consistent pattern of distributed deformation throughout the lithosphere.

  14. A Privacy-Preserving ID-Based Group Key Agreement Scheme Applied in VPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mulder, Yoni; Wouters, Karel; Preneel, Bart

    In 2008, Wan et al. presented an anonymous ID-based group key agreement scheme for wireless networks, for which they claim that it ensures anonymity and unlinkability of the group members, as well as forward and backward secrecy of the group session key. In this paper, we show that forward and backward secrecy do not hold for the protocol. We propose a correction that introduces a shielding factor that protects each member's input to the group key. we also introduce a new feature that assures the correctness of the key as computed by all group members. This results in an increased computation cost, due to extra public key operations, and a similar communication cost. We also show in which practical setting the protocol can be deployed.

  15. The first Tertiary (Paleocene) marine mollusks from the Eureka Sound Group, Ellesmere Island, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.; Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The gastropod Drepanochilus pervetus (Stanton) and the bivalve Cytrodaria rutupiensis (Morris) occur in the Mount Moore Formation at Strathcona Fiord, west-central Ellesmere Island, northern Canada. They are the first marine mollusks identified from the Eureka Sound Group of the Canadian arctic islands. These mollusks correlate with Paleocene faunas of the Cannonball Formation of North Dakota and South Dakota, the Prince Creek Formation of northern Alaska, the Barentsburg Formation of Svalbard, and the Thanet and Oldhaven Formations of southeastern England. These occurrences imply that the earliest Tertiary Arctic Ocean molluscan fauna was compositionally distinct from coeval faunas of the northern Atlantic Ocean. -Authors

  16. New species of Apoloniinae (Acari: Trombiculidae) from the Laysan albatross taken in the Midway Islands and key to the species of Apoloniinae of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, M.L.; Sievert, P.R.; Sileo, L.

    1989-01-01

    Womersia midwayensis Goff, Sievert and Sileo is described as a new species from specimens taken off a Laysan albatross chick, Diomedea immutabilis (L.), collected on Sand Island, Midway Islands. A key to the genera and species of larval Apoloniinae of the world is given.

  17. Nutritional Status of Preschool Children in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Food Insecurity, Food Groups, and Nutrient Consumption among Population

    PubMed Central

    Manimunda, Sathya P; Sugunan, Attayuru P

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood undernutrition is a public health concern in India. But on such a serious issue, there are no data available from the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar (A and N) Islands. Objectives: Present study was designed to know the prevalence of food insecurity, to estimate food group and nutrient intake among the community, and undernutrition and clinical signs of micronutrient deficiency among the preschool children of A and N islands. Materials and Methods: Multistage random sampling was followed to select the households containing children aged 6-59 months. In the selected households' sociodemographic particulars, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), among preschoolers the weight and height were recorded along with the documentation of clinical signs of micronutrient deficiency, morbidities suffered over previous fortnight, and measurement of hemoglobin. Diet survey was carried out in every fourth household. Results: A total of 1259 preschoolers residing in 1082 households were examined, HFIAS was measured in 710 households in Andaman group of islands and diet survey was conducted in 290 households. The prevalence of undernutrition was around 27%, stunting was 36%, and anemia was around 81%. Undernutrition and anemia prevalence were significantly low among Nicobarese children. After adjusting for all the determinants, tribal in domicile had favorable outcome [odds ratio (OR): 0.28 (0.18, 0.43)], while below poverty line family had adverse outcome on undernutrition [OR: 1.72 (1.20, 2.46)]. Conclusion: Though the prevalence of undernutrition is relatively low in the islands, but high prevalence of anemia needs to be addressed. Nicobarese children fare better in almost all indicators of nutritional well-being except for stunting. Key Messages: The prevalence of undernutrition is relatively low in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Nicobarese children fare better in almost all indicators of nutritional well-being. However high prevalence of

  18. Simple group password-based authenticated key agreements for the integrated EPR information system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    The security and privacy are important issues for electronic patient records (EPRs). The goal of EPRs is sharing the patients' medical histories such as the diagnosis records, reports and diagnosis image files among hospitals by the Internet. So the security issue for the integrated EPR information system is essential. That is, to ensure the information during transmission through by the Internet is secure and private. The group password-based authenticated key agreement (GPAKE) allows a group of users like doctors, nurses and patients to establish a common session key by using password authentication. Then the group of users can securely communicate by using this session key. Many approaches about GAPKE employ the public key infrastructure (PKI) in order to have higher security. However, it not only increases users' overheads and requires keeping an extra equipment for storing long-term secret keys, but also requires maintaining the public key system. This investigation presents a simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE) protocol for the integrated EPR information system. The proposed SGPAKE protocol does not require using the server or users' public keys. Each user only remembers his weak password shared with a trusted server, and then can obtain a common session key. Then all users can securely communicate by using this session key. The proposed SGPAKE protocol not only provides users with convince, but also has higher security.

  19. Mosquito fauna of wilderness islands within the National Key Deer Refuge and the Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge, Monroe County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Leal, Andrea L; Hribar, Lawrence J

    2010-06-01

    Dry ice-baited light traps, counts of mosquitoes biting and landing on technicians, and larval surveillance were used to determine mosquito species abundance on Annette Key, Little Knockem-down Key, Little Pine Key, Raccoon Key, and the Water Keys, all of which are located offshore, within the National Key Deer Refuge and Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge in Monroe County, FL. Due to the close proximity of these wilderness islands to the inhabited islands of the Florida Keys, it is important to understand the abundance and composition of the mosquitoes and the effects they may have on populations on inhabited islands. Thirty different species were collected during 2004-2008. Aedes taeniorhynchus, the black salt-marsh mosquito, was the most abundant mosquito species collected at all locations. Other mosquitoes collected in large numbers at all locations were Anopheles atropos, Culex bahamensis, Cx. nigripalpus, and Deinocerites cancer. Because these wilderness islands are difficult to traverse due to vegetative growth, the placement of mosquito traps close to the perimeter of the islands may influence assessment of the abundance and diversity of mosquito species collected on each island.

  20. From Shell Midden to Midden-Mound: The Geoarchaeology of Mound Key, an Anthropogenic Island in Southwest Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cherkinsky, Alexander; Roberts Thompson, Amanda D.; Walker, Karen J.; Newsom, Lee A.; Savarese, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mound Key was once the capital of the Calusa Kingdom, a large Pre-Hispanic polity that controlled much of southern Florida. Mound Key, like other archaeological sites along the southwest Gulf Coast, is a large expanse of shell and other anthropogenic sediments. The challenges that these sites pose are largely due to the size and areal extent of the deposits, some of which begin up to a meter below and exceed nine meters above modern sea levels. Additionally, the complex depositional sequences at these sites present difficulties in determining their chronology. Here, we examine the development of Mound Key as an anthropogenic island through systematic coring of the deposits, excavations, and intensive radiocarbon dating. The resulting data, which include the reversals of radiocarbon dates from cores and dates from mound-top features, lend insight into the temporality of site formation. We use these insights to discuss the nature and scale of human activities that worked to form this large island in the context of its dynamic, environmental setting. We present the case that deposits within Mound Key’s central area accumulated through complex processes that represent a diversity of human action including midden accumulation and the redeposition of older sediments as mound fill. PMID:27123928

  1. Maternal risk factors and perinatal outcomes among pacific islander groups in Hawaii: a retrospective cohort study using statewide hospital data.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ann Lee; Hurwitz, Eric; Miyamura, Jill; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Sentell, Tetine

    2015-10-05

    Studies suggest Pacific Islander women have disparate rates of preterm birth, primary cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and low birthweight infants. However, data is limited. In order to improve the health of Pacific Islanders, it is essential to better understand differences in obstetric outcomes in this diverse population This study compared perinatal outcomes between Pacific Islander (9,646) and White (n = 5,510) women who delivered a singleton liveborn in any Hawaii hospital from January 2010 to December 2011 using the Hawaii Health Information Corporation (HHIC) database. Pacific Islanders were disaggregated into the following groups: Native Hawaiian, Samoan, Micronesian, and Other Pacific Islanders. Perinatal outcomes (e.g. hypertensive diseases, birthweight, mode of delivery) were compared using multivariable logistic models controlling for relevant sociodemographic and health risk factors (e.g. age and payer type). Significant differences in perinatal outcomes between Pacific Islander and White women and newborns were noted. All Pacific Islander groups had an increased risk of hypertension. Outcome differences were also seen between Pacific Islanders groups. Native Hawaiians had the highest risk of low birthweight infants, Samoans had the highest risk of macrosomic infants and Micronesians had the highest risk of cesarean delivery. Important differences in perinatal outcomes among Pacific Islanders exist. It is important to examine Pacific Islander populations separately in future research, public health interventions, and policy.

  2. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and structural style of the Wilson Island Group, Northwest Territories

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Proterozoic Wilson Island Group is exposed in a NE-trending belt in the East Arm of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. The lower part of the 6 km thick succession outcrops on Wilson Island and adjacent islands, south of the McDonald-Wilson fault. Deposition of intercalated basalt flows, felsic flows and related intrusions, volcaniclastics, and braided alluvial arkose and conglomerate occurred in a tectonically active basin, probably a continental rift. Overlying the volcanic assemblage is a debris flow paraconglomerate, which grades vertically into fluvial to marginal marine or lacustrine arkose and dolostone. Several km further east, and north of the McDonald-Wilson fault, similar arkoses and dolostones are overlain by fine-grained subarkose, argillaceous siltstone, quartz granulestone, and concretionary dolomitic ironstone. These lithologies represent mixed fluvial, tidal flat, and shallow water facies. The remainder of the section consists of arkosic arenite/mudstone cycles (turbidites.), gradational upward into laminated mudstone with minor intercalated basalt. Rocks of the Wilson Island Group have been metamorphosed in greenschist to lower amphibolite facies, and deformed into eastward- to northeastward-plunging folds. Folds in the lower part of the section are open, whereas the finer-grained sediments of the upper part are isoclinally folded. These structures have been dissected by dextral transcurrent faults of the McDonald fault system.

  3. Early Proterozoic Bell Island group: initiation of, and extension within, a continental magmatic arc

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Bell Island Group is the oldest sequence of supracrustal rocks of the Great Bear Magmatic Zone (GBMZ), western Wopmay Orogen, northwestern Canadian Shield. These rocks lie unconformably on a penetratively deformed and metamorphosed sialic basement complex and are unconformably beneath the calc-alkaline LaBine Group, which is interpreted as continental magmatic arc. The supracrustal rocks of the GBMZ are broadly folded about gently plunging, northwest trending axes and cut by transcurrent faults. The lower part of the Bell Island Group comprises 1.5-2 km of poorly sorted arkose and fanglomerate, aphyric mafic to intermediate lavas, block-and-ash flows, a mineralogically zone cooling unit of rhyolite ash-flow tuff, and aphyric to porphyritic rhyolite flows and domes. Structures and lithologies of the sedimentary rocks, as well as physical characteristics of the volcanics, suggest subaerial deposition. Chemical analyses of lavas and ash-flow tuff indicate a predominantly calc-alkaline suite, although minor tholeiitic lavas are present. Conformably overlying the lower subaerial succession is at least 3.5 km of tholeiitic pillow basalts, intercalated sedimentary rocks and breccias, and tholeiitic gabbro sills. The subaerial to subaqueous transition in rocks of the Bell Island Group suggests 2-3.5 km of syn-volcanic subsidence which may have begun during early subaerial volcanism, but if so, continued during the extrusion of the thick tholeiitic pillow basalt pile. Subaerial conditions resumed during eruption and deposition of the overlying calc-alkaline LaBine Group. Therefore, rocks of the Bell Island Group may represent initiation of calc-alkaline magmatism in a continental arc, followed by tholeiitic magmatism related to intra-arc extension.

  4. Tsunami, post-tsunami malaria situation in Nancowry group of islands, Nicobar district, Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    PubMed Central

    Manimunda, Sathya Prakash; Sugunan, Attayoor Purushottaman; Sha, Wajid Ali; Singh, Shiv Shankar; Shriram, Ananganallur Nagarajan; Vijayachari, Paluru

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Due to tsunami in 2004 a large proportion of population in Nicobar group of Islands become homeless, and in 2006 large scale labour migration took place to construct the houses. In 2008, a significant increase in malaria incidence was observed in this area. Therefore, in March 2008, the situation of malaria was assessed in Nancowry Islands in Nicobar District to study the reasons for the observed upsurge in the number of cases, and to suggest public health measures to control the infection. Methods: The methods included a retrospective analysis of long term trend in the behaviour of malaria over the years from 2001 to 2008, analysis of the acute malaria situation, and rapid fever and malaria parasitemia survey along with environmental component. Mass radical therapy (MRT) and post-intervention parasitemia survey were carried out. The malaria situation in the aftermath of MRT was analysed. Results: During the post tsunami year (2005) there was a large increase in the incidence of malaria and this trend continued till 2008. The percentage of Plasmodium falciparum increased from 23 to 53 per cent from 2006 to 2007 that coincides with the labour influx from mainland. The study showed that Nancowry was highly endemic, with high transmission setting, and high risk area for malaria. Though, more number of migrant labourers suffered fever (75 vs 20%) and sought malaria treatment over past month but parasitemia survey showed higher point prevalence of malaria among native tribes (7.4 vs 6.5%). Post-MRT, there was a decline in the occurrence of malaria, though it did not last long. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings suggest that the migrant workers hailing from non-endemic or moderately endemic settings became victims of malaria in epidemic proportion in high endemic and high transmission setting. To find out the reasons for deterioration of malaria situation at Nancowry in the aftermath of tsunami requires further research. PMID

  5. Group size and group composition of the mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) on the Island of Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Glenn, M E

    1997-01-01

    Cercopithecus, the genus of guenons, is the largest of the African primate genera, and yet more than half of the species belonging to this group have never been the focus of a long-term field study. In this paper, I present data on group size and composition for a previously unstudied population of guenons on the Caribbean island of Grenada. The mona monkey, Cercopithecus mona, was introduced to Grenada from Africa approximately 200-300 years ago. Two types of social groups were found for Cercopithecus mona on Grenada: all-male groups consisting of two to four individuals and bisexual groups containing 5-32 individuals. All-male groups of Grenada mona monkeys contained any combination of juveniles, subadults, and/or adults. All-male groups were a common occurrence on Grenada but have never been reported for African C. mona and have been reported only in two other forest Cercopithecus species. Bisexual groups appeared to consist of one adult male, one to six adult females, subadult females, and juveniles and infants of both sexes. Even though no more than one adult male was ever seen in each bisexual group of monas on Grenada, other males were heard giving copulation calls simultaneously with resident adult male loud calls, suggesting that other males occasionally infiltrate bisexual groups.

  6. The hydrogeochemical evolution of a barrier island freshwater reservoir: Conceptual understanding and identification of key processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Stephan; Holt, Tobias; Greskowiak, Janek; Freund, Holger; Böttcher, Michael E.; Massmann, Gudrun

    2017-04-01

    Coastal aquifers play an important role in satisfying the water demands for many people in the world. However, exposition to storm surges, climate change and extensive abstraction pose a threat to current and future use of these valuable water resources in many cases. To mitigate water quality constraints and ensure safe water supply applications, an in-depth understanding of relevant process that determine the water quality is required. We investigated two freshwater reservoirs below the barrier island Spiekeroog, Germany. The main freshwater reservoir is located at the western part of the island, ˜350 years old and has a vertical extension of ˜45m. The other investigated freshwater reservoir is located at the east of Spiekeroog, only a few decades old and has a vertical extension <7m. The ultimate goal of our work is to identify, quantify and model the processes governing the water quality evolution of freshwater reservoirs below barrier islands. During sampling campaigns in 2011, 2014 and 2016, field parameters were measured and samples for major cation and anion analysis were taken from 16 freshwater wells. Additional samples were taken in 2011 (3H-3He, δ18O, δD), 2014 (DOC, HS-, NH4+, phosphate) and 2016 (DOC, HS-, NH4+, phosphate, 3H-3He, δ18O, δD, δ13C-DIC). Based on the collected data, we conceptualized some important hydrogeochemical processes that are potentially relevant at Spiekeroog. This includes cation exchange, calcite dissolution and redox reactions. The expected freshening time of the main aquifer was estimated by means of the retardation formula for sharp fronts and corresponds to ˜880 years. A 1D PHREEQC simulation showed, however, that the effects of ongoing freshening on the present water quality (after ˜350 years) are negligible. Calculated decalcification rates amount to ˜4.4 mm/year which corresponds to ˜1.5 m downward movement of the decalcification front within the last 350 years. pH values ranging between 7.5-8.5 confirm that

  7. Protozoan parasites in group-living primates: testing the biological island hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Bowman, Dwight D; Ghai, Ria R; Gogarten, Jan F; Goldberg, Tony L; Rothman, Jessica M; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Walsh, Chesley

    2012-06-01

    A series of articles by W.J. Freeland published in the 1970s proposed that social organization and behavioral processes were heavily influenced by parasitic infections, which led to a number of intriguing hypotheses concerning how natural selection might act on social factors because of the benefits of avoiding parasite infections. For example, Freeland [1979] showed that all individuals within a given group harbored identical gastrointestinal protozoan faunas, which led him to postulate that social groups were akin to "biological islands" and suggest how this isolation could select specific types of ranging and dispersal patterns. Here, we reexamine the biological island hypothesis by quantifying the protozoan faunas of the same primate species examined by Freeland in the same location; our results do not support this hypothesis. In contrast, we quantified two general changes in protozoan parasite community of primates in the study area of Kibale National Park, Uganda, over the nearly 35 years between sample collections: (1) the colobines found free of parasites in the early 1970s are now infected with numerous intestinal protozoan parasites and (2) groups are no longer biological islands in terms of their protozoan parasites. Whatever the ultimate explanation for these changes, our findings have implications for studies proposing selective forces shaping primate behavior and social organization. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Geology and tectonics of Japanese islands: A review - The key to understanding the geology of Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakita, Koji

    2013-08-01

    The age of the major geological units in Japan ranges from Cambrian to Quaternary. Precambrian basement is, however, expected, as the provenance of by detrital clasts of conglomerate, detrital zircons of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and as metamorphic rocks intruded by 500 Ma granites. Although rocks of Paleozoic age are not widely distributed, rocks and formations of late Mesozoic to Cenozoic can be found easily throughout Japan. Rocks of Jurassic age occur mainly in the Jurassic accretionary complexes, which comprise the backbone of the Japanese archipelago. The western part of Japan is composed mainly of Cretaceous to Paleogene felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks and accretionary complexes. The eastern part of the country is covered extensively by Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. During the Quaternary, volcanoes erupted in various parts of Japan, and alluvial plains were formed along the coastlines of the Japanese Islands. These geological units are divided by age and origin: i.e. Paleozoic continental margin; Paleozoic island arc; Paleozoic accretionary complexes; Mesozoic to Paleogene accretionary complexes and Cenozoic island arcs. These are further subdivided into the following tectonic units, e.g. Hida; Oki; Unazuki; Hida Gaien; Higo; Hitachi; Kurosegawa; South Kitakami; Nagato-Renge; Nedamo; Akiyoshi; Ultra-Tamba; Suo; Maizuru; Mino-Tamba; Chichibu; Chizu; Ryoke; Sanbagawa and Shimanto belts. The geological history of Japan commenced with the breakup of the Rodinia super continent, at about 750 Ma. At about 500 Ma, the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate began to be subducted beneath the continental margin of the South China Block. Since then, Proto-Japan has been located on the convergent margin of East Asia for about 500 Ma. In this tectonic setting, the most significant tectonic events recorded in the geology of Japan are subduction-accretion, paired metamorphism, arc volcanism, back-arc spreading and arc-arc collision. The major accretionary

  9. Key innovations and island colonization as engines of evolutionary diversification: a comparative test with the Australasian diplodactyloid geckos.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Porta, J; Ord, T J

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of key innovations and the invasion of new areas constitute two major processes that facilitate ecological opportunity and subsequent evolutionary diversification. Using a major lizard radiation as a model, the Australasian diplodactyloid geckos, we explored the effects of two key innovations (adhesive toepads and a snake-like phenotype) and the invasion of new environments (island colonization) in promoting the evolution of phenotypic and species diversity. We found no evidence that toepads had significantly increased evolutionary diversification, which challenges the common assumption that the evolution of toepads has been responsible for the extensive radiation of geckos. In contrast, a snakelike phenotype was associated with increased rates of body size evolution and, to a lesser extent, species diversification. However, the clearest impact on evolutionary diversification has been the colonization of New Zealand and New Caledonia, which were associated with increased rates of both body size evolution and species diversification. This highlights that colonizing new environments can drive adaptive diversification in conjunction or independently of the evolution of a key innovation. Studies wishing to confirm the putative link between a key innovation and subsequent evolutionary diversification must therefore show that it has been the acquisition of an innovation specifically, not the colonization of new areas more generally, that has prompted diversification.

  10. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (P<0.001). Height was significantly different between Arab and Berber women (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in energy intake between men and women. Protein intake was not significantly different between ethnic groups. Milk and dairy products in the Berber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  11. Two new species of Herina (Diptera: Ulidiidae) from the Mediterranean region, with key to species groups.

    PubMed

    Morgulis, E; Freidberg, A; Kameneva, E P

    2013-01-01

    Herina dimorphica n. sp. (type locality Israel) and H. sicula n. sp. (type locality Sicily, Italy) are described and illustrated, and a new species group (the Herina dimorphica species group) is established for both species. H. dimorphica is characterized by a sexually-dimorphic wing pattern and venation. H. sicula is similar albeit not sexually-dimorphic. Almost all known Herina species are assigned to one of nine species groups, which are keyed.

  12. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seung-Jae; Lee, Young-Gu; Lee, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Jun, Moon-Seog

    2011-01-01

    These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes. PMID:22164072

  13. Key Processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) Diversification on Oceanic Islands Inferred from AFLP Data

    PubMed Central

    Vitales, Daniel; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Cowan, Robyn S.; Fay, Michael F.; Hidalgo, Oriane; Garnatje, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species – nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species – have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i) evaluate species' boundaries, ii) infer their evolutionary relationships and iii) investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here. PMID:25412495

  14. Understanding the concept of the key worker: do focus groups help?

    PubMed

    Hull, Ken; Turton, Pat

    2014-08-12

    The concept of the 'key-worker role' within paediatric haematology and oncology services is recognised in the UK through inclusion in published policies and guidance. Such guidance originates from both statutory and voluntary sector organisations. Within the policy direction itself, references are made to both 'designated' and 'non-designated' key workers, and there remains ongoing confusion within the professional field about the exact nature of the process of 'key-working' and how this should operate. This confusion therefore also exists for parents, carers and service users. The project described here aimed to examine the concept of the key-worker role through consultation with users as part of local service development. Focus group discussion was identified as the methodology of choice. Careful planning and delivery ensured that meaningful data emerged. Active participation by those attending the focus group discussion was observed. The focus group was in two sessions, both of which were digitally recorded and transcribed, with contemporaneous notes taken. These were subjected to thematic analysis and clear themes emerged regarding the importance of terminology, communication, skill mix and the use of technology. This local project achieved greater clarity about how to develop the key-worker role to best meet the needs of users through highlighting the need to include both the key-worker role, and the process of key-working. It is concluded that the use of focus groups is both a valid and valuable mechanism of consultation, as user consultation regarding service design and evaluation of care delivered is high on the wider agenda of the NHS.

  15. Provably authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange - The dynamic case (Extended abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2001-09-20

    Dynamic group Diffie-Hellman protocols for Authenticated Key Exchange(AKE) are designed to work in scenario in which the group membership is not known in advance but where parties may join and may also leave the multicast group at any given time. While several schemes have been proposed to deal with this scenario no formal treatment for this cryptographic problem has ever been suggested. In this paper, we define a security model for this problem and use it to precisely define Authenticated Key Exchange (AKE) with ''implicit'' authentication as the fundamental goal, and the entity-authentication goal as well. We then define in this model the execution of a protocol modified from a dynamic group Diffie-Hellman scheme offered in the literature and prove its security.

  16. nPAKE + : A Hierarchical Group Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Using Different Passwords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhiguo; Deng, Robert H.; Bao, Feng; Preneel, Bart

    Although two-party password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocols have been intensively studied in recent years, group PAKE protocols have received little attention. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical group PAKE protocol nPAKE + protocol under the setting where each party shares an independent password with a trusted server. The nPAKE + protocol is a novel combination of the hierarchical key tree structure and the password-based Diffie-Hellman exchange, and hence it achieves substantial gain in computation efficiency. In particular, the computation cost for each client in our protocol is only O(logn). Additionally, the hierarchical feature of nPAKE + enables every subgroup obtains their own subgroup key in the end. We also prove the security of our protocol under the random oracle model and the ideal cipher model.

  17. Scalable Group Key Management for Secure Multicast: A Taxonomy and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sencun; Jajodia, Sushil

    Many multicast-based applications (e.g., pay-per-view, online auction, and teleconferencing) require a secure communication model to prevent disclosure of distributed data to unauthorized users. One solution for achieving this goal is to let all members in a group share a key that is used for encrypting data. To provide backward and forward confidentiality [23] (i.e., a new member should not be allowed to decrypt the earlier communication and a revoked user should not be able to decrypt the future communication), this shared group key should be updated and redistributed to all authorized members in a secure, reliable, and timely fashion upon a membership change. This process is referred to as group rekeying.

  18. Biotic paleothermometry constrains on Arctic plates reconstructions: Carboniferous and Permian (Zhokhov Island, De-Longa Group Islands, New Siberian Archipelago)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, Vladimir I.

    2016-09-01

    A warm-water fauna and flora from a Carboniferous limestone xenolith that was captured during penetration of deep intraplate Cenozoic basalts through a Paleozoic carbonate platform have been found on Zhokhov Island, New Siberian Archipelago (NSA). This limestone xenolith contains a very high taxonomic diversity of Moscovian (Middle Pennsylvanian) tropical foraminifera and calcareous algae. As this warm-water biota never occurs north of the forbiddance line, i.e., 30-35°N/S, this fauna and algal flora constrain the paleogeography and interpretation of the paleotectonics in the region. Thus, the location of the most of the New Siberian Archipelago islands at that time must have been within tropics or subtropics. Analyses of the existing data on fusulinid distribution within the Arctic region indicate that Zhokhov and Wrangel Islands were still a part of Alaska-Chukotka composite terrane as late as in the Artinskian. Both fusulinid and detrital zircon provenance data suggest that the Chukotka microplate, NSA, and Wrangel Island probably were close to Arctic Alaska until Triassic time. The fusulinids from the Mankomen Formation and other formations in Wrangelia show a strong affinity with the Uralo-Franklinian province regions including the Sverdrup Basin, Spitsbergen, Barents Sea, and Timan-Pechora and the northern-central Urals rather than with northern Panthalassa.

  19. How racial and ethnic groupings may mask disparities: the importance of separating Pacific Islanders from Asians in prenatal care data.

    PubMed

    Sarnquist, Clea C; Grieb, Erin Moix; Maldonado, Yvonne A

    2010-07-01

    To understand racial/ethnic differences in prenatal care receipt among Pacific Islanders and Asians, who are often combined into a single A/PI category. Retrospective, population-based data were collected by the Vital Statistics branch of the California Department of Health Services. Approximately 2.6 million records of all live California births with a birth certificate in 2000-2004 were included. Analysis focused on prenatal care receipt and population characteristics associated with lack of adequate prenatal care, especially among Asian and Pacific Islander groups. Pacific Islanders (n = 11,962) were the most likely, compared to any other racial/ethnic group, to have inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.9, 95% CIs 2.8-3.1), even when controlling for factors known to affect care receipt, specifically maternal age, educational attainment, parity, insurance, geographical region of residence, and maternal place of birth. In contrast, Asian women (n = 295,741) received care closer to that of the White reference group (OR = 1.5, 95% CIs 1.5-1.5). Among Pacific Islanders, Samoans (OR = 3.0, 95% CIs 2.7-3.4) were at particular risk of inadequate care compared to other PI sub-groups. Pacific Islander women received less adequate prenatal care than women of other racial/ethnic groups. The common practice of combining Asians and Pacific Islanders into a single A/PI category may mask needs in the Pacific Islander community. Therefore, in order to continue to reduce health disparities, it may be necessary to collect separate data on these two distinct populations in order to be able to appropriately direct programs and resources.

  20. New earthworms of the Amynthas morrisi-group (Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae) from Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Jiang, Ji-Bao; Zhao, Qi; Qiu, Jiang-Ping

    2015-12-16

    This paper describes two new species of earthworms belonging to the Amynthas morrisi-group from Hainan Island, China: Amynthas zonarius sp. nov. and Amynthas wuzhimontis sp. nov. Both have two pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6-6/7, and simple intestinal caeca. Amynthas zonarius sp. nov. has a pad-like male porophore, with flat-topped tubercle surrounded by 5 skin folds distal half of the spermathecal diverticulum dilated into band-shaped seminal chamber. Amynthas wuzhimontis sp. nov. has a seminal chamber constricted into moniliform subchambers and a glandular pad-like elliptical male pore porophore surrounded by the tumid area. Partial COI sequences of the holotypes of the two new species have been submitted to GenBank as DNA barcodes to enable molecular species identification.

  1. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  2. Taxonomy of the hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) – first record of the T. setigerum species group and additions to the Malagasy species groups with an updated illustrated identification key

    PubMed Central

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study we provide an update to the taxonomy of the ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in Madagascar. We report the first record of the Tetramorium setigerum species group in Madagascar and describe the only Malagasy representative as Tetramorium cavernicola sp. n., which is known only from a cave in Ankarana. In addition, we provide an overview of the 19 proposed Malagasy species groups, and discuss their zoogeography and relationships to other groups and larger lineages within the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium. At present, we recognise a highly unique Malagasy Tetramorium fauna with 113 species endemic to the island of Madagascar out of a total of 125 translating into an endemism rate of 93%. We hypothesise that this fauna is based on one or a few colonisation events from the Afrotropical region, with subsequent adaptive radiation in Madagascar. Furthermore, we present an updated and illustrated identification key to the Tetramorium species groups in the Malagasy region. PMID:26257564

  3. Functional group diversity is key to Southern Ocean benthic carbon pathways.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Sands, Chester J

    2017-01-01

    High latitude benthos are globally important in terms of accumulation and storage of ocean carbon, and the feedback this is likely to have on regional warming. Understanding this ecosystem service is important but difficult because of complex taxonomic diversity, history and geography of benthic biomass. Using South Georgia as a model location (where the history and geography of benthic biology is relatively well studied) we investigated whether the composition of functional groups were critical to benthic accumulation, immobilization and burial pathway to sequestration-and also aid their study through simplification of identification. We reclassified [1], [2]) morphotype and carbon mass data to 13 functional groups, for each sample of 32 sites around the South Georgia continental shelf. We investigated the influence on carbon accumulation, immobilization and sequestration estimate by multiple factors including the compositions of functional groups. Functional groups showed high diversity within and between sites, and within and between habitat types. Carbon storage was not linked to a functional group in particular but accumulation and immobilization increased with the number of functional groups present and the presence of hard substrata. Functional groups were also important to carbon burial rate, which increased with the presence of mixed (hard and soft substrata). Functional groups showed high surrogacy for taxonomic composition and were useful for examining contrasting habitat categorization. Functional groups not only aid marine carbon storage investigation by reducing time and the need for team size and speciality, but also important to benthic carbon pathways per se. There is a distinct geography to seabed carbon storage; seabed boulder-fields are hotspots of carbon accumulation and immobilization, whilst the interface between such boulder-fields and sediments are key places for burial and sequestration.

  4. A Note on an Improved Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Wang, Biao; Li, Zhoujun

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Chen et al. proposed a one-way hash self-healing group key distribution scheme for resource-constrained wireless networks in the journal of Sensors (14(14):24358-24380, doi: 10.3390/s141224358). They asserted that their Scheme 2 achieves mt-revocation capability, mt-wise forward secrecy, any-wise backward secrecy and has mt-wise collusion attack resistance capability. Unfortunately, this paper pointed out that their scheme does not satisfy the forward security, mt-revocation capability and mt-wise collusion attack resistance capability. PMID:26426018

  5. A Note on an Improved Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Wang, Biao; Li, Zhoujun

    2015-09-29

    In 2014, Chen et al. proposed a one-way hash self-healing group key distribution scheme for resource-constrained wireless networks in the journal of Sensors (14(14):24358-24380, doi: 10.3390/ s141224358). They asserted that their Scheme 2 achieves mt-revocation capability, mt-wise forward secrecy, any-wise backward secrecy and has mt-wise collusion attack resistance capability. Unfortunately, this paper pointed out that their scheme does not satisfy the forward security, mt-revocation capability and mt-wise collusion attack resistance capability.

  6. Uranium from Seawater Marine Testing Program at the University of Miami’s Broad Key Island Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Wood, Jordana R.; Schlafer, Nicholas J.; D'Alessandro, Evan

    2016-09-30

    Marine testing at Broad Key Island (BKI), Florida was conducted to validate adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics results obtained for several formulations of the ORNL amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents in Sequim Bay, Washington in another location with different oceanographic and water quality conditions (e.g. temperature, dissolved organic carbon, salinity and trace element content). Broad Key is a small island off the southeast coast of Florida at the southern end of Biscayne Bay. Flow-through column and recirculating flume experiments were conducted at BKI using ambient filtered seawater and identical exposure systems as were used at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Marine Sciences laboratory (MSL). Testing was conducted in two periods in FY 2015 and FY 2016 with five different amidoxime-based adsorbent materials, four produced by ORNL (AF1, AI8, AF8, and AF1-DMSO) and one by LCW technologies (LCW-10). All exposures were conducted at ambient seawater temperatures, with moderate temperature control on the ambient seawater to mitigate large daily swings in the seawater temperature. The ORNL adsorbents AF1, AI8 and AF1-AO-DMSO all had fairly similar adsorption capacities (6.0 to 6.6 g U/ kg adsorbent) after 56 days of exposure at ambient temperature (26 to 31 °C) and salinity (35.7 to 37.4), but the AF8 adsorbent was considerably lower at 4.4 g U/kg adsorbent. All the adsorbents tested at BKI had higher capacities than was observed at PNNL, with the higher temperatures likely a major factor contributing to this difference. In general, the elemental distribution (expressed as a relative percentage) on all the adsorbents agreed well, including good agreement with the elemental distribution pattern for AF1 adsorbent exposed at PNNL. The most notable exception to a uniform elemental distributional pattern across the various adsorbents occurs with vanadium. The relative mass percentage for vanadium retained by the adsorbents ranged from a

  7. A Provably Secure Revocable ID-Based Authenticated Group Key Exchange Protocol with Identifying Malicious Participants

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tung-Tso

    2014-01-01

    The existence of malicious participants is a major threat for authenticated group key exchange (AGKE) protocols. Typically, there are two detecting ways (passive and active) to resist malicious participants in AGKE protocols. In 2012, the revocable identity- (ID-) based public key system (R-IDPKS) was proposed to solve the revocation problem in the ID-based public key system (IDPKS). Afterwards, based on the R-IDPKS, Wu et al. proposed a revocable ID-based AGKE (RID-AGKE) protocol, which adopted a passive detecting way to resist malicious participants. However, it needs three rounds and cannot identify malicious participants. In this paper, we fuse a noninteractive confirmed computation technique to propose the first two-round RID-AGKE protocol with identifying malicious participants, which is an active detecting way. We demonstrate that our protocol is a provably secure AGKE protocol with forward secrecy and can identify malicious participants. When compared with the recently proposed ID/RID-AGKE protocols, our protocol possesses better performance and more robust security properties. PMID:24991641

  8. The morphology of insular shelves as a key for understanding the geological evolution of volcanic islands: Insights from Terceira Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartau, R.; Hipólito, A.; Romagnoli, C.; Casalbore, D.; Madeira, J.; Tempera, F.; Roque, C.; Chiocci, F. L.

    2014-05-01

    from volcanic ocean islands result from the competition between two main processes, wave erosion that forms and enlarges them and volcanic progradation that reduces their dimension. In places where erosion dominates over volcanism, shelf width can be used as a proxy for the relative age of the subaerial volcanic edifices and reconstruction of their extents prior to erosion can be achieved. In this study, new multibeam bathymetry and high-resolution seismic reflection profiles are exploited to characterize the morphology of the insular shelves adjacent to each volcanic edifice of Terceira Island in order to improve the understanding of its evolution. Subaerial morphological and geological/stratigraphic data were also used to establish the connection between the onshore and offshore evolution. Shelf width contiguous to each main volcanic edifice is consistent with the known subaerial geological history of the island; most of the older edifices have wider shelves than younger ones. The shelf edge proved to be a very useful indicator in revealing the original extent of each volcanic edifice in plan view. Its depth was also used to reconstruct vertical movements, showing that older edifices like Serra do Cume-Ribeirinha, Guilherme Moniz, and Pico Alto have subsided while more recent ones have not. The morphology of the shelf (namely the absence/presence of fresh lava flow morphologies and several types of erosional, depositional, and tectonic features) integrated with the analysis of the coastline morphology allowed us to better constrain previous geological interpretations of the island evolution.

  9. On Constructing Dynamic and Forward Secure Authenticated Group Key Agreement Scheme from Multikey Encapsulation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fathirad, Iraj; Devlin, John

    2015-01-01

    The approach of instantiating authenticated group key exchange (GAKE) protocol from the multikey encapsulation mechanism (mKEM) has an important advantage of achieving classical requirement of GAKE security in one communication round. In spite of the limitations of this approach, for example, lack of forward secrecy, it is very useful in group environments when maximum communication efficiency is desirable. To enrich this mKEM-based GAKE construction, we suggest an efficient solution to convert this static GAKE framework into a partially dynamic scheme. Furthermore, to address the associated lack of forward-secrecy, we propose two variants of this generic construction which can also provide a means of forward secrecy at the cost of extra communication round. In addition, concerning associated implementation cost of deploying this generic GAKE construction in elliptic curve cryptosystem, we compare the possible instantiations of this model from existing mKEM algorithms in terms of the number of elliptic curve scalar multiplications. PMID:26451388

  10. Mosquito biosurveillance on Kyushu Island, Japan, with emphasis on Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and related species (Diptera: culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pagac, Benedict; Iwakami, Masashiro; Spring, Alexandra R; Motoki, Mayasa T; Pecor, James E; Higa, Yukiko; Futami, Kyoko; Imanishi, Nozomi; Long, Lewis S; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group and associated species in Kyushu Island, Japan, based on our field collections from various localities of 4 prefectures (Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Saga), primarily from 2002-2013. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors, particularly Anopheles species, in Japan are noted.

  11. Is small-group education the key to retention of sessional GPs?

    PubMed

    Jenson, Cath M; Hutchins, Alison J; Rowlands, Gill

    2006-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN IN THIS AREA • Recruitment and retention et general practitioners (GPs) are topical issues in the modern NHS. • There is/a link between reduced stress/burnout in GPs and continuing medical education. • Sessional GPs are known to suffer from isolation and difficulty accessing educational support. • One previous study of retention of sessional GPs cites three key factors: a secure contract, mentoring support and a stimulating work environment with a culture of personal and professional development. WHAT THIS WORK ADDS • A primary care trust (PCT)-funded, peer-facilitated educational support group can be a key instrument in the recruitment and retention of sessional GPs, in particular by providing a network of supportive colleagues and help keeping up to date. • This is the first study examining this factor in the retention of sessional GPs. • Other modifiable factors influencing recruitment include type of post and contract. • Other modifiable factor influencing retention include financial factors. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH • Calculation of retention rates of sessional GPs in PCTs (work in progress) will allow further studies assessing the-impact, including cost-benefit ratio, of interventions relating to specific factors influencing retention. • The association between educational support and retention should be studied for: other members of the primary care team, health professionals outside general practice and healthcare systems outside the NHS and the UK.

  12. Heavy metal enrichment in the seagrasses of Lakshadweep group of islands--a multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Thangaradjou, T; Raja, S; Subhashini, Pon; Nobi, E P; Dilipan, E

    2013-01-01

    An assessment on heavy metal (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) accumulation by seven seagrass species of Lakshadweep group of islands was carried out using multivariate statistical tools like principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Among all the metals, Mg and Al were determined in higher concentration in all the seagrasses, and their values varied with respect to different seagrass species. The concentration of the four toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu) was found higher in all the seagrasses when compared with the background values of seagrasses from Flores Sea, Indonesia. The contamination factor of these four heavy metals ranged as Cd (1.97-12.5), Cu (0.73-4.40), Pb (2.3-8.89) and Zn (1.27-2.787). In general, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) calculated was found to be maximum for Halophila decipiens (58.2). Results revealed that Halophila decipiens is a strong accumulator of heavy metals, followed by Halodule uninervis and Halodule pinifolia, among all the tested seagrasses. Interestingly, the small-leaved seagrasses were found to be efficient in heavy metal accumulation than the large-leaved seagrass species. Thus, seagrasses can better be used for biomonitoring, and seagrasses can be used as the heavy metal sink as the biomass take usually long term to get remineralize in nature.

  13. Mental health of Asian American and Pacific Islander military veterans: brief review of an understudied group.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Kong, Grace

    2012-11-01

    The mental health of American military soldiers and veterans is of widespread concern; yet, there has been no prior review of studies on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) veterans. This article provides a brief, but comprehensive review of the mental health of AAPI veterans. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using the major medical and mental health literature databases. Of 13 identified articles, nine were empirical studies on either post-traumatic stress disorder among AAPI Vietnam veterans or health functioning of AAPI veterans based on national veteran surveys. Findings from these studies showed that some AAPI veterans who served during the Vietnam War encountered racism from fellow soldiers and race-related stressors were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. As a group, AAPI veterans were found to be physically healthier than other veterans, but reported poorer mental health and were less likely to use mental health services. However, these findings were limited by the paucity of studies on AAPI veterans and suggest a need for more research on this subpopulation.

  14. Genetic characterization of the population of Grande Comore Island (Njazidja) according to major blood groups.

    PubMed

    Chiaroni, Jacques; Touinssi, Mhammed; Frassati, Coralie; Degioanni, Anna; Gibert, Morgane; Reviron, Denis; Mercier, Pierre; Boëtsch, Gilles

    2004-08-01

    The Comorian population is historically considered a blend of influences from African Bantus, Arabs, and possibly Austronesians. In this study we present the first genetic data on the current Comorian population. Serologic analysis of the six major blood group systems (ABO, RH, KEL, FY, JK, and MNS) was performed on 164 individuals from Grande Comore Island (Njazidja). In addition, Duffy genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Our findings establish a high frequency of the Fy(a- b-) phenotype (86%), presenting the same genetic background as in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of genetic frequencies, distances, and admixture with other populations indicates that African Bantus made the main contribution to the gene pool (73.2%+/-15.5%). The Arab contribution from the Arabian peninsula was smaller (24.2%+/-7%) and the Indonesian contribution was minor (2.6%+/-9%). The major Bantu contribution was commensurate with the Bantu cultural influence. The contribution from the Arabian peninsula seemed in relation to its permeating religious and linguistic influence. As with the language, the Indonesian contribution to the Comorian gene pool was small. These results are in agreement with historical, sociological, and linguistic data.

  15. Distribution of new HIV infections among key risk population groups in Togo.

    PubMed

    Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Maboudou, Angèle Akouavi; Deku, Kodzo; Pitche, Palokinam Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Good data on the epidemiology of modes of transmission of HIV among population at risk are important for development of prevention strategies, and resource allocation for the implementation of the interventions. We sought to estimate new HIV infections among key risk groups in Togo. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological data on HIV and AIDS as part of the HIV control strategies in Togo from 2001 to 2012 following the PRISMA guidelines. We used the Mode of Transmission (MoT) modelling tool to estimate the incidence of new HIV infections in high risk groups. The MoT tool was developed and validated by UNAIDS and implemented by several countries using data on the HIV epidemic to estimate new HIV infections that will appear in the core groups. We used Epi-MoT tool to assess the availability and the quality of data. A score of availability of data over 50% and the quality over 1.5 were required to proceed to the MoT analysis. Uncertainty analysis to assess the reliability of the results was performed. Incidence of new HIV infections was estimated at 6,643 (95% CI = 5274, 9005) with an incidence rate of 203 per 1,000,000 inhabitants. The proportion of new HIV infections was 61.9% (95% CI = 46.2 to 71.7) in stable heterosexual couples compare to 14.01% (95% CI = 7.2 to 23.3) in people having casual sex. In high-risk groups new HIV infections accounted for 2.4% among sex workers (SWs) (95% CI = 1.2 - 4.1), 7.9% among clients of SWs (95% CI = 3.9-14.1) and 6.9% among men who have sex with men (MSM) (95% CI = 3.1 to 13.1). We describe the prediction of the HIV epidemic with a large contribution of stable heterosexual couples in the occurrence of new infections. But HIV incidence remains high in key risk populations. Innovative strategies for risk reduction should be strengthened to reduce the transmission especially in stable heterosexual couples.

  16. Distribution of new HIV infections among key risk population groups in Togo

    PubMed Central

    Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Maboudou, Angèle Akouavi; Deku, Kodzo; Pitche, Palokinam Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Good data on the epidemiology of modes of transmission of HIV among population at risk are important for development of prevention strategies, and resource allocation for the implementation of the interventions. We sought to estimate new HIV infections among key risk groups in Togo. Methods We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological data on HIV and AIDS as part of the HIV control strategies in Togo from 2001 to 2012 following the PRISMA guidelines. We used the Mode of Transmission (MoT) modelling tool to estimate the incidence of new HIV infections in high risk groups. The MoT tool was developed and validated by UNAIDS and implemented by several countries using data on the HIV epidemic to estimate new HIV infections that will appear in the core groups. We used Epi-MoT tool to assess the availability and the quality of data. A score of availability of data over 50% and the quality over 1.5 were required to proceed to the MoT analysis. Uncertainty analysis to assess the reliability of the results was performed. Results Incidence of new HIV infections was estimated at 6,643 (95% CI = 5274, 9005) with an incidence rate of 203 per 1,000,000 inhabitants. The proportion of new HIV infections was 61.9% (95% CI = 46.2 to 71.7) in stable heterosexual couples compare to 14.01% (95% CI = 7.2 to 23.3) in people having casual sex. In high-risk groups new HIV infections accounted for 2.4% among sex workers (SWs) (95% CI = 1.2 - 4.1), 7.9% among clients of SWs (95% CI = 3.9-14.1) and 6.9% among men who have sex with men (MSM) (95% CI = 3.1 to 13.1). Conclusion We describe the prediction of the HIV epidemic with a large contribution of stable heterosexual couples in the occurrence of new infections. But HIV incidence remains high in key risk populations. Innovative strategies for risk reduction should be strengthened to reduce the transmission especially in stable heterosexual couples. PMID:25922630

  17. Nutritional Status of Preschool Children in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Food Insecurity, Food Groups, and Nutrient Consumption among Population.

    PubMed

    Manimunda, Sathya P; Sugunan, Attayuru P

    2017-01-01

    Childhood undernutrition is a public health concern in India. But on such a serious issue, there are no data available from the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar (A and N) Islands. Present study was designed to know the prevalence of food insecurity, to estimate food group and nutrient intake among the community, and undernutrition and clinical signs of micronutrient deficiency among the preschool children of A and N islands. Multistage random sampling was followed to select the households containing children aged 6-59 months. In the selected households' sociodemographic particulars, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), among preschoolers the weight and height were recorded along with the documentation of clinical signs of micronutrient deficiency, morbidities suffered over previous fortnight, and measurement of hemoglobin. Diet survey was carried out in every fourth household. A total of 1259 preschoolers residing in 1082 households were examined, HFIAS was measured in 710 households in Andaman group of islands and diet survey was conducted in 290 households. The prevalence of undernutrition was around 27%, stunting was 36%, and anemia was around 81%. Undernutrition and anemia prevalence were significantly low among Nicobarese children. After adjusting for all the determinants, tribal in domicile had favorable outcome [odds ratio (OR): 0.28 (0.18, 0.43)], while below poverty line family had adverse outcome on undernutrition [OR: 1.72 (1.20, 2.46)]. Though the prevalence of undernutrition is relatively low in the islands, but high prevalence of anemia needs to be addressed. Nicobarese children fare better in almost all indicators of nutritional well-being except for stunting. The prevalence of undernutrition is relatively low in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Nicobarese children fare better in almost all indicators of nutritional well-being. However high prevalence of stunting among Nicobarese children needs further research with appropriate

  18. Beliefs and habits: staff experiences with key word signing in special schools and group residential homes.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Ellen; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2017-06-01

    Even though use of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) by staff has been extensively researched, few studies relate to unaided AAC strategies such as key word signing (KWS). We explored the KWS views of two groups: direct support staff in group residential homes and teachers from special education secondary schools. We examined transcripts from individual semi-structured interviews with five direct support staff and five teachers using thematic analysis. Participants discussed consistency of KWS use and reasons for implementing KWS. Compared to direct support staff, teachers described more use of KWS throughout the day with more individuals with intellectual disability. Teachers discussed use of KWS to facilitate students' present and future interactions, while direct support staff primarily discussed immediate effects. Participants experienced KWS implementation as a learning process and aimed to turn the use of manual signs into a routine habit. This required considerable self-monitoring, and the effort that this continuous self-feedback required, combined with environmental factors, could hinder KWS implementation. These preliminary findings suggest that preservice KWS training and on-site KWS assistance may need to be enhanced.

  19. Group assessment of key indicators of sustainable waste management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tot, Bojana; Vujić, Goran; Srđević, Zorica; Ubavin, Dejan; Russo, Mário Augusto Tavares

    2017-09-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are struggling to solve the present problems of solid waste management. Prioritisation and ranking of the most important indicators that influence the waste management system is very useful for any decision maker for the future planning and implementation of a sustainable waste management system. The aim of this study is to evaluate key indicators and their related sub-indicators in a group decision-making environment. In order to gain insight into the subject it was necessary to obtain the qualified opinions of decision makers from different countries who understand the situation in the sector of waste management in developing countries. An assessment is performed by 43 decision makers from both developed and developing countries, and the applied methodology is based on a combined use of the analytic hierarchy process, from the multi-criteria decision-making set of tools, and the preferential voting method known as Borda Count, which belongs to social choice theory. Pairwise comparison of indicators is performed with the analytic hierarchy process, and the ranking of indicators once obtained is assessed with Borda Count. Detailed analysis of the final results showed that the Institutional-Administrative indicator was the most important one, with the maximum weight as derived by both groups of decision makers. The results also showed that the combined use of the analytic hierarchy process and Borda Count contributes to the credibility and objectivity of the decision-making process, allowing its use in more complex waste management group decision-making problems to be recommended.

  20. Evaluating HIV prevention strategies for populations in key affected groups: The example of Cabo Verde

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, João Filipe G.; Galea, Sandro; Flanigan, Timothy; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Friedman, Samuel R.; Marshall, Brandon DL

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We used an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical prevention interventions on HIV incidence trajectories in a concentrated, mixed epidemic setting from 2011 to 2021, and using Cabo Verde as an example. Methods Simulations were conducted to evaluate the extent to which early HIV treatment and optimization of care, HIV testing, condom distribution, and substance abuse treatment could eliminate new infections (i.e., reduce incidence to less than 10 cases per 10,000 person-years) among non-drug users, female sex workers (FSW), and people who use drugs (PWUD). Results Scaling up all four interventions resulted in the largest decreases in HIV, with estimates ranging from 1.4 (95%CI:1.36–1.44) per 10,000 person-years among non-drug users to 8.2 (95%CI:7.8–8.6) per 10,000 person-years among PWUD in 2021. Intervention scenarios targeting FWS and PWUD also resulted in HIV incidence estimates at or below 10 per 10,000 person-years by 2021 for all population sub-groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that scaling up multiple interventions among entire population is necessary to achieve elimination. However, prioritizing key populations with this combination prevention strategy may also result in a substantial decrease in total incidence. PMID:25838121

  1. A division of labour with role specialization in group-hunting bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off Cedar Key, Florida.

    PubMed

    Gazda, Stefanie K; Connor, Richard C; Edgar, Robert K; Cox, Frank

    2005-01-22

    Individual role specialization during group hunting is extremely rare in mammals. Observations on two groups of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida revealed distinctive behavioural roles during group feeding. In each group, one individual was consistently the 'driver', herding the fishes in a circle toward the remaining 'barrier' dolphins. Aerial fish-capture rates differed between groups, as well as between the driver and barrier dolphins, in one group but not in the other. These differences between the two groups may reflect differences in group stability or in prey school size.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Attitudes of Key Stakeholder Groups to the Welsh Government's School-Based Counselling Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pybis, Joanne; Hill, Andy; Cooper, Mick; Cromarty, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The success of schools' counselling services often depends on the support of various key stakeholder groups. This study reports on the attitudes of key stakeholders working within the Welsh Government school-based counselling strategy. Using a survey methodology, the opinions of local authority leads/service managers (n=25), school management…

  3. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  4. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic

  5. Return flight to the Canary Islands--the key role of peripheral populations of Afrocanarian blue tits (Aves: Cyanistes teneriffae) in multi-gene reconstructions of colonization pathways.

    PubMed

    Päckert, Martin; Martens, Jochen; Hering, Jens; Kvist, Laura; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Afrocanarian blue tits (Cyanistes teneriffae) have a scattered distribution on the Canary Islands and on the North African continent. To date, the Canary Islands have been considered the species' main Pleistocene evolutionary center, but their colonization pathways remain uncertain. We set out to reconstruct a dated multi-gene phylogeny and ancestral ranges for Cyanistes tit species including the currently unstudied, peripheral Libyan population of C. t. cyrenaicae. In all reconstructions the most easterly and westerly peripheral populations (in Libya and on La Palma) represented basal offshoots of C. teneriffae. These two peripheral populations shared all four major indels and differed in this respect from all other members of the Afrocanarian core group. The basal split of Afrocanarian blue tits from their European relatives was dated to the early Pliocene. The two ancestral area reconstructions were contradictory and suggested either a Canarian or a North African origin of C. teneriffae - but unambiguously ruled out a continental European ancestral range. We conclude that the peripheral populations of C. teneriffae represent relic lineages of a first faunal interchange, presumably downstream colonization from North Africa to the Canary Islands. Subsequent eastward stepping-stone colonization within the Canarian Archipelago culminated in a very recent late (possibly even post-) Pleistocene back-colonization from the Canary Islands to North Africa.

  6. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Le, Huong T; Ho, Cuong T; Trinh, Quan H; Trinh, Duc A; Luu, Minh T N; Tran, Hai S; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  7. Responses of Aquatic Bacteria to Terrestrial Runoff: Effects on Community Structure and Key Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huong T.; Ho, Cuong T.; Trinh, Quan H.; Trinh, Duc A.; Luu, Minh T. N.; Tran, Hai S.; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean L.; Merroune, Asmaa; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Pommier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilizer application is often touted as an economical and effective method to increase soil fertility. However, this amendment may increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) runoff into downstream aquatic ecosystems and may consequently alter aquatic microbial community. We focused on understanding the effects of DOC runoff from soils amended with compost, vermicompost, or biochar on the aquatic microbial community of a tropical reservoir. Runoff collected from a series of rainfall simulations on soils amended with different organic fertilizers was incubated for 16 days in a series of 200 L mesocosms filled with water from a downstream reservoir. We applied 454 high throughput pyrosequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA genes to analyze microbial communities. After 16 days of incubation, the richness and evenness of the microbial communities present decreased in the mesocosms amended with any organic fertilizers, except for the evenness in the mesocosms amended with compost runoff. In contrast, they increased in the reservoir water control and soil-only amended mesocosms. Community structure was mainly affected by pH and DOC concentration. Compared to the autochthonous organic carbon produced during primary production, the addition of allochthonous DOC from these organic amendments seemed to exert a stronger effect on the communities over the period of incubation. While the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were positively associated with higher DOC concentration, the number of sequences representing key bacterial groups differed between mesocosms particularly between the biochar runoff addition and the compost or vermi-compost runoff additions. The genera of Propionibacterium spp. and Methylobacterium spp. were highly abundant in the compost runoff additions suggesting that they may represent sentinel species of complex organic carbon inputs. Overall, this work further underlines the importance of studying the off-site impacts of organic fertilizers as

  8. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (Is There Such An Ethnic Group?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignacio, Lemuel F.

    This introductory book on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders is written by a Pilipino American who writes with a personal point of view. The book begins with a discussion of the history of Pilipino immigration into the U.S. It describes an Asian American community in San Francisco. The growth and development of the Pilipino Organizing Committee…

  9. Distribution of pilus islands of group B streptococcus associated with maternal colonization and invasive disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madzivhandila, Mashudu; Adrian, Peter V; Cutland, Clare L; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Madhi, Shabir A

    2013-02-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis. Sortase-dependent pilus-like structures have been identified on the surface of GBS, and have been found to be important in the adhesion and attachment of GBS to host cells. Three pilus island alleles, PI-1, PI-2a and PI-2b, have been described, and their proteins are being explored as vaccine candidates. The pilus islands from 541 colonization isolates and 284 invasive isolates were characterized by PCR. All isolates carried at least one pilus island, and they were identified alone or in combinations at the following overall frequencies: PI-2a, 29.8 %; PI-2b, 0.2 %; PI-1+PI-2a, 24.8 %; and PI-1+PI-2b, 45.1 %. A combination of PI-1+PI-2a (28.7 vs 17.6 %) was more common among colonizing compared with invasive isolates. Conversely, a combination of PI-1+PI-2b (37.2 vs 60.2 %) was more frequently associated with invasive disease compared to colonization. There was a strong association between pilus islands when adjusted for serotype distribution, PI-2a was identified in 92.6 % of colonizing and 90.0 % of invasive serotype Ia isolates, whereas serotype III was associated with co-expression of a PI-1 and PI-2b among 84.6 % of colonizing and 96.5 % of invasive isolates. Based on this homogeneity of pilus island distribution, a pilus-based vaccine developed for Europe and the USA will have similar coverage in South Africa.

  10. Two new species in the Echinoderes coulli group (Echinoderidae, Cyclorhagida, Kinorhyncha) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shinta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species belonging to the Echinoderes coulli group are described with their external morphologies and sequences of nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes, and mitochondrial COI gene. The first species, Echinoderes komatsui sp. n., is characterized by absence of acicular spines, and presence of lateroventral tubules on segments 5 and 8, laterodorsal tubules on segment 10, inverted triangle or wide oval shaped large sieve plates, lateral terminal accessory spines in female, and short tips of ventral pectinate fringe on segment 10. The second species, Echinoderes hwiizaa sp. n., is characterized by absence of acicular spines, and presence of lateroventral tubules on segments 5 and 7–9, midlateral tubules on segment 8, laterodorsal tubules on segment 10, large narrow oval shaped sieve plates on segment 9, and thick, short and blunt lateral terminal spines about 10–15% of trunk length. The diagnostic characters and key to species of E. coulli group are provided as well. PMID:24624018

  11. Two new species in the Echinoderes coulli group (Echinoderidae, Cyclorhagida, Kinorhyncha) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shinta

    2014-01-01

    Two new species belonging to the Echinoderes coulli group are described with their external morphologies and sequences of nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes, and mitochondrial COI gene. The first species, Echinoderes komatsui sp. n., is characterized by absence of acicular spines, and presence of lateroventral tubules on segments 5 and 8, laterodorsal tubules on segment 10, inverted triangle or wide oval shaped large sieve plates, lateral terminal accessory spines in female, and short tips of ventral pectinate fringe on segment 10. The second species, Echinoderes hwiizaa sp. n., is characterized by absence of acicular spines, and presence of lateroventral tubules on segments 5 and 7-9, midlateral tubules on segment 8, laterodorsal tubules on segment 10, large narrow oval shaped sieve plates on segment 9, and thick, short and blunt lateral terminal spines about 10-15% of trunk length. The diagnostic characters and key to species of E. coulli group are provided as well.

  12. Magnetic Anisotropy of Nanaimo Group Sedimentary Rocks From Hornby Island, Revisited Again.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Kodama, K. P.

    2001-12-01

    In our ongoing effort to investigate whether inclination shallowing has affected the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group's paleomagnetic direction, we sampled the Northumberland Formation on Hornby Island for the third time this past May. This trip was necessitated by our inability to isolate any characteristic remanence from samples collected during our second sampling trip in July, 1999. Our first sampling trip in July, 1998, yielded characteristic magnetizations from 4 sites. In our May, 2001 trip we collected a total of 237 samples from concretions and fine-grained mudrocks from 18 sites throughout the Northumberland Formation. Stepwise alternating field (AF), thermal demagnetization, low field AF demagnetization (up to 10 mT) followed by thermal demagnetization, and low temperature thermal demagnetization (up to 150 \\deg C) followed by AF demagnetization were applied to pilot samples from each site. The demagnetization results show that one concretion site and one mudrock site yield orthogonal vector endpoint diagrams showing stable, interpretable demagnetization behavior. The concretion site (D=202.2° , I=-53.9° , a95=5.8° ) and the mudrock site (D=17.1° , I=53.6° , a95=6.8° ) have antipodal site means which are statistically indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level. The mean of the two site means (D=19.6° , I=53.8° , a95=6.6° ) is nearly 12° steeper than Ward et al.'s (1997) mean for the Nanaimo. When our two new sites are added to the four sites from the first trip's collection, a mean Nanaimo Group direction of D=11.2° , I=50.4° , a95=14.5° is obtained which is 9° steeper than Ward et al.'s direction. Apparently using only the highest quality vector endpoint data and avoiding the use of remagnetization circle results, yields a steeper direction for the Nanaimo. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) was measured for all samples. Samples with weak susceptibility and a poorly developed fabric also had an unstable remanence, confirming an

  13. Geochemical stratigraphy and correlation within large igneous provinces: The final preserved stages of the Faroe Islands Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millett, J. M.; Hole, M. J.; Jolley, D. W.; Passey, S. R.

    2017-08-01

    The Faroe Islands Basalt Group (FIBG) comprises a gross stratigraphic thickness of over 6.5 km of dominantly extrusive basaltic facies erupted during the Late Palaeocene to Early Eocene. In this study we present 140 major and trace element analyses from flow by flow field and borehole sample profiles, through the Enni Formation, which comprises the final phase of volcanism preserved on the Faroe Islands. The sample profiles target geographically spaced and overlapping stratigraphic sequences tied relative to a 3D ArcGIS surface for the regionally extensive volcaniclastic Argir Beds marker unit. From these profiles five geochemical groups including one low TiO2 (Low-Ti < 1.5 wt%) and four high TiO2 (High-Ti > 1.5 wt%) groups differentiated by Nb, Zr, Y and V variations are identified in conjunction with previous studies. The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of these groups is mapped across the islands and demonstrates a complex inter-digitated flow field evolution. Within the finer scale variations, broad spatial and temporal development trends are identified demonstrating the potential for correlation within the volcanic succession at the local, tens of kilometers scale. Low-Ti lavas formed in association with lithospheric thinning and developed extensive flow fields between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland contemporaneous to the eruption of High-Ti smaller melt fraction lava flows in both locations. The progression of High-Ti lava groups preserved on either side of the developing rift zone is very similar, but is not, however, chronostratigraphic due to multiple inter-digitations of the chemical types. We tentatively suggest that a previously proposed rift-oblique transfer zone between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland enabled non-uniform lithospheric thinning and the preservation of a near-continuous High-Ti melting region between these areas beyond the onset of Low-Ti eruptions which were initially fed from the west. This study highlights the

  14. A new Eastern Asian Hycleus and key to the Chinese species of the phaleratus group (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Mylabrini).

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao; Carosi, Monica; Bologna, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Hycleus belonging to the phaleratus group, and close to Hycleusphaleratus, is described. The new species, Hycleusmarcipoli, is distributed in China (Gansu and Taiwan), Laos, and northern Thailand. A key to the Chinese species of this group is presented.

  15. A new Eastern Asian Hycleus and key to the Chinese species of the phaleratus group (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Mylabrini)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhao; Carosi, Monica; Bologna, Marco A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hycleus belonging to the phaleratus group, and close to Hycleus phaleratus, is described. The new species, Hycleus marcipoli, is distributed in China (Gansu and Taiwan), Laos, and northern Thailand. A key to the Chinese species of this group is presented. PMID:25589860

  16. Aleutian Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Remote, rugged and extraordinarily beautiful, Alaska’s Aleutian Islands are best known for wildlife reserves, military bases, fishing, furs and fog. The sprawling volcanic archipelago was brought into the spotlight by the Russian-supported expedition of Alexey Chirikov and Vitus Bering in 1741, and soon became controlled by the Russian-American Fur Company. In 1867 the United States purchased Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands, from Russia. By 1900 the port in Unalaska was well established as a shipping port for Alaska gold. The archipelago sweeps about 1,200 miles (1,800 km) from the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula to Attu, the most westward island. Four major island groups hold 14 large islands, about 55 smaller islands, and a large number of islets, adding up to roughly 150 islands/islets in total. This chain separates the Bering Sea (north) from the Pacific Ocean (south) and the islands are connected by the Marine Highway Ferry – at least as far as Unalaska. For the most remote islands, such as birding paradise of Attu, the western-most Aleutian Island, travel becomes trickier and relies primarily on custom charter. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flew over the region and captured this spectacular true-color image of the eastern Aleutian Islands on May 15, 2014. In this image, the Alaskan Peninsula protrudes from the mainland and sweeps to the southwest. The first set of islands are called the Fox Island group. Unalaska Island is part of this group and can be identified, with some imagination, as an island formed in the shape of a flying cherub, with two arms (peninsulas) outstretched towards the northeast, seemingly reaching for the round “balls” of Akutan and Akun Islands. The smallest islands in the west of the image belong to the group known as the Islands of Four Mountains. The Aleutians continue far to the west of this image. Fog surrounds the Aleutians, stretching from just off the southwestern Alaska mainland to the

  17. Biogeographical history and coalescent species delimitation of Pacific island skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Emoia cyanura species group)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Elaine; Harris, Rebecca; Fisher, Robert N.; Reeder, Tod

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the expectations of a stepping-stone model, E. cyanura and E. impar each exhibit the genetic signature of a rapid radiation during the mid to late Pleistocene, with evidence for newly identified lineages, mainly on western islands. Of these recovered lineages, we propose three to be elevated to species status. These findings expand our understanding of endemic Pacific biota, which are subject to conservation threats from human impacts and climate change.

  18. Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2007-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.

  19. Two new paratanaid Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from the Hawaiian Islands, with illustrated taxonomic keys.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Pelleteri, Sara; Heard, Richard W

    2016-08-15

    Two new tanaidomorphan tanaidaceans, Aparatanais hawaiensis, sp. nov. and Metatanais spinipropodus, sp. nov. represent the first members of the Family Paratanaidae to be described from the Hawaiian Islands. Aparatanais hawaiensis is distinguished from the other species of the genus by the setation of the antenna, maxilliped, chela, and pereopods. Metatanais spinipropodus is distinguished from the other three members of its genus by its chela having a strongly developed, chisel-like, spiniform seta on the inner face of propodus near the sub-distal margin of the fixed finger. The Hawaiian occurrence of M. spinipropodus extends the range for the genus Metatanais well-eastward into the mid-Pacific Ocean. This study presents the first description of a male attributable to the genus Aparatanais.

  20. The Island of Amsterdamøya: a key site for studying past climate in the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakke, J.; Balascio, N.; Bradley, R. S.; van der Bilt, W. G. M.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Gjerde, M.; Roethe, T.; Olafsdóttir, S.; de Wet, G.

    2016-12-01

    Based on two field campaigns we have explored the Holocene climate evolution as recorded in lakes on the Island of Amsterdamøya, the northwesternmost Islands of the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. Amsterdamøya, located near the intersection of oceanic and atmospheric systems sourced from both the Arctic and Atlantic Ocean basins, has complex a climate history from the end of deglaciation until present. We have employed a multi-proxy approach on sediments in several lakes with the purpose of exploring physical properties of the sediment that can be linked to climatically driven changes in the cryosphere as well as biogeochemical analyses combined with isotope measurements. The results comprise a series of high-resolution temporal datasets that allow quantitative estimates of past climate in this part of the Arctic. We address various aspects of the Holocene climate history of northwestern Svalbard and include reconstruction of the Annabreen glacier based on the sedimentology of the distal glacier-fed lake Gjøavatnet, a reconstruction of catchment-scale runoff using grain size variations in lake Hakluytvatnet, reconstruction of summer temperature based on alkenone paleothermometry from lakes Hakluytvatnet and Hajeren, and hydrogen isotope reconstruction from lake Hakluytvatnet. The Holocene picture that emerges is one of early Holocene warmth from ca. 11-9ka interrupted by transient cooling events (ca. 9-8ka), an early-to mid-Holocene transition to cooler temperatures ca. 7ka, and another ca. 4ka that persisted until the anthropogenic warming of the 20th century.

  1. Key role of organic complexation of iron in sustaining phytoplankton blooms in the Pine Island and Amundsen Polynyas (Southern Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Mills, Matthew M.; Van Dijken, Gert L.; De Baar, Hein J. W.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2012-09-01

    Primary productivity in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean) is among the highest in Antarctica. The summer phytoplankton bloom in 2009 lasted for >70 days in both the Pine Island and Amundsen Polynyas. Such productive blooms require a large supply of nutrients, including the trace metal iron (Fe). The organic complexation of dissolved Fe was investigated in the Amundsen Sea during the spring of 2009 to better understand the potential role of ligands in enhancing the local stock of dissolved Fe. The main sources of Fe and ligands to the Amundsen Sea are thought to be melting sea-ice and the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), which is modified (MCDW) on the continental shelf and upwells beneath the coastal glaciers and ice-shelves. Upwelling of relatively warm MCDW is also responsible for the rapid melting of the Pine Island Glacier (PIG) and surrounding ice-shelves, resulting in additional release of Fe into surface waters. At upwelling stations near ice shelves, organic ligands were nearly saturated with Fe, thus enhancing the stock of Fe and its availability to the phytoplankton community. However, ligands had little capacity to buffer additional Fe input from glacial melt. In these coastal upwelling regions, much of the glacial Fe supply is lost due to vertical export of Fe via scavenging and precipitation. Conversely, within the phytoplankton bloom in the nearby coastal polynyas, the uptake of Fe combined with the production of organic matter enhanced the abundance of relatively unsaturated organic ligands capable of stabilizing additional Fe supplied from glacial melt. These unsaturated dissolved organic ligands, combined with the continuous input of Fe (dissolved and particulate) from glacial melt, appear to favor the solubilization of Fe, thus increasing the stock of bioavailable Fe and fueling the phytoplankton bloom.

  2. Rapid evolution in the Nebria gregaria group (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and the paleogeography of the Queen Charlotte Islands.

    PubMed

    Clarke, T E; Levin, D B; Kavanaugh, D H; Reimchen, T E

    2001-07-01

    Morphological differentiation in the ground beetles of the Nebria gregaria group, found on the Queen Charlotte Islands, has been used as support for the glacial refugium proposed for the northwest coast of North America. Two members of this species group, N. charlottae and N. louiseae, are restricted to cobble beaches in this archipelago. A third, N. haida, is found only in alpine regions of the archipelago and the adjacent mainland. The remaining two species of the gregaria group, N. lituyae and N. gregaria, show highly restricted distributions in the mountains of the Alaska panhandle and on the beaches of the Aleutian Islands, respectively. To determine the relationships of the five species, we conducted phylogenetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data obtained from five regions of the mitochondrial DNA. In total, 1835 bp were analyzed. The results suggest that one species, N. lituyae, does not belong in the gregaria group, and that only seven mutations separated the two most divergent of the four remaining species. We also conducted random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analyses on genomic DNA extracted from the five species. Analyses of genetic diversity revealed a lack of molecular differentiation among the Queen Charlotte species, suggesting that these populations may be postglacial in origin and that together N. gregaria, N. charlottae, N. louiseae, and N. haida might represent local variations of a single species. These results are consistent with conclusions derived for the morphological and genetical differentiation among Gasterosteus populations in the archipelago.

  3. Acting Diverse: Target Group Orientation as Key Competence in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihsen, S.; Buschmeyer, A.

    2007-01-01

    International companies are recognised by equity between men and women as well as between other different groups (Diversity) as an economic factor and incorporate it into their company visions. Mixed teams are set up to design target group-oriented products, for example in automotive engineering. Therefore they need employees who represent the…

  4. From Loose Groups to Effective Teams: The Nine Key Factors of the Team Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheard, A. G.; Kakabadse, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    A loose group of individuals working on a task differs from an effective team on nine factors: clearly defined goals, priorities, roles and responsibilities, self-awareness, leadership, group dynamics, communications, content, and infrastructure. Ways to eliminate barriers and speed formation of effective teams could be based on those factors.…

  5. Acting Diverse: Target Group Orientation as Key Competence in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihsen, S.; Buschmeyer, A.

    2007-01-01

    International companies are recognised by equity between men and women as well as between other different groups (Diversity) as an economic factor and incorporate it into their company visions. Mixed teams are set up to design target group-oriented products, for example in automotive engineering. Therefore they need employees who represent the…

  6. Co-evolution of genomic islands and their bacterial hosts revealed through phylogenetic analyses of 17 groups of homologous genomic islands.

    PubMed

    Guo, F-B; Wei, W; Wang, X L; Lin, H; Ding, H; Huang, J; Rao, N

    2012-10-15

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important mechanism for the evolution of microbial genomes, and many horizontal gene transfer events are facilitated by genomic islands (GIs). Until now, few reports have provided evidence for the co-evolution of horizontally transferred genes and their hosts. We obtained 17 groups of homologous GIs, all of which appear in 8 or more bacterial strains of the same species or genus. Using phylogenetic analyses, we found that the topological structure of a distance tree based on the proteins of each group of homologous GIs was consistent with that based on the complete proteomes of the hosts. This result clearly indicates that GIs and their bacterial hosts have co-evolved. In addition to presenting and providing evidence for a novel concept, i.e., the co-evolution of GIs and their bacterial hosts, we also describe a new and interesting detail for the phylogenetic analysis of horizontally transferred genes: consistent phylogenetic trees can be obtained by focusing on homologous GIs despite the commonly accepted theory that the phylogenies of horizontally transferred sequences and host organisms should be inconsistent.

  7. Comprehensive interrogation of CpG island methylation in the gene encoding COMT, a key estrogen and catecholamine regulator

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme has been widely studied due to its multiple roles in neurological functioning, estrogen biology, and methylation metabolic pathways. Numerous studies have investigated variation in the large COMT gene, with the majority focusing on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This body of work has linked COMT genetic variation with a vast array of conditions, including several neurobehavioral disorders, pain sensitivity, and multiple human cancers. Based on COMT’s numerous biological roles and recent studies suggesting that methylation of the COMT gene impacts COMT gene expression, we comprehensively interrogated methylation in over 200 CpG dinucleotide sequences spanning the length of the COMT gene. Methods Using saliva-derived DNA from a non-clinical sample of human subjects, we tested for associations between COMT CpG methylation and factors reported to interact with COMT genetic effects, including demographic factors and alcohol use. Finally, we tested associations between COMT CpG methylation state and COMT gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. We interrogated >200 CpGs in 13 amplicons spanning the 5’ UTR to the last exon of the CpG dinucleotide-rich COMT gene in n = 48 subjects, n = 11 cell lines and 1 endogenous 18S rRNA control. Results With the exception of the CpG island in the 5’UTR and 1st exon, all other CpG islands were strongly methylated with typical dynamic ranges between 50-90%. In the saliva samples, methylation of multiple COMT loci was associated with socioeconomic status or ethnicity. We found associations between methylation at numerous loci and genotype at the functional Val 158 Met SNP (rs4680), and most of the correlations between methylation and demographic and alcohol use factors were Val 158 Met allele-specific. Methylation at several of these loci also associated with COMT gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. Conclusions We report the first comprehensive

  8. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation.

  9. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation. PMID:23900426

  10. Genetic, spatial, and social relationships among adults in a group of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Milton, Katharine; Nolin, David A; Ellis, Kelsey; Lozier, Jeffrey; Sandel, Brody; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-04-01

    Kinship plays an important role in the social behavior of many primate species, including patterns of intra-group affiliation and cooperation. Within social groups, kinship is strongly affected by dispersal patterns, with the degree of relatedness among group-mates expected to decrease as the tendency to disperse increases. In primate species characterized by bisexual dispersal, relatedness among adult group-mates is predicted to be low, with social interactions shaped largely by factors other than kinship. To date, however, few studies have examined the role of kinship in social interactions in bisexually dispersing species. Accordingly, we collected genetic, spatial and behavioral data on all adult members (three males, six females) in a group of free-ranging mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata)--a bisexually dispersing species of atelid primate--from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Analyses of microsatellite variation revealed that relatedness was greater among adult males in this group (mean pairwise relatedness = 0.32 for males versus 0.09 for females). Relatedness among individuals, however, was not associated with either spatial proximity or frequency of social interactions. Instead, sex was a better predictor of both of these aspects of social behavior. While relatedness among adults had no discernible effect on the intra-group social interactions documented in this study, we postulate that kinship may facilitate affiliative and cooperative behaviors among male group-mates when interacting competitively with neighboring howler groups over access to food or potential mates.

  11. Anaphothrips genus-group: key to world genera, with two new species and three new records from Japan (Thysanoptera, Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Masami; Okajima, Shûji

    2017-05-29

    An identification key is provided to the 40 genera worldwide that comprise the Anaphothrips genus-group of Thripinae. Oxythrips japonicus sp.n. and Rubiothrips galii sp.n. are described from Japan, and the members of Anaphothrips genus-group from Japan are reviewed, with 15 species in eight genera. Anaphothrips swezeyi Moulton, Caprithrips insularis Beshear and C. melanophthalmus (Bagnall) are newly recorded from Japan.

  12. Initiation and maintenance of a hospital-based parent group for parents of premature infants: key factors for success.

    PubMed

    Bracht, M; Ardal, F; Bot, A; Cheng, C M

    1998-04-01

    The impact of a premature birth can be very traumatic for parents. They are usually not prepared for this event, and their sense of grief and loss is so intense that they often have difficulty coping with the situation. A parent group can help parents adapt to the crisis of prematurity by providing information and family support. This article describes the development of a parent group at a regional perinatal center in Ontario and identifies key factors for its successful initiation and maintenance.

  13. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  14. Luminescence Dating Work From The Heidelberg Group: A Key Technology In Geoarchaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, G. A.; Kadereit, A.

    Geoarchaeology is a growing discipline in archaeological science. It aims at the natural environment as context of past human societies and at the interaction between both, the environment and man as part of a joint ecosystem. This topic is also of considerable concern of present societies. Like other historic sciences, geoarchaeology requires accurate chronologies. Since one deals in geoarchaeology predominantly with sediments and rocks, luminescence methods play a key role. This is demonstrated in two case studies from Phlious in southern Greece and Nasca in southern Peru. The results show clearly climatically triggered social developments and feedbacks to the environment.

  15. Key for European species of the Cheilosia proxima group (Diptera, Syrphidae) with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Vujić, Ante; Radenković, Snežana; Trifunov, Sonja; Nikolić, Tijana

    2013-01-01

    A new hoverfly species, Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković sp. n. (Diptera, Syrphidae), is described and distinguished from the closely related species Cheilosia pascuorum Becker, 1894, based on material collected from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. Diagnostic characteristics and an identification key for the members of the proxima group of Cheilosia s. str., including the new taxon, are provided.

  16. Descriptions of three new carbonaria-group species of Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy from China, with a key to the carbonaria-group species (Diptera, Fanniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-fu; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yu-wan; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A historical review of the Fannia carbonaria-group is provided and three new species are described from China: Fannia fani Wang & Wu, sp. n., Fannia nitidiventris Wang & Zhang, sp. n. and Fannia submaculata Wang & Zhao, sp. n.. One species, Fannia norvegica Ringdahl, 1934, is recorded for the first time from China. Illustrations of male terminalia of these four species and a taxonomic key to the males of known species in the group are given. The Fannia carbonaria-group now includes 30 species distributed in the Holarctic Region and northern part of the Oriental Region. PMID:28331411

  17. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed Central

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field. PMID:12826486

  18. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-06-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field.

  19. A group based key sharing and management algorithm for vehicular ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeeshan Shafi; Moharram, Mohammed Morsi; Alaraj, Abdullah; Azam, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are one special type of ad hoc networks that involves vehicles on roads. Typically like ad hoc networks, broadcast approach is used for data dissemination. Blind broadcast to each and every node results in exchange of useless and irrelevant messages and hence creates an overhead. Unicasting is not preferred in ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic topology and the resource requirements as compared to broadcasting. Simple broadcasting techniques create several problems on privacy, disturbance, and resource utilization. In this paper, we propose media mixing algorithm to decide what information should be provided to each user and how to provide such information. Results obtained through simulation show that fewer number of keys are needed to share compared to simple broadcasting. Privacy is also enhanced through this approach.

  20. A Group Based Key Sharing and Management Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moharram, Mohammed Morsi; Azam, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are one special type of ad hoc networks that involves vehicles on roads. Typically like ad hoc networks, broadcast approach is used for data dissemination. Blind broadcast to each and every node results in exchange of useless and irrelevant messages and hence creates an overhead. Unicasting is not preferred in ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic topology and the resource requirements as compared to broadcasting. Simple broadcasting techniques create several problems on privacy, disturbance, and resource utilization. In this paper, we propose media mixing algorithm to decide what information should be provided to each user and how to provide such information. Results obtained through simulation show that fewer number of keys are needed to share compared to simple broadcasting. Privacy is also enhanced through this approach. PMID:24587749

  1. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  2. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  3. Promoting Group Work at Key Stage 3: Solving an Attitudinal Crisis among Young Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Tony; Galton, Maurice; Steward, Susan; Page, Charlotte; Hargreaves, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The attitudes and behaviour of 1040 pupils aged 12-14 years have been measured at the beginning and end of the school year with a battery of attitude, motivation and personality tests in an investigation of the differential effects of group work compared to whole-class learning. A total of 44 secondary teachers of English, mathematics and science…

  4. Respectful, Individual, and Responsive Caregiving for Infants: The Key to Successful Care in Group Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, Beverly A.; Da Ros, Denise A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the concept of sensitive and competent infant care in group child-care settings. Offers seven principles to provide a more complete picture of sensitive and competent care, covering aspects of caregiving including interactions with the child, providing opportunities for learning, and working with the child's own needs and schedules.…

  5. Promoting Group Work at Key Stage 3: Solving an Attitudinal Crisis among Young Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Tony; Galton, Maurice; Steward, Susan; Page, Charlotte; Hargreaves, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The attitudes and behaviour of 1040 pupils aged 12-14 years have been measured at the beginning and end of the school year with a battery of attitude, motivation and personality tests in an investigation of the differential effects of group work compared to whole-class learning. A total of 44 secondary teachers of English, mathematics and science…

  6. Rowlandius dumitrescoae species group: new diagnosis, key and description of new cave-dwelling species from Brazil (Schizomida, Hubbardiidae).

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva; Villarreal, Osvaldo M

    2016-01-01

    The Rowlandius dumitrescoae species group is reviewed and rediagnosed, and its composition is revised. The group now includes Rowlandius cousinensis, Rowlandius decui, Rowlandius dumitrescoae, Rowlandius insignis, Rowlandius linsduarte, Rowlandius monensis, Rowlandius peckorum, Rowlandius potiguar, Rowlandius sul, Rowlandius ubajara, and Rowlandius pedrosoisp. n. A new species is described from a cave in northeast Brazil (Santa Quitéria, Ceará). Identification keys and distributional maps are provided for the species of the group. Sixteen species of Schizomida, including five of Rowlandius, are currently recognized from Brazil.

  7. Rowlandius dumitrescoae species group: new diagnosis, key and description of new cave-dwelling species from Brazil (Schizomida, Hubbardiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva; Villarreal, Osvaldo M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Rowlandius dumitrescoae species group is reviewed and rediagnosed, and its composition is revised. The group now includes Rowlandius cousinensis, Rowlandius decui, Rowlandius dumitrescoae, Rowlandius insignis, Rowlandius linsduarte, Rowlandius monensis, Rowlandius peckorum, Rowlandius potiguar, Rowlandius sul, Rowlandius ubajara, and Rowlandius pedrosoi sp. n. A new species is described from a cave in northeast Brazil (Santa Quitéria, Ceará). Identification keys and distributional maps are provided for the species of the group. Sixteen species of Schizomida, including five of Rowlandius, are currently recognized from Brazil. PMID:27920601

  8. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the upper Miocene to Pliocene Shimajiri Group on Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Ryo; Sato, Tokiyuki; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Shimajiri Group in two exploratory wells (depths, 1243 and 1800 m) drilled on southern Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Three late Miocene to Pliocene datum planes were identified: the first occurrence of Amaurolithus spp. (7.42 Ma), the last occurrence of Discoaster quinqueramus (5.59 Ma), and the first occurrence of Ceratolithus rugosus (5.12 Ma). These datum planes were also identified in two other deep wells on southern Okinawa-jima. Nutrient levels (reconstructed from the relative abundances of small Reticulofenestra spp., and the relative abundances of Discoaster spp. plus Sphenolithus abies) suggest that deposition of the Shimajiri Group (<8.29-3.50 Ma) occurred under conditions of increasing eutrophication. The eutrophication was likely caused by shallowing of the sedimentary basin, but a stepwise shift was associated with an abrupt eutrophication event that occurred in the northwestern Pacific Ocean at 5 Ma.

  9. A new blue-tailed Monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C; Lindqvist, Christer

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records.

  10. A new blue-tailed Monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Weijola, Valter; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Lindqvist, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Varanus from Mussau Island, north-east of New Guinea. The new species is a member of the Varanus indicus species group and is distinguished from all other members by both morphological and molecular genetic characters. It is the third species of Varanus reported from the Bismarck Archipelago and the first record of a yellow tongued member of the Varanus indicus species group from a remote oceanic island. The herpetofauna of Mussau Island has not been well studied but the discovery of this new species is in accordance with recent findings indicating that the island may harbor several unknown endemic vertebrates. The distribution of the closely related Varanus finschi is also discussed in the light of recent fieldwork and a review of old records. PMID:27103877

  11. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  12. Impact of early Polynesian occupation on the land snail fauna of Henderson Island, Pitcairn group (South Pacific)

    PubMed Central

    Preece, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Henderson Island, an uninhabited raised coral atoll in the Pitcairn group, has recently been designated a World Heritage Site because of its unique and relatively undisturbed ecosystem. The island is believed to have been uplifted and subaerially exposed during the last 275 kyr. This therefore provides the maximum age for the terrestrial biota that includes several endemic taxa. Henderson today supports 16 strictly terrestrial species of snails, about half of which are endemic. Analyses of sediments beneath Polynesian occupation horizons dated between the 11th and 17th centuries AD, have yielded 11 species of land snail present in the modern fauna, together with at least six (and possibly as many as eight) further species that no longer occur on the island. These extinct taxa are illustrated and formal descriptions provided for five (Pleuropoma hendersoni, Orobophana carinacosta, Minidonta macromphalus, Philonesia pyramidalis, P. weisleri); a sixth, known only from broken shells, appears to belong to the genus Hiona. The two remaining taxa are 'tornatellinids' that have not been recognized among the modern fauna. Radiocarbon dates from bones of associated extinct land birds confirm their occurrence on Henderson before the first signs of Polynesian settlement. The extinction of these taxa seems to coincide with the Polynesian occupation and evidence for large-scale burning, at least around parts of the plateau margin, suggests that their demise can be linked with habitat destruction. At least three species, Gastrocopta pediculus, Lamellidea oblonga and Pupisoma orcula, first appear in Polynesian occupation horizons. Their status as prehistoric introductions is therefore confirmed but G. pediculus no longer lives on Henderson. Pacificella variabilis, Tornatellides oblongus parvulus and Elasmias sp., all previously thought to have been other prehistoric introductions to Henderson, were recovered from pre-Polynesian levels and are therefore native.

  13. Anopheles Litoralis King and A. Barbirostris Group on the Island of Guam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    of the Philippines. Philippine Med. Assoc. J. 46~443-455. Darsie , R. F., Jr . and A. Cagampang-Ramos. 1972. Descriptions and keys for anophelines of...Reisen et al r97ra, I 97rb; Darsie and Cagam- pang-Ramos 1972). The records of lesteri and sinen& will require further study as Harrison (1972

  14. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-04-28

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme.

  15. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-01-01

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme. PMID:27136550

  16. Superconductivity of monolayer Mo2C: The key role of functional groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Dong, Shuai

    2017-01-21

    Monolayer Mo2C is a new member of two-dimensional materials. Here the electronic structure and lattice dynamics of monolayer Mo2C are calculated. According to the electron-phonon interaction, it is predicted that monolayer Mo2C could be a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor and the effects of functional-groups are crucially important considering its unsaturated surface. Despite the suppressed superconductivity by chalcogen adsorption, our most interesting prediction is that the electron-phonon interaction of monolayer Mo2C can be greatly enhanced by bromine absorption, suggesting that Mo2CBr2 as a good candidate for a nanoscale superconductor.

  17. Superconductivity of monolayer Mo2C: The key role of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Dong, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer Mo2C is a new member of two-dimensional materials. Here the electronic structure and lattice dynamics of monolayer Mo2C are calculated. According to the electron-phonon interaction, it is predicted that monolayer Mo2C could be a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor and the effects of functional-groups are crucially important considering its unsaturated surface. Despite the suppressed superconductivity by chalcogen adsorption, our most interesting prediction is that the electron-phonon interaction of monolayer Mo2C can be greatly enhanced by bromine absorption, suggesting that Mo2CBr2 as a good candidate for a nanoscale superconductor.

  18. Genetic diversity in two sibling species of the Anopheles punctulatus group of mosquitoes on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The mosquito Anopheles irenicus, a member of the Anopheles punctulatus group, is geographically restricted to Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. It shows remarkable morphological similarities to one of its sibling species, An. farauti sensu stricto (An. farauti s.s.), but is dissimilar in host and habitat preferences. To infer the genetic variations between these two species, we have analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences from Guadalcanal and from one of its nearest neighbours, Malaita, in the Solomon Islands. Results An. farauti s.s. was collected mostly from brackish water and by the human bait method on both islands, whereas An. irenicus was only collected from fresh water bodies on Guadalcanal Island. An. irenicus is distributed evenly with An. farauti s.s. (ΦSC = 0.033, 0.38%) and its range overlaps in three of the seven sampling sites. However, there is a significant population genetic structure between the species (ΦCT = 0.863, P < 0.01; ΦST = 0.865, P < 0.01 and FST = 0.878, P < 0.01). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that An. irenicus is a monophyletic species, not a hybrid, and is closely related to the An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal. The time estimator suggests that An. irenicus diverged from the ancestral An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal within 29,000 years before present (BP). An. farauti s.s. expanded much earlier on Malaita (texp = 24,600 BP) than the populations on Guadalcanal (texp = 16,800 BP for An. farauti s.s. and 14,000 BP for An. irenicus). Conclusion These findings suggest that An. irenicus and An. farauti s.s. are monophyletic sister species living in sympatry, and their populations on Guadalcanal have recently expanded. Consequently, the findings further suggest that An. irenicus diverged from the ancestral An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal. PMID:19025663

  19. Fast Motions of Key Methyl Groups in Amyloid-β Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Vugmeyster, Liliya; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Clark, Matthew A; Falconer, Isaac B; Hoatson, Gina L; Qiang, Wei

    2016-11-15

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is the major component of plaques found in Alzheimer's disease patients. Using solid-state (2)H NMR relaxation performed on selectively deuterated methyl groups, we probed the dynamics in the threefold symmetric and twofold symmetric polymorphs of native Aβ as well as the protofibrils of the D23N mutant. Specifically, we investigated the methyl groups of two leucine residues that belong to the hydrophobic core (L17 and L34) as well as M35 residues belonging to the hydrophobic interface between the cross-β subunits, which has been previously found to be water-accessible. Relaxation measurements performed over 310-140 K and two magnetic field strengths provide insights into conformational variability within and between polymorphs. Core packing variations within a single polymorph are similar to what is observed for globular proteins for the core residues, whereas M35 exhibits a larger degree of variability. M35 site is also shown to undergo a solvent-dependent dynamical transition in which slower amplitude motions of methyl axes are activated at high temperature. The motions, modeled as a diffusion of methyl axis, have activation energy by a factor of 2.7 larger in the twofold compared with the threefold polymorph, whereas D23N protofibrils display a value similar to the threefold polymorph. This suggests enhanced flexibility of the hydrophobic interface in the threefold polymorph. This difference is only observed in the hydrated state and is absent in the dry fibrils, highlighting the role of solvent at the cavity. In contrast, the dynamic behavior of the core is hydration-independent.

  20. Key for European species of the Cheilosia proxima group (Diptera, Syrphidae) with a description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Vujić, Ante; Radenković, Snežana; Trifunov, Sonja; Nikolić, Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new hoverfly species, Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković sp. n. (Diptera, Syrphidae), is described and distinguished from the closely related species Cheilosia pascuorum Becker, 1894, based on material collected from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. Diagnostic characteristics and an identification key for the members of the proxima group of Cheilosia s. str., including the new taxon, are provided. PMID:23653524

  1. New species of Protosticta Selys from Vietnam with a key to the males of the P. curiosa group (Odonata: Platystictidae).

    PubMed

    Kompier, Tom

    2016-11-15

    Three new species of Protosticta Selys, 1855, are described from Vietnam: P. proboscis spec. nov. and P. albifrons spec. nov., while P. satoi dark form is elevated to specific status as P. nigra spec. nov. based on structural and morphological differences. The female of P. linnaei is described for the first time and a key provided to the males of the P. curiosa group in Vietnam.

  2. Renormalization group invariance and optimal QCD renormalization scale-setting: a key issues review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Quan; Fu, Hai-Bing; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-12-01

    A valid prediction for a physical observable from quantum field theory should be independent of the choice of renormalization scheme—this is the primary requirement of renormalization group invariance (RGI). Satisfying scheme invariance is a challenging problem for perturbative QCD (pQCD), since a truncated perturbation series does not automatically satisfy the requirements of the renormalization group. In a previous review, we provided a general introduction to the various scale setting approaches suggested in the literature. As a step forward, in the present review, we present a discussion in depth of two well-established scale-setting methods based on RGI. One is the ‘principle of maximum conformality’ (PMC) in which the terms associated with the β-function are absorbed into the scale of the running coupling at each perturbative order; its predictions are scheme and scale independent at every finite order. The other approach is the ‘principle of minimum sensitivity’ (PMS), which is based on local RGI; the PMS approach determines the optimal renormalization scale by requiring the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of the PMC and PMS procedures by analyzing two physical observables R e+e- and Γ(H\\to b\\bar{b}) up to four-loop order in pQCD. At the four-loop level, the PMC and PMS predictions for both observables agree within small errors with those of conventional scale setting assuming a physically-motivated scale, and each prediction shows small scale dependences. However, the convergence of the pQCD series at high orders, behaves quite differently: the PMC displays the best pQCD convergence since it eliminates divergent renormalon terms; in contrast, the convergence of the PMS prediction is questionable, often even worse than the conventional prediction based on an arbitrary guess for the renormalization scale. PMC predictions also have the property that any residual dependence on

  3. Renormalization group invariance and optimal QCD renormalization scale-setting: a key issues review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Quan; Fu, Hai-Bing; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-12-01

    A valid prediction for a physical observable from quantum field theory should be independent of the choice of renormalization scheme--this is the primary requirement of renormalization group invariance (RGI). Satisfying scheme invariance is a challenging problem for perturbative QCD (pQCD), since a truncated perturbation series does not automatically satisfy the requirements of the renormalization group. In a previous review, we provided a general introduction to the various scale setting approaches suggested in the literature. As a step forward, in the present review, we present a discussion in depth of two well-established scale-setting methods based on RGI. One is the 'principle of maximum conformality' (PMC) in which the terms associated with the β-function are absorbed into the scale of the running coupling at each perturbative order; its predictions are scheme and scale independent at every finite order. The other approach is the 'principle of minimum sensitivity' (PMS), which is based on local RGI; the PMS approach determines the optimal renormalization scale by requiring the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of the PMC and PMS procedures by analyzing two physical observables R(e+e-) and [Formula: see text] up to four-loop order in pQCD. At the four-loop level, the PMC and PMS predictions for both observables agree within small errors with those of conventional scale setting assuming a physically-motivated scale, and each prediction shows small scale dependences. However, the convergence of the pQCD series at high orders, behaves quite differently: the PMC displays the best pQCD convergence since it eliminates divergent renormalon terms; in contrast, the convergence of the PMS prediction is questionable, often even worse than the conventional prediction based on an arbitrary guess for the renormalization scale. PMC predictions also have the property that any residual dependence on the choice

  4. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevanisp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided.

  5. A new species of Chilicola from Bahia, Brazil (Hymenoptera, Colletidae), with a key to the species of the megalostigma group

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas; Mahlmann, Thiago; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The bee genus Chilicola Spinola (Xeromelissinae) is recorded from the State of Bahia, Brazil for the first time, based on a new species of the megalostigma group of the subgenus Hylaeosoma Ashmead. Chilicola (Hylaeosoma) kevani sp. n. is described and figured from males collected in Wesceslau Guimarães, Bahia. The species can be distinguished on the basis of coloration, size, integumental sculpturing, and structure of the hidden metasomal sterna and genitalia. A revised key to the species of the megalostigma group is provided. PMID:22287912

  6. Hamming's "open doors" and group creativity as keys to scientific excellence: the example of Cambridge.

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Charlton used diverse approaches to identify research institutions which provided home to outstanding scientists and work. One intriguing example of long-lasting scientific excellence is Cambridge with 19 Nobel laureates who worked at the University or at the MRC Molecular Biology Unit when they received the prize between 1947 and 2006. With specific reference to Cambridge, I would like to complement the primarily quantitative assessment and offer considerations as to why and how research achievements may have clustered in space and time. Indeed, observations voiced by the mathematician Richard Hamming as to how great research can be pursued offer explanations for the series of great science in the UK. In my view, the most important determinant of the clustering may be illustrated by Hamming's fitting picture of "open doors": working in environments with the doors open allows constant interactions with peers with various disciplinary backgrounds, and thus fast avoidance of detours or dead ends in science and, ultimately, a focus on and the solution of problems of paramount, rather than of tangential, importance. Narrative insights into a strong argumentative tradition at Cambridge provided by Drs. Watson and Magueijo between 1968 and 2003 are in line with Hamming's suggestion and the value of group creativity. In the internet age with abundant interactions beyond home institutions we should not be surprised if clusters of great science were no longer confined to the usual suspect institutions which were awarded disproportionally with Nobel prizes in the past.

  7. What are the key food groups to target for preventing obesity and improving nutrition in schools?

    PubMed

    Bell, A C; Swinburn, B A

    2004-02-01

    To determine differences in the contribution of foods and beverages to energy consumed in and out of school, and to compare consumption patterns between school canteen users and noncanteen users. Cross-sectional National Nutrition Survey, 1995. Australia. SUBJECTS ON SCHOOL DAYS: A total of 1656 children aged 5-15 y who had weekday 24-h dietary recall data. An average of 37% of total energy intake was consumed at school. Energy-dense foods and beverages such as fat spreads, packaged snacks, biscuits and fruit/cordial drinks made a greater contribution to energy intake at school compared to out of school (P< or =0.01). Fast foods and soft drinks contributed 11 and 3% of total energy intake; however, these food groups were mostly consumed out of school. Fruit intake was low and consumption was greater in school. In all, 14% of children purchased food from the canteen and they obtained more energy from fast food, packaged snacks, desserts, milk and confectionary (P< or =0.05) than noncanteen users. : Energy-dense foods and beverages are over-represented in the Australian school environment. To help prevent obesity and improve nutrition in schools, biscuits, snack bars and fruit/cordial drinks brought from home and fast food, packaged snacks, and confectionary sold at canteens should be replaced with fruit and water.

  8. Persistence Differences between the Three Mile Island Residents and a Control Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-11

    film . During this film gruesome woodshop accidents were depicted — such as a worker being killed by a wooden plank being driven through his body...tracks was used. For one group the film was presented as staged; for another it was presented as an authentic depiction of events -- to increase safety...awareness; for a third group no instructions were provided. When the subjects’ appraisal of the film was manipulated by giving them instructions

  9. SeaSketch: Implementation of a Decision-Support Platform for a Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Multi-sector Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, G.; McClintock, W.

    2016-12-01

    Effective interagency and cross-sector coordination is essential to ecosystem based management which depends on processes characterized by collaboration and science-based information. Many technological barriers that exist in the development of science-based management plans are closely tied to process challenges, such as the sharing of data and information or the inclusion of parties with varied levels of technical experience. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary has convened a diverse working group to develop recommendations for the management of marine shipping in and around the Santa Barbara Channel, as well as recommendations regarding research needs and outreach strategies. Working group members take a multi-issue approach with four distinct goals related to the reduction of ship strikes on whales, emissions and air quality, conflicting ocean uses, and issues of navigational safety. Members range from industry representatives, scientists, and multiple local and federal government entities. The recommended management plans will be based in the best-available science, and will build off of previous efforts, making this an interesting case study of adaptive management. In addition to support from the Sanctuary and professional facilitators, the group is using a decision-support platform, SeaSketch (safepassage.seasketch.org). SeaSketch is a web-based GIS that supports collaborative science-based marine spatial planning (MSP). Each feature supports a step of the MSP process, from data gathering, identification of data needs, the design of spatial plans, evaluation of those plans with analytics, and map-based forums that facilitate data-driven discussions. Working group members are able to access these tools to explore management options and collaborate remotely, in addition to using the platform during in-person meetings and webinars. Empowering diverse audiences to engage in the design of science-based plans is of key importance to developing ecosystem

  10. SeaSketch: Implementation of a Decision-Support Platform for a Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Multi-sector Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, G.; McClintock, W.

    2016-02-01

    Effective interagency and cross-sector coordination is essential to ecosystem based management which depends on processes characterized by collaboration and science-based information. Many technological barriers that exist in the development of science-based management plans are closely tied to process challenges, such as the sharing of data and information or the inclusion of parties with varied levels of technical experience. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary has convened a diverse working group to develop recommendations for the management of marine shipping in and around the Santa Barbara Channel, as well as recommendations regarding research needs and outreach strategies. Working group members take a multi-issue approach with four distinct goals related to the reduction of ship strikes on whales, emissions and air quality, conflicting ocean uses, and issues of navigational safety. Members range from industry representatives, scientists, and multiple local and federal government entities. The recommended management plans will be based in the best-available science, and will build off of previous efforts, making this an interesting case study of adaptive management. In addition to support from the Sanctuary and professional facilitators, the group is using a decision-support platform, SeaSketch (safepassage.seasketch.org). SeaSketch is a web-based GIS that supports collaborative science-based marine spatial planning (MSP). Each feature supports a step of the MSP process, from data gathering, identification of data needs, the design of spatial plans, evaluation of those plans with analytics, and map-based forums that facilitate data-driven discussions. Working group members are able to access these tools to explore management options and collaborate remotely, in addition to using the platform during in-person meetings and webinars. Empowering diverse audiences to engage in the design of science-based plans is of key importance to developing ecosystem

  11. Review of amphipods of the Melita group (Amphipoda: Melitidae) from the coastal waters of Sakhalin Island (Far East of Russia). III. Genera Abludomelita Karaman, 1981 and Melita Leach, 1814.

    PubMed

    Labay, Vjacheslav S

    2016-08-25

    The taxonomic analysis of Melita group is performed. The revision of the genus Melita Leach, 1814 was held on the basis of analysis of morphological characters. Cladistic analysis of morphological relationships within genera Abludomelita and Melita is performed. Status of the genus Paraniphargus Tattersall, 1925 restored. New genera Barnardomelita gen. nov. and Ledoyeromelita gen. nov. are described and removed from the composition of the genus Melita. A review of Melita group (fam. Melitidae) from the shelf of Sakhalin Island based on all literature and own data is provided. Based on new material, two new species of the genus Abludomelita Karaman, 1981 are described: A. klitinii sp. nov. and A. okhotensis sp. nov. from the shelf of Sakhalin Island. Megamoera aequidentatum Labay, 2013 is transferred to the genus Abludomelita as A. rotundactyla (Ren, 2012) on the basis of additional morphological description of male. The new subspecies Melita shimizui sakhalinensis ssp. nov. is described from estuaries of Sakhalin Island. The keys to the world species of genera Abludomelita and Melita are provided.

  12. Persistence Differences between the Three Mile Island Residents and a Control Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Lazarus and his associates during the 1960’s demonstrated the important role of the appraisal process. One such study had subjects view a stressful film ...During ’ this film gruesome woodshop accidents were depicted -- such as a worker being killed by a wooden plank being driven through his body, or a...used. For one group the film was presented as staged; for another it was presented as an authentic depiction of events -- to increase safety awareness

  13. The Lasioseius phytoseioides species group (Acari: Blattisociidae): new characterisation, description of a new species, complementary notes on seven described species and a taxonomic key for the group.

    PubMed

    De Moraes, Gilberto J; Abo-Shnaf, Reham I A; Pérez-Madruga, Yanebis; Sánchez, Leocadia; Karmakar, Krishna; Ho, Chyi-Chen

    2015-06-26

    The Lasioseius phytoseioides species group was first characterised over 50 years ago. Two species of this group, Lasioseius chaudhrii (Wu & Wang) and Lasioseius parberlesei Bhattacharyya, have been considered potentially effective as biological control agents of pest mites of the family Tarsonemidae on rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Asia. A new characterisation of the species group is presented, taking into account a new species here described, Lasioseius piracicabensis Moraes & Pérez-Madruga n. sp., as well as other species mostly described since the first characterisation of the group. The main characteristics of the included species are the reduced number of dorsal idiosomal setae, including the absence of j1 and z1; antiaxial surface of fixed cheliceral digit with a subterminal pointed process; and males with broad lateral expansion of the peritrematic shield in the region between coxae II-III, bearing a pore and a lyrifissure. Complementary notes are presented for Lasioseius annandalei Bhattacharyya & Bhattacharyya, Lasioseius chaudhrii (Wu & Wang), Lasioseius parberlesei Bhattacharyya, L. phytoseioides Chant, Lasioseius punjabensis Bhattacharyya & Sanyal, Lasioseius terrestris Menon & Ghai and Lasioseius youcefi Athias-Henriot. New synonymies are proposed and possible misidentifications in the literature are discussed. A dichotomous key is presented to help the identification of the species of the group, and the distribution of the species is summarised.

  14. Description of 23 new species of the Exocelinaekari-group from New Guinea, with a key to all representatives of the species group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae).

    PubMed

    Shaverdo, Helena; Sagata, Katayo; Panjaitan, Rawati; Menufandu, Herlina; Balke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Twenty three new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are described herein: Exocelinabewaniensis sp. n., Exocelinabismarckensis sp. n., Exocelinacraterensis sp. n., Exocelinagorokaensis sp. n., Exocelinaherowana sp. n., Exocelinajimiensis sp. n., Exocelinakisli sp. n., Exocelinaksionseki sp. n., Exocelinalembena sp. n., Exocelinamantembu sp. n., Exocelinamichaelensis sp. n., Exocelinapinocchio sp. n., Exocelinapseudoastrophallus sp. n., Exocelinapseudobifida sp. n., Exocelinapseudoedeltraudae sp. n., Exocelinapseudoeme sp. n., Exocelinasandaunensis sp. n., Exocelinasimbaiarea sp. n., Exocelinaskalei sp. n., Exocelinatabubilensis sp. n., Exocelinatariensis sp. n., Exocelinavovai sp. n., and Exocelinawannangensis sp. n. All of them have been found to belong to the Exocelinaekari-group. An identification key to all known species of the group is provided, and important diagnostic characters (habitus, color, male antennae, protarsomeres 4-5, median lobes, and parameres) are illustrated. Data on the distribution of the new species and some already described species are given.

  15. Coverage of clinic-based TB screening in South Africa may be low in key risk groups.

    PubMed

    McCreesh, N; Faghmous, I; Looker, C; Dodd, P J; Plumb, I D; Shanaube, K; Muyoyeta, M; Godfrey-Faussett, P; Ayles, H; White, R G

    2016-03-21

    The South African Ministry of Health has proposed screening all clinic attendees for tuberculosis (TB). Amongst other factors, male sex and bar attendance are associated with higher TB risk. We show that 45% of adults surveyed in Western Cape attended a clinic within 6 months, and therefore potentially a relatively high proportion of the population could be reached through clinic-based screening. However, fewer than 20% of all men aged 18-25 years, or men aged 26-45 who attend bars, attended a clinic. The population-level impact of clinic-based screening may be reduced by low coverage among key risk groups.

  16. Amylin Amyloid Inhibition by Flavonoid Baicalein: Key Roles of Its Vicinal Dihydroxyl Groups of the Catechol Moiety.

    PubMed

    Velander, Paul; Wu, Ling; Ray, W Keith; Helm, Richard F; Xu, Bin

    2016-08-09

    Amyloid formation of the 37-residue amylin is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and, potentially, diabetes-induced neurological deficits. Numerous flavonoids exhibit inhibitory effects against amylin amyloidosis, but the mechanisms of inhibition remain unclear. Screening a library of natural compounds uncovered a potent lead compound, the flavone baicalein. Baicalein inhibits amylin amyloid formation and reduces amylin-induced cytotoxicity. Analogue analyses demonstrated, for the first time, key roles of the vicinal hydroxyl groups on the A-ring. We provided mass spectrometric evidence that incubating baicalein and amylin leads to their conjugation, consistent with a Schiff base mechanism.

  17. Carotenoid derivatives inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activity in bone and cancer cells by targeting key thiol groups.

    PubMed

    Linnewiel-Hermoni, Karin; Motro, Yair; Miller, Yifat; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) transcription system contributes to cancer progression, and has a harmful effect on bone health. Several major components of the NFkB pathway such as IkB Kinase (IKK) and the NFkB subunits contain cysteine residues that are critical for their activity. The interaction of electrophiles with these cysteine residues results in NFkB inhibition. Carotenoids, hydrophobic plant pigments, are devoid of electrophilic groups, and we have previously demonstrated that carotenoid derivatives, but not the native compounds activate the Nrf2 transcription system. The aim of the current study was to examine whether carotenoid derivatives inhibit NFkB, and, if so, to determine the molecular mechanism underpinning the inhibitory action. We report in the present study that a mixture of oxidized derivatives, prepared by ethanol extraction from partially oxidized lycopene preparation, inhibited NFkB reporter gene activity. In contrast, the intact carotenoid was inactive. A series of synthetic dialdehyde carotenoid derivatives inhibited reporter activity as well as several stages of the NFkB pathway in both cancer and bone cells. The activity of the carotenoid derivatives depended on the reactivity of the electrophilic groups in reactions such as Michael addition to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Specifically, carotenoid derivatives directly interacted with two key proteins of the NFkB pathway: the IKKβ and the p65 subunit. Direct interaction with IKKβ was found in an in vitro kinase assay with a recombinant enzyme. The inhibition by carotenoid derivatives of p65 transcriptional activity was observed in a reporter gene assay performed in the presence of excess p65. This inhibition action resulted, at least in part, from direct interaction of the carotenoid derivative with p65 leading to reduced binding of the protein to DNA as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) experiments. Importantly, we found by using

  18. Distribution of pathogenicity island (PAI) markers and phylogenetic groups in diarrheagenic and commensal Escherichia coli from young children

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Ghazal; Haghi, Fakhri; Zeighami, Habib; Hemati, Fatemeh; Masoumian, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This case–control study investigated the various PAI markers, phylogenetic groups and antimicrobial susceptibility among DEC and commensal E. coli isolates. Background: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an emerging agent among pathogens that cause diarrheal diseases and represents a major public health problem in developing countries. The major difference in virulence among DEC pathotype and commensals may be related to the presence of specific genomic segments, termed pathogenicity islands (PAIs). Patients and methods: A total of 600 stool specimens from children (450 with and 150 without diarrhea) were collected and various PAI markers, phylogenetic groups and antimicrobial resistance profile among DEC and commensal E. coli isolates were detected. Results: One hundred sixty eight (90.3%) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. PAI markers were detected in a substantial percentage of commensal (90%) and DEC isolates (99.3%) (P> 0.05). The most prevalent PAI marker among DEC and commensal isolates was HPI (91.9% DEC vs. 68% commensal). We found a high number of PAI markers such as SHI-2, She and LEE that were significantly associated with DEC. Several different combinations of PAIs were found among DEC isolates. Comparison of PAIs among DEC and commensal isolates showed that many DEC isolates (94.8%) carried two or more PAI markers, while 76% of commensals had only one PAI marker (P<0.05). According to the phylogenetic classification, group B2 was the most commonly found in the DEC isolates. Furthermore, our results showed that group B2 can be present in commensal isolates (18%). Conclusion: These results indicate that PAI markers are widespread among commensal and DEC isolates and these commensal isolates may be reservoirs for transmission of these markers. PMID:27895858

  19. A preliminary assessment of the Nactus pelagicus species group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in New Guinea and a new species from the Admiralty Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zug, George R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    The Slender-toed Geckos (Nactus) currently have four recognized species in New Guinea, and these species divide into two sister clades: a pelagicus clade and a vankampeni clade (Heinicke et al. 2010). The latter contains three dwarf species. The former consists of five bisexual populations, of which numerous New Guinea populations are uncharacterized nomenclaturally and lumped under the epithet ‘pelagicus.’ This report and description of a new species of the pelagicus group from Manus Island in the Admiralty Islands encourages us to offer a preliminary assessment of morphology and diversity in New Guinea ‘pelagicus’ populations.

  20. Using community readiness key informant assessments in a randomized group prevention trial: impact of a participatory community-media intervention.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Edwards, Ruth W; Plested, Barbara A; Thurman, Pamela J; Kelly, Kathleen J; Comello, Maria Leonora G; Keefe, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    This study examines the role of key informant community readiness assessments in a randomized group trial testing the impact of a participatory community-media intervention (which was also complemented by in-school efforts). These assessments were used to help match communities in random assignment, as a source of formative data about the community, as the basis for a coalition-building workshop, and as an evaluation tool, with a follow-up set of surveys approximately 2 years after the baseline survey. Results of the nested, random effects analysis indicated that the intervention influenced community knowledge of efforts and (at marginally significant levels) improved prevention leadership quality and community climate supportive of prevention efforts. There was evidence that the professional affiliation of informants in some cases had an effect on their assessments, which could be controlled in the analysis. The authors conclude that key informant community readiness assessments can usefully serve to supplement aggregated measures of individual attitudes and behavior (reported elsewhere for this study) in evaluating community-based interventions.

  1. Experimental Swap of Anopheles gambiae's Assortative Mating Preferences Demonstrates Key Role of X-Chromosome Divergence Island in Incipient Sympatric Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Alhafez, Nahla; Weedall, Gareth D.; Brothwood, Jessica; Kandola, Sharanjit; Paton, Doug; Fofana, Abrahamane; Olohan, Lisa; Betancourth, Mauro Pazmiño; Ekechukwu, Nkiru E.; Baeshen, Rowida; Traorè, Sékou F.; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Although many theoretical models of sympatric speciation propose that genes responsible for assortative mating amongst incipient species should be associated with genomic regions protected from recombination, there are few data to support this theory. The malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is known for its sympatric cryptic species maintained by pre-mating reproductive isolation and its putative genomic islands of speciation, and is therefore an ideal model system for studying the genomic signature associated with incipient sympatric speciation. Here we selectively introgressed the island of divergence located in the pericentric region of the X chromosome of An. gambiae s.s. into its sister taxon An. coluzzii through 5 generations of backcrossing followed by two generations of crosses within the introgressed strains that resulted in An. coluzzii-like recombinant strains fixed for the M and S marker in the X chromosome island. The mating preference of recombinant strains was then tested by giving virgin recombinant individuals a choice of mates with X-islands matching and non-matching their own island type. We show through genetic analyses of transferred sperm that recombinant females consistently mated with matching island-type males thereby associating assortative mating genes with the X-island of divergence. Furthermore, full-genome sequencing confirmed that protein-coding differences between recombinant strains were limited to the experimentally swapped pericentromeric region. Finally, targeted-genome comparisons showed that a number of these unique differences were conserved in sympatric field populations, thereby revealing candidate speciation genes. The functional demonstration of a close association between speciation genes and the X-island of differentiation lends unprecedented support to island-of-speciation models of sympatric speciation facilitated by pericentric recombination suppression. PMID:25880677

  2. Experimental swap of Anopheles gambiae's assortative mating preferences demonstrates key role of X-chromosome divergence island in incipient sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Alhafez, Nahla; Weedall, Gareth D; Brothwood, Jessica; Kandola, Sharanjit; Paton, Doug; Fofana, Abrahamane; Olohan, Lisa; Betancourth, Mauro Pazmiño; Ekechukwu, Nkiru E; Baeshen, Rowida; Traorè, Sékou F; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Although many theoretical models of sympatric speciation propose that genes responsible for assortative mating amongst incipient species should be associated with genomic regions protected from recombination, there are few data to support this theory. The malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is known for its sympatric cryptic species maintained by pre-mating reproductive isolation and its putative genomic islands of speciation, and is therefore an ideal model system for studying the genomic signature associated with incipient sympatric speciation. Here we selectively introgressed the island of divergence located in the pericentric region of the X chromosome of An. gambiae s.s. into its sister taxon An. coluzzii through 5 generations of backcrossing followed by two generations of crosses within the introgressed strains that resulted in An. coluzzii-like recombinant strains fixed for the M and S marker in the X chromosome island. The mating preference of recombinant strains was then tested by giving virgin recombinant individuals a choice of mates with X-islands matching and non-matching their own island type. We show through genetic analyses of transferred sperm that recombinant females consistently mated with matching island-type males thereby associating assortative mating genes with the X-island of divergence. Furthermore, full-genome sequencing confirmed that protein-coding differences between recombinant strains were limited to the experimentally swapped pericentromeric region. Finally, targeted-genome comparisons showed that a number of these unique differences were conserved in sympatric field populations, thereby revealing candidate speciation genes. The functional demonstration of a close association between speciation genes and the X-island of differentiation lends unprecedented support to island-of-speciation models of sympatric speciation facilitated by pericentric recombination suppression.

  3. Description of 23 new species of the Exocelina ekari-group from New Guinea, with a key to all representatives of the species group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdo, Helena; Sagata, Katayo; Panjaitan, Rawati; Menufandu, Herlina; Balke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Twenty three new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are described herein: Exocelina bewaniensis sp. n., Exocelina bismarckensis sp. n., Exocelina craterensis sp. n., Exocelina gorokaensis sp. n., Exocelina herowana sp. n., Exocelina jimiensis sp. n., Exocelina kisli sp. n., Exocelina ksionseki sp. n., Exocelina lembena sp. n., Exocelina mantembu sp. n., Exocelina michaelensis sp. n., Exocelina pinocchio sp. n., Exocelina pseudoastrophallus sp. n., Exocelina pseudobifida sp. n., Exocelina pseudoedeltraudae sp. n., Exocelina pseudoeme sp. n., Exocelina sandaunensis sp. n., Exocelina simbaiarea sp. n., Exocelina skalei sp. n., Exocelina tabubilensis sp. n., Exocelina tariensis sp. n., Exocelina vovai sp. n., and Exocelina wannangensis sp. n. All of them have been found to belong to the Exocelina ekari-group. An identification key to all known species of the group is provided, and important diagnostic characters (habitus, color, male antennae, protarsomeres 4–5, median lobes, and parameres) are illustrated. Data on the distribution of the new species and some already described species are given. PMID:25610341

  4. Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n., a new species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from China, with a key to the Chinese members of the group

    PubMed Central

    Staab, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aenictus is the most species-rich genus of army ants in the subfamily Dorylinae and one of the most species rich ant genera in China and the world. In this paper, a new species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group, Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n., is described and illustrated based on the worker caste. The new species occurs in the subtropical forests of south-east China and is morphologically most similar to Aenictus henanensis Li & Wang, 2005 and Aenictus wudangshanensis Wang, 2006. Aenictus hoelldobleri sp. n. can be distinguished from both species by the shape of the subpetiolar process. The new species also resembles Aenictus lifuiae Terayama 1984 and Aenictus thailandianus Terayama & Kubota, 1993 but clearly differs in various features of the cuticular sculpture. A key to the Chinese species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group based on the worker caste is provided, which may help to reassess and clarify the taxonomic status of the abundant Chinese records of the true Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866), a species which almost certainly does not occur in China. Several new locality records are given, among them the first record of Aenictus watanasiti Jaitrong & Yamane, 2013 from China. PMID:26310780

  5. An analysis of two island groups as potential sites for trials of transgenic mosquitoes for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Clare D; Cornel, Anthony; Lee, Yoosook; Sanford, Michelle R; Norris, Laura C; Goodell, Parker B; Nieman, Catelyn C; Han, Sarah; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Denis, Joao; Ouledi, Ahmed; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2013-06-01

    Considerable technological advances have been made towards the generation of genetically modified mosquitoes for vector control. In contrast, less progress has been made towards field evaluations of transformed mosquitoes which are critical for evaluating the success of, and hazards associated with, genetic modification. Oceanic islands have been highlighted as potentially the best locations for such trials. However, population genetic studies are necessary to verify isolation. Here, we used a panel of genetic markers to assess for evidence of genetic isolation of two oceanic island populations of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. We found no evidence of isolation between the Bijagós archipelago and mainland Guinea-Bissau, despite separation by distances beyond the known dispersal capabilities of this taxon. Conversely, the Comoros Islands appear to be genetically isolated from the East African mainland, and thus represent a location worthy of further investigation for field trials. Based on assessments of gene flow within and between the Comoros islands, the island of Grande Comore was found to be genetically isolated from adjacent islands and also exhibited local population structure, indicating that it may be the most suitable site for trials with existing genetic modification technologies.

  6. Identification of key functional groups of microbes in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the NE equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Cho, H.; Kim, K.; Ju, S.; Hyun, J.

    2012-12-01

    In order to explicate high secondary production of heterotrophic prokaryotes (hereafter bacteria; 2.35mgCm-3d-1 in subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM; 44m in depth), 1.73mgCm-3d-1 in OMZ core (700m in depth)) and to gauge dominated microbial groups in the oxygen minimum layer, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene in the NE equatorial Pacific. A total of 290 bacterial clones and 261 archaeal clones were sequenced and used to compare microbial diversity between SCM layer and OMZ in July, 2010. Major groups of bacteria in the SCM layer (171.68μmol O2) were Cyanobacteria (28.1%), α-proteobacteria (25.0%) and Bacterioidetes (6.3%). OMZ core (12.05μmol O2) was dominated by α-proteobacteria (40.2%), δ-proteobacteria (19.6%), and γ-proteobacteria (12.4%) in order. The deeper layer of the OMZ (800m in depth, 19.20μmol O2) had the largest number of γ-proteobacteria (24.7%), followed by δ-proteobacteria (20.6%), and α-proteobacteria (18.6%). In case of archaea, euryarchaeal Marine Group-Π (MG-Π) were dominated in the SCM layer (95.2%). On the other hand, in the OMZ core and the deeper layer of the OMZ, Crenarchaea (MG- Ι) were most abundant (69.4% of 700m, 71.8% of 800m) and MG-Π was the second (21.2% of 700m, 21.1% of 800m). In summary, bacterial clone libraries were dominated by α-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria and archaeal clone libraries were dominated by MG- Ι in the OMZ. It is generally known that Microbes involved in anaerobic processes are among those groups. Comparative phylogenic analysis of microbial communities have the potential to provide more detail information on diversity and identify key functional groups of bacteria in the OMZ.

  7. Short-Term Exposure of Paddy Soil Microbial Communities to Salt Stress Triggers Different Transcriptional Responses of Key Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jingjing; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Liesack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    . Most strikingly, the transcriptional activity of the Methanocellaceae was completely suppressed already at 300 mM NaCl. Apparently, the key taxonomic groups involved in the methanogenic breakdown of plant polymers significantly differ in their ability to cope with severe salt stress. Presumably, this different ability is directly linked to differences in their genetic potential and metabolic flexibility to reassign available energy resources for cellular adaptation to salt stress. PMID:28400748

  8. Short-Term Exposure of Paddy Soil Microbial Communities to Salt Stress Triggers Different Transcriptional Responses of Key Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jingjing; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Liesack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    strikingly, the transcriptional activity of the Methanocellaceae was completely suppressed already at 300 mM NaCl. Apparently, the key taxonomic groups involved in the methanogenic breakdown of plant polymers significantly differ in their ability to cope with severe salt stress. Presumably, this different ability is directly linked to differences in their genetic potential and metabolic flexibility to reassign available energy resources for cellular adaptation to salt stress.

  9. Trend in coral-algal phase shift in the Mandapam group of islands, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machendiranathan, M.; Senthilnathan, L.; Ranith, R.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Choudhry, S. B.; Sasamal, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The present study revealed proliferation of macro-algae modifying coral reef ecosystems in a different manner due to diseases and sedimentations in the Mandapam group of islands in the Gulf of Mannar. Benthic surveys were conducted with major attack of seven coral reefs diseases with high sedimentation rate, nine species of fleshy macro-algae ( Turbinaria ornata, Turbinaria conaides, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Caulerpa racemosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Padina gymnosphora, Sargassum wightii, Ulva reticulata and Calurpa lentillifera) proliferation against major corals life forms (Acropora branching, Acropora digitate, Acropora tabulate, coral massive, coral submassive, coral foliose and coral encrusting). The results confirm that diseased corals most favor to macro-algae growth (15.27%) rather than the sedimentation covered corals (8.24 %). In the degradation of coral life forms, massive corals were more highly damaged (7.05%) than any other forms. Within a short period of time (May to September), coral coverage shrank to 17.4% from 21.9%, macro-algae increased 23.51% and the average sedimentation rate attained 77.52 mg cm-2d-1 with persisting coral reef diseases of 17.59%. The Pearson correlation showed that the coral cover decreased with increasing macro-algae growth, which was statistically significant ( r = -0.774, n = 100, P < 0.0005). The proliferation of the various macro-algae C. scalpellifrmis, T. ornata, C. racemosa, T. conaides, U. reticulata, S. wightii, K. alvarezii, P. gymnosphora and C. lentillifera increased with percentages of 6.0, 5.8, 5.7, 4.9, 4.2, 3.7, 2.7 and 1.9, respectively. If this trend continues, the next generation of new recruit corals will undoubtedly lead to a phase shift in Gulf of Mannar corals.

  10. Promoter CpG Island Methylation of Genes in Key Cancer Pathways Associates with Clinical Outcome in High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Masrour, Nahal; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Paul, James; Brown, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to identify DNA methylation biomarkers of progression free survival (PFS) to platinum-based chemotherapy in high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) within biologically relevant ovarian cancer associated pathways. Experimental Design Association with PFS of CpG island (CGI) promoter DNA methylation at genes in the pathways Akt/mTOR, p53, redox and homologous recombination DNA repair was sought with PFS as the primary objective in a prospectively collected ovarian cancer cohort (n=150). Significant loci were validated for associations between PFS, methylation and gene expression in an independent TCGA data set of HGSOC (n=311). Results DNA methylation at 29 CGI loci linked to 28 genes was significantly associated with PFS, independent from conventional clinical prognostic factors (adjusted p<0.05). Of 17 out of the 28 genes represented in the TCGA data set, methylation of VEGFB, VEGFA, HDAC11, FANCA, E2F1, GPX4, PRDX2, RAD54L and RECQL4 was prognostic in this independent patient cohort (one-sided p<0.05, FDR<10%). A multivariate Cox model was constructed, with clinical parameters (age, stage, grade and histological type) and significant loci. The final model included NKD1, VEGFB and PRDX2 as the three best predictors of PFS (p=6.62x10-6, permutation test p<0.05). Focussing only on known VEGFs in the TCGA cohort showed that methylation at promoters of VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC was significantly associated with PFS. Conclusions A three loci model of DNA methylation could identify two distinct prognostic groups of ovarian cancer patients (PFS: HR=2.29, p=3.34×10-5; Overall Survival: HR= 1.87, p=0.007) and patients more likely to have poor response to chemotherapy (OR=3.45, p=0.012). PMID:23965899

  11. The description of the female of Platycheirus troll Mutin (Diptera, Syrphidae) with a preliminary key to the Northern Palaearctic females of the Platycheirus clypeatus group.

    PubMed

    Haarto, Antti

    2015-08-17

    The female of Platycheirus troll Mutin is described. A preliminary key to the females of the Northern Palaearctic species of the Platycheirus clypeatus group is presented. The possibility to identify the undescribed female of Platycheirus magadanensis Mutin is discussed.

  12. Monitoring the exchanges of water, solids, and solutes between channels and islands of Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana: Key to defining the resiliency of this coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrig, D. C.; Hiatt, M. R.; Piliouras, A.; Shaw, J. B.; Wagner, R. W.; Passalacqua, P.; Kim, W.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas are typically treated as binary systems composed of a channel network and the land separating adjacent channels. Field studies of these systems have tended to focus on collecting data either from the channels or from the land, and by doing so have missed a central characteristic of deltas, the connectedness between the land and channels. We propose that the resiliency of any delta can only be accurately assessed if the naturally occurring exchanges of fluid, solids and solutes between the channels and islands (neighboring land) are understood. These exchanges control the growth of land via the deposition of sediment and accumulation of plant biomass, and also affect delta ecology by mediating water temperature and solute concentrations. The deposition of sediment and organic material in turn influences future growth and pattern development for the deltaic channel network. Exchanges between channelized flow in the delta network and the more distributed flow over submerged island tops is currently being monitored and studied at an NSF-funded observatory under development at Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana. Characterization of flow in distributary channels and on island tops reveals that a considerable fraction of water originally travelling in the large channels is transferred onto island tops either through focused entry points (tie channels) or via distributed flow through island-bounding levees. These volume transfer fractions range between 10 and 60 percent, and are sensitive to location within the delta, as well as river discharge, tides, and winds. Island tops develop tributary-like networks through which the fluid, solids, and solutes drain back into adjacent channels or drain out of the system at the front of the delta, in between the mouths of primary distributary channels. Characteristic fluid velocities vary over roughly two orders of magnitude (centimeter- to meter-per-second) depending on whether a fluid parcel is located in shallow laterally unconfined

  13. Methyl-CpG-binding protein MBD2 plays a key role in maintenance and spread of DNA methylation at CpG islands and shores in cancer.

    PubMed

    Stirzaker, C; Song, J Z; Ng, W; Du, Q; Armstrong, N J; Locke, W J; Statham, A L; French, H; Pidsley, R; Valdes-Mora, F; Zotenko, E; Clark, S J

    2017-03-01

    Cancer is characterised by DNA hypermethylation and gene silencing of CpG island-associated promoters, including tumour-suppressor genes. The methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family of proteins bind to methylated DNA and can aid in the mediation of gene silencing through interaction with histone deacetylases and histone methyltransferases. However, the mechanisms responsible for eliciting CpG island hypermethylation in cancer, and the potential role that MBD proteins play in modulation of the methylome remain unclear. Our previous work demonstrated that MBD2 preferentially binds to the hypermethylated GSTP1 promoter CpG island in prostate cancer cells. Here, we use functional genetic approaches to investigate if MBD2 plays an active role in reshaping the DNA methylation landscape at this locus and genome-wide. First, we show that loss of MBD2 results in inhibition of both maintenance and spread of de novo methylation of a transfected construct containing the GSTP1 promoter CpG island in prostate cancer cells and Mbd2-/- mouse fibroblasts. De novo methylation was rescued by transient expression of Mbd2 in Mbd2-/- cells. Second, we show that MBD2 depletion triggers significant hypomethylation genome-wide in prostate cancer cells with concomitant loss of MBD2 binding at promoter and enhancer regulatory regions. Finally, CpG islands and shores that become hypomethylated after MBD2 depletion in LNCaP cancer cells show significant hypermethylation in clinical prostate cancer samples, highlighting a potential active role of MBD2 in promoting cancer-specific hypermethylation. Importantly, co-immunoprecipiation of MBD2 shows that MBD2 associates with DNA methyltransferase enzymes 1 and 3A. Together our results demonstrate that MBD2 has a critical role in 'rewriting' the cancer methylome at specific regulatory regions.

  14. A new species of Oozetetes De Santis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae) from Colombia with an updated key for the bucheri species-group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Benavides, A Lucia; Serna, Francisco; Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-02-26

    Oozetetes lucidus sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is described from Colombia, South America, and through macrophotography compared with all described species in the bucheri species-group of Oozetetes De Santis. An illustrated key modified from Gibson (2004) is provided to distinguish females of the six described species of this group.

  15. H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype).

    PubMed

    Le Pendu, J; Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Juszczak, G; Liberge, G; Rouger, P; Salmon, C; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R

    1983-05-01

    Two variants of recessive, H-deficient nonsecretor individuals (h/h, se/se) were identified on Reunion Island: (1) H-negative individuals corresponding to the classical Bombay phenotypes (OhO, OhA, OhB, OhAB) who lack completely the H antigen on their red cells; all of them were Indian and had strong anti-H antibodies reacting with normal O and Oh red cells from whites; and (2) H-weak individuals (Oh, Ah, Bh, ABh). This phenotype represented the majority (85%) of the H-deficient phenotypes on Reunion Island, and all of them were white. They had only a weak expression of the H antigen and showed small but detectable amounts of ABH antigens on their red cells. Their anti-H antibodies reacted with normal O erythrocytes, but failed to react with Oh red cells, regardless of the ethnic origin of the donor. They were all from the same geographical area on the Island (Cilaos) and showed homogeneous titers of anti-H antibodies in sera. We propose to call this particular variant of weak H phenotype, belonging to the so-called para-Bombay series, Reunion.

  16. H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype).

    PubMed Central

    Le Pendu, J; Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Juszczak, G; Liberge, G; Rouger, P; Salmon, C; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R

    1983-01-01

    Two variants of recessive, H-deficient nonsecretor individuals (h/h, se/se) were identified on Reunion Island: (1) H-negative individuals corresponding to the classical Bombay phenotypes (OhO, OhA, OhB, OhAB) who lack completely the H antigen on their red cells; all of them were Indian and had strong anti-H antibodies reacting with normal O and Oh red cells from whites; and (2) H-weak individuals (Oh, Ah, Bh, ABh). This phenotype represented the majority (85%) of the H-deficient phenotypes on Reunion Island, and all of them were white. They had only a weak expression of the H antigen and showed small but detectable amounts of ABH antigens on their red cells. Their anti-H antibodies reacted with normal O erythrocytes, but failed to react with Oh red cells, regardless of the ethnic origin of the donor. They were all from the same geographical area on the Island (Cilaos) and showed homogeneous titers of anti-H antibodies in sera. We propose to call this particular variant of weak H phenotype, belonging to the so-called para-Bombay series, Reunion. PMID:6859043

  17. ‘Choice, culture and confidence’: key findings from the 2012 having a baby in Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care. PMID:24884930

  18. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  19. Transient Rapid Changes in Nutrient Cycling at the Onset of Terrestrial Colonization by Rooted Plants in the Devonian Caithness Flagstone Group, Orkney Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippelli, G. M.; Beshears, M.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Devonian Period witnessed the colonization of vascular plants, resulting in the first well-drained forests with penetrative roots, accelerating silicate weathering and organic carbon burial, thereby affecting ocean biogeochemistry. This study addresses the transition in soil development drivers by examining the signature of key biologically active elements. Results from lacustrine sedimentary sequences from the Orcadian basin of Northern Scotland and the Orkney Islands suggest strong and transient variations in weathering and soil development during this interval. The research premise is that the lacustrine sequence will reflect weathering and local dissolved geochemical inputs from upland landscapes; these dissolved signals would then in part be captured by authigenic processes and be captured as the net geochemical export from upland weathering processes. Thirty samples from a stratigraphic sequence collected from the Caithness Flagstone Group were crushed, completely dissolved using microwave-assisted strong acid digestion, and analyzed by ICP-AES for Al, Ti, Ca, Fe, Mg, and P. Strong variations were observed in the biogeochemistry of P during this interval. The P/Ca ratio remained unvaried, indicating similar fates during the weathering transition, consistent with the common origin of these elements in apatite. But the P/Ti and P/Mg ratios reveal a sharp spike coincident with the rootedness development interval, with relatively low values before and after this interval. This spike is coincident with a minimum in the Fe/Ti ratio. In a model of plant colonization, a transient change in landscape geochemistry is expected, with an initial pulse of released P followed by a decrease as soil maturity leads to preferential P retention (i.e., closing up the P loophole; Fig. 1). In contrast, Fe is expected to display the inverse pattern, with increased retention (lower export to the basin) due to accumulation of iron oxyhydroxides in B horizons. The net impact of

  20. A distinct group of CpG islands shows differential DNA methylation between replicas of the same cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, Sergio; Scala, Giovanni; Miele, Gennaro; Castaldo, Imma; Monticelli, Antonella

    2013-10-10

    CpG dinucleotide-rich genomic DNA regions, known as CpG islands (CGIs), can be methylated at their cytosine residues as an epigenetic mark that is stably inherited during cell mitosis. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are genomic regions showing different degrees of DNA methylation in multiple samples. In this study, we focused our attention on CGIs showing different DNA methylation between two culture replicas of the same cell line. We used methylation data of 35 cell lines from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium to identify CpG islands that were differentially methylated between replicas of the same cell line and denoted them Inter Replicas Differentially Methylated CpG islands (IRDM-CGIs). We identified a group of IRDM-CGIs that was consistently shared by different cell lines, and denoted it common IRDM-CGIs. X chromosome CGIs were overrepresented among common IRDM-CGIs. Autosomal IRDM-CGIs were preferentially located in gene bodies and intergenic regions had a lower G + C content, a smaller mean length, and a reduced CpG percentage. Functional analysis of the genes associated with autosomal IRDM-CGIs showed that many of them are involved in DNA binding and development. Our results show that several specific functional and structural features characterize common IRDM-CGIs. They may represent a specific subset of CGIs that are more prone to being differentially methylated for their intrinsic characteristics.

  1. Analysis of bacterial diversity in sponges collected off Chujado, an Island in Korea, using barcoded 454 pyrosequencing: analysis of a distinctive sponge group containing Chloroflexi.

    PubMed

    Jeong, In-Hye; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Jin-Sook

    2013-10-01

    The bacterial diversity of 14 sponges belonging to 5 different orders that were collected around Chuja Island, Korea was investigated using barcoded 454 pyrosequencing. The sponges contained many unidentified bacterial groups (e.g. more than half of the taxa at the family level) that were known only in environmental sequences and obtained from culture-independent methods. Five of the sponges were clustered into one notable group (CF group), which was distinguished from the other sponges in accordance with bacterial composition (the other sponges may be separated into more groups but clustering is not clear). The CF group contained high amounts of Chloroflexi (25.0-47.7%) and moderate amounts of Gemmatimonadetes (2.3-7.0%), AncK6 (0.6-2.2%), PAUC34f (0.8-6.0%), Acidobacteria (3.7-9.6%), and SBR1093 (1.8-5.6%) exclusively or almost exclusively to this group. Sponges in the CF group also showed higher diversity (e.g. Shannon index) than the other sponges and contained group-specific taxonomic lineages (e.g. class or family level) from group-specific phyla and even from the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which were detected in all sponges at the phylum level. The CF group may be one of the most distinctive groups in sponges in terms of bacterial diversity.

  2. Isabela Island, Galapagos Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-732-072 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Three of the nineteen Galapagos Islands are visible in this image, photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The Galapagos Islands are located 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) to the west of Ecuador. The largest of the islands, Isabela, is at center (north is toward the upper right corner). The numerous circular features on the island, highlighted by clouds, are volcanoes. The Galapagos Islands owe their existence to a hot spot, or persistent heat source in the mantle, which also is located over a rift, or place where plates are separating and new crust is being created. The rift is located between the Cocos and Nazca Plates. The dark linear features on the islands are lava flows from past eruptions. The island to the left of Isabela is Fernandina, while the island to the right is San Salvador. The Galapagos Islands were visited by the English naturalist Charles Darwin in 1835.

  3. Electronic Nature of Ketone Directing Group as a Key To Control C-2 vs C-4 Alkenylation of Indoles.

    PubMed

    Lanke, Veeranjaneyulu; Bettadapur, Kiran R; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2016-11-04

    A novel mode of achieving site selectivity between C-2 and C-4 positions in the indole framework by altering the property of the ketone directing group is disclosed. Methyl ketone, as directing group, furnishes exclusively C-2 alkenylated product, whereas trifluoromethyl ketone changes the selectivity to C-4, indicating that the electronic nature of the directing group controls the unusual choice between a 5-membered and a 6-membered metallacycle. The screening of other carbonyl-derived directing groups reveals that strong and weak directing groups exhibit opposite selectivity. Experimental controls and deuteration experiments lend support to the proposed mechanism.

  4. Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As with most small island groups around the world, the Marquesas Island group 9.0S, 140.0W) is usually concealed by heavy cloud cover throughout the day making them very difficult to photograph in their entirety. Located in the south central Pacific Ocean, just north of the Tuamotu Archipelago, the islands partially seen in this view are: Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka and Ua Pu.

  5. The Impact of Group Teaching on the Acquisition of Key Skills to Teach Personal, Social and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Malcolm; Jones, Sian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report the impact of a partnership training intervention on trainee teachers' confidence to teach Personal, Social and Health Education. Design/methodology/approach: This intervention required trainee teachers to work in 15 groups of four across subject disciplines. Each group was required to negotiate, plan and deliver…

  6. Association of D16S515 microsatellite with specific language impairment on Robinson Crusoe Island, an isolated Chilean population: a possible key to understanding language development.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Pia; Jara, Lilian; Palomino, Hernan

    2010-08-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder that occurs for no known reason. The disorder affects 2-8% of children. Some scientific evidence suggests that genetic factors are implicated in the etiology of SLI. The disorder is genetically complex. Two novel loci, SLI1 on chromosome 16q24 (MIM 606711) and SLI2 on chromosome 19q13 (MIM 606712), have been found to be highly correlated with SLI. Four genes have been identified as susceptibility genes. SLI occurs at an unusually elevated incidence (35%) among the population of Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile), which also has a high consanguinity rate. This finding supports the influence of genetic mechanisms in the transmission of SLI based on a founder effect. To investigate further the genetic involvement in this population, we collected blood samples from 115 islanders from 13 families with a language-impaired proband and from 18 families with a normal-language proband. The analysis of micro satellite marker D16S515, located in locus SLI1, demonstrated that the 230-bp allele was correlated with SLI and that the 232-bp allele was correlated with normal language development. The domain containing the D16S515 marker, therefore, may play a role in language development.

  7. Does mortality vary between pacific groups in New Zealand? Estimating Samoan, Cook Island Maori, Tongan, and Niuean mortality rates using hierarchical Bayesian modelling.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Tony; Richardson, Ken; Young, Jim; Callister, Paul; Didham, Robert

    2009-12-11

    BACKGROUND Pacific mortality rates are traditionally presented for all Pacific people combined, yet there is likely heterogeneity between separate Pacific ethnic groups. We aimed to determine mortality rates for Samoan, Cook Island Māori, Tongan, and Niuean ethnic groups (living in New Zealand). METHODS We used New Zealand Census-Mortality Study (NZCMS) data for 2001-04, for 380,000 person years of follow-up of 0-74 year olds in the 2001-04 cohort for which there was complete data on sex, age, ethnicity (total counts), natality, and household income. Given sparse data, we used hierarchical Bayesian (HB) regression modelling, with: a prior covariate structure specified for sex, age, natality (New Zealand/Overseas born), and household income; and smoothing of rates using shrinkage. The posterior mortality rate estimates were then directly standardised.RESULTS Standardising for sex, age, income, and natality, all-cause mortality rate ratios compared to Samoan were: 1.21 (95% credibility interval 1.05 to 1.42) for Cook Island Māori; 0.93 (0.77 to 1.10) for Tongan; and 1.07 (0.88 to 1.29) for Niuean. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rate ratios showed greater heterogeneity: 1.66 (1.26 to 2.13) for Cook Island Māori; 1.11 (0.72 to 1.58) for Niuean; and 0.86 (0.58 to 1.20) for Tongan. Results were little different standardising for just sex and age. We conducted a range of sensitivity analyses about a plausible range of (differential) return migration by Pacific people when terminally ill, and a plausible range of census undercounting of Pacific people. Our findings, in particular the elevated CVD mortality among Cook Island Māori, appeared robust. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this project is the first time in New Zealand that clear (and marked in the case of CVD) differences in mortality have been demonstrated between different Pacific ethnic groups. Future health research and policy should, wherever possible and practicable, evaluate and incorporate

  8. Life-history traits maintain the genomic integrity of sympatric species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) group on an isolated forest island

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Lisa M; Sperling, Felix AH

    2011-01-01

    Identification of widespread species collected from islands can be challenging due to the potential for local ecological and phenotypic divergence in isolated populations. We sought to determine how many species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) complex reside in Cypress Hills, an isolated remnant coniferous forest in western Canada. We integrated data on behavior, ecology, morphology, mitochondrial DNA, and simple sequence repeats, comparing Cypress Hills populations to those from other regions of North America to determine which species they resembled most. We identified C. fumiferana, C. occidentalis, C. lambertiana, and hybrid forms in Cypress Hills. Adult flight phenology and pheromone attraction were identified as key life-history traits involved in maintaining the genomic integrity of species. Our study highlights the importance of extensive sampling of both specimens and a variety of characters for understanding species boundaries in biodiversity research. PMID:22393489

  9. Life-history traits maintain the genomic integrity of sympatric species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) group on an isolated forest island.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Lisa M; Sperling, Felix Ah

    2011-10-01

    Identification of widespread species collected from islands can be challenging due to the potential for local ecological and phenotypic divergence in isolated populations. We sought to determine how many species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) complex reside in Cypress Hills, an isolated remnant coniferous forest in western Canada. We integrated data on behavior, ecology, morphology, mitochondrial DNA, and simple sequence repeats, comparing Cypress Hills populations to those from other regions of North America to determine which species they resembled most. We identified C. fumiferana, C. occidentalis, C. lambertiana, and hybrid forms in Cypress Hills. Adult flight phenology and pheromone attraction were identified as key life-history traits involved in maintaining the genomic integrity of species. Our study highlights the importance of extensive sampling of both specimens and a variety of characters for understanding species boundaries in biodiversity research.

  10. The Tetramorium squaminode species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with a new record from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and keys to Arabian species

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Al Dhafer, Hathal M.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group are treated. Tetramorium squaminode Santschi, 1911 is recorded for the first time from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Keys to the two Arabian species of the Tetramorium squaminode-group, Tetramorium latinode Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 and Tetramorium squaminode, based on worker and queen castes, are given and a regional distribution map is provided. Notes on habitats of Tetramorium squaminode are presented. PMID:26019665

  11. Learning and Remembering with Others: The Key Role of Retrieval in Shaping Group Recall and Collective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Fox, Ethan B.

    2014-01-01

    People frequently collaborate to learn and remember information, and this may help groups create a shared representation of the world (i.e., collective memories). However, contrary to intuitions, collaboration also lowers group recall levels. Such impairment occurs regardless of whether people collaborate when first experiencing, or encoding, an event (the collaborative encoding deficit), or when retrieving, or remembering, the event (the collaborative inhibition effect). In understanding how collaboration impairs group recall and enhances collective or shared memories it remains unknown as to where collaboration exerts the greatest influence – at encoding or at retrieval – to shape these distinct phenomena. The current study simultaneously compared collaboration at these two stages and revealed the power of collaborative retrieval. Collaboration impaired the group recall product at both time points, but especially so at retrieval. Furthermore, only collaborative retrieval played a significant role in the formation of collective memories. PMID:25431516

  12. Review of the Polistes (Polistella) "Stenopolistes" species-group (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) from Vietnam, with description of a new species and key to species.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lien T P; Carpenter, James M

    2016-03-11

    The "Stenopolistes" species-group of the subgenus Polistella Ashmead, 1904 comprising in Vietnam by six species. Polistes adsimilis Nguyen & Carpenter sp. nov. is described and figured. Polistes khasianus Cameron, 1900 is confirmed to occur in Vietnam, P. pallidus Gusenleitner, 2011 is newly recorded from Vietnam. A key to Vietnamese species is provided. The nest of P. khasianus is described.

  13. The Tohoku Tsunami of 11 March 2011: The Key Event to Understanding Tsunami Sedimentation on the Coasts of Closed Bays of the Lesser Kuril Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Kharlamov, A. A.; Kaistrenko, V. M.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Chernov, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Tohoku tsunami of 11 March 2011 manifested in the region of the South Kuril Islands, although, as a rule, the run-up heights in this region did not exceed 3 m. In closed bays that were covered with ice before the tsunami, the eroding capacity of tsunami waves was aggravated by the ice fragments they carried. Here, mud sheets formed, reaching up to 106 m inland. The 2012 studies have shown well-preserved tsunami deposits, evident 1.5 years after the event. A comparative analysis of tsunami deposits from the periphery and from the near-field area close to the tsunami source was performed; this was important for understanding the deposition mechanism during the event, as it had different strengths on different shores. The difference in run-up heights determined the considerable differences in erosion, sedimentation, distribution of tsunami deposits, the formation of sedimentary structures, grain-size composition, and diatom and foraminifera assemblages. The sources of the material also varied significantly from each other: the material came from offshore in closed bays located in the tsunami source periphery, while in the near-field region close to the epicenter, the most active erosion occurred in the inundation area. In the latter area, the main sources of sand were beaches and dunes, while soil erosion was the source of mud. Studies of the Tohoku tsunami on the coasts of the Lesser Kuril Islands demonstrated that mud layers in the sections of coastal lowlands in closed bays could contain preserved detailed geological records of paleotsunamis, even those with a small-height run-up. In the sections of coastal peatlands of closed bays on Shikotan Island, up to 7-9 layers of mud and silty sands were found, these can easily be traced for more than 500 m inland. The grain-size composition of the mud is similar to the deposits of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. The marine origin of these deposits is confirmed by the diatom analysis data.

  14. Why pesticides could be a common cause of prostate and breast cancers in the French Caribbean Island, Martinique. An overview on key mechanisms of pesticide-induced cancer.

    PubMed

    Landau-Ossondo, M; Rabia, N; Jos-Pelage, J; Marquet, L M; Isidore, Y; Saint-Aimé, C; Martin, M; Irigaray, P; Belpomme, D

    2009-07-01

    Prostate and breast cancers have become very frequent in Martinique. We previously conducted a multifactorial analysis in the French Caribbean Island, Martinique, in order to elucidate the aetiology of prostate cancer. Using a linear regression analysis, we found that the growth curves of incidence rates for Martinique and metropolitan France have been significantly diverging since 1983. Although a Caribbean genetic susceptibility factor may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis: this factor, because it could not have changed during the observation period, cannot per se account for the growing incidence of this cancer in the island. We therefore suggested that among possible environmental factors, the intensive and prolonged exposure to Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and/or Reprotoxic (CMR) or presumed CMR pesticides may account for the observed growing incidence of prostate cancer and thus may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In this study, we further attempt to show that due to their carcinogenic properties, pesticides and especially organochlorine pesticides may in fact be causally implicated in the growing incidence of prostate cancer in Martinique. Also, we suggest that CMR or presumed CMR pesticides may be causally involved in the growing incidence of breast cancer through a common endocrine disruption mechanism. We therefore propose that protective medical recommendations should be immediately set up and carried out by general practitioners, paediatricians, obstetricians, gynaecologists and urologists; and that public health measures of primary precaution and prevention should be urgently taken in close collaboration with health professionals in order to protect population, more especially pregnant women and children, with the final objective perhaps that these medical recommendations and public health measures will stop Martinique's cancer epidemic.

  15. Physician executive promotes process for managing change. Building consensus for group plan is key to successful transitions.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, V M

    2001-01-01

    Thrust into a leadership position after years in solo practice demanded quick thinking for one physician executive. Faced with a need for change, he developed his own process for turning an individual's idea into a plan of action for an entire group. Learn the steps he took to build consensus and ease resistance to change.

  16. Enacting Key Skills-Based Curricula in Secondary Education: Lessons from a Technology-Mediated, Group-Based Learning Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Keith; Conneely, Claire; Murchan, Damian; Tangney, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Bridge21 is an innovative approach to learning for secondary education that was originally conceptualised as part of a social outreach intervention in the authors' third-level institution whereby participants attended workshops at a dedicated learning space on campus focusing on a particular model of technology-mediated group-based learning. This…

  17. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups. A Review of the Research Evidence: Summary of Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Straw, Suzanne; Jones, Megan; Springate, Iain; Lord, Pippa; Stoney, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the Local Government Association (LGA) commissioned the NFER to review the best evidence on what works in narrowing the gap in outcomes for vulnerable groups across the five Every Child Matters areas. The review aimed to underpin the Narrowing the Gap Programme, a major development programme being implemented by the LGA and the DCSF. …

  18. Enacting Key Skills-Based Curricula in Secondary Education: Lessons from a Technology-Mediated, Group-Based Learning Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Keith; Conneely, Claire; Murchan, Damian; Tangney, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Bridge21 is an innovative approach to learning for secondary education that was originally conceptualised as part of a social outreach intervention in the authors' third-level institution whereby participants attended workshops at a dedicated learning space on campus focusing on a particular model of technology-mediated group-based learning. This…

  19. Key Role of End-Capping Groups in Optoelectronic Properties of Poly-p-phenylene Cation Radicals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poly-p-phenylenes (PPs) are prototype systems for understanding the charge transport in π-conjugated polymers. In a combined computational and experimental study, we demonstrate that the smooth evolution of redox and optoelectronic properties of PP cation radicals toward the polymeric limit can be significantly altered by electron-donating iso-alkyl and iso-alkoxy end-capping groups. A multiparabolic model (MPM) developed and validated here rationalizes this unexpected effect by interplay of the two modes of hole stabilization: due to the framework of equivalent p-phenylene units and due to the electron-donating end-capping groups. A symmetric, bell-shaped hole in unsubstituted PPs becomes either slightly skewed and shifted toward an end of the molecule in iso-alkyl-capped PPs or highly deformed and concentrated on a terminal unit in PPs with strongly electron-donating iso-alkoxy capping groups. The MPM shows that the observed linear 1/n evolution of the PP cation radical properties toward the polymer limit originates from the hole stabilization due to the growing chain of p-phenylene units, while shifting of the hole toward electron-donating end-capping groups leads to early breakdown of these 1/n dependencies. These insights, along with the readily applicable and flexible multistate parabolic model, can guide studies of complex donor–spacer–acceptor systems and doped molecular wires to aid the design of the next generation materials for long-range charge transport and photovoltaic applications. PMID:25264475

  20. A new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, with keys to 11 species of the Simulium varicorne species-group.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2014-03-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) piroonae sp. nov. is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae collected in Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand. This new species is placed in the chumpornense subgroup of the varicorne species-group in the subgenus Gomphostilbia by having the antenna with eight flagellomeres, the pleural membrane bare, the female subcosta lacking hairs, and the pupal gill basally divided into two somewhat inflated branches. It is distinguished from all 10 known species of this group by the pupal gill with six filaments. Keys to identify 11 species of the varicorne species-group are provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.

  1. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Ryan A.; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P.

    2016-01-01

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called ‘small-island effect’ and an overall biphasic species–area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization–extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  2. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Group Key Management Integrated with Adaptive Intrusion Detection in Mobile ad hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    measure the lifetime of a GCS system under security attacks. We use the control message traffic generated for secure group communication as the...settings such that the system MTTSF is maximized while the total control message traffic incurred is minimized in the GCS. Fig. 1 shows the structure of...shall demonstrate that integratedmanagement yields higherMTTSF while producing lower control message traffic compared with separate deployment of

  4. Perceived discrimination in U.S. healthcare: Charting the effects of key social characteristics within and across racial groups.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Corey M; Hashemi, Manata; Sánchez-Jankowski, Martín

    2015-01-01

    This article employs an original empirical analysis to contribute to scientific understandings of the relationship between social characteristics and perceptions of discrimination in healthcare encounters within and across racial categories in the U.S. Our analysis focuses on a diverse sample of 43,020 adults aged 18 to 85 drawn from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). We use a series of weighted descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to parse out factors associated with perceived discrimination and chart how they vary by race and ethnicity. Members of racial minorities were more likely to report perceptions of discrimination, and while the effect was somewhat mitigated by introducing patient and health-care system factors into our models, the race effects remained both statistically significant and of substantial magnitude (particularly for African Americans and Native Americans). Poor self-reported health and communication difficulties in the clinical encounter were associated with increased perceptions of discrimination across all groups. Further, among non-whites, increased education was associated with increased perceptions of discrimination net of other factors. These findings suggest efforts to reduce disparities in medical care should continue to focus on expanding the depth and quality of patient-provider interactions for disadvantaged racial groups, while also being attentive to other factors that affect perceived racial discrimination in healthcare encounters within and across racial groups.

  5. Kerguelen Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Kerguelen Islands also known as the Desolation Islands, which are part of the French Southern and Antarctic lands. The islands are among the most isolated places on Earth.

  6. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Methods Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Each forum demonstrated stakeholders’ capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around ‘equity’ and ‘patient responsibility’, culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Conclusions Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical

  7. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  8. Spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of species richness and abundance of woody plant functional groups in a tropical forest landscape of Hainan Island, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Zang, Run-Guo; Qi, Yao-Dong

    2008-05-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-diverse ecosystems on Earth. Their structures and ecological functions are complex to understand. Functional group is defined as a group of species that play similar roles in an ecosystem. The functional group approach has been regarded as an effective way of linking the compositions of complex ecosystems with their ecological functions. To understand the variation of functional groups in species-rich ecosystems after disturbance, the present study investigated the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of woody plants in a typically fragmented natural forest landscape of Hainan Island in South China. The study area was classified into eight landscape types based on vegetation type, disturbance manner and the time of recovery. The woody plant species were aggregated into seven functional groups based on the growth form, successional status and plant size. The results gained from the present study showed that all functional groups, except for the emergent and canopy tree species, were present in all eight landscape types. Each landscape type had different numbers of dominant functional groups. There are similar species richness and stem abundance structure among functional groups between mid-successional clear cut lowland rainforest and old growth tropical coniferous forest. This similarity exists in selective logged lowland rainforest and old-growth lowland rainforest, as well as among landscape types of montane rainforest. The functional groups with the same successional status had similar patterns of species richness and stem abundance ratios among different landscape types. The variation patterns of functional groups along the successional stages in terms of species richness and stem abundance among the tropical lowland rainforest landscape types were more similar to each other than those in the tropical montane rainforest landscape types. This study provides further support for the competition-colonization tradeoff and

  9. Natural vegetation groups and canopy chemical markers in a dry subtropical forest on calcareous substrate: the vegetation of Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    E. Medina; E.H. Helmer; E. Melendez-Ackerman; H. Marcano-Vega

    2014-01-01

    Mona Island is the third largest island in the archipelago of Puerto Rico located about 70 km west of the main island. Presently it is a wilderness refuge that contains well-preserved arboreal and shrubby vegetation, and distinct cactus forests, covering the calcareous, elevated plateau. During a forest inventory conducted by the US Forest Service, we obtained leaves...

  10. Key issues in mentoring in HIV prevention and mental health for new investigators from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Andrew D; Stoff, David M

    2009-04-01

    We examine the challenges and barriers to quality mentoring for new investigators from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups and propose solutions for establishing a robust pipeline of early-career scientists who are well equipped to conduct research on disparities in HIV and mental health. In addition, we review contributions to this special supplement on mentoring and advocate a multilevel strategy that targets funding agencies, academic and research institutions, mentors, and mentees to enhance the diversity of the nation's scientific workforce and ensure that the public health system benefits from innovations derived from the optimal use of existing human capital.

  11. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  12. Barriers to Eating Traditional Foods Vary by Age Group in Ecuador With Biodiversity Loss as a Key Issue.

    PubMed

    Penafiel, Daniela; Termote, Celine; Lachat, Carl; Espinel, Ramon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Damme, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    To document the perceptions of indigenous peoples for the sustainable management of natural resources against malnutrition. Initially 4 and then 12 interviews were conducted with 4 different age groups. Eight rural villages in Guasaganda, central Ecuador, were studied in 2011-2012. A total of 75 people (22 children, 18 adolescents, 20 adults, and 15 elders). Benefits, severity, susceptibility, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy of eating traditional foods. Qualitative content analysis was completed using NVivo software. Initial analysis was inductive, followed by a content analysis directed by the Health Belief Model. Coding was completed independently by 2 researchers and kappa statistics (κ ≥ 0.65) were used to evaluate agreement. Healthy perceptions toward traditional foods existed and differed by age. Local young people ate traditional foods for their health benefits and good taste; adults cultivated traditional foods that had an economic benefit. Traditional knowledge used for consumption and cultivation of traditional foods was present but needs to be disseminated. Nutrition education in schools is needed that supports traditional knowledge in younger groups and prevents dietary changes toward unhealthy eating. Increased production of traditional food is needed to address current economic realities. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of socioeconomic lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphism on type 2 diabetes occurrences among Tunisian Arab and Berber groups of Djerba Island

    PubMed Central

    Ouederni, Thouraya Baroudi; Fadiel, Ahmed; Stambouli, Nejla; Scalize, Trudy J; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Abid, Hafaona Kammoun; Bouhaha, Rim; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Hamza, Adel; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by three major metabolic abnormalities: impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissues, alterations in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and increased hepatic glucose production. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its development. The insulin gene (INS), insulin receptor gene (INSR), and insulin receptor substrate 1 gene (IRS1), identified by polymerase chain reaction and digestion with selected restriction enzymes PstI, NsiI, and BstnI, have been proposed as T2DM candidate genes. To determine the contribution of genetic and environmental factors on the occurrence of T2DM, we examined the frequency of T2DM among two ethnically diverse populations, Arabs and Berbers, who have shared the same environment, the island of Djerba, for thousands of years. Both populations have a high prevalence of obesity,T2DM, and a high consanguinity rate. A total of 162 T2DM men and women were matched to 110 healthy male and female controls. Results showed that the NsiI polymorphism in INSR and BstnI polymorphism of IRS1 were significantly associated with T2DM only among the Berber group. The PstI polymorphism in INS, was not associated with T2DM in either group. Sedentary lifestyles, lower physical activity, and lower educational levels were associated with T2DM among the Berber group. These findings suggest that the insulin receptor gene and lifestyle factors in combination may contribute to the occurrence of T2DM in the Berber portion of this island population. PMID:23226034

  14. 1999–2001 Cancer Mortality Rates for Asian and Pacific Islander Ethnic Groups with Comparisons to Their 1988–1992 Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kenneth C.; Chu, Kristine T.

    2006-01-01

    We report upper and lower boundary estimates of the 1999–2001 site-specific cancer mortality rates for Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, Vietnamese, Native Hawaiians, and Samoans. These rates are for the seven states (California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Texas, and Washington) that officially record mortality data for these ethnicities. The rates are based on the 2000 Census, which reports two population counts as follows: persons who identify themselves as belonging to a single ethnic group (which forms the basis for an upper boundary estimate of the rates) and persons who identify themselves as belonging to a single ethnic group or to multiple groups that include the single ethnic group (which forms the basis for a lower boundary estimate for the rates). The top five cancers for each Asian and Pacific Islander ethnic group by gender are reported. In addition, the 1988–1992 cancer mortality rates based on the 1990 Census for Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, and Native Hawaiians are determined. Their 1999–2001 and 1988–1992 rates are compared. PMID:16270326

  15. Improved One-Way Hash Chain and Revocation Polynomial-Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Schemes in Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huifang; Xie, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and the revocation polynomial (RP), the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked. PMID:25529204

  16. Improved one-way hash chain and revocation polynomial-based self-healing group key distribution schemes in resource-constrained wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; Xie, Lei

    2014-12-18

    Self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) aims to deal with the key distribution problem over an unreliable wireless network. In this paper, we investigate the SGKD issue in resource-constrained wireless networks. We propose two improved SGKD schemes using the one-way hash chain (OHC) and the revocation polynomial (RP), the OHC&RP-SGKD schemes. In the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes, by introducing the unique session identifier and binding the joining time with the capability of recovering previous session keys, the problem of the collusion attack between revoked users and new joined users in existing hash chain-based SGKD schemes is resolved. Moreover, novel methods for utilizing the one-way hash chain and constructing the personal secret, the revocation polynomial and the key updating broadcast packet are presented. Hence, the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes eliminate the limitation of the maximum allowed number of revoked users on the maximum allowed number of sessions, increase the maximum allowed number of revoked/colluding users, and reduce the redundancy in the key updating broadcast packet. Performance analysis and simulation results show that the proposed OHC&RP-SGKD schemes are practical for resource-constrained wireless networks in bad environments, where a strong collusion attack resistance is required and many users could be revoked.

  17. Phenolic group on A-ring is key for dracoflavan B as a selective noncompetitive inhibitor of α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Toh, Zhi Siang; Wang, Hongyu; Yip, Yew Mun; Lu, Yuyun; Lim, Benedict Jeffrey Ang; Zhang, Daiwei; Huang, Dejian

    2015-12-15

    A high throughput assay was applied to guide the isolation of a new pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor, dracoflavan B, from the dragon's blood resin from Daemonorops draco. Applying C18 column, we successfully isolated both diastereomers and their structures verified by (1)H NMR spectra in comparison with the literature values. Their activity in inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase with comparable IC50 values of 23μM (A type) and 27μM (B type) that are similar to that of acarbose. Dracoflavan B shows much weaker activity in inhibiting bacterial α-amylase and no activity towards fungal α-amylase. Moreover, both isomers show no inhibitory activity towards mammalian α-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis revealed that using starch as the substrate, dracoflavan B was a non-competitive α-amylase inhibitor with a Ki value of 11.7μM. Lack of α-amylase inhibition for proanthocyanidin A2 dimer demonstrated that dracoflavan B hydrophobic nature of the B, A', C' and B' rings are important for its α-amylase inhibition. In addition, selective chemical modification studies revealed that the phenolic group is also vital to dracoflavan B for its pancreatic α-amylase inhibition activity. Without the A ring phenolic hydrogen bond donor, the derivatives of dracoflavan B showed detrimental α-amylase inhibition. On the contrary, galloylation on the A ring phenolic OH group enhanced the activity as shown by the low IC50 (12μM) against α-amylase which is 56% more potent as compared to dracoflavan B. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Key Role for the 12-Hydroxy Group in the Negative Ion Fragmentation of Unconjugated C24 Bile Acids.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ke; Su, Mingming; Xie, Guoxiang; Ferslew, Brian C; Brouwer, Kim L R; Rajani, Cynthia; Liu, Changxiao; Jia, Wei

    2016-07-19

    Host-gut microbial interactions contribute to human health and disease states and an important manifestation resulting from this cometabolism is a vast diversity of bile acids (BAs). There is increasing interest in using BAs as biomarkers to assess the health status of individuals and, therefore, an increased need for their accurate separation and identification. In this study, the negative ion fragmentation behaviors of C24 BAs were investigated by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The step-by-step fragmentation analysis revealed a distinct fragmentation mechanism for the unconjugated BAs containing a 12-hydroxyl group. The unconjugated BAs lacking 12-hydroxylation fragmented via dehydration and dehydrogenation. In contrast, the 12-hydroxylated ones, such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) and cholic acid (CA), employed dissociation routes including dehydration, loss of carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide, and dehydrogenation. All fragmentations of the 12-hydroxylated unconjugated BAs, characterized by means of stable isotope labeled standards, were associated with the rotation of the carboxylate side chain and the subsequent rearrangements accompanied by proton transfer between 12-hydroxyl and 24-carboxyl groups. Compared to DCA, CA underwent further cleavages of the steroid skeleton. Accordingly, the effects of stereochemistry on the fragmentation pattern of CA were investigated using its stereoisomers. Based on the knowledge gained from the fragmentation analysis, a novel BA, 3β,7β,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid, was identified in the postprandial urine samples of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The analyses used in this study may contribute to a better understanding of the chemical diversity of BAs and the molecular basis of human liver diseases that involve BA synthesis, transport, and metabolism.

  19. Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia, with keys to 21 species of the Simulium asakoae species-group.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, H; Sofian-Azirun, M; Ya'cob, Z; Hashim, R

    2014-02-14

    Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) brinchangense and S. (G.) tanahrataense, are described on the basis of reared adult females, males, pupae and larvae from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. These new species are assigned to the asakoae species-group within Simulium (Gomphostilbia) and taxonomic notes are given to distinguish each new species from six known species in Malaysia. Revised keys to identify all 21 species including 13 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The species diversity of the asakoae species-group in Cameron's Highlands is briefly noted.

  20. A new species of Rhagovelia Mayr, 1865 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Pará State, with an updated key to Brazilian species of the robusta group.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Oséias Martins; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Galvão, Cleber

    2016-09-29

    Rhagovelia brunae Magalhães & Moreira sp. nov., collected in the State of Pará, Brazil, is described, illustrated, and compared with congeners. The new species belongs to the robusta group and can be differentiated from others by the general color black, abdominal sternum VII with black denticles laterally, male hind trochanter with 1-4 subequal spines plus a longer spine, and male hind femur lacking a medium spine between the proximal and distal rows of spines. Additionally, an updated identification key to species of the robusta group occurring in Brazil is presented.

  1. Sex Differences in Asthma: A Key Role of Androgen-Signaling in Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Sophie; Blanquart, Eve; Guéry, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and also allergy differentially affect women and men. In general, women develop strongest immune responses and thus the proportion of infected individuals and the severity of many viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections are increased in men. However, heightened immunity in women makes them more susceptible than men to autoimmunity and allergy. While sex differences in immunity are well documented, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these immunological differences, particularly in allergic asthma. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways mediated by exacerbated type 2 immune responses. Sex differences have been reported in the incidence, prevalence, and severity of asthma. While during childhood, males are more susceptible to asthma than females, there is a switch at the onset of puberty as for many other allergic diseases. This decrease of asthma incidence around puberty in males suggests that hormonal mediators could play a protective role in the susceptibility to allergic responses in male. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have recently emerged as critical players in the initiation of allergic responses, but also in the resolution of parasitic infection, through their capacity to rapidly and potently produce type 2 cytokines. This review will cover the current understanding of the impact of sex-linked factors in allergic inflammation, with a particular focus on the role of sex hormones on the development and function of tissue-resident ILC2s.

  2. How will ocean acidification affect Baltic sea ecosystems? an assessment of plausible impacts on key functional groups.

    PubMed

    Havenhand, Jonathan N

    2012-09-01

    Increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean pH to fall-a process known as 'ocean acidification'. Scenario modeling suggests that ocean acidification in the Baltic Sea may cause a ≤ 3 times increase in acidity (reduction of 0.2-0.4 pH units) by the year 2100. The responses of most Baltic Sea organisms to ocean acidification are poorly understood. Available data suggest that most species and ecologically important groups in the Baltic Sea food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrozoobenthos, cod and sprat) will be robust to the expected changes in pH. These conclusions come from (mostly) single-species and single-factor studies. Determining the emergent effects of ocean acidification on the ecosystem from such studies is problematic, yet very few studies have used multiple stressors and/or multiple trophic levels. There is an urgent need for more data from Baltic Sea populations, particularly from environmentally diverse regions and from controlled mesocosm experiments. In the absence of such information it is difficult to envision the likely effects of future ocean acidification on Baltic Sea species and ecosystems.

  3. SET DOMAIN GROUP701 encodes a H3K4-methytransferase and regulates multiple key processes of rice plant development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kunpeng; Yu, Yu; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Chromatin-based epigenetic information plays an important role in developmental gene regulation, in response to environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Histone H3 lysine 4 di/trimethylation (H3K4me2/3) is abundant in euchromatin and is generally associated with transcriptional activation. Strikingly, however, enzymes catalyzing H3K4me2/3 remain poorly characterized in crops so far. Here, we investigated the function of the rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 701 (SDG701) gene by molecular and biochemical characterization of the gene product, and by studying effects of its loss or gain of function on plant growth and development. We demonstrated that SDG701 encodes a methytransferase specifically catalyzing H3K4 methylation. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that SDG701 is crucial for proper sporophytic plant development as well as for gametophytic transmission that directly impacts rice grain production. In-depth analysis of plant flowering time revealed that SDG701 promotes rice flowering under either long-day or short-day photoperiods. Consistently, the SDG701 protein was found to bind chromatin to promote H3K4me3 and to enhance expression of the rice Hd3a and RFT1 florigens. Collectively, our results establish SDG701 as a major rice H3K4-specific methyltransferase and provide important insights into function of H3K4me3 deposition in transcription activation of florigens in promoting plant flowering. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  5. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct "beads on a string" from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico.

  6. New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

    PubMed Central

    DiDomenico, Angela; Hedin, Marshal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific Sitalcina californica and Sitalcina lobata groups, and the Sitalcina sura group with eight described species. All species in the Sitalcina sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California and southeast to the sky-island mountain ranges of southern Arizona. Here, molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses were conducted for all described species in the Sitalcina sura group, plus several newly discovered populations. Species trees were reconstructed using multispecies coalescent methods implemented in *BEAST, and species delimitation was accomplished using Bayes Factor Delimitation (BFD). Based on quantitative species delimitation results supported by consideration of morphological characters, two new species (Sitalcina oasiensis sp. n., Sitalcina ubicki sp. n.) are described. We also provide a description of the previously unknown male of Sitalcina borregoensis Briggs, 1968. Molecular phylogenetic evidence strongly supports distinctive desert versus coastal clades, with desert canyon taxa from southern California more closely related to Arizona taxa than to geographically proximate California coastal taxa. We hypothesize that southern ancestry and plate tectonics have played a role in the diversification history of this animal lineage, similar to sclerophyllous plant taxa of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Molecular clock analyses for the Sitalcina sura group are generally consistent with these hypotheses. We also propose that additional Sitalcina species await discovery in the desert canyons of southern California and northern Baja, and the mountains of northwestern mainland Mexico. PMID:27199607

  7. Group structure and physical characteristics of Simakobu monkeys (Simias concolor) on the Mentawai Island of Siberut, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Susilo; Ziegler, Thomas; Hodges, J Keith

    2009-01-01

    We present data on group structure and physical characteristics from free-ranging Simias concolor. Mean group size (n = 3) was 8.7 +/- 1.1 individuals with an average adult male:female sex ratio of 1:3. All individuals were sexed and allocated into three categories (infants, juveniles plus subadults and adults) on the basis of their physical development. Within age categories, head-body lengths ranged from 19.6 to 25, 34 to 44 and 42 to 53 cm. Corresponding body weights ranged from 0.5 to 0.9, 2.35 to 4.4 and 5.2 to 7.85 kg, respectively; on average adult males were 13% larger and 23% heavier than adult females. Results indicate that for S. concolor living in undisturbed habitat (i) group sizes are larger than previously reported and (ii) polygyny is the most likely mating system. Both results support an earlier proposal that group size and social organization in Simakobu monkey are related to the degree of habitat disturbance.

  8. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity among Rural Adults in Montana, United States: Views from Built Environment Audits, Resident Focus Groups, and Key Informant Interviews.

    PubMed

    Lo, Brian K; Morgan, Emily H; Folta, Sara C; Graham, Meredith L; Paul, Lynn C; Nelson, Miriam E; Jew, Nicolette V; Moffat, Laurel F; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-10-04

    Rural populations in the United States have lower physical activity levels and are at a higher risk of being overweight and suffering from obesity than their urban counterparts. This paper aimed to understand the environmental factors that influence physical activity among rural adults in Montana. Eight built environment audits, 15 resident focus groups, and 24 key informant interviews were conducted between August and December 2014. Themes were triangulated and summarized into five categories of environmental factors: built, social, organizational, policy, and natural environments. Although the existence of active living features was documented by environmental audits, residents and key informants agreed that additional indoor recreation facilities and more well-maintained and conveniently located options were needed. Residents and key informants also agreed on the importance of age-specific, well-promoted, and structured physical activity programs, offered in socially supportive environments, as facilitators to physical activity. Key informants, however, noted that funding constraints and limited political will were barriers to developing these opportunities. Since building new recreational facilities and structures to support active transportation pose resource challenges, especially for rural communities, our results suggest that enhancing existing features, making small improvements, and involving stakeholders in the city planning process would be more fruitful to build momentum towards larger changes.

  9. Interconnecting Gold Islands with DNA Origami Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Baoquan; Wu, Hao; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Zhao; Liu, Yan; Yu, Hongbin; Yan, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolded DNA origami has recently emerged as a versatile, programmable method to fold DNA into arbitrarily shaped nanostructures that are spatially addressable, with sub-10 nm resolution. Toward functional DNA nanotechnology, one of the key challenges is to integrate the bottom up self-assembly of DNA origami with the top-down lithographic methods used to generate surface patterning. In this report we demonstrate that fixed length DNA origami nanotubes, modified with multiple thiol groups near both ends, can be used to connect surface patterned gold islands (tens of nanometers in diameter) fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL). Atomic force microscopic imaging verified that the DNA origami nanotubes can be efficiently aligned between gold islands with various inter-island distances and relative locations. This development represents progress toward the goal of bridging bottom up and top down assembly approaches. PMID:21070012

  10. High genetic diversity in the offshore island populations of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chunyan; Zheng, Chunyan; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-10-13

    Geographic isolation is an important factor that limit species dispersal and thereby affects genetic diversity. Because islands are often small and surrounded by a natural water barrier to dispersal, they generally form discrete isolated habitats. Therefore, islands may play a key role in the distribution of the genetic diversity of insects, including flies. To characterize the genetic structure of island populations of Bactrocera dorsalis, we analyzed a dataset containing both microsatellite and mtDNA loci of B. dorsalis samples collected from six offshore islands in Southern China. The microsatellite data revealed a high level of genetic diversity among these six island populations based on observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (HE), Nei's standard genetic distance (D), genetic identity (I) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (PIC). These island populations had low F ST values (F ST = 0.04161), and only 4.16 % of the total genetic variation in the species was found on these islands, as determined by an analysis of molecular variance. Based on the mtDNA COI data, high nucleotide diversity (0.9655) and haplotype diversity (0.00680) were observed in all six island populations. F-statistics showed that the six island populations exhibited low or medium levels of genetic differentiation among some island populations. To investigate the population differentiation between the sampled locations, a factorial correspondence analysis and both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and Bayesian clustering methods were used to analyze the microsatellite data. The results showed that Hebao Island, Weizhou Island and Dong'ao Island were grouped together in one clade. Another clade consisted of Shangchuan Island and Naozhou Island, and a final, separate clade contained only the Wailingding Island population. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA COI sequences revealed that the populations on each of these six islands were closely related to

  11. SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  13. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... land surfaces; any estuary, lagoon, pond or tidal flat; or any waters temporarily covering a beach... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East Ship Island, West Ship Island, Horn Island, and Petit Bois Island; (ii) The lagoons of Perdido Key...

  14. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... land surfaces; any estuary, lagoon, pond or tidal flat; or any waters temporarily covering a beach... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East Ship Island, West Ship Island, Horn Island, and Petit Bois Island; (ii) The lagoons of Perdido Key...

  15. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... land surfaces; any estuary, lagoon, pond or tidal flat; or any waters temporarily covering a beach... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East Ship Island, West Ship Island, Horn Island, and Petit Bois Island; (ii) The lagoons of Perdido Key...

  16. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... land surfaces; any estuary, lagoon, pond or tidal flat; or any waters temporarily covering a beach... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East Ship Island, West Ship Island, Horn Island, and Petit Bois Island; (ii) The lagoons of Perdido Key...

  17. First record of Lucilia bufonivora Moniez, 1876 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from North America and key to North American species of the L. bufonivora species group.

    PubMed

    Tantawi, Tarek I; Whitworth, Terry

    2014-11-04

    The obligate anuran myiasis blow fly Lucilia bufonivora Moniez is reported from North America for the first time. The L. bufonivora species group is defined on the basis of the aedeagus and the history and biology of the North American species (L. bufonivora, L. elongata Shannon and L. silvarum (Meigen)) are discussed. A key is provided to separate the three North American species of this group. The North American species L. thatuna Shannon, a member of the L. sericata (Meigen) species group, is also treated because it is likely a parasite of anurans and is poorly known. The male abdominal sternites, aedeagus (L. elongata only), pregonites, postgonites, bacilliform sclerites, ejaculatory sclerites, and female ovipositors and spermathecae of L. elongata and L. thatuna are illustrated for the first time. 

  18. Description of a new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia, with keys to 18 species of the Simulium asakoae species-group.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Hashim, Rosli

    2013-11-01

    Simulium (Comphostilbia) izuae sp. nov. is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the asakoae species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia. The pupa of this new species is characterized by the gill with eight long filaments arranged as (3 + 3) + 2 filaments, of which the ventral pair of filaments is borne on a stalk that is always shorter than the common basal stalk. Taxonomic notes to distinguish this new species from five other Malaysian species and 12 other species of the asakoae species-group from other countries are given. Keys to identify all 18 species of the asakoae species-group are also provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.

  19. What Are the Key Ingredients for an Effective and Successful Tertiary Enabling Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students? An Evaluation of the Evolution of One Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Tertiary enabling programs have become an increasingly important part of the post-secondary schooling landscape. In recognition of the need for increased access for certain under-represented groups within the university population, enabling, bridging or foundational programs are offered by a large number of universities in Australia as alternative…

  20. Sighting Characteristics and Photo-Identification of Cuvier’s Beaked Whales (Ziphius Cavirostris) Near San Clemente Island, California: A Key Area for Beaked Whales and the Military?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Elizabeth, McKenna , Megan F., et al.(2009). Sighting characteristics and photo-identification of Cuvier’s beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) near San...conducted a series of five combined visual-acoustic marine mammal surveys from 2006 to 2008 in the southern San Nicolas Basin, a site of frequent naval...hydrophones at depths up to 1,850 m. The array was used to vector visual observers toward vocalizing marine mammal species. Thirty-seven groups of Cuvier’s

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of geckos of the Hemiphyllodactylus harterti group, a new species from Penang Island, Peninsular Malaysia, and a likely case of true cryptic speciation.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Anthony; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Muin, Mohd Abdul

    2016-05-03

    An integrative taxonomic analysis based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs, morphology, and color pattern indicates that a newly discovered gecko described herein as Hemiphyllodactylus cicak sp. nov. from Penang Hill on the Island of Penang, Peninsular Malaysia is a member of the H. harterti group. Hemiphyllodactylus cicak sp. nov. is most closely related to the clade composed of the sister species H. harterti from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Bintang Mountain Range and H. bintik from Gunung Tebu, Terengganu from the Timur Mountain Range. These three allopatric species form a monophyletic group that extends approximately 270 km across three isolated mountain ranges in northern Peninsular Malaysia. The molecular analysis also indicates that H. titiwangsaensis from the Titiwangsa Mountain Range is composed of three genetically distinct allopatric populations. The southern two populations from Fraser's Hill and Genting Highlands, Pahang have an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 3.5% whereas these two populations have 12.4 and 12.8 % sequence divergences, respectively, from the northern population at Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Although the high sequence divergence clearly distinguishes the southern two populations from the former as a different species, all three populations are morphologically indistinguishable, leading to the hypothesis of a true, cryptic speciation event.

  2. Relationship of body fat and body mass index in young Pacific Islanders: a cross-sectional study in European, Melanesian and Polynesian groups.

    PubMed

    Frayon, S; Cherrier, S; Cavaloc, Y; Wattelez, G; Lerrant, Y; Galy, O

    2017-07-28

    Body mass index is the most often used indicator of obesity but does not distinguish between lean and fat mass. Adiposity at the same body mass index differs across ethnic groups. The twofold aim of this study was to determine whether body mass index (BMI)-based references are correlated with body fat percentage (%BF) in a pluri-ethnic population of Pacific Islanders and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these references by using the percentage of body fat as the gold standard. Height and weight were obtained, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were measured in a sample of 796 adolescents (11-16 years) from the three main ethnic groups in New Caledonia: Melanesian, European and Polynesian. %BF was derived from the Slaughter equations, and BMI z score was calculated by using various international and national references. Melanesian teens had lower %BF compared with their European counterparts for the same BMI z score. Whatever the BMI-based reference used to detect overfatness (%BF >25% for boys and >30% for girls), sensitivity was higher in Melanesian adolescents, while specificity was higher in their European counterparts. Diagnostic accuracy was better in Melanesian compared with European adolescents. This study shows that Melanesian adolescents have lower %BF than their European counterparts for the same BMI z score. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of BMI to detect overfatness is related to ethnicity. Whatever the BMI-based reference, sensitivity was higher in the Melanesian group, while specificity was higher in the European group. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. A new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Malaysia, with keys to 32 species of the Simulium ceylonicum species-group.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Hashim, Rosli; Otsuka, Yasushi

    2014-05-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) leparense sp. nov. is described from females, males, and pupae collected from Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the ceylonicum species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the female and male scuta covered with dark-brown short hairs, smaller number of male upper-eye facets, presence of shiny paired spots on the male abdominal segments 2-8, and absence of grapnel-shaped hooklets on the pupal abdominal segment 9. The male and pupa of S. capillatum Takaoka, which was originally described from larvae collected from Sarawak and Sabah, are described for the first time. Keys to identify all 32 species of the Simulium ceylonicum species-group including 27 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.

  4. Pulse-grouping transmission of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with time diversity multiple-input and multiple-output detection and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guanjun; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Jie

    2016-08-01

    We investigate an optical pulse-overlap transmission scheme where the orthogonal condition between neighbor pulses is violated. The interferences between the grouped optical pulses are mitigated at the optical coherent receiver with time diversity multiple-input and multiple-output-based digital signal processing. Numerical simulation investigates the performance of 50% return-to-zero (RZ)-quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals, where up to four pulses are overlapped and grouped for per pulse period. In the experiment demonstration, two 50% RZ-QPSK signals are combined with different time offset between neighbor pulses, and the Q-performance as a function of optical-signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is compared on each pulse channel basis, with minimum OSNR penalty of only 1-dB compared to the single pulse transmission.

  5. Ultra-steep side facets in multi-faceted SiGe/Si(001) Stranski-Krastanow islands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    For the prototypical Ge/Si(001) system, we show that at high growth temperature a new type of Stranski-Krastanow islands is formed with side facets steeper than {111} and high aspect ratio. Nano-goniometric analysis of the island shapes reveals the presence of six new facet groups in addition to those previously found for dome or barn-shaped islands. Due to the highly multi-faceted island shape and high aspect ratio, the new island types are named "cupola" islands and their steepest {12 5 3} side facet is inclined by 68°to the substrate surface. Assessing the relative stability of the new facets from surface area analysis, we find that their stability is similar to that of {113} and {15 3 23} facets of dome islands. The comparison of the different island shapes shows that they form a hierarchical class of geometrical structures, in which the lower aspect ratio islands of barns, domes and pyramids are directly derived from the cupola islands by successive truncation of the pedestal bases without facet rearrangements. The results underline the key role of surface faceting in the process of island formation, which is as crucial for understanding the island's growth evolution as it is important for device applications. PMID:21711579

  6. A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode:Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut; David, Pointcheval

    2005-10-01

    The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networkinginfrastructures and enable employers to accesscorporate networks whiletraveling. These standards provide two modes of communication calledinfrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity andfirmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc modeneeds to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in thisdirection. It leverages the latest developments in the area ofpassword-based authentication and (group) Diffie-Hellman key exchange todevelop a provably-secure key-exchange protocol for IEEE 802.11's ad-hocmode. The protocol allows users to securely join and leave the wirelessgroup at time, accommodates either a single-shared password orpairwise-shared passwords among the group members, or at least with acentral server; achieves security against dictionary attacks in theideal-hash model (i.e. random-oracles). This is, to the best of ourknowledge, the first such protocol to appear in the cryptographicliterature.

  7. Description of two new species of the Exocelina broschii-group from Papua New Guinea, with revision and key to all representatives of this species group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae).

    PubMed

    Shaverdo, Helena; Sagata, Katayo; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from Papua New Guinea are described herein: Exocelina mondmillensis sp. n. and Exocelina pseudomarinae sp. n. They are placed into the Exocelina broschii-group based on the shovel/fork-like ventral sclerites of their median lobe. While the former has rather distinct combination of the morphological characters (inconspicuous dorsal punctation, thin apex of the median lobe and ventral sclerite of the median lobe with two tips of different length), the latter is very similar to already described species Exocelina marinae (Shaverdo, Sagata & Balke, 2005). All described species of the group are revised and a key to their identification is provided. Important diagnostic characters (habitus, color, protarsomeres 4-5, median lobes, and parameres) are illustrated. Data on the distribution of all species of the group are given showing that its representatives occur only in Papua New Guinea and most of them are widely distributed in it central part.

  8. Description of two new species of the Exocelina broschii-group from Papua New Guinea, with revision and key to all representatives of this species group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdo, Helena; Sagata, Katayo; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from Papua New Guinea are described herein: Exocelina mondmillensis sp. n. and Exocelina pseudomarinae sp. n. They are placed into the Exocelina broschii-group based on the shovel/fork-like ventral sclerites of their median lobe. While the former has rather distinct combination of the morphological characters (inconspicuous dorsal punctation, thin apex of the median lobe and ventral sclerite of the median lobe with two tips of different length), the latter is very similar to already described species Exocelina marinae (Shaverdo, Sagata & Balke, 2005). All described species of the group are revised and a key to their identification is provided. Important diagnostic characters (habitus, color, protarsomeres 4–5, median lobes, and parameres) are illustrated. Data on the distribution of all species of the group are given showing that its representatives occur only in Papua New Guinea and most of them are widely distributed in it central part. PMID:27110191

  9. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  10. The value and vulnerability of small estuarine islands for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat 'islands' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small islands may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger islands or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with island area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha island size range and lowest for islands larger than 100 ha. These small islands also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and gulls. Small estuarine islands are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material islands, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these islands and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.

  11. Six genetically distinct clades of Palola (Eunicidae, Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Anja

    2015-09-18

    A total of 36 lots of Palola spp. (Eunicidae, Annelida) were collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop on Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Of these, 21 specimens were sequenced for a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. These sequences were analysed in conjunction with existing sequences of Palola spp. from other geographic regions. The samples from Lizard Island form six distinct clades, although none of them can clearly be assigned to any of the nominal species. Four of the six Lizard Island clades fall into species group A and the remaining two into species group B (which also includes the type species, Palola viridis). All sequenced specimens were characterized morphologically as far as possible and a dichotomous key was assembled. Based on this key, the remaining samples were identified as belonging to one of the clades.

  12. Revision of the East Mediterranean Orthomus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini), with description of Parorthomus gen. n. socotranus sp. n. from Socotra Island and key to the Old World genera of subtribe Euchroina

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav; Wrase, David W.; Farkač, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The East Mediterranean species of Orthomus Chaudoir, 1838 are revised. The type series of Feronia longula Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, F. berytensis Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, F. proelonga Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, Orthomus longior Chaudoir, 1873, O. sidonicus Chaudoir, 1873, and O. berytensis akbensis Mateu, 1955 were studied and lectotypes for the first four are designated. Also, the following nomenclatural acts are proposed: Feronia proelonga Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, syn. n. of Orthomus berytensis (Reiche & Saulcy, 1855); Feronia elongata Chaudoir, 1859, syn. n. of Orthomus berytensis (Reiche & Saulcy, 1855); Orthomus sidonicus Chaudoir, 1873, syn. n. of Orthomus longior Chaudoir, 1873; Orthomus velocissimus andalusiacus Mateu, 1957, syn. n. of Orthomus velocissimus akbensis Mateu, 1955, new assignment for Orthomus berytensis akbensis Mateu, 1955. As a result, three species of the genus inhabit the East Mediterranean biogeographical region: O. berytensis, O. longior, and O. longulus. A key to these three species is given. O. longior is recorded for Turkey and Syria for the first time. In addition, a new synonymy of two West Mediterranean taxa is proposed: O. szekessyi (Jedlička, 1956), syn. n. of O. balearicus (Piochard de la Brûlerie, 1868), and a new genus and a species are described: Parorthomus gen. n. socotranus sp. n. (type locality: Republic of Yemen, Socotra Archipelago, Socotra Island, Fimihin env., 530 m.a.s.l.). Illustrations of the species dealt with here are provided including external characters, habitus, mentum and submentum, and genitalia are provided. Nine genera of the “African Series” of subtribe Euchroina Chaudoir, 1874 are keyed for the first time. Checklists of the species of Orthomus and of the Old World euchroine genera are given. PMID:25147463

  13. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska Risk Assessment, Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-05

    The document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessment. The primary contaminants of concern at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  14. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  15. Cymapamphantus valentineorum, a new genus and species of Pamphantinae (Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Geocoridae) from the British Virgin Islands, with a checklist of the species and keys to the tribes and genera of the subfamily

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The new genus and new species Cymapamphantus valentineorum, belonging to the geocorid subfamily Pamphantinae, is described from one brachypterous male and six brachypterous females taken on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands. A dorsal habitus illustration, dorsal and lateral photographs of the ma...

  16. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding a key Fanconi anemia protein, FANCD2, sustain a significant group of FA-D2 patients with severe phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Reinhard; Neveling, Kornelia; Hoehn, Holger; Schneider, Hildegard; Linka, Yvonne; Batish, Sat Dev; Hunt, Curtis; Berwick, Marianne; Callen, Elsa; Surralles, Jordi; Casado, Jose A; Bueren, Juan; Dasi, Angeles; Soulier, Jean; Gluckman, Eliane; Zwaan, C Michel; van Spaendonk, Rosalina; Pals, Gerard; de Winter, Johan P; Joenje, Hans; Grompe, Markus; Auerbach, Arleen D; Hanenberg, Helmut; Schindler, Detlev

    2007-05-01

    FANCD2 is an evolutionarily conserved Fanconi anemia (FA) gene that plays a key role in DNA double-strand-type damage responses. Using complementation assays and immunoblotting, a consortium of American and European groups assigned 29 patients with FA from 23 families and 4 additional unrelated patients to complementation group FA-D2. This amounts to 3%-6% of FA-affected patients registered in various data sets. Malformations are frequent in FA-D2 patients, and hematological manifestations appear earlier and progress more rapidly when compared with all other patients combined (FA-non-D2) in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry. FANCD2 is flanked by two pseudogenes. Mutation analysis revealed the expected total of 66 mutated alleles, 34 of which result in aberrant splicing patterns. Many mutations are recurrent and have ethnic associations and shared allelic haplotypes. There were no biallelic null mutations; residual FANCD2 protein of both isotypes was observed in all available patient cell lines. These analyses suggest that, unlike the knockout mouse model, total absence of FANCD2 does not exist in FA-D2 patients, because of constraints on viable combinations of FANCD2 mutations. Although hypomorphic mutations arie involved, clinically, these patients have a relatively severe form of FA.

  19. Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from peninsular Malaysia, with keys to 10 peninsular Malaysian species of the Simulium batoense species group.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'Cob, Zubaidah

    2014-01-01

    Two new blackfly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) azhari and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) johorense, are described based on adult females, males, pupae, and larvae collected from Peninsular Malaysia, and assigned to the parahiyangum subgroup and the duolongum subgroup of the batoense species group of the subgenus Comphostilbia, respectively. S. (G.) azhari sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the narrow frons, and in the male by the broad style and the ventral plate moderately produced ventrally. S. (G.) johorense sp. nov. is also remarkable in having the female subcosta lacking hairs or bearing a reduced number of hairs ranging from one to five. The pupae of both new species share a similar arrangement of the eight gill filaments (i.e., stalks of dorsal and middle triplets and ventral pair arising at the same level from the short common basal stalk), although relative lengths of filaments of the ventral pair to those of the dorsal and middle triplets are different between the two new species. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish these new species from other related species. Keys to identify all 10 species of the batoense species group in Peninsular Malaysia are provided for adult females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.

  20. Genetic variability and forensic efficiency of 39 microsatellite loci in the Li ethnic group from Hainan Island in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Xie, Bingbing; Yang, Yaran; Yang, Meng; Liu, Chao; Lv, Yuexin; Chen, Chuguang; Liu, Xu; Fang, Xiangdong; Wu, Huijuan; Yan, Jiangwei

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite loci in various populations is an essential pre-requisite in forensic application. The present study obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 39 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) loci from a Chinese Li ethnic group and estimated the genetic relationships between Li and other reference populations. Thirty-nine STR loci, which include D19S433, D5S818, D21S11, D18S51, D6S1043, D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, D2S441, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX, Penta E, TH01, D12S391, D2S1338, FGA, D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D7S3048, D17S1290 and D5S2500, were amplified in two multiplex DNA-STR fluorescence detection systems for 189 unrelated healthy individuals of the Chinese Li ethnic group. The allele frequency distribution and several parameters commonly used in forensic science were statistically analysed. A total of 378 alleles were observed with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0026-0.5899. The power of discrimination and power of exclusion ranged from 0.7569-0.9672 and 0.2513-0.7355, respectively. The power of exclusion (PE) ranged from 0.2580-0.7943 for trio paternity cases and 0.1693-0.5940 for duo paternity cases. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.5001-0.8611. The cumulative match probability across these 39 loci was 2.4242 × 10(-38). The results indicate that 39 STR loci are polymorphic among the Li ethnic group in Hainan Island in the South China Sea. This set of polymorphic STR loci provide highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing, as well as basic population data for population genetics and anthropological research.

  1. Nereididae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Glasby, Christopher J

    2015-09-18

    Nereididae is one of the most ubiquitous of polychaete families, yet knowledge of their diversity in the northern Great Barrier Reef is poor; few species have been previously reported from any of the atolls or islands including Lizard Island. In this study, the diversity of the family from Lizard Island and surrounding reefs is documented based on museum collections derived from surveys conducted mostly over the last seven years. The Lizard Island nereidid fauna was found to be represented by 14 genera and 38 species/species groups, including 11 putative new species. Twelve species are newly reported from Lizard Island; four of these are also first records for Australia. For each genus and species, diagnoses and/or taxonomic remarks are provided in addition to notes on their habitat on Lizard Island, and general distribution; the existence of tissue samples tied to vouchered museum specimens is indicated. Fluorescence photography is used to help distinguish closely similar species of Nereis and Platynereis. A key is provided to facilitate identification and encourage further taxonomic, molecular and ecological studies on the group.

  2. Paleomagnetism of the Moreton's Harbour Group, northeastern Newfoundland Appalachians: Evidence for an Early Ordovician Island Arc near the Laurentian Margin of Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rex J. E.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Van der Voo, Rob

    1991-07-01

    Paleomagnetic results have been obtained from mafic volcanic units in the upper part of the Moreton's Harbour Group, which is part of an accreted island arc terrane that is preserved in the Notre Dame Bay subzone of the Central Mobile Belt of the Newfoundland Appalachians. Detailed thermal and alternating field demagnetization reveals a stable characteristic component of magnetization, carried by magnetite, at a large number of sites in pillow basalts and coeval basaltic dikes. The intrusives contain both polarities, and a primary age for the characteristic magnetization is indicated by a positive contact test for one of the dikes, and by a positive structural test involving a correction for block rotations (strike-correction). The overall mean direction for the characteristic component after tectonic (tilt and strike) correction (flows and intrusives: D = 171°, I = +22°, k = 22.6, α95 = 6.5°, pole 29°N, 135°E; flows: D = 166°, I = +22°, k = 33.2, α95 = 6.5°) corresponds to an Early Ordovician paleolatitude for the arc of 11°S, which is indistinguishable from the expected paleolatitude of the North American margin. This implies that the arc formed at or near the margin of the craton. In contrast, the Avalon block, which formed the other margin of Iapetus, was widely separated from the arc and the craton at this time. The Early Ordovician paleolatitude of the arc terrane supports a tectonic model in which coeval ophiolitic sequences inboard of the arc were formed in a narrow ocean basin between the arc and the craton. Subsequent convergence between the arc and Laurentia in Middle Ordovician time resulted in closure of this narrow ocean basin and obduction of the back-arc basin oceanic crust onto the ancient margin of the craton, thus giving rise to the Taconic orogenic pulse in the Newfoundland Appalachians.

  3. Conclusion: Special issue on genetic and alcohol use disorder research with diverse racial/ethnic groups: Key findings and potential next steps.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Karen G; Hesselbrock, Michie N; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2017-08-01

    This special issue brings together papers focusing on a wide range of topics relevant to the research and understanding of the role of race/ethnicity and genetic variation for the susceptibility of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). The key findings from the issue's 10 articles are reviewed and organized here around three topics: I: addictive behaviors and potential environmental influences; II: a focus on four racial/ethnic groups; and III: special methodologies. Several potential next steps in improving effective research strategies are highlighted: (1) implementing best practices for outreach and community engagement may reduce reluctance to participate; (2) recruiting adequately sized and racially/ethnically diverse samples will require new collaborations with investigators who successfully work in diverse communities; (3) identifying and assessing environmental influences that are both unique to, and common among, racial/ethnic groups may inform preventions for AUD; (4) use of standardized measures will facilitate the generation of larger samples and meta-analysis of research findings; and (5) use of better analytic approaches and experimental methods will improve replication in gene finding research and help advance new areas of research. Genetic research of AUD in diverse racial/ethnic populations is advancing. The articles in this issue examined the general theme of including diverse population groups in genetic studies and offered potential strategies for addressing some common problems. Greater inclusion of diverse racial/ethnic populations in this research is important to ensure that the benefits of new knowledge and technology are equally shared. (Am J Addict 2017;26:532-537). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Alkali-metal-ion- and H+-dependent activation and/or inhibition of intestinal brush-border sucrase. A model involving three functionally distinct key prototropic groups.

    PubMed Central

    Vasseur, M; Van Melle, G; Frangne, R; Alvarado, F

    1988-01-01

    For rabbit intestinal brush-border sucrase, a model based on classical Michaelis-Dixon theory cannot fully explain the peculiar antagonistic relationship existing between the substrate and one key proton, Hx, which at acid pH values behaves as a fully competitive inhibitor. In the same pH range, a second proton, Hy, is responsible for changes in catalytic activity and behaves as a mixed-type partially non-competitive inhibitor [Vasseur, Tellier & Alvarado (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 218, 263-274]. Although involved in the same ionization reaction, these two protons have different kinetic functions, since they are responsible for affinity-type and capacity-type effects respectively. Depending on whether Hx is bound or not, we postulate the enzyme to alternate between two distinct forms differing in their binding properties. The alkali-metal ions Na+ and Li+ have a concentration-dependent biphasic effect on this equilibrium. At low concentrations they facilitate the release of Hx, resulting in K-type activation. At higher concentrations they favour enzyme reprotonation, causing K-type inhibition. On the basic side of the pH spectrum, our results confirm the existence of separate non-competitive effects of the alkali-metal ions, particularly Li+ [Alvarado & Mahmood (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 9534-9541]. To explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the alkali-metal-ion- and H+-dependent effects, we formulate a sucrase model, the three-protons model, in which the acid and basic ionization constants involve respectively two and one key prototropic groups that are functionally distinguishable. A global iterative fit of the relevant general equation to our whole set of data has permitted us to estimate the numerical value of each of the constants constituting the model. PMID:2843163

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  6. A new, widely distributed species of the Exocelina ekari-group from West Papua (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae).

    PubMed

    Shaverdo, Helena; Panjaitan, Rawati; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Exocelina manokwariensis sp. n. from West Papua is placed into the Exocelina ekari-group based on the structure of its male genitalia. The new species is described, including its three subspecies, from the mainland of West Papua, Waigeo Island, Batanta and Salawati Islands, and Bomberai peninsula. An identification key to the subspecies as well as data on species distribution are provided.

  7. Small population instability and island settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I; Sabath, M D

    1984-03-01

    This study used data from the Marshall Islands to examine the relationship between settlement pattern within an island group to the stability of potential population inhabiting those islands. It was hypothesized that extinction probability (based on island carrying capacity, frequency and amplitude of fluctuation in resources determining carrying capacity, and the net costs of contact and exchange between population units) will determine island settlement patterns, resulting in nonsettlement of islands with low carrying capacities and settlement of all islands with high carrying capacities. The Marshall Island group includes both settled and unsettled islands, and represents a homogeneous culture that has remained unchanged for many generations. The mesophytic index (rainfall x land area), used as an indicator of atoll human carrying capacity, was related to island settlement patterns. No atolls with mesophytic indices exceeding 2000 units were uninhabited, although 4 with values under 2000 units were inhabited, suggesting an overlap zone between inhabitable and uninhabitable islands. Population size and settlement existence were also related. Only 2 of 21 inhabited islands had populations below 100, and none of the uninhabited islands contained more than 78 individuals. These results may be of relevance to earlier atoll colonization patterns. The prerequisites for atoll colonization appear to have been colonizing groups exceeding 80 individuals, contact with an established population source, and a horticultural subsistence mode and maritime technology. It is concluded that small population instability should be considered in terms of the colonization process and settlement pattern of island groups.

  8. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  9. 78 FR 33221 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Swim Around Key West, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; Key...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Annual Swim Around Key West... and the Gulf of Mexico surrounding the island of Key West, Florida during the Annual Swim around Key... Beach and swim one full circle clockwise around the island of Key West, Florida. The special local...

  10. Henderson Island, South Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-15

    Uninhabited Henderson Island is part of the United Kingdom's Pitcairn Islands group in the South Pacific. According to a study by the University of Tasmania published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, the island has the highest density of plastic waste anywhere in the world, an estimated 38 million pieces of rubbish. The island is near the center of an ocean current, so it collects rubbish from boats and South America. The image was acquired February 7, 2012, covers an area of 10.3 by 12.3 km, and is located at 24.3 degrees south, 128.3 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21691

  11. Children and adolescents' choices of foods and beverages high in added sugars are associated with intakes of key nutrients and food groups.

    PubMed

    Frary, Carol D; Johnson, Rachel K; Wang, Min Qi

    2004-01-01

    To determine associations between intakes of the primary food and beverage sources of added sugars and intakes of key nutrients and food pyramid groups among U.S. children aged 6-17 years. The 1994-96 and 1998 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) were used to examine the diets of U.S. children aged 6-17 years, who provided 2 full days of dietary data. The nationally representative sample (n = 3038) included children age 6-11 (n = 1913) and adolescents age 12-17 (n = 1125). Food codes for sweetened foods and beverages were selected from the USDA Food Coding Scheme and categorized into five food and beverage categories. The Statistical Analysis System software program was used to recode and format the data for statistical analysis and the Survey Data Analysis System was used to apply sample weights and generate statistical procedures. The consumption of sweetened dairy products was positively associated with calcium intakes for children and adolescents. Consumption of presweetened cereals increased the likelihood of the children and adolescents meeting recommendations for the essential shortfall micronutrients calcium, folate, and iron, whereas the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, sugars and sweets, and sweetened grains decreased the likelihood of meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for these nutrients. Only children who were nonconsumers of sugar-sweetened beverages had a mean calcium intake that met the adequate intakes (AI). Consumption of sweetened dairy products and presweetened cereals was positively associated with the number of dairy servings consumed per day for both age groups. On average, consumption of sweetened dairy foods and beverages and presweetened cereals had a positive impact on children and adolescents' diet quality, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages, sugars and sweets, and sweetened grains had a negative impact on their diet quality.

  12. Managing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Data for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    van Gaans, D.; Ahmed, S.; D’Onise, K.; Taylor, S. M.; McDermott, R.

    2016-01-01

    Good quality data on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are needed to assess the effectiveness of programs and interventions, and to evaluate policies that are designed to improve the status of, and service delivery to, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Due to the lack of longitudinal data it is difficult to gain knowledge on the specific causes or consequences of changes in indigenous outcomes. Variables such as name, date of birth and address for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders may be subject to more variation and be less consistently reported than other Australians. Improving the collection and management of key identifying variables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are key to providing more quality information on this population group. PMID:28210423

  13. Ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients: a consensus from the Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society of Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Levy Hara, Gabriel; Kanj, Souha S; Pagani, Leonardo; Abbo, Lilian; Endimiani, Andrea; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos; Tattevin, Pierre; Mehtar, Shaheen; Lopes Cardoso, Fernando; Unal, Serhat; Gould, Ian

    2016-09-01

    The Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society for Chemotherapy propose ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospital settings. (i) Get appropriate microbiological samples before antibiotic administration and carefully interpret the results: in the absence of clinical signs of infection, colonisation rarely requires antimicrobial treatment. (ii) Avoid the use of antibiotics to 'treat' fever: use them to treat infections, and investigate the root cause of fever prior to starting treatment. (iii) Start empirical antibiotic treatment after taking cultures, tailoring it to the site of infection, risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria, and the local microbiology and susceptibility patterns. (iv) Prescribe drugs at their optimal dosing and for an appropriate duration, adapted to each clinical situation and patient characteristics. (v) Use antibiotic combinations only where the current evidence suggests some benefit. (vi) When possible, avoid antibiotics with a higher likelihood of promoting drug resistance or hospital-acquired infections, or use them only as a last resort. (vii) Drain the infected foci quickly and remove all potentially or proven infected devices: control the infection source. (viii) Always try to de-escalate/streamline antibiotic treatment according to the clinical situation and the microbiological results. (ix) Stop unnecessarily prescribed antibiotics once the absence of infection is likely. And (x) Do not work alone: set up local teams with an infectious diseases specialist, clinical microbiologist, hospital pharmacist, infection control practitioner or hospital epidemiologist, and comply with hospital antibiotic policies and guidelines. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Key challenges and ways forward in researching the “good death”: qualitative in-depth interview and focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Fiona; Boyd, Kirsty; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Scott A; Brown, Duncan; Mallinson, Ian; Kearney, Nora; Worth, Allison

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand key challenges in researching end of life issues and identify ways of overcoming these. Design Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with researchers and focus groups with people affected by cancer. Participants An international sample of 32 researchers; seven patients with experience of cancer; and four carers in south east Scotland. Results Researchers highlighted the difficulty of defining the end of life, overprotective gatekeeping by ethics committees and clinical staff, the need to factor in high attrition rates associated with deterioration or death, and managing the emotions of participants and research staff. People affected by cancer and researchers suggested that many people nearing the end of life do want to be offered the chance to participate in research, provided it is conducted sensitively. Although such research can be demanding, most researchers believed it to be no more problematic than many other areas of research and that the challenges identified can be overcome. Conclusions The continuing taboos around death and dying act as barriers to the commissioning and conduct of end of life research. Some people facing death, however, may want to participate in research and should be allowed to do so. Ethics committees and clinical staff must balance understandable concern about non-maleficence with the right of people with advanced illness to participate in research. Despite the inherent difficulties, end of life research can be conducted with ethical and methodological rigour. Adequate psychological support must be provided for participants, researchers, and transcribers. PMID:17329313

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Isolates of the Roseobacter Group, Sulfitobacter sp. Strains 3SOLIMAR09 and 1FIGIMAR09, from Harbors of Mallorca Island (Mediterranean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Lladó, Maria; Piña-Villalonga, Joana Maria; Brunet-Galmés, Isabel; Nogales, Balbina

    2014-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequences of two isolates of the Roseobacter lineage, 3SOLIMAR09 and 1FIGIMAR09, which were obtained from harbors of Mallorca Island, Spain, and are affiliated with the Sulfitobacter genus. Both isolates harbor the complete gene set for protocatechuate catabolism and incomplete pathways for several additional monoaromatic compounds. PMID:24855294

  16. Life-history traits maintain the genomic integrity of sympatric species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) group on an isolated forest island

    Treesearch

    Lisa M. Lumley; Felix A.H. Sperling

    2011-01-01

    Identification of widespread species collected from islands can be challenging due to the potential for local ecological and phenotypic divergence in isolated populations. We sought to determine how many species of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) complex reside in Cypress Hills, an isolated remnant coniferous forest in western Canada....

  17. Belcher Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Belcher Islands - September 21st, 2001 Description: Like sweeping brushstrokes of pink and green, the Belcher Islands meander across the deep blue of Canada's Hudson Bay. The islands' only inhabitants live in the small town of Sanikiluaq, near the upper end of the middle island. Despite the green hues in this image, these rocky islands are too cold to sustain more than a smattering of low-growing vegetation. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  18. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  19. End-of-life care in advanced kidney disease: ethical and legal issues and key challenges for black and minority ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2014-09-01

    Advances in modern medical technology have gone so far that it is now possible for machinery to keep people alive. To some extent this has led to a misperception in society that death can almost always be postponed because life-sustaining extracorporeal machinery of some sort or another, for example a dialysis machine, can prevent it. However, for some, being kept alive connected to a dialysis machine for four hours three times a week does not represent or even come close to an existence or quality of life they consider valuable. It may even cause unnecessary distress. This may be because they have reached a point at the end of their lives where they would like the focus of their treatment or care to become that which enables them to live as well as possible until they die. In these circumstances treatment and care should properly be that which enables the supportive and palliative care needs of both patient and family to be identified and met throughout the last phase of life and into bereavement. Identifying and acknowledging the importance of such a paradigm shift in the delivery of healthcare, and above all facilitating it, includes taking on the responsibility, incumbent upon us all, to address the ethical issues that are brought into focus. In this paper, I examine some of these issues. I consider the ways in which underlying theoretical ethical principles have informed the development of professional guidance and highlight the dynamic relationship this guidance has with the law. Finally, I demonstrate the ways in which it can be usefully applied to inform and assist clinical decision-making. Key challenges for BAME groups are addressed. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  20. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of the Falkland Islands mullet, Eleginops maclovinus (Eleginopidae), the sister group of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The perciform notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus, representing the monotypic family Eleginopidae, has a non-Antarctic distribution in the Falkland Islands and southern South America. It is the sister group of the five families and 103 species of Antarctic notothenioids that dominate the cold shelf waters of Antarctica. Eleginops is the ideal subject for documenting the ancestral morphology of nervous and sensory systems that have not had historical exposure to the unusual Antarctic thermal and light regimes, and for comparing these systems with those of the phyletically derived Antarctic species. We present a detailed description of the brain and cranial nerves of Eleginops and ask how does the neural and sensory morphology of this non-Antarctic notothenioid differ from that seen in the phyletically derived Antarctic notothenioids? The brain of Eleginops is similar to those of visually oriented temperate and tropical perciforms. The tectum is smaller but it has well-developed olfactory and mechanoreceptive lateral line areas and a large, caudally projecting corpus cerebellum. Eye diameter is about twofold smaller in Eleginops than in many Antarctic species. Eleginops has a duplex (rod and cone) retina with single and occasional twin cones conspicuous centrally. Ocular vascular structures include a large choroid rete mirabile and a small lentiform body; a falciform process and hyaloid arteries are absent. The olfactory rosette is oval with 50-55 lamellae, a large number for notothenioids. The inconspicuous bony canals of the cephalic lateral line system are simple with membranous secondary branches that lack neuromasts. In Antarctic species, the corpus cerebellum is the most variable brain region, ranging in size from large and caudally projecting to small and round. "Stalked" brains showing reduction in the size of the telencephalon, tectum, and corpus cerebellum are present in the deep-living artedidraconid Dolloidraco longedorsalis and in most of the deep

  1. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  2. Acculturation and psychosocial stress show differential relationships to insulin resistance (HOMA) and body fat distribution in two groups of blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Tull, Eugene S; Thurland, Anne; LaPorte, Ronald E; Chambers, Earle C

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acculturation and psychosocial stress exert differential effects on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born African Americans and African-Caribbean immigrants living in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Data collected from a non-diabetic sample of 183 USVI-born African Americans and 296 African-Caribbean immigrants age > 20 on the island of St. Croix, USVI were studied. Information on demographic characteristics, acculturation and psychosocial stress was collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum glucose and insulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. The results showed that in multivariate regression analyses, controlling for age, education, gender, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption, acculturation was independently related to logarithm of HOMA (InHOMA) scores among USVI-born African Americans, but not among African-Caribbean immigrants. In contrast, among USVI-born African Americans psychosocial stress was not significantly related to InHOMA, while among African-Caribbean immigrants psychosocial stress was independently related to InHOMA in models that included BMI, but not in those which included waist circumference. This study suggests that acculturation and psychosocial stress may have a differential effect on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born and immigrant blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.

  3. Polycirridae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    de Matos Nogueira, João Miguel; Hutchings, Pat; Carrerette, Orlemir

    2015-09-18

    In a survey of the polychaetes of the Lizard Island Group, sixteen species of polycirrids were found, from material collected during the two weeks Lizard Island Taxonomic Workshop, together with material collected by previous projects of the Australian Museum based at Lizard Island, including CReefs (http://www. gov.au/creefs/field-program.html). Those species are distributed as follows: two species of Amaeana Hartman, 1959, one new species of Hauchiella Levinsen, 1893, 2 species of Lysilla Malmgren, 1866, one of which is new to science, and 11 species of Polycirrus Grube, 1850, eight of which are new to science. Keys for identification of these genera and species are provided, together with full descriptions for all species, except for those with recent descriptions, and comparisons with the morphologically most similar congeners, in the case of the new species.

  4. Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-15

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a streamlined island in a broad channel in Chryse Planitia. The channel is part of the outflow region of Lobo Vallis, a northern branch of Kasei Valles.

  5. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  6. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers and Facilitators of Inclusive Education in the Solomon Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Simi, Janine

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports perceived barriers and facilitators of disability-inclusive education, and outcomes of an effective system of inclusive education in the Solomon Islands. Data were gathered from a variety of stakeholder group participants (n = 10) and individual key informants (n = 2), ranging from parents of children with disabilities to…

  7. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  8. Islands at bay: Rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Brinker, D.F.; Watts, B.D.; Costanzo, G.R.; Morton, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of island erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 islands in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, gulls by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The island losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding islands at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.

  9. NASA SMD Education and Public Outreach Forums K-12 Working Group: Key Findings from the National K-12 Educator Needs Assessment Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeffing, C.; Bartolone, L.; Nelson, A.; Paglierani, R.; Burck, L.; Klug-Boonstra, S.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.; Davey, B.

    2015-11-01

    A national survey, conducted in 2012 by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach Forums, assessed who was using NASA resources, what educators were looking for when using NASA data, and what attracted them to NASA workshops. The key findings of the survey were distributed through NASA and national education networks.

  10. An Assessment of Key Stakeholder Group Expectations of North Arkansas Community/Technical College and a Comparative Examination of Its Mission Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, James J.

    A study was conducted at North Arkansas Community/Technical College (NACTC) to determine whether the college's mission statement matched the expectations of key internal and external stakeholders. To gather data, surveys were conducted of 554 external stakeholders, including advisory committee members, alumni, chamber of commerce members, area…

  11. Andaman-Sumatra island arc: II. The December 26, 2004 earthquake as one of the key episodes in seismogenic activation of the arc in the beginning of XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of the nature and parameters of the source for the earthquake that occurred in Sumatra on December 26, 2004 is suggested. Our study relies on a variety of data on the geological structure of the region, long-term seismicity, spatial distribution of the foreshocks and aftershocks, and focal mechanisms; and the pattern of shaking and tsunami, regularities in the occurrence of the earthquakes, and the genetic relationship between the seismic and geological parameters inherent in various types of seismogenic zones including island arcs. The source of the Sumatran earthquake is a steep reverse fault striking parallel to the island arc and dipping towards the ocean. The length of the fault is ˜450 km, and its probable bedding depth is ˜70-100 km. The magnitude of this seismic event corresponding to the length of its source is 8.9-9.0. The vertical displacement in the source probably reached 9-13 m. The fault is located near the inner boundary of the Aceh Depression between the epicenter of the earthquake and the northern tip of the depression. The strike-slip and strike-slip reverse the faults cutting the island arc form the northern and southern borders of the source. The location and source parameters in the suggested interpretation account quite well for the observed pattern of shaking and tsunami. The Aceh Depression and its environs probably also host other seismic sources in the form of large reverse faults. The Sumatran earthquake, which was the culmination of the seismogenic activation of the Andaman-Sumatra island arc in the beginning of XXI century, is a typical tsunamigenic island-arc earthquake. By its characteristics, this event is an analogue to the M W = 9 Kamchatka earthquake of November 4, 1952. The spatial distribution of the epicenters and the focal mechanisms of the aftershocks indicate that the repeated shocks during the Sumatran event were caused by the activation of a complex system of geological structures in various parts of

  12. Nonadditive indirect effects of group genetic diversity on larval viability in Drosophila melanogaster imply key role of maternal decision-making.

    PubMed

    Saltz, Julia B; Alicuben, Evan T; Grubman, Jessica; Harkenrider, Matthew; Megowan, Nichelle; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2012-05-01

    Genetic variation can have important consequences for populations: high population genetic diversity is typically associated with ecological success. Some mechanisms that account for these benefits assume that local social groups with high genetic diversity are more successful than low-diversity groups. At the same time, active decision-making by individuals can influence group genetic diversity. Here, we examine how maternal decisions that determine group genetic diversity influence the viability of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Our groups contained wild-type larvae, whose genetic diversity we manipulated, and genetically marked 'tester' larvae, whose genotype and frequency were identical in all trials. We measured wild-type and tester viability for each group. Surprisingly, the viability of wild-type larvae was neither augmented nor reduced when group genetic diversity was altered. However, the viability of the tester genotype was substantially depressed in large, high-diversity groups. Further, not all high-diversity groups produced this effect: certain combinations of wild-type genotypes were deleterious to tester viability, while other groups of the same diversity-but containing different wild-type genotypes-were not deleterious. These deleterious combinations of wild-type genotypes could not be predicted by observing the performance of the same tester and wild-type genotypes in low-diversity groups. Taken together, these results suggest that nonadditive interactions among genotypes, rather than genetic diversity per se, account for between-group differences in viability in D. melanogaster and that predicting the consequences of genetic diversity at the population level may not be straightforward. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Nonadditive indirect effects of group genetic diversity on larval viability in Drosophila melanogaster imply key role of maternal decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Julia B.; Alicuben, Evan T.; Grubman, Jessica; Harkenrider, Matthew; Megowan, Nichelle; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation can have important consequences for populations: high population genetic diversity is typically associated with ecological success. Some mechanisms that account for these benefits assume that local social groups with high genetic diversity are more successful than low-diversity groups. At the same time, active decision-making by individuals can influence group genetic diversity. Here, we examine how maternal decisions that determine group genetic diversity influence the viability of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Our groups contained wild-type larvae, whose genetic diversity we manipulated, and genetically marked ‘tester’ larvae, whose genotype and frequency were identical in all trials. We measured wild-type and tester viability for each group. Surprisingly, the viability of wild-type larvae was neither augmented nor reduced when group genetic diversity was altered. However, the viability of the tester genotype was substantially depressed in large, high-diversity groups. Further, not all high-diversity groups produced this effect: certain combinations of wild-type genotypes were deleterious to tester viability, while other groups of the same diversity—but containing different wild-type genotypes—were not deleterious. These deleterious combinations of wild-type genotypes could not be predicted by observing the performance of the same tester and wild-type genotypes in low-diversity groups. Taken together, these results suggest that nonadditive interactions among genotypes, rather than genetic diversity per se, account for between-group differences in viability in D. melanogaster and that predicting the consequences of genetic diversity at the population level may not be straightforward. PMID:22404740

  14. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, and other Pacific Islands. This small population often is grouped with Asians ... Islanders often have unmet health needs and face barriers to good health. This group is more likely ...

  15. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-30

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede, and the eastern island Little Diomede are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite.

  16. Bahama Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-09

    STS006-45-097 (4-9 April 1983) --- This photograph was taken with a handheld 70mm camera aimed through the “ceiling” windows of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger during its five-day STS-6 mission. A beautiful photo shows the contrast between the islands, clouds, shallow water and deep water. Islands of the Bahamas seen are New Providence (upper left) and Eleuthera (right). Northeast Providence Channel is at the upper edge and Exuma Sound is at the lower left with the open Atlantic along the right edge. The wind, from the south, causes a long cloud to develop downwind from Eleuthera Point. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  18. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  19. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium massiliense JCM 15300 in the Mycobacterium abscessus Group Reveal a Conserved Genomic Island MmGI-1 Related to Putative Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Nakata, Noboru; Kazumi, Yuko; Maeda, Shinji; Makino, Masahiko; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Kuroda, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus group subsp., such as M. massiliense, M. abscessus sensu stricto and M. bolletii, are an environmental organism found in soil, water and other ecological niches, and have been isolated from respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, postoperative infection of cosmetic surgery. To determine the unique genetic feature of M. massiliense, we sequenced the complete genome of M. massiliense type strain JCM 15300 (corresponding to CCUG 48898). Comparative genomic analysis was performed among Mycobacterium spp. and among M. abscessus group subspp., showing that additional ß-oxidation-related genes and, notably, the mammalian cell entry (mce) operon were located on a genomic island, M. massiliense Genomic Island 1 (MmGI-1), in M. massiliense. In addition, putative anaerobic respiration system-related genes and additional mycolic acid cyclopropane synthetase-related genes were found uniquely in M. massiliense. Japanese isolates of M. massiliense also frequently possess the MmGI-1 (14/44, approximately 32%) and three unique conserved regions (26/44; approximately 60%, 34/44; approximately 77% and 40/44; approximately 91%), as well as isolates of other countries (Malaysia, France, United Kingdom and United States). The well-conserved genomic island MmGI-1 may play an important role in high growth potential with additional lipid metabolism, extra factors for survival in the environment or synthesis of complex membrane-associated lipids. ORFs on MmGI-1 showed similarities to ORFs of phylogenetically distant M. avium complex (MAC), suggesting that horizontal gene transfer or genetic recombination events might have occurred within MmGI-1 among M. massiliense and MAC. PMID:25503461

  20. When worlds collide: challenges and opportunities for conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Pratt, Thane K.; Banko, Paul C.; Jacobi, James D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter identifies four key challenges and opportunities for long-term conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaii's Islands. Following are the challenges that need to be resolved for remaining species of native forest birds to survive into the next century: invasive species, landscape processes, social factors, and climate change. These challenges are also relevant to other threatened terrestrial taxonomic groups (i.e., plants and invertebrates) in the Hawaiian Islands. Such threats are familiar to conservation biologists the world over, but rarely do they act as synergistically as they do in the Hawaiian Islands. The chapter reviews conservation successes and failures in Hawaii, and provides an example of the possible future course of conservation in other island communities.

  1. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Sea plate creates a series of island arc volcanoes and the Earth's deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions ... bomber, lies on the north side edge of the craters flat lands. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  2. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  3. Socio-economic dietary inequalities in UK adults: an updated picture of key food groups and nutrients from national surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-14

    Socio-economic differences in diet are a potential contributor to health inequalities. The present study provides an up-to-date picture of socio-economic differences in diet in the UK, focusing on the consumption of three food groups and two nutrients of public health concern: fruit and vegetables; red and processed meat; oily fish; saturated fats; non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). We analysed data for 1491 adults (age ≥ 19 years) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011. Socio-economic indicators were household income, occupational social class and highest educational qualification. Covariate-adjusted estimates for intakes of fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and both nutrients were estimated using general linear models. Covariate-adjusted OR for oily fish consumption were derived with logistic regression models. We observed consistent socio-economic gradients in the consumption of the three food groups as estimated by all the three indicators. Contrasting highest and lowest levels of each socio-economic indicator, we observed significant differences in intakes for the three food groups and NMES. Depending on the socio-economic indicator, highest socio-economic groups consumed up to 128 g/d more fruit and vegetables, 26 g/d less red and processed meat, and 2·6% points less NMES (P< 0·05 for all). Relative to lowest socio-economic groups, highest socio-economic groups were 2·4 to 4·0 times more likely to eat oily fish. No significant patterns in saturated fat consumption were apparent. In conclusion, socio-economic differences were identified in the consumption of food groups and one nutrient of public health importance. Aligning dietary intakes with public health guidance may require interventions specifically designed to reduce health inequalities.

  4. Baetis (Baetis) cypronyx sp. n., a new species of the Baetis alpinus species-group (Insecta, Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) from Cyprus, with annotated checklist of Baetidae in the Mediterranean islands

    PubMed Central

    Godunko, Roman J.; Soldán, Tomáš; Staniczek, Arnold H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A detailed description of the larvae of Baetis (Baetis) cypronyx sp. n., a representative of the Baetis alpinus species-group within the mayfly family Baetidae, is provided, including a differential diagnosis with regard to closely related species of the group, especially Baetis melanonyx (Pictet, 1843) and Baetis baroukianus Thomas & Dia, 1984. The new species is mainly distinguished by mouthparts (i.e. the shape and setation of labrum, maxillary and labial palps, details of paraglossae and mandibular incisors), setation of legs and abdominal terga, and length of paracercus. All available data on the biology of this putative endemic species of Cyprus are summarized. Annotated distributional data of the 33 species of Baetidae so far recorded from the Mediterranean islands are given, including new records and also including first data from Malta. PMID:28144182

  5. Drugs of abuse and alcohol consumption among different groups of population on the Greek Island of Lesvos through sewage-based epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gatidou, Georgia; Kinyua, Juliet; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse, their metabolites, and the alcohol metabolite ethyl sulphate was investigated in raw sewage samples collected during the non-touristic season from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), which serve different sizes and types of population in the Greek island of Lesvos. Using the sewage-based epidemiology approach, the consumption of these substances was estimated. Five target analytes, cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) were detected at concentrations above their limit of quantification, whereas the rest eighteen target compounds were not detected. THC-COOH was detected in most of the samples with concentrations ranging between <20 and 90ngL(-1), followed by EtS (range <1700-12,243ngL(-1)). COC, BE, and MDMA were present only in the STP that serves Mytilene (the main city of the island), at mean concentrations of 3.9ngL(-1) for COC (95% CI: 1.7-6.1), 9.4ngL(-1) for BE (95% CI: -1.6-23) and 3.2ngL(-1) for MDMA (95% CI: 1.2-5.1). Back-calculations to an amount of used substance indicated more intense use of drugs among city population than rural and University population with average values of 9.5 and 1.2mgday(-1) per 1000 inhabitants for COC (95% CI: -1.43-20.4) and MDMA (95% CI: 0.52-1.85), respectively, and 2.8gday(-1) per 1000 inhabitants for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (95% CI: 2.4-3.1), the active ingredient of cannabis. Alcohol consumption was observed to be higher in the city population (5.4mL pure alcohol per day per inhabitant) than in the rural population (3.4mL pure alcohol per day per inhabitant), but the difference was not statistically significant. Consumption of THC differed significantly among the three STPs.

  6. Key cytokines of adaptive immunity are differentially induced in rainbow trout kidney by a group of structurally related geranyl aromatic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Beatriz; Obreque, Javiera; Soto-Aguilera, Sarita; Maisey, Kevin; Imarai, Mónica; Modak, Brenda

    2016-02-01

    Filifolinone is a semi-synthetic terpenoid derivative obtained from Heliotropium filifolium that increases the expression level of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in kidney cells of salmon. Because cytokines are produced in response to a foreign organism and by distinct other signals modulating immune responses, we further studied the potential immunomodulatory effects of a group of structural related terpenoid derivatives from H. filifolium on salmonids to determine the relationship between the chemical structure of the derivatives and their ability to modify cytokine expression and the lymphoid content. The resin and four 3H-spiro 1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane derivatives were tested in vivo in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by quantifying the transcript levels of antiviral and T helper-type cytokines and T and B cells in the kidney. Three of the four terpenoids differ only in the C-7'substituent of the cyclohexane and the presence of the ketone group at this position in Filifolinone appeared responsible of an important up-regulation of IFN-α1, IFN-γ, IL-4/13A and IL-17D in the kidney of the treated trout. In addition, the absence of a methoxy group in carbon 7 of the benzene ring, found in all compounds but not in Folifolinoic acid, produced a significant reduction of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-4/13A transcripts. B cells were not affected by the compound treatment but Filifolinoic acid and the resin induced a significant reduction of T cells. Altogether, results showed that immunomodulating responses observed in the trout by effect of 3H-spiro 1-benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexane derivatives is related to the presence of the ketone group in the carbon 7' and the methoxy group in carbon 7 of the benzene ring, being Filifolinone the most active immunostimulatory compound identified.

  7. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  8. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  9. The island rule: made to be broken?

    PubMed Central

    Meiri, Shai; Cooper, Natalie; Purvis, Andy

    2007-01-01

    The island rule is a hypothesis whereby small mammals evolve larger size on islands while large insular mammals dwarf. The rule is believed to emanate from small mammals growing larger to control more resources and enhance metabolic efficiency, while large mammals evolve smaller size to reduce resource requirements and increase reproductive output. We show that there is no evidence for the existence of the island rule when phylogenetic comparative methods are applied to a large, high-quality dataset. Rather, there are just a few clade-specific patterns: carnivores; heteromyid rodents; and artiodactyls typically evolve smaller size on islands whereas murid rodents usually grow larger. The island rule is probably an artefact of comparing distantly related groups showing clade-specific responses to insularity. Instead of a rule, size evolution on islands is likely to be governed by the biotic and abiotic characteristics of different islands, the biology of the species in question and contingency. PMID:17986433

  10. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  11. Carbon fluxes within the epipelagic zone of the Humboldt Current System off Chile: The significance of euphausiids and diatoms as key functional groups for the biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Humberto E.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, José L.; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Menschel, Eduardo; Barría, Claudio; Pantoja, Silvio; Lizárraga, Lorena

    2009-12-01

    The information from 54 drifting sediment traps deployed between 1997 and 2006 along the Humboldt Current System off Chile (from 19.9°S to 42.2°S) was analyzed to contribute to unveiling the recurrent global-ocean issue of the lack of relationship between gross primary production (GPP) and particulate organic carbon (POC) export below 50 m depth. When the proportion of carbon that effectively sinks is relatively low compared to the carbon being fixed through GPP, a significant amount (average of 32%) of the sinking organic matter is composed of diatoms, regardless of GPP rates. Such a fraction seems to be affected by the physiological state of phytoplankton. In contrast, when the fraction of carbon sinking is high relative to GPP, most of sinking organic matter is composed of euphausid faecal strings. Such a situation occurs at relatively low values of GPP and chlorophyll-a. Most of these high sinking rates of pellets and low phytoplankton biomass occur during summer, when physical conditions favour the presence of phytoplankton blooms, and when the GPP/Biomass ratio indicates healthy phytoplankton physiological conditions. All this evidence supports the assessment of the relevance of euphausiids as key species in the Humboldt Current System pointing to (i) the top-down control that euphausiids are capable of exerting over primary producer biomass, and (ii) euphausiids‘ paramount role on total organic carbon flux over the Concepción continental shelf, regarding both POC export to the sediments and possibly the channelling of GPP directly to higher trophic levels.

  12. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in endangered Florida Key deer and Key deer habitat.

    PubMed

    Murray, Heidi L; Yabsley, Michael J; Keel, M Kevin; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Wilmers, Thomas J; Corn, Joseph L

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was first reported in the endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) in 1996 on Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. By 2008, eight additional MAP-positive Key deer had been identified on Big Pine Key and the nearby Newfound Harbor Keys. This study was conducted to determine if MAP was still present in Key deer and whether natural or man-made freshwater sources were contaminated with MAP. Between November 2009 and September 2012, MAP was isolated from 36/369 (10%) fecal samples collected from the ground throughout the Key deer range on Big Pine Key and the Newfound Harbor Keys, but all 36 positive samples were from Little Palm Island (36/142 [25%]). Only 1/729 (0.1%) environmental samples was positive; this was from the garden fountain on Little Palm Island (1/81 [1%]). In addition, MAP was detected in 3/43 (7%) necropsied Key deer, all from Little Palm Island (3/3 [100%]). Of these three Key deer, pooled samples from the ileum, cecum, and ileocecal lymph node from two were MAP-culture positive and feces from one of these were culture-positive. The third deer was only PCR-positive. Evidence of MAP was only detected on Little Palm Island during this sampling period and environmental contamination was limited.

  13. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  14. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  15. Intake of key micronutrients and food groups in patients with late-stage age-related macular degeneration compared with age-sex-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Liew, Gerald; Russell, Joanna; Cosatto, Victoria; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the risk factor profile of patients presenting with late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) could help identify the most frequent modifiable AMD precursors among people who are referred for treatment. We aimed to assess dietary behaviours by comparing adjusted mean intakes of micronutrients and major food groups (fruits, vegetables, fish) among patients with AMD and a sample of age-sex-matched controls. Cross-sectional analysis of 480 late AMD cases and 518 population-based age-sex-matched controls with no AMD signs. AMD cases (aged 60+ years) were those presenting for treatment to a hospital eye clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2012-2015. The comparator group were obtained from a cohort study (Blue Mountains Eye Study; Sydney, Australia) during 2002-2009. Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. AMD lesions were assessed from retinal photographs. After multivariable adjustment, patients with late-stage AMD compared with controls had significantly lower intakes of vitamin E (7.4 vs 9.8 mg/day; p<0.0001), beta-carotene (6232 vs 7738 μg/day; p<0.0001), vitamin C (161 vs 184 mg/day; p=0.0002) and folate (498.3 vs 602 μg/day; p<0.0001); but had higher intakes of zinc (13.0 vs 11.9 mg/day; p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients with late AMD met the recommended intake of vegetables than controls: 52.9% versus 64.5%; p=0.0002. This study showed significant differences in intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, folate and vegetables between patients with late-stage AMD and healthy controls, and thus has provided a better understanding of the nutritional intake of patients presenting with advanced AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Group 3 sigma factor gene, sigJ, a key regulator of desiccation tolerance, regulates the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hidehisa; Okamoto, Shinobu; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2007-02-28

    The changes in the expression of sigma factor genes during dehydration in terrestrial Nostoc HK-01 and aquatic Anabaena PCC 7120 were determined. The expression of the sigJ gene in terrestrial Nostoc HK-01, which is homologous to sigJ (alr0277) in aquatic Anabaena PCC 7120, was significantly induced in the mid-stage of dehydration. We constructed a higher-expressing transformant of the sigJ gene (HE0277) in Anabaena PCC 7120, and the transformant acquired desiccation tolerance. The results of Anabaena oligonucleotide microarray experiments showed that a comparatively large number of genes relating to polysaccharide biosynthesis were upregulated in the HE0277 cells. The extracellular polysaccharide released into the culture medium of the HE0277 cells was as much as 3.2-fold more than that released by the control cells. This strongly suggests that the group 3 sigma factor gene sigJ is fundamental and conducive to desiccation tolerance in these cyanobacteria.

  17. Carboxyl Group Footprinting Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Dynamics Identify Key Interactions in the HER2-HER3 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Interface* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Timothy S.; Diraviyam, Karthikeyan; Monsey, John; Shen, Wei; Sept, David; Bose, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase is a driver oncogene in many human cancers, including breast and gastric cancer. Under physiologic levels of expression, HER2 heterodimerizes with other members of the EGF receptor/HER/ErbB family, and the HER2-HER3 dimer forms one of the most potent oncogenic receptor pairs. Previous structural biology studies have individually crystallized the kinase domains of HER2 and HER3, but the HER2-HER3 kinase domain heterodimer structure has yet to be solved. Using a reconstituted membrane system to form HER2-HER3 kinase domain heterodimers and carboxyl group footprinting mass spectrometry, we observed that HER2 and HER3 kinase domains preferentially form asymmetric heterodimers with HER3 and HER2 monomers occupying the donor and acceptor kinase positions, respectively. Conformational changes in the HER2 activation loop, as measured by changes in carboxyl group labeling, required both dimerization and nucleotide binding but did not require activation loop phosphorylation at Tyr-877. Molecular dynamics simulations on HER2-HER3 kinase dimers identify specific inter- and intramolecular interactions and were in good agreement with MS measurements. Specifically, several intermolecular ionic interactions between HER2 Lys-716-HER3 Glu-909, HER2 Glu-717-HER3 Lys-907, and HER2 Asp-871-HER3 Arg-948 were identified by molecular dynamics. We also evaluated the effect of the cancer-associated mutations HER2 D769H/D769Y, HER3 E909G, and HER3 R948K (also numbered HER3 E928G and R967K) on kinase activity in the context of this new structural model. This study provides valuable insights into the EGF receptor/HER/ErbB kinase structure and interactions, which can guide the design of future therapies. PMID:23843458

  18. The phn Island: A New Genomic Island Encoding Catabolism of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hickey, William J; Chen, Shicheng; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria are key in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are widespread environmental pollutants. At least six genotypes of PAH degraders are distinguishable via phylogenies of the ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (RHD) that initiates bacterial PAH metabolism. A given RHD genotype can be possessed by a variety of bacterial genera, suggesting horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important process for dissemination of PAH-degrading genes. But, mechanisms of HGT for most RHD genotypes are unknown. Here, we report in silico and functional analyses of the phenanthrene-degrading bacterium Delftia sp. Cs1-4, a representative of the phn(AFK2) RHD group. The phn(AFK2) genotype predominates PAH degrader communities in some soils and sediments, but, until now, their genomic biology has not been explored. In the present study, genes for the entire phenanthrene catabolic pathway were discovered on a novel ca. 232 kb genomic island (GEI), now termed the phn island. This GEI had characteristics of an integrative and conjugative element with a mobilization/stabilization system similar to that of SXT/R391-type GEI. But, it could not be grouped with any known GEI, and was the first member of a new GEI class. The island also carried genes predicted to encode: synthesis of quorum sensing signal molecules, fatty acid/polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis, a type IV secretory system, a PRTRC system, DNA mobilization functions and >50 hypothetical proteins. The 50% G + C content of the phn gene cluster differed significantly from the 66.7% G + C level of the island as a whole and the strain Cs1-4 chromosome, indicating a divergent phylogenetic origin for the phn genes. Collectively, these studies added new insights into the genetic elements affecting the PAH biodegradation capacity of microbial communities specifically, and the potential vehicles of HGT in general.

  19. The phn Island: A New Genomic Island Encoding Catabolism of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, William J.; Chen, Shicheng; Zhao, Jiangchao

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria are key in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are widespread environmental pollutants. At least six genotypes of PAH degraders are distinguishable via phylogenies of the ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (RHD) that initiates bacterial PAH metabolism. A given RHD genotype can be possessed by a variety of bacterial genera, suggesting horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important process for dissemination of PAH-degrading genes. But, mechanisms of HGT for most RHD genotypes are unknown. Here, we report in silico and functional analyses of the phenanthrene-degrading bacterium Delftia sp. Cs1-4, a representative of the phnAFK2 RHD group. The phnAFK2 genotype predominates PAH degrader communities in some soils and sediments, but, until now, their genomic biology has not been explored. In the present study, genes for the entire phenanthrene catabolic pathway were discovered on a novel ca. 232 kb genomic island (GEI), now termed the phn island. This GEI had characteristics of an integrative and conjugative element with a mobilization/stabilization system similar to that of SXT/R391-type GEI. But, it could not be grouped with any known GEI, and was the first member of a new GEI class. The island also carried genes predicted to encode: synthesis of quorum sensing signal molecules, fatty acid/polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis, a type IV secretory system, a PRTRC system, DNA mobilization functions and >50 hypothetical proteins. The 50% G + C content of the phn gene cluster differed significantly from the 66.7% G + C level of the island as a whole and the strain Cs1-4 chromosome, indicating a divergent phylogenetic origin for the phn genes. Collectively, these studies added new insights into the genetic elements affecting the PAH biodegradation capacity of microbial communities specifically, and the potential vehicles of HGT in general. PMID:22493593

  20. Species invasions on islands: searching for general patterns and principles

    Treesearch

    Q. Guo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous islands worldwide are being increasingly invaded by exotic species. However, the effects of invading species on native floras remain underexplored, particularly whether island biogeography theory is applicable to native, exotic, and the newly assembled floras. Inter-group comparisons across different regions or island groups through a collection of individual...

  1. Organizing Asian Pacific Islanders in an urban community to reduce HIV risk: a case study.

    PubMed

    Loue, S; Lloyd, L S; Phoombour, E

    1996-10-01

    We present a case study of community organization efforts within the Asian Pacific Islander communities of San Diego County to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. We utilized a five-phase process to implement the strategies of locality development, social planning, and social action: community analysis, program design and initiation, program implementation, program maintenance and consolidation, and program reassessment. An evaluation of the process indicates that there were increases over time in the project's activities as well as in the levels of interagency connectedness. This is one of the few reported efforts to organize Asian Pacific Islander groups to address HIV transmission. Key elements that led to the successful organization of the original project into a tax-exempt nonprofit entity (the Asian Pacific Islander Community AIDS Project) were emphasis on community ownership, reliance on group consensus, use of "gatekeepers" to access communities, simultaneous multilevel programming, and service to the community as a "coordinating" entity.

  2. Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world's islands.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Jetz, Walter; Kreft, Holger

    2013-09-17

    The Earth's islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world's marine islands >1 km(2) (∼98% of total island area). We consider area, temperature, precipitation, seasonality in temperature and precipitation, past climate change velocity, elevation, isolation, and past connectivity--key island characteristics and drivers of ecosystem processes. We find that islands are significantly cooler, wetter, and less seasonal than mainlands. Constrained by their limited area, they show less elevational heterogeneity. Wet temperate climates are more prevalent on islands, whereas desert climates are comparatively rare. We use ordination and clustering to characterize islands in multidimensional environmental space and to delimit island ecoregions, which provides unique insights into the environmental configuration and diversity of the world's islands. Combining ordination and classification together with global environmental data in a common framework opens up avenues for a more integrative use of islands in biogeography, macroecology, and conservation. To showcase possible applications of the presented data, we predict vascular plant species richness for all 17,883 islands based on statistically derived environment-richness relationships.

  3. Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world’s islands

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Patrick; Jetz, Walter; Kreft, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The Earth’s islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world’s marine islands >1 km2 (∼98% of total island area). We consider area, temperature, precipitation, seasonality in temperature and precipitation, past climate change velocity, elevation, isolation, and past connectivity—key island characteristics and drivers of ecosystem processes. We find that islands are significantly cooler, wetter, and less seasonal than mainlands. Constrained by their limited area, they show less elevational heterogeneity. Wet temperate climates are more prevalent on islands, whereas desert climates are comparatively rare. We use ordination and clustering to characterize islands in multidimensional environmental space and to delimit island ecoregions, which provides unique insights into the environmental configuration and diversity of the world’s islands. Combining ordination and classification together with global environmental data in a common framework opens up avenues for a more integrative use of islands in biogeography, macroecology, and conservation. To showcase possible applications of the presented data, we predict vascular plant species richness for all 17,883 islands based on statistically derived environment–richness relationships. PMID:24003123

  4. Notes on the ant genus Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species and a key to species of the C. pallida-group

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Collingwood, Cedric A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cataglyphis fisheri sp. n. is described and illustrated from the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia based on the worker caste. It belongs to the Cataglyphis pallida-group which is recorded for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula. Cataglyphis fisheri sp. n. is similar to Cataglyphis pallida Mayr, 1877 from Kazakhstan. Differential diagnosis between these two species is given and a key to the species of the Cataglyphis pallida-group is presented. Cataglyphis laylae Collingwood, 2011 is treated as a junior synonym of Cataglyphis saharae Santschi, 1929. Cataglyphis flavobrunnea Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 is redescribed and a lectotype for this species is designated. PMID:26798297

  5. Two new species of Xestoblatta Hebard, 1916 from Brazil, a redescription of Xestoblatta roppai Rocha e Silva Albuquerque & Fraga, 1975 and a key for the species of the buscki group (Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Blattellinae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva-da-Silva, Luiz Rafael; Lopes, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Xestoblatta from northern Brazil are described, Xestoblatta buhrnheimi sp. n. and Xestoblatta rondonensis sp. n., included in the buscki group Gurney (1939), and new characters are added to the description of Xestoblatta mamorensis Lopes & Oliveira, 2006. Xestoblatta roppai Rocha e Albuquerque-Silva & Fraga, 1975, from midwestern Brazil is redescribed, including its genital characters which were not previously described. Additionally, a key for the species of this group is provided, and photographs are given of the species in the habitus, of tergal modifications, and of the genitalia. PMID:26487828

  6. Hydroxypyridinonate complex stability of group (IV) metals and tetravalent f-block elements: the key to the next generation of chelating agents for radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Choi, Taylor A; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-04-06

    The solution thermodynamics of the water-soluble complexes formed between 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and Zr(IV) or Pu(IV) were investigated to establish the metal coordination properties of this octadentate chelating agent. Stability constants log β110 = 43.1 ± 0.6 and 43.5 ± 0.7 were determined for [Zr(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], respectively, by spectrophotometric competition titrations against Ce(IV). Such high thermodynamic stabilities not only confirm the unparalleled Pu(IV) affinity of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as a decorporation agent but also corroborate the great potential of hydroxypyridinonate ligands as new (89)Zr-chelating platforms for immuno-PET applications. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates and are discussed with respect to ionic radius and electronic configuration, in comparison with those of Ce(IV) and Th(IV). Furthermore, a liquid chromatography assay combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed to probe the separation of the neutral [M(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] complex species (M = Zr, Ce, Th, and Pu), providing additional insight into the coordination differences between group IV and tetravalent f-block metals and on the role of d and f orbitals in bonding interactions.

  7. Characterization of Ruminococcus albus cellodextrin phosphorylase and identification of a key phenylalanine residue for acceptor specificity and affinity to the phosphate group.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Tatsuya; Saburi, Wataru; Hamura, Ken; Matsui, Hirokazu; Mori, Haruhide

    2013-09-01

    Ruminococcus albus has the ability to intracellularly degrade cello-oligosaccharides primarily via phosphorolysis. In this study, the enzymatic characteristics of R. albus cellodextrin phosphorylase (RaCDP), which is a member of glycoside hydrolase family 94, was investigated. RaCDP catalyzes the phosphorolysis of cellotriose through an ordered 'bi bi' mechanism in which cellotriose binds to RaCDP before inorganic phosphate, and then cellobiose and glucose 1-phosphate (Glc1P) are released in that order. Among the cello-oligosaccharides tested, RaCDP had the highest phosphorolytic and synthetic activities towards cellohexaose and cellopentaose, respectively. RaCDP successively transferred glucosyl residues from Glc1P to the growing cello-oligosaccharide chain, and insoluble cello-oligosaccharides comprising a mean of eight residues were produced. Sophorose, laminaribiose, β-1,4-xylobiose, β-1,4-mannobiose and cellobiitol served as acceptors for RaCDP. RaCDP had very low affinity for phosphate groups in both the phosphorolysis and synthesis directions. A sequence comparison revealed that RaCDP has Gln at position 646 where His is normally conserved in the phosphate binding sites of related enzymes. A Q646H mutant showed approximately twofold lower apparent K(m) values for inorganic phosphate and Glc1P than the wild-type. RaCDP has Phe at position 633 corresponding to Tyr and Val in the +1 subsites of cellobiose phosphorylase and N,N'-diacetylchitobiose phosphorylase, respectively. A F633Y mutant showed higher preference for cellobiose over β-1,4-mannobiose as an acceptor substrate in the synthetic reaction than the wild-type. Furthermore, the F633Y mutant showed 75- and 1100-fold lower apparent Km values for inorganic phosphate and Glc1P, respectively, in phosphorolysis and synthesis of cellotriose. © 2013 FEBS.

  8. Geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Vacher, H. L.; Shinn,

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys, and focuses on the islands formed of Pleistocene limestone. These islands, which are crossed when driving from Miami to Key West, are typically regarded as "the Florida Keys." The outstanding and fragile character of ecosystems on and around the Florida Keys has prompted State and Federal efforts to protect and preserve the remaining public portions of the region. The Florida Keys were largely ignored during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, although the waters just offshore provided a major shipping thoroughfare to and from the New World. The Florida Keys are now recognized as one of the great recreational and environmental resources of the United States. The islands are outposts of a laid-back, tropical resort culture that has as its foundation warmth and clear water. A significant part of the attraction is fishing, diving, and boating around the area's coral reefs, which the islands protect. But the reefs were not always so highly valued. The Florida Keys that have protected the reefs for millennia, may now be the source of the agents that may accomplish what Agassiz thought was beyond man's power a century ago.

  9. Ogasawara Islands, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-12

    This image, acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, is of the volcanic Ogasawara Islands. The islands were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, in recognition of an outstanding example of ongoing evolutionary processes in oceanic island ecosystems.

  10. NSF/ESF Workshop on Smart Structures and Advanced Sensors, Santorini Island, Greece, June 26-28, 2005: Structural Actuation and Adaptation Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Tomizuka, Masayoshi; Bergman, Lawrence; Carpenter, Bernie; Salzano, Carmine; Bairrao, rogerio; Deraemaker, Arnaud; Magonette, Georges; Rodellar, Jose; Kadirkamanathan, Visaken

    2005-01-01

    This document is a result of discussions that took place during the workshop. It describes current state of research and development (R&D) in the areas of structural actuation and adaptation in the context of smart structures and advanced sensors (SS&AS), and provides an outlook to guide future R&D efforts to develop technologies needed to build SS&AS. The discussions took place among the members of the Structural Actuation and Adaptation Working Group, as well as in general sessions including all four working groups. Participants included members of academia, industry, and government from the US and Europe, and representatives from China, Japan, and Korea.

  11. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    NASA image acquired January 4, 2012 The Florida Keys many colors were captured when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite captured this true-color image. NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. Subsurface mapping of the Ross Island flexural basin, southwest Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenman, Christopher P.

    Ross Island is a post-Miocene (< 4.6 Ma) volcanic island located in the Ross Sea region of southwest Antarctica. This region of Antarctica borders the western edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, along the Transantarctic Mountain front. Marine and over-ice multi-channel seismic reflection surveys and borehole studies targeting the Ross Sea region over the last 30+ years have been used in this study to develop a seismic stratigraphic model of the development and evolution of the Ross Island flexural basin. Four key stratigraphic horizons were identified and mapped to fully capture the basin-fill, as well as strata lying above and below the flexural basin. From oldest to youngest these horizons are named RIB-m, RIM-g, RIM-b and RIB-r. Time structure, isochron and isochore maps were created for the horizons and the stratigraphic intervals they bound. The seismic stratigraphic record shows the Ross Island flexural moat formation post-dates the main tectonic subsidence phase within the Victoria Land Basin. The maps presented here are the first to fully illustrate the evolution of the Ross Island flexural basin. The maps highlight depositional patterns of two distinct periods of flexural subsidence and basin-filling superimposed on the older N-S trending Victoria Land Basin depocenter. Two units of flexural basin fill, Unit FFI between horizons RIM-g and RIM-b (the oldest flexural basin fill), and Unit FFII between horizons RIM-b and RIB-r (the youngest flexural basin fill) are associated with the two periods of flexural subsidence. Flexural moat subsidence and subsequent filling occurred episodically during periods of active volcanism on the island. Unit FFI is estimated to range from ca. 4 to 2 Ma, corresponding with formation of the Mt. Bird volcanic edifice on Ross Island. Unit FFII ranges in age from ca. 2 to 1 Ma, and is related to Mt. Terror, Mt. Erebus, and Hut Point Peninsula volcanism. The isochore maps suggest the depocenter of the flexural basin during

  13. Is religion or culture the key feature in changes in substance use after leaving school? Young Punjabis and a comparison group in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Bradby, Hannah; Williams, Rory

    2006-08-01

    To establish levels of use of tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs among 18-20 year old men and women of Asian (Punjabi) and non-Asian origin compared with levels four years earlier and consider the role of religion and culture in abstinent behaviour. Structured self-complete questionnaire used with 94% of pupils with South Asian names recorded by the Greater Glasgow education department in 1991 and a proportionate random sample of pupils in the same years who did not have South Asian names. Followed up in 1996 in an interviewer-led structured questionnaire in their own homes. Greater Glasgow, largest city in the west of Scotland. Eight hundred and twenty-four overwhelmingly British-born 14-15 year olds in 1992, 492 followed up aged 18-20 years in 1996. Self-report measures of ever having tried alcohol, tobacco and drugs and the quantities consumed at age 14-15 and 18-20. Indication of reasons for abstinence from substance use at age 18-20. Asians were much more abstinent from all these substances at both ages (p < 0.001), except for smoking at 18-20. However, religiously specific patterns of abstinence were particularly strong for alcohol (Muslim odds ratio 7- to 9-fold lower at 14-15, 16- to 25-fold lower at 18-20) and smoking (Sikh/Hindu odds ratio 10-fold lower than Muslims, 20-fold than Christians at 18-20), though there is a shared Asian tendency for women to observe these patterns more than men at 18-20. At age 14-15 abstinence was high in the largely British-born generation of Asians mainly for cultural reasons common to religious groups. Four years later culturally determined abstinence has atrophied, and abstinence reflects the specific influence of ascetic religious traditions, though some cultural influence remains in that women are more affected. Intergenerational changes are similar. The erosion of constraints on smoking presents a threat to health.

  14. Depth keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvili, Ronen; Kaplan, Amir; Ofek, Eyal; Yahav, Giora

    2003-05-01

    We present a new solution to the known problem of video keying in a natural environment. We segment foreground objects from background objects using their relative distance from the camera, which makes it possible to do away with the use of color for keying. To do so, we developed and built a novel depth video camera, capable of producing RGB and D signals, where D stands for the distance to each pixel. The new RGBD camera enables the creation of a whole new gallery of effects and applications such as multi-layer background substitutions. This new modality makes the production of real time mixed reality video possible, as well as post-production manipulation of recorded video. We address the problem of color spill -- in which the color of the foreground object is mixed, along its boundary, with the background color. This problem prevents an accurate separation of the foreground object from its background, and it is most visible when compositing the foreground objects to a new background. Most existing techniques are limited to the use of a constant background color. We offer a novel general approach to the problem with enabling the use of the natural background, based upon the D channel generated by the camera.

  15. Passage Key Inlet, Florida; CMS Modeling and Borrow Site Impact Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Island is a 7.5-mile-long barrier island located directly south of Tampa Bay and is the only barrier island located entirely within Manatee County. The...Anna Maria Island , the City of Sarasota SPP at Lido Key, Sarasota County SPP at Venice Beach, and a number of federally authorized channels. Local... island is located 40 miles south of the City of Tampa and 7 miles west of the City of Bradenton in Manatee County, FL. Historic datasets available

  16. A new, widely distributed species of the Exocelina ekari-group from West Papua (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdo, Helena; Panjaitan, Rawati; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exocelina manokwariensis sp. n. from West Papua is placed into the Exocelina ekari-group based on the structure of its male genitalia. The new species is described, including its three subspecies, from the mainland of West Papua, Waigeo Island, Batanta and Salawati Islands, and Bomberai peninsula. An identification key to the subspecies as well as data on species distribution are provided. PMID:26877680

  17. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  18. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  19. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  20. Island morphologies in epitaxial growth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe; Leskovar, M.; Rumaner, Lee; Ohuchi, Fumio; Olmstead, Marjorie A.; Ueno, Keiji; Koma, Atsushi

    1996-03-01

    Growth of epitaxial films commonly occurs through the coalescence of individual islands. The morphology of islands has therefore a key importance for the film qualities desired. A uniform layer-by-layer growth of the film is achieved when islands in the first layer coalesce to form a uniform layer before a second layer nucleates; a non-uniform multi-layer growth results from multiple layers successively nucleating on top of each other before the first layer coalesces. We developed a kinetic model based on an analytic solution of the diffusion equation between nucleation events to calculate the evolving island morphology during growth. The morphologies depend on deposition rate, substrate temperature, and activation energies for surface diffusion on the substrate and deposited material. By applying this theory to atomic force microscopy data of GaSe multi-layer islands, we extract a value for the activation energy for Ga diffusion across steps of GaSe. Supported by NSF Grant No. ECS-9209652, DOE Grant No. DE-FG06-94ER45516, and the Japanese New Energy Development Organization.

  1. Group Key Agreement Efficient in Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-14

    Communications Security, 1993. [7] Dan Boneh . The Decision Diffie-Hellman problem. In Third Algorithmic Number Theory Symposium, number 1423 in Lecture Notes...in Computer Science, pages 48–63. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Germany, 1998. [8] Dan Boneh and Alice Silverberg. Applications of multilinear forms to

  2. Exploring Robustness in Group Key Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    process ! in before a transitional signal, then ! delivers . If messages and are de- livered by process in view in this order, and is...the S or CM states and as specified by the protocol, they are de- livered as soon as they are received. Therefore, user messages are delivered only in...A@ CBD ? to -;:A@ , -;:A@ to -E< 5. Therefore, by the Virtual Synchrony property guar- anteed by GCS, processes , and 8 deliver the same 5Note that

  3. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  4. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  5. Submonolayer growth with decorated island edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrla, Miroslav; Krug, Joachim; Šmilauer, Pavel

    2000-05-01

    We study the dynamics of island nucleation in the presence of adsorbates using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a two-species growth model. Adatoms (A atoms) and impurities (B atoms) are codeposited, diffuse and aggregate subject to attractive AA and AB interactions. Activated exchange of adatoms with impurities is identified as the key process to maintain decoration of island edges by impurities during growth. While the presence of impurities strongly increases the island density, a change in the scaling of island density with flux, predicted by a rate equation theory for attachment-limited growth [D. Kandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 499], is not observed. We argue that, within the present model, even completely covered island edges do not provide efficient barriers to attachment.

  6. The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae) in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of C. incanum into subspecies, nor could populations be apportioned reliably into subspecies based on morphological features used to define the subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses affirmed the derived relationship of C. incanum relative to other cerionids, and indicated a Bahamian origin for the Cerion fauna of southern Florida. Relationships among the populations throughout the Keys indicate that the northernmost populations, closest to the Tomeu paleoislands that had been inhabited by Cerion petuchi during the Calabrian Pleistocene, are the oldest. The range of Cerion incanum expanded as the archipelago that is the Florida Keys was formed since the lower Tarantian Pleistocene by extension from the northeast to the southwest, with new islands populated as they were formed. The faunas of the High Coral Keys in the northeast and the Oölite Keys in the southwest, both with large islands that host multiple discontinuous populations of Cerion, are each composed of well supported clades that are characterized by distinctive haplotypes. In contrast, the fauna of the intervening Low Coral Keys consist of a heterogeneous series of populations, some with haplotypes derived from the High Coral Keys, others from the Oölite Keys. Individuals from the C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrid population inhabiting the southeastern coast of Bahia Honda Key were readily

  7. Exploring the association of sense of coherence, and spiritual and religious beliefs in a rural population group on the island of Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Stefanaki, Ioanna N; Shea, Sue; Linardakis, Manolis; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Wynyard, Robin; Lionis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of an observation study, aimed at exploring an association between spirituality, religiousness, and sense of coherence in a population group residing in a rural area of Crete, Greece. The study was conducted during the period 2007-2009. Subjects aged 65 years and older (n = 118) living in two remote and rural villages in the Heraklion county (Crete) were eligible. Eighty-nine people (51 women and 38 men) participated. Demographic data were obtained, and all participants were asked to complete the Greek version of the self-reported Royal Free Interview for Spiritual and Religious Beliefs, and the Sense of Coherence Scale. Most participants reported strong religious beliefs and this was found to be related with increased age. Widowed participants expressed greater religiousness and spirituality (p = 0.029). The total score for Sense of Coherence was negatively correlated with gender (women have lower scores, p < 0.05), marital status (widows presented lower scores, p < 0.001), and increased age. A strong positive correlation of the Sense of Coherence score with the Spiritual Scale as measured by three questions of the Royal Free Interview was also identified (p = 0.039). The impact of gender and marital status seem to be emerging determinants in defining sense of coherence among inhabitants of rural Crete. The positive association between religious/spiritual beliefs and sense of coherence deserves further attention to promote a multidimensional approach in its study.

  8. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-06-24

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  9. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  10. Iron speciation analysis of 3.2 Ga old DXCL-DP drillcore BIFs and shales of the Dixon Island Formation, Cleaverville Group, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, S.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2016-12-01

    In order to examine redox state of the ocean well before the inferred rise of atmospheric oxygen at around 2.4 Ga ago (a.k.a. GOE; e.g., Holland, 1994), we conducted geochemical studies of the 3.2 Ga old drillcore black shale and banded iron formation (BIF). The samples (CL3 core) that belong to the Cleaverville Group, were recovered in 2011 in the northwestern part of Pilbara district, Western Australia. The samples are free from effects of modern-weathering (containing layer-parallel and disseminated pyrite). We measured abundance of major elements by XRF and different Fe-bearing species (FeHCl, Fecarb, Feox, and Femag) of the 23 samples (17 BIF samples and 6 black shales). Furthermore, we extracted pyrite from 6 black shales by Cr reduction method (Canfield et al. 1986; Kobayashi, 2013) and estimated redox condition based on the DOP (degree of pyritization) values. Black shales in the lower part of the core have Al2O3 content (13.04-18.39 wt.%) that decreased toward upper part of the core where BIF dominates. The black shales have higher FeHR/FeTratios (highly-reactive Fe toward pyrite formation to total Fe). The DOP values of the black shales suggest that their sedimentary environment was anoxic. We then estimated, using mass balance calculation with PAAS (post-Archean Australian Average Shale), the origin of Fe in the samples. We found that Fe in the black shales in the lower part of the core was continental, whereas Fe in the BIF samples in the upper part of the core was mostly hydrothermal. We suggest that the samples used in this study represent environmental transitions from continent-dominated to submarine hydrothermal-dominated, Such environmental transition could be represented by modern Red Sea, where initiation of rifting created sedimentary basin where input of continental materials dominated, input from hydrothermal activity gradually increased, and BIF-like Fe-rich material accumulated. To test the above hypothesis, we will provide trace element

  11. Water resources of the Palau Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    The Palau Islands are a group of 350 islands, ranging in size from a few hundred square feet to the 153-square-mile island of Babelthuap. Babelthuap is the second largest island in the Western Pacific and comprises more than 80 percent of the total land area of the Palau Islands. Most of the islands are uninhabited limestone ridges covered with dense vegetation. These islands have no freshwater resources and are not included in this report. The island of Koror with an area of 3.6 square miles is the administrative, commercial, and population center of Palau and has an annual average rainfall of 148 inches. Short-term rainfall records at other locations in the islands indicate little variation in annual rainfall throughout the Palau Islands. Runoff-to-rainfall ratios for streams on Babelthuap show that about 70 percent of the rain falling on the island runs off to the ocean. The uniformity of rainfall and basin characteristics is shown by the excellent correlation between mean annual rainfall on Koror and streamflow on Babelthuap and by the close correlations between discharge at gaging stations and partial-record sites. Surface water quality is generally very good as shown by 55 chemical analyses of water from 18 sources. The dissolved solids concentration of water samples did not exceed 66 milligrams per liter. This report summarizes in one volume hydrologic data collection in a 14-year period of study and provides interpretations of the data than can be used by planners and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of the islands ' water resources.

  12. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

  13. Increase of island density via formation of secondary ordered islands on pit-patterned Si (001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.; Schmidt, O.G.; Bauer, G.

    2005-09-26

    Site-controlled groups of Ge islands are grown on pit-patterned Si (001) substrates. By varying the deposited amount of Ge, we find that the growth starts with the formation of a single island at the pit bottom and then proceeds to the formation of a highly symmetric Ge island group around the pit top. A bimodal size distribution of dome-shaped islands at the bottom and at the top corners of the pits is observed. A growth mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain these phenomena. Our experiments help to promote a further understanding of Ge island growth on patterned substrates.

  14. Revision of the western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae). Part 1: Introduction, key to species groups, outlying distinctive species, and revisionary notes on some further species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Shaw, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Seven new species of the genus Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838 (Braconidae: Rogadinae) are described and illustrated: Aleiodes abraxanae sp. n., Aleiodes angustipterus sp. n., Aleiodes artesiariae sp. n., Aleiodes carminatus sp. n., Aleiodes diarsianae sp. n., Aleiodes leptofemur sp. n., and Aleiodes ryrholmi sp. n. A neotype is designated for each of Aleiodes circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) and Aleiodes pictus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838), and both species are redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes ochraceus Hellén, 1927 (not Aleiodes ochraceus (Curtis, 1834)) is renamed as Aleiodes curticornis nom. n. & stat. rev., and redescribed and illustrated. Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman, 1917, Aleiodes nigriceps Wesmael, 1838, and Aleiodes reticulatus (Noskiewicz, 1956), are re-instated as valid species. A lectotype is designated for Aleiodes bistrigatus Roman. An illustrated key is given to some distinctive species and the residual species groups along which further parts of an entire revision of western Palaearctic species of Aleiodes and Heterogamus will be organised. Biology, host associations and phenology are discussed for the keyed species (in addition to the above, Aleiodes albitibia (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838), Aleiodes apiculatus (Fahringer, 1932), Aleiodes arcticus (Thomson, 1892), Aleiodes cantherius (Lyle, 1919), Aleiodes esenbeckii (Hartig, 1834), Aleiodes jakowlewi (Kokujev, 1898), Aleiodes modestus (Reinhard, 1863), Aleiodes nigricornis Wesmael, 1838, Aleiodes pallidator (Thunberg, 1822), Aleiodes praetor (Reinhard, 1863), Aleiodes seriatus (Herrich- Schäffer, 1838) sensu lato, Aleiodes testaceus (Telenga, 1941), Aleiodes ungularis (Thomson, 1892), and Aleiodes varius (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838)) which are dealt with in full here (with the exception of Aleiodes seriatus s.l. which is, however, included in the key). The experimental methodology covering the revision as a whole, which involves some behavioural investigation, is outlined. PMID:28138281

  15. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, December 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-05-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for nine sites located at the Barter Island radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the 14 sites located at the Barter Island installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, nine sites are recommended for no further action.

  16. Reconciling more than 150 years of taxonomic confusion: the true identity of Moenkhausia lepidura, with a key to the species of the M. lepidura group (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Marinho, Manoela M F; Langeani, Francisco

    2016-05-03

    Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner) is redescribed based on the examination of the type and other specimens from several localities of the Amazon and Orinoco basins. The species is readly diagnosed from congeners by a combination of a dark blotch on the upper caudal-fin lobe, lower lobe hyaline, and by the arrangement of predorsal scales, in which scales of anterior portion of predorsal area are arranged in pairs, followed by a single median row of scales extending to dorsal-fin origin. The analysis of the type material of Gymnotichthys hildae Fernández-Yépez and Knodus calliurus Ahl demonstrated the former is a junior synonym of Moenkhausia lepidura, whereas the latter should be removed from its synonymy. An identification key to the Moenkhausia lepidura-group is provided.

  17. Diversity of Aulacidae (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea) in the oceanic Ogasawara Islands (Japan), with description of a new species from Anijima Island.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Konishi, Kazuhiko; Turrisi, Giuseppe Fabrizio

    2013-11-12

    In the context of the biodiversity conservation of the oceanic Ogasawara Islands, the parasitoid species of Aulacidae are reviewed. We examined material from eight islands with or without invasion of the introduced lizard Anolis carolinensis (Voigt 1832) (green anoles): two species of Pristaulacus Kieffer 1900, P. boninensis Konishi, 1989, and P. anijimensis sp. nov., are recognized. The former species is widely distributed in the islands, whereas the latter species is found from a single island only, Anijima Island. Although this island appears to be currently well preserved, the recent introduction of green anoles will probably affect the conservation status of many species, including the endemic P. anijimensis sp. nov. A description of the new species, detailed drawings and descriptions of genitalia of both recognized species, an updated key to Japanese Aulacidae, and a brief discussion on the conservation aspects of Aulacidae in the Ogasawara Islands are provided.

  18. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  19. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     ... View an animated gif (371 kb) A large tabular iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West ...

  20. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  1. Sakhalin Island, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-04

    This image from NASA EarthKAM is of Sakhalin Island, located just north of Japan and east of the Khabarovski and Primorski Krai of the Russian Far East. With the Kuril Islands, it forms Sakhalin Province.

  2. Palm Islands, Dubai, UAE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-02

    The Palm Islands are artificial islands in Dubai, United Arab emirates on which major commercial and residential structures are being built. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image on November 17 and December 10, 2008.

  3. First evaluation steps of a new method for dietary intake estimation regarding a list of key food groups in adults and in different sociodemographic and health-related behaviour strata.

    PubMed

    Béjar, Luis M

    2017-10-01

    A new method known as 'current-day dietary recall' (current-day recall) is based on an application for mobile phones called 'electronic 12 h dietary recall' (e-12HR). This new method was designed to rank participants into categories of habitual intake regarding a series of key food groups. The present study compared current-day recall against a previously validated short paper FFQ. Participants recorded the consumption of selected food groups using e-12HR during twenty-eight consecutive days and then filled out a short paper FFQ at the end of the study period. To evaluate the association and agreement between both methods, Spearman's correlation coefficients (SCC), cross-classification analysis and weighted kappa statistics (κ w) were used. Andalusia, Spain, Southern Europe. University students and employees over the age of 18 years. One hundred and eighty-seven participants completed the study (64·2 % female, 35·8 % male). For all particpants, for all food group intakes, the mean SCC was 0·70 (SCC≥0·62 were observed for all strata); the mean percentage of participants cross-classified into categories of 'exact agreement+adjacent' was 90·1 % (percentages≥87·8 % were observed for all strata); and the mean κ w was 0·55 (κ w≥0·53 in ten of the twelve strata). For the whole sample and for all strata thereof, the current-day recall has good agreement with the previously validated short paper FFQ for assessing food group intakes, rendering it a useful method for ranking individuals.

  4. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  6. Island of Timor, Indonesia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-11-27

    This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

  7. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  8. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  9. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the island is visible within a relatively clear area of open ocean. In the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by ... Steep cliffs surrounding most sides of the island also made access difficult, and after various attempts, a landing was made in 1822 by an ...

  11. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  12. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  14. Phylogeography and seed dispersal in islands: the case of Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis (Polygonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, María; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is an endemic taxon to Macaronesia with diaspore polymorphism. The origin and colonizing route of this taxon in Macaronesia was studied using molecular data and information on diaspore types. Methods Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used in 260 plants from 22 populations of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis, four from the Madeiran archipelago and 18 from the Canary archipelago. Diaspore production was analysed in 9–50 plants from each population used for AFLP analysis. One hundred and one plants from the Madeiran archipelago and 375 plants from the Canary Islands were studied. For each plant the type of diaspore produced was recorded. Key Results Overall populations had low genetic diversity but they showed a geographical pattern of genetic diversity that was higher in the older eastern islands than in the younger western ones. Two types of dispersible diaspores were found: in the eastern Canary islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria), plants produced exclusively long-dispersible diaspores, whereas in the western Canary islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro) and the Madeiran archipelago plants produced exclusively short-dispersible diaspores. Genetically, the studied populations fell into four main island groups: Lanzarote–Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife–El Hierro and La Gomera–Madeira archipelago. Conclusions A Moroccan origin of R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis is hypothesized with a colonization route from the eastern to the western islands. In addition, at least one gene flow event from La Gomera to the Madeiran archipelago has taken place. During the colonization process the type of dispersible diaspore changed so that dispersability decreased in populations of the westernmost islands. PMID:23267005

  15. Key Objectives Bank: Year 7. Key Stage 3: National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    In each sub-section of the "Framework for Teaching English: Years 7, 8 and 9," certain key objectives are identified in boldface print. These objectives are key because they signify skills or understanding which are crucial to pupil's language development. They are challenging for the age group and are important markers of progress. This…

  16. Norfolk Island, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-13

    Situated 1670 km northeast of Sydney, Norfolk Island is an Australian Territory. It was permanently settled in 1856 by Pitcairn Islanders who were descendants of Tahitians and HMS Bounty mutineers. In 1979 Norfolk was granted limited self-government: the island elects a government that runs most of the island's affairs. In March, a local council replaced the local government, and the island was given closer financial ties to Australia. The image was acquired November 12, 2009, covers an area of 9 x 11 km, and is located at 29 degrees south, 168 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19463

  17. Diplectanids from Mycteroperca spp. (Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Redescriptions of six species from material collected off Tunisia and Libya, proposal for the 'Pseudorhabdosynochus riouxi group', and a taxonomic key.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2017-01-01

    Diplectanid monogeneans are gill parasites that can infect fish in huge numbers and thus become harmful, especially in maricultured fish. It is therefore useful to have taxonomic tools, such as keys, to identify species. The following diplectanid species from groupers of the Mediterranean Sea were studied: five species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958, including P. riouxi (Oliver, 1986) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata, P. enitsuji Neifar & Euzet, 2007, P. bouaini Neifar & Euzet, 2007, P. dolicocolpos Neifar & Euzet, 2007 and P. sinediscus Neifar & Euzet, 2007 from the goldblotch grouper M. costae, and Echinoplectanum echinophallus (Euzet & Oliver, 1965) Justine & Euzet, 2006 from the dusky grouper. New material was obtained from fish collected from off Tunisia and Libya and compared to the type-material and voucher specimens in museum collections. Identifications of fish were confirmed by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. The sclerotized vagina was considered the most important structure for systematics. The three species P. riouxi, P. bouaini, and P. enitsuji share a common general structure of the sclerotized vagina with a conspicuous spherical secondary chamber. We thus propose the 'Pseudorhabdosynochus riouxi group' to accommodate them. Pseudorhabdosynochus dolicocolpos has an elongate vaginal structure that is completely different from all its congeneric species reported from the Mediterranean Sea, and Pseudorhabdosynochus sinediscus has a sclerotized vagina in which the secondary chamber is not visible, and a haptor without squamodiscs. A taxonomic key to diplectanid species on Mycteroperca spp. in the Mediterranean Sea is proposed; it includes ten species of Pseudorhabdosynochus and one species of Echinoplectanum.

  18. Divergent genetic strata in five Bahamian islands.

    PubMed

    Simms, Tanya M; Barrett, Dianne A; McCartney, Quinn; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-01-01

    Based on historical records, the genetic landscape of the Bahamian archipelago is presumed to be complex and to exhibit island-specific characteristics, yet the genetic composition of the island chain, which could corroborate or refute these past accounts, remains poorly defined. As such, the current investigation was undertaken to genetically characterize 5 Bahamian populations representing the Northwest (Grand Bahama and Abaco) and Central (Eleuthera, Exuma and Long Island) Bahamas across the 15 autosomal Identifiler loci routinely employed in forensic analyses. Altogether, our findings suggest that Bahamians are a genetically heterogeneous group, with each island sampled receiving differential contributions from African, European, East Asian and Native American sources. Even though the strongest genetic signal in all 5 collections emanates from continental Africa, inter-island differentiation is noted in both the Structure and admixture analyses. The presence of alleles not in common among the 5 insular populations also signals genetic heterogeneity among the islands of the archipelago. This is especially the case when considering the Long Island population, which exhibits statistically significant genetic differences in relation to the other Bahamian collections and the New World groups of African descent (Afro-American and Afro-Caribbean) in the G-test pair-wise comparisons, even after application of the Bonferroni adjustment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-08

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  20. Geologic Map of Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Zumsteg, Cathy L.; Layer, Paul W.; Friedman, Richard M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    This map updates the geology of Baranof Island based on fieldwork, petrographic analyses, paleontologic ages, and isotopic ages. These new data provide constraints on depositional and metamorphic ages of lithostratigraphic rock units and the timing of structures that separate them. Kinematic analyses and thermobarometric calculations provide insights on the regional tectonic processes that affected the rocks on Baranof Island. The rocks on Baranof Island are components of a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary oceanic volcanic arc complex, including sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on and adjacent to the arc complex, deformed, and accreted. The arc complex consists of greenschist to amphibolite facies Paleozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks overlain by lower-grade Triassic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and intruded by Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The Paleozoic rocks correlate well in age and lithology with rocks of the Sicker and Buttle Lake Groups of the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island and differ from rocks of the Skolai Group that constitute basement to type-Wrangellia in the Wrangell Mountains. The Jurassic intrusive rocks are correlative with plutons that intrude the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island but are lacking in the Wrangell Mountains. The rocks accreted beneath the arc complex are referred to as the Baranof Accretionary Complex in this report and are correlated with the Chugach Accretionary Complex of southern and southeastern Alaska and with the Pacific Rim Complex on Vancouver Island. Stratigraphic correlations between upper- and lower-plate rocks on Baranof Island and western Chichagof Island with rocks on Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island, in addition to correlative ages of intrusive rocks and restorations of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Chatham Strait, and Peril Strait Faults that define the Baranof-Chichagof block, suggest Baranof Island was near Vancouver Island at the time of initiation of arc

  1. Using Remote Sensing Data and Research Results for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maury; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides information on the characteristics of the urban heat island, research designed to provide the data needed to develop effective urban heat island reduction strategies, and the development of local working groups to develop implementation plans. As background, an overview of research results on the urban heat island phenomenon and the resultant effect on energy usage and air quality will be explored. The use of more reflective roofing materials, paving materials, tree planting, and other initiatives will be explored as a basis for strategies to mitigate urban heat islands and improve the urban environment. Current efforts to use aircraft remote sensing data in Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City and our work with non-profit organizations designated to lead public education and strategic development efforts will be presented. Efforts to organize working groups comprised of key stakeholders, the process followed in communicating research results, and methodology for soliciting feedback and incorporating ideas into local plans, policies and decision-making will be discussed. Challenges in developing and transferring data products and research results to stakeholders will be presented. It is our ultimate goal that such efforts be integrated into plans and/or decision models that encourage sustainable development.

  2. Using Remote Sensing Data and Research Results for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maury; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides information on the characteristics of the urban heat island, research designed to provide the data needed to develop effective urban heat island reduction strategies, and the development of local working groups to develop implementation plans. As background, an overview of research results on the urban heat island phenomenon and the resultant effect on energy usage and air quality will be explored. The use of more reflective roofing materials, paving materials, tree planting, and other initiatives will be explored as a basis for strategies to mitigate urban heat islands and improve the urban environment. Current efforts to use aircraft remote sensing data in Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City and our work with non-profit organizations designated to lead public education and strategic development efforts will be presented. Efforts to organize working groups comprised of key stakeholders, the process followed in communicating research results, and methodology for soliciting feedback and incorporating ideas into local plans, policies and decision-making will be discussed. Challenges in developing and transferring data products and research results to stakeholders will be presented. It is our ultimate goal that such efforts be integrated into plans and/or decision models that encourage sustainable development.

  3. Genomic Island Identification Software v 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-25

    Genomic islands are key mobile DNA elements in bacterial evolution, that can distinguish pathogenic strains from each other, or distinguish pathogenic strains from non-pathogenic strains. Their detection in genomes is a challenging problem. We present 3 main software components that attack the island detection problem on two different bases: 1) the preference of islands to insert in chromosomal tRNA or tmRNA genes (islander.pl), and 2) islands’ sporadic occurrence among closely related strains. The latter principle is employed in both an algorithm (learnedPhyloblocks.pl) and a visualization method (panGenome.pl). Component islander.pl finds islands based on their preference for a particular target gene type. We annotate each tRNA and tmRNA gene, find fragments of each such gene as candidates for the distal ends of islands, and filter candidates to remove false positives. Component learnedPhyloblocks.pl uses islands found by islander.pl and other methods as a training set to find new islands. Reference genomes are aligned using mugsy, then the “phylotypes” or patterns of occurrence in the reference set are determined for each position in the target genome, and those phylotypes most enriched in the training set of islands are followed to detect yet more islands. Component panGenome.pl produces a big-data visualization of the chromosomally-ordered “pan-genome”, that includes every gene of every reference genome (x-axis, pan-genome order; y-axis, reference genomes; color-coding, gene presence/absence etc.), islands appearing as dark patches.

  4. Island biology and ecosystem functioning in epiphytic soil communities.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Yeates, Gregor W; Barker, Gary M; Bellingham, Peter J; Bonner, Karen I; Williamson, Wendy M

    2003-09-19

    Although island attributes such as size and accessibility to colonizing organisms can influence community structure, the consequences of these for ecosystem functioning are little understood. A study of the suspended soils of spatially discrete epiphytes or treetop "islands" in the canopies of New Zealand rainforest trees revealed that different components of the decomposer community responded either positively or negatively to island size, as well as to the tree species that the islands occurred in. This in turn led to important differences between islands in the rates of ecosystem processes driven by the decomposer biota. This system serves as a model for better understanding how attributes of both real and habitat islands may affect key ecosystem functions through determining the community structure of organisms that drive these functions.

  5. Supporting Pacific Island Countries to Strengthen Their Resistance to Tobacco Industry Interference in Tobacco Control: A Case Study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

  6. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-04

    This image is a perspective view acquired by NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar AIRSAR in 2001, is of Umnak Island, one of Alaska Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

  7. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska #2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-04

    This image is a perspective view acquired by NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar AIRSAR in 2001, is of Umnak Island, one of Alaska Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

  8. Disturbed island ecology.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, R J

    1995-10-01

    The natural occurrence of significant disturbances to the operation of insular ecosystems has tended to be downplayed in the development of island ecological theory. Despite the importance of events such as Hurricane Hugo, which in 1989 affected islands in the Caribbean, islands that are disturbed tend to be viewed as deviants from the `true path' described by equilibrium models. However, particularly with organisms of long generation times, it is questionable whether such models are applicable. This may be as important for wildlife managers to take account of as for theorists. Disturbance regime should be incorporated into island ecological models alongside other ecological factors structuring colonization patterns and turnover.

  9. Bardsey Island, Wales

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-01

    Lying 3 km off the Llyn peninsula of Wales, the Bardsey Island is known as the Island of 20,000 saints. While today's permanent population numbers only four, the island was once an important religious site, with a 6th century monastery. It is the legendary burial site of King Arthur. Another legend holds that anyone who died on the island would not go to hell. The image was acquired April 4, 2006, covers an area of 6 by 10 km, and is located at 52.7 degrees north, 4.8 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21182

  10. The biogeography of globally threatened seabirds and island conservation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Dena R; Newton, Kelly M; Heinz, Reina; Tershy, Bernie; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Croll, Donald A

    2014-10-01

    Seabirds are the most threatened group of marine animals; 29% of species are at some risk of extinction. Significant threats to seabirds occur on islands where they breed, but in many cases, effective island conservation can mitigate these threats. To guide island-based seabird conservation actions, we identified all islands with extant or extirpated populations of the 98 globally threatened seabird species, as recognized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and quantified the presence of threatening invasive species, protected areas, and human populations. We matched these results with island attributes to highlight feasible island conservation opportunities. We identified 1362 threatened breeding seabird populations on 968 islands. On 803 (83%) of these islands, we identified threatening invasive species (20%), incomplete protected area coverage (23%), or both (40%). Most islands with threatened seabirds are amenable to island-wide conservation action because they are small (57% were <1 km(2) ), uninhabited (74%), and occur in high- or middle-income countries (96%). Collectively these attributes make islands with threatened seabirds a rare opportunity for effective conservation at scale. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Introduction to the Special Issue: Advances in island plant biology since Sherwin Carlquist's Island Biology

    PubMed Central

    Traveset, Anna; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Kueffer, Christoph; Bellingham, Peter J.; Morden, Clifford; Drake, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Sherwin Carlquist's seminal publications—in particular his classic Island Biology, published in 1974—formulated hypotheses specific to island biology that remain valuable today. This special issue brings together some of the most interesting contributions presented at the First Island Biology Symposium hosted in Honolulu on 7–11 July 2014. We compiled a total of 18 contributions that present data from multiple archipelagos across the world and from different disciplines within the plant sciences. In this introductory paper, we first provide a short overview of Carlquist's life and work and then summarize the main findings of the collated papers. A first group of papers deals with issues to which Carlquist notably contributed: long-distance dispersal, adaptive radiation and plant reproductive biology. The findings of such studies demonstrate the extent to which the field has advanced thanks to (i) the increasing availability and richness of island data, covering many taxonomic groups and islands; (ii) new information from the geosciences, phylogenetics and palaeoecology, which allows us a more realistic understanding of the geological and biological development of islands and their biotas; and (iii) the new theoretical and methodological advances that allow us to assess patterns of abundance, diversity and distribution of island biota over large spatial scales. Most other papers in the issue cover a range of topics related to plant conservation on islands, such as causes and consequences of mutualistic disruptions (due to pollinator or disperser losses, introduction of alien predators, etc.). Island biologists are increasingly considering reintroducing ecologically important species to suitable habitats within their historic range and to neighbouring islands with depauperate communities of vertebrate seed dispersers, and an instructive example is given here. Finally, contributions on ecological networks demonstrate the usefulness of this methodological tool to

  12. Introduction to the Special Issue: Advances in island plant biology since Sherwin Carlquist's Island Biology.

    PubMed

    Traveset, Anna; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Kueffer, Christoph; Bellingham, Peter J; Morden, Clifford; Drake, Donald R

    2015-12-31

    Sherwin Carlquist's seminal publications-in particular his classic Island Biology, published in 1974-formulated hypotheses specific to island biology that remain valuable today. This special issue brings together some of the most interesting contributions presented at the First Island Biology Symposium hosted in Honolulu on 7-11 July 2014. We compiled a total of 18 contributions that present data from multiple archipelagos across the world and from different disciplines within the plant sciences. In this introductory paper, we first provide a short overview of Carlquist's life and work and then summarize the main findings of the collated papers. A first group of papers deals with issues to which Carlquist notably contributed: long-distance dispersal, adaptive radiation and plant reproductive biology. The findings of such studies demonstrate the extent to which the field has advanced thanks to (i) the increasing availability and richness of island data, covering many taxonomic groups and islands; (ii) new information from the geosciences, phylogenetics and palaeoecology, which allows us a more realistic understanding of the geological and biological development of islands and their biotas; and (iii) the new theoretical and methodological advances that allow us to assess patterns of abundance, diversity and distribution of island biota over large spatial scales. Most other papers in the issue cover a range of topics related to plant conservation on islands, such as causes and consequences of mutualistic disruptions (due to pollinator or disperser losses, introduction of alien predators, etc.). Island biologists are increasingly considering reintroducing ecologically important species to suitable habitats within their historic range and to neighbouring islands with depauperate communities of vertebrate seed dispersers, and an instructive example is given here. Finally, contributions on ecological networks demonstrate the usefulness of this methodological tool to

  13. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  14. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the long-eared bats (Plecotus) in the Mediterranean Palaearctic and Atlantic Islands.

    PubMed

    Juste, J; Ibáñez, C; Muñoz, J; Trujillo, D; Benda, P; Karataş, A; Ruedi, M

    2004-06-01

    Long-eared bats of the genus Plecotus are widespread and common over most of the western Palaearctic. Based on recent molecular evidence, they proved to represent a complex of several cryptic species, with three new species being described from Europe in 2002. Evolutionary relationships among the different lineages are still fragmentary because of the limited geographic coverage of previous studies. Here we analyze Plecotus mitochondrial DNA sequences from the entire Mediterranean region and Atlantic Islands. Phylogenetic reconstructions group these western Palaearctic Plecotus into two major clades which split at least 5 Myr ago and that are each subdivided into further subgroups. An 'auritus group' includes the traditional P. auritus species and its sister taxon P. macrobullaris (=P. alpinus) plus related specimens from the Middle East. P. auritus and P. macrobullaris have broadly overlapping distributions in Europe, although the latter is apparently more restricted to mountain ranges. The other major clade, the 'austriacus group,' includes the European species P. austriacus and at least two other related taxa from North Africa (including P. teneriffae from the Canary Islands), the Balkans and Anatolia (P. kolombatovici). The sister species of this 'austriacus group' is P. balensis, an Ethiopian endemic. Phylogenetic reconstructions further suggest that P. austriacus reached Madeira during its relatively recent westward expansion through Europe, while the Canary Islands were colonized by a North African ancestor. Although colonization of the two groups of Atlantic Islands by Plecotus bats followed very distinct routes, neither involved lineages from the 'auritus group.' Furthermore, the Strait of Gibraltar perfectly segregates the distinct lineages, which confirms its key role as a geographic barrier. This study also stresses the biogeographical importance of the Mediterranean region, and particularly of North Africa, in understanding the evolution of the western

  15. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National...

  16. White Sea Islands: contemporary relief dynamics and history of the development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosevich, N.

    2012-04-01

    The fundamental problem of isolated areas of land relief formation that created and changed by the interaction of both continental and oceanic natural processes. The main objective is to reveal the main geomorphological features of islands and their development tendencies, to reconstruct the late Pleistocene and Holocene formation history, and to systematize the present ideas according to integrated geomorphological approach. The main objects of study are so called «small» islands with the areas not exceeding few hundred square kilometers. A small land area, surrounded by water, is a good model that allows to visualize the results of interaction between endogenous and exogenous factors and relief formation conditions (continental and oceanic). Relationship between conditions, factors and processes of relief formation on islands are extremely complex, variable and ambiguous. A small island gives an opportunity to trace the initial stages of land origin, the first stages of subaerial relief development, and in general - the first steps of nature evolution after its emergence from the ocean. Therefore, their integrated study is an important fundamental problem in modern science. Our preliminary studies included: • Analysis of existing information on the White Sea islands relief. • Elaboration of the geological and geomorphologic array concept based on remotely sensed data. • Typify the islands using compiled data sets. • Large-scale mapping of geomorphologic and morpho-structural peculiarities of islands and/or island groups and allocation of the key model territories. The present field studies include: 1. Geomorphologic survey of the selected areas. 2. Drilling and sinking of prospect-holes of lacustrine-swamp, alluvial, marine, aeolian, and other deposits with sampling for further analysis (diatom, lithologic, etc.) to determine the conditions of sediments formation. Particular attention is paid to identification and sampling of carbon containing material

  17. We, the Asians and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    This booklet, fifth in a series of six, presents a descriptive statistical profile of the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans based on data from the 1980 U.S. Census. The census identifies more than 20 specific population groups, and growth in terms of numbers and diversity is highlighted. Total population for these groups numbered 3.7 million…

  18. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  19. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  20. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  1. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Asian or Pacific Islander. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Asian or Pacific Islander include: (1) Top 10 Asian and Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs: SY 2013-14; (2)…

  2. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  3. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  4. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  5. Ascidia subterranea sp. nov. (Phlebobranchia: Ascidiidae), a new tunicate belonging to the A. sydneiensis Stimpson, 1855 group, found as burrow associate of Axiopsis serratifrons A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 (Decapoda: Axiidae) on Derawan Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kneer, Dominik; Monniot, Francoise; Stach, Thomas; Christianen, Marjolijn J A

    2013-02-22

    A new tunicate, Ascidia subterranea sp. nov., was found in burrows of the axiid crustacean Axiopsis serratifrons on Derawan Island, Indonesia. It differs from other ascidians in its habitat as well as numerous morphological peculiarities which are described in detail. The shrimp Rostronia stylirostris Holthuis, 1952 was found inside A. subterranea sp. nov., and 4 species of bivalves, 3 species of polychaetes, 1 gastropod, 1 polyplacophoran and 1 sponge species were found as burrow associates besides the ascidian.

  6. Strategies to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Filipina women in Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Aitaoto, Nia; Tsark, JoAnn U.; Wong, Danette Tomiyasu; Yamashita, Barbara A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai’i Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) offers free mammograms and Pap smears to women who are uninsured or underinsured through a statewide provider network. Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and Filipinas are priority populations for this program, and BCCCP providers are required through contract with the Hawaii Department of Health to utilize half of their allotted mammograms and Pap smears for eligible women from these groups. To identify strategies for increasing use by these groups of mammography and Pap smear screening services through BCCCP, we held focus groups with women who could potentially use BCCCP services, and we conducted key informant interviews with 9 of Hawai’i’s 11 BCCCP providers and 9 non-BCCCP outreach workers serving these populations. Findings led to recommendations for promoting awareness of BCCCP and enhancing outreach to Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander and Filipina communities in Hawai’i. PMID:19842363

  7. Canary Islands (Spain): Their Importance in NATO’s Strategy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-22

    reader to appreciate the value of this region. The archipelago, which is called in Spanish ISLAS CANARIAS , is situated in the North Atlantic Ocean...considered to be divided into two groups of * islands. One is the eastern islands, made up of Gran Canaria , Lanzarote and Fuerteventura and the other...Alegranza, Montana Clara, Roque del Este, Roque del 6 -Lmm ,.. . Oeste and Isla de Lobos. The main and most populated islands are Gran Canaria in the

  8. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    PubMed Central

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation. PMID:27353723

  9. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation.

  10. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-30

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on 18 September 2006.

  11. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  12. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  13. Entire Island of Crete

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-364 (22 June 1973) --- Lying in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the entire Island of Crete (35.0N, 25.0E) can be seen in great detail in this cloud free view. The volcanic origins of this island can also be observed in the many sharp and angular ridgelines and rugged coastal features. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  15. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  16. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  17. Genetic Divergence of an Avian Endemic on the Californian Channel Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Amy G.; Chan, Yvonne; Taylor, Sabrina S.; Arcese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Californian Channel Islands are near–shore islands with high levels of endemism, but extensive habitat loss has contributed to the decline or extinction of several endemic taxa. A key parameter for understanding patterns of endemism and demography in island populations is the magnitude of inter–island dispersal. This paper estimates the extent of migration and genetic differentiation in three extant and two extinct populations of Channel Island song sparrows (Melospiza melodia graminea). Inter–island differentiation was substantial (G''ST: 0.14–0.37), with San Miguel Island having the highest genetic divergence and lowest migration rates. Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Island populations were less diverged with higher migration rates. Genetic signals of past population declines were detected in all of the extant populations. The Channel Island populations were significantly diverged from mainland populations of M. m. heermanni (G''ST: 0.30–0.64). Ten mtDNA haplotypes were recovered across the extant and extinct Channel Island population samples. Two of the ten haplotypes were shared between the Northern and Southern Channel Islands, with one of these haplotypes being detected on the Californian mainland. Our results suggest that there is little contemporary migration between islands, consistent with early explanations of avian biogeography in the Channel Islands, and that song sparrow populations on the northern Channel Islands are demographically independent. PMID:26308717

  18. Genetic Divergence of an Avian Endemic on the Californian Channel Islands.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Amy G; Chan, Yvonne; Taylor, Sabrina S; Arcese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Californian Channel Islands are near-shore islands with high levels of endemism, but extensive habitat loss has contributed to the decline or extinction of several endemic taxa. A key parameter for understanding patterns of endemism and demography in island populations is the magnitude of inter-island dispersal. This paper estimates the extent of migration and genetic differentiation in three extant and two extinct populations of Channel Island song sparrows (Melospiza melodia graminea). Inter-island differentiation was substantial (G''ST: 0.14-0.37), with San Miguel Island having the highest genetic divergence and lowest migration rates. Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Island populations were less diverged with higher migration rates. Genetic signals of past population declines were detected in all of the extant populations. The Channel Island populations were significantly diverged from mainland populations of M. m. heermanni (G''ST: 0.30-0.64). Ten mtDNA haplotypes were recovered across the extant and extinct Channel Island population samples. Two of the ten haplotypes were shared between the Northern and Southern Channel Islands, with one of these haplotypes being detected on the Californian mainland. Our results suggest that there is little contemporary migration between islands, consistent with early explanations of avian biogeography in the Channel Islands, and that song sparrow populations on the northern Channel Islands are demographically independent.

  19. Battle Experience; Solomon Islands Actions Information. Bulletin Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-11-01

    passing by the north of San Cristobal Island, arrived at Guadalcanal on the morning of November llth, 1942. The route north of San Cristobal was... Cristobal Island on the morning of the llth. The PORTLAND and JUNEAU were detached from Task Group 67.1 and joined Task Group 67.4. This group thereafter...to the north of San Cristobal Island. When news was received that Task Group 62.4 had been sighted by enemy seaplanes on the 10th, together with

  20. New Tertiary stratigraphy for the Florida Keys and southern peninsula of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, K.J.; McNeill, D.F.; Guertin, L.A.; Ciesielski, P.F.; Scott, T.M.; De Verteuil, L.

    1998-01-01

    Seven lithologic formations, ranging in age from Oligocene to Pleistocene, were recently penetrated by core holes in southernmost Florida. From bottom to top, they are the early Oligocene Suwannee Limestone; late-early Oligocene-to-Miocene Arcadia Formation, basal Hawthorn Group; late Miocene Peace River Formation, upper Hawthorn Group; newly proposed late Miocene-to-Pliocene Long Key and Stock Island Formations; and Pleistocene Key Largo and Miami Limestones. The rocks of the Suwannee Limestone form a third-order sequence. Although the entire thickness was not penetrated, 96 m of Suwannee core from one well contains at least 50 vertically stacked, exposure-capped limestone cycles, presumably related to rapid eustatic fluctuations while experiencing tropical to subtropical conditions. The Arcadia Formation is a composite sequence containing four high-frequency sequences composed of multiple vertically stacked carbonate cycles. Most cycles do not show evidence of subaerial exposure and were deposited under more temperate conditions, relative to the Suwannee Limestone. The Arcadia Formation in southernmost Florida is bounded by regional unconformities representing third-order sequence boundaries. Post-Arcadia transgression produced a major backstepping of sediment accumulation above the upper sequence boundary of the Arcadia Formation. The Peace River Formation, composed of diatomaceous mudstones, has been identified only beneath the Florida peninsula and is not present beneath the Florida Keys. Deposition occurred during marine transgressive to high-stand conditions and a local phosphatization event (recorded in northeast Florida). The transgression is possibly related to a global rise in sea level, which resulted in upwelling of relatively cooler, relatively nutrient-rich water masses onto the Florida Platform. It is proposed that the absence of Peace River sediments beneath the Keys is due to sediment bypass of the upper surface of the Arcadia, a result of

  1. Size distributions of quantum islands on stepped substrates.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Zhu, H L; Wang, W

    2009-10-21

    The size distributions of self-assembled quantum islands on stepped substrates are studied using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the energy barrier E(SW) between the step and the terrace region is the key factor in affecting the size distribution of islands. With small E(SW) (< or = 0.1 eV), lines of uniform islands can be obtained at relative low surface coverage. As the surface coverage is increased, wirelike islands can be obtained. Scaling behavior is obeyed for the size distributions of the wirelike islands. When the size distributions are separated into their width and length components, however, scaling is only observed in the length distribution of the wirelike islands. With larger E(SW), the size distribution of islands shows a clear bimodal size distribution and anomalous growth temperature dependent island size evolutions are observed. The simulation results reproduce qualitatively the phenomena observed in the cases of InAs islands grown on stepped GaAs substrates.

  2. Two new species of Brachyodina Lindner from the Caribbean with a key to species of the genus from the region (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two new species of Brachyodina Lindner, B. janestanleyae sp. n., is described from the Dominican Republic, and B. caymanensis sp. n. from Grand Cayman Island. A key to the species known from the Caribbean islands is provided....

  3. Mass culturing of living sands (Baculogypsina sphaerulata) to protect island coasts against sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Takashi; Lopati, Paeniu; Makolo, Filipo; Kayanne, Hajime

    2014-07-01

    Coral reef islands have a self-sustaining mechanism that expands and maintains the islands through the deposition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by marine organisms. However, the human societies established on such low-lying coral reef islands are vulnerable to rapid sea-level rises. Enhancing the self-sustaining mechanism of coral reefs will become one of the required sustainable countermeasures against sea-level rise. We examined the feasibility of mass culturing the large benthic foraminifera Baculogypsina sphaerulata, which is known as "living sand." We developed a rearing system with the key components of an artificial lawn as a habitat and a stirring device to create vertical water currents. Batches of B. sphaerulata in two different size groups were reared to examine size growth and reproduction under the culture conditions. All culture batches reproduced asexually following generations over 6 months in culture. The small-sized group exhibited steady growth, whereas the large-sized group underwent a reduction in mean size because large individuals (> 1.5 mm2) died off. Similar traits of size structure between the culture batches and natural populations indicate that our culturing conditions can successfully reproduce environments similar to the habitat of this species. Reproduction, consistent size growth, and size structure similar to the natural population indicate that the examined rearing system is viable for culturing Foraminifera at a large scale.

  4. Santa Catarina Island mangroves 3: a new species of Fuscoporia.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Juliano Marcon; Trierveiler-Pereira, Larissa; Loguercio-Leite, Clarice; Ryvarden, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Fuscoporia bifurcata is described from southern Brazil based on collections from mangrove areas on Santa Catarina Island, in the state of Santa Catarina. The new species is characterized by hymenial setae with a bifurcate or spiny apex. A description with illustrations, an updated key to species of Fuscoporia from southern Brazil and a key to species of Hymenochaetaceae reported from mangroves are provided.

  5. Remote sensing: searching for new islands in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Johan J; Forsberg, Rene

    2002-03-07

    Tobias Island, discovered in 1993 by the German research vessel RV Polarstern, is a system of low-lying banks and shoals hidden in sea ice 70 km off the northeastern coast of Greenland. Here we use satellite radar interferometry and airborne laser scanning to show that this island is 2 km long and 35 m high --- much larger than was originally reported. We have also been able to pinpoint the exact location of a stable area where a new group of small islands may be hidden. This demonstrates that satellite radar interferometry is an effective tool for finding ice-covered islands as well as for mapping them.

  6. Control of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island excision.

    PubMed

    Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Martínez-Rubio, Roser; Martí, Miguel; Chen, John; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Penadés, José R

    2012-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are a group of related 15-17 kb mobile genetic elements that commonly carry genes for superantigen toxins and other virulence factors. The key feature of their mobility is the induction of SaPI excision and replication by certain phages and their efficient encapsidation into specific small-headed phage-like infectious particles. Previous work demonstrated that chromosomal integration depends on the SaPI-encoded recombinase, Int. However, although involved in the process, Int alone was not sufficient to mediate efficient SaPI excision from chromosomal sites, and we expected that SaPI excision would involve an Xis function, which could be encoded by a helper phage or by the SaPI, itself. Here we report that the latter is the case. In vivo recombination assays with plasmids in Escherichia coli demonstrate that SaPI-coded Xis is absolutely required for recombination between the SaPI att(L) and att(R) sites, and that both sites, as well as their flanking SaPI sequences, are required for SaPI excision. Mutational analysis reveals that Xis is essential for efficient horizontal SaPI transfer to a recipient strain. Finally, we show that the master regulator of the SaPI life cycle, Stl, blocks expression of int and xis by binding to inverted repeats present in the promoter region, thus controlling SaPI excision.

  7. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  8. Geomorphology and depositional subenvironments of Gulf Islands National Seashore, Perdido Key and Santa Rosa Island, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Montgomery, Marilyn C.

    2010-01-01

    The primary mapping procedures were supervised functions within a Geographic Information System (GIS) that were applied to delineate and classify depositional subenvironments and features, collectively referred to as map units. The delineated boundaries of the map units were exported to create one shapefile, and are differentiated by the field "Type" in the associated attribute table. Map units were delineated and classified based on differences in tonal patterns of features in contrast to adjacent features observed on orthophotography. Land elevations from recent lidar surveys served as supplementary data to assist in delineating the map unit boundaries.

  9. Palliative Care and Traditional Practices of Death and Dying in Wa'ab (Yap Proper) and in the Outer Islands of Yap

    PubMed Central

    Yalmadau, Kelly; Maluchmai, Maryann R; Tun, Petra; Yinnifel, Cyril; Hancock, W Thane

    2011-01-01

    Background Death remains one of the most important and significant activities in Yap, an event that involves the entire island. A death of a Yapese not only unites the family, it initiates a complex series of reaffirmed kinship ties, rituals and exchanges that refocus the entire community and create new social identities for the participants. How these ties, exchanges, and identities are changing due to new economic challenges and new social pressures were the focus of this preliminary study, which sought to document the resiliency or fragility of traditional structures, measured in the efforts around death and dying in Yap and to identify ways that the health care system can intervene to improve palliative care. Methods 226 persons (49 on Wa'ab - Yap Proper - and 177 on the Outer Islands) participated in 16 focus groups, of which eight were on Wa'ab and eight on four Outer Islands: Fais, Falalop, Fetherai, and Mogmog. We additionally conducted 6 semi-structured open-ended key informant interviews, added to capture more of Yap's enormous sociocultural diversity. Results The islands of Yap, particularly the Outer Islands, continue to support one of the world's best traditional palliative care involving the immediate family, more distant relatives and in many cases the entire community. However, participants showed considerable concern for ways that this system is weakening and offered numerous suggestions for improving and strengthening palliative care in Yap. Discussion Although caution must be exercised not to undermine the existing system, six recommendations on how the health system can intervene can be identified. These involve identifying a key resource person on each island; supplying small, practical “comfort care” kits; making more pain medication available; conducting regular home visits; improving patient-physician and physician-family communication; designing a suicide intervention strategy; and documenting existing variations of how the dying are

  10. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  11. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  12. Demographic history of a recent invasion of house mice on the isolated Island of Gough.

    PubMed

    Gray, Melissa M; Wegmann, Daniel; Haasl, Ryan J; White, Michael A; Gabriel, Sofia I; Searle, Jeremy B; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ryan, Peter G; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-04-01

    Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the world. House mice were introduced to Gough Island by sealers during the 19th century and display unusual phenotypes, including exceptionally large body size and carnivorous feeding behaviour. We describe genetic variation in Gough Island mice using mitochondrial sequences, nuclear sequences and microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequences suggested that Gough Island mice belong to Mus musculus domesticus, with the maternal lineage possibly originating in England or France. Cluster analyses of microsatellites revealed genetic membership for Gough Island mice in multiple coastal populations in Western Europe, suggesting admixed ancestry. Gough Island mice showed substantial reductions in mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variation and weak reductions in microsatellite diversity compared with Western European populations, consistent with a population bottleneck. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) estimated that mice recently colonized Gough Island (~100 years ago) and experienced a 98% reduction in population size followed by a rapid expansion. Our results indicate that the unusual phenotypes of Gough Island mice evolved rapidly, positioning these mice as useful models for understanding rapid phenotypic evolution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Demographic History of a Recent Invasion of House Mice on the Isolated Island of Gough

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Melissa M.; Wegmann, Daniel; Haasl, Ryan J.; White, Michael A.; Gabriel, Sofia I.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Ryan, Peter G.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the world. House mice were introduced to Gough Island by sealers during the 19th century, and display unusual phenotypes, including exceptionally large body size and carnivorous feeding behavior. We describe genetic variation in Gough Island mice using mitochondrial sequences, nuclear sequences, and microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequences suggested that Gough Island mice belong to Mus musculus domesticus, with the maternal lineage possibly originating in England or France. Cluster analyses of microsatellites revealed genetic membership for Gough Island mice in multiple coastal populations in Western Europe, suggesting admixed ancestry. Gough Island mice showed substantial reductions in mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variation and weak reductions in microsatellite diversity compared with Western European populations, consistent with a population bottleneck. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) estimated that mice recently colonized Gough Island (~100 years ago) and experienced a 98% reduction in population size followed by a rapid expansion. Our results indicate that the unusual phenotypes of Gough Island mice evolved rapidly, positioning these mice as useful models for understanding rapid phenotypic evolution. PMID:24617968

  14. Resurrection Peninsula and Knight Island ophiolites and recent faulting on Montague Island, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1987-01-01

    The Resurrection Peninsula forms the east side of Resurrection Bay (Fig. 1). The city of Seward is located at the head of the bay and can be reached from Anchorage by highway (127 mi;204 km). Relief ranges from 1,434 ft (437 m) at the southern end of the peninsula to more than 4,800 ft (1,463 m) 17 mi (28 km) to the north. All rock units composing the informally named Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite are visible and (or) accessible by boat.The eastern half of the peninsula is located within the Chugach National Forest; the western half is mainly state land, but there is some private land with recreational cabins. The Seward A6 and A7 and Blying Sound D6 and D7 maps at 1:63,360 scale (mile-to-the-inch) cover the entire Resurrection Peninsula.Knight Island is located 53 mi (85 km) east of Seward (Fig. 1). Numerous fiords indent the 31-mi-long (50 km) by 7.4-mi-wide (12 km) island and offer excellent bedrock exposures. The island is rugged and has a maximum elevation of 3,000 ft (914 m). It has numerous mineral prospects (Tysdal, 1978; Nelson and others, 1984; Jansons and others, 1984; Koski and others, 1985), and several abandoned canneries are located on the island. Knight Island lies entirely within the Chugach National Forest—state and private inholdings constitute less than five percent of its total land area. The Seward A2, A3, B2, B3, and C2, 1:63,360-scale U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps cover the entire island.Montague Island, 50 mi (80 km) long and up to 11 mi (18 km) wide, lies 10.6 mi (17 km) southeast of Knight Island. It belongs to an island group that forms the southern margin of Prince William Sound (Fig. 1). Montague Island is less rugged and less heavily vegetated than either the Resurrection Peninsula or Knight Island. Rock exposures are excellent along the beaches, and ground disruption due to recent fault movements is clearly visible. The Seward Al and A2 and Blying Sound Dl, D2, and D3 maps cover the areas of interest on Montague Island

  15. Quantum key management

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  16. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  17. Heat Island Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  18. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  19. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Kasei Valles Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-06

    There are several streamlined islands in this image of Kasei Valles. This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is located near the region where Kasei Valles empties into Chryse Planitia.

  1. Approaching Marquette Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took this picture of a rock informally named Marquette Island as the rover was approaching the rock for investigations that have suggested the rock is a stony meteorite.

  2. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-03

    STS026-43-082 (29 Sept. - 3 Oct. 1988) --- This 70mm northerly oriented frame over the Pacific Ocean features the Hawaiian Islands chain. The islands perturb the prevailing northeasterly winds producing extensive cloud wakes in the lee of the islands. Photo experts feel that atmospheric haze in the Hawaii wake is probably a result of the continuing eruptions of Kilauea volcano on the southeast coast. From the lower right corner in a diagonal directed upward to the north are the islands of Nihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Kahoolawe, and Hawaii. This photo was shown during the post-flight press conference on October 11, 1988 by the STS-26 astronauts, who at one time during the flight wore Hawaiian attire to pay tribute to the working staff of the Hawaii tracking station.

  3. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  4. "Treasure Island" and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riach, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the sense of rupture or difference inherent in children's literature between the author or adult and the reader or child, as they concern Robert Louis Stevenson's novel "Treasure Island." (TB)

  5. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  7. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  8. Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the Mentawai and Batu Islands, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mentawai and Batu Island groups off the west coast of Sumatra have a complicated geological and biogeographical history. The Batu Islands have shared a connection with the Sumatran ‘mainland’ during periods of lowered sea level, whereas the Mentawai Islands, despite being a similar distance from Sumatra, have remained isolated from Sumatra, and probably from the Batu Islands as well. These contrasting historical relationships to Sumatra have influenced the compositions of the respective mammalian faunas of these island groups. Treeshrews (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) from these islands have, at various times in their history, been recognized as geographically circumscribed populations of a broadly distributed Tupaia glis, subspecies, or distinct species. We used multivariate analyses of measurements from the skull and hands to compare the island populations from Siberut (Mentawai Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai Islands (T. chrysogaster) and Sumatra (T. ferruginea). Results from both the skull and manus of the Siberut population show that it is most similar to T. chrysogaster, whereas the Tanahbala population is more similar to T. ferruginea, confirming predictions based on island history. These results are further corroborated by mammae counts. Based on these lines of evidence, we include the Siberut population in T. chrysogaster and the Tanahbala population in T. ferruginea. Our conclusions expand the known distributions of both the Mentawai and Sumatran species. The larger geographical range of the endangered T. chrysogaster has conservation implications for this Mentawai endemic, so populations and habitat should be re-evaluated on each of the islands it inhabits. However, until such a re-evaluation is conducted, we recommend that the IUCN Red List status of this species be changed from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Data Deficient’.

  9. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat

    2015-09-18

    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided.

  10. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups:…

  11. The Introduction of Broadcast Television in the Cook Islands. A Report on the First Six Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varan, Duane

    A preliminary study described the first 6 months after the introduction of broadcast television to the Cook Islands, a self-governing group of 15 Polynesian islands in the South Pacific ocean, on Christmas Day, 1989. Data were gathered from field observations and in-depth face-to-face interviews conducted in the Cook Islands during a 2-month…

  12. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups:…

  13. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5, 2013...

  14. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  15. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride) and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group). Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus) albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus) sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm) sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia browni. Ur. nepenthes

  16. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Boussès, Philippe; Julienne, Simon; Brengues, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Rocamora, Gérard; Robert, Vincent

    2012-09-21

    During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft's filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride) and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group). We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus) albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus) sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm) sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia browni. Ur. nepenthes and Ur. pandani) and one

  17. Mosquito Survey, Island of Rota (Mariana Islands)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    and has also been collected from Tinfan, The adult of Aedes albopictus a severe pest and it is considered to be an important vector of dengue fever . Bionomic...evidence of local The introduction of Aedes albopictus has brought an acknowledged vector of dengue fever to the island. This is potentially...distance away from human habitation. The adults are ready biters. Medical importance: Vector of dengue fever . 2. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse

  18. Predicting community structure in snakes on Eastern Nearctic islands using ecological neutral theory and phylogenetic methods

    PubMed Central

    Burbrink, Frank T.; McKelvy, Alexander D.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Myers, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species presence and richness on islands is important for understanding the origins of communities and how likely it is that species will disperse and resist extinction. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) and, as a simple model of sampling abundances, the unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), predict that in situations where mainland to island migration is high, species-abundance relationships explain the presence of taxa on islands. Thus, more abundant mainland species should have a higher probability of occurring on adjacent islands. In contrast to UNTB, if certain groups have traits that permit them to disperse to islands better than other taxa, then phylogeny may be more predictive of which taxa will occur on islands. Taking surveys of 54 island snake communities in the Eastern Nearctic along with mainland communities that have abundance data for each species, we use phylogenetic assembly methods and UNTB estimates to predict island communities. Species richness is predicted by island area, whereas turnover from the mainland to island communities is random with respect to phylogeny. Community structure appears to be ecologically neutral and abundance on the mainland is the best predictor of presence on islands. With regard to young and proximate islands, where allopatric or cladogenetic speciation is not a factor, we find that simple neutral models following UNTB and ETIB predict the structure of island communities. PMID:26609083

  19. Predicting community structure in snakes on Eastern Nearctic islands using ecological neutral theory and phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Burbrink, Frank T; McKelvy, Alexander D; Pyron, R Alexander; Myers, Edward A

    2015-11-22

    Predicting species presence and richness on islands is important for understanding the origins of communities and how likely it is that species will disperse and resist extinction. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) and, as a simple model of sampling abundances, the unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), predict that in situations where mainland to island migration is high, species-abundance relationships explain the presence of taxa on islands. Thus, more abundant mainland species should have a higher probability of occurring on adjacent islands. In contrast to UNTB, if certain groups have traits that permit them to disperse to islands better than other taxa, then phylogeny may be more predictive of which taxa will occur on islands. Taking surveys of 54 island snake communities in the Eastern Nearctic along with mainland communities that have abundance data for each species, we use phylogenetic assembly methods and UNTB estimates to predict island communities. Species richness is predicted by island area, whereas turnover from the mainland to island communities is random with respect to phylogeny. Community structure appears to be ecologically neutral and abundance on the mainland is the best predictor of presence on islands. With regard to young and proximate islands, where allopatric or cladogenetic speciation is not a factor, we find that simple neutral models following UNTB and ETIB predict the structure of island communities. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Key Issues in Hadronic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Capstick; et. Al.

    2000-12-01

    A group of fifty physicists met in Duck, NC, Nov. 6-9 to discuss the current status and future goals of hadronic physics. The main purpose of the meeting was to define the field by identifying its key issues, challenges, and opportunities. The conclusions, incorporating considerable input from the community at large, are presented in this white paper.

  1. A Dialect Survey of the Penghu Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubler, Cornelius C.

    1986-01-01

    A dialect survey of the Penghu Islands concluded that the Penghu dialects belong to the Southern Min; variation within the dialects is considerable in terms of changed tones, certain finals, and some lexical items; and the Penghu dialects can be further divided into two large groups. (Author/CB)

  2. A Dialect Survey of the Penghu Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubler, Cornelius C.

    1986-01-01

    A dialect survey of the Penghu Islands concluded that the Penghu dialects belong to the Southern Min; variation within the dialects is considerable in terms of changed tones, certain finals, and some lexical items; and the Penghu dialects can be further divided into two large groups. (Author/CB)

  3. Public Key Cryptography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  4. The Key to Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Provides tips on using low-tech, traditional key and lock systems for effectively securing university and college facilities. Discusses providing keys with utility patents as well as the need to design doors that offer greater deterrence to vandalism. (GR)

  5. Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshu, Ch.

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) uses Quantum Mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random bit string known only to them, which can be used as a key to encrypt and decrypt messages.

  6. "We can move forward": challenging historical inequity in public health research in Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In resource-poor countries, such as Solomon Islands, the research agenda on health is often dominated by researchers from resource-rich countries. New strategies are needed to empower local researchers to set directions for health research. This paper presents a process which seeks to enable a local and potentially more equitable research agenda at a remote hospital in Solomon Islands. Methods In preparation for a health research capacity-building workshop at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Malaita, Solomon Islands, a computer-based search was conducted of Solomon Islands public health literature. Using a levels-of-agreement approach publications were categorised as: a) original research, b) reviews, c) program descriptions and d) commentaries or discussion. Original research publications were further sub-categorised as: i) measurement, ii) descriptive research and iii) intervention studies. Results were reviewed with Solomon Islander health professionals in a focus group discussion during the health research workshop. Focus group participants were invited to discuss reactions to literature search results and how results might assist current or future local researchers to identify gaps in the published research literature and possible research opportunities at the hospital and surrounding communities. Focus group data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Of the 218 publications meeting inclusion criteria, 144 (66%) were categorised as 'original research', 42 (19%) as 'commentaries/discussion', 28 (13%) as 'descriptions of programs' and 4 (2%) as 'reviews'. Agreement between three authors' (MRM, DM, AC) independent categorisation was 'excellent' (0.8 <κ). The 144 'original research' publications included 115 (80%) 'descriptive studies' (κ = 0.82); 19 (13%) 'intervention studies' (κ = 0.77); and 10 (7%) 'measurement studies'(κ = 0.80). Key themes identified in the focus group discussion challenged historical inequities evident from the

  7. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    PubMed

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  8. Keys to Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise…

  9. Work Keys USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work Keys USA, 1998

    1998-01-01

    "Work Keys" is a comprehensive program for assessing and teaching workplace skills. This serial "special issue" features 18 first-hand reports on Work Keys projects in action in states across North America. They show how the Work Keys is helping businesses and educators solve the challenge of building a world-class work force.…

  10. Keys to Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise…

  11. Phylogenetic relationships between the tideland snails Batillaria flectosiphonata in the Ryukyu Islands and B. multiformis in the Japanese Islands.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shigeaki; Kamimura, Satomi; Kimura, Taeko; Hayashi, Ikuo; Iijima, Akiko; Furota, Toshio

    2003-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships between two sibling species of Japanese tideland snails, namely, Batillaria multiformis from the Japanese Islands and B. flectosiphonata from the Ryukyu Islands, were analyzed on the basis of the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome oxidase I. Populations of B. multiformis were genetically distinct from those of B. flectosiphonata with the exception of a population from Amami-Oshima Island, which corresponded to the boundary between the distributions of these two species. Individuals with the mitochondrial gene of B. multiformis and those with the mitochondrial gene of B. flectosiphonata were collected from the same tidal flat on Amami-Oshima Island. All the snails with the mitochondrial gene of B. multiformis could be divided into two genetically distinct groups but there was no geographical structure to the distribution of these two groups. Individual populations of B. flectosiphonata in the Amami, Okinawa, Miyako and Yaeyama insular groups each consisted exclusively of a unique set of haplotypes, with the exception of a population at a northern site on Okinawajima Island, which included a few individuals with sequences related to those of individuals in the Amami insular group. All individuals from South Ryukyu formed a well-supported monophyletic group, while the monophyly of individuals from Central Ryukyu was not supported. The monophyly of B. multiformis was clearly demonstrated but there was no evidence to support that of B. flectosiphonata. Batillaria multiformis might have been derived from immigrants from the Ryukyu Islands, which became isolated and diverged genetically on the Japanese Islands.

  12. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will

  13. Tobacco Use among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups--African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and certain racial and ethnic minority groups are at higher risk for using tobacco. This is the first Surgeon General's report to focus on tobacco use among these four racial and ethnic minority groups. It provides a single, comprehensive source of data on each group's pattern…

  14. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  15. 11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  16. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  17. Spatial and temporal controls of atoll island inundation: implications for urbanized atolls in the Marshall Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.; Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are highly vulnerable to a range of inundation hazards. The impacts of such hazards are expected to be magnified as a result of continued sea-level rise. Both recent and historic inundation events provide unique insights into the requisite conditions necessary to initiate island inundation. A number of recent and historic inundation events are presented in order to examine the oceanographic and meteorological conditions driving inundation of a densely populated, urbanized atoll in the central Pacific. Analysis of inundation events suggests that a number of key drivers contribute to the spatial and temporal extent of island inundation, with unique degrees of predictability and resultant impact signatures apparent on island geomorphology and local anthropogenic activities. Results indicate three distinct drivers of inundation hazards exist. Firstly, tropical storms and typhoons elevate sea level through inverse barometric setup, wind setup and a range of wave driven processes and have caused considerable impact on atolls within the Marshall Islands. Secondly, super-elevated sea level conditions resulting from the combination of seasonal high tides and quasi-cyclical La Nina conditions drive inundation of low-lying lagoon facing coastal areas. Thirdly, long period swell conditions, typically generated by distant storms, can elevate reef-flat water levels through wave setup and infragravity wave oscillations. Such wave conditions can over wash the ocean-facing island ridge, often inundating large sections of the island. Reef-flat wave conditions are tidally modulated, with inundation events typically occurring around high tide. However, the two most recent destructive swell-driven inundation events have occurred while tide levels were significantly lower than spring tide levels, suggesting high water levels are not a necessary prerequisite for wave-driven inundation. The different modes of inundation are discussed and grounded within recent and historic

  18. Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-06

    Lanzarote is the easternmost of the Canary Islands, 125 km off the coast of Africa, and is the fourth largest of the archipelago, with an area of 846 square kilometers. Like all of the Canary Islands, its volcanic origin dates to about 15 million years ago. The largest historic eruption occurred in the 1730s. The island was first recorded by Pliny the Elder, though it may have been originally settled by the Phoenicians (Wikipedia). The image was acquired 12 March 2015, covers an area of 50.5 by 55.1 km, and is located near 29 degrees north, 13.6 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21284

  19. Prince Patrick Island, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-26

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Prince Patrick Island, which is located in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and is the westernmost Elizabeth Island in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The island is underlain by sedimentary rocks, cut by still-active faults. The streams follow a dendritic drainage system: there are many contributing streams (analogous to the twigs of a tree), which are then joined together into the tributaries of the main river (the branches and the trunk of the tree, respectively). They develop where the river channel follows the slope of the terrain. The image covers an area of 22 by 27 km, was acquired July 2, 2011, and is located at 76.9 degrees north, 118.9 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19222

  20. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.