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Sample records for isokinetic muscle strength

  1. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  2. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  3. Comparison of isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power by types of warm-up.

    PubMed

    Sim, Young-Je; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of static stretching at warm-up on the isokinetic muscle torque (at 60°/sec) and muscle power (at 180°/sec) of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle of the knee joint. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy students with no medically specific findings. The warm-up group and warm-up with stretching group performed their respective warm-up prior to the isokinetic muscle torque evaluation of the knee joint. One-way ANOVA was performed by randomized block design for each variable. [Results] The results were as follows: First, the flexor peak torque and extensor peak torque of the knee joint tended to decrease at 60°/sec in the warm-up with stretching group compared with the control group and warm-up group, but without statistical significance. Second, extensor power at 180°/sec was also not statistically significant. However, it was found that flexor power increased significantly in the warm-up with stretching group at 180°/sec compared with the control group and warm-up group in which stretching was not performed. [Conclusion] Therefore, it is considered that in healthy adults, warm-up including two sets of stretching for 20 seconds per muscle group does not decrease muscle strength and muscle power.

  4. Association with isokinetic ankle strength measurements and normal clinical muscle testing in sciatica patients.

    PubMed

    Ustun, N; Erol, O; Ozcakar, L; Ceceli, E; Ciner, O Akar; Yorgancioglu, Z R

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive muscle strength tests are needed to measure muscle strength in the diagnosis and management of sciatica patients. The aim of this study was to assess the isokinetic muscle strength in sciatica patients' and control subjects' ankles that exhibited normal ankle muscle strength when measured clinically. Forty-six patients with L5 and/or S1 nerve compression, and whose age, sex, weight, and height matched 36 healthy volunteers, were recruited to the study. Heel-walking, toe-walking, and manual muscle testing were used to perform ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strengths in clinical examination. Patients with normal ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strengths assessed by manual muscle testing and heel-and toe-walking tests were included in the study. Bilateral isokinetic (concentric/concentric) ankle plantar-flexion-dorsiflexion measurements of the patients and controls were performed within the protocol of 30°/sec (5 repetitions). Peak torque and peak torque/body weight were obtained for each ankle motion of the involved limb at 30°/s speed. L5 and/or S1 nerve compression was evident in 46 patients (76 injured limbs). Mean disease duration was two years. The plantar flexion muscle strength of the patients was found to be lower than that of the controls (p=0.036). The dorsiflexion muscle strength of the patients was found to be the same as that of the controls (p=0.211). Isokinetic testing is superior to clinical muscle testing when evaluating ankle plantar flexion torque in sciatica patients. Therefore, isokinetic muscle testing may be helpful when deciding whether to place a patient into a focused rehabilitation program.

  5. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp Kalyon, T

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s (25-90 degrees range of flexion) and 180 degrees /s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters.

  6. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp, K

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. Methods: The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60°/s (25–90° range of flexion) and 180°/s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Results: Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. Conclusions: The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters. PMID:14665581

  7. Dynamics of muscle strength improvement during isokinetic rehabilitation of athletes with ACL rupture and chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Desnica Bakrac, N

    2003-03-01

    To assess quantitatively dynamics and extent of the increase in muscle strength during isokinetic rehabilitation. daily measurements of muscle strength; detailed testing at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation. Cybex Rehabilitation Center, Zagreb. 44 athletes (31 m, 13 F, age 16-35), 3 injury-defined groups: athletes with ACL rupture (non-reconstructed and reconstructed) and chondromalacia patellae. all subjects underwent isokinetic rehabilitation on Cybex Orthotron KT2 device, using individually designed protocols (extension and flexion exercises, concentric muscle contractions, 15 treatments). monitoring of daily progress on rehabilitation device and detailed testing on diagnostic device. All patients showed considerable improvement. Muscle strength improved on average 141% (SD=110) in ACL-reconstructed group, 144% (SD=130) for chondromalacia patellae group and 150% (SD=74) for ACL-non-reconstructed group, comparing to initial strength. Dynamic status tested on Cybex Otrhotron diagnostic device prior and after rehabilitation strongly correlated with final progress monitored on the rehabilitation device. Isokinetic rehabilitation is a quick and effective method in treating knee injuries in athletes. Both types of objective criteria have shown significant increase in muscle strength. The improvement of muscle strength was on the average 149% (SD=101), which is about 10% daily for 15 treatments. The greatest progress, 19% per day, occurred during first five days. The athletes were able to resume their sport activities as follows: patients from chondromalacia patellae group, and most of them from the non-reconstructed ACL group were back in competition within a month, while 75% from the ACL reconstructed group came back within 3 months, and the rest of them within 5 months.

