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Sample records for islaster paa fundament

  1. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2. PMID:26695157

  2. NGAP: A (Brief) Update PaaS, IaaS, Onbording, and the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Brett; Pawloski, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    NASA ESDIS has charged the EED2 program with delivering a NASA-compliant, secure, cloud-based platform for application hosting. More than just a move to the cloud, this has forced us to examine all aspects of application hosting, from resource management to system administration, patching to monitoring, deployment to multiple environments. The result of this mandate is NGAP, the NASA General Application Platform. In this presentation, we will also discuss the various applications we are supporting and targeting, and their architectures including NGAPs move to support both PaaS and IaaS architectures.

  3. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid (PAA) to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a promising new aquatic disinfectant that has also been used to treat parasites and fungus. It is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an antimicrobial compound approved for indoor use on hard, non-porous surfaces. T...

  4. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    PubMed

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences.

  5. PERI-ANESTHESIA ANAPHYLAXIS (PAA): WE STILL HAVE NOT STARTED POST-PAA TESTING FOR INCITING ANESTHESIA-RELATED ALLERGENS.

    PubMed

    Alshaeri, Taghreed; Gupta, Deepak; Nagabhushana, Ananthamurthy

    2016-02-01

    Anaphylaxis during anesthesia is uncommon. Diagnosis of peri-anesthesia anaphylaxis (PAA) requires anesthesia providers' vigilance for prompt diagnosis and treatment. In this case report, we present a challenging case with suspected PAA including its perioperative management, intensive care unit (ICU) course, and post-discharge follow-up. A 44-year-old female (body mass index = 26) presented for elective abdominal panniculectomy. Post-intubation, severe bronchospasm occurred that was non-responsive to nebulized albuterol and intravenous epinephrine. Continuous infusion of epinephrine was initiated. After aborting surgical procedure, the patient was transferred to ICU on continuous intravenous infusion of epinephrine. Venous blood sampling showed elevated troponin level. Echocardiography revealed ejection fraction of 25% suspicious of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (mid cavitary variant). Tracheal extubation was only possible after three days. Subsequently, patient was discharged home with a cardiology follow-up appointment and a referral to an allergy specialist. Unfortunately at our institution (an academic university hospital in United States) along with neighboring institutions in near-by areas, the only allergy skin tests available are for local anesthetics and antibiotics, while neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) cannot be tested (the suspected anaphylactic agent in our case was presumably rocuronium). In summary, PAA requires and responds to emergent diagnosis and immediate treatment; however there is still a long way to go to ensure post-PAA testing for inciting anesthesia-related allergens. PMID:27382817

  6. Fundamentally updating fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Gail; Barton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational research indicates that the six competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative are best introduced in early prelicensure clinical courses. Content specific to quality and safety has traditionally been covered in senior level courses. This article illustrates an effective approach to using quality and safety as an organizing framework for any prelicensure fundamentals of nursing course. Providing prelicensure students a strong foundation in quality and safety in an introductory clinical course facilitates early adoption of quality and safety competencies as core practice values.

  7. Electrospinning of Bioactive Dex-PAA Hydrogel Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Katherine Boyook

    In this work, a novel method is developed for making nano- and micro-fibrous hydrogels capable of preventing the rejection of implanted materials. This is achieved by either (1) mimicking the native cellular environment, to exert fine control over the cellular response or (2) acting as a protective barrier, to camouflage the foreign nature of a material and evade recognition by the immune system. Comprehensive characterization and in vitro studies described here provide a foundation for developing substrates for use in clinical applications. Hydrogel dextran and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) fibers are formed via electrospinning, in sizes ranging from nanometers to microns in diameter. While "as-electrospun" fibers are continuous in length, sonication is used to fragment fibers into short fiber "bristles" and generate nano- and micro- fibrous surface coatings over a wide range of topographies. Dex-PAA fibrous surfaces are chemically modified, and then optimized and characterized for non-fouling and ECM-mimetic properties. The non-fouling nature of fibers is verified, and cell culture studies show differential responses dependent upon chemical, topographical and mechanical properties. Dex-PAA fibers are advantageously unique in that (1) a fine degree of control is possible over three significant parameters critical for modifying cellular response: topography, chemistry and mechanical properties, over a range emulating that of native cellular environments, (2) the innate nature of the material is non-fouling, providing an inert background for adding back specific bioactive functionality, and (3) the fibers can be applied as a surface coating or comprise the scaffold itself. This is the first reported work of dex-PAA hydrogel fibers formed via electrospinning and thermal cross-linking, and unique to this method, no toxic solvents or cross-linking agents are needed to create hydrogels or for surface attachment. This is also the first reported work of using sonication to

  8. PAA/PEO comb polymer effects on the rheological property evolution in concentrated cement suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Glen Harold

    We have studied the behavior of polyelectrolyte-based comb polymers in dilute solution and on the rheological property evolution of concentrated Portland cement suspensions. These species consisted of charge-neutral, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) "teeth" grafted onto a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) "backbone" that contains one ionizable carboxylic acid group (COOH) per monomer unit. As a benchmark, our observations were compared to those obtained for pure cement pastes and systems containing pure polyelectrolyte species, i.e., sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde (SNF) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The behavior of PAA/PEO comb polymers, SNF, and PAA in dilute solution was studied as a function of pH in the absence and presence of mono-, di-, and trivalent counterions. Light scattering and turbidity measurements were carried out to assess their hydrodynamic radius and stability in aqueous solution, respectively. PAA experienced large conformational changes as a function of solution pH and ionic strength. Moreover, dilute solutions of ionized SNF and PAA species became unstable in the presence of multivalent counterions due to ion-bridging interactions. PAA/PEO solutions exhibited enhanced stability relative to pure polyelectrolytes under analogous conditions. The charge neutral PEO teeth shielded the underlying PAA backbone from ion-bridging interactions. In addition, such species hindered conformational changes in solution due to steric interactions between adjacent teeth. A new oscillatory shear technique was developed to probe the rheological property evolution of concentrated cement systems. The rheological property evolution of ordinary and white Portland cement systems were studied in the absence and presence of pure polyelectrolytes and PAA/PEO comb polymers with a wide range of PAA backbone molecular weight, PEO teeth molecular weight, and acid:imide ratio. Cement-PAA suspensions experienced rapid irreversible stiffening and set at 6 min due to ion

  9. Sanitizing with peracetic acid (PAA)- An alternative treatment to use in aquaculture ...?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the lack of approved treatments for fish disease, disinfectants were tested to treat fish pathogens. One of these substances is peracetic acid (PAA). PAA is an agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harmful ...

  10. Investigations of PAA degradation in aqueous solutions: Impacts of water hardness, salinity and DOC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is used in aquaculture under various conditions for disinfection purposes. However, there is lack of information about its environmental fate. Therefore, the impact of water hardness, salinity, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on PAA-degradation within 5 hours was investigat...

  11. Freshwater dispersion stability of PAA-stabilised cerium oxide nanoparticles and toxicity towards Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Booth, Andy; Størseth, Trond; Altin, Dag; Fornara, Andrea; Ahniyaz, Anwar; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas; Sørensen, Lisbet

    2015-02-01

    An aqueous dispersion of poly (acrylic acid)-stabilised cerium oxide (CeO₂) nanoparticles (PAA-CeO₂) was evaluated for its stability in a range of freshwater ecotoxicity media (MHRW, TG 201 and M7), with and without natural organic matter (NOM). In a 15 day dispersion stability study, PAA-CeO₂ did not undergo significant aggregation in any media type. Zeta potential varied between media types and was influenced by PAA-CeO₂ concentration, but remained constant over 15 days. NOM had no influence on PAA-CeO₂ aggregation or zeta potential. The ecotoxicity of the PAA-CeO₂ dispersion was investigated in 72 h algal growth inhibition tests using the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. PAA-CeO₂ EC₅₀ values for growth inhibition (GI; 0.024 mg/L) were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than pristine CeO₂ EC₅₀ values reported in the literature. The concentration of dissolved cerium (Ce(3+)/Ce(4+)) in PAA-CeO₂ exposure suspensions was very low, ranging between 0.5 and 5.6 μg/L. Free PAA concentration in the exposure solutions (0.0096-0.0384 mg/L) was significantly lower than the EC10 growth inhibition (47.7 mg/L) value of pure PAA, indicating that free PAA did not contribute to the observed toxicity. Elemental analysis indicated that up to 38% of the total Cerium becomes directly associated with the algal cells during the 72 h exposure. TOF-SIMS analysis of algal cell wall compounds indicated three different modes of action, including a significant oxidative stress response to PAA-CeO₂ exposure. In contrast to pristine CeO₂ nanoparticles, which rapidly aggregate in standard ecotoxicity media, PAA-stabilised CeO₂ nanoparticles remain dispersed and available to water column species. Interaction of PAA with cell wall components, which could be responsible for the observed biomarker alterations, could not be excluded. This study indicates that the increased dispersion stability of PAA-CeO₂ leads to an increase in toxicity compared to

  12. Tether fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of tethers are presented and briefly discussed. The effects of gravity gradients, dumbbell libration in circular orbits, tether control strategies and impact hazards for tethers are among those fundamentals. Also considered are aerodynamic drag, constraints in momentum transfer applications and constraints with permanently deployed tethers. The theoretical feasibility of these concepts are reviewed.

  13. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  14. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S. G., LLNL; Molitoris, J. D., LLNL

    1997-02-03

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  15. Healthcare fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Kauk, Justin; Hill, Austin D; Althausen, Peter L

    2014-07-01

    In order for a trauma surgeon to have an intelligent discussion with hospital administrators, healthcare plans, policymakers, or any other physicians, a basic understanding of the fundamentals of healthcare is paramount. It is truly shocking how many surgeons are unable to describe the difference between Medicare and Medicaid or describe how hospitals and physicians get paid. These topics may seem burdensome but they are vital to all business decision making in the healthcare field. The following chapter provides further insight about what we call "the basics" of providing medical care today. Most of the topics presented can be applied to all specialties of medicine. It is broken down into 5 sections. The first section is a brief overview of government programs, their influence on care delivery and reimbursement, and past and future legislation. Section 2 focuses on the compliance, care provision, and privacy statutes that regulate physicians who care for Medicare/Medicaid patient populations. With a better understanding of these obligations, section 3 discusses avenues by which physicians can stay informed of current and pending health policy and provides ways that they can become involved in shaping future legislation. The fourth section changes gears slightly by explaining how the concepts of trade restraint, libel, antitrust legislation, and indemnity relate to physician practice. The fifth, and final, section ties all of components together by describing how physician-hospital alignment can be mutually beneficial in providing patient care under current healthcare policy legislation.

  16. Microbial reduction in wastewater treatment using Fe(3+) and Al(3+) coagulants and PAA disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Kauppinen, Ari; Martikainen, Kati; Pitkänen, Tarja; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Pessi, Matti; Poutiainen, Hannu; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2013-12-01

    Wastewater is an important source of pathogenic enteric microorganisms in surface water and a major contaminating agent of drinking water. Although primary and secondary wastewater treatments reduce the numbers of microorganisms in wastewater, significant numbers of microbes can still be present in the effluent. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using PIX (FeCl3) or PAX (AlCl3) coagulants and peracetic acid (PAA) the disinfectant to reduce microbial load in effluent. Our study showed that both PIX and PAX efficiently reduced microbial numbers. PAA disinfection greatly reduced the numbers of culturable indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, F-specific RNA coliphages and somatic DNA coliphages). In addition, pathogenic microorganisms, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Salmonella and norovirus GI, were successfully reduced using the tertiary treatments. In contrast, clostridia, Legionella, rotavirus, norovirus GII and adenovirus showed better resistance against PAA compared to the other microorganisms. However, interpretation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis results will need further studies to clarify the infectivity of the pathogenic microbes. In conclusion, PIX and PAX flocculants followed by PAA disinfectant can be used as a tertiary treatment for municipal WWTP effluents to reduce the numbers of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms.

  17. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide (PAA).

    PubMed

    Moussas, P A; Zouboulis, A I

    2009-08-01

    Currently, research is focused on the synthesis of new composite coagulants, which are constituted of both inorganic and organic materials. In this paper, the development of relevant reagents was investigated, by combining the inorganic pre-polymerised iron-based coagulant Polyferric Sulphate (PFS) with an organic, non-ionic polymer (Polyacrylamide, PAA) under different PAA/Fe (mg/l) and OH/Fe molar ratios. Moreover, the new reagents were characterised in terms of typical properties, stability and morphological analysis (XRD, FTIR, SEM). Their coagulation performance, when treating low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions, was also investigated, whereas the applied coagulation mechanisms were discussed by using the Photometric Dispersion Analysis (PDA) analysis. The results show that the new coagulation reagents present improved properties, including increased effective polymer species concentration, and they exhibit very good stability. The respective tests using PDA confirmed that the predominant coagulation mechanism of PFS-PAA is the bridge formation mechanism. Coagulation experiments in low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions reveal that the novel composite reagent PFS-PAA exhibits better coagulation performance, when compared with simple PFS, in terms of zeta-potential reduction, turbidity and organic matter removal and residual iron concentration. PMID:19560180

  18. In vivo kinetic analysis of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway using PAA stimulus response experiments.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amit T; Verheijen, Peter J T; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2015-11-01

    In this study we combined experimentation with mathematical modeling to unravel the in vivo kinetic properties of the enzymes and transporters of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway in a high yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strain. The experiment consisted of a step response experiment with the side chain precursor phenyl acetic acid (PAA) in a glucose-limited chemostat. The metabolite data showed that in the absence of PAA all penicillin pathway enzymes were expressed, leading to the production of a significant amount of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA) as end product. After the stepwise perturbation with PAA, the pathway produced PenG within seconds. From the extra- and intracellular metabolite measurements, hypotheses for the secretion mechanisms of penicillin pathway metabolites were derived. A dynamic model of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway was then constructed that included the formation and transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of pathway intermediates, PAA and the product penicillin-G (PenG). The model parameters and changes in the enzyme levels of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway under in vivo conditions were simultaneously estimated using experimental data obtained at three different timescales (seconds, minutes, hours). The model was applied to determine changes in the penicillin pathway enzymes in time, calculate fluxes and analyze the flux control of the pathway. This led to a reassessment of the in vivo behavior of the pathway enzymes and in particular Acyl-CoA:Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase (AT).

  19. Involvement of the TetR-Type Regulator PaaR in the Regulation of Pristinamycin I Biosynthesis through an Effect on Precursor Supply in Streptomyces pristinaespiralis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yawei; Feng, Rongrong; Zheng, Guosong; Tian, Jinzhong; Ruan, Lijun; Ge, Mei; Jiang, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pristinamycin I (PI), produced by Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, is a streptogramin type B antibiotic, which contains two proteinogenic and five aproteinogenic amino acid precursors. PI is coproduced with pristinamycin II (PII), a member of streptogramin type A antibiotics. The PI biosynthetic gene cluster has been cloned and characterized. However, thus far little is understood about the regulation of PI biosynthesis. In this study, a TetR family regulator (encoded by SSDG_03033) was identified as playing a positive role in PI biosynthesis. Its homologue, PaaR, from Corynebacterium glutamicum serves as a transcriptional repressor of the paa genes involved in phenylacetic acid (PAA) catabolism. Herein, we also designated the identified regulator as PaaR. Deletion of paaR led to an approximately 70% decrease in PI production but had little effect on PII biosynthesis. Identical to the function of its homologue from C. glutamicum, PaaR is also involved in the suppression of paa expression. Given that phenylacetyl coenzyme A (PA-CoA) is the common intermediate of the PAA catabolic pathway and the biosynthetic pathway of l-phenylglycine (l-Phg), the last amino acid precursor for PI biosynthesis, we proposed that derepression of the transcription of paa genes in a ΔpaaR mutant possibly diverts more PA-CoA to the PAA catabolic pathway, thereby with less PA-CoA metabolic flux toward l-Phg formation, thus resulting in lower PI titers. This hypothesis was verified by the observations that PI production of a ΔpaaR mutant was restored by l-Phg supplementation as well as by deletion of the paaABCDE operon in the ΔpaaR mutant. Altogether, this study provides new insights into the regulation of PI biosynthesis by S. pristinaespiralis. IMPORTANCE A better understanding of the regulation mechanisms for antibiotic biosynthesis will provide valuable clues for Streptomyces strain improvement. Herein, a TetR family regulator PaaR, which serves as the repressor of the

  20. Bio-inspired self-cleaning PAAS hydrogel released coating for marine antifouling.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lili; Lu, Xili; Wei, Huan; Long, Ping; Xu, Jina; Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, an antifouling hydrogel coating of slippery hydrogel-released hydrous surface (SHRHS) with the self-cleaning ability of oil-resistance and self-regeneration characters was designed. A physical blending method of loading Sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) powder into the organic silicon resin was employed to prepare the SHRHS coating. The oil-resistance of the intact and scratch SHRHS coatings was performed by time-sequence images of washing dyed beef tallow stain away. The results showed that the SHRHS coating has the greater ability of stain removal. The concentration of Na+ ions released from PAAS hydrogel on the surface of the SHRHS coating was investigated by ion chromatograph (IC). The results revealed that the coating had the ability of self-regeneration by PAAS hydrogel continuously peeling. The biomass of two marine microalgae species, Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima and Navicula climacospheniae Booth attached on the SHRHS was investigated using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the microalgaes attached a significantly lower numbers on the SHRHS in comparison with the organic silicon coating. In order to confirm the antifouling ability of the SHRHS coating, the field trials were carried out for 12weeks. It showed that the SHRHS may provide an effective attachment resistance to reduce biofouling.

  1. Liquid crystal-based glucose biosensor functionalized with mixed PAA and QP4VP brushes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mashooq; Park, Soo-Young

    2015-06-15

    4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid was developed for glucose detection by coating with a monolayer of mixed polymer brushes using poly(acrylicacid-b-4-cynobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate) (PAA-b-LCP) and quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine-b-4-cynobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate) (QP4VP-b-LCP) (LCP stands for liquid crystal polymer) at the 5CB/aqueous interface. The resultant 5CB in TEM grid was functionalized with the PAA and QP4VP brushes, which were strongly anchored by the LCP block. The PAA brush rendered the 5CB/aqueous interface pH-responsive and the QP4VP brush immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) through electrostatic interactions without the aid of coupling agents. The glucose was detected through a homeotropic-to-planar orientational transition of the 5CB observed through a polarized optical microscope (POM) under crossed polarizers. The optimum immobilization with a 0.78 µM GOx solution on the dual-brush-coated TEM grid enabled glucose detection at concentrations higher than 0.5 mM with response times shorter than 180 s. This TEM grid glucose sensor provided a linear response of birefringence of the 5CB to glucose concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 11 mM with a Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 1.67 mM. This new and sensitive glucose biosensor has the advantages of low production cost, simple enzyme immobilization, high enzyme sensitivity and stability, and easy detection with POM, and may be useful for prescreening the glucose level in the human body. PMID:25617751

  2. Synthesis and high-efficiency methylene blue adsorption of magnetic PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Zui; Cai, Minhan; Jian, Haitao; Zeng, Zhiqiao; Li, Feng; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-08-01

    MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and ultrasonic mixing process. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and VSM. XRD patterns indicate that the synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have a single cubic spinel phase. SEM images confirm the existence of three types of basic morphology of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles: octahedral, flower-like, and plate-like particles. High saturation magnetization Ms (up to 74.6 emu/g) of the as-synthesized MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was obtained. Experiments demonstrate that the variation of the hydrothermal reaction time does not remarkably affect the magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. In PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites, the coating of PAA leads to a slight decrease in magnetization of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Additionally, PAA coating greatly enhances the adsorption properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles for Methylene Blue (MB) dye. Especially, the removal efficiency reaches 96.3%. This research indicates that the as-synthesized PAA/MnFe2O4 nanocomposites exhibit excellent magnetic properties and can be taken as a promising adsorbent for removal of MB dye in industrial scale.

  3. Chemical Analysis and Aqueous Solution Properties of Charged Amphiphilic Block Copolymers PBA-b-PAA Synthesized by MADIX

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquin,M.; Muller, P.; Talingting-Pabalan, R.; Cottet, H.; Berret, J.; Futterer, T.; Theodoly, O.

    2007-01-01

    We have linked the structural and dynamic properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic charged diblock copolymers poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA, synthesized by controlled radical polymerization, with the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples. Despite product imperfections, the samples self-assemble in melt and aqueous solutions as predicted by monodisperse microphase separation theory. However, the PBA core are abnormally large; the swelling of PBA cores is not due to AA (the Flory parameter ?PBA/PAA, determined at 0.25, means strong segregation), but to h-PBA homopolymers (content determined by liquid chromatography at the point of exclusion and adsorption transition, LC-PEAT). Beside the dominant population of micelles detected by scattering experiments, capillary electrophoresis CE analysis permitted detection of two other populations, one of h-PAA, and the other of free PBA-b-PAA chains, that have very short PBA blocks and never self-assemble. Despite the presence of these free unimers, the self-assembly in solution was found out of equilibrium: the aggregation state is history dependant and no unimer exchange between micelles occurs over months (time-evolution SANS). The high PBA/water interfacial tension, measured at 20 mN/m, prohibits unimer exchange between micelles. PBA-b-PAA solution systems are neither at thermal equilibrium nor completely frozen systems: internal fractionation of individual aggregates can occur.

  4. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  5. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  6. Salinity, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon modulate degradation of peracetic acid (PAA) compounds in aqueous solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is used in aquaculture under different conditions for disinfection purposes. However, there is a lack of information about its environmental fate, particularly its persistence in aquatic systems with different chemistries. Therefore, the impact of water hardness, salinity, and d...

  7. Hygienisierung in der Fischzucht mittels Per-essigsäure (Disinfection of water with PAA: State of the investigations)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are very few therapeutic agents against aquaculture ectoparasites in Germany. Peracetic Acid (PAA) has been referred to as the best disinfective agent in the world, but it has not been used much here in aquaculture. We currently use this compound in ‘treatment crisis’ situations because ther...

  8. [Studies on primary aromatic amines (PAAs) migration from multi-layer plastic food packaging by HPLC method].

    PubMed

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Pawlicka, Marzena; Starski, Andrzej; Półtorak, Hanna; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and to determine their migration from plastic food packaging. The magnitude of the migration of these substances from plastic food packaging consists a base for the evaluation of their compliance with the requirements of EU legislation and hazard for human health taking into account their migration into food. The unprinted and printed multi-layer plastic packaging (laminates), domestic and imported, were examined in these studies. PAAs migration tests from the laminates into food simulant (3% acetic acid) was performed according to the appropriate procedures recommended in the EU for testing migration from food contact articles under standard conditions reflecting the real use of laminates (10 days, 40 degrees C) and under ,, worst case scenario" conditions (2 h, 70 degrees C). PAAs present in migration solutions were concentrated on SPE columns and then seven PAAs (aniline, 1,3-phenylenediamine, 2, 6-toluenediamine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline, 4,4'-methylenedianiline and 3,3 '-dimethylbenzidyne) were identified and determined by previously validated HPLC-DAD method. Depending on the migration conditions the PAAs content was different. When the "worst case scenario" conditions were applied the migration of 4,4 '-methylenedianiline (4,4 '-MDA) ranged from below detection limit (LOD = 0.51 microg/kg) up to 9.86 microg/kg, and aniline was released in the range from below detection limit (LOD = 0,98 microg/kg) up to 7.04 microg/kg. In two laminate samples of eight examined, the sum of PAAs (aniline and 4,4'-MDA) was 13.32 microg/kg and 14.72 microg/kg showing that the permitted limit (10 microg/kg) was exceeded. In the standard conditions, the migration of aniline and 4,4'-MDA was significantly lower Regarding the carcinogenic potential of PAAs, the laminates causing the amines migration above the permitted limit should not be used as food packaging.

  9. Microfluidic formation of pH responsive 5CB droplets decorated with PAA-b-LCP.

    PubMed

    Khan, Waliullah; Choi, Jin Ho; Kim, Gyu Man; Park, Soo-Young

    2011-10-21

    We are reporting for the first time the pH responsiveness of liquid crystal (LC) microdroplets decorated with an amphiphilic block copolymer of PAA-b-LCP. We successfully demonstrated the adsorption of block copolymer on LC droplets by fluorescence microscopy and pH response to the radial-to-bipolar orientational change of the LC droplets by changing pH from 12 to 2 through the polarized optical microscope (POM). We believe that our results may pave the way for the generation of monodisperse droplets decorated by various amphiphilic block copolymers which respond to several kinds of the external stimuli. These developments may be important for potential applications of the LC droplets in sensing and encapsulation fields. PMID:21874196

  10. Synthesis and self-assembly of PAMAM/PAA Janus dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Zhang, Xinjie; Chen, Yuanmou

    2014-03-01

    Janus dendrimers have two differently functionalized segments which are located on opposite sides. They have many excellent properties and broad application prospects. In this study, poly(amido amine)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAMAM/PAA) Janus dendrimers were prepared by click chemistry. One of the first steps taken was the synthesis of N-Boc-G3.0 PAMAM dendrimers with primary amine groups at the periphery. Second, by amide coupling between propargylic acid and N-Boc-G3.0 PAMAM, PAMAM dendrimers with alkyne were successfully synthesized. After being dissolved in aqueous solutions with different pH, Janus dendrimers spontaneously form flowerlike micellar, Janus particles, and spherical micelles due to primary amino, tertiary amino, and carboxyl groups in the dendrimers. This self-assembly behavior depending on pH changes has a number of potential applications in the field of materials.

  11. Covalently-layers of PVA and PAA and in situ formed Ag nanoparticles as versatile antimicrobial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fragal, Vanessa H; Cellet, Thelma S P; Pereira, Guilherme M; Fragal, Elizângela H; Costa, Marco Antonio; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Asefa, Tewodros; Rubira, Adley F; Silva, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    The in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within covalently-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films possessing ultra-thin layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) is successfully demonstrated. The resulting polymeric films are shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities toward Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungus (Candida albicans). To make the films, first PET surfaces were subject to photo-oxidation and subsequent solid-state grafting to attach a PVA layer, followed by a PAA layer. To synthesize the AgNPs inside the films, the PVA and PAA-modified PET was soaked in AgNO3 solution and the polymeric film was modified with the Ag(+) ions via Ag(+)-carboxylate interaction, and then the Ag(+) ions-containing polymer film was subject to either photo-reduction or thermal reduction processes. The PVA and PAA thin layers attached by covalent bonds to the PET surface uniquely promoted not only the in situ synthesis but also the stabilization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy or by monitoring the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak associated with AgNPs. The resulting PVA and PAA ultrathin layers modified and AgNPs containing PET served as bactericide and fungicide, inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi on the surfaces. Given PET's versatility and common use in many commercial processes, the method can be used for producing plastic surfaces with versatile antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. PMID:27196366

  12. Fundamental Physical Constants

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 121 CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.

  13. Fundamentals of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-01-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  14. 808 nm photocontrolled UCL imaging guided chemo/photothermal synergistic therapy with single UCNPs-CuS@PAA nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Li, Chunxia; Xie, Zhongxi; Hou, Zhiyao; Cheng, Ziyong; Jin, Dayong; Lin, Jun

    2016-08-16

    Recently, incorporating multiple components into one nanostructured matrix to construct a multifunctional nanomedical platform has attracted more and more attention for simultaneous anticancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, a novel anti-cancer nanoplatform has been successfully developed by coating a uniform shell of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on the surface of CuS-decorated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). Benefiting from the enhanced 808 nm-excited UCL intensity of the multilayer UCNPs, the unique photothermal properties of CuS and the pH-responsive drug release capacity of the PAA shell, such a nanoplatform design of UCNPs-CuS@PAA (labeled UCP) offers a new route to achieve 808 nm-excited UCL imaging guided chemo/photothermal combination therapy. We have found that the combined chemo/photothermal therapy can significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy compared with chemotherapy or photothermal therapy (PTT) alone. Moreover, the pH/NIR-dependent drug delivery properties, 808 nm-excited UCL imaging, as well as in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility tests were also investigated in detail. These results show promising applications of UCP nanoparticles as a novel theranostic agent for the detection and treatment of tumors. PMID:27529086

  15. Kinetics of temperature response of PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA triblock terpolymer aggregates and of their complexes with lysozyme

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papagiannopoulos, Aristeidis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Hong, Kunlun; Pispas, Stergios

    2015-12-18

    We present the kinetics of temperature response of a PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA triblock terpolymer and of its complexes with lysozyme in aqueous solution. It is found that during the coil-to-globule transition of PNIPAM new bonds within the polymer aggregates are created, making the transition of the aggregates partially irreversible. This effect is also found for the protein loaded PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA aggregates whereas in this case protein globules appear to enhance the formation of bonds, making the transition totally irreversible. The internal dynamics of both aggregates and complexes are “frozen” once the temperature is increased upon PINIPAM's LCST in water and remain so evenmore » when the temperature drops below LCST. As a result, we investigate the complexation kinetics of lysozyme and PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA and observe that it occurs in two stages, one where protein globules adsorb on single pre-formed aggregates and one where protein globules cause inter-aggregate clustering.« less

  16. Kinetics of temperature response of PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA triblock terpolymer aggregates and of their complexes with lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Papagiannopoulos, Aristeidis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Hong, Kunlun; Pispas, Stergios

    2015-12-18

    We present the kinetics of temperature response of a PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA triblock terpolymer and of its complexes with lysozyme in aqueous solution. It is found that during the coil-to-globule transition of PNIPAM new bonds within the polymer aggregates are created, making the transition of the aggregates partially irreversible. This effect is also found for the protein loaded PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA aggregates whereas in this case protein globules appear to enhance the formation of bonds, making the transition totally irreversible. The internal dynamics of both aggregates and complexes are “frozen” once the temperature is increased upon PINIPAM's LCST in water and remain so even when the temperature drops below LCST. As a result, we investigate the complexation kinetics of lysozyme and PEO-b-PNIPAM-b-PAA and observe that it occurs in two stages, one where protein globules adsorb on single pre-formed aggregates and one where protein globules cause inter-aggregate clustering.

  17. In vitro release of clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl from poly adipic anhydride (PAA) and poly trimethylene carbonate (PTMC) blends.

    PubMed

    Dinarvand, Rassoul; Alimorad, Mohammed Massoud; Amanlou, Massoud; Akbari, Hamid

    2005-10-01

    Controlled drug-delivery technology is concerned with the systematic release of a pharmaceutical agent to maintain a therapeutic level of the drug in the body for modulated and/or prolonged periods of time. This may be achieved by incorporating the therapeutic agent into a degradable polymer vehicle, which releases the agent continuously as the matrix erodes. In this study, poly trimethylene carbonate (PTMC), an aliphatic polycarbonate, and poly adipic anhydride (PAA), an aliphatic polyanhydride, were synthesized via melt condensation and ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate and adipic acid, respectively. The release of clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl from discs prepared with the use of PTMC-PAA blends in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) are also described. Clomipramine HCl and buprenorphine HCl were both used as hydrophilic drug models. Theoretical treatment of the data with the Peppas model revealed that release of clomipramine HCl (5%) in devices containing 70% PTMC or more followed a Fickian diffusion model. However, the releases of buprenorphine HCl (5%) in the same devices were anomalous. For devices containing 50% and more PAA, surface erosion may play a significant role in the release of both molecules.

  18. Investigation of PAA/PVDF-NZVI hybrids for metronidazole removal: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiacheng; Wang, Xiangyu; Zhu, Minping; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Jun

    2014-01-15

    For the first time, the removal process of metronidazole (MNZ) from aqueous solutions over nano zerovalent iron (NZVI) encapsulated within poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes was reported. The resultant composite (PPN) demonstrated high reactivity, excellent stability and reusability over the reaction course. Such excellent performance might be attributed to the presence of the charged carboxyl groups in PVDF membrane support, which could enhance NZVI dispersion and improve its longevity. Results showed that a lower initial concentration and higher reaction temperature facilitated the removal of MNZ by PPN, and that the acidic and neutral conditions generally exhibited more favorable effect on MNZ removal than the alkaline ones. Kinetics of the MNZ removal by PPN was found to follow a two-parameter pseudo-first-order decay model well, and the activation energy of the MNZ degradation by PPN was determined to be 30.49kJ/mol. The presence of chloride ions slightly enhanced the reactivity of PPN with MNZ, whereas sulfate ions inhibited its reactivity. In addition, MNZ degradation pathways by PPN were proposed based on the identified intermediates. This study suggests that PPN composite possessing excellent performance may be a promising functional material to pretreat antibiotic wastewaters.

  19. Frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles embedded in PAA hydrogel.

    PubMed

    van Berkum, Susanne; Dee, Joris T; Philipse, Albert P; Erné, Ben H

    2013-05-14

    Chemically responsive hydrogels with embedded magnetic nanoparticles are of interest for biosensors that magnetically detect chemical changes. A crucial point is the irreversible linkage of nanoparticles to the hydrogel network, preventing loss of nanoparticles upon repeated swelling and shrinking of the gel. Here, acrylic acid monomers are adsorbed onto ferrite nanoparticles, which subsequently participate in polymerization during synthesis of poly(acrylic acid)-based hydrogels (PAA). To demonstrate the fixation of the nanoparticles to the polymer, our original approach is to measure low-field AC magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz range. In the hydrogel, the magnetization dynamics of small iron oxide nanoparticles are comparable to those of the particles dispersed in a liquid, due to fast Néel relaxation inside the particles; this renders the ferrogel useful for chemical sensing at frequencies of several kHz. However, ferrogels holding thermally blocked iron oxide or cobalt ferrite nanoparticles show significant decrease of the magnetic susceptibility resulting from a frozen magnetic structure. This confirms that the nanoparticles are unable to rotate thermally inside the hydrogel, in agreement with their irreversible fixation to the polymer network.

  20. Frequency-Dependent Magnetic Susceptibility of Magnetite and Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Embedded in PAA Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, Susanne; Dee, Joris T.; Philipse, Albert P.; Erné, Ben H.

    2013-01-01

    Chemically responsive hydrogels with embedded magnetic nanoparticles are of interest for biosensors that magnetically detect chemical changes. A crucial point is the irreversible linkage of nanoparticles to the hydrogel network, preventing loss of nanoparticles upon repeated swelling and shrinking of the gel. Here, acrylic acid monomers are adsorbed onto ferrite nanoparticles, which subsequently participate in polymerization during synthesis of poly(acrylic acid)-based hydrogels (PAA). To demonstrate the fixation of the nanoparticles to the polymer, our original approach is to measure low-field AC magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz range. In the hydrogel, the magnetization dynamics of small iron oxide nanoparticles are comparable to those of the particles dispersed in a liquid, due to fast Néel relaxation inside the particles; this renders the ferrogel useful for chemical sensing at frequencies of several kHz. However, ferrogels holding thermally blocked iron oxide or cobalt ferrite nanoparticles show significant decrease of the magnetic susceptibility resulting from a frozen magnetic structure. This confirms that the nanoparticles are unable to rotate thermally inside the hydrogel, in agreement with their irreversible fixation to the polymer network. PMID:23673482

  1. Coregulation by Phenylacetyl-Coenzyme A-Responsive PaaX Integrates Control of the Upper and Lower Pathways for Catabolism of Styrene by Pseudomonas sp. Strain Y2

    PubMed Central

    del Peso-Santos, Teresa; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Fernández, Cristina; Alonso, Sergio; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo; Shingler, Victoria; Perera, Julián

    2006-01-01

    The PstyA promoter of Pseudomonas sp. strain Y2 controls expression of the styABCD genes, which are required for the conversion of styrene to phenylacetate, which is further catabolized by the products of two paa gene clusters. Two PaaX repressor proteins (PaaX1 and PaaX2) regulate transcription of the paa gene clusters of this strain. In silico analysis of the PstyA promoter region revealed a sequence located just within styA that is similar to the reported PaaX binding sites of Escherichia coli and the proposed PaaX binding sites of the paa genes of Pseudomonas species. Here we show that protein extracts from some Pseudomonas strains that have paaX genes, but not from a paaX mutant strain, can bind and retard the migration of a PstyA specific probe. Purified maltose-binding protein (MBP)-PaaX1 fusion protein specifically binds the PstyA promoter proximal PaaX site, and this binding is eliminated by the addition of phenylacetyl-coenzyme A. The sequence protected by MBP-PaaX1 binding was defined by DNase I footprinting. Moreover, MBP-PaaX1 represses transcription from the PstyA promoter in a phenylacetyl-coenzyme A-dependent manner in vitro. Finally, the inactivation of both paaX gene copies of Pseudomonas sp. strain Y2 leads to a higher level of transcription from the PstyA promoter, while heterologous expression of the PaaX1 in E. coli greatly decreases transcription from the PstyA promoter. These findings reveal a control mechanism that integrates regulation of styrene catabolism by coordinating the expression of the styrene upper catabolic operon to that of the paa-encoded central pathway and support a role for PaaX as a major regulatory protein in the phenylacetyl-coenzyme A catabolon through its response to the levels of this central metabolite. PMID:16788190

  2. Variation of Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-11-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain a fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance.

  3. Monte Carlo fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

  4. Arguing against fundamentality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.

  5. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  6. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  7. Analysis of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive growth Mutants Reveals the Involvement of the Plastidial Copper Transporter PAA1 in Glucose-Induced Intracellular Signaling1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin Ae; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Heo, Jung-Ok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Hwang, Indeok; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Lee, Woo Sung; Hwang, Yong-sic; Lim, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Sugars play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, acting as both energy sources and signaling molecules. With the successful use of genetic approaches, the molecular components involved in sugar signaling have been identified and their regulatory roles in the pathways have been elucidated. Here, we describe novel mutants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), named glucose insensitive growth (gig), identified by their insensitivity to high-glucose (Glc)-induced growth inhibition. The gig mutant displayed retarded growth under normal growth conditions and also showed alterations in the expression of Glc-responsive genes under high-Glc conditions. Our molecular identification reveals that GIG encodes the plastidial copper (Cu) transporter PAA1 (for P1B-type ATPase 1). Interestingly, double mutant analysis indicated that in high Glc, gig is epistatic to both hexokinase1 (hxk1) and aba insensitive4 (abi4), major regulators in sugar and retrograde signaling. Under high-Glc conditions, the addition of Cu had no effect on the recovery of gig/paa1 to the wild type, whereas exogenous Cu feeding could suppress its phenotype under normal growth conditions. The expression of GIG/PAA1 was also altered by mutations in the nuclear factors HXK1, ABI3, and ABI4 in high Glc. Furthermore, a transient expression assay revealed the interaction between ABI4 and the GIG/PAA1 promoter, suggesting that ABI4 actively regulates the transcription of GIG/PAA1, likely binding to the CCAC/ACGT core element of the GIG/PAA1 promoter. Our findings indicate that the plastidial Cu transporter PAA1, which is essential for plastid function and/or activity, plays an important role in bidirectional communication between the plastid and the nucleus in high Glc. PMID:22582133

  8. Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

  9. Fundamentals of Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course that provides students with a fundamental understanding of the chemical, catalytic, and engineering sciences related to the chemical reactions taking place in a variety of reactors of different configurations. Also describes the eight major lecture topics, course examinations, and term papers. The course schedule is included.…

  10. Unification of Fundamental Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.

    2005-10-01

    Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.

  11. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  12. Fundamentals of Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Monty L.

    2012-01-01

    Being a great teacher is part and parcel of being a great librarian. In this book, veteran instruction services librarian McAdoo lays out the fundamentals of the discipline in easily accessible language. Succinctly covering the topic from top to bottom, he: (1) Offers an overview of the historical context of library instruction, drawing on recent…

  13. Homeschooling and Religious Fundamentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…

  14. Food Service Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

  15. Laser Fundamentals and Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Pelt, W. F.; And Others

    As a result of work performed at the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory with respect to lasers, this manual was prepared in response to the increasing use of lasers in high schools and colleges. It is directed primarily toward the high school instructor who may use the text for a short course in laser fundamentals. The definition of the…

  16. Fundamentals of Polarized Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The analytical and numerical basis for describing scattering properties of media composed of small discrete particles is formed by the classical electromagnetic theory. Although there are several excellent textbooks outlining the fundamentals of this theory, it is convenient for our purposes to begin with a summary of those concepts and equations that are central to the subject of this book and will be used extensively in the following chapters. We start by formulating Maxwell's equations and constitutive relations for time- harmonic macroscopic electromagnetic fields and derive the simplest plane-wave solution that underlies the basic optical idea of a monochromatic parallel beam of light. This solution naturally leads to the introduction of such fundamental quantities as the refractive index and the Stokes parameters. Finally, we define the concept of a quasi-monochromatic beam of light and discuss its implications.

  17. The primary transcriptome of the Escherichia coli O104:H4 pAA plasmid and novel insights into its virulence gene expression and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Petya; Knödler, Michael; Förstner, Konrad U.; Berger, Michael; Bertling, Christian; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Vogel, Jörg; Karch, Helge; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Mellmann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O104:H4 (E. coli O104:H4), which caused a massive outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2011, carries an aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) encoding virulence plasmid, pAA. The importance of pAA in host-pathogen interaction and disease severity has been demonstrated, however, not much is known about its transcriptional organization and gene regulation. Here, we analyzed the pAA primary transcriptome using differential RNA sequencing, which allows for the high-throughput mapping of transcription start site (TSS) and non-coding RNA candidates. We identified 248 TSS candidates in the 74-kb pAA and only 21% of them could be assigned as TSS of annotated genes. We detected TSS for the majority of pAA-encoded virulence factors. Interestingly, we mapped TSS, which could allow for the transcriptional uncoupling of the AAF/I operon, and potentially regulatory antisense RNA candidates against the genes encoding dispersin and the serine protease SepA. Moreover, a computational search for transcription factor binding sites suggested for AggR-mediated activation of SepA expression, which was additionally experimentally validated. This work advances our understanding of the molecular basis of E. coli O104:H4 pathogenicity and provides a valuable resource for further characterization of pAA virulence gene regulation. PMID:27748404

  18. Fundamental studies in geodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Hager, B. H.; Kanamori, H.

    1981-01-01

    Research in fundamental studies in geodynamics continued in a number of fields including seismic observations and analysis, synthesis of geochemical data, theoretical investigation of geoid anomalies, extensive numerical experiments in a number of geodynamical contexts, and a new field seismic volcanology. Summaries of work in progress or completed during this report period are given. Abstracts of publications submitted from work in progress during this report period are attached as an appendix.

  19. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  20. Fundamental "Uncertainty" in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Linda E.

    The conference on "Uncertainty and Surprise" was concerned with our fundamental inability to predict future events. How can we restructure organizations to effectively function in an uncertain environment? One concern is that many large complex organizations are built on mechanical models, but mechanical models cannot always respond well to "surprises." An underlying assumption a bout mechanical models is that, if we give them enough information about the world, they will know the future accurately enough that there will be few or no surprises. The assumption is that the future is basically predictable and deterministic.

  1. Fundamental experiments in velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Matthew Ellsworth; Hull, Larry; Shinas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    One can understand what velocimetry does and does not measure by understanding a few fundamental experiments. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is an interferometer that will produce fringe shifts when the length of one of the legs changes, so we might expect the fringes to change whenever the distance from the probe to the target changes. However, by making PDV measurements of tilted moving surfaces, we have shown that fringe shifts from diffuse surfaces are actually measured only from the changes caused by the component of velocity along the beam. This is an important simplification in the interpretation of PDV results, arising because surface roughness randomizes the scattered phases.

  2. Dual stimuli-responsive coating designed through layer-by-layer assembly of PAA-b-PNIPAM block copolymers for the control of protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Osypova, A; Magnin, D; Sibret, P; Aqil, A; Jérôme, C; Dupont-Gillain, C; Pradier, C-M; Demoustier-Champagne, S; Landoulsi, J

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the successful construction, characteristics and interaction with proteins of stimuli-responsive thin nanostructured films prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential assembly of PNIPAM-containing polyelectrolytes and PAH. PAA-b-PNIPAM block copolymers were synthesized in order to benefit from (i) the ionizable properties of PAA, to be involved in the LbL assembly, and (ii) the sensitivity of PNIPAM to temperature stimulus. The impact of parameters related to the structure and size of the macromolecules (their molecular weight and the relative degree of polymerization of PAA and PNIPAM), and the interaction with proteins under physico-chemical stimuli, such as pH and temperature, are carefully investigated. The incorporation of PAA-b-PNIPAM into multilayered films is shown to be successful whatever the block copolymer used, resulting in slightly thicker films than the corresponding (PAA/PAH)n film. Importantly, the protein adsorption studies demonstrate that it is possible to alter the adsorption behavior of proteins on (PAA-b-PNIPAM/PAH)n surfaces by varying the temperature and/or the pH of the medium, which seems to be intimately related to two key factors: (i) the ability of PNIPAM units to undergo conformational changes and (ii) the structural changes of the film made of weak polyelectrolytes. The simplicity of construction of these PNIPAM block copolymer-based LbL coatings on a large range of substrates, combined with their highly tunable features, make them ideal candidates to be employed for various biomedical applications requiring the control of protein adsorption.

  3. Dual stimuli-responsive coating designed through layer-by-layer assembly of PAA-b-PNIPAM block copolymers for the control of protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Osypova, A; Magnin, D; Sibret, P; Aqil, A; Jérôme, C; Dupont-Gillain, C; Pradier, C-M; Demoustier-Champagne, S; Landoulsi, J

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the successful construction, characteristics and interaction with proteins of stimuli-responsive thin nanostructured films prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential assembly of PNIPAM-containing polyelectrolytes and PAH. PAA-b-PNIPAM block copolymers were synthesized in order to benefit from (i) the ionizable properties of PAA, to be involved in the LbL assembly, and (ii) the sensitivity of PNIPAM to temperature stimulus. The impact of parameters related to the structure and size of the macromolecules (their molecular weight and the relative degree of polymerization of PAA and PNIPAM), and the interaction with proteins under physico-chemical stimuli, such as pH and temperature, are carefully investigated. The incorporation of PAA-b-PNIPAM into multilayered films is shown to be successful whatever the block copolymer used, resulting in slightly thicker films than the corresponding (PAA/PAH)n film. Importantly, the protein adsorption studies demonstrate that it is possible to alter the adsorption behavior of proteins on (PAA-b-PNIPAM/PAH)n surfaces by varying the temperature and/or the pH of the medium, which seems to be intimately related to two key factors: (i) the ability of PNIPAM units to undergo conformational changes and (ii) the structural changes of the film made of weak polyelectrolytes. The simplicity of construction of these PNIPAM block copolymer-based LbL coatings on a large range of substrates, combined with their highly tunable features, make them ideal candidates to be employed for various biomedical applications requiring the control of protein adsorption. PMID:26338028

  4. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  5. Fundamentals of electrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, M. W.

    The study of electrokinetics is a very mature field. Experimental studies date from the early 1800s, and acceptable theoretical analyses have existed since the early 1900s. The use of electrokinetics in practical field problems is more recent, but it is still quite mature. Most developments in the fundamental understanding of electrokinetics are in the colloid science literature. A significant and increasing divergence between the theoretical understanding of electrokinetics found in the colloid science literature and the theoretical analyses used in interpreting applied experimental studies in soil science and waste remediation has developed. The soil science literature has to date restricted itself to the use of very early theories, with their associated limitations. The purpose of this contribution is to review fundamental aspects of electrokinetic phenomena from a colloid science viewpoint. It is hoped that a bridge can be built between the two branches of the literature, from which both will benefit. Attention is paid to special topics such as the effects of overlapping double layers, applications in unsaturated soils, the influence of dispersivity, and the differences between electrokinetic theory and conductivity theory.

  6. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrie, William

    1997-10-01

    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch of geophysics: gravitation, seismology, dating, thermal and electrical properties, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism and geodynamics. Each chapter begins with a summary of the basic physical principles, and a brief account of each topic's historical evolution. The book will satisfy the needs of intermediate-level earth science students from a variety of backgrounds, while at the same time preparing geophysics majors for continued study at a higher level.

  7. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  8. Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis, Rich, James, Spiro, Michael

    This course on nuclear physics leads the reader to the exploration of the field from nuclei to astrophysical issues. Much nuclear phenomenology can be understood from simple arguments such as those based on the Pauli principle and the Coulomb barrier. This book is concerned with extrapolating from such arguments and illustrating nuclear systematics with experimental data. Starting with the basic concepts in nuclear physics, nuclear models, and reactions, the book covers nuclear decays and the fundamental electro-weak interactions, radioactivity, and nuclear energy. After the discussions of fission and fusion leading into nuclear astrophysics, there is a presentation of the latest ideas about cosmology. As a primer this course will lay the foundations for more specialized subjects. This book emerged from a series of topical courses the authors delivered at the Ecole Polytechnique and will be useful for graduate students and for scientists in a variety of fields.

  9. Fundamentals of zoological scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain—a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple physical ideas. We consider the following animal characteristics: skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing flapping, and maximum sizes of animals that fly and hover. These relationships are compared to zoological data and everyday experience, and match reasonably well.

  10. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  11. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  12. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2006-02-01

    This textbook fills a gap in the literature for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation. It covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the book applies to planetary atmosphere. The authors are physicists and teach at the largest meteorology department of the US at Penn State. Craig T. Bohren has taught the atmospheric radiation course there for the past 20 years with no book. Eugene Clothiaux has taken over and added to the course notes. Problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents. The design of the figures especially for this book is meant to ease comprehension. Discussions have a graded approach with a thorough treatment of subjects, such as single scattering by particles, at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the multiple scattering theory begins with piles of plates. This simple theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, i.e. optical thickness, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter. The more complicated theory, the two-stream theory, then takes the reader beyond the pile-of-plates theory. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.

  13. Effects of concentration and temperature on the dynamic behavior of PAA-g-PEO aqueous solutions with different counterion species: a dielectric spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyan; Zhao, Kongshuang

    2012-01-19

    Dielectric properties of PAA-g-PEO-7% solutions with different counterions were measured as a function of concentration and temperature over a frequency range of 40 Hz to 110 MHz. After the contribution of electrode polarization effects was subtracted, the dielectric spectra of PAA-g-PEO-7% solutions showed three relaxation processes in the experimental frequency range, named low-, mid-, and high-frequency relaxation. The observed three relaxations were strictly analyzed by using the Cole-Cole relaxation function, and the dielectric parameters (dielectric increment Δε and the relaxation time τ) were obtained. The scaling relation of dielectric increment and relaxation time of high frequency with concentration C(p) were obtained and compared with the predictions of scaling theories. The information on the dynamics and microstructure of PAA-g-PEO-7% was obtained. Using different counterion species, the mid- and high-frequency relaxation mechanisms were attributed to the fluctuation of condensed counterions and free counterions, respectively, and the low-frequency relaxation was considered to be caused by the interface polarization of a complex formed by the hydrogen bonding between carboxylic group of PAA and ether oxygen on the side-chain PEO. In addition, by means of Eyring equation, the thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change ΔH and entropy change ΔS, of the three relaxations were calculated from the relaxation time and discussed from the microscopic thermodynamical view.

  14. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  15. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, G.

    2003-10-01

    As of today, a total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This book presents in a readable text the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardiovascular, bone and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination

  16. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  17. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.

    2001-09-01

    In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of two variants of the Escherichia coli O157 ParE2–PaaA2 toxin–antitoxin complex

    PubMed Central

    Sterckx, Yann G. J.; Haesaerts, Sarah; Van Melderen, Laurence; Loris, Remy

    2014-01-01

    The paaR2–paaA2–parE2 operon is a three-component toxin–antitoxin module encoded in the genome of the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157. The toxin (ParE2) and antitoxin (PaaA2) interact to form a nontoxic toxin–antitoxin complex. In this paper, the crystallization and preliminary characterization of two variants of the ParE2–PaaA2 toxin–antitoxin complex are described. Selenomethionine-derivative crystals of the full-length ParE2–PaaA2 toxin–antitoxin complex diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P41212 (or P43212), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.5, c = 412.3 Å. It was previously reported that the full-length ParE2–PaaA2 toxin–antitoxin complex forms a higher-order oligomer. In contrast, ParE2 and PaaA213–63, a truncated form of PaaA2 in which the first 12 N-terminal residues of the antitoxin have been deleted, form a heterodimer as shown by analytical gel filtration, dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Crystals of the PaaA213–63–ParE2 complex diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6122 (or P6522), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.6, c = 185.6 Å. PMID:25195911

  19. A unique hetero-hexadecameric architecture displayed by the Escherichia coli O157 PaaA2-ParE2 antitoxin-toxin complex.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Yann G-J; Jové, Thomas; Shkumatov, Alexander V; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Geerts, Lieselotte; De Kerpel, Maia; Lah, Jurij; De Greve, Henri; Van Melderen, Laurence; Loris, Remy

    2016-04-24

    Many bacterial pathogens modulate their metabolic activity, virulence and pathogenicity through so-called "toxin-antitoxin" (TA) modules. The genome of the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157 contains two three-component TA modules related to the known parDE module. Here, we show that the toxin EcParE2 maps in a branch of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily that is distinct from the branches that contain verified gyrase and ribosome inhibitors. The structure of EcParE2 closely resembles that of Caulobacter crescentus ParE but shows a distinct pattern of conserved surface residues, in agreement with its apparent inability to interact with GyrA. The antitoxin EcPaaA2 is characterized by two α-helices (H1 and H2) that serve as molecular recognition elements to wrap itself around EcParE2. Both EcPaaA2 H1 and H2 are required to sustain a high-affinity interaction with EcParE2 and for the inhibition of EcParE2-mediated killing in vivo. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that EcPaaA2 H2, but not H1, determines specificity for EcParE2. The initially formed EcPaaA2-EcParE2 heterodimer then assembles into a hetero-hexadecamer, which is stable in solution and is formed in a highly cooperative manner. Together these findings provide novel data on quaternary structure, TA interactions and activity of a hitherto poorly characterized family of TA modules.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the PaaI-like thioesterase SAV0944 from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Khandokar, Yogesh B; Roman, Noelia; Smith, Kate M; Srivastava, Parul; Forwood, Jade K

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of many diseases, including meningitis, bacteraemia, pneumonia, food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. Structural characterization of the PaaI-like thioesterase SAV0944 (SaPaaI) from S. aureus subsp. aureus Mu50 will aid in understanding its potential as a new therapeutic target by knowledge of its molecular details and cellular functions. Here, the recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of SaPaaI thioesterase from S. aureus are reported. This protein initially crystallized with the ligand coenzyme A using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique with condition No. 40 of Crystal Screen from Hampton Research at 296 K. Optimal final conditions consisting of 24% PEG 4000, 100 mM sodium citrate pH 6.5, 12% 2-propanol gave single diffraction-quality crystals. These crystals diffracted to beyond 2 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belonged to space group P12(1)1, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.05, b = 89.05, c = 60.74 Å, β = 100.5°. Initial structure determination and refinement gave an R factor and R(free) of 17.3 and 22.0%, respectively, confirming a positive solution in obtaining phases using molecular replacement.

  1. RF beam transmission of x-band PAA system utilizing large-area, polymer-based true-time-delay module developed using imprinting and inkjet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zeyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Xu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Xingyu; Zou, Yi; Panday, Ashwin; Guo, L. Jay; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-02-01

    Phased-array antenna (PAA) technology plays a significant role in modern day radar and communication networks. Truetime- delay (TTD) enabled beam steering networks provide several advantages over their electronic counterparts, including squint-free beam steering, low RF loss, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and large bandwidth control of PAAs. Chip-scale and integrated TTD modules promise a miniaturized, light-weight system; however, the modules are still rigid and they require complex packaging solutions. Moreover, the total achievable time delay is still restricted by the wafer size. In this work, we propose a light-weight and large-area, true-time-delay beamforming network that can be fabricated on light-weight and flexible/rigid surfaces utilizing low-cost "printing" techniques. In order to prove the feasibility of the approach, a 2-bit thermo-optic polymer TTD network is developed using a combination of imprinting and ink-jet printing. RF beam steering of a 1×4 X-band PAA up to 60° is demonstrated. The development of such active components on large area, light-weight, and low-cost substrates promises significant improvement in size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements over the state-of-the-art.

  2. Gauge unification of fundamental forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * I. Fundamental Particles, Fundamental Forces, and Gauge Unification * II. The Emergence of Spontaneously Broken SU(2)×U(1) Gauge Theory * III. The Present and Its Problems * IV. Direct Extrapolation from the Electroweak to the Electronuclear * A. The three ideas * B. Tests of electronuclear grand unification * V. Elementarity: Unification with Gravity and Nature of Charge * A. The quest for elementarity, prequarks (preons and pre-preons * B. Post-Planck physics, supergravity, and Einstein's dreams * C. Extended supergravity, SU(8) preons, and composite gauge fields * Appendix A: Examples of Grand Unifying Groups * Appendix B: Does the Grand Plateau really exist * References

  3. Status of Fundamental Physics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Update of the Fundamental Physics Program. JEM/EF Slip. 2 years delay. Reduced budget. Community support and advocacy led by Professor Nick Bigelow. Reprogramming led by Fred O Callaghan/JPL team. LTMPF M1 mission (DYNAMX and SUMO). PARCS. Carrier re baselined on JEM/EF.

  4. Fundamental Practices of Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usova, George M.; Gibson, Marcia

    Designed to give guidance to those involved in the curriculum development process within the Shipyard Training Modernization Program (STMP), this guide provides an understanding of the fundamental practices followed in the curriculum development process. It also demonstrates incorrect and correct approaches to the development of the curriculum…

  5. Light as a Fundamental Particle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Steven

    1975-01-01

    Presents two arguments concerning the role of the photon. One states that the photon is just another particle distinguished by a particular value of charge, spin, mass, lifetime, and interaction properties. The second states that the photon plays a fundamental role with a deep relation to ultimate formulas of physics. (GS)

  6. Fundamentals of Microelectronics Processing (VLSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takoudis, Christos G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a 15-week course in the fundamentals of microelectronics processing in chemical engineering, which emphasizes the use of very large scale integration (VLSI). Provides a listing of the topics covered in the course outline, along with a sample of some of the final projects done by students. (TW)

  7. Fundamentals of the Slide Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Susan Zee

    This paper is an introduction to the fundamentals of the art (including architecture) slide library, with some emphasis on basic procedures of the science slide library. Information in this paper is particularly relevant to the college, university, and museum slide library. Topics addressed include: (1) history of the slide library; (2) duties of…

  8. Chronometric cosmology and fundamental fermions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, I. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that the fundamental fermions of nature are modeled by fields on the chronometric cosmos that are not precisely spinors but become such only in the nonchronometric limit. The imbedding of the scale-extended Poincaré group in the linearizer of the Minkowskian conformal group defines such fields, by induction. PMID:16593266

  9. Museum Techniques in Fundamental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Some museum techniques and methods can be used in fundamental educational programs without elaborate buildings or equipment; exhibitions should be based on valid presumptions and should take into account the "common sense" beliefs of people for whom the exhibit is designed. They can be used profitably in the economic development of local cultural…

  10. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  11. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  12. Environmental Law: Fundamentals for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David R.

    This booklet outlines the environmental problems most likely to arise in schools. An overview provides a fundamental analysis of environmental issues rather than comprehensive analysis and advice. The text examines the concerns that surround superfund cleanups, focusing on the legal framework, and furnishes some practical pointers, such as what to…

  13. Fundamentals of Environmental Education. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    An outline of fundamental definitions, relationships, and human responsibilities related to environment provides a basis from which a variety of materials, programs, and activities can be developed. The outline can be used in elementary, secondary, higher education, or adult education programs. The framework is based on principles of the science…

  14. Fundamental neutron physics at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.

    1995-10-01

    Modern neutron sources and science share a common origin in mid-20th-century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for studying condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and justified) as tools for neutron scattering and materials science research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities performed at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high-flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high-power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for continuing this research.

  15. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  16. Variation of fundamental constants: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flambaum, Victor

    2008-05-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. There are some hints for the variation of different fundamental constants in quasar absorption spectra and Big Bang nucleosynthesis data. A large number of publications (including atomic clocks) report limits on the variations. We want to study the variation of the main dimensionless parameters of the Standard Model: 1. Fine structure constant alpha (combination of speed of light, electron charge and Plank constant). 2. Ratio of the strong interaction scale (LambdaQCD) to a fundamental mass like electron mass or quark mass which are proportional to Higgs vacuum expectation value. The proton mass is propotional to LambdaQCD, therefore, the proton-to-electron mass ratio comes into this second category. We performed necessary atomic, nuclear and QCD calculations needed to study variation of the fundamental constants using the Big Bang Nucleosynthsis, quasar spectra, Oklo natural nuclear reactor and atomic clock data. The relative effects of the variation may be enhanced in transitions between narrow close levels in atoms, molecules and nuclei. If one will study an enhanced effect, the relative value of systematic effects (which are not enhanced) may be much smaller. Note also that the absolute magnitude of the variation effects in nuclei (e.g. in very narrow 7 eV transition in 229Th) may be 5 orders of magnitude larger than in atoms. A different possibility of enhancement comes from the inversion transitions in molecules where splitting between the levels is due to the quantum tunneling amplitude which has strong, exponential dependence on the electron to proton mass ratio. Our study of NH3 quasar spectra has already given the best limit on the variation of electron to proton mass ratio.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the transcriptional repressor PaaX, the main regulator of the phenylacetic acid degradation pathway in Escherichia coli W

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Altuve, Alzoray; Carrasco-López, César; Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.; Sanz, Jesús M.; Hermoso, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    PaaX is the main regulator of the phenylacetic acid aerobic degradation pathway in bacteria and acts as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of its inducer phenylacetyl-coenzyme A. The natural presence and the recent accumulation of a variety of highly toxic aromatic compounds owing to human pollution has created considerable interest in the study of degradation pathways in bacteria, the most important microorganisms capable of recycling these compounds, in order to design and apply novel bioremediation strategies. PaaX from Escherichia coli W was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Crystals grew from a mixture of 0.9 M Li2SO4 and 0.5 M sodium citrate pH 5.8. These crystals, which belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 167.88, b = 106.23, c = 85.87 Å, β = 108.33°, allowed the collection of an X-ray data set to 2.3 Å resolution. PMID:22102047

  18. Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Becker, Nils B.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this receptor input noise as much as possible. These networks, however, are also intrinsically stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, which is the timescale over which fluctuations in the state of the receptor, arising from the stochastic receptor-ligand binding, decay. We then describe how downstream signaling pathways integrate these receptor-state fluctuations, and how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time set by the downstream network, together impose a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor input noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes (groups) of resources—receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy—and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade

  19. Frontiers of Fundamental Physics 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 14th annual international symposium "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics" (FFP14) was organized by the OCEVU Labex. It was held in Marseille, on the Saint-Charles Campus of Aix Marseille University (AMU) and had over 280 participants coming from all over the world. FFP Symposium began in India in 1997 and it became itinerant in 2004, through Europe, Canada and Australia. It covers topics in fundamental physics with the objective to enable scholars working in related areas to meet on a single platform and exchange ideas. In addition to highlighting the progress in these areas, the symposium invites the top researchers to reflect on the educational aspects of our discipline. Moreover, the scientific concepts are also discussed through philosophical and epistemological viewpoints. Several eminent scientists, such as the laureates of prestigious awards (Nobel Prize, Fields Medal,…), have already participated in these meetings. The FFP14 Symposium developed around seven main themes, namely: Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology, High Energy Physics, Quantum Gravity, Mathematical Physics, Physics Education, Epistemology and Philosophy. The morning was devoted to the plenary session, with talks for a broad audience of physicists in its first half (9:00-10:30), and more specialized in its second half (11:00-12:30); this part was held in three amphitheaters. The parallel session of the Symposium took place during the afternoon (14:30-18:30) with seven thematic conferences and an additional conference on open topics named "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics". These eight conferences were organized around the contributions of participants, in addition to the ones of invited speakers. Altogether, there were some 250 contributions to the symposium (talks and posters). The plenary talks were webcasted live and recorded. The slides of the talks and the videos of the plenary talks are available from the Symposium web site: http://ffp14.cpt.univ-mrs.fr/

  20. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications description of the adhesion, friction, abrasion, and wear behavior of solid film lubricants and related tribological materials, including diamond and diamond-like solid films. The book details the properties of solid surfaces, clean surfaces, and contaminated surfaces as well as discussing the structures and mechanical properties of natural and synthetic diamonds; chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film; surface design and engineering toward wear-resistant, self-lubricating diamond films and coatings. The author provides selection and design criteria as well as applications for synthetic and natural coatings in the commercial, industrial and aerospace industries..

  1. Reconstruction of fundamental SUSY parameters

    SciTech Connect

    P. M. Zerwas et al.

    2003-09-25

    We summarize methods and expected accuracies in determining the basic low-energy SUSY parameters from experiments at future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders in the TeV energy range, combined with results from LHC. In a second step we demonstrate how, based on this set of parameters, the fundamental supersymmetric theory can be reconstructed at high scales near the grand unification or Planck scale. These analyses have been carried out for minimal supergravity [confronted with GMSB for comparison], and for a string effective theory.

  2. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  3. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  4. Fundamental reaction pathways during coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Gatsis, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the fundamental reaction pathways in coal petroleum residuum coprocessing. Once the reaction pathways are defined, further efforts can be directed at improving those aspects of the chemistry of coprocessing that are responsible for the desired results such as high oil yields, low dihydrogen consumption, and mild reaction conditions. We decided to carry out this investigation by looking at four basic aspects of coprocessing: (1) the effect of fossil fuel materials on promoting reactions essential to coprocessing such as hydrogen atom transfer, carbon-carbon bond scission, and hydrodemethylation; (2) the effect of varied mild conditions on the coprocessing reactions; (3) determination of dihydrogen uptake and utilization under severe conditions as a function of the coal or petroleum residuum employed; and (4) the effect of varied dihydrogen pressure, temperature, and residence time on the uptake and utilization of dihydrogen and on the distribution of the coprocessed products. Accomplishments are described.

  5. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Adam S; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2014-02-18

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

  6. Holographic viscosity of fundamental matter.

    PubMed

    Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M

    2007-03-01

    A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(Nc) gauge theory with a small number of flavors Nf or =1/4pi. Given the known results for the entropy density, the contribution of the fundamental matter eta fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta fund approximately lambda NcNfT3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential. PMID:17358523

  7. [INFORMATION, A FUNDAMENTAL PATIENT RIGHT?].

    PubMed

    Mémeteau, Gérard

    2015-03-01

    Although expressed before the "Lambert" case, which has led us to think about refusal and assent in the context of internal rights, conventional rights--and in the context of the patient's bed!--these simple remarks present the patient's right to medical information as a so-called fundamental right. But it can only be understood with a view to a treatment or other medical act; otherwise it has no reason to be and is only an academic exercise, however exciting, but not much use by itself. What if we reversed the terms of the problem: the right of the doctor to information? (The beautiful thesis of Ph. Gaston, Paris 8, 2 December 2014).

  8. Fundamental studies of polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

  9. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Adam S; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2014-02-18

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

  10. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-01-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

  11. Cognition is … Fundamentally Cultural

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2013-01-01

    A prevailing concept of cognition in psychology is inspired by the computer metaphor. Its focus on mental states that are generated and altered by information input, processing, storage and transmission invites a disregard for the cultural dimension of cognition, based on three (implicit) assumptions: cognition is internal, processing can be distinguished from content, and processing is independent of cultural background. Arguing against each of these assumptions, we point out how culture may affect cognitive processes in various ways, drawing on instances from numerical cognition, ethnobiological reasoning, and theory of mind. Given the pervasive cultural modulation of cognition—on all of Marr’s levels of description—we conclude that cognition is indeed fundamentally cultural, and that consideration of its cultural dimension is essential for a comprehensive understanding. PMID:25379225

  12. Fundamental issues in questionnaire design.

    PubMed

    Murray, P

    1999-07-01

    The questionnaire is probably the most common form of data collection tool used in nursing research. There is a misconception that anyone with a clear grasp of English and a modicum of common sense can design an effective questionnaire. Contrary to such common belief, this article will demonstrate that questionnaire design is a complex and time consuming process, but a necessary labour to ensure valid and reliable data is collected. In addition, meticulous construction is more likely to yield data that can be utilized in the pursuit of objective, quantitative and generalizable truths, upon which practice and policy decisions can be formulated. This article examines a myriad of fundamental issues surrounding questionnaire design, which encompass question wording, question order, presentation, administration and data collection, amongst other issues.

  13. Fundamentals of air quality systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.

    1999-08-01

    The book uses numerous examples to demonstrate how basic design concepts can be applied to the control of air emissions from industrial sources. It focuses on the design of air pollution control devices for the removal of gases and particles from industrial sources, and provides detailed, specific design methods for each major air pollution control system. Individual chapters provide design methods that include both theory and practice with emphasis on the practical aspect by providing numerous examples that demonstrate how air pollution control devices are designed. Contents include air pollution laws, air pollution control devices; physical properties of air, gas laws, energy concepts, pressure; motion of airborne particles, filter and water drop collection efficiency; fundamentals of particulate emission control; cyclones; fabric filters; wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; control of volatile organic compounds; adsorption; incineration; absorption; control of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles; practice problems (with solutions) for the P.E. examination in environmental engineering. Design applications are featured throughout.

  14. Rare Isotopes and Fundamental Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. Alex; Engel, Jonathan; Haxton, Wick; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael; Romalis, Michael; Savard, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Experiments searching for new interactions in nuclear beta decay / Klaus P. Jungmann -- The beta-neutrino correlation in sodium-21 and other nuclei / P. A. Vetter ... [et al.] -- Nuclear structure and fundamental symmetries/ B. Alex Brown -- Schiff moments and nuclear structure / J. Engel -- Superallowed nuclear beta decay: recent results and their impact on V[symbol] / J. C. Hardy and I. S. Towner -- New calculation of the isospin-symmetry breaking correlation to superallowed Fermi beta decay / I. S. Towner and J. C. Hardy -- Precise measurement of the [symbol]H to [symbol]He mass difference / D. E. Pinegar ... [et al.] -- Limits on scalar currents from the 0+ to 0+ decay of [symbol]Ar and isospin breaking in [symbol]Cl and [symbol]Cl / A. Garcia -- Nuclear constraints on the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction / W. C. Haxton -- Atomic PNC theory: current status and future prospects / M. S. Safronova -- Parity-violating nucleon-nucleon interactions: what can we learn from nuclear anapole moments? / B. Desplanques -- Proposed experiment for the measurement of the anapole moment in francium / A. Perez Galvan ... [et al.] -- The Radon-EDM experiment / Tim Chupp for the Radon-EDM collaboration -- The lead radius Eexperiment (PREX) and parity violating measurements of neutron densities / C. J. Horowitz -- Nuclear structure aspects of Schiff moment and search for collective enhancements / Naftali Auerbach and Vladimir Zelevinsky -- The interpretation of atomic electric dipole moments: Schiff theorem and its corrections / C. -P. Liu -- T-violation and the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the mercury atom / M. D. Swallows ... [et al.] -- The new concept for FRIB and its potential for fundamental interactions studies / Guy Savard -- Collinear laser spectroscopy and polarized exotic nuclei at NSCL / K. Minamisono -- Environmental dependence of masses and coupling constants / M. Pospelov.

  15. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology :

    SciTech Connect

    Floro, Jerrold Anthony; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Hoyt, Jeffrey John; Seel, Steven Craig; Webb, Edmund Blackburn,; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.

    2007-10-01

    To effectively integrate nanotechnology into functional devices, fundamental aspects of material behavior at the nanometer scale must be understood. Stresses generated during thin film growth strongly influence component lifetime and performance; stress has also been proposed as a mechanism for stabilizing supported nanoscale structures. Yet the intrinsic connections between the evolving morphology of supported nanostructures and stress generation are still a matter of debate. This report presents results from a combined experiment and modeling approach to study stress evolution during thin film growth. Fully atomistic simulations are presented predicting stress generation mechanisms and magnitudes during all growth stages, from island nucleation to coalescence and film thickening. Simulations are validated by electrodeposition growth experiments, which establish the dependence of microstructure and growth stresses on process conditions and deposition geometry. Sandia is one of the few facilities with the resources to combine experiments and modeling/theory in this close a fashion. Experiments predicted an ongoing coalescence process that generates signficant tensile stress. Data from deposition experiments also supports the existence of a kinetically limited compressive stress generation mechanism. Atomistic simulations explored island coalescence and deposition onto surfaces intersected by grain boundary structures to permit investigation of stress evolution during later growth stages, e.g. continual island coalescence and adatom incorporation into grain boundaries. The predictive capabilities of simulation permit direct determination of fundamental processes active in stress generation at the nanometer scale while connecting those processes, via new theory, to continuum models for much larger island and film structures. Our combined experiment and simulation results reveal the necessary materials science to tailor stress, and therefore performance, in

  16. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    SciTech Connect

    O'Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    2003-07-10

    This is the final report describing a long term basic research program in nonimaging optics that has led to major advances in important areas, including solar energy, fiber optics, illumination techniques, light detectors, and a great many other applications. The term ''nonimaging optics'' refers to the optics of extended sources in systems for which image forming is not important, but effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport, and distribution of light energy is. Although some of the most widely known developments of the early concepts have been in the field of solar energy, a broad variety of other uses have emerged. Most important, under the auspices of this program in fundamental research in nonimaging optics established at the University of Chicago with support from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy, the field has become very dynamic, with new ideas and concepts continuing to develop, while applications of the early concepts continue to be pursued. While the subject began as part of classical geometrical optics, it has been extended subsequently to the wave optics domain. Particularly relevant to potential new research directions are recent developments in the formalism of statistical and wave optics, which may be important in understanding energy transport on the nanoscale. Nonimaging optics permits the design of optical systems that achieve the maximum possible concentration allowed by physical conservation laws. The earliest designs were constructed by optimizing the collection of the extreme rays from a source to the desired target: the so-called ''edge-ray'' principle. Later, new concentrator types were generated by placing reflectors along the flow lines of the ''vector flux'' emanating from lambertian emitters in various geometries. A few years ago, a new development occurred with the discovery that making the design edge-ray a functional of some other system parameter permits the construction of whole

  17. The up-right/down-left advantage occurs for both participant- and computer-paced conditions: an empirical observation on Adam, Boon, Paas, and Umiltà (1998).

    PubMed

    Proctor, R W; Cho, Y S

    2001-04-01

    When up and down stimuli are mapped to left and right keypresses or "left" and "right" vocalizations in a 2-choice reaction task, performance is often better with the up-right/down-left mapping than with the opposite mapping. J. J. Adam, B. Boon, F. G. W. C. Paas, and C. Umiltà (1998) presented evidence that the up-right/down-left advantage is obtained when trials are participant paced but not when they are computer paced. In all, 3 experiments are reported that show no difference in magnitude of the up-right/down-left advantage between computer-paced and participant-paced conditions. The advantage was eliminated, however, in Experiment 3 when a response deadline was imposed. Response speed, rather than participant or computer pacing of trials, is crucial.

  18. Do goldfish miss the fundamental?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Richard R.

    2003-10-01

    The perception of harmonic complexes was studied in goldfish using classical respiratory conditioning and a stimulus generalization paradigm. Groups of animals were initially conditioned to several harmonic complexes with a fundamental frequency (f0) of 100 Hz. ln some cases the f0 component was present, and in other cases, the f0 component was absent. After conditioning, animals were tested for generalization to novel harmonic complexes having different f0's, some with f0 present and some with f0 absent. Generalization gradients always peaked at 100 Hz, indicating that the pitch value of the conditioning complexes was consistent with the f0, whether or not f0 was present in the conditioning or test complexes. Thus, goldfish do not miss the fundmental with respect to a pitch-like perceptual dimension. However, generalization gradients tended to have different skirt slopes for the f0-present and f0-absent conditioning and test stimuli. This suggests that goldfish distinguish between f0 present/absent stimuli, probably on the basis of a timbre-like perceptual dimension. These and other results demonstrate that goldfish respond to complex sounds as if they possessed perceptual dimensions similar to pitch and timbre as defined for human and other vertebrate listeners. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  19. Levitated Optomechanics for Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-05-01

    Optomechanics with levitated nano- and microparticles is believed to form a platform for testing fundamental principles of quantum physics, as well as find applications in sensing. We will report on a new scheme to trap nanoparticles, which is based on a parabolic mirror with a numerical aperture of 1. Combined with achromatic focussing, the setup is a cheap and readily straightforward solution to trapping nanoparticles for further study. Here, we report on the latest progress made in experimentation with levitated nanoparticles; these include the trapping of 100 nm nanodiamonds (with NV-centres) down to 1 mbar as well as the trapping of 50 nm Silica spheres down to 10?4 mbar without any form of feedback cooling. We will also report on the progress to implement feedback stabilisation of the centre of mass motion of the trapped particle using digital electronics. Finally, we argue that such a stabilised particle trap can be the particle source for a nanoparticle matterwave interferometer. We will present our Talbot interferometer scheme, which holds promise to test the quantum superposition principle in the new mass range of 106 amu. EPSRC, John Templeton Foundation.

  20. Fluorescence lifetimes: fundamentals and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Noomnarm, Ulai; Clegg, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence measurements have been an established mainstay of photosynthesis experiments for many decades. Because in the photosynthesis literature the basics of excited states and their fates are not usually described, we have presented here an easily understandable text for biology students in the style of a chapter in a text book. In this review we give an educational overview of fundamental physical principles of fluorescence, with emphasis on the temporal response of emission. Escape from the excited state of a molecule is a dynamic event, and the fluorescence emission is in direct kinetic competition with several other pathways of de-excitation. It is essentially through a kinetic competition between all the pathways of de-excitation that we gain information about the fluorescent sample on the molecular scale. A simple probability allegory is presented that illustrates the basic ideas that are important for understanding and interpreting most fluorescence experiments. We also briefly point out challenges that confront the experimenter when interpreting time-resolved fluorescence responses.

  1. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1992-05-26

    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the speciality workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder fo the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding.

  2. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    SciTech Connect

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.

    2000-01-01

    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is independent of

  3. Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Randall L. Headrick

    2009-01-06

    Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55° to 35°. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35° away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4° misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

  4. Astronomia Motivadora no Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho é procurar desenvolver o interesse dos alunos pelas ciências através da Astronomia. Uma pesquisa com perguntas sobre Astronomia foi realizada junto a 161 alunos do Ensino Fundamental, com o intuito de descobrir conhecimentos prévios dos alunos sobre o assunto. Constatou-se, por exemplo, que 29,3% da 6ª série responderam corretamente o que é eclipse, 30,0% da 8ª série acertaram o que a Astronomia estuda, enquanto 42,3% dos alunos da 5ª série souberam definir o Sol. Pretende-se ampliar as turmas participantes e trabalhar, principalmente de forma prática com: dimensões e escalas no Sistema Solar, construção de luneta, questões como dia e noite, estações do ano e eclipses. Busca-se abordar, também, outros conteúdos de Física tais como a óptica na construção da luneta, e a mecânica no trabalho com escalas e medidas, e ao utilizar uma luminária para representar o Sol na questão do eclipse, e de outras disciplinas como a Matemática na transformação de unidades, regras de três; Artes na modelagem ou desenho dos planetas; a própria História com relação à busca pela origem do universo, e a Informática que possibilita a busca mais rápida por informações, além de permitir simulações e visualizações de imagens importantes. Acredita-se que a Astronomia é importante no processo ensino aprendizagem, pois permite a discussão de temas curiosos como, por exemplo, a origem do universo, viagens espaciais a existência ou não de vida em outros planetas, além de temas atuais como as novas tecnologias.

  5. Investigating the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental theorem of calculus, in its simplified complexity, connects differential and integral calculus. The power of the theorem comes not merely from recognizing it as a mathematical fact but from using it as a systematic tool. As a high school calculus teacher, the author developed and taught lessons on this fundamental theorem that were…

  6. Fundamentals of fossil simulator instructor training

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This single-volume, looseleaf text introduces the beginning instructor to fundamental instructor training principles, and then shows how to apply those principles to fossil simulator training. Topics include the fundamentals of classroom instruction, the learning process, course development, and the specifics of simulator training program development.

  7. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Fundamentals of Physics, Problem Supplement No. 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2000-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  9. Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. This book offers a unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

  10. Fundamentals of Physics, Student's Solutions Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2000-07-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  11. Control of morphology and corona composition in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers: effects of solvent, water content, and mixture composition.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Müller, Axel H E; Eisenberg, Adi

    2014-11-11

    The morphologies and corona compositions in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers are influenced by controllable assembly parameters such as water content, block copolymer molar ratios, and solvent effects as well as the hydrophilic block lengths and block length ratios. All these factors can affect the morphology of the aggregates as well as their corona composition, the latter especially in vesicles, where two interfaces are involved. The morphologies and corona compositions of the aggregates were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility, respectively. They depend, to a large extent, on the solubility of P4VP and PAA in the given organic solvent (e.g., DMF, THF, or dioxane), which influences the coil dimensions of the hydrophilic chains. The water content affects both the size and the shape of the block copolymer aggregates as well as the corona composition. Water acts as a precipitant for the hydrophobic block in the common solvent and, therefore, its progressive addition to the solution changes the interaction parameter with the hydrophobic block. The block copolymer molar ratio has an effect on both the morphology and the corona composition of the aggregates. With increasing PS-b-P4VP content in the mixture, the morphology transforms gradually from large compound micelles (LCMs), through coexistence of LCMs and small spherical micelles (SSMs), and eventually to vesicles. As expected, the corona composition of the aggregates is also affected by the block copolymer molar ratio, and changes progressively from pure PAA to a mixture of PAA and P4VP and to pure P4VP with increasing PS-b-P4VP content. It is clear that the use of mixtures of the soluble chains offers the opportunity of fine-tuning the corona composition in block copolymer aggregates under assembly conditions.

  12. BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, A.

    2004-02-01

    mechanics, which is assumed, but to examine whether it gives a consistent account of measurement. The conclusion is that after a measurement, interference terms are ‘effectively’ absent; the set of ‘one-to-one correlations between states of the apparatus and the object’ has the same form as that of everyday statistics and is thus a probability distribution. This probability distribution refers to potentialities, only one of which is actually realized in any one trial. Opinions may differ on whether their treatment is any less vulnerable to criticisms such as those of Bell. To sum up, Gottfried and Yan’s book contains a vast amount of knowledge and understanding. As well as explaining the way in which quantum theory works, it attempts to illuminate fundamental aspects of the theory. A typical example is the ‘fable’ elaborated in Gottfried’s article in Nature cited above, that if Newton were shown Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law, he could deduce the meaning of E and B, but if Maxwell were shown Schrödinger’s equation, he could not deduce the meaning of Psi. For use with a well-constructed course (and, of course, this is the avowed purpose of the book; a useful range of problems is provided for each chapter), or for the relative expert getting to grips with particular aspects of the subject or aiming for a deeper understanding, the book is certainly ideal. It might be suggested, though, that, even compared to the first edition, the isolated learner might find the wide range of topics, and the very large number of mathematical and conceptual techniques, introduced in necessarily limited space, somewhat overwhelming. The second book under consideration, that of Schwabl, contains ‘Advanced’ elements of quantum theory; it is designed for a course following on from one for which Gottfried and Yan, or Schwabl’s own `Quantum Mechanics' might be recommended. It is the second edition in English, and is a translation of the third German edition

  13. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by self-assembling reverse micelle cores of PS-b-PAA for functional textile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akpolat, Leyla Budama; Çakır, Burçin Acar; Topel, Önder Hoda, Numan

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized within poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid) micelles. • The copolymer solution including nano TiO{sub 2} was coated onto textile fabrics. • UV-protective factor of nano TiO{sub 2} coated fabrics was estimated as 50+. • Nano TiO{sub 2} coated fabrics was found to exhibit a high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (i.e., titanium(IV) oxide, TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been fabricated using a copolymer templating technique in micellar solution of poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid), PS(10912)-b-PAA(4842) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The size and morphology of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been characterized via TEM and XRD measurements. The average size of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was determined as 13 ± 3 and 13 ± 4 nm for titanium:copolymer ratios of 20:1 and 33:1, respectively. The copolymer solution including nano TiO{sub 2} particles has been coated onto textile fabrics to enhance their UV-blocking and self-cleaning properties. It has been determined that nano TiO{sub 2} coated textile fabrics have very good UV-blocking properties with 50+ of the ultraviolet protecting factor (UPF) and high photocatalytic efficiency with 69.2% of the photodegradation of methylene blue.

  14. Rotor-Liquid-Fundament System's Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydyrbekuly, A.

    The work is devoted to research of oscillation and sustainability of stationary twirl of vertical flexible static dynamically out-of-balance rotor with cavity partly filled with liquid and set on relative frame fundament. The accounting of such factors like oscillation of fundament, liquid oscillation, influence of asymmetry of installation of a rotor on a shaft, anisotropism of shaft support and fundament, static and dynamic out-of-balance of a rotor, an external friction, an internal friction of a shaft, allows to settle an invoice more precisely kinematic and dynamic characteristics of system.

  15. Fundamental Interventions: How Clinicians Can Address the Fundamental Causes of Disease.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam D; Hansen, Helena B; Link, Bruce G

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance the "structural competency" of medicine-the capability of clinicians to address social and institutional determinants of their patients' health-physicians need a theoretical lens to see how social conditions influence health and how they might address them. We consider one such theoretical lens, fundamental cause theory, and propose how it might contribute to a more structurally competent medical profession. We first describe fundamental cause theory and how it makes the social causes of disease and health visible. We then outline the sorts of "fundamental interventions" that physicians might make in order to address the fundamental causes. PMID:27022923

  16. Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

    This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

  17. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive transformers; and electrical test components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  18. Nucleosynthesis and the variation of fundamental couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Christian M.; Schaefer, Gregor; Wetterich, Christof

    2004-10-15

    We determine the influence of a variation of the fundamental 'constants' on the predicted helium abundance in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The analytic estimate is performed in two parts: the first step determines the dependence of the helium abundance on the nuclear physics parameters, while the second step relates those parameters to the fundamental couplings of particle physics. This procedure can incorporate in a flexible way the time variation of several couplings within a grand unified theory while keeping the nuclear physics computation separate from any GUT model dependence.

  19. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  20. Fundamental ethical principles in health care.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I E

    1987-12-01

    In an attempt to clarify which requirements of morality are logically primary to the ethics of health care, two questions are examined: is there sufficient common ground among the medical, nursing, paramedical, chaplaincy, and social work professions to justify looking for ethical principles common to health care? Do sufficient logical grounds or consensus among health workers and the public exist to speak of "fundamental ethical principles in health care"? While respect for persons, justice, and beneficence are fundamental principles in a formal sense, how we view these principles in practice will depend on our particular culture and experience and the kinds of metaethical criteria we use for applying these principles.

  1. Fundamentals of Pharmacogenetics in Personalized, Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Roland; Yin, DeLu Tyler

    2016-09-01

    This article introduces fundamental principles of pharmacogenetics as applied to personalized and precision medicine. Pharmacogenetics establishes relationships between pharmacology and genetics by connecting phenotypes and genotypes in predicting the response of therapeutics in individual patients. We describe differences between precision and personalized medicine and relate principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to applications in laboratory medicine. We also review basic principles of pharmacogenetics, including its evolution, how it enables the practice of personalized therapeutics, and the role of the clinical laboratory. These fundamentals are a segue for understanding specific clinical applications of pharmacogenetics described in subsequent articles in this issue.

  2. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  3. Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Christopher

    2010-04-12

    Astrophysical observations provide robust evidence that our current picture of fundamental physics is incomplete. The discovery in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (apparently due to gravitational repulsion between regions of empty space!) presents us with a profound challenge, at the interface between gravity and quantum mechanics. This "Dark Energy" problem is arguably the most pressing open question in modern fundamental physics. The first talk will describe why the Dark Energy problem constitutes a crisis, with wide-reaching ramifications. One consequence is that we should probe our understanding of gravity at all accessible scales, and the second talk will present experiments and observations that are exploring this issue.

  4. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations.

  5. Fundamentals of Pharmacogenetics in Personalized, Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Roland; Yin, DeLu Tyler

    2016-09-01

    This article introduces fundamental principles of pharmacogenetics as applied to personalized and precision medicine. Pharmacogenetics establishes relationships between pharmacology and genetics by connecting phenotypes and genotypes in predicting the response of therapeutics in individual patients. We describe differences between precision and personalized medicine and relate principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to applications in laboratory medicine. We also review basic principles of pharmacogenetics, including its evolution, how it enables the practice of personalized therapeutics, and the role of the clinical laboratory. These fundamentals are a segue for understanding specific clinical applications of pharmacogenetics described in subsequent articles in this issue. PMID:27514461

  6. Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Stubbs, Christopher [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

    2016-07-12

    Astrophysical observations provide robust evidence that our current picture of fundamental physics is incomplete. The discovery in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (apparently due to gravitational repulsion between regions of empty space!) presents us with a profound challenge, at the interface between gravity and quantum mechanics. This "Dark Energy" problem is arguably the most pressing open question in modern fundamental physics. The first talk will describe why the Dark Energy problem constitutes a crisis, with wide-reaching ramifications. One consequence is that we should probe our understanding of gravity at all accessible scales, and the second talk will present experiments and observations that are exploring this issue.

  7. Course Objectives: Electronic Fundamentals, EL16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David H.

    The general objective, recommended text, and specific objectives of a course titled "Electronic Fundamentals," as offered at St. Lawrence College of Applied Arts and Technology, are provided. The general objective of the course is "to acquire an understanding of diodes, transistors, and tubes, and so be able to analyze the operation of single…

  8. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Getting a Better Grasp on Flu ... Seasonal Flu Patterns? Forecasting Flu This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  9. Uncovering Racial Bias in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…

  10. Fundamental Theorems of Algebra for the Perplexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poodiak, Robert; LeClair, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental theorem of algebra for the complex numbers states that a polynomial of degree n has n roots, counting multiplicity. This paper explores the "perplex number system" (also called the "hyperbolic number system" and the "spacetime number system") In this system (which has extra roots of +1 besides the usual [plus or minus]1 of the…

  11. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  12. Fundamental Concepts Bridging Education and the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Steve; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of papers have already discussed the relevance of brain research for education, the fundamental concepts and discoveries connecting education and the brain have not been systematically reviewed yet. In this paper, four of these concepts are presented and evidence concerning each one is reviewed. First, the concept of…

  13. The Case for Fundamentals of Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanuel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Dozens of studies support the fact that communication skills are essential for success in a number of areas. After citing a sampling of these studies, a survey of the communication course offerings in Alabama's 2-year-college system reveals that most students are required to take only one communication course-either Fundamentals of Oral…

  14. Measurement and Fundamental Processes in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2015-07-01

    In the standard mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, measurement is an additional, exceptional fundamental process rather than an often complex, but ordinary process which happens also to serve a particular epistemic function: during a measurement of one of its properties which is not already determined by a preceding measurement, a measured system, even if closed, is taken to change its state discontinuously rather than continuously as is usual. Many, including Bell, have been concerned about the fundamental role thus given to measurement in the foundation of the theory. Others, including the early Bohr and Schwinger, have suggested that quantum mechanics naturally incorporates the unavoidable uncontrollable disturbance of physical state that accompanies any local measurement without the need for an exceptional fundamental process or a special measurement theory. Disturbance is unanalyzable for Bohr, but for Schwinger it is due to physical interactions' being borne by fundamental particles having discrete properties and behavior which is beyond physical control. Here, Schwinger's approach is distinguished from more well known treatments of measurement, with the conclusion that, unlike most, it does not suffer under Bell's critique of quantum measurement. Finally, Schwinger's critique of measurement theory is explicated as a call for a deeper investigation of measurement processes that requires the use of a theory of quantum fields.

  15. Drafting Fundamentals. Drafting Module 1. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Missouri Vocational Instruction Management System instructor's drafting guide has been keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by state industry and education professionals. The guide contains a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Ten units cover drafting fundamentals: (1) introduction to drafting; (2) general safety;…

  16. Fundamentals of Athletic Training. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behling, Fred L.; And Others

    This book provides an authoritative reference on the fundamentals of athletic training for people with varied backgrounds but a common interest in the health and education of the high school athlete. The book is designed especially for the novice athletic trainer. Section 1 of the book concerns the organization and administration of athletic…

  17. Mathematical Literacy--It's Become Fundamental

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, Sharon Soucy; Dossey, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The rising tide of numbers and statistics in daily life signals a need for a fundamental broadening of the concept of literacy: mathematical literacy assuming a coequal role in the curriculum alongside language-based literacy. Mathematical literacy is not about studying higher levels of formal mathematics, but about making math relevant and…

  18. A Fundamental Breakdown. Part II: Manipulative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, J. Scott; Mohr, Derek J.

    2005-01-01

    In the May, 2005, issue of "TEPE," the "Research to Practice" section initiated a two-part series focused on assessing fundamental locomotor and manipulative skills. The series was generated in response to research by Pappa, Evanggelinou, & Karabourniotis (2005), recommending that curricular programming in physical education at the elementary…

  19. A Fundamental Theorem on Particle Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    2003-05-01

    A fundamental theorem on particle acceleration is derived from the reciprocity principle of electromagnetism and a rigorous proof of the theorem is presented. The theorem establishes a relation between acceleration and radiation, which is particularly useful for insightful understanding of and practical calculation about the first order acceleration in which energy gain of the accelerated particle is linearly proportional to the accelerating field.

  20. Man's Size in Terms of Fundamental Constants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, William H.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews calculations that derive an order of magnitude expression for the size of man in terms of fundamental constants, assuming that man satifies these three properties: he is made of complicated molecules; he requires an atmosphere which is not hydrogen and helium; he is as large as possible. (CS)

  1. Euler and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duham, William

    1991-01-01

    The complexity of the proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra makes it inaccessible to lower level students. Described are more understandable attempts of proving the theorem and a historical account of Euler's efforts that relates the progression of the mathematical process used and indicates some of the pitfalls encountered. (MDH)

  2. The equivalent fundamental-mode source

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G.D.; Busch, R.D.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Okajima, Shigeaki

    1997-02-01

    In 1960, Hansen analyzed the problem of assembling fissionable material in the presence of a weak neutron source. Using point kinetics, he defined the weak source condition and analyzed the consequences of delayed initiation during ramp reactivity additions. Although not clearly stated in Hansen`s work, the neutron source strength that appears in the weak source condition corresponds to the equivalent fundamental-mode source. In this work, we describe the concept of an equivalent fundamental-mode source and we derive a deterministic expression for a factor, g*, that converts any arbitrary source distribution to an equivalent fundamental-mode source. We also demonstrate a simplified method for calculating g* in subcritical systems. And finally, we present a new experimental method that can be employed to measure the equivalent fundamental-mode source strength in a multiplying assembly. We demonstrate the method on the zero-power, XIX-1 assembly at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  3. Fundamental studies on passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1993-06-01

    Using photoelectrochemical impedance and admittance spectroscopies, a fundamental and quantitative understanding of the mechanisms for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in contact with aqueous environments is being developed. A point defect model has been extended to explain the breakdown of passive films, leading to pitting and crack growth and thus development of damage due to localized corrosion.

  4. Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,…

  5. Why quarks cannot be fundamental particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, C. S.

    2005-05-01

    Many reasons why quarks should be considered composite particles are found in the book Preons by D'Souza and Kalman. One reason not found in the book is that all the quarks except for the u quark decay. The electron and the electron neutrino do not decay. A model of fundamental particles based upon the weak charge is presented.

  6. Fundamental and Gradient Differences in Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This article reexamines Bley-Vroman's original (1990) and evolved fundamental difference hypothesis that argues that differences in path and endstate of first language acquisition and adult foreign language learning result from differences in the acquisition procedure (i.e., language faculty and cognitive strategies, respectively). The evolved…

  7. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  8. On some fundamental concepts of galactic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossipkov, L. P.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the following fundamental concepts of galactic dynamics: (a) regular (smoothed) and irregular (random) forces, (b) truncation of the impact parameter, (c) the invariance of the Maxwellian velocity distribution, and (d) the Jeans theorem. Dedicated to Felix Alexandrovich Tsitsin (1931-2005)

  9. Reversing: A Fundamental Idea in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Ginat, David

    2008-01-01

    Reversing is the notion of thinking or working in reverse. Computer science textbooks and tutors recognize it primarily in the form of recursion. However, recursion is only one form of reversing. Reversing appears in the computer science curriculum in many other forms, at various intellectual levels, in a variety of fundamental courses. As such,…

  10. Radio and Television Repairer Fundamentals. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maul, Chuck

    This self-contained student manual on fundamentals of radio and television repair is designed to help trade and industrial students relate work experience on the job to information studied at school. Designed for individualized instruction under the supervision of a coordinator or instructor, the manual has 9 sections, each containing 2 to 10…

  11. Self-Organization of Polystyrene-b-polyacrylic Acid (PS-b-PAA) Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface: A Process Driven by the Release of the Solvent Spreading.

    PubMed

    Guennouni, Zineb; Cousin, Fabrice; Fauré, Marie-Claude; Perrin, Patrick; Limagne, Denis; Konovalov, Oleg; Goldmann, Michel

    2016-03-01

    We present an in situ structural study of the surface behavior of PS-b-PAA monolayers at the air/water interface at pH 2, for which the PAA blocks are neutral and using N,N-dimethyformamide (DMF) as spreading solvent. The surface pressure versus molecular area isotherm shows a perfectly reversible pseudoplateau over several cycles of compression/decompression. The width of such plateau enlarges when increasing temperature, conversely to what is classically observed in the case of an in-plane first order transition. We combined specular neutron reflectivity (SNR) experiments with contrast variation to solve the profile of each block perpendicular to the surface with grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) measurements to determine the in-plane structure of the layer. SNR experiments showed that both PS and PAA blocks remain adsorbed on the surface for all surface pressure probed. A correlation peak at Q(xy)* = 0.021 Å(-1) is evidenced by GISAXS at very low surface pressure which intensity first increases on the plateau. When compressing further, its intensity decays while Q(xy)* is shifted toward low Q(xy). The peak fully disappears at the end of the plateau. These results are interpreted by the formation of surface aggregates induced by DMF molecules at the surface. These DMF molecules remain adsorbed within the PS core of the aggregates. Upon compression, they are progressively expelled from the monolayer, which gives rise to the pseudoplateau on the isotherm. The intensity of the GISAXS correlation peak is set by the amount of DMF within the monolayer as it vanishes when all DMF molecules are expelled. This result emphizes the role of the solvent in Langmuir monolayer formed by amphiphilic copolymers which hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts are composed by long polymer chains.

  12. Fundamental Physics for Probing and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Wade

    2006-12-01

    This book addresses the question 'What is physics for?' Physics has provided many answers for mankind by extending his ability to see. Modern technology has enabled the power of physics to see into objects to be used in archaeology, medicine including therapy, geophysics, forensics and other spheres important to the good of society. The book looks at the fundamental physics of the various methods and how they are used by technology. These methods are magnetic resonance, ionising radiation and sound. By taking a broad view over the whole field it encourages comparisons, but also addresses questions of risk and benefit to society from a fundamental viewpoint. This textbook has developed from a course given to third year students at Oxford and is written so that it can be used coherently as a basis for shortened courses by omitting a number of chapters.

  13. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information on diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  14. [Reduction of biology to fundamental physics].

    PubMed

    Okhonin, V A

    2001-01-01

    It was shown that, while interpreting life as a physical phenomenon, fundamental physics allows for the following alternatives: relativity of animate and inanimate upon canonical transformations; the impossibility of the change from animate to inanimate state of isolated systems; the abandonment of attempts to reduce biology to the physics of isolated systems. The possibility of reducing biology to phenomenological physics was considered. A number of equations for the general phenomenological dynamics of density matrix was proposed.

  15. Baryogenesis and its implications to fundamental physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, M.

    2008-08-08

    In this talk I shall explain some basic concepts of baryogenesis and leptogenesis theory, and a new idea of experimental method of verification of fundamental ingredients of leptogenesis theory; the Majorana nature and the absolute magnitude of neutrino masses. Both of these are important to the quest of physics beyond the standard theory, and have far reaching implications irrespective of any particular medel of leptogenesis. If this new method works ideally, there is even a further possibility of detecting relic neutrinos.

  16. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  17. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the two modules: structure of metals (bonding, common lattic types, grain structure/boundary, polymorphis, alloys, imperfections in metals) and properties of metals (stress, strain, Young modulus, stress-strain relation, physical properties, working of metals, corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, tritium/material compatibility).

  18. DOE fundamentals handbook: Mechanical science. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  19. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2009-11-30

    This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

  20. Fundamentals of Physics, Extended 7th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  1. Fundamental Physics Explored with High Intensity Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Homma, K.

    2012-10-01

    Over the last century the method of particle acceleration to high energies has become the prime approach to explore the fundamental nature of matter in laboratory. It appears that the latest search of the contemporary accelerator based on the colliders shows a sign of saturation (or at least a slow-down) in increasing its energy and other necessary parameters to extend this frontier. We suggest two pronged approach enabled by the recent progress in high intensity lasers. First we envision the laser-driven plasma accelerator may be able to extend the reach of the collider. For this approach to bear fruit, we need to develop the technology of high averaged power laser in addition to the high intensity. For this we mention that the latest research effort of ICAN is an encouraging sign. In addition to this, we now introduce the concept of the noncollider paradigm in exploring fundamental physics with high intensity (and large energy) lasers. One of the examples we mention is the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) far beyond TeV without large luminosity. If we relax or do not require the large luminosity necessary for colliders, but solely in ultrahigh energy frontier, we are still capable of exploring such a fundamental issue. Given such a high energetic particle source and high-intensity laser fields simultaneously, we expect to be able to access new aspects on the matter and the vacuum structure from fundamental physical point of views. LWFA naturally exploits the nonlinear optical effects in the plasma when it becomes of relativistic intensity. Normally nonlinear optical effects are discussed based upon polarization susceptibility of matter to external fields. We suggest application of this concept even to the vacuum structure as a new kind of order parameter to discuss vacuum-originating phenomena at semimacroscopic scales. This viewpoint unifies the following observables with the unprecedented experimental environment we envision; the dispersion relation of

  2. 32 CFR 2001.16 - Fundamental classification guidance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fundamental classification guidance review. 2001... INFORMATION Classification § 2001.16 Fundamental classification guidance review. (a) Performance of fundamental classification guidance reviews. An initial fundamental classification guidance review shall...

  3. Model for a fundamental theory with supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoo, Seiichiro

    Physics in the year 2006 is tightly constrained by experiment, observation, and mathematical consistency. The Standard Model provides a remarkably precise description of particle physics, and general relativity is quite successful in describing gravitational phenomena. At the same time, it is clear that a more fundamental theory is needed for several distinct reasons. Here we consider a new approach, which begins with the unusually ambitious point of view that a truly fundamental theory should aspire to explaining the origins of Lorentz invariance, gravity, gauge fields and their symmetry, supersymmetry, fermionic fields, bosonic fields, quantum mechanics and spacetime. The present dissertation is organized so that it starts with the most conventional ideas for extending the Standard Model and ends with a microscopic statistical picture, which is actually the logical starting point of the theory, but which is also the most remote excursion from conventional physics. One motivation for the present work is the fact that a Euclidean path integral in quantum physics is equivalent to a partition function in statistical physics. This suggests that the most fundamental description of nature may be statistical. This dissertation may be regarded as an attempt to see how far one can go with this premise in explaining the observed phenomena, starting with the simplest statistical picture imaginable. It may be that nature is richer than the model assumed here, but the present results are quite suggestive, because, with a set of assumptions that are not unreasonable, one recovers the phenomena listed above. At the end, the present theory leads back to conventional physics, except that Lorentz invariance and supersymmetry are violated at extremely high energy. To be more specific, one obtains local Lorentz invariance (at low energy compared to the Planck scale), an SO( N) unified gauge theory (with N = 10 as the simplest possibility), supersymmetry of Standard Model fermions and

  4. [Relation between fundamental and realized ecological niche].

    PubMed

    Severtsov, A S

    2012-01-01

    Since species are formed in course of evolutionary process, their ecological niches are formed in the evolutionary process, too. Species exist in a state of evolutionary stasis diring hundreds of thousands and millions years. Stasis in sustained mainly by counterbalance of vectors of directional selection. Niche can be viewed as a multidimensional structure. Multitude of environmental factors acts upon every population, which cause elimination and, by that, selection for adaptation to each eliminating factor. Different directions of these vectors of selection lead to their counteractions; selection in one direction is interfered by selection in an opposite direction. The counterbalance of vectors of selection interferes with progressive evolution thus supporting stasis. During species existence in a stasis condition it endures a whole set of various deterioration of environment. Such deteriorations lead to imbalance of selective processes. Unbalanced vectors of selection form adaptations to extreme conditions of existence. Such adaptations are superfluous as for usual conditions; but they define fitness borders and, by that, borders of a fundamental niche. Realized niche, as well as fundamental one, is a multidimensional structure. Each population occupies a subniche of the specific realized niche. Thus, it occupies habitats where conditions are as close to an ecological optimum as can be admitted by the conditions in the given part of the areal. The sum of all subniches of populations--the specific realized niche--coincides with a part of fundamental niche because only the part of adaptive possibilities of a species sufficient for existence in the given environment is used. Interspecific competition, even when it is capable to restrict consumption of limiting resources, is not the reason of the realized niche limitation. Restriction of one or two of niche parameters does not influece all others parameters of its multidimensional space.

  5. 146 Kepler-Lamost targets fundamental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yaqian

    2015-08-01

    Accurate stellar fundamental parameters with high precision are important for distinguishing stellar populationand star study.Turn-off stars are in the relatively vital stellar evolution state. Studying turn-off stars can help us to have a more comprehensive understand of the stellar physics.With the help of observation provided by Lamost project, we obtain atmospheric parameters of 146 turn-off stars from LSP3 pipeline. Combined with stellar pulsation data from Kepler, we can get asteroseismic characteristic of stars,such as Δν and νmax.In this paper,we constructed a grid of evolutionary models, with the mass range from 0.8 to 2.5 M⊙ and metallicities Zini = 0.0085, 0.0105, 0.0130, 0.0165, 0.0200, 0.0250, 0.0300, 0.0400 (i.e.[Fe/H] from -0.3 to 0.4dex).All evolutionary tracks were started in the pre-main sequence birth line and ended at the base of Red Giant Branch.Based on the stellar model grid we constructed,as well as Kepler-Lamost observations, we obtained fundamental parameters of 146 around turn-off stars, and found that 112 targets lied in turn-off state or in the Main Sequence,15 targets are subgiant stars and 7 targets have evolved to the red giants stage.Then we use pulsation code(JIG) of Guenther to extract theorical individual frequencies and calculate theorical Δν.Meanwhile we obtained more precise fundamental parameters of these stars.

  6. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  7. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A. ); Durham, M.D. ); Sowa, W.A. . Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. ); Mahaffey, W.A. )

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  8. Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

    This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

  9. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

  10. Fundamental science of nanometer-size clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Newcomer, P.P.; Samara, G.A.; Venturini, E.L.; Williamson, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This research has produced a variety of monodisperse, nanometer-size clusters (nanoclusters for short), characterized their size and crystal structure and developed a scientific understanding of the size dependence of their physical properties. Of specific interest were the influence of quantum electronic confinement on the optical properties, magnetic properties, and dielectric properties. These properties were chosen both for their potential practical impact on various applications identified in the National Critical Technologies list (e.g., catalysis, information storage, sensors, environmental remediation, ...) as well as for their importance to the fundamental science of clusters. An Executive Summary provides a description of the major highlights.

  11. Antennas in matter: Fundamentals, theory, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W. P.; Smith, G. S.; Owens, M.; Wu, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The volume provides an introduction to antennas and probes embedded within or near material bodies such as the earth, the ocean, or a living organism. After a fundamental analysis of insulated and bare antennas, an advanced treatment of antennas in various media is presented, including a detailed study of the electromagnetic equations in homogeneous isotropic media, the complete theory of the bare dipole in a general medium, and a rigorous analysis of the insulated antenna as well as bare and insulated loop antennas. Finally, experimental models and measuring techniques related to antennas and probes in a general dissipative or dielectric medium are examined.

  12. Fundamental Limits of Spatial Resolution in PET

    PubMed Central

    Moses, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental limits of spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) have been understood for many years. The physical size of the detector element usually plays the dominant role in determining resolution, but the combined contributions from acollinearity, positron range, penetration into the detector ring, and decoding errors in the detector modules often combine to be of similar size. In addition, the sampling geometry and statistical noise further degrade the effective resolution. This paper describes quantitatively describes these effects, discusses potential methods for reducing the magnitude of these effects, and computes the ultimately achievable spatial resolution for clinical and pre-clinical PET cameras. PMID:21804677

  13. Fundamental Structure of Matter and Strong Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    More than 99% of the visible matter in the universe are the protons and neutrons. Their internal structure is mostly governed by the strong interaction. Understanding their internal structure in terms of fundamental degrees-of-freedom is one of the most important subjects in modern physics. Worldwide efforts in the last few decades have lead to numerous surprises and discoveries, but major challenges still remain. An overview of the progress will be presented with a focus on the recent studies of the proton and neutron's electromagnetic and spin structure. Future perspectives will be discussed.

  14. Fundamental bioprocessing research for coal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this program is to gain a fundamental understanding and sound scientific technical basis for evaluating the potential roles of innovative bioprocessing concepts for the utilization and conversion of coal. The aim is to explore the numerous ways in which advanced biological processes and techniques can open new opportunities for coal utilization or can replace more conventional techniques by use of milder conditions with less energy consumption or loss. There are several roles where biotechnology is likely to be important in coal utilization and conversion. These include potential bioprocessing systems such.

  15. Fundamental constraints on two-time physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piceno, E.; Rosado, A.; Sadurní, E.

    2016-10-01

    We show that generalizations of classical and quantum dynamics with two times lead to a fundamentally constrained evolution. At the level of classical physics, Newton's second law is extended and exactly integrated in a (1 + 2) -dimensional space, leading to effective single-time evolution for any initial condition. The cases 2 + 2 and 3 + 2 are also analyzed. In the domain of quantum mechanics, we follow strictly the hypothesis of probability conservation by extending the Heisenberg picture to unitary evolution with two times. As a result, the observability of two temporal axes is constrained by a generalized uncertainty relation involving level spacings, total duration of the effect and Planck's constant.

  16. A "fundamental theorem" of biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Charles P

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes, in words and pictures, a "fundamental theorem" to help clarify what informatics is and what it is not. In words, the theorem stipulates that a person working in partnership with an information resource is "better" than that same person unassisted. The theorem is applicable to health care, research, education, and administrative activities. Three corollaries to the theorem illustrate that informatics is more about people than technology; that in order for the theorem to hold, resources must be informative in addition to being correct; and that the theorem can fail to hold for reasons explained by understanding the interaction between the person and the resource.

  17. Fundamental Limits to Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Hosseinloo, Ashkan; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2015-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear vibration energy harvesting has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. However, fundamental limits on the harvestable energy of a harvester subjected to an arbitrary excitation force and different constraints is not yet fully understood. Understanding these limits is not only essential for an assessment of the technology potential, but it also provides a broader perspective on the current harvesting mechanisms and guidance in their improvement. Here, we derive the fundamental limits on the output power of an ideal energy harvester for arbitrary excitation waveforms and build on the current analysis framework for the simple computation of this limit for more sophisticated setups. We show that the optimal harvester maximizes the harvested energy through a mechanical analog of a buy-low-sell-high strategy. We also propose a nonresonant passive latch-assisted harvester to realize this strategy for an effective harvesting. It is shown that the proposed harvester harvests energy more effectively than its linear and bistable counterparts over a wider range of excitation frequencies and amplitudes. The buy-low-sell-high strategy also reveals why the conventional bistable harvester works well at low-frequency excitation.

  18. Microbial Cellulose Utilization: Fundamentals and Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lynd, Lee R.; Weimer, Paul J.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental features of microbial cellulose utilization are examined at successively higher levels of aggregation encompassing the structure and composition of cellulosic biomass, taxonomic diversity, cellulase enzyme systems, molecular biology of cellulase enzymes, physiology of cellulolytic microorganisms, ecological aspects of cellulase-degrading communities, and rate-limiting factors in nature. The methodological basis for studying microbial cellulose utilization is considered relative to quantification of cells and enzymes in the presence of solid substrates as well as apparatus and analysis for cellulose-grown continuous cultures. Quantitative description of cellulose hydrolysis is addressed with respect to adsorption of cellulase enzymes, rates of enzymatic hydrolysis, bioenergetics of microbial cellulose utilization, kinetics of microbial cellulose utilization, and contrasting features compared to soluble substrate kinetics. A biological perspective on processing cellulosic biomass is presented, including features of pretreated substrates and alternative process configurations. Organism development is considered for “consolidated bioprocessing” (CBP), in which the production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation of resulting sugars to desired products occur in one step. Two organism development strategies for CBP are examined: (i) improve product yield and tolerance in microorganisms able to utilize cellulose, or (ii) express a heterologous system for cellulose hydrolysis and utilization in microorganisms that exhibit high product yield and tolerance. A concluding discussion identifies unresolved issues pertaining to microbial cellulose utilization, suggests approaches by which such issues might be resolved, and contrasts a microbially oriented cellulose hydrolysis paradigm to the more conventional enzymatically oriented paradigm in both fundamental and applied contexts. PMID:12209002

  19. Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Weimer, Paul J; van Zyl, Willem H; Pretorius, Isak S

    2002-09-01

    Fundamental features of microbial cellulose utilization are examined at successively higher levels of aggregation encompassing the structure and composition of cellulosic biomass, taxonomic diversity, cellulase enzyme systems, molecular biology of cellulase enzymes, physiology of cellulolytic microorganisms, ecological aspects of cellulase-degrading communities, and rate-limiting factors in nature. The methodological basis for studying microbial cellulose utilization is considered relative to quantification of cells and enzymes in the presence of solid substrates as well as apparatus and analysis for cellulose-grown continuous cultures. Quantitative description of cellulose hydrolysis is addressed with respect to adsorption of cellulase enzymes, rates of enzymatic hydrolysis, bioenergetics of microbial cellulose utilization, kinetics of microbial cellulose utilization, and contrasting features compared to soluble substrate kinetics. A biological perspective on processing cellulosic biomass is presented, including features of pretreated substrates and alternative process configurations. Organism development is considered for "consolidated bioprocessing" (CBP), in which the production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation of resulting sugars to desired products occur in one step. Two organism development strategies for CBP are examined: (i) improve product yield and tolerance in microorganisms able to utilize cellulose, or (ii) express a heterologous system for cellulose hydrolysis and utilization in microorganisms that exhibit high product yield and tolerance. A concluding discussion identifies unresolved issues pertaining to microbial cellulose utilization, suggests approaches by which such issues might be resolved, and contrasts a microbially oriented cellulose hydrolysis paradigm to the more conventional enzymatically oriented paradigm in both fundamental and applied contexts.

  20. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  1. Loudness predicts prominence: Fundamental frequency lends little

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, G.; Grabe, E.; Coleman, J.; Rosner, B.

    2005-08-01

    We explored a database covering seven dialects of British and Irish English and three different styles of speech to find acoustic correlates of prominence. We built classifiers, trained the classifiers on human prominence/nonprominence judgments, and then evaluated how well they behaved. The classifiers operate on 452 ms windows centered on syllables, using different acoustic measures. By comparing the performance of classifiers based on different measures, we can learn how prominence is expressed in speech. Contrary to textbooks and common assumption, fundamental frequency (f0) played a minor role in distinguishing prominent syllables from the rest of the utterance. Instead, speakers primarily marked prominence with patterns of loudness and duration. Two other acoustic measures that we examined also played a minor role, comparable to f0. All dialects and speaking styles studied here share a common definition of prominence. The result is robust to differences in labeling practice and the dialect of the labeler.

  2. Fundamental Considerations Of Gas Core Reactor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussard, Robert W.

    1988-04-01

    Fundamental physics and engineering limitations on gas core reactors (GCR) have been found from coupled effects of reactor neutronics with oscillatory core fuel gas flows and with overall gas dynamics. These show allowable regimes for system operation as natural re-sults of the basiciphysics of the system. Cylindrical BeO-moderated systems, such as the acoustic GCR (AGCR ), are found to be well-suited for pressure wave oscillation at 100-Hz frequencies. These result in stable oscillations of core gas electrical conductivity which may be used for direct alternating current electric power production in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convertors. In contrast, single-cavity axial-flow spherical GCR (SGCR2) systems are inherently limited by core flow and fission energy-generation fluctuation phenomena (to continuous wave operation with mixed flows that cannot sustain high internal core gas tempera-ture gradients. Resulting low mixed-mean temperatures place upper limits on system MHD electrical performance.

  3. [Fundamental ophthalmology: the role of electrophysiological studies].

    PubMed

    Zueva, M V

    2014-01-01

    Studying of functional aspects of eye disease pathogenesis by electrophysiological methods is widely demanded in fundamental ophthalmology. Introduction of modern methods of functional assessment into experimental and clinical projects significantly broadens knowledge of normal and pathological functioning of the visual system and is the basis for further development of new strategies of pathogenetic treatment, diagnostics and expert evaluation. Some problems of ophthalmology, including those that concern age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and other diseases, are considered in the context of how much electrophysiology contributes to their solution. The role of functional examinations of the retina in studying pathophysiology of neurodegenerative brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, is also discussed. PMID:25715550

  4. Fundamental Constants and Tests with Simple Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Precise measurements with simple atoms provide stringent tests of physical laws, improving the accuracy of fundamental constants--a set of which will be selected to fully define the proposed New International System of Units. This talk focuses on the atomic constants (namely, the Rydberg constant, the fine-structure constant, and the proton charge radius), discussing the impact of the proton radius obtained from the Lamb-shift measurements in muonic hydrogen. Significant discrepancies persist despite years of careful examination: the slightly smaller proton radius obtained from muonic hydrogen requires the Rydberg constant and the fine-structure constant to have values that disagree significantly with the CODATA recommendations. After giving a general overview, I will discuss our effort to produce one-electron ions in Rydberg states, to enable a different test of theory and measurement of the Rydberg constant.

  5. The fundamental non-critical string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Adrián R.; Sturla, Mauricio B.

    2006-06-01

    We obtain the (super) gravity solution in arbitrary space-time dimension less than ten, that gives a low energy description of a fundamental string embedded in a non-critical vacuum, product of d-dimensional Minkowski space-time and a cigar-like geometry with scale r0. This solution, one of the few known examples of objects doubly localized, both at the origin of the transverse space as well as at the tip of the cigar, is determined by its charge Q under the Kalb-Ramond gauge field B, and presumably preserves, for even d, 2 d/2 supercharges. Moreover, we show that the solution is reliable at least in a region far away from both origins, as it is the case with the well known branes of critical string theory.

  6. Fundamental physics of infrared detector materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, Michael A.

    2001-06-01

    The fundamental parameters of IR photon detection are discussed relevant to the meaningful comparison of a wide range of proposed IR detecting materials systems. The thermal generation rate of the IR material is seen to be the key parameter that enables this comparison. The simple materials physics of (1) intrinsic direct bandgap semiconductors, (2) extrinsic semiconductors, (3) quantum well devices, including types I, II, and III superlattices, (4) Si Schottky barriers, are examined with regard to the potential performance of these materials as IR detectors, utilizing the thermal generation rate as a differentiator. The possibility of room temperature photon detection over the whole IR spectral range is discussed, and comparison made with uncooled thermal detection.

  7. Fundamental physics of infrared detector materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, Michael A.

    2000-06-01

    The fundamental parameters of IR photon detection are discussed relevant to the meaningful comparison of a wide range of proposed IR detecting materials systems. The thermal generation rate of the IR material is seen to be the key parameter that enables this comparison. The simple materials physics of 1) intrinsic direct bandgap semiconductors; 2) extrinsic semiconductors; 3) quantum well devices, including types I, II, and III superlattices; 4) Si Schottky barriers; and 5) high temperature superconductors, will be examined with regard to the potential performance of these materials as IR detectors, utilizing the thermal generation rate as a differentiator. The possibility of room temperature photon detection over the whole IR spectral range is discussed, and comparisons made with uncooled thermal detection.

  8. Future fundamental combustion research for aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Physical fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and chemical kinetic processes which occur in the combustion chamber of aeropropulsion systems were investigated. With the component requirements becoming more severe for future engines, the current design methodology needs the new tools to obtain the optimum configuration in a reasonable design and development cycle. Research efforts in the last few years were encouraging but to achieve these benefits research is required into the fundamental aerothermodynamic processes of combustion. It is recommended that research continues in the areas of flame stabilization, combustor aerodynamics, heat transfer, multiphase flow and atomization, turbulent reacting flows, and chemical kinetics. Associated with each of these engineering sciences is the need for research into computational methods to accurately describe and predict these complex physical processes. Research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  9. Fundamental Fluidization Research Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center proposes to conduct fundamental research on fluidization technology by designing, constructing, and operating a 2-foot diameter, 50-foot high, pressurized fluidized-bed unit. The anticipated result of the proposed project would be a better, understanding of fluidization phenomena under pressurized and high velocity conditions. This improved understanding would, provide a sound basis for design and scale-up of pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) processes for fossil energy applications. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major, Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  10. Sperm preservation: Fundamental cryobiology and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, P.F. ); Critser, J.K. ); Mazur, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Human spermatozoa were first frozen successfully almost 40 years ago. While developments in packaging and storing have occurred in the intervening period, there is still little known specifically about how spermatozoa are adversely affected by freezing and thawing. This is largely due to the fact that sufficient cells survive the challenge to give a reasonable expectation of fertilization, but the shift to the exclusive use of cryopreserved semen for donor insemination, occasioned by the awareness of the risks particularly of AIDS transmission, has resulted in a renewed critical interest in the process of cryopreservation. This review will cover the more significant contributions over the past few years, and develop an argument for a sustained fundamental approach to sperm cryobiology.

  11. Sperm preservation: Fundamental cryobiology and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, P.F.; Critser, J.K.; Mazur, P.

    1992-07-01

    Human spermatozoa were first frozen successfully almost 40 years ago. While developments in packaging and storing have occurred in the intervening period, there is still little known specifically about how spermatozoa are adversely affected by freezing and thawing. This is largely due to the fact that sufficient cells survive the challenge to give a reasonable expectation of fertilization, but the shift to the exclusive use of cryopreserved semen for donor insemination, occasioned by the awareness of the risks particularly of AIDS transmission, has resulted in a renewed critical interest in the process of cryopreservation. This review will cover the more significant contributions over the past few years, and develop an argument for a sustained fundamental approach to sperm cryobiology.

  12. Fundamental aspects of quantum Brownian motion

    SciTech Connect

    Haenggi, Peter; Ingold, Gert-Ludwig

    2005-06-01

    With this work we elaborate on the physics of quantum noise in thermal equilibrium and in stationary nonequilibrium. Starting out from the celebrated quantum fluctuation-dissipation theorem we discuss some important consequences that must hold for open, dissipative quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. The issue of quantum dissipation is exemplified with the fundamental problem of a damped harmonic quantum oscillator. The role of quantum fluctuations is discussed in the context of both, the nonlinear generalized quantum Langevin equation and the path integral approach. We discuss the consequences of the time-reversal symmetry for an open dissipative quantum dynamics and, furthermore, point to a series of subtleties and possible pitfalls. The path integral methodology is applied to the decay of metastable states assisted by quantum Brownian noise.

  13. Two Fundamental Principles of Nature's Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, we present two fundamental principles of nature's interactions, the principle of interaction dynamics (PID) and the principle of representation invariance (PRI). Intuitively, PID takes the variation of the action functional under energy-momentum conservation constraint. PID offers a completely different and natural way of introducing Higgs fields. PRI requires that physical laws be independent of representations of the gauge groups. These two principles give rise to a unified field model for four interactions, which can be naturally decoupled to study individual interactions. With these two principles, we are able to derive 1) a unified theory for dark matter and dark energy, 2) layered strong and weak interaction potentials, and 3) the energy levels of subatomic particles. Supported in part by NSF, ONR and Chinese NSF.

  14. Graphene oxide: from fundamentals to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrozzi, F.; Prezioso, S.; Ottaviano, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the fundamental characterization of graphene oxide (GO) and its future application perspectives. Morphology is discussed through optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy studies. Chemical, structural, and vibrational properties are discussed through x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies. Two easy characterization strategies, based on the correlation between x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and contact angle/optical contrast measurements are reported. Sensing and nano-biotechnology applications are discussed with focus on practical gas sensing and optical sensing, on the one hand, and on the toxicity issue of GO, on the other hand. Synthesis and post-synthesis treatments are also discussed, these latter with emphasis on lithography.

  15. Constraining fundamental physics with future CMB experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Sherwin, Blake D.; Spergel, David N.

    2010-12-15

    The Planck experiment will soon provide a very accurate measurement of cosmic microwave background anisotropies. This will let cosmologists determine most of the cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. Future experiments will improve and complement the Planck data with better angular resolution and better polarization sensitivity. This unexplored region of the CMB power spectrum contains information on many parameters of interest, including neutrino mass, the number of relativistic particles at recombination, the primordial helium abundance, and the injection of additional ionizing photons by dark matter self-annihilation. We review the imprint of each parameter on the CMB and forecast the constraints achievable by future experiments by performing a Monte Carlo analysis on synthetic realizations of simulated data. We find that next generation satellite missions such as CMBPol could provide valuable constraints with a precision close to that expected in current and near future laboratory experiments. Finally, we discuss the implications of this intersection between cosmology and fundamental physics.

  16. k-strings as fundamental strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giataganas, Dimitrios

    2015-05-01

    It has been noticed that the k-string observables can be expressed in terms of the fundamental string ones. We identify a sufficient condition for a generic gravity dual background which when satisfied the mapping can be done. The condition is naturally related to a preserved quantity under the T-dualities acting on the Dp-brane describing the high representation Wilson loops. We also find the explicit relation between the observables of the heavy k-quark and the single quark states. As an application to our generic study and motivated by the fact that the anisotropic theories satisfy our condition, we compute the width of the k-string in these theories to find that the logarithmic broadening is still present, but the total result is affected by the anisotropy of the space.

  17. Fundamentals of natural computing: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2007-03-01

    Natural computing is a terminology introduced to encompass three classes of methods: (1) those that take inspiration from nature for the development of novel problem-solving techniques; (2) those that are based on the use of computers to synthesize natural phenomena; and (3) those that employ natural materials (e.g., molecules) to compute. The main fields of research that compose these three branches are the artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems, fractal geometry, artificial life, DNA computing, and quantum computing, among others. This paper provides an overview of the fundamentals of natural computing, particularly the fields listed above, emphasizing the biological motivation, some design principles, their scope of applications, current research trends and open problems. The presentation is concluded with a discussion about natural computing, and when it should be used.

  18. Fundamentals of tribology at the atomic level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Pepper, Stephen V.

    1989-01-01

    Tribology, the science and engineering of solid surfaces in moving contact, is a field that encompasses many disciplines: solid state physics, chemistry, materials science, and mechanical engineering. In spite of the practical importance and maturity of the field, the fundamental understanding of basic phenomena has only recently been attacked. An attempt to define some of these problems and indicate some profitable directions for future research is presented. There are three broad classifications: (1) fluid properties (compression, rheology, additives and particulates); (2) material properties of the solids (deformation, defect formation and energy loss mechanisms); and (3) interfacial properties (adhesion, friction chemical reactions, and boundary films). Research in the categories has traditionally been approached by considering macroscopic material properties. Recent activity has shown that some issues can be approached at the atomic level: the atoms in the materials can be manipulated both experimentally and theoretically, and can produce results related to macroscopic phenomena.

  19. Photoacoustic tomography: fundamentals, advances and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Junjie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    Optical microscopy has been contributing to the development of life science for more than three centuries. However, due to strong optical scattering in tissue, its in vivo imaging ability has been restricted to studies at superficial depths. Advances in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) now allow multiscale imaging at depths from sub-millimeter to several centimeters, with spatial resolutions from sub-micrometer to sub-millimeter. Because of this high scalability and its unique optical absorption contrast, PAT is capable of performing anatomical, functional, molecular and fluid-dynamic imaging at various system levels, and is playing an increasingly important role in fundamental biological research and clinical practice. This Review discusses recent technical progress in PAT and presents corresponding applications. It ends with a discussion of several prospects and their technical challenges. PMID:22025335

  20. Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Wu, David T

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of gas hydrate formation and decomposition processes is critical in many energy and environmental areas and has special importance in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry. These areas represent the core of gas hydrate applications, which, albeit widely studied, are still developing as growing fields of research. Discovering the molecular pathways and chemical and physical concepts underlying gas hydrate formation potentially can lead us beyond flowline blockage prevention strategies toward advancing new technological solutions for fuel storage and transportation, safely producing a new energy resource from natural deposits of gas hydrates in oceanic and arctic sediments, and potentially facilitating effective desalination of seawater. The state of the art in gas hydrate research is leading us to new understanding of formation and dissociation phenomena that focuses on measurement and modeling of time-dependent properties of gas hydrates on the basis of their well-established thermodynamic properties.

  1. Magnetic skyrmions: from fundamental to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finocchio, Giovanni; Büttner, Felix; Tomasello, Riccardo; Carpentieri, Mario; Kläui, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    In this topical review, we will discuss recent advances in the field of skyrmionics (fundamental and applied aspects) mainly focusing on skyrmions that can be realized in thin film structures where an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer (<1 nm) is coupled to materials with large spin-orbit coupling. We review the basic topological nature of the skyrmion spin structure that can entail a stabilization due to the chiral exchange interaction present in many multilayer systems with structural inversion asymmetry. The static spin structures and the dynamics of the skyrmions are also discussed. In particular, we show that skyrmions can be displaced with high reliability and efficiency as needed for the use in devices. We discuss major possible applications, such as memory, microwave oscillators and logic, and combinations of these, making skyrmions very promising candidates for future low power IT devices.

  2. Fundamentals of Digital Engineering: Designing for Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The concept of designing for reliability will be introduced along with a brief overview of reliability, redundancy and traditional methods of fault tolerance is presented, as applied to current logic devices. The fundamentals of advanced circuit design and analysis techniques will be the primary focus. The introduction will cover the definitions of key device parameters and how analysis is used to prove circuit correctness. Basic design techniques such as synchronous vs asynchronous design, metastable state resolution time/arbiter design, and finite state machine structure/implementation will be reviewed. Advanced topics will be explored such as skew-tolerant circuit design, the use of triple-modular redundancy and circuit hazards, device transients and preventative circuit design, lock-up states in finite state machines generated by logic synthesizers, device transient characteristics, radiation mitigation techniques. worst-case analysis, the use of timing analyzer and simulators, and others. Case studies and lessons learned from spaceflight designs will be given as examples

  3. Fundamentals of ergonomics in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J R

    2000-12-01

    In this paper ergonomics is defined as a discipline in its own right, as the theoretical and fundamental understanding of human behaviour and performance in purposeful interacting socio-technical systems, and the application of that understanding to design of interactions in the context of real settings. This definition is justified in the financial, technicat, legal, organisational, social, political and professional contexts in which ergonomists work. On the basis of the history of ergonomics and contemporary contributions, it is proposed that it is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of an art and a craft as well. Justification for the new definition is provided by examining the interacting systems which are prevalent in the modern world and which are the domain best understood through the holistic approach of ergonomics. Finally a number of challenges for ergonomics are identified. PMID:11132041

  4. Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Wu, David T

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of gas hydrate formation and decomposition processes is critical in many energy and environmental areas and has special importance in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry. These areas represent the core of gas hydrate applications, which, albeit widely studied, are still developing as growing fields of research. Discovering the molecular pathways and chemical and physical concepts underlying gas hydrate formation potentially can lead us beyond flowline blockage prevention strategies toward advancing new technological solutions for fuel storage and transportation, safely producing a new energy resource from natural deposits of gas hydrates in oceanic and arctic sediments, and potentially facilitating effective desalination of seawater. The state of the art in gas hydrate research is leading us to new understanding of formation and dissociation phenomena that focuses on measurement and modeling of time-dependent properties of gas hydrates on the basis of their well-established thermodynamic properties. PMID:22432618

  5. Fundamentals of bipolar high-frequency surgery.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, H D

    1993-04-01

    In endoscopic surgery a very precise surgical dissection technique and an efficient hemostasis are of decisive importance. The bipolar technique may be regarded as a method which satisfies both requirements, especially regarding a high safety standard in application. In this context the biophysical and technical fundamentals of this method, which have been known in principle for a long time, are described with regard to the special demands of a newly developed field of modern surgery. After classification of this method into a general and a quasi-bipolar mode, various technological solutions of specific bipolar probes, in a strict and in a generalized sense, are characterized in terms of indication. Experimental results obtained with different bipolar instruments and probes are given. The application of modern microprocessor-controlled high-frequency surgery equipment and, wherever necessary, the integration of additional ancillary technology into the specialized bipolar instruments may result in most useful and efficient tools of a key technology in endoscopic surgery.

  6. Fundamental Space Biology 2010-2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomko, David; Souza, Kenneth; Quincy, Charles; Sun, Sidney

    The goal of NASA's Fundamental Space Biology (FSB) is to strive for U.S. excellence in the whole range of Space Biology -Cell and Molecular, Microbiology, Plant and Animal Biology, Developmental Biology. NASA plans to solicit and conduct research that will contribute to our basic knowledge of the effect of space on living systems. NASA will issue recurring FSB NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) to more fully engage the space biology community. In doing so, FSB research will optimize ISS utilization, develop and demonstrate technology and hard-ware that will enable new science, and contribute to the base of knowledge that will facilitate human countermeasure development. New research capabilities for whole animal and plant bi-ology will be added, and will be optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytic techniques wherever possible to maximize scientific return and optimize animal use. Ground-based research to develop and test hypotheses for flight experiments, including hy-pergravity and hypogravity simulations will be an integral FSB activity. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results -e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights, and NASA will work with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve these objectives. FSB's highest priority for the near future is the development of mammalian fundamental research capabilities. Another high priority is the development of hardware for studying multiple generations of large plants. Current research in cell and molecular biology will be expanded to include new analytical capabilities. By taking these steps, NASA hopes to energize the Space Biology user community and advance our knowledge of the effect of gravity on living systems.

  7. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as

  8. Fundamental Characterization Studies of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phivilay, Somphonh Peter

    Solar powered photocatalytic water splitting has been proposed as a method for the production of sustainable, non-carbon hydrogen fuel. Although much technological progress has been achieved in recent years in the discovery of advanced photocatalytic materials, the progress in the fundamental scientific understanding of such novel, complex mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalysts has significantly lagged. One of the major reasons for this slow scientific progress is the limited number of reported surface characterization studies of the complex bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalyst systems. Although photocatalytic splitting of water by bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride materials involves both bulk (generation of excited electrons and holes) and surface phenomena (reaction of H2O with excited electrons and holes at the surface), the photocatalysis community has almost completely ignored the surface characteristics of such complex bulk photocatalysts and correlates the photocatalytic properties with bulk properties. Some of the most promising photocatalyst systems (NaTaO3, GaN, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) and TaON) were investigated to establish fundamental bulk/surface structure photoactivity relationships. The bulk molecular and electronic structures of the photocatalysts were determined with Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) and transient PL spectroscopy were provided insight into how recombination of photogenerated electrons is related to the photocatalysis activity. The chemical states and atomic compositions of the surface region of the photocatalysts were determined with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (˜1-3 nm) and high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (˜0.3 nm). The new insights obtained from surface characterization clarified the role of La and Ni promoters species for the NaTaO3 photocatalyst system. The La2O3 additive was found to be a structural promoter that stabilizes small NaTaO3 nanoparticles (NPs

  9. Control of corona composition and morphology in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers: effects of pH and block length.

    PubMed

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Müller, Axel H E; Eisenberg, Adi

    2014-05-01

    The corona compositions and morphologies in aggregates of mixtures of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) and polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) diblock copolymers are influenced by controllable assembly parameters such as the hydrophilic block length and solution pH. The morphologies and corona compositions of the aggregates were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility, respectively. When mineral acids or bases are present during aggregate formation, they can exert a strong influence on the corona composition. Morphology changes were also seen with changing pH, as well as changes in corona composition, specifically for vesicles. Because of complications introduced by the presence of ions, the general hypothesis that the external corona of the vesicles is composed of the longer chains, while the shorter chains form the inner corona, which is valid only in mixtures containing only nonionic chains without any additives (no acids or bases) or within a well-defined narrow pH range. In addition to the numerical block lengths and the pH, the solubility of the hydrophilic blocks can also influence the morphology and as well as the interfacial composition of vesicles; as the numerically longer chains become less soluble, they can contract and move to the interior, while the numerically shorter but more soluble chains go to the external corona. A remarkable morphological feature of the pH continuum is that for some compositions vesicles are observed in four distinct pH regions, separated by pH ranges in which other morphologies dominate. The effect of pH and microion content on coil dimensions of the PVP and PAA chains in the block copolymers is most likely responsible for the observed behavior.

  10. Fundamental Physics in Space: the French Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Hirtz, S.

    2002-01-01

    Relativity and quantum physics provide the framework for contemporary physics in which the relations between matter, space and time have been radically rethought during the past century. Physicists however cannot be satisfied with these two distinct theories and they are seeking to unify them and thereby quantify the gravitational field. The key of this research lies in the highly precise study of the gravitational laws. Space environment, allowing large distance experiments and isolation from terrestrial noise, is the ideal place for carrying out very precise experiments on gravitation and is highly suitable for seeking new interactions that could show up in low-energy conditions. Since 1993 when the scientific community gave its first recommandations, CNES has been working out with french research laboratories on a variety of advanced technical instrumentations needed to fulfill such space experiments, especially in the fields of electrostatic microaccelerometers, cold atom clocks and cold atom inertial sensors, optical datation, optical interferometry and drag-free control. A number of Fundamental Physics projects are now under progress, in the frame of the national programme and the participation to the ESA programme, such as : -the MICROSCOPE microsatellite project aimed at testing the Equivalence Principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass at a high level of precision, which is the fourth CNES scientific project based on the MYRIADE microsatellite series, -the PHARAO cold-atom clock which is the heart of the ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) european project located on an external pallett of the International Space Station, together with a swiss H- MASER and a micro-wave link making comparison with ground clocks, aimed at relativistic tests and measurement of universal constants, -the T2L2 optical link allowing to compare ultra-stable and ultra-precise clocks, -contribution to the AMS spectrometer aimed at the search for cosmic antimatter, on

  11. The mettle of moral fundamentalism: a reply to Robert Baker.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1998-12-01

    This article is a reply to Robert Baker's attempt to rebut moral fundamentalism, while grounding international bioethics in a form of contractarianism. Baker is mistaken in several of his interpretations of the alleged moral fundamentalism and findings of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. He also misunderstands moral fundamentalism generally and wrongly categorizes it as morally bankrupt. His negotiated contract model is, in the final analysis, itself a form of the moral fundamentalism he declares bankrupt.

  12. 43 CFR 4180.1 - Fundamentals of rangeland health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fundamentals of rangeland health. 4180.1... Fundamentals of Rangeland Health and Standards and Guidelines for Grazing Administration § 4180.1 Fundamentals of rangeland health. Standards and guidelines developed or revised by a Bureau of Land...

  13. 43 CFR 4180.1 - Fundamentals of rangeland health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fundamentals of rangeland health. 4180.1... Fundamentals of Rangeland Health and Standards and Guidelines for Grazing Administration § 4180.1 Fundamentals of rangeland health. Standards and guidelines developed or revised by a Bureau of Land...

  14. 43 CFR 4180.1 - Fundamentals of rangeland health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fundamentals of rangeland health. 4180.1... Fundamentals of Rangeland Health and Standards and Guidelines for Grazing Administration § 4180.1 Fundamentals of rangeland health. Standards and guidelines developed or revised by a Bureau of Land...

  15. 33 CFR 86.03 - Limits of fundamental frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limits of fundamental frequencies... of fundamental frequencies. To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental frequency of a whistle shall be between the following limits: (a) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 meters or...

  16. 33 CFR 86.03 - Limits of fundamental frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limits of fundamental frequencies... of fundamental frequencies. To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental frequency of a whistle shall be between the following limits: (a) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 meters or...

  17. 33 CFR 86.03 - Limits of fundamental frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limits of fundamental frequencies... of fundamental frequencies. To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental frequency of a whistle shall be between the following limits: (a) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 meters or...

  18. 47 CFR 36.2 - Fundamental principles underlying procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-kilometers is the basic fundamental allocation factor for interexchange circuit plant and exchange trunk... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental principles underlying procedures... Fundamental principles underlying procedures. (a) The following general principles underlie the...

  19. Dielectric elastomers: generator mode fundamentals and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelrine, Ron; Kornbluh, Roy D.; Eckerle, Joseph; Jeuck, Philip; Oh, Seajin; Pei, Qibing; Stanford, Scott

    2001-07-01

    Dielectric elastomers have shown great promise as actuator materials. Their advantages in converting mechanical to electrical energy in a generator mode are less well known. If a low voltage charge is placed on a stretched elastomer prior to contraction, the contraction works against the electrostatic field pressure and raises the voltage of the charge, thus generating electrical energy. This paper discusses the fundamentals of dielectric elastomer generators, experimental verification of the phenomenon, practical issues, and potential applications. Acrylic elastomers have demonstrated an estimated 0.4 J/g specific energy density, greater than that of piezoelectric materials. Much higher energy densities, over 1 J/g, are predicted. Conversion efficiency can also be high, theoretically up to 80-90%; the paper discusses the operating conditions and materials required for high efficiency. Practical considerations may limit the specific outputs and efficiencies of dielectric elastomeric generators, tradeoffs between electronics and generator material performance are discussed. Lastly, the paper describes work on potential applications such as an ongoing effort to develop a boot generator based on dielectric elastomers, as well as other applications such as conventional power generators, backpack generators, and wave power applications.

  20. Two-voice fundamental frequency estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cheveigné, Alain

    2002-05-01

    An algorithm is presented that estimates the fundamental frequencies of two concurrent voices or instruments. The algorithm models each voice as a periodic function of time, and jointly estimates both periods by cancellation according to a previously proposed method [de Cheveigné and Kawahara, Speech Commun. 27, 175-185 (1999)]. The new algorithm improves on the old in several respects; it allows an unrestricted search range, effectively avoids harmonic and subharmonic errors, is more accurate (it uses two-dimensional parabolic interpolation), and is computationally less costly. It remains subject to unavoidable errors when periods are in certain simple ratios and the task is inherently ambiguous. The algorithm is evaluated on a small database including speech, singing voice, and instrumental sounds. It can be extended in several ways; to decide the number of voices, to handle amplitude variations, and to estimate more than two voices (at the expense of increased processing cost and decreased reliability). It makes no use of instrument models, learned or otherwise, although it could usefully be combined with such models. [Work supported by the Cognitique programme of the French Ministry of Research and Technology.

  1. Electrochemical metallization memories—fundamentals, applications, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valov, Ilia; Waser, Rainer; Jameson, John R.; Kozicki, Michael N.

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on electrochemical metallization memory cells (ECM), highlighting their advantages as the next generation memories. In a brief introduction, the basic switching mechanism of ECM cells is described and the historical development is sketched. In a second part, the full spectra of materials and material combinations used for memory device prototypes and for dedicated studies are presented. In a third part, the specific thermodynamics and kinetics of nanosized electrochemical cells are described. The overlapping of the space charge layers is found to be most relevant for the cell properties at rest. The major factors determining the functionality of the ECM cells are the electrode reaction and the transport kinetics. Depending on electrode and/or electrolyte material electron transfer, electro-crystallization or slow diffusion under strong electric fields can be rate determining. In the fourth part, the major device characteristics of ECM cells are explained. Emphasis is placed on switching speed, forming and SET/RESET voltage, RON to ROFF ratio, endurance and retention, and scaling potentials. In the last part, circuit design aspects of ECM arrays are discussed, including the pros and cons of active and passive arrays. In the case of passive arrays, the fundamental sneak path problem is described and as well as a possible solution by two anti-serial (complementary) interconnected resistive switches per cell. Furthermore, the prospects of ECM with regard to further scalability and the ability for multi-bit data storage are addressed.

  2. Ultralight porous metals: From fundamentals to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianjian, Lu

    2002-10-01

    Over the past few years a number of low cost metallic foams have been produced and used as the core of sandwich panels and net shaped parts. The main aim is to develop lightweight structures which are stiff, strong, able to absorb large amount of energy and cheap for application in the transport and construction industries. For example, the firewall between the engine and passenger compartment of an automobile must have adequate mechanical strength, good energy and sound absorbing properties, and adequate fire retardance. Metal foams provide all of these features, and are under serious consideration for this applications by a number of automobile manufacturers (e.g., BMW and Audi). Additional specialized applications for foam-cored sandwich panels range from heat sinks for electronic devices to crash barriers for automobiles, from the construction panels in lifts on aircraft carriers to the luggage containers of aircraft, from sound proofing walls along railway tracks and highways to acoustic absorbers in lean premixed combustion chambers. But there is a problem. Before metallic foams can find a widespread application, their basic properties must be measured, and ideally modeled as a function of microstructural details, in order to be included in a design. This work aims at reviewing the recent progress and presenting some new results on fundamental research regarding the micromechanical origins of the mechanical, thermal, and acoustic properties of metallic foams.

  3. A Study of Fundamental Shock Noise Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Kristine R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates two mechanisms fundamental to sound generation in shocked flows: shock motion and shock deformation. Shock motion is modeled numerically by examining the interaction of a sound wave with a shock. This numerical approach is validated by comparison with results obtained by linear theory for a small-disturbance case. Analysis of the perturbation energy with Myers' energy corollary demonstrates that acoustic energy is generated by the interaction of acoustic disturbances with shocks. This analysis suggests that shock motion generates acoustic and entropy disturbance energy. Shock deformation is modeled numerically by examining the interaction of a vortex ring with a shock. These numerical simulations demonstrate the generation of both an acoustic wave and contact surfaces. The acoustic wave spreads cylindrically. The sound intensity is highly directional and the sound pressure increases with increasing shock strength. The numerically determined relationship between the sound pressure and the Mach number is found to be consistent with experimental observations of shock noise. This consistency implies that a dominant physical process in the generation of shock noise is modeled in this study.

  4. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  5. Fundamentals of free flux flow: proposed studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. A.; Gafarov, O.; Gapud, A. A.; Wu, J. Z.

    2013-03-01

    Although much is known about free flux flow (FFF) in superconductors - in which pinning is insignificant compared to interactions between quantized vortices - there still remain questions concerning fundamental dynamics. Building on our previous work in correlating FFF with vortex core size (PRB 80, 134524), we propose three new studies examining more deeply the normal state in the vortex core and interactions between vortices. A correlation between scattering inside cores and the viscosity of FFF has not been explicitly determined; this may be investigated by probing the effect of scattering centers created by proton irradiation. Using results of previous irradiation work, one could control the extent of normal state scattering while monitoring effects on FFF. Questions also exist concerning vortex motion in channels with widths approaching that of individual vortices - as determined solely by inter-vortex interactions. Studies have suggested that flux flow through constrictions could imitate ``jamming'' in the collective motion of grains: Under certain conditions, it is possible for grains to form a barrier, blocking flow. More than just qualitatively comparing flux flow and granular flow to find evidence of jamming, we propose a new experiment for quantitatively modeling flux jamming by realizing the flux flow equivalent of granular jamming in a ``hopper''. In the same way, we also propose a FFF equivalent of another granular-flow phenomenon, ``non-Newtonian'' fluids, where rapid shear causes jamming. Funded by NSF-RUI grant, DMR-0907038.

  6. The Physics Handbook: Fundamentals and Key Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Charles P., Jr.

    1999-03-01

    A comprehensive quick reference to basic topics and equations in physics This compendium of physics covers the key equations and fundamental principles that are taught in graduate programs. It offers a succinct yet systematic treatment of all areas of physics, including mathematical physics, solid state, particle physics, statistical mechanics, and optics. In one complete, self-contained volume, author Charles P. Poole, Jr. provides both review material for students preparing for PhD qualifying examinations and a quick reference for physicists who need to brush up on basic topics or delve into areas outside their expertise. Poole devotes two chapters to regularly needed information such as trigonometric and vector identities and special functions. The remaining chapters incorporate less frequently summoned concepts, including Lagrangians, parity, dispersion relations, chaos, free energies, statistical mechanical ensembles, elementary particle classification, and so forth. An indispensable resource for graduate students and physicists in industry and academia, The Physics Handbook: * Puts key information at the reader's fingertips * Incorporates essential material previously scattered through many different texts * Features 150 illustrations * Addresses theoretical as well as practical issues * Includes an extensive bibliography pointing to more thorough texts for individual subject areas

  7. Fundamental Scientific Problems in Magnetic Recording

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, T.C.; Miller, M.K.

    2007-06-27

    Magnetic data storage technology is presently leading the high tech industry in advancing device integration--doubling the storage density every 12 months. To continue these advancements and to achieve terra bit per inch squared recording densities, new approaches to store and access data will be needed in about 3-5 years. In this project, collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) at University of Alabama (UA), Imago Scientific Instruments, and Seagate Technologies, was undertaken to address the fundamental scientific problems confronted by the industry in meeting the upcoming challenges. The areas that were the focus of this study were to: (1) develop atom probe tomography for atomic scale imaging of magnetic heterostructures used in magnetic data storage technology; (2) develop a first principles based tools for the study of exchange bias aimed at finding new anti-ferromagnetic materials to reduce the thickness of the pinning layer in the read head; (3) develop high moment magnetic materials and tools to study magnetic switching in nanostructures aimed at developing improved writers of high anisotropy magnetic storage media.

  8. Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles

    PubMed Central

    Placzek, Mark R.; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M.; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Min Cha, Jae; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C.L.; Yip Joan Ma, Chi; Polak, Julia M.; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the ‘omics’ technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical—failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications. PMID:19033137

  9. TESTING DISTANCE ESTIMATORS WITH THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.

    2012-03-20

    We demonstrate how the Fundamental Manifold (FM) can be used to cross-calibrate distance estimators even when those 'standard candles' are not found in the same galaxy. Such an approach greatly increases the number of distance measurements that can be utilized to check for systematic distance errors and the types of estimators that can be compared. Here we compare distances obtained using Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), Cepheids, surface brightness fluctuations, the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch, circumnuclear masers, eclipsing binaries, RR Lyrae stars, and the planetary nebulae luminosity functions. We find no significant discrepancies (differences are <2{sigma}) between distance methods, although differences at the {approx}10% level cannot yet be ruled out. The potential exists for significant refinement because the data used here are heterogeneous B-band magnitudes that will soon be supplanted by homogeneous, near-infrared magnitudes. We illustrate the use of FM distances to (1) revisit the question of the metallicity sensitivity of various estimators, confirming the dependence of SN Ia distances on host galaxy metallicity, and (2) provide an alternative calibration of H{sub 0} that replaces the classical ladder approach in the use of extragalactic distance estimators with one that utilizes data over a wide range of distances simultaneously.

  10. Nanoionic Memristive Switches -- From Fundamentals to Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waser, Rainer

    2013-03-01

    A potential leap beyond the limits of Flash (with respect to write speed, write energies) and DRAM (with respect to scalability, retention times) emerges from nanoionic redox-based switching effects encountered in metal oxides (ReRAM). A range of systems exist in which highly complex ionic transport and redox reactions on the nanoscale provide the essential mechanisms for memristive switching. One class relies on mobile cations which are easily created by electrochemical oxidation of the corresponding electrode metal, transported in the insulating layer, and reduced at the inert counterelectrode (so-called electrochemical metallization memories, ECM, also called CBRAM). Another important class operates through the migration of anions, typically oxygen ions, towards the anode, and the reduction of the cation valences in the cation sublattice locally providing metallic or semiconducting phases (so-called valence change memories, VCM). The electrochemical nature of these memristive effects triggers a bipolar memory operation. In yet another class, the thermochemical effects dominate over the electrochemical effects in metal oxides (so-called thermochemical memories, TCM) which leads to a unipolar switching as known from the phase-change memories. In all systems, the defect structure turned out to be crucial for the switching process. The presentation will cover fundamental principles in terms of microscopic processes, switching kinetics and retention times, and device reliability of bipolar ReRAM variants. Passive memory arrays of ReRAM cells open up the paths towards ultradense and 3-D stackable memory and logic gate arrays.

  11. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  12. Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Macdermott, Alexandra J

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED.

  13. Unified chromatography: Fundamentals, instrumentation and applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Meire R; Andrade, Felipe N; Fumes, Bruno H; Lanças, Fernando M

    2015-09-01

    The concept of unified chromatography has been in existence for 50 years after the work of Giddings proposing that all modes of chromatography (gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography and so on) may be treated together under a single unified theory. His idea was partially fulfilled 23 years later by Ishii, Takeuchi and colleagues, who demonstrated for the first time the possibility to analyze a complex sample containing substances with a wide range of boiling points and polarities in the same instrument and column, just by varying the mobile phase pressure and temperature to change from one chromatographic mode to another. This approach has been demonstrated through application to the separation of complex mixtures in several areas including crude oil, edible oils and polymers. Still, unified chromatography has not yet been fully developed. In the present work, we will review the fundamentals, instrumentation and several applications of the technique. Also discussed are the drawbacks that still hinder development, as well as the recent developments and trends in instrumentation and columns that suggest the most feasible ways forward to the full development of unified chromatography. PMID:26105757

  14. Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles.

    PubMed

    Placzek, Mark R; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Cha, Jae Min; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C L; Ma, Chi Yip Joan; Polak, Julia M; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications.

  15. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  16. Fundamental frequency estimation of singing voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cheveigné, Alain; Henrich, Nathalie

    2002-05-01

    A method of fundamental frequency (F0) estimation recently developped for speech [de Cheveigné and Kawahara, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (to be published)] was applied to singing voice. An electroglottograph signal recorded together with the microphone provided a reference by which estimates could be validated. Using standard parameter settings as for speech, error rates were low despite the wide range of F0s (about 100 to 1600 Hz). Most ``errors'' were due to irregular vibration of the vocal folds, a sharp formant resonance that reduced the waveform to a single harmonic, or fast F0 changes such as in high-amplitude vibrato. Our database (18 singers from baritone to soprano) included examples of diphonic singing for which melody is carried by variations of the frequency of a narrow formant rather than F0. Varying a parameter (ratio of inharmonic to total power) the algorithm could be tuned to follow either frequency. Although the method has not been formally tested on a wide range of instruments, it seems appropriate for musical applications because it is accurate, accepts a wide range of F0s, and can be implemented with low latency for interactive applications. [Work supported by the Cognitique programme of the French Ministry of Research and Technology.

  17. Was Fundamental Education Another Form Of Colonialism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watras, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A description of the work of Pedro Tamesis Orata provides an opportunity to investigate the conflicts that can occur when educators seek to reduce poverty while trying to respect indigenous cultures. A native of the Philippines, Orata completed his doctoral studies at the Ohio State University in 1927. During US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, he accepted the position of school principal for the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. After World War II, he directed the spread of fundamental education through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In his final years, he returned to the Philippines where he began a movement to spread what were called self-help high schools. In these activities, Orata taught people to follow John Dewey's five steps of thinking while working to improve their standards of living. In the 1970s, educators, such as Paulo Freire, complained that problem-solving methods, similar to those Orata favored, reinforced the oppressive aspects of formerly colonial societies. While Freire may have been overly critical, conflicts among cultural orientations appear to be unavoidable. The hope behind this investigation is that the difficulties can be reduced when people understand the different forces that persist.

  18. Intensities of Fundamental and Overtone Vibrational Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2012-06-01

    We have measured and calculated vibrational XH-stretching overtone spectra (where X is C,N,O,S,..) for a range of molecules and hydrated complexes (e.g. water dimer). Spectroscopic studies of such systems are difficult because: vibrational overtone transitions have low intensities, species that exhibit intramolecular hydrogen bonding typically have low vapor pressures and hydrated complexes have small equilibrium constants. The use of coupled cluster theory including perturbative triples, CCSD(T) or CCSD(T)-F12, as well as a large augmented basis, aug-cc-pVTZ or VDZ-F12, is necessary to obtain calculated vibrational spectra of near experimental accuracy. We explain the interesting intensity patterns in terms of an anharmonic oscillator local mode model. The intensity ratio of the fundamental to first XH-stretching overtone covers a wide range. In the past decade, we have used this local mode model to explain observed spectra of both molecules and complexes. I will show recent results for amines and complexes with amines and will illustrate how the ratio of calculated to measured intensity can provide the room temperature equilibrium constant for formation of the binary complex, a quantity that is difficult to calculate accurately.

  19. NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Research Program is described. The program provides a dynamic scientific base which is continually broadened and from which future applied research and development can draw support. In particular, the overall objectives and current studies of the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are reviewed. The SRAEC research can be generically structured into four types of activities including observation of phenomena, empirical characterization, analytical modeling, and scene radiation analysis and synthesis. The first three activities are the means by which the goal of scene radiation analysis and synthesis is achieved, and thus are considered priority activities during the early phases of the current project. Scene radiation analysis refers to the extraction of information describing the biogeophysical attributes of the scene from the spectral, spatial, and temporal radiance characteristics of the scene including the atmosphere. Scene radiation synthesis is the generation of realistic spectral, spatial, and temporal radiance values for a scene with a given set of biogeophysical attributes and atmospheric conditions.

  20. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-12-15

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.

  1. Fundamental physics in space: The French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léon-Hirtz, Sylvie

    2003-08-01

    This paper outlines the space Fundamental Physics projects developped under CNES responsability together with the french scientific community, either in the national french programme or in the french contribution to the ESA programme, mainly: -the MICROSCOPE project which aims at testing the Equivalence Principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass at a high level of precision, on a microsatellite of the MYRIADE series developped by CNES, -the PHARAO cold-atom clock which is part of the ACES project of ESA, located on an external pallett of the International Space Station, together with a swiss H-MASER and a micro-wave link making comparison with ground clocks, aimed at relativistic tests and measurement of universal constants, -the T2L2 optical link allowing to compare ultra-stable and ultra-precise clocks, -a contribution to the AMS spectrometer which searches for cosmic antimatter, on the external part of the International Space Station, -a contribution to the LISA mission of ESA for direct detection and measurement of gravitational waves by interferometry, -ground-based studies on cold-atom interferometers which could be part of the HYPER project submitted to ESA.

  2. Violation of fundamental symmetries and variation of fundamental constants in atomic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2007-06-13

    We present a review of recent works on variation of fundamental constants and violation of parity in atoms and nuclei.Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental 'constants' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence.We describe recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant {alpha}, strong interaction and fundamental masses (Higgs vacuum). There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data.A very promising method to search for the variation consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transitions between very close atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a 'nuclear' clock based on UV transition in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude. Measurements of violation of fundamental symmetries, parity (P) and time reversal (T), in atoms allows one to test unification theories in atomic experiments. We have developed an accurate method of many-body calculations - all-orders summation of dominating diagrams in residual e-e interaction. To calculate QED radiative corrections to energy levels and electromagnetic amplitudes in many-electron atoms and molecules we derived the ''radiative potential'' and the low-energy theorem. This method is simple and can be easily incorporated into any many-body theory approach. Using the radiative correction and many-body calculations we obtained the PNC amplitude EPNC = -0.898(1 {+-} 0.5%) x 10-11ieaB(-QW/N). From the measurements of the PNC amplitude we extracted the Cs weak charge QW = -72.66(29)exp(36)theor. The

  3. Violation of fundamental symmetries and variation of fundamental constants in atomic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2007-06-01

    We present a review of recent works on variation of fundamental constants and violation of parity in atoms and nuclei. Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We describe recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses (Higgs vacuum). There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transitions between very close atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on UV transition in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Measurements of violation of fundamental symmetries, parity (P) and time reversal (T), in atoms allows one to test unification theories in atomic experiments. We have developed an accurate method of many-body calculations - all-orders summation of dominating diagrams in residual e-e interaction. To calculate QED radiative corrections to energy levels and electromagnetic amplitudes in many-electron atoms and molecules we derived the ``radiative potential'' and the low-energy theorem. This method is simple and can be easily incorporated into any many-body theory approach. Using the radiative correction and many-body calculations we obtained the PNC amplitude EPNC = -0.898(1 +/- 0.5%) × 10-11ieaB(-QW/N). From the measurements of the PNC amplitude we extracted the Cs weak charge QW = -72.66(29)exp(36)theor. The

  4. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.

  5. Fundamental Principles of Proper Space Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Sean

    It is desirable to understand the movement of both matter and energy in the universe based upon fundamental principles of space and time. Time dilation and length contraction are features of Special Relativity derived from the observed constancy of the speed of light. Quantum Mechanics asserts that motion in the universe is probabilistic and not deterministic. While the practicality of these dissimilar theories is well established through widespread application inconsistencies in their marriage persist, marring their utility, and preventing their full expression. After identifying an error in perspective the current theories are tested by modifying logical assumptions to eliminate paradoxical contradictions. Analysis of simultaneous frames of reference leads to a new formulation of space and time that predicts the motion of both kinds of particles. Proper Space is a real, three-dimensional space clocked by proper time that is undergoing a densification at the rate of c. Coordinate transformations to a familiar object space and a mathematical stationary space clarify the counterintuitive aspects of Special Relativity. These symmetries demonstrate that within the local universe stationary observers are a forbidden frame of reference; all is in motion. In lieu of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty the use of the imaginary number i is restricted for application to the labeling of mass as either material or immaterial. This material phase difference accounts for both the perceived constant velocity of light and its apparent statistical nature. The application of Proper Space Kinematics will advance more accurate representations of microscopic, oscopic, and cosmological processes and serve as a foundation for further study and reflection thereafter leading to greater insight.

  6. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks.

    PubMed

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-09-01

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision.

  7. Fundamental bioprocessing research for coal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E.N.; Scott, T.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this program is to gain a fundamental understanding and sound scientific and technical basis for evaluating the potential roles of innovative bioprocessing concepts for the utilization and conversion of coal. The aim is to explore the numerous ways in which advanced biological processes and techniques can open new opportunities for coal utilization or can replace more conventional techniques by using milder conditions with less energy consumption or loss. There are several roles where biotechnology is likely to be important in coal utilization and conversion. These include potential bioprocessing systems such as conversion of coal to liquids or gases; biocatalytic beneficiation of coal-derived liquids and conversion to useful chemical feedstocks; biocatalytic removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from coal combustion off-gas; environmental control technology for the removal or destruction of hazardous materials in process effluents and/or solid residues; and the removal and utilization of CO{sub 2} from combustion off-gas. Effective bioprocesses for such applications will require detailed knowledge of the biological process mechanisms and advanced bioreactor technology than can be optimized for high productivity, as well as supporting upstream and downstream processes that will allow an effective integrated bioprocess. Of particular interest is the development of predictive models that can be used for process design and scaleup. In this program, a generic approach is taken so that there will be utility over a broad range of applications. In conjunction with the generic approach, model experimental systems that address real-world problems are used to verify the results.

  8. The dependency of timbre on fundamental frequency.

    PubMed

    Marozeau, Jeremy; de Cheveigné, Alain; McAdams, Stephen; Winsberg, Suzanne

    2003-11-01

    The dependency of the timbre of musical sounds on their fundamental frequency (F0) was examined in three experiments. In experiment I subjects compared the timbres of stimuli produced by a set of 12 musical instruments with equal F0, duration, and loudness. There were three sessions, each at a different F0. In experiment II the same stimuli were rearranged in pairs, each with the same difference in F0, and subjects had to ignore the constant difference in pitch. In experiment III, instruments were paired both with and without an F0 difference within the same session, and subjects had to ignore the variable differences in pitch. Experiment I yielded dissimilarity matrices that were similar at different F0's, suggesting that instruments kept their relative positions within timbre space. Experiment II found that subjects were able to ignore the salient pitch difference while rating timbre dissimilarity. Dissimilarity matrices were symmetrical, suggesting further that the absolute displacement of the set of instruments within timbre space was small. Experiment III extended this result to the case where the pitch difference varied from trial to trial. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) of dissimilarity scores produced solutions (timbre spaces) that varied little across conditions and experiments. MDS solutions were used to test the validity of signal-based predictors of timbre, and in particular their stability as a function of F0. Taken together, the results suggest that timbre differences are perceived independently from differences of pitch, at least for F0 differences smaller than an octave. Timbre differences can be measured between stimuli with different F0's. PMID:14650028

  9. STAR CLUSTERS, GALAXIES, AND THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H. E-mail: azabludoff@as.arizona.edu

    2011-02-01

    We explore whether global observed properties, specifically half-light radii, mean surface brightness, and integrated stellar kinematics, suffice to unambiguously differentiate galaxies from star clusters, which presumably formed differently and lack dark matter halos. We find that star clusters lie on the galaxy scaling relationship referred to as the fundamental manifold (FM), on the extension of a sequence of compact galaxies, and so conclude that there is no simple way to differentiate star clusters from ultracompact galaxies. By extending the validity of the FM over a larger range of parameter space and a wider set of objects, we demonstrate that the physics that constrains the resulting baryon and dark matter distributions in stellar systems is more general than previously appreciated. The generality of the FM implies (1) that the stellar spatial distribution and kinematics of one type of stellar system do not arise solely from a process particular to that set of systems, such as violent relaxation for elliptical galaxies, but are instead the result of an interplay of all processes responsible for the generic settling of baryons in gravitational potential wells, (2) that the physics of how baryons settle is independent of whether the system is embedded within a dark matter halo, and (3) that peculiar initial conditions at formation or stochastic events during evolution do not ultimately disturb the overall regularity of baryonic settling. We also utilize the relatively simple nature of star clusters to relate deviations from the FM to the age of the stellar population and find that stellar population models systematically and significantly overpredict the mass-to-light ratios of old, metal-rich clusters. We present an empirical calibration of stellar population mass-to-light ratios with age and color. Finally, we use the FM to estimate velocity dispersions for the low surface brightness, outer halo clusters that lack such measurements.

  10. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks

    PubMed Central

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision. PMID:27555584

  11. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks.

    PubMed

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-09-01

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision. PMID:27555584

  12. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-03-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.

  13. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-01-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units—i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)—may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the ‘added-mass’ matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called ‘fundamental theorem for wave power’. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies. PMID:26064612

  14. Cosmology as a probe of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Godfrey E.

    Cosmology has reached maturity as a precision science. However, it leaves us with open theoretical questions. First, what is the early universe mechanism that is responsible for the observed nearly scale invariant and gaussian primordial density perturbations? Second, is general relativity the correct description of gravity on the largest observable scales? In this dissertation, we report on various theoretical developments related to these questions. We first show that inflation is the unique single field mechanism with unit sound speed capable of generating nearly scale invariant and Gaussian density perturbations over a broad range of scales. Any alternative scenario must either invoke additional fields or assume an unstable background. In the multi-field category, we present a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) generalization of the pseudo-conformal scenario, an alternative to inflation which relies on the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry in the early universe. This scenario, like most alternatives to inflation, requires a violation of the Null Energy Condition (NEC) to smoothly bounce from a contracting phase to an expanding phase. We report that the DBI conformal galileons can violate the NEC without instabilities, while avoiding nearly all pathologies of earlier examples of NEC-violating theories. We then turn to the question of the uniqueness of general relativity as a description of the known graviton degrees of freedom. Assuming only spatial diffeomorphism invariance, we derive general relativity as the unique effective field theory of the transverse, traceless graviton polarizations. The Lorentz covariance of general relativity, having not been assumed in our analysis, is therefore plausibly interpreted as an accidental spacetime symmetry, not a fundamental spacetime symmetry.

  15. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  16. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan; Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William

    2011-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 grams per cubic meter, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 millimeters in 3 minutes. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic

  17. Faculty beliefs on fundamental dimensions of scholarship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnegan, Brian

    scholarship, the policies, activities, and rewards of institutions must reflect a similar belief on the part of faculty. By understanding faculty beliefs on the fundamental dimensions of scholarship, an important step in building this new culture can be taken.

  18. The hybrid solution for the Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, M.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Marziani, P.; Bindoni, D.; Fritz, J.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Cava, A.; Poggianti, B.; Gullieuszik, M.; Kjærgaard, P.; Moles, M.; Vulcani, B.; Omizzolo, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.

    2013-10-01

    By exploiting the data base of early-type galaxy (ETG) members of the WINGS survey of nearby clusters, we address here the long debated question of the origin and shape of the Fundamental Plane (FP). Our data suggest that different physical mechanisms concur in shaping and `tilting' the FP with respect to the virial plane (VP) expectation. In particular, a `hybrid solution' in which the structure of galaxies and their stellar population are the main contributors to the FP tilt seems to be favoured. We find that the bulk of the tilt should be attributed to structural non-homology, while stellar population effects play an important but less crucial role. In addition, our data indicate that the differential FP tilt between the V and K band is due to a sort of entanglement between structural and stellar population effects, for which the inward steepening of colour profiles (V - K) tends to increase at increasing the stellar mass of ETGs. The same kind of analysis applied to the ATLAS3D and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data in common with WINGS (WSDSS throughout the paper) confirms our results, the only remarkable difference being the less important role that our data attribute to the stellar mass-to-light-ratio (stellar populations) in determining the FP tilt. The ATLAS3D data also suggest that the FP tilt depends as well on the dark matter (DM) fraction and on the rotational contribution to the kinetic energy (Vrot/σ), thus again pointing towards the above-mentioned `hybrid solution'. We show that the global properties of the FP, i.e. its tilt and tightness, can be understood in terms of the underlying correlation among mass, structure and stellar population of ETGs, for which, at increasing the stellar mass, ETGs become (on average) `older' and more centrally concentrated. Finally, we show that a Malmquist-like selection effect may mimic a differential evolution of the mass-to-light ratio for galaxies of different masses. This should be taken into account in the

  19. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater

  20. The implications of fundamental cause theory for priority setting.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2014-10-01

    Application of fundamental cause theory to Powers and Faden's model of social justice highlights the ethical superiority of upstream public health interventions. In this article, I assess the ramifications of fundamental cause theory specifically in context of public health priority setting. Ethically optimal public health policy simultaneously maximizes overall population health and compresses health inequalities. The fundamental cause theory is an important framework in helping to identify which categories of public health interventions are most likely to advance these twin goals.

  1. Asymptotic behaviour of fundamental cycle of periodic box ball systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mada, Jun; Tokihiro, Tetsuji

    2003-07-01

    We investigate asymptotic behaviour of fundamental cycle of periodic box-ball systems (PBBSs) when the system size N goes to infinity. According to integrable nature of the PBBS, the trajectory is confined to qualitatively smaller number of states than that of the total states. We prove that, although the maximum fundamental cycle is of order of exp[surdN], almost all fundamental cycle is less than exp[(logN)2].

  2. Search for variation of fundamental constants and violations of fundamental symmetries using isotope comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.; Kava, E. M.

    2011-10-15

    Atomic microwave clocks based on hyperfine transitions, such as the caesium standard, tick with a frequency that is proportional to the magnetic moment of the nucleus. This magnetic moment varies strongly between isotopes of the same atom, while all atomic electron parameters remain the same. Therefore the comparison of two microwave clocks based on different isotopes of the same atom can be used to constrain variation of fundamental constants. In this paper, we calculate the neutron and proton contributions to the nuclear magnetic moments, as well as their sensitivity to any potential quark-mass variation, in a number of isotopes of experimental interest including {sup 201,199}Hg and {sup 87,85}Rb, where experiments are underway. We also include a brief treatment of the dependence of the hyperfine transitions to variation in nuclear radius, which in turn is proportional to any change in quark mass. Our calculations of expectation values of proton and neutron spin in nuclei are also needed to interpret measurements of violations of fundamental symmetries.

  3. 32 CFR 2001.16 - Fundamental classification guidance review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a minimum, the fundamental classification guidance review shall focus on: (1) Evaluation of content... recent classification decisions that focuses on ensuring that classification decisions reflect the...

  4. Fundamental and Applied Studies of Polymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrogno, Joseph

    Four major areas have been studied in this research: 1) synthesizing novel monomers, e.g. chiral monomers, to produce new types of functionalized membranes for the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, 2) hydrophobic brush membranes for desalinating brackish water, sea water, and separating organics, 3) fundamental studies of water interactions at surfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG), and 4) discovering new surface chemistries that will control the growth and differentiation of stem cells. We have developed a novel synthesis method in order to increase the breadth of our high throughput screening library. This library was generated using maleimide chemistry to react a common methacrylate linker with a variety of different functions groups (R groups) in order to form new monomers that were grafted from the surface of PES ultrafiltration membranes. From this work, we discovered that the chirality of a membrane can affect performance when separating chiral feed streams. This effect was observed when filtering bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin in a high salt phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 150 mM salt). The Phe grafted membranes showed a large difference in performance when filtering BSA with selectivity of 1.13 and 1.00 for (S) and (R) Phe, respectively. However, when filtering ovalbumin, the (S) and (R) modified surfaces showed selectivity of 2.06 and 2.31, respectively. The higher selectivity enantiomer switched for the two different proteins. Permeability when filtering BSA was 3.06 LMH kPa-1 and 4.31 LMH kPa -1 for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively, and 2.65 LMH kPa -1 and 2.10 LMH kPa-1 when filtering ovalbumin for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively. Additionally, these effects were no longer present when using a low salt phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM salt). Since, to our knowledge, membrane chirality is not considered in current industrial systems, this discovery could have a large impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. We

  5. Fundamental and Applied Studies of Polymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrogno, Joseph

    Four major areas have been studied in this research: 1) synthesizing novel monomers, e.g. chiral monomers, to produce new types of functionalized membranes for the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, 2) hydrophobic brush membranes for desalinating brackish water, sea water, and separating organics, 3) fundamental studies of water interactions at surfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG), and 4) discovering new surface chemistries that will control the growth and differentiation of stem cells. We have developed a novel synthesis method in order to increase the breadth of our high throughput screening library. This library was generated using maleimide chemistry to react a common methacrylate linker with a variety of different functions groups (R groups) in order to form new monomers that were grafted from the surface of PES ultrafiltration membranes. From this work, we discovered that the chirality of a membrane can affect performance when separating chiral feed streams. This effect was observed when filtering bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin in a high salt phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 150 mM salt). The Phe grafted membranes showed a large difference in performance when filtering BSA with selectivity of 1.13 and 1.00 for (S) and (R) Phe, respectively. However, when filtering ovalbumin, the (S) and (R) modified surfaces showed selectivity of 2.06 and 2.31, respectively. The higher selectivity enantiomer switched for the two different proteins. Permeability when filtering BSA was 3.06 LMH kPa-1 and 4.31 LMH kPa -1 for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively, and 2.65 LMH kPa -1 and 2.10 LMH kPa-1 when filtering ovalbumin for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively. Additionally, these effects were no longer present when using a low salt phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM salt). Since, to our knowledge, membrane chirality is not considered in current industrial systems, this discovery could have a large impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. We

  6. Modeling the fundamental characteristics and processes of the spacecraft functioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazhenov, V. I.; Osin, M. I.; Zakharov, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of modeling of spacecraft characteristics by using computing means are considered. Particular attention is devoted to the design studies, the description of physical appearance of the spacecraft, and simulated modeling of spacecraft systems. The fundamental questions of organizing the on-the-ground spacecraft testing and the methods of mathematical modeling were presented.

  7. Squeezing, Striking, and Vocalizing: Is Number Representation Fundamentally Spatial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Rafael; Doan, D.; Nikoulina, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Numbers are fundamental entities in mathematics, but their cognitive bases are unclear. Abundant research points to linear space as a natural grounding for number representation. But, is number representation fundamentally spatial? We disentangle number representation from standard number-to-line reporting methods, and compare numerical…

  8. 15 CFR 734.8 - Information resulting from fundamental research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information resulting from fundamental... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.8 Information resulting from fundamental research. (a... applied research in science and engineering, where the resulting information is ordinarily published...

  9. A Valid Demonstration of the Missing Fundamental Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Janet D.; Fritsch, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the "missing fundamental illusion" as that which occurs when two tones are heard together and the listener hears a third tone with a pitch corresponding to the difference in their frequencies. Describes an inexpensive and valid demonstration of the missing fundamental using a British police whistle. (MJP)

  10. 33 CFR 86.03 - Limits of fundamental frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Whistles § 86.03 Limits of fundamental frequencies. To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental frequency of a whistle shall be between the following limits: (a) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 meters or...

  11. 33 CFR 86.03 - Limits of fundamental frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Whistles § 86.03 Limits of fundamental frequencies. To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental frequency of a whistle shall be between the following limits: (a) 70-200 Hz, for a vessel 200 meters or...

  12. UNESCO's Programme of Fundamental Education, 1946-1959

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    UNESCO formed the concept of fundamental education in hopes that the programme could end poverty, bring world peace and serve indigenous people. When UNESCO's first pilot project appeared to fail, the organisation developed centres where fundamental education workers learned to use such techniques as libraries, museum displays, films and radio,…

  13. The Subordination of Aesthetic Fundamentals in College Art Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Randall

    2003-01-01

    Opportunities for college students of art and design to study fundamentals of visual aesthetics, integrity of form, and principles of composition are limited today by a number of factors. With the well-documented prominence of postmodern critical theory in the world of contemporary art, the study of aesthetic fundamentals is largely subordinated…

  14. 48 CFR 9904.414-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.414-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A contractor's... each contract using facilities capital cost of money factors computed for each cost accounting period....

  15. Fundamentals of Marketing. Missouri Marketing Education Curriculum. Competency Listing. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.

    This guide lists the core curriculum competencies expected to be developed by students in secondary Fundamentals of Marketing courses in Missouri. It was developed through revision of the prior core curriculum by a project team with input from all the marketing instructors in the state. Competencies listed in the revised fundamentals of marketing…

  16. Fundamentals of Physics, Probeware Lab Manual/Student Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-09-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  17. Fundamentals of Physics, Instructor Lab Manual with CD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-09-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  18. Estimating individual cone fundamentals from their color-matching functions.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Casper F; Finlayson, Graham D; Connah, David

    2016-08-01

    Estimation of individual spectral cone fundamentals from color-matching functions is a classical and longstanding problem in color science. In this paper we propose a novel method to carry out this estimation based on a linear optimization technique, employing an assumption of a priori knowledge of the retinal absorptance functions. The result is an estimation of the combined lenticular and macular filtration for an individual, along with the nine coefficients in the linear combination that relates their color-matching functions to their estimated spectral-cone fundamentals. We test the method on the individual Stiles and Burch color-matching functions and derive cone-fundamental estimations for different viewing fields and matching experiment repetition. We obtain cone-fundamental estimations that are remarkably similar to those available in the literature. This suggests that the method yields results that are close to the true fundamentals.

  19. The Implications of Fundamental Cause Theory for Priority Setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Application of fundamental cause theory to Powers and Faden’s model of social justice highlights the ethical superiority of upstream public health interventions. In this article, I assess the ramifications of fundamental cause theory specifically in context of public health priority setting. Ethically optimal public health policy simultaneously maximizes overall population health and compresses health inequalities. The fundamental cause theory is an important framework in helping to identify which categories of public health interventions are most likely to advance these twin goals. PMID:25121819

  20. Uncertainty about fundamentals and herding behavior in the FOREX market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltwasser, Pablo Rovira

    2010-03-01

    It is traditionally assumed in finance models that the fundamental value of assets is known with certainty. Although this is an appealing simplifying assumption it is by no means based on empirical evidence. A simple heterogeneous agent model of the exchange rate is presented. In the model, traders do not observe the true underlying fundamental exchange rate and as a consequence they base their trades on beliefs about this variable. Despite the fact that only fundamentalist traders operate in the market, the model belongs to the heterogeneous agent literature, as traders have different beliefs about the fundamental rate.

  1. Religious fundamentalism and religious orientation among the Greek Orthodox.

    PubMed

    Mora, Louis Ernesto; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; McDermut, Wilson

    2014-10-01

    The experimenters explored how religious fundamentalism related with religious orientation, irrational thinking, and immature defense mechanisms. They also explored the possible moderational role of the Big 5 personality factors. The participants were predominantly Greek Orthodox College students from a Cypriot University. The experimenters employed a cross-sectional design and required participants to complete a series of self-report measures. Religious fundamentalism significantly predicted irrational thinking. Intrinsic and personal extrinsic religious orientations significantly predicted religious fundamentalism. The results provide support for the idea that the more dogmatically one holds their religious beliefs, the more likely they are to think irrationally.

  2. Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zobitz, John

    2013-01-01

    Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.

  3. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

  4. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  5. Quantum Opportunities and Challenges for Fundamental Sciences in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Space platforms offer unique environment for and measurements of quantum world and fundamental physics. Quantum technology and measurements enhance measurement capabilities in space and result in greater science returns.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  7. The electrochemistry of carbon nanotubes: fundamentals and applications.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are in the forefront of electrochemical research. It has become clear that an understanding of the fundamental reasons for the electrochemical activity of CNTs is essential for further progress in the field. This review provides a critical discussion of the fundamental reasons behind the electrochemical and "electrocatalytic" activity of CNTs as well as on important applications of CNTs for sensing, biosensing, and energy storage systems. PMID:19360829

  8. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Instrumentation and Control, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of instrumentation and control systems. The handbook includes information on temperature, pressure, flow, and level detection systems; position indication systems; process control systems; and radiation detection principles. This information will provide personnel with an understanding of the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility instrumentation and control systems.

  9. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000–2001 and 2010–2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  10. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Levinson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  11. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Levinson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon.

  12. Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava

    2004-01-01

    This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

  13. Health (care) and human rights: a fundamental conditions approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Many international declarations state that human beings have a human right to health care. However, is there a human right to health care? What grounds this right, and who has the corresponding duties to promote this right? Elsewhere, I have argued that human beings have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. Drawing on this fundamental conditions approach of human rights, I offer a novel way of grounding a human right to health care. PMID:27476575

  14. Health (care) and human rights: a fundamental conditions approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Many international declarations state that human beings have a human right to health care. However, is there a human right to health care? What grounds this right, and who has the corresponding duties to promote this right? Elsewhere, I have argued that human beings have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. Drawing on this fundamental conditions approach of human rights, I offer a novel way of grounding a human right to health care.

  15. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-06-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  16. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  17. The PaaX-Type Repressor MeqR2 of Arthrobacter sp. Strain Rue61a, Involved in the Regulation of Quinaldine Catabolism, Binds to Its Own Promoter and to Catabolic Promoters and Specifically Responds to Anthraniloyl Coenzyme A

    PubMed Central

    Niewerth, Heiko; Parschat, Katja; Rauschenberg, Melanie; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2013-01-01

    The genes coding for quinaldine catabolism in Arthrobacter sp. strain Rue61a are clustered on the linear plasmid pAL1 in two upper pathway operons (meqABC and meqDEF) coding for quinaldine conversion to anthranilate and a lower pathway operon encoding anthranilate degradation via coenzyme A (CoA) thioester intermediates. The meqR2 gene, located immediately downstream of the catabolic genes, codes for a PaaX-type transcriptional repressor. MeqR2, purified as recombinant fusion protein, forms a dimer in solution and shows specific and cooperative binding to promoter DNA in vitro. DNA fragments recognized by MeqR2 contained a highly conserved palindromic motif, 5′-TGACGNNCGTcA-3′, which is located at positions −35 to −24 of the two promoters that control the upper pathway operons, at positions +4 to +15 of the promoter of the lower pathway genes and at positions +53 to +64 of the meqR2 promoter. Disruption of the palindrome abolished MeqR2 binding. The dissociation constants (KD) of MeqR2-DNA complexes as deduced from electrophoretic mobility shift assays were very similar for the four promoters tested (23 nM to 28 nM). Anthraniloyl-CoA was identified as the specific effector of MeqR2, which impairs MeqR2-DNA complex formation in vitro. A binding stoichiometry of one effector molecule per MeqR2 monomer and a KD of 22 nM were determined for the effector-protein complex by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analyses suggested that MeqR2 is a potent regulator of the meqDEF operon; however, additional regulatory systems have a major impact on transcriptional control of the catabolic operons and of meqR2. PMID:23275246

  18. Space-Based Research in Fundamental Physics and Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Israelsson, Ulf E.; Shao, Michael; Yu, Nan; Kusenko, Alexander; Wright, Edward L.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Kasevich, Mark; Lipa, John A.; Mester, John C.; Reasenberg, Robert D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ashby, Neil; Gould, Harvey; Paik, Ho Jung

    Space offers unique experimental conditions and a wide range of opportunities to explore the foundations of modern physics with an accuracy far beyond that of ground-based experiments. Space-based experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, high-accuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for investigations in precision cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful high-resolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of space-based research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include space-based research in fundamental physics as one of its focus areas. We recommend establishing an Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee's interagency "Fundamental Physics Task Force" to assess the status of both ground- and space-based efforts in the field, to identify the most important objectives, and to suggest the best ways to organize the work of several federal agencies involved. We also recommend establishing a new NASA-led interagency program in fundamental physics that will consolidate new technologies, prepare key instruments for future space missions, and build a strong scientific and engineering community. Our goal is to expand NASA's science objectives in space by including "laboratory research in fundamental physics" as an element in the agency's ongoing space research efforts.

  19. Empirical Examination of Fundamental Indexation in the German Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihm, Max; Locarek-Junge, Hermann

    Index Funds, Exchange Traded Funds and Derivatives give investors easy access to well diversified index portfolios. These index-based investment products exhibit low fees, which make them an attractive alternative to actively managed funds. Against this background, a new class of stock indices has been established based on the concept of “Fundamental Indexation”. The selection and weighting of index constituents is conducted by means of fundamental criteria like total assets, book value or number of employees. This paper examines the performance of fundamental indices in the German equity market. For this purpose, a backtest of five fundamental indices is conducted over the last 20 years. Furthermore the index returns are analysed under the assumption of an efficient as well as an inefficient market. Index returns in efficient markets are explained by applying the three factor model for stock returns of Fama and French (J Financ Econ 33(1):3-56, 1993). The results show that the outperformance of fundamental indices is partly due to a higher risk exposure, particularly to companies with a low price to book ratio. By relaxing the assumption of market efficiency, a return drag of capitalisation weighted indices can be deduced. Given a mean-reverting movement of prices, a direct connection between market capitalisation and index weighting leads to inferior returns.

  20. Bosonized noncommutative bi-fundamental fermion and S-duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blas, Harold

    2005-06-01

    We perform the path-integral bosonization of the recently proposed noncommutative massive Thirring model (NCMT1) [JHEP 0503 (2005) 037]. This model presents two types of current-current interaction terms related to the bi-fundamental representation of the group U(1). Firstly, we address the bosonization of a bi-fundamental free Dirac fermion defined on a noncommutative (NC) euclidean plane Bbb Rθ2. In this case we show that the fermion system is dual to two copies of the NC Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model. Next, we apply the bosonization prescription to the NCMT1 model living on Bbb Rθ2 and show that this model is equivalent to two-copies of the WZNW model and a two-field potential defined for scalar fields corresponding to the global U(1) × U(1) symmetry plus additional bosonized terms for the four fermion interactions. The bosonic sector resembles to the one proposed by Lechtenfeld et al. [Nucl. Phys. B 705 (2005) 477] as the noncommutative sine-Gordon for a pair of scalar fields. The bosonic and fermionic couplings are related by a strong-weak duality. We show that the couplings of the both sectors for some representations satisfy similar relationships up to relevant re-scalings, thus the NC bi-fundamental couplings are two times the corresponding ones of the NC fundamental (anti-fundamental) and eight times the couplings of the ordinary massive Thirring and sine-Gordon models.

  1. Ultrasonic plastic welding using fundamental and higher resonance frequencies.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Hongoh, Misugi; Tanaka, Ryoko; Onoguchi, Rie; Ueoka, Tetsugi

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasonic plastic welding using fundamental and higher resonance frequency vibrations simultaneously was studied. Using higher frequency, welding characteristics is improved due to the larger vibration loss of plastic materials. The 26 kHz welding tip vibrates in maximum velocity of over 4.5 m/s (peak-to-zero value) under a fundamental resonance frequency and there are several higher resonance frequencies up to 95 kHz whose vibration velocities are over one-third that of the fundamental frequency. Welding characteristics of 1.0-mm-thick polypropylene sheets are measured in the cases the vibration system are driven under combined driving voltages of fundamental and higher resonance frequencies. Welded area increases as number of driven higher frequencies increases. The welded area by three frequencies is about three to four times that of the case where only the fundamental frequency is driven. The welding characteristics of ultrasonic plastic welding are improved significantly by driving higher resonance frequencies simultaneously.

  2. Analysis of the fundamental vibrational modes of trumpet bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas; Kaplon, Joseph; McDowall, Gregory; Martin, Kristy

    2000-11-01

    Musicians and craftsmen maintain that vibrations of the bells of brass musical instruments such as trumpets and trombones significantly affect the instrument's acoustic signature. Most musical acousticians maintain that these effects are unimportant and imperceptible. In an effort to begin to understand the interaction between the bell vibrations and the acoustic signature of brass wind instruments, we have investigated the fundamental modes of vibration of the bells of several modern trumpets. We will present interferograms showing the fundamental vibrational modes of the modern trumpet bell, discuss the subtle differences between similar instruments, describe observed asymmetries, present data on the correlation between the air column resonance structure and the fundamental vibrational frequencies, and review the progress of ongoing modeling efforts.

  3. Joint inversion of fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.-H.; Xia, J.-H.; Liu, J.-P.; Liu, Q.-S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of the phase velocity of fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh waves in a six-layer earth model. The results show that fundamental mode is more sensitive to the shear velocities of shallow layers (< 7 m) and concentrated in a very narrow band (around 18 Hz) while higher modes are more sensitive to the parameters of relatively deeper layers and distributed over a wider frequency band. These properties provide a foundation of using a multi-mode joint inversion to define S-wave velocity. Inversion results of both synthetic data and a real-world example demonstrate that joint inversion with the damped least squares method and the SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) technique to invert Rayleigh waves of fundamental and higher modes can effectively reduce the ambiguity and improve the accuracy of inverted S-wave velocities.

  4. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  5. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  6. Differential Mobility Spectrometry: Preliminary Findings on Determination of Fundamental Constants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Cheng, Patti; Boyd, John

    2007-01-01

    The electron capture detector (ECD) has been used for 40+ years (1) to derive fundamental constants such as a compound's electron affinity. Given this historical perspective, it is not surprising that differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) might be used in a like manner. This paper will present data from a gas chromatography (GC)-DMS instrument that illustrates the potential capability of this device to derive fundamental constants for electron-capturing compounds. Potential energy curves will be used to provide possible explanation of the data.

  7. Data processing of fundamental frequency data in telephonic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masserano, G.

    1980-12-01

    Voice fundamental frequency data obtained using an average magnitude difference function are further processed to reduce the evaluation error, in particular the double pitch error. Three algorithms are described and compared. An experimental assessment of the proposed algorithms is presented given a digitized male voice signal sampled at 10 kHz. One of the algorithms which simply eliminates the anomalous values of the fundamental frequency is found to be the best suited for error reduction. The simplicity of this algorithm, which allows for fast data processing, is emphasized.

  8. Fundamentals of Physics, Extended, Chapters 1 - 45 , Enhanced Problems Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-04-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory. This book offers a unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

  9. An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given tau greater than 0, the free plate eigenvalues omega and eigenfunctions upsilon are determined by the equation Delta Delta upsilon - tau Delta upsilon = omega upsilon together with…

  10. 48 CFR 9904.415-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.415-40 Section 9904.415-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.415-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) The cost of deferred... compensate the employee. In the event no obligation is incurred prior to payment, the cost of...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.402-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 9904.402-40 Section 9904.402-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-40 Fundamental requirement. All costs incurred...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.406-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 9904.406-40 Section 9904.406-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A contractor shall use this fiscal year as his cost accounting period, except that: (1) Costs of an indirect...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.405-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 9904.405-40 Section 9904.405-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) Costs expressly... be subject to the same cost accounting principles governing cost allocability as allowable costs....

  14. 48 CFR 9904.401-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 9904.401-40 Section 9904.401-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A contractor's practices used in estimating costs in pricing a proposal shall be consistent with his cost...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.407-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 9904.407-40 Section 9904.407-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-40 Fundamental requirement. Standard costs may...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.406-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 9904.406-40 Section 9904.406-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A contractor shall use this fiscal year as his cost accounting period, except that: (1) Costs of an indirect...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.405-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 9904.405-40 Section 9904.405-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) Costs expressly... be subject to the same cost accounting principles governing cost allocability as allowable costs....

  18. 48 CFR 9904.402-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 9904.402-40 Section 9904.402-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-40 Fundamental requirement. All costs incurred...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.403-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 9904.403-40 Section 9904.403-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-40 Fundamental requirement. (a)(1) Home...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.407-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 9904.407-40 Section 9904.407-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-40 Fundamental requirement. Standard costs may...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.407-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.407-40 Section 9904.407-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-40 Fundamental requirement. Standard costs may...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.403-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 9904.403-40 Section 9904.403-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-40 Fundamental requirement. (a)(1) Home...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.405-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 9904.405-40 Section 9904.405-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) Costs expressly... be subject to the same cost accounting principles governing cost allocability as allowable costs....

  4. 48 CFR 9904.406-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 9904.406-40 Section 9904.406-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A contractor shall use this fiscal year as his cost accounting period, except that: (1) Costs of an indirect...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.404-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 9904.404-40 Section 9904.404-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) The acquisition cost... capitalized with appropriate accounting for replaced asset accountability units. However, costs incurred...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.401-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 9904.401-40 Section 9904.401-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A contractor's practices used in estimating costs in pricing a proposal shall be consistent with his cost...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.404-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 9904.404-40 Section 9904.404-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) The acquisition cost... capitalized with appropriate accounting for replaced asset accountability units. However, costs incurred...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.402-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 9904.402-40 Section 9904.402-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-40 Fundamental requirement. All costs incurred...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.401-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 9904.401-40 Section 9904.401-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A contractor's practices used in estimating costs in pricing a proposal shall be consistent with his cost...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.404-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 9904.404-40 Section 9904.404-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) The acquisition cost... capitalized with appropriate accounting for replaced asset accountability units. However, costs incurred...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.407-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 9904.407-40 Section 9904.407-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-40 Fundamental requirement. Standard costs may...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.403-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 9904.403-40 Section 9904.403-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-40 Fundamental requirement. (a)(1) Home...

  13. Fundamentals of Library Automation and Technology. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Frank; Walton, Robert

    This workbook presents outlines of topics to be covered during a two-day workshop on the fundamentals for library automation. Topics for the first day include: (1) Introduction; (2) Computer Technology--A Historical Overview; (3) Evolution of Library Automation; (4) Computer Hardware Technology--An Introduction; (5) Computer Software…

  14. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    PubMed

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  15. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  16. Electronics. Module 2: Fundamentals of Electronics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Jim

    This guide contains instructor's materials for a nine-unit secondary school course on fundamentals of electronics. The units are conductors, insulators, semiconductors, and atomic structure; basic concepts and sources of electrical quantities; Ohm's Law; units and conversions; use of multimeters; circuits; electromagnetics and electrostatics;…

  17. Dealing with Multipacting in Fundamental Power Couplers for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Mircea Stirbet

    2005-03-19

    Multipacting events are well known and bothersome discharge phenomena specific to vacuum and RF exposed surfaces. Left uncontrolled, these events could affect normal machine operation, limiting performance or inducing irreversible damage of critical components such as ceramic windows. Numerical simulations have been developed and their predictions fit fairly well with real multipacting events in coaxial lines or waveguide-type fundamental power couplers. Controlling multipacting must be considered from the design stage, as well as during manufacture of subassemblies or preparation of the coupler for cavity assembly. All fundamental power couplers must be conditioned using a high power RF source, and during this process, restricting multipacting by adequate instrumentation should be considered. After RF conditioning, during beam acceleration, control of multipacting is achieved with field perturbation methods. This paper summarizes our experience in dealing with multipacting in CW or pulsed fundamental power couplers (LEP, LHC, SNS and RIA) for SRF cavities. The SNS fundamental power coupler is used as an example for controlling multipacting during high power RF conditioning.

  18. The Power of Situations: Jonestown and the Fundamental Attribution Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Heidi R.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental attribution error (FAE) is the tendency to overestimate dispositional and underestimate situational causes for others' behavior (Ross, 1977). Undergraduate students (N = 155) explained the causes of a person's "bad day." The experimental group completed responses after viewing a documentary on Jonestown and discussing situational…

  19. A Note for Graphing Calculators in the Fundamental Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jeng-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The financial calculator is incorporated in finance education. In class, the instructor shows students how to use the financial calculator's function keys to solve time value of money (TVM) related problems efficiently. The fundamental finance course is required for all majors in the business school. Some students, especially…

  20. Fundamentals of Adult Education: Issues and Practices for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.

    This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory…

  1. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  2. A Course of Study in Acting Fundamentals for Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Ruth Patricia Browne

    A complete and comprehensive course of study in acting fundamentals for the junior college is presented. Its overall goals are to develop individual sensitivity and creativity, without neglecting essential skills and traditional theatrical and academic values. Justification of major course objectives in the junior college curriculum, presentation…

  3. Principals' Knowledge of Fundamental and Current Issues in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeman, Shawnee Y.; Browder, Diane M.; Flowers, Claudia; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the comprehensive knowledge base of national secondary principals related to special education issues. Using a survey developed from the empirical and conceptual literature for assessing fundamental and current issues in special education, data were collected from a national sample of secondary school…

  4. Evidence-Based Kernels: Fundamental Units of Behavioral Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Dennis D.; Biglan, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior-influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of…

  5. Fundamentals of Commercial Art. Module 1. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane; Tadrick, Christine

    This module is the first of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on fundamentals of commercial art are six instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit…

  6. Quad Charts in the Classroom to Reinforce Technical Communication Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julie Dyke; Wei, Tie

    2015-01-01

    Quad charts are a genre frequently used in scientific and technical environments, yet little prior work has evaluated their potential for reinforcing technical communication fundamentals. This article provides background information about quad charts and notes the benefits of implementing quad charts in the classroom. In particular, introducing…

  7. On the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for Fractal Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Donatella; Corrao, Giuseppa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to formulate the best version of the Fundamental theorem of Calculus for real functions on a fractal subset of the real line. In order to do that an integral of Henstock-Kurzweil type is introduced.

  8. Engine Fundamentals: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The second of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in engine fundamentals at the secondary and postsecondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each lesson…

  9. Ride for Wildlife: The Fundamental Themes of Geography in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Judith K.

    1990-01-01

    Presents project designed to teach eighth grade gifted and talented students about geographic themes and locational skills. Describes the lesson plan, applying the 5 fundamental geography themes to learning about 11 African countries. Explains the culminating project: organizing a bike-a-thon ("Ride for Wildlife") that raised $2784.00 for…

  10. A 640 GHz Planar-Diode Fundamental Mixer/Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, P.; Mehdi, I.; Dengler, R.; Lee, T.; Humphrey, D.; Pease, A.

    1998-01-01

    The design and performance of a 640 GHz solid-state receiver using a fundamental planar-Schottky-diode mixer, InP Gunn diode oscillator, whisker-contacted Schottky-varactor-diode sextupler and folded-Fabry-Perot diplexer are reported.

  11. Geometric Demonstration of the Fundamental Theorems of the Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerheber, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    After the monumental discovery of the fundamental theorems of the calculus nearly 350 years ago, it became possible to answer extremely complex questions regarding the natural world. Here, a straightforward yet profound demonstration, employing geometrically symmetric functions, describes the validity of the general power rules for integration and…

  12. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  13. Multiculturalism and Religious Fundamentalism: The Moral Challenge of Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala

    This paper raises some points of tension that religious fundamentalism poses for multiculturalism, particularly regarding the status and role of women. An early section argues that inclusion and empowerment are key concepts at the core of multiculturalism. Further, the paper argues, multiculturalism's post-modernist/post-colonial deconstruction…

  14. Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

  15. 48 CFR 9904.404-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.404-40 Section 9904.404-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) The acquisition...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.401-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.401-40 Section 9904.401-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.406-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.406-40 Section 9904.406-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) A contractor...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.402-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.402-40 Section 9904.402-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-40 Fundamental requirement. All costs incurred...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.405-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.405-40 Section 9904.405-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) Costs...

  20. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  1. Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hougen, Martha C., Ed.; Smartt, Susan M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    For future literacy teachers just beginning their professional education, nothing's more important than the first core text that builds their foundation for classroom success. That's why every preservice teacher should start with this introductory reading textbook, ideal for teaching fundamental literacy skills to students in pre-K-Grade 6. Based…

  2. Effects of Phonetic Context on Relative Fundamental Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Gattuccio, Caitlin I.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of phonetic context on relative fundamental frequency (RFF) was examined, in order to develop stimuli sets with minimal within-speaker variability that can be implemented in future clinical protocols. Method: Sixteen speakers with healthy voices produced RFF stimuli. Uniform utterances consisted of 3 repetitions of the same…

  3. "Contacting" the Fundamentals: A New Paradigm for Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munjee, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Contact improvisation can serve as a way to access new understandings of Bartenieff Fundamentals. Inherent elements of contact improvisation such as thinking and feeling bodily in the moment, sensitivity to activated weight along with weight sharing and bearing, flow, whole-body organization, and immediacy of embodied presence provide fertile…

  4. 48 CFR 9904.411-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement. 9904.411-40 Section 9904.411-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... inventory, the costing method used shall be selected in accordance with the provisions of 9904.411-50,...

  5. Fundamentals of Construction. Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach a competency-based introductory course in the fundamentals of construction to students who have chosen to explore careers in construction. The following topics are covered in the course's 10 instructional units: industry orientation (exploring the construction industry and starting a…

  6. Christian Fundamentalism and Anti-Oppressive Social Work Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Sarah; Coholic, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Christian fundamentalist religious beliefs, expressed by social work students, present a challenge to the social work educator. In this paper we explore the tensions between Fundamentalism, diverse sexual orientation and gender expression and social work pedagogy. Particularly, we focus on how an anti-oppressive pedagogical approach, while…

  7. Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, and the human prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Erik; Ramchandran, Kanchna; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective The psychological processes of doubting and skepticism have recently become topics of neuroscientific investigation. In this context, we developed the False Tagging Theory, a neurobiological model of the belief and doubt process, which proposes that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt regarding properly comprehended cognitive representations. Here, we put our theory to an empirical test, hypothesizing that patients with prefrontal cortex damage would have a doubt deficit that would manifest as higher authoritarianism and religious fundamentalism. Method Ten patients with bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), ten patients with damage to areas outside the vmPFC, and sixteen medical comparison patients, who experienced life-threatening (but non-neurological) medical events, completed a series of scales measuring authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, and specific religious beliefs. Results VMPFC patients reported significantly higher authoritarianism and religious fundamentalism than the other groups. The degrees of authoritarianism and religious fundamentalism in the vmPFC group were significantly higher than normative values, as well; by contrast, the comparison groups did not differ from normative values. Moreover, vmPFC patients reported increased specific religious beliefs after brain injury. Conclusions The findings support the False Tagging Theory, and suggest that the vmPFC is critical for psychological doubt and resistance to authoritarian persuasion. PMID:22612576

  8. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science. PMID:23281389

  9. The Role of Fundamental Frequency in Phonetic Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babel, Molly; Bulatov, Dasha

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an Unfiltered Condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a Filtered…

  10. On the fundamental role of dynamics in quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum theory expresses the observable relations between physical properties in terms of probabilities that depend on the specific context described by the "state" of a system. However, the laws of physics that emerge at the macroscopic level are fully deterministic. Here, it is shown that the relation between quantum statistics and deterministic dynamics can be explained in terms of ergodic averages over complex valued probabilities, where the fundamental causality of motion is expressed by an action that appears as the phase of the complex probability multiplied with the fundamental constant ħ. Importantly, classical physics emerges as an approximation of this more fundamental theory of motion, indicating that the assumption of a classical reality described by differential geometry is merely an artefact of an extrapolation from the observation of macroscopic dynamics to a fictitious level of precision that does not exist within our actual experience of the world around us. It is therefore possible to completely replace the classical concepts of trajectories with the more fundamental concept of action phase probabilities as a universally valid description of the deterministic causality of motion that is observed in the physical world.

  11. Prediction Tables for Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Robert O.; Johnson, Kirk A.

    This study was conducted in 1966 to provide the avionics fundamentals course, class A, with a number of tables for predicting academic performance, either by precourse variables or by grades made early in the course. A means of identifying potential setbacks and potential failures was also desired. In September 1966 a 16 week course replaced the…

  12. 48 CFR 9904.413-40 - Fundamental requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement. 9904.413-40 Section 9904.413-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...) Valuation of the assets of a pension plan. The actuarial value of the assets of a pension plan shall...

  13. The Evolving Context of the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bley-Vroman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Foreign language learning contrasts with native language development in two key respects: It is unreliable and it is nonconvergent. At the same time, it is clear that foreign languages are languages. The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH) was introduced as a way to account for the general characteristics of foreign language learning. The FDH…

  14. Interrater Objectivity for Field-Based Fundamental Motor Skill Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lisa; van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J.; Lincoln, Doug; Zask, Avigdor; Beard, John

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect in studies concerning fundamental motor skills (FMS) proficiency is interrater objectivity (or interrater reliability), defined as the consistency or agreement in scores obtained from two or more raters. In a training setting, interrater objectivity is commonly determined as the relative number of times raters agree with an…

  15. The "Fundamental Pedogagical Principle" in Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen D.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental principle of second language acquisition is stated and applied to language teaching. The principle states that learners acquire a second language when they receive comprehensible input in situations where their affective filters are sufficiently low. The theoretical background of this principle consists of five hypotheses: the…

  16. Enhancing Cognitive Understanding to Improve Fundamental Movement Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Daniel K.; Todorovich, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of fundamental movement skills in physical education is an important contributor toward children's' lifetime interest and participation in physical activity. Physical education teachers and their curricula follow national and state standards to provide learning experiences and instruction that support the acquisition of…

  17. Fundamentals of Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains multiple choice test items and assessment techniques for Missouri's fundamentals of marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum is divided into these nine occupational duties: (1) communications in marketing; (2) economics and marketing; (3) employment and advancement; (4) human relations in marketing; (5) marketing…

  18. Fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, and material performance in detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for determining fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, their performance as radiation detectors, and their service life as such detectors are given. Relationships were established between the minority carrier lifetime in the bulk of the material and the charge collection efficiency of the detector.

  19. 9. Photocopy of published photograph (from Hopkins, Alfred, The Fundamentals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of published photograph (from Hopkins, Alfred, The Fundamentals of Good Banking, New York: The Bankers Publishing Co., 1929, plate 22) Photographer unknown INTERIOR, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ORIGINAL TELLER WINDOWS AND FURNISHINGS - City National Bank, 49 Court Street, Binghamton, Broome County, NY

  20. 8. Photocopy of published photograph (from Hopkins, Alfred, The Fundamentals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of published photograph (from Hopkins, Alfred, The Fundamentals of Good Banking, New York: The Bankers Publishing Co., 1929, plate 4) Photographer unknown GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE - City National Bank, 49 Court Street, Binghamton, Broome County, NY

  1. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold

  2. Shape and evolution of the fundamental niche in marine Vibrio

    PubMed Central

    Materna, Arne C; Friedman, Jonathan; Bauer, Claudia; David, Christina; Chen, Sara; Huang, Ivy B; Gillens, April; Clarke, Sean A; Polz, Martin F; Alm, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson's fundamental niche, defined by the physical and biological environments in which an organism can thrive in the absence of inter-species interactions, is an important theoretical concept in ecology. However, little is known about the overlap between the fundamental niche and the set of conditions species inhabit in nature, and about natural variation in fundamental niche shape and its change as species adapt to their environment. Here, we develop a custom-made dual gradient apparatus to map a cross-section of the fundamental niche for several marine bacterial species within the genus Vibrio based on their temperature and salinity tolerance, and compare tolerance limits to the environment where these species commonly occur. We interpret these niche shapes in light of a conceptual model comprising five basic niche shapes. We find that the fundamental niche encompasses a much wider set of conditions than those strains typically inhabit, especially for salinity. Moreover, though the conditions that strains typically inhabit agree well with the strains' temperature tolerance, they are negatively correlated with the strains' salinity tolerance. Such relationships can arise when the physiological response to different stressors is coupled, and we present evidence for such a coupling between temperature and salinity tolerance. Finally, comparison with well-documented ecological range in V. vulnificus suggests that biotic interactions limit the occurrence of this species at low-temperature—high-salinity conditions. Our findings highlight the complex interplay between the ecological, physiological and evolutionary determinants of niche morphology, and caution against making inferences based on a single ecological factor. PMID:22832347

  3. Shape and evolution of the fundamental niche in marine Vibrio.

    PubMed

    Materna, Arne C; Friedman, Jonathan; Bauer, Claudia; David, Christina; Chen, Sara; Huang, Ivy B; Gillens, April; Clarke, Sean A; Polz, Martin F; Alm, Eric J

    2012-12-01

    Hutchinson's fundamental niche, defined by the physical and biological environments in which an organism can thrive in the absence of inter-species interactions, is an important theoretical concept in ecology. However, little is known about the overlap between the fundamental niche and the set of conditions species inhabit in nature, and about natural variation in fundamental niche shape and its change as species adapt to their environment. Here, we develop a custom-made dual gradient apparatus to map a cross-section of the fundamental niche for several marine bacterial species within the genus Vibrio based on their temperature and salinity tolerance, and compare tolerance limits to the environment where these species commonly occur. We interpret these niche shapes in light of a conceptual model comprising five basic niche shapes. We find that the fundamental niche encompasses a much wider set of conditions than those strains typically inhabit, especially for salinity. Moreover, though the conditions that strains typically inhabit agree well with the strains' temperature tolerance, they are negatively correlated with the strains' salinity tolerance. Such relationships can arise when the physiological response to different stressors is coupled, and we present evidence for such a coupling between temperature and salinity tolerance. Finally, comparison with well-documented ecological range in V. vulnificus suggests that biotic interactions limit the occurrence of this species at low-temperature-high-salinity conditions. Our findings highlight the complex interplay between the ecological, physiological and evolutionary determinants of niche morphology, and caution against making inferences based on a single ecological factor.

  4. On the Fundamental Plane of the Galactic globular cluster system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquato, M.; Bertin, G.

    2008-10-01

    Context: The globular clusters of our Galaxy have been found to lie close to a plane in the log{R_e}, logσ, {mathit{SB}}e space, on the continuation of the Fundamental Plane that is known to characterize the global properties of early-type galaxies. There is no apparent reason why such physically different self-gravitating systems should follow the same scaling law. Aims: We reexamine the issue by focusing on a sample of 48 globular clusters selected with homogeneity criteria for the photometric data available from the literature. Methods: We perform a model-independent analysis of surface brightness profiles and distance moduli, estimating error bars and studying selection effects with robust non-parametric statistical tests. Results: We determine the values of the coefficients that define the Fundamental Plane and their error bars and show that the scatter from the Fundamental Plane relation is likely to be intrinsic, i.e. not due to measurement errors only. Curiously, we find that in the standard Fundamental Plane coordinates the set of points for our sample occupies a rather slim, axisymmetric, cylindrical region of parameter space, which suggests that the relevant scaling relation might be around a line, rather than a plane, confirming results noted earlier. This is likely to be the origin of the difficulties in the fit by a plane, often mentioned in previous investigations. In addition, such a Fundamental Line relation would imply a pure photometric scaling law relating luminosity to the effective radius which might be tested on wider samples and on extra-galactic globular cluster systems. As to the residuals from the Fundamental Plane relation, we find a correlation of the deviations from the plane with the central slope of the surface brightness profile. No other statistically significant correlations are identified. Finally, given the constraint imposed by the virial theorem, we study the distribution of the values of the quantity K_V/(M/L) (virial

  5. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-08-01

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.

  6. The Planck Mission: Recent Results, Cosmological and Fundamental Physics Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Burigana, Carlo; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We provide a description of the latest status and performance of the Planck satellite, focusing on the final predicted sensitivity of Planck. The optimization of the observational strategy for the additional surveys following the nominal fifteen months of integration (about two surveys) originally allocated and the limitation represented by astrophysical foreground emissions are presented. An outline of early and intermediate astrophysical results from the Planck Collaboration is provided. A concise view of some fundamental cosmological results that will be achieved by exploiting Planck's full set of temperature and polarization data is presented. Finally, the perspectives opened by Planck in answering some key questions in fundamental physics, with particular attention to Parity symmetry analyses, are described.

  7. β-Alkyl Elimination: Fundamental Principles and Some Applications.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Matthew E; Dutta, Saikat; Veige, Adam S

    2016-07-27

    This review describes organometallic compounds and materials that are capable of mediating a rarely encountered but fundamentally important reaction: β-alkyl elimination at the metal-Cα-Cβ-R moiety, in which an alkyl group attached to the Cβ atom is transferred to the metal or to a coordinated substrate. The objectives of this review are to provide a cohesive fundamental understanding of β-alkyl-elimination reactions and to highlight its applications in olefin polymerization, alkane hydrogenolysis, depolymerization of branched polymers, ring-opening polymerization of cycloalkanes, and other useful organic reactions. To provide a coherent understanding of the β-alkyl elimination reaction, special attention is given to conditions and strategies used to facilitate β-alkyl-elimination/transfer events in metal-catalyzed olefin polymerization, which provide the well-studied examples.

  8. Fundamental Bounds in Measurements for Estimating Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Ra, Young-Sik; Hong, Kang-Hee; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Quantum measurement unavoidably disturbs the state of a quantum system if any information about the system is extracted. Recently, the concept of reversing quantum measurement has been introduced and has attracted much attention. Numerous efforts have thus been devoted to understanding the fundamental relation of the amount of information obtained by measurement to either state disturbance or reversibility. Here, we experimentally prove the trade-off relations in quantum measurement with respect to both state disturbance and reversibility. By demonstrating the quantitative bound of the trade-off relations, we realize an optimal measurement for estimating quantum systems with minimum disturbance and maximum reversibility. Our results offer fundamental insights on quantum measurement and practical guidelines for implementing various quantum information protocols.

  9. From fundamental fields to constituent quarks and nucleon form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Coester, F.

    1990-01-01

    Constituent-quark models formulated in the frame work of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics have been successful in accounting for the mass spectra of mesons and baryons. Applications to elastic electron scattering require relativistic dynamics. Relativistic quantum mechanics of constituent quarks can be formulated by constructing a suitable unitary representation of the Poincare group on the three-quark Hilbert space. The mass and spin operators of this representation specify the relativistic model dynamics. The dynamics of fundamental quark fields, on the other hand, is specified by a Euclidean functional integral. In this paper I show how the dynamics of the fundamental fields can be related in principle to the Hamiltonian dynamics of quark particles through the properties of the Wightman functions. 14 refs.

  10. Fundamental for life: mTOR orchestrates developing biological systems.

    PubMed

    Tee, Andrew R

    2014-12-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (historically known as mammalian target of rapamycin) functions as a master regulator of cell growth control. Although the regulation of protein translation is probably the best understood function of mTOR, it is clear that mTOR governs many additional processes within the cell that together orchestrates organism growth and development. Our 'growing' knowledge of the regulation of mTOR and signalling pathways has broadened significantly over the last few decades. Together, the eight reviews described in this special series on mTOR covers fundamental and up-to-date facets of mTOR function and signalling. The review topics herein underpin the importance of mTOR for developing and maintaining biological systems through the regulation of cellular growth and homeostatic pathways, which is fundamental for life and well-being.

  11. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  12. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Tim; Kini, Arvind; Kelley, Dick

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  13. Big Bang nucleosynthesis as a probe of varying fundamental ``constants''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Thomas; Stern, Steffen; Wetterich, Christof

    2007-11-01

    We analyze the effect of variation of fundamental couplings and mass scales on primordial nucleosynthesis in a systematic way. The first step establishes the response of primordial element abundances to the variation of a large number of nuclear physics parameters, including nuclear binding energies. We find a strong influence of the n-p mass difference, of the nucleon mass and of A = 3,4,7 binding energies. A second step relates the nuclear parameters to the parameters of the Standard Model of particle physics. The deuterium, and, above all, 7Li abundances depend strongly on the average light quark mass. We calculate the behaviour of abundances when variations of fundamental parameters obey relations arising from grand unification. We also discuss the possibility of a substantial shift in the lithium abundance while the deuterium and 4He abundances are only weakly affected.

  14. Primordial nucleosynthesis as a probe of fundamental physics parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Thomas; Stern, Steffen; Wetterich, Christof

    2007-09-01

    We analyze the effect of variation of fundamental couplings and mass scales on primordial nucleosynthesis in a systematic way. The first step establishes the response of primordial element abundances to the variation of a large number of nuclear physics parameters, including nuclear binding energies. We find a strong influence of the n-p mass difference (for the He4 abundance), of the nucleon mass (for deuterium), and of A=3, 4, 7 binding energies (for He3, Li6, and Li7). A second step relates the nuclear parameters to the parameters of the standard model of particle physics. The deuterium, and, above all, Li7 abundances depend strongly on the average light quark mass m^≡(mu+md)/2. We calculate the behavior of abundances when variations of fundamental parameters obey relations arising from grand unification. We also discuss the possibility of a substantial shift in the lithium abundance while the deuterium and He4 abundances are only weakly affected.

  15. On the fundamental properties of dynamically hot galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritsuk, Alexei G.

    1997-01-01

    A two-component isothermal equilibrium model is applied to reproduce basic structural properties of dynamically hot stellar systems immersed in their massive dark haloes. The origin of the fundamental plane relation for giant ellipticals is naturally explained as a consequence of dynamical equilibrium in the context of the model. The existence of two galactic families displaying different behaviour in the luminosity-surface-brightness diagram is shown to be a result of a smooth transition from dwarfs, dominated by dark matter near the centre, to giants dominated by the luminous stellar component. The comparison of empirical scaling relations with model predictions suggests that probably a unique dissipative process was operating during the violent stage of development of stellar systems in the dark haloes, and the depth of the potential well controlled the observed luminosity of the resulting galaxies. The interpretation also provides some restrictions on the properties of dark haloes implied by the fundamental scaling laws.

  16. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  17. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H

    2016-08-21

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.

  18. Perturbed fundamental solitons in nonlocal uniaxial nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinić, Aleksandra I.; Petrović, Milan S.; Aleksić, Najdan B.; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2013-01-01

    We generate perturbed fundamental solitons in three dimensional highly nonlocal uniaxial nematic liquid crystals in the presence of an externally applied bias voltage, by launching specific Gaussian beams into the liquid crystal cell. In general, launching Gaussians leads to their dispersal for low intensities and small widths, and to their instabilities for high intensities and large widths. Localized solutions in the form of well defined breathing solitons are observed only for the well defined values of the input beam intensity and width, which can be determined by a variational technique. In this case, the oscillating Gaussian beam characteristics are close to the perturbed breathing fundamental soliton solutions, with the characteristics well-predicted by the variational calculation.

  19. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H

    2016-08-21

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations. PMID:27544080

  20. Enhanced oil recovery: Definitions, fundamentals, applications, and research frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Ralph

    This paper describes the highlights of current oil-recovery technology, including primary, secondary, tertiary, and enhanced recovery processes. Fundamental displacement phenomena are discussed: (1) from a macro-view, such as injection- and production-well patterns, impermeable barriers, and geologic faults; and (2) from a micro-view, which considers oil displacement on a pore-by-pore basis in a three-dimensional interconnected network of flow channels. Applications used to illustrate displacement fundamentals included the major features of water, polymer, and micellar flooding; and steam and CO 2 injection. Also discussed are two principal frontiers of enhanced oil recovery research: definition of the reservoir, and independent measurement of the amount of oil in place.

  1. Radar cross section fundamentals for the aircraft designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadmore, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of radar cross-section (RCS) techniques are summarized, with emphasis placed on fundamental electromagnetic phenomena, such as plane and spherical wave formulations, and the definition of RCS is given in the far-field sense. The basic relationship between electronic countermeasures and a signature level is discussed in terms of the detectability range of a target vehicle. Fundamental radar-signature analysis techniques, such as the physical-optics and geometrical-optics approximations, are presented along with examples in terms of aircraft components. Methods of analysis based on the geometrical theory of diffraction are considered and various wave-propagation phenomena are related to local vehicle geometry. Typical vehicle components are also discussed, together with their contribution to total vehicle RCS and their individual signature sensitivities.

  2. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-12-19

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms.

  3. Fundamental Plane of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, Niayesh

    2008-10-01

    Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster surveys are considered among the most promising methods for probing dark energy up to large redshifts. However, their premise is hinged on an accurate mass-observable relationship, which could be affected by the (rather poorly understood) physics of the intracluster gas. In this paper, using a semianalytic model of the intracluster gas that accommodates various theoretical uncertainties, I develop a fundamental plane relationship between the observed size, thermal energy, and mass of galaxy clusters. In particular, I find that M propto (YSZ/RSZ ,2)3/4, where M is the mass, YSZ is the total SZ flux or thermal energy, and RSZ ,2 is the SZ half-light radius of the cluster. I first show that, within this model, using the fundamental plane relationship reduces the (systematic+random) errors in mass estimates to 14%, from 22% for a simple mass-flux relationship. Since measurement of the cluster sizes is an inevitable part of observing the SZ clusters, the fundamental plane relationship can be used to reduce the error of the cluster mass estimates by ~34%, improving the accuracy of the resulting cosmological constraints without any extra cost. I then argue why our fundamental plane is distinctly different from the virial relationship that one may naively expect between the cluster parameters. Finally, I argue that while including more details of the observed SZ profile cannot significantly improve the accuracy of mass estimates, a better understanding of the impact of nongravitational heating/cooling processes on the outskirts of the intracluster medium (apart from external calibrations) might be the best way to reduce these errors.

  4. Fundamental aspects of solid dispersion technology for poorly soluble drugs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanbin; Dai, Wei-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The solid dispersion has become an established solubilization technology for poorly water soluble drugs. Since a solid dispersion is basically a drug–polymer two-component system, the drug–polymer interaction is the determining factor in its design and performance. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of solid dispersions both in the solid state and in dissolution, emphasizing the fundamental aspects of this important technology. PMID:26579360

  5. Fundamental heat transfer research for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, D. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven experts from industry and the universities joined 24 NASA Lewis staff members in an exchange of ideas on trends in aeropropulsion research and technology, basic analyses, computational analyses, basic experiments, near-engine environment experiments, fundamental fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and hot technology as related to gas turbine engines. The workshop proceedings described include pre-workshop input from participants, presentations of current activity by the Lewis staff, reports of the four working groups, and a workshop summary.

  6. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T. ); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. ); Wobber, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. A systems approach to theoretical fluid mechanics: Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyiwo, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary application of the underlying principles of the investigator's general system theory to the description and analyses of the fluid flow system is presented. An attempt is made to establish practical models, or elements of the general fluid flow system from the point of view of the general system theory fundamental principles. Results obtained are applied to a simple experimental fluid flow system, as test case, with particular emphasis on the understanding of fluid flow instability, transition and turbulence.

  8. Fundamental aspects of solid dispersion technology for poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanbin; Dai, Wei-Guo

    2014-02-01

    The solid dispersion has become an established solubilization technology for poorly water soluble drugs. Since a solid dispersion is basically a drug-polymer two-component system, the drug-polymer interaction is the determining factor in its design and performance. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of solid dispersions both in the solid state and in dissolution, emphasizing the fundamental aspects of this important technology.

  9. Phase I trials of antitumour agents: fundamental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Toloi, Diego de Araujo; Jardim, Denis Leonardo Fontes; Hoff, Paulo Marcelo Gehm; Riechelmann, Rachel Simões Pimenta

    2015-01-01

    Phase I trials are an important step in the development of new drugs. Because of the advancing knowledge of cancer’s molecular biology, these trials offer an important platform for the development of new agents and also for patient treatment. Therefore, comprehension of their peculiar terminology and methodology are increasingly important. Our objectives were to review the fundamental concepts of phase I designs and to critically contextualise this type of study as a therapeutic option for patients with refractory cancer. PMID:25729414

  10. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  11. Atomically Precise Colloidal Metal Nanoclusters and Nanoparticles: Fundamentals and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rongchao; Zeng, Chenjie; Zhou, Meng; Chen, Yuxiang

    2016-09-28

    Colloidal nanoparticles are being intensely pursued in current nanoscience research. Nanochemists are often frustrated by the well-known fact that no two nanoparticles are the same, which precludes the deep understanding of many fundamental properties of colloidal nanoparticles in which the total structures (core plus surface) must be known. Therefore, controlling nanoparticles with atomic precision and solving their total structures have long been major dreams for nanochemists. Recently, these goals are partially fulfilled in the case of gold nanoparticles, at least in the ultrasmall size regime (1-3 nm in diameter, often called nanoclusters). This review summarizes the major progress in the field, including the principles that permit atomically precise synthesis, new types of atomic structures, and unique physical and chemical properties of atomically precise nanoparticles, as well as exciting opportunities for nanochemists to understand very fundamental science of colloidal nanoparticles (such as the stability, metal-ligand interfacial bonding, ligand assembly on particle surfaces, aesthetic structural patterns, periodicities, and emergence of the metallic state) and to develop a range of potential applications such as in catalysis, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, optics, and energy conversion. Although most of the research activity currently focuses on thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters, important progress has also been achieved in other ligand-protected gold, silver, and bimetal (or alloy) nanoclusters. All of these types of unique nanoparticles will bring unprecedented opportunities, not only in understanding the fundamental questions of nanoparticles but also in opening up new horizons for scientific studies of nanoparticles. PMID:27585252

  12. Concepts and fundamental equations in Thermodynamics with Finite Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, S.; Borcila, B.; Costea, M.; Banches, E.; Popescu, G.; Boriaru, N.; Stanciu, C.; Dobre, C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and fundamental equations of the Thermodynamics with Finite Speed (TFS) resulted by the systematically study of the thermal reciprocating machine in relation with the piston finite speed and thermal molecular speed measured in the considered thermodynamic system. These concepts are based on the idea that any propagation of the interaction in the thermodynamic systems of finite dimensions is achieved by finite speeds: (1) - piston speed, (2) - average speed of the gas molecules inside the cylinder. A specific approach (scheme of calculation) for non-equilibrium (irreversible) thermodynamic processes is developed within TFS in order to find the fundamental equations appropriate for Optimizing Efficiency or COP and Power of thermal reciprocating machines. Analytical equations for all 5 irreversible thermodynamic processes in gases (isometric, isothermal, isobaric, adiabatic, polytropic) are deduced by integration of the combined First and Second Laws equation for processes with Finite Speed. This paper is limited to Irreversible Processes with Finite Speed, without taking into account the Friction and Throttling effects. It also notes the main moments in the development of TFS that led to these concepts and fundamental equations.

  13. Towards a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Koh, Carolyn A

    2002-05-01

    Gas clathrate hydrates were first identified in 1810 by Sir Humphrey Davy. However, it is believed that other scientists, including Priestley, may have observed their existence before this date. They are solid crystalline inclusion compounds consisting of polyhedral water cavities which enclathrate small gas molecules. Natural gas hydrates are important industrially because the occurrence of these solids in subsea gas pipelines presents high economic loss and ecological risks, as well as potential safety hazards to exploration and transmission personnel. On the other hand, they also have technological importance in separation processes, fuel transportation and storage. They are also a potential fuel resource because natural deposits of predominantly methane hydrate are found in permafrost and continental margins. To progress with understanding and tackling some of the technological challenges relating to natural gas hydrate formation, inhibition and decomposition one needs to develop a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. This fundamental understanding is also important to the broader field of inclusion chemistry. The present article focuses on the application of a range of physico-chemical techniques and approaches for gaining a fundamental understanding of natural gas hydrate formation, decomposition and inhibition. This article is complementary to other reviews in this field, which have focused more on the applied, engineering and technological aspects of clathrate hydrates.

  14. Atomically Precise Colloidal Metal Nanoclusters and Nanoparticles: Fundamentals and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rongchao; Zeng, Chenjie; Zhou, Meng; Chen, Yuxiang

    2016-09-28

    Colloidal nanoparticles are being intensely pursued in current nanoscience research. Nanochemists are often frustrated by the well-known fact that no two nanoparticles are the same, which precludes the deep understanding of many fundamental properties of colloidal nanoparticles in which the total structures (core plus surface) must be known. Therefore, controlling nanoparticles with atomic precision and solving their total structures have long been major dreams for nanochemists. Recently, these goals are partially fulfilled in the case of gold nanoparticles, at least in the ultrasmall size regime (1-3 nm in diameter, often called nanoclusters). This review summarizes the major progress in the field, including the principles that permit atomically precise synthesis, new types of atomic structures, and unique physical and chemical properties of atomically precise nanoparticles, as well as exciting opportunities for nanochemists to understand very fundamental science of colloidal nanoparticles (such as the stability, metal-ligand interfacial bonding, ligand assembly on particle surfaces, aesthetic structural patterns, periodicities, and emergence of the metallic state) and to develop a range of potential applications such as in catalysis, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, optics, and energy conversion. Although most of the research activity currently focuses on thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters, important progress has also been achieved in other ligand-protected gold, silver, and bimetal (or alloy) nanoclusters. All of these types of unique nanoparticles will bring unprecedented opportunities, not only in understanding the fundamental questions of nanoparticles but also in opening up new horizons for scientific studies of nanoparticles.

  15. Fundamental Parameters Line Profile Fitting in Laboratory Diffractometers.

    PubMed

    Cheary, R W; Coelho, A A; Cline, J P

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental parameters approach to line profile fitting uses physically based models to generate the line profile shapes. Fundamental parameters profile fitting (FPPF) has been used to synthesize and fit data from both parallel beam and divergent beam diffractometers. The refined parameters are determined by the diffractometer configuration. In a divergent beam diffractometer these include the angular aperture of the divergence slit, the width and axial length of the receiving slit, the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits, the length and projected width of the x-ray source, the absorption coefficient and axial length of the sample. In a parallel beam system the principal parameters are the angular aperture of the equatorial analyser/Soller slits and the angular apertures of the axial Soller slits. The presence of a monochromator in the beam path is normally accommodated by modifying the wavelength spectrum and/or by changing one or more of the axial divergence parameters. Flat analyzer crystals have been incorporated into FPPF as a Lorentzian shaped angular acceptance function. One of the intrinsic benefits of the fundamental parameters approach is its adaptability any laboratory diffractometer. Good fits can normally be obtained over the whole 20 range without refinement using the known properties of the diffractometer, such as the slit sizes and diffractometer radius, and emission profile. PMID:27366594

  16. Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  17. Fundamental and harmonic radiation in type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.

    1994-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts are investigated by modeling the propagation of the electron beam and the generation and subsequent propagation of waves to the observer. Predictions from this model are compared in detail with particle, Langmuir wave, and radio data from the International Sun Earth Explorer-3 (ISSE-3) spacecraft and with other observations to clarify the roles of fundamental and harmonic emission in type III radio bursts. Langmuir waves are seen only after the arrival of the beam, in accord with the standard theory. These waves persist after a positive beam slope is last resolved, implying that sporadic positive slopes persist for some time, unresolved but in accord with the predictions of stochastic growth theory. Local electromagnetic emission sets in only after Langmuir waves are seen, in accord with the standard theory, which relies on nonlinear processes involving Langmuir waves. In the events investigated here, fundamental radiation appears to dominate early in the event, followed and/or accompanied by harmonic radiation after the peak, with a long-lived tail of multiply scattered fundamental or harmonic emission extending long afterwards. These results are largely independent of, but generally consistent with, the conclusions of earlier works.

  18. Modulation of fundamental frequency by laryngeal muscles during vibrato.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, T Y; Solomon, N P; Luschei, E S; Titze, I R

    1994-09-01

    The variations in voice fundamental frequency (F0) that occur during vibrato production may be produced, at least in part, by modulation of laryngeal muscle activity. We have quantified this relation by using a cross-correlation analysis of the changes in F0 during vibrato and the changes either in motor unit firing rate or in gross electromyographic activity from the cricothyroid (CT) and the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles. Two trained amateur tenors provided the data. Correlations were generally quite strong (mean r for the CT was 0.72 for singer 1 and 0.50 for singer 2; mean r for the TA was 0.31 for singer 2), thus providing support for previous evidence that fundamental frequency modulation in vibrato involves active modulation of the laryngeal motoneuron pool, especially by the CT muscle. In addition, phase delays between muscle modulation and changes in fundamental frequency were substantial (averaging approximately 130 degrees for the CT and 140 degrees for the TA). This finding may help provide insight regarding the mechanisms responsible for the production of vibrato. PMID:7987424

  19. New axes for the stellar mass fundamental plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L* Schechter, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of argument, both observational and theoretical, point to a tight correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion observed for an early-type galaxy and the mass of the dark matter halo in which it is embedded. While effective radius and surface brightness measure properties of the stellar (baryonic) component, the stellar velocity dispersion tells us the mass, virial radius and velocity dispersion of the dark matter component. The stellar effective radius may be divided by the halo radius, and the stellar mass (inferred from the stellar surface brightness) divided by the halo mass to give new axes for the fundamental plane. The stellar velocity dispersion is then a measure of the overall size of the dark matter halo. The two dimensionless axes tell us the ratios of the stellar mass to halo mass and stellar extent to halo extent. If themass of a halo alone determined everything about the embedded galaxy, there would be a unique stellar mass fraction and a unique stellar radius fraction for a given dispersion, forming a fundamental line. If there is a range of stellar mass fractions and a range of stellar radius fractions, and if they are independent, the line will blow up into a sausage. The fact that it fans out into a plane and not a sausage tells us that the deviations in mass fraction and radius fraction from the fundamental line must be strongly correlated.

  20. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions. PMID:20530821

  1. Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition Enhanced Problems Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-04-01

    No other text on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics. This text continues to outperform the competition year after year, and the new edition will be no exception. Intended for Calculus-based Physics courses, the 6th edition of this extraordinary text is a major redesign of the best-selling 5th edition, which still maintains many of the elements that led to its enormous success. Jearl Walker adds his unique style to this edition with the addition of new problems designed to capture, and keep, students' attention. Nearly all changes are based on suggestions from instructors and students using the 5th edition, from reviewer comments, and from research done on the process of learning. The primary goal of this text is to provide students with a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and to help them apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The principal goal of Halliday-Resnick-Walker is to provide instructors with a tool by which they can teach students how to effectively read scientific material and successfully reason through scientific questions. To sharpen this tool, the Enhanced Problems Version of the sixth edition of Fundamentals of Physics contains over 1000 new, high-quality problems that require thought and reasoning rather than simplistic plugging of data into formulas.

  2. Fundamentals of Physics, Student Study Guide, Extended 7th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-06-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  3. Fundamental design concepts in multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2005-12-01

    The most fundamental concept in designing multi-lane smart electromechanical actuation systems, besides meeting performance requirements, is the realization of high integrity. The essential requirements for realizing high integrity (and in any safety-critical system) are hardware redundancy and intelligent monitoring. To correctly detect, identify, isolate and replace redundant components, an intelligent fault detection and fault isolation scheme is required. The effectiveness of any fault detection and fault isolation system is assessed by examining promptness of detection, sensitivity, missed fault detection, the rate of false alarms, and incorrect fault identification. These terms are very much dependent on the threshold values of the monitoring devices imbedded in the system. The main aim of this paper is to provide fundamental consolidation designs and monitoring schemes in different architectures. It will address single-type and two-type summing architectures and highlight feedback sensor integration and monitoring strategies in the former, and explore the suitability of different threshold setting methodologies such as a simulation-graphical based Monte Carlo method, decision theory and analysis of variance. The paper will also address other fundamentals that are essential at the design stage, such as control surface load estimation, force fight (between mismatch lanes) reduction through lane equalization, and threshold setting concepts (scheduled and unscheduled) in a multi-mode operation system. The analysis is based on a four-lane actuation system capable of driving aerodynamic and inertial loads (with two lanes failed) of an aileron control surface similar to that of the Sea Harrier.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The USGS has a long and proud tradition of objective, unbiased science in service to the Nation. A reputation for impartiality and excellence is one of our most important assets. To help preserve this vital asset, in 2004 the Executive Leadership Team (ELT) of the USGS was charged by the Director to develop a set of fundamental science practices, philosophical premises, and operational principles as the foundation for all USGS research and monitoring activities. In a concept document, 'Fundamental Science Practices of the U.S. Geological Survey', the ELT proposed 'a set of fundamental principles to underlie USGS science practices.' The document noted that protecting the reputation of USGS science for quality and objectivity requires the following key elements: - Clearly articulated, Bureau-wide fundamental science practices. - A shared understanding at all levels of the organization that the health and future of the USGS depend on following these practices. - The investment of budget, time, and people to ensure that the USGS reputation and high-quality standards are maintained. The USGS Fundamental Science Practices (FSP) encompass all elements of research investigations, including data collection, experimentation, analysis, writing results, peer review, management review, and Bureau approval and publication of information products. The focus of FSP is on how science is carried out and how products are produced and disseminated. FSP is not designed to address the question of what work the USGS should do; that is addressed in USGS science planning handbooks and other documents. Building from longstanding existing USGS policies and the ELT concept document, in May 2006, FSP policies were developed with input from all parts of the organization and were subsequently incorporated into the Bureau's Survey Manual. In developing an implementation plan for FSP policy, the intent was to recognize and incorporate the best of USGS current practices to obtain the optimum

  5. Theoretical prediction and impact of fundamental electric dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Sebastian A. R.; Kane, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The predicted Standard Model (SM) electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electrons and quarks are tiny, providing an important window to observe new physics. Theories beyond the SM typically allow relatively large EDMs. The EDMs depend on the relative phases of terms in the effective Lagrangian of the extended theory, which are generally unknown. Underlying theories, such as string/M-theories compactified to four dimensions, could predict the phases and thus EDMs in the resulting supersymmetric (SUSY) theory. Earlier one of us, with collaborators, made such a prediction and found, unexpectedly, that the phases were predicted to be zero at tree level in the theory at the unification or string scale ˜ O(1016 GeV). Electroweak (EW) scale EDMs still arise via running from the high scale, and depend only on the SM Yukawa couplings that also give the CKM phase. Here we extend the earlier work by studying the dependence of the low scale EDMs on the constrained but not fully known fundamental Yukawa couplings. The dominant contribution is from two loop diagrams and is not sensitive to the choice of Yukawa texture. The electron EDM should not be found to be larger than about 5 × 10-30 e cm, and the neutron EDM should not be larger than about 5 × 10-29 e cm. These values are quite a bit smaller than the reported predictions from Split SUSY and typical effective theories, but much larger than the Standard Model prediction. Also, since models with random phases typically give much larger EDMs, it is a significant testable prediction of compactified M-theory that the EDMs should not be above these upper limits. The actual EDMs can be below the limits, so once they are measured they could provide new insight into the fundamental Yukawa couplings of leptons and quarks. We comment also on the role of strong CP violation. EDMs probe fundamental physics near the Planck scale.

  6. Theoretical prediction and impact of fundamental electric dipole moments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ellis, Sebastian A. R.; Kane, Gordon L.

    2016-01-13

    The predicted Standard Model (SM) electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electrons and quarks are tiny, providing an important window to observe new physics. Theories beyond the SM typically allow relatively large EDMs. The EDMs depend on the relative phases of terms in the effective Lagrangian of the extended theory, which are generally unknown. Underlying theories, such as string/M-theories compactified to four dimensions, could predict the phases and thus EDMs in the resulting supersymmetric (SUSY) theory. Earlier one of us, with collaborators, made such a prediction and found, unexpectedly, that the phases were predicted to be zero at tree level inmore » the theory at the unification or string scale ~O(1016 GeV). Electroweak (EW) scale EDMs still arise via running from the high scale, and depend only on the SM Yukawa couplings that also give the CKM phase. Here we extend the earlier work by studying the dependence of the low scale EDMs on the constrained but not fully known fundamental Yukawa couplings. The dominant contribution is from two loop diagrams and is not sensitive to the choice of Yukawa texture. The electron EDM should not be found to be larger than about 5 × 10–30e cm, and the neutron EDM should not be larger than about 5 × 10–29e cm. These values are quite a bit smaller than the reported predictions from Split SUSY and typical effective theories, but much larger than the Standard Model prediction. Also, since models with random phases typically give much larger EDMs, it is a significant testable prediction of compactified M-theory that the EDMs should not be above these upper limits. The actual EDMs can be below the limits, so once they are measured they could provide new insight into the fundamental Yukawa couplings of leptons and quarks. As a result, we comment also on the role of strong CP violation. EDMs probe fundamental physics near the Planck scale.« less

  7. Negative-Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriades, G. V.; Balmain, K. G.

    2005-06-01

    Learn about the revolutionary new technology of negative-refraction metamaterials Negative-Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications introduces artificial materials that support the unusual electromagnetic property of negative refraction. Readers will discover several classes of negative-refraction materials along with their exciting, groundbreaking applications, such as lenses and antennas, imaging with super-resolution, microwave devices, dispersion-compensating interconnects, radar, and defense. The book begins with a chapter describing the fundamentals of isotropic metamaterials in which a negative index of refraction is defined. In the following chapters, the text builds on the fundamentals by describing a range of useful microwave devices and antennas. Next, a broad spectrum of exciting new research and emerging applications is examined, including: Theory and experiments behind a super-resolving, negative-refractive-index transmission-line lens 3-D transmission-line metamaterials with a negative refractive index Numerical simulation studies of negative refraction of Gaussian beams and associated focusing phenomena Unique advantages and theory of shaped lenses made of negative-refractive-index metamaterials A new type of transmission-line metamaterial that is anisotropic and supports the formation of sharp steerable beams (resonance cones) Implementations of negative-refraction metamaterials at optical frequencies Unusual propagation phenomena in metallic waveguides partially filled with negative-refractive-index metamaterials Metamaterials in which the refractive index and the underlying group velocity are both negative This work brings together the best minds in this cutting-edge field. It is fascinating reading for scientists, engineers, and graduate-level students in physics, chemistry, materials science, photonics, and electrical engineering.

  8. The Empowerment of Plasma Modeling by Fundamental Electron Scattering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    Modeling of low temperature plasmas addresses at least 3 goals - investigation of fundamental processes, analysis and optimization of current technologies, and prediction of performance of as yet unbuilt systems for new applications. The former modeling may be performed on somewhat idealized systems in simple gases, while the latter will likely address geometrically and electromagnetically intricate systems with complex gas mixtures, and now gases in contact with liquids. The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering data (FSD) required for these activities increases from the former to the latter, while the accuracy required of that data probably decreases. In each case, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSD. Modeling is, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSD in plasma modeling will be discussed from each of these three perspectives using results from multidimensional and global models. The fundamental studies will focus on modeling of inductively coupled plasmas sustained in Ar/Cl2 where the electron scattering from feed gases and their fragments ultimately determine gas temperatures. Examples of the optimization of current technologies will focus on modeling of remote plasma etching of Si and Si3N4 in Ar/NF3/N2/O2 mixtures. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids Work was supported by the US Dept. of Energy (DE-SC0001939), National Science Foundation (CHE-124752), and the Semiconductor Research Corp.

  9. Improved fundamental frequency coding in cochlear implant signal processing.

    PubMed

    Milczynski, Matthias; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2009-04-01

    A new signal processing algorithm for improved pitch perception in cochlear implants is proposed. The algorithm realizes fundamental frequency (F0) coding by explicitly modulating the amplitude of the electrical stimulus. The proposed processing scheme is compared with the standard advanced combination encoder strategy in psychophysical music perception related tasks. Possible filter-bank and loudness cues between the strategies under study were minimized to predominantly focus on differences in temporal processing. The results demonstrate significant benefits provided by the new coding strategy for pitch ranking, melodic contour identification, and familiar melody identification. PMID:19354401

  10. Intrinsic fundamental frequency of vowels is moderated by regional dialect.

    PubMed

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-10-01

    There has been a long-standing debate whether the intrinsic fundamental frequency (IF0) of vowels is an automatic consequence of articulation or whether it is independently controlled by speakers to perceptually enhance vowel contrasts along the height dimension. This paper provides evidence from regional variation in American English that IF0 difference between high and low vowels is, in part, controlled and varies across dialects. The sources of this F0 control are socio-cultural and cannot be attributed to differences in the vowel inventory size. The socially motivated enhancement was found only in prosodically prominent contexts. PMID:26520352

  11. Early universe constraints on time variation of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, Susana J.; Mosquera, Mercedes E.; Scoccola, Claudia G.; Vucetich, Hector

    2008-10-15

    We study the time variation of fundamental constants in the early Universe. Using data from primordial light nuclei abundances, cosmic microwave background, and the 2dFGRS power spectrum, we put constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant {alpha} and the Higgs vacuum expectation value without assuming any theoretical framework. A variation in leads to a variation in the electron mass, among other effects. Along the same line, we study the variation of {alpha} and the electron mass m{sub e}. In a purely phenomenological fashion, we derive a relationship between both variations.

  12. Nanoparticle assembly: from fundamentals to applications: concluding remarks.

    PubMed

    Gang, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles, due to their broadly tunable functions, are major building blocks for generating new materials. However, building such materials for practical applications by self-assembly is quite challenging. Following the Faraday Discussion on "Nanoparticle Assembly: from Fundamentals to Applications" we discuss here the current trends in the field of self-assembly, including: understanding the unique interplay of molecular and nanoscale effects, a development of novel approaches for the creation of targeted nanoparticle architectures, advances in controlling dynamic behavior of systems and enabling new functions through specifically formed structures. PMID:27046793

  13. Normative Speaking Fundamental Frequency (SFF) characteristics of Brazilian male subjects.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro-Krook, M I; Castro, V C

    1994-07-01

    The present study was carried out in order to obtain normative Speaking Fundamental Frequency (SFF) data for 150 Brazilian Portuguese-speaking male subjects (mean age, 19.4; range, 17-30) in two different vocal tasks, i.e., oral reading and counting. Mean (+/- SD) SFF was 134.9 +/- 17.9 Hz for oral reading and 130.5 +/- 18.5 Hz for counting. The mean SFF values obtained in this investigation were similar to data reported in previous studies.

  14. Maximizing the return on taxpayers' investments in fundamental biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Lorsch, Jon R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health has an annual budget of more than $2.3 billion. The institute uses these funds to support fundamental biomedical research and training at universities, medical schools, and other institutions across the country. My job as director of NIGMS is to work to maximize the scientific returns on the taxpayers' investments. I describe how we are optimizing our investment strategies and funding mechanisms, and how, in the process, we hope to create a more efficient and sustainable biomedical research enterprise. PMID:25926703

  15. Application of wave mechanics theory to fluid dynamics problems: Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzywoblocki, M. Z. V.

    1974-01-01

    The application of the basic formalistic elements of wave mechanics theory is discussed. The theory is used to describe the physical phenomena on the microscopic level, the fluid dynamics of gases and liquids, and the analysis of physical phenomena on the macroscopic (visually observable) level. The practical advantages of relating the two fields of wave mechanics and fluid mechanics through the use of the Schroedinger equation constitute the approach to this relationship. Some of the subjects include: (1) fundamental aspects of wave mechanics theory, (2) laminarity of flow, (3) velocity potential, (4) disturbances in fluids, (5) introductory elements of the bifurcation theory, and (6) physiological aspects in fluid dynamics.

  16. Nanoparticle assembly: from fundamentals to applications: concluding remarks.

    PubMed

    Gang, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles, due to their broadly tunable functions, are major building blocks for generating new materials. However, building such materials for practical applications by self-assembly is quite challenging. Following the Faraday Discussion on "Nanoparticle Assembly: from Fundamentals to Applications" we discuss here the current trends in the field of self-assembly, including: understanding the unique interplay of molecular and nanoscale effects, a development of novel approaches for the creation of targeted nanoparticle architectures, advances in controlling dynamic behavior of systems and enabling new functions through specifically formed structures.

  17. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.A.; Durham, M.D.; Sowa, W.A.; Himes, R.M.; Mahaffey, W.A.

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  18. Fundamental Solutions and Optimal Control of Neutral Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai

    In this work, we shall consider standard optimal control problems for a class of neutral functional differential equations in Banach spaces. As the basis of a systematic theory of neutral models, the fundamental solution is constructed and a variation of constants formula of mild solutions is established. Necessary conditions in terms of the solutions of neutral adjoint systems are established to deal with the fixed time integral convex cost problem of optimality. Based on optimality conditions, the maximum principle for time varying control domain is presented.

  19. Lanthanide upconversion luminescence at the nanoscale: fundamentals and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Zhao, Jiangbo; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-07-01

    Upconversion photoluminescence is a nonlinear effect where multiple lower energy excitation photons produce higher energy emission photons. This fundamentally interesting process has many applications in biomedical imaging, light source and display technology, and solar energy harvesting. In this review we discuss the underlying physical principles and their modelling using rate equations. We discuss how the understanding of photophysical processes enabled a strategic influence over the optical properties of upconversion especially in rationally designed materials. We subsequently present an overview of recent experimental strategies to control and optimize the optical properties of upconversion nanoparticles, focussing on their emission spectral properties and brightness.

  20. Fundamental Parameters of 4 Massive Eclipsing Binaries in Westerlund 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Koumpia, E.

    2011-05-01

    We present fundamental parameters of 4 massive eclipsing binaries in the young massive cluster Westerlund 1. The goal is to measure accurate masses and radii of their component stars, which provide much needed constraints for evolutionary models of massive stars. Accurate parameters can further be used to determine a dynamical lower limit for the magnetar progenitor and to obtain an independent distance to the cluster. Our results confirm and extend the evidence for a high mass for the progenitor of the magnetar. The authors acknowledge research and travel support from the European Commission Framework Program Seven under the Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant PIRG04-GA-2008-239335.

  1. Mössbauer spectral curve fitting combining fundamentally different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, Ferry; de Souza, Paulo

    2016-10-01

    We propose the use of fundamentally distinctive techniques to solve the problem of curve fitting a Mössbauer spectrum. The techniques we investigated are: evolutionary algorithm, basin hopping, and hill climbing. These techniques were applied in isolation and combined to fit different shapes of Mössbauer spectra. The results indicate that complex Mössbauer spectra can be automatically curve fitted using minimum user input, and combination of these techniques achieved the best performance (lowest statistical error). The software and sample of Mössbauer spectra have been made available through a link at the reference.

  2. The Multiverse--Emerging New View in Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe has led to the dramatic new view that our universe may be one of the many universes in which low energy physical laws take different forms: the multiverse. I explain why/how this view is supported both observationally and theoretically, especially by string theory and eternal inflation. I then describe impacts this new view has on future observations and our fundamental understanding of spacetime and gravity. The topics discussed include an emerging new picture of general relativistic spacetime, especially the crucial role quantum mechanics plays at the largest distance scales, and possible signals of the multiverse in future cosmological observations.

  3. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ``point defects models`` (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

  4. Maximizing the return on taxpayers' investments in fundamental biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health has an annual budget of more than $2.3 billion. The institute uses these funds to support fundamental biomedical research and training at universities, medical schools, and other institutions across the country. My job as director of NIGMS is to work to maximize the scientific returns on the taxpayers' investments. I describe how we are optimizing our investment strategies and funding mechanisms, and how, in the process, we hope to create a more efficient and sustainable biomedical research enterprise.

  5. [Fundamental biological model for trials of wound ballistics].

    PubMed

    Krajsa, J; Hirt, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our experiment was the testing of effects of common ammunition on usable and slightly accessible biological tissue thereby to create fundamental simple biological model for trials of wounded ballistic. Like objective tissue was elected biological material - pork and beef hind-limbs, pork head, pork bodily cavity. It was discovered that objective tissue is able to react to singles types of shots in all spectrum results namely simple smooth penetration wound as well as splintery fracture in dependence on kind of using ammunition. Pork hind-limb was evaluated like the most suitable biological material for given object.

  6. Gene therapy, fundamental rights, and the mandates of public health.

    PubMed

    Lynch, John

    2004-01-01

    Recent and near-future developments in the field of molecular biology will make possible the treatment of genetic disease on an unprecedented scale. The potential applications of these developments implicate important public policy considerations. Among the questions that may arise is the constitutionality of a state-mandated program of gene therapy for the purpose of eradicating certain genetic diseases. Though controversial, precedents of public health jurisprudence suggest that such a program could survive constitutional scrutiny. This article provides an overview of gene therapy in the context of fundamental rights and the mandates of public health. PMID:15255004

  7. A Solution to the Fundamental Linear Fractional Order Differential Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a solution to the fundamental linear fractional order differential equation, namely, (sub c)d(sup q, sub t) + ax(t) = bu(t). The impulse response solution is shown to be a series, named the F-function, which generalizes the normal exponential function. The F-function provides the basis for a qth order "fractional pole". Complex plane behavior is elucidated and a simple example, the inductor terminated semi- infinite lossy line, is used to demonstrate the theory.

  8. Perspective: Fundamental aspects of time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Neepa T.

    2016-06-01

    In the thirty-two years since the birth of the foundational theorems, time-dependent density functional theory has had a tremendous impact on calculations of electronic spectra and dynamics in chemistry, biology, solid-state physics, and materials science. Alongside the wide-ranging applications, there has been much progress in understanding fundamental aspects of the functionals and the theory itself. This Perspective looks back to some of these developments, reports on some recent progress and current challenges for functionals, and speculates on future directions to improve the accuracy of approximations used in this relatively young theory.

  9. Intrinsic fundamental frequency of vowels is moderated by regional dialect.

    PubMed

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-10-01

    There has been a long-standing debate whether the intrinsic fundamental frequency (IF0) of vowels is an automatic consequence of articulation or whether it is independently controlled by speakers to perceptually enhance vowel contrasts along the height dimension. This paper provides evidence from regional variation in American English that IF0 difference between high and low vowels is, in part, controlled and varies across dialects. The sources of this F0 control are socio-cultural and cannot be attributed to differences in the vowel inventory size. The socially motivated enhancement was found only in prosodically prominent contexts.

  10. The fundamentals of fetal magnetic resonance imaging: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Plunk, Matthew R; Chapman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Careful assessment of fetal anatomy by a combination of ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging offers the clinical teams and counselors caring for the patient information that can be critical for the management of both the mother and the fetus. In the second half of this 2-part review, we focus on space-occupying lesions in the fetal body. Because developing fetal tissues are programmed to grow rapidly, mass lesions can have a substantial effect on the formation of normal adjacent organs. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and lung masses, fetal teratoma, and intra-abdominal masses are discussed, with an emphasis on differential etiologies and on fundamental management considerations. PMID:24974309

  11. Prospects for imaging TOF-SIMS: from fundamentals to biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winograd, N.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging with TOF-SIMS is considered with respect to existing technical challenges and potential applications. The major goal is to improve the sensitivity of measurement since desorption of molecules occurs from an area of much less than 1 μm in diameter and the number of molecules is limited. Improved knowledge of the fundamental aspects of the molecular collision cascade, bombardment with focused beams of cluster ions, laser postionization of neutral molecules and ion correlation techniques are suggested as areas where there may be considerable payoff. Potential applications to biomaterials, single biological cells, rapid screening in genomics and proteomics and molecular electronics are considered.

  12. Fundamental limitations in the purifications of tensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De las Cuevas, G.; Cubitt, T. S.; Cirac, J. I.; Wolf, M. M.; Pérez-García, D.

    2016-07-01

    We show a fundamental limitation in the description of quantum many-body mixed states with tensor networks in purification form. Namely, we show that there exist mixed states which can be represented as a translationally invariant (TI) matrix product density operator valid for all system sizes, but for which there does not exist a TI purification valid for all system sizes. The proof is based on an undecidable problem and on the uniqueness of canonical forms of matrix product states. The result also holds for classical states.

  13. On the Fundamental Theorem of the Theory of Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamone-Capria, Marco

    2016-08-01

    A new formulation of what may be called the "fundamental theorem of the theory of relativity" is presented and proved in (3 + 1)-space-time, based on the full classification of special transformations and the corresponding velocity addition laws. A system of axioms is introduced and discussed leading to the result, and a study is made of several variants of that system. In particular the status of the group axiom is investigated with respect to the condition of the two-way isotropy of light. Several issues which are ignored or misunderstood in the literature are emphasized.

  14. Exosomes: Fundamental Biology and Roles in Cardiovascular Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Marbán, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are nanosized membrane particles that are secreted by cells that transmit information from cell to cell. The information within exosomes prominently includes their protein and RNA payloads. Exosomal microRNAs in particular can potently and fundamentally alter the transcriptome of recipient cells. Here we summarize what is known about exosome biogenesis, content, and transmission, with a focus on cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. We also highlight some of the questions currently under active investigation regarding these extracellular membrane vesicles and their potential in diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  15. Past and Future Blurring at Fundamental Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Neves, M. J.; Farina, C.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.

    2010-11-19

    We obtain the {kappa}-deformed versions of the retarded and advanced Green functions and show that their causality properties are blurred in a time interval of the order of a length parameter q=1/(2{kappa}). The functions also indicate a smearing of the light cone. These results favor the interpretation of q as a fundamental length scale below which the concept of a point in space-time should be substituted by the concept of a fuzzy region of radius q, as proposed long ago by Heisenberg.

  16. Low Temperature Plasma Physics: Fundamental Aspects and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippler, Rainer; Pfau, Sigismund; Schmidt, Martin; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2001-06-01

    Low-temperature plasma physics is a very active area of research located on the boundaries between physics, chemistry and materials science. Recent technological developments, e.g. in plasma etching or plasma deposition, have led to a revived interest in plasma physics and technology. This volume describes in detail fundamentals and applications of low-temperature plasma physics including newest achievements. The authors of this volume are top scientists from the USA and Europe who present most recent successes in our understanding of how plasmas behave and put a strong focus on the links between theory and experiment or technological process.

  17. The exact fundamental solution for the Benes tracking problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bhashyam

    2009-05-01

    The universal continuous-discrete tracking problem requires the solution of a Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov forward equation (FPKfe) for an arbitrary initial condition. Using results from quantum mechanics, the exact fundamental solution for the FPKfe is derived for the state model of arbitrary dimension with Benes drift that requires only the computation of elementary transcendental functions and standard linear algebra techniques- no ordinary or partial differential equations need to be solved. The measurement process may be an arbitrary, discrete-time nonlinear stochastic process, and the time step size can be arbitrary. Numerical examples are included, demonstrating its utility in practical implementation.

  18. Fundamental quantitative analysis of microbial activity in aquifer bioreclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Rittman, B.E.; Valocchi, A.J.; Baveye, P.

    1993-08-01

    In situ bioremediation of hazardous organic chemicals that contaminate aquifer solids and ground water is a highly promising technique for many sites at DOE facilities. Its potential stems from having agents for destruction of the contaminants (bacteria) close to the separate-phase liquid or sorbed contaminants. This project was designed to advance knowledge in several of the microbiological fundamentals most important to in situ bioremediation: biodegradation of poorly soluable organic contaminants; dual limitation kinetics of electron donors and acceptors; kinetics of sequential degradation involving oxygenase reaction; biologically induced clogging in porous media, and two dimensional modeling of biofilm reactions in non homogeneous porous media.

  19. A fundamental model and efficient inference for SAR ocean imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harger, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Employing a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging model based on fundamental models of nonlinear hydrodynamics, electromagnetic scattering from a two-scale surface, and SAR imaging of a time-variant scene, the optimal (minimum mean-square error) estimates of the parameters of a sinusoidal, long gravity wave, and the short gravity wave ensemble are found in an efficient recursive form and their performance evaluated, generally by numerical simulation, in a one-dimensional stationary version. An application is made to Seasat-SAR complex imagery.

  20. FUNDAMENTAL MODAL BEHAVIOR OF AN EARTHQUAKE-EXCITED BRIDGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, A.G.; Celebi, M.

    1986-01-01

    The magnitude 6. 1 Morgan Hill, California, earthquake of April 24, 1984, produced a set of acceleration records at the freeway overpass in San Jose carrying I-280/I-680 across U. S. 101, 12 km from the epicenter. Peak accelerations reached 0. 10 g at ground level and 0. 16 g in the box girder. The integrated displacements at frequencies higher than 3 Hz permit the identification of the fundamental modes and frequencies. The horizontal modes have frequencies of 308 and 3. 9 Hz and include ground level motions up to 90% of peak deck motion. The soil-structure system contributes to these modes.

  1. Fundamental questions relating to ion conduction in disordered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.; Maass, Philipp; Roling, Bernhard; Sidebottom, David L.

    2009-04-01

    A number of basic scientific questions relating to ion conduction in homogeneously disordered solids are discussed. The questions deal with how to define the mobile ion density, what can be learnt from electrode effects, what the ion transport mechanism is, the role of dimensionality and what the origins of the mixed-alkali effect, the time-temperature superposition, and the nearly constant loss are. Answers are suggested to some of these questions, but the main purpose of the paper is to draw attention to the fact that this field of research still presents several fundamental challenges.

  2. Testing Theories That Predict Time Variation of Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Susana J.; Vucetich, Hector

    2002-05-01

    We consider astronomical and local bounds on the time variation of fundamental constants to test some generic Kaluza-Klein-like models and some particular cases of Beckenstein theory. Bounds on the free parameters of the different theories are obtained. Furthermore, we find that none of the proposed models is able to explain recent results (as from Webb and coworkers in 1999 and 2001) claiming an observed variation of the fine-structure constant from quasar absorption systems at redshifts 0.5

  3. Probes of Fundamental Physics using X-ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2016-04-01

    The advent of X-ray polarimetry as an astronomical discipline is on the near horizon. Prospects of Explorer class missions currently under study in the NASA SMEX program, the Xipe mission under ESA study in Europe, and beyond to initiatives under development in Asia, indicate that the worldwide high energy astrophysics community view this as a high priority. The focal goal of X-ray polarization measurements is often to discern the geometry of a source, for example an accreting black hole, pulsing neutron star or a relativistic jet; these are addressed in other talks in this HEAD special session. In this talk, I discuss a parallel agenda, to employ X-ray polarimetry to glean insights into fundamental physics that is presently difficult or impossible to test in laboratory settings. Much of this is centered around neutron stars, and I willaddress theoretically-expected signatures of vacuum birefringence and photon splitting, predictions of QED theory in the strong magnetic fields possessed by pulsars and magnetars. Of particular note is that time-dependent polarimetry coupled with spectroscopy can help disentangle purely geometrical effects and fundamental physics ones. A brief discussion of possible tests of Lorentz invariance violation, expected in some theories of quantum gravity, will also be presented. Instrument requirements to realize such science goals will also be briefly covered.

  4. RAEGE: An Atlantic Network of Geodynamical Fundamental Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Jesus Gomez; Colomer, Francisco; LopezFernandez, Jose Antonio; Assis, Marlene C. S.

    2010-01-01

    Project RAEGE (Red Atlantica de Estaciones Geodinamicas y Espaciales) intends to set up a Spanish-Portuguese network of four Geodetic Fundamental Stations in Yebes (1), Canary Islands (1), and A cores Islands (2), as part of the developments needed for the IVS VLBI2010 scenario. It is envisaged that each Geodetic Fundamental Station will be equipped with one radio telescope of VLBI2010 specifications (at least 12-m diameter, fast slewing speed, but also able to operate up to 40 GHz), one gravimeter, one permanent GNSS station, and, at least at the Yebes site, one SLR facility. The National Geographical Institute of Spain (IGN) has experience in VLBI, having been a member of the European VLBI Network since 1993 and being one of the founding institutions of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE), and it has been participating in geodetic VLBI campaigns with the 14-m radio telescope in Yebes since 1995. A new 40-m radio telescope has been built and was recently put into operation. It regularly participates in IVS sessions. There is infrastructure available for the new stations at Yebes and the Canary Islands. An agreement between IGN, the Portuguese Geographical Institute (IGP), and the Regional Government of the A cores ensures that the RAEGE project can become a reality by 2013.

  5. Controlled Crystallinity and Fundamental Coupling Interactions in Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2009-03-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanocrystals show many unusual properties and functionalities, and can serve as model system to explore fundamental quantum and classical coupling interactions as well as building blocks of many practical applications. However, because of their small size, these nanoparticles typically exhibit different crystalline properties as compared with their bulk counterpart, and controlling crystallinity (and structural defects) within nanoparticles has posed significant technical challenges. In this talk, I will firstly apply silver metal nanoparticles as an example and present a novel chemical synthetic technique to achieve unprecedented crystallinity control at the nanoscale. This engineering of nanocrystallinity enables manipulation of intrinsic chemical functionalities, physical properties as well as nano-device performance [1]. For example, I will highlight that electron- phonon coupling constant can be significantly reduced by about four times and elastic modulus is increased ˜40% in perfect single crystalline silver nanoparticles as compared with those in disordered twinned nanoparticles. One important application of metal nanoparticles is nanoscale sensors. I will thus demonstrate that performance of nanoparticles based molecular sensing devices can be optimized with three times improvement of figure-of-merit if perfect single crystalline nanoparticles are applied. Lastly, I will present our related studies on semiconductor nanocrystals as well as their hybrid heterostructures. These discussions should offer important implications for our understanding of the fundamental properties at nanoscale and potential applications of metal nanoparticles. [4pt] [1] Yun Tang and Min Ouyang, Nature Materials, 6, 754, 2007.

  6. Effect of speed matching on fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhijian; Luo, Lin; Yang, Yue; Zhuang, Yifan; Zhang, Peitong; Yang, Lizhong; Yang, Hongtai; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Kongjin; Li, Yanlai

    2016-09-01

    Properties of pedestrian may change along their moving path, for example, as a result of fatigue or injury, which has never been properly investigated in the past research. The paper attempts to study the speed matching effect (a pedestrian adjusts his velocity constantly to the average velocity of his neighbors) and its influence on the density-velocity relationship (a pedestrian adjust his velocity to the surrounding density), known as the fundamental diagram of the pedestrian flow. By the means of the cellular automaton, the simulation results fit well with the empirical data, indicating the great advance of the discrete model for pedestrian dynamics. The results suggest that the system velocity and flow rate increase obviously under a big noise, i.e., a diverse composition of pedestrian crowd, especially in the region of middle or high density. Because of the temporary effect, the speed matching has little influence on the fundamental diagram. Along the entire density, the relationship between the step length and the average pedestrian velocity is a piecewise function combined two linear functions. The number of conflicts reaches the maximum with the pedestrian density of 2.5 m-2, while decreases by 5.1% with the speed matching.

  7. The fundamental physics explorer: An ESA technology reference study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binns, D. A.; Rando, N.; Cacciapuoti, L.

    2009-04-01

    ESA technology reference studies are used as a process to identify key technologies and technical challenges of potential future missions not yet in the science programme. This paper reports on the study of the Fundamental Physics Explorer (FPE), a re-usable platform targeted to small missions testing fundamental laws of physics in space. The study addresses three specific areas of interest: special and general relativity tests based on atomic clocks, experiments on the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP), and studies of Bose-Einstein condensates under microgravity conditions. Starting from preliminary science objectives and payload requirements, three reference missions in the small/medium class range are discussed, based on a re-adaptation of the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. A 700/3600 km elliptic orbit has been selected to conduct clock tests of special and general relativity, a 700 km circular orbit to perform experiments on the Weak Equivalence Principle and to study Bose-Einstein condensates, each mission being based on a three-axis stabilised spacecraft. It was determined that adaptation of LISA Pathfinder would be required in order to meet the demands of the FPE missions. Moreover it was established that specific payload and spacecraft technology development would be required to realise such a programme.

  8. Fundamental properties of field emission-driven direct current microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbach, Paul; Go, David B.

    2012-11-01

    For half a century, it has been known that the onset of field emission in direct current microdischarges with gap sizes less than 10 μm can lead to breakdown at applied voltages far less than predicted by Paschen's law. It is still unclear how field emission affects other fundamental plasma properties at this scale. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to predict basic scaling laws for fundamental properties including ion density, electric field due to space charge, and current-voltage relations in the pre-breakdown regime. Computational results are compared with approximate analytic solutions. It is shown that field emission provides an abundance of cathode electrons, which in turn create large ion concentrations through ionizing collisions well before Paschen's criterion for breakdown is met. Breakdown due to ion-enhanced field emission occurs when the electric field due to space charge becomes comparable to the applied electric field. Simple scaling analysis of the 1D Poisson equation demonstrates that an ion density of n+ ≈ 0.1VAɛ0/qd2 is necessary to significantly distort the electric field. Defining breakdown in terms of this critical ion density leads analytically to a simple, effective secondary emission coefficient γ' of the same mathematical form initially suggested by Boyle and Kisliuk [Phys. Rev. 97, 255 (1955)].

  9. Toward using games to teach fundamental computer science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, Jeffrey Michael

    Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. We present an investigation where computer games are used to teach two fundamental computer science concepts: boolean expressions and recursion. The games are intended to teach the concepts and not how to implement them in a programming language. For this investigation, two computer games were created. One is designed to teach basic boolean expressions and operators and the other to teach fundamental concepts of recursion. We describe the design and implementation of both games. We evaluate the effectiveness of these games using before and after surveys. The surveys were designed to ascertain basic understanding, attitudes and beliefs regarding the concepts. The boolean game was evaluated with local high school students and students in a college level introductory computer science course. The recursion game was evaluated with students in a college level introductory computer science course. We present the analysis of the collected survey information for both games. This analysis shows a significant positive change in student attitude towards recursion and modest gains in student learning outcomes for both topics.

  10. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones.

    PubMed

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (<7%) between individuals. The volume ratio of femur : tibia was approximately half that of humerus : ulna (1.58 and 3.28, respectively; P < 0.0001). Lower limb bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R(2) values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics.

  11. 13C-based metabolic flux analysis: fundamentals and practice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Isotope-based metabolic flux analysis is one of the emerging technologies applied to system level metabolic phenotype characterization in metabolic engineering. Among the developed approaches, (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis has been established as a standard tool and has been widely applied to quantitative pathway characterization of diverse biological systems. To implement (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in practice, comprehending the underlying mathematical and computational modeling fundamentals is of importance along with carefully conducted experiments and analytical measurements. Such knowledge is also crucial when designing (13)C-labeling experiments and properly acquiring key data sets essential for in vivo flux analysis implementation. In this regard, the modeling fundamentals of (13)C-labeling systems and analytical data processing are the main topics we will deal with in this chapter. Along with this, the relevant numerical optimization techniques are addressed to help implementation of the entire computational procedures aiming at (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in vivo.

  12. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones

    PubMed Central

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (<7%) between individuals. The volume ratio of femur : tibia was approximately half that of humerus : ulna (1.58 and 3.28, respectively; P < 0.0001). Lower limb bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R2 values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics. PMID:23521756

  13. Fundamentals of microfluidic cell culture in controlled microenvironments†

    PubMed Central

    Young, Edmond W. K.; Beebe, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidics has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach cell biology research. The dimensions of microfluidic channels are well suited to the physical scale of biological cells, and the many advantages of microfluidics make it an attractive platform for new techniques in biology. One of the key benefits of microfluidics for basic biology is the ability to control parameters of the cell microenvironment at relevant length and time scales. Considerable progress has been made in the design and use of novel microfluidic devices for culturing cells and for subsequent treatment and analysis. With the recent pace of scientific discovery, it is becoming increasingly important to evaluate existing tools and techniques, and to synthesize fundamental concepts that would further improve the efficiency of biological research at the microscale. This tutorial review integrates fundamental principles from cell biology and local microenvironments with cell culture techniques and concepts in microfluidics. Culturing cells in microscale environments requires knowledge of multiple disciplines including physics, biochemistry, and engineering. We discuss basic concepts related to the physical and biochemical microenvironments of the cell, physicochemical properties of that microenvironment, cell culture techniques, and practical knowledge of microfluidic device design and operation. We also discuss the most recent advances in microfluidic cell culture and their implications on the future of the field. The goal is to guide new and interested researchers to the important areas and challenges facing the scientific community as we strive toward full integration of microfluidics with biology. PMID:20179823

  14. Traffic dynamics: Its impact on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Victor L.; van Lint, Hans; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2015-11-01

    Literature shows that-under specific conditions-the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) describes a crisp relationship between the average flow (production) and the average density in an entire network. The limiting condition is that traffic conditions must be homogeneous over the whole network. Recent works describe hysteresis effects: systematic deviations from the MFD as a result of loading and unloading. This article proposes a two dimensional generalization of the MFD, the so-called Generalized Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (GMFD), which relates the average flow to both the average density and the (spatial) inhomogeneity of density. The most important contribution is that we show this is a continuous function, of which the MFD is a projection. Using the GMFD, we can describe the mentioned hysteresis patterns in the MFD. The underlying traffic phenomenon explaining the two dimensional surface described by the GMFD is that congestion concentrates (and subsequently spreads out) around the bottlenecks that oversaturate first. We call this the nucleation effect. Due to this effect, the network flow is not constant for a fixed number of vehicles as predicted by the MFD, but decreases due to local queueing and spill back processes around the congestion "nuclei". During this build up of congestion, the production hence decreases, which gives the hysteresis effects.

  15. Ergonomics: A bridge between fundamentals and applied research

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Subrata; Bagchi, Anandi; Sen, Devashish; Bandyopadhyay, Pathikrit

    2011-01-01

    Ergonomics is becoming a subject of applying fundamentals on anthropocentric dimensions for holistic welfare. The so-called conflict between Basic science and Applied research finds one of its edges in Ergonomics. Be it cutting-edge technology or frontiers of scientific innovation–all start from understanding basic scientific aptitude and skill, and the best way to get familiar with the situation is practicing basic science again and again at a regular basis. Ergonomics is diversified in such paradigms that truly set an example of such harmony between two apparently never-ending straight lines. If the spirit of Science is true human welfare, be it in the form of environmental development, machine development, technological advancement, human resource development, or development of consecutive interfaces between these components, Participatory Ergonomics is one of the vivid examples of such conglomeration. Although fundamental science may appear to be of very little practical significance, it turns out that eventually it has far greater impact on human society than much of the so-called “applied research.” PMID:21808495

  16. The Rainbow School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Christine; Acharya, Bobby; Assamagan, Ketevi; Ellis, Jonathan; Muanza, Steve; African School of Fundamental Physics; its Applications Team

    2011-04-01

    We have established a biennial school of physics in Africa, on fundamental subatomic physics and its applications. The ``raison d'être'' of the school is to build capacity to harvest, interpret, and exploit the results of current and future physics experiments with particle accelerators, and to increase proficiency in related applications. The school is based on a close interplay between theoretical, experimental, and applied physics. The first school took place in Stellenbosch, South Africa on 1-21 August 2010, with the general aim of fostering sciences in Africa. 65 students were selected to participate to this first school edition in the rainbow country. More than 50 of them had travelled from 17 African countries, fully supported financially to attend the intensive, three-week school. This project was supported by 15 different national & international organizations and institutes. We propose the second edition of the biennial school in Ghana in 2012. The inspirational enthusiasm of the students and supporting institutions at ASP2010, give a shining hope that international Programs, Collaborations and Exchanges for the future of fundamental science and technology can be achieved. We will describe the process and the accomplishments of the first school edition, with emphasize on the lessons learned to establish the future editions.

  17. FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST ENGLAND.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls. PMID:26270852

  18. FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NATURAL ANTIBODIES AND POLYREACTIVE IMMUNOGLOBULINS.

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A; Demchenko, M A; Komisarenko, S V

    2015-01-01

    A problem of similarity and differences between so-called polyreactive immunoglobulins (PRIGs) and natural antibodies (NAbs), capable of cross-reacting with some structurally dissimilar antigens, has been considered. The analysis of mechanisms of an unspecific interaction between PRIGs or NAbs and antigens evidences for the fact that essential differences exist between these substances. These differences permit classifying the abovementioned substances as different types of immunoglobulin molecules. The major difference between PRIGs and NAbs may include both the mechanisms of the above mentioned immunoglobulin molecules binding to antigens and their interaction affinity, as well as an absolutely different influence of some low-molecular substances on the efficiency of the interaction with antigens. Relying on the obtained data it can be assumed that, since PRIGs and NAbs have fundamental differences, they may perform not only similar but also different functions of the immune system.

  19. Plastic deformation of ordered intermetallic alloys: Fundamental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.

    1994-10-01

    Fundamental aspects of plastic deformation in ordered intermetallic alloys are reviewed by directly comparing the temperature-dependent yield stresses of Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Si (the L1{sub 2} structure), NiAl and FeAl (the B2 structure), and TiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al (non-cubic L1{sub 0} and D0{sub 19} structures, respectively). While the yield strength anomaly observed in Ni{sub 3}Al is consistent with the prevailing dislocation models, that found in stoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Si is not. The strong plastic anisotropy observed in NiAl stems from the high antiphase boundary energy, and that found in two-phase {gamma}-TiAl/{alpha}{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al is due to the exceptionally high compressive yield strength along the c-axis of Ti{sub 3}Al.

  20. Direct reactions for nuclear structure required for fundamental symmetry tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Rand, E. T.; Diaz Varela, A.; Ball, G. C.; Bildstein, V.; Faestermann, T.; Hadinia, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Jamieson, D. S.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Leach, K. G.; Svensson, C. E.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2016-09-01

    A program of nuclear structure studies to support fundamental symmetry tests has been initiated. Motivated by the search for an electric dipole moment in 199Hg, the structure in the vicinity has been explored via direct reaction studies. To date, these have included the 198,200Hg(d, d') inelastic scattering reactions, with the aim to obtain information on the E2 and E3 strength distributions, and the 198Hg(d, p) and 200Hg(d, t) reactions to obtain information on the single-particle states in 199Hg. The studies using the 200Hg targets have been fully analyzed using the FRESCO reaction code yielding the E2 and E3 strength distribution to 4 MeV in excitation energy, and the (d, t) single- particle strength to over 3 MeV in excitation energy.