  8. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  9. Angular velocity affects trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xia; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate trunk muscle strength and EMG activation during isokinetic axial rotation at different angular velocities. Twenty-four healthy young men performed isokinetic axial rotation in right and left directions at 30, 60, and 120 degrees per second angular velocity. Simultaneously, surface EMG was recorded on external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and latissimus dorsi (LD) bilaterally. In each direction, with the increase of angular velocity, peak torque decreased, whereas peak power increased. During isokinetic axial rotation, contralateral EO as well as ipsilateral IO and LD acted as primary agonists, whereas, ipsilateral EO as well as contralateral IO and LD acted as primary antagonistic muscles. For each primary agonist, the root mean square values decreased with the increase of angular velocity. Antagonist coactiviation was observed at each velocity; however, it appears to be higher with the increase of angular velocity. Our results suggest that velocity of rotation has great impact on the axial rotation torque and EMG activity. An inverse relationship of angular velocity was suggested with the axial rotation torque as well as root mean square value of individual trunk muscle. In addition, higher velocity is associated with higher coactivation of antagonist, leading to a decrease in torque with the increase of velocity.

  10. Analysis of isokinetic muscle strength for sports physiotherapy research in Korean ssireum athletes

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the muscle conditions such as the isokinetic muscle of Korean ssireum athletes. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 25 elite ssireum athletes. We measured body composition and peak torque at an angular speed at 60°/s using an isokinetic muscle strength dynamometer. [Results] The lean body mass of the left upper limb was significantly higher than that of the right upper limb. However, the lean body mass of the left lower limb was significantly lower than that of the right lower limb. The peak torque for left elbow flexion was significantly higher than that for right elbow flexion. Conversely, the peak torque for left elbow extension was significantly lower than that for right elbow extension. Furthermore, the peak torque for the left knee was significantly lower than that for the right knee for both flexion and extension. [Conclusion] The data from this study elucidate in part the muscle conditions of Korean ssireum athletes, which can be used to establish a reference for the scientific study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:26644679

  11. Analysis of isokinetic muscle strength for sports physiotherapy research in Korean ssireum athletes.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the muscle conditions such as the isokinetic muscle of Korean ssireum athletes. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled 25 elite ssireum athletes. We measured body composition and peak torque at an angular speed at 60°/s using an isokinetic muscle strength dynamometer. [Results] The lean body mass of the left upper limb was significantly higher than that of the right upper limb. However, the lean body mass of the left lower limb was significantly lower than that of the right lower limb. The peak torque for left elbow flexion was significantly higher than that for right elbow flexion. Conversely, the peak torque for left elbow extension was significantly lower than that for right elbow extension. Furthermore, the peak torque for the left knee was significantly lower than that for the right knee for both flexion and extension. [Conclusion] The data from this study elucidate in part the muscle conditions of Korean ssireum athletes, which can be used to establish a reference for the scientific study of sports physiotherapy.

  12. Poor correlation between handgrip strength and isokinetic performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles in community-dwelling elderly women.

    PubMed

    Felicio, Diogo Carvalho; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Assumpção, Alexandra Miranda; de Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna Resende; de Queiroz, Barbara Zille; da Silva, Juscelio Pereira; de Brito Rosa, Naysa Maciel; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between handgrip strength and performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles determined using an isokinetic dynamometer in community-dwelling elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Sample selection for the study was made by convenience, and 221 (71.07 ± 4.93 years) community-dwelling elderly women were included. Knee flexor and extensor muscle performance was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro. The isokinetic variables chosen for analysis were peak torque, peak torque/bodyweight, total work/bodyweight, total work, average power, and agonist/antagonist ratio at the angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. Assessment of handgrip strength was carried out using the Jamar dynamometer. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to identify intervariable correlations. Only knee flexor peak torque (60°/s) and average power (60°/s), and knee extensor peak torque (180°/s) and total work (180°/s) were significantly (P < 0.05), yet poorly, correlated with handgrip strength (r < 0.30). The majority of analyses did not show any correlation between variables assessed by isokinetic dynamometer and handgrip dynamometer. Caution is required when generalizing handgrip strength as a predictor of global muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in the upper extremity can be reliably measured in persons with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Elisabeth; Lexell, Jan; Brogårdh, Christina

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of isometric and isokinetic muscle strength measurements in the upper extremity after stroke. A test-retest design. Forty-five persons with mild to moderate paresis in the upper extremity > 6 months post-stroke. Isometric arm strength (shoulder abduction, elbow flexion), isokinetic arm strength (elbow extension/flexion) and isometric grip strength were measured with electronic dynamometers. Reliability was evaluated with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), changes in the mean, standard error of measurements (SEM) and smallest real differences (SRD). Reliability was high (ICCs: 0.92-0.97). The absolute and relative (%) SEM ranged from 2.7 Nm (5.6%) to 3.0 Nm (9.4%) for isometric arm strength, 2.6 Nm (7.4%) to 2.9 Nm (12.6%) for isokinetic arm strength, and 22.3 N (7.6%) to 26.4 N (9.2%) for grip strength. The absolute and relative (%) SRD ranged from 7.5 Nm (15.5%) to 8.4 Nm (26.1%) for isometric arm strength, 7.1 Nm (20.6%) to 8.0 Nm (34.8%) for isokinetic arm strength, and 61.8 N (21.0%) to 73.3 N (25.6%) for grip strength. Muscle strength in the upper extremity can be reliably measured in persons with chronic stroke. Isometric measurements yield smaller measurement errors than isokinetic measurements and might be preferred, but the choice depends on the research question.

  14. Does grip strength reflect isokinetic muscle strength in lower limbs in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy?

    PubMed

    Knak, Kirsten L; Andersen, Linda K; Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars K

    2018-03-30

    Grip strength (GS) is a common measure of general muscle strength in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, it is important to investigate the correlation and responsiveness of GS compared with isokinetic muscle strength (IKS) and function of the lower limbs. Seventy patients with CIDP were evaluated with GS, IKS, and functional measures of the lower limbs. Reevaluation was performed after 2 and 10/12 weeks. Correlation and response analyses were performed. GS correlated with IKS at the ankle (IKS ankle ; maximum Spearman's rank-order correlation [R S ] = 0.58) and with walking performance (maximum R S  = -0.38). IKS ankle was more responsive to detect change (standardized response mean [SRM] = 0.57) than GS (SRM = 0.27). GS does not seem to be an appropriate surrogate measure of IKS and function of the lower limbs in patients with CIDP. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Isokinetic Dynamometry in Healthy Versus Sarcopenic and Malnourished Elderly: Beyond Simple Measurements of Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joel T; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Mustad, Vikkie A; Weir, Joseph P

    2017-06-01

    This study quantified systematic and intraindividual variability among three repetitions of concentric isokinetic knee extension and flexion tests to determine velocity-related differences in peak torque (PT) and mean power (MP) in healthy elderly (HE) versus sarcopenic and malnourished elderly (SME). In total, 107 HE ( n = 54 men, n = 53 women) and 261 SME ( n = 101 men, n = 160 women) performed three maximal concentric isokinetic knee extension and flexion repetitions at 60°·s -1 and 180°·s -1 . PT for Repetition 3 was lower than Repetitions 1 and 2, while MP for Repetition 1 was lower than Repetitions 2 and 3 in SME. Intraindividual variability among repetitions was correlated with strength, but not age, and was greater in SME, during knee flexion, and at 180°·s -1 . Velocity-related decreases in PT from 60°·s -1 to 180°·s -1 were more pronounced in SME. In summary, (a) the repetition with the highest PT value may be the best indicator of maximal strength, while the average may indicate strength maintenance in SME; (b) intraindividual variability among repetitions reflects functional decrements from HE to SME; and (c) decreases in PT from 60°·s to 180°·s may reflect greater losses of fast-twitch (type II) fiber function.

  16. Isokinetic strength differences between patients with primary reverse and total shoulder prostheses: muscle strength quantified with a dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Alta, Tjarco D W; Veeger, DirkJan H E J; de Toledo, Joelly M; Janssen, Thomas W J; Willems, W Jaap

    2014-11-01

    Range of motion after total shoulder arthroplasty is better than after reverse shoulder arthroplasty, however with similar clinical outcome. It is unclear if this difference can only be found in the different range of motion or also in the force generating capacity. (1) are isokinetically produced joint torques of reverse shoulder arthroplasty comparable to those of total shoulder arthroplasty? (2) Does this force-generating capacity correlate with functional outcome? Eighteen reverse shoulder arthroplasty patients (71years (SD 9years)) (21 shoulders, follow-up of 21months (SD 10months)) were recruited, 12 total shoulder arthroplasty patients (69years (SD 9years)) (14 shoulders, follow-up of 35months (SD 11months)). Pre- and post-operative Constant-Murley scores were obtained; two isokinetic protocols (ab-/adduction and ex-/internal rotations) at 60°/s were performed. Twelve of 18 reverse shoulder arthroplasty patients generated enough speed to perform the test (13 shoulders). Mean ab-/adduction torques are 16.3Nm (SD 5.6Nm) and 20.4Nm (SD 11.8Nm). All total shoulder arthroplasty patients generated enough speed (14 shoulders). Mean ab-/adduction torques are 32.1Nm (SD 13.3Nm) and 43.1Nm (SD 21.5Nm). Only 8 reverse shoulder arthroplasty patients (9 shoulders) could perform ex-/internal rotation tasks and all total shoulder arthroplasty patients. Mean ex-/internal rotation torques are 9.3Nm (SD 4.7Nm) and 9.2Nm (SD 2.1Nm) for reverse shoulder arthroplasty, and 17.9Nm (SD 7.7Nm) and 23.5Nm (SD 10.6Nm) for total shoulder arthroplasty. Significant correlations between sub-scores: activity, mobility and strength and external rotation torques for reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Moderate to strong correlation for sub-scores: strength in relation to abduction, adduction and internal rotation torques for total shoulder arthroplasty. Shoulders with a total shoulder arthroplasty are stronger. This can be explained by the absence of rotator cuff muscles and (probably

  17. Profile of isokinetic eccentric-to-concentric strength ratios of shoulder rotator muscles in elite female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; Fleury, Anna Maria; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosia; Dubas, Joao Paulo; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the isokinetic profile of shoulder rotator muscles strength in female handball players. Twenty-seven handball players performed concentric and eccentric strength tests of both dominant and non-dominant upper limbs on an isokinetic dynamometer. Internal and external rotator muscles peak torque was assessed at 1.05, 3.14, and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in concentric mode and at 3.14 and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in eccentric mode. Concentric balance ratio and functional ratio were obtained. Bi-lateral deficiency was compared. Concentric strength for internal and external rotation was significantly greater for the dominant than for the non-dominant limb for all speeds (P < or = 0.0001). For eccentric actions, internal rotator muscles were stronger in the dominant than the non-dominant limb (P < or = 0.0001) at both speeds. Concentric balance and functional balance ratios did not differ between sides at 3.14 rad . s(-1) (P = 0.1631), but at 5.23 rad . s(-1) the functional balance ratio in the dominant limb was lower than for the non-dominant limb (P = 0.0500). Although the dominant side was stronger than the non-dominant side, balance concentric ratios remained the same, with only the functional strength ratio different at 5.23 rad . s(-1). Our results suggest that concentric strength exercises be used for internal and external rotators on the non-dominant side, and functional exercise that improves eccentric rotation strength for prevention programmes.

  18. Intrarater reliability of the Humac NORM isokinetic dynamometer for strength measurements of the knee and shoulder muscles.

    PubMed

    Habets, Bas; Staal, J Bart; Tijssen, Marsha; van Cingel, Robert

    2018-01-10

    To determine the intrarater reliability of the Humac NORM isokinetic dynamometer for concentric and eccentric strength tests of knee and shoulder muscles. 54 participants (50% female, average age 20.9 ± 3.1 years) performed concentric and eccentric strength measures of the knee extensors and flexors, and the shoulder internal and external rotators on two different Humac NORM isokinetic dynamometers, which were situated at two different centers. The knee extensors and flexors were tested concentrically at 60° and 180°/s, and eccentrically at 60° s. Concentric strength of the shoulder internal and external rotators, and eccentric strength of the external rotators were measured at 60° and 120°/s. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement, standard error of measurement expressed as a %, and the smallest detectable change to determine reliability and measurement error. ICCs for the knee tests ranged from 0.74 to 0.89, whereas ICC values for the shoulder tests ranged from 0.72 to 0.94. Measurement error was highest for the concentric test of the knee extensors and lowest for the concentric test of shoulder external rotators.

  19. ISOKINETIC KNEE MUSCLE STRENGTH PROFILE IN BRAZILIAN MALE SOCCER, FUTSAL, AND BEACH SOCCER PLAYERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Mascarin, Naryana C.; Vargas, Valentine Z.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; Andrade, Marília S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament injury is higher in soccer athletes as compared to athletes of other sports. Risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury include low knee hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio and bilateral strength deficits. Purpose To investigate isokinetic thigh muscles strength, hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio, and bilateral strength comparisons in athletes who participate in professional soccer, futsal, and beach soccer. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Brazilian professional soccer (n=70), futsal (n=30), and beach soccer (n=12) players were isokinetically assessed to examine strength of knee extensors and flexors at 60 degrees/second in concentric mode, to measure peak torque of dominant and non-dominant limbs. Results In the dominant limb, for extensors muscles, futsal players presented significantly lower peak torque values (223.9 ± 33.4 Nm) than soccer (250.9 ± 43.0 Nm; p=0.02) and beach soccer players (253.1 ± 32.4 Nm; p=0.03). Peak torque for extensor muscles in the non-dominant limb was significantly lower in futsal (224.0 ± 35.8 Nm) than in beach soccer players (256.8 ± 39.8 Nm; p=0.03). Hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio for dominant limbs for futsal (57.6 ± 10.1%), soccer (53.5 ± 8.8%), and beach soccer (56.3 ± 8.4%) players presented no significant differences between groups; however, the mean values were lower than recommended values found in the literature. There were no strength deficits for any of the evaluated groups when compared bilaterally. Conclusions Futsal athletes presented lower values for quadriceps strength than soccer and beach soccer athletes. Futsal, soccer, and beach soccer players presented no strength asymmetries, but they presented with strength imbalance in hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio. Level of Evidence 3 PMID:29234562

  20. Validity and reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for the assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lienhard, K; Lauermann, S P; Schneider, D; Item-Glatthorn, J F; Casartelli, N C; Maffiuletti, N A

    2013-12-01

    Reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for quadriceps strength evaluation, and the relation between quadriceps strength and physical function was investigated in 29 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients, with an average age of 63 years. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque, isokinetic peak torque, and isoinertial one-repetition maximum load of the involved and uninvolved quadriceps were evaluated as well as objective (walking parameters) and subjective physical function (WOMAC). Reliability was good and comparable for the isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial strength outcomes on both sides (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.947-0.966; standard error of measurement range: 5.1-9.3%). Involved quadriceps strength was significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.641-0.710), step length (r range: 0.685-0.820) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.575-0.663), independent from the modality (P < 0.05). Uninvolved quadriceps strength was also significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.413-0.539), step length (r range: 0.514-0.608) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.374-0.554) (P < 0.05), except for WOMAC function/isokinetic peak torque (P > 0.05). In conclusion, isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial modalities ensure valid and reliable assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in TKA patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Concentric Isokinetic Strength Training of the Quadriceps Femoris on Electromyography and Muscle Strength in the Trained and Untrained Limb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evetovich, Tammy K.; Housh, Terry J.; Housh, Dona J.; Johnson, Glen O.; Smith, Douglas B.; Ebersole, Kyle T.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of unilateral concentric isokinetic leg extension training on peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) responses in trained and untrained limbs. Adult men participated in training and control groups. Overall, unilateral concentric isokinetic strength training induced strength increases in trained as well as untrained limbs.…

  2. The Relationships Among Isokinetic Endurance, Initial Strength Level, and Fiber Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Knee extension isokinetic peak torque was assessed at four angular velocities, and isokinetic endurance was assessed in eight college age men. Muscle fiber type was determined and related to isokinetic strength and fatigability. Results indicate that factors other than fiber type and initial strength level must influence the rate of isokinetic…

  3. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle. [Results] Significantly higher shoulder external rotator peak torque and peak torque per body weight were found in the HHCT condition than in the no-taping condition. [Conclusion] HHCT may effectively increase the shoulder external rotator muscle strength in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

  4. Interseason variability in isokinetic strength and poor correlation with Nordic hamstring eccentric strength in football players.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, N; Witvrouw, E; Bahr, R

    2018-04-25

    In elite sport, the use of strength testing to establish muscle function and performance is common. Traditionally, isokinetic strength tests have been used, measuring torque during concentric and eccentric muscle action. A device that measures eccentric hamstring muscle strength while performing the Nordic hamstring exercise is now also frequently used. The study aimed to investigate the variability of isokinetic muscle strength over time, for example, between seasons, and the relationship between isokinetic testing and the new Nordic hamstring exercise device. All teams (n = 18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Qatar. Isokinetic strength was investigated for measurement error, and correlated to Nordic hamstring exercise strength. Of the 529 players included, 288 players had repeated tests with 1/2 seasons between test occasions. Variability (measurement error) between test occasions was substantial, as demonstrated by the measurement error (approximately 25 Nm, 15%), whether separated by 1 or 2 seasons. Considering hamstring injuries, the same pattern was observed among injured (n = 60) and uninjured (n = 228) players. A poor correlation (r = .35) was observed between peak isokinetic hamstring eccentric torque and Nordic hamstring exercise peak force. The strength imbalance between limbs calculated for both test modes was not correlated (r = .037). There is substantial intraindividual variability in all isokinetic test measures, whether separated by 1 or 2 seasons, irrespective of injury. Also, eccentric hamstring strength and limb-to-limb imbalance were poorly correlated between the isokinetic and Nordic hamstring exercise tests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Matthew B; Nix, Carrie M; Greenwood, Lori D; Greenwood, Mike C

    2018-03-01

    Cooke, MB, Nix, C, Greenwood, L, and Greenwood, M. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 736-747, 2018-The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes and weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between 3 recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness, and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15 ± 3.53 years, 75.75 ± 11.91 kg, 180.52 ± 7.3 cm) were randomly matched by V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (53.86 ± 6.65 ml·kg·min) and assigned to one of 3 recovery methods: anti-gravity treadmill (G-Trainer) (N = 8), conventional treadmill (N = 8) or static stretching (N = 9). Recovery methods were performed 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 45-minute downhill run. Following eccentrically biased running, no significant differences were noted in isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, systemic markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation such as serum creatine kinase (CK), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, and subjective ratings of perceived muscle soreness between recovery methods. The G-Trainer group did however display a higher mood state as indicated by the Profile of Mood State global scores at 24 hours postexercise when compared to the conventional treadmill recovery group (p = 0.035). The improved mood state after the use of the anti-gravity treadmill may provide clinical relevance to other populations.

  6. Isokinetic Leg Strength and Power in Elite Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    González-Ravé, José M.; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A.; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players. PMID:25114749

  7. Isokinetic leg strength and power in elite handball players.

    PubMed

    González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-06-28

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players.

  8. The Fate of the Iliopsoas Muscle in Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction With a Medial Approach in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Part 2: Isokinetic Muscle Strength Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Ersoz, Murat; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    The impact on long-term weakness of hip flexion of complete iliopsoas tenotomy during open reduction of developmental hip dysplasia with a medial approach has not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the isokinetic muscle strength (IMS) of hip flexor and extensor muscles in these patients and also to analyze the effect of spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas muscle on IMS measurements. The study included 20 patients. Earlier magnetic resonance imaging examination of all the patients revealed spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas in 18 (90%) patients. IMS measurements were performed at 60 and 150 degrees/s. The peak torque, total work (TW), average power (AP), work fatigue, and agonist to antagonist muscle ratio of the operated and nonoperated hips were recorded separately for flexors and extensors. The effect of iliopsoas reattachment on IMS was also evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 16.65±2.16 (13 to 20) years. Total work (P=0.013) and average power (P=0.009) of the flexor muscles and work fatigue of the extensor muscles (P=0.030) of the operated hip were significantly decreased when compared with the nonoperated hips at 150 degrees/s. There was no significant difference between the flexor muscles of the operated and nonoperated hips (P<0.05) at 60 degrees/s and extensor muscles (P<0.05) at 150 degrees/s. In addition, patients without reattachment had lower IMS in the operated hips. Flexor muscle strength was decreased in the operated hip against low resistance in long-term follow-up after iliopsoas tenotomy. This may reflect that hip muscle strength was decreased after prolonged activities such as sports. However, in forceful activities flexor muscle strength was retained due to iliopsoas reattachment. On the basis of this study we thought that spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas tendon substantially preserves muscle strength. Nonetheless possible efforts should be made to surgically reattach the psoas

  9. Isokinetic Extension Strength Is Associated With Single-Leg Vertical Jump Height

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Felix; Blank, Cornelia; Dünnwald, Tobias; Gföller, Peter; Herbst, Elmar; Hoser, Christian; Fink, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Isokinetic strength testing is an important tool in the evaluation of the physical capacities of athletes as well as for decision making regarding return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in both athletes and the lay population. However, isokinetic testing is time consuming and requires special testing equipment. Hypothesis: A single-jump test, regardless of leg dominance, may provide information regarding knee extension strength through the use of correlation analysis of jump height and peak torque of isokinetic muscle strength. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 169 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in this study. Isokinetic testing was performed on the injured and noninjured legs. Additionally, a single-leg countermovement jump was performed to assess jump height using a jump accelerometer sensor. Extension strength values were used to assess the association between isokinetic muscle strength and jump height. Results: The sample consisted of 60 female (mean age, 20.8 ± 8.3 years; mean weight, 61.7 ± 6.5 kg; mean height, 167.7 ± 5.3 cm) and 109 male (mean age, 23.2 ± 7.7 years; mean weight, 74.6 ± 10.2 kg; mean height, 179.9 ± 6.9 cm) patients. Bivariate correlation analysis showed an association (r = 0.56, P < .001) between jump height and isokinetic extension strength on the noninvolved side as well as an association (r = 0.52, P < .001) for the involved side. Regression analysis showed that in addition to jump height (beta = 0.49, P < .001), sex (beta = –0.17, P = .008) and body mass index (beta = 0.37, P < .001) affected isokinetic strength. The final model explained 51.1% of the variance in isokinetic muscle strength, with jump height having the strongest impact (beta = 0.49, P < .001) and explaining 31.5% of the variance. Conclusion: Initial analysis showed a strong association between isokinetic strength and jump height. The study population

  10. Isokinetic Extension Strength Is Associated With Single-Leg Vertical Jump Height.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Felix; Blank, Cornelia; Dünnwald, Tobias; Gföller, Peter; Herbst, Elmar; Hoser, Christian; Fink, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic strength testing is an important tool in the evaluation of the physical capacities of athletes as well as for decision making regarding return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in both athletes and the lay population. However, isokinetic testing is time consuming and requires special testing equipment. A single-jump test, regardless of leg dominance, may provide information regarding knee extension strength through the use of correlation analysis of jump height and peak torque of isokinetic muscle strength. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 169 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in this study. Isokinetic testing was performed on the injured and noninjured legs. Additionally, a single-leg countermovement jump was performed to assess jump height using a jump accelerometer sensor. Extension strength values were used to assess the association between isokinetic muscle strength and jump height. The sample consisted of 60 female (mean age, 20.8 ± 8.3 years; mean weight, 61.7 ± 6.5 kg; mean height, 167.7 ± 5.3 cm) and 109 male (mean age, 23.2 ± 7.7 years; mean weight, 74.6 ± 10.2 kg; mean height, 179.9 ± 6.9 cm) patients. Bivariate correlation analysis showed an association ( r = 0.56, P < .001) between jump height and isokinetic extension strength on the noninvolved side as well as an association ( r = 0.52, P < .001) for the involved side. Regression analysis showed that in addition to jump height (beta = 0.49, P < .001), sex (beta = -0.17, P = .008) and body mass index (beta = 0.37, P < .001) affected isokinetic strength. The final model explained 51.1% of the variance in isokinetic muscle strength, with jump height having the strongest impact (beta = 0.49, P < .001) and explaining 31.5% of the variance. Initial analysis showed a strong association between isokinetic strength and jump height. The study population encompassed various backgrounds, skill levels, and activity profiles

  11. Isometric and isokinetic hip strength and agonist/antagonist ratios in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Laura E; Wrigley, Tim V; Hinman, Rana S; Hodges, Paul W; O'Donnell, John; Takla, Amir; Bennell, Kim L

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated isometric and isokinetic hip strength in individuals with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The specific aims were to: (i) determine whether differences exist in isometric and isokinetic hip strength measures between groups; (ii) compare hip strength agonist/antagonist ratios between groups; and (iii) examine relationships between hip strength and self-reported measures of either hip pain or function in those with FAI. Cross-sectional. Fifteen individuals (11 males; 25±5 years) with symptomatic FAI (clinical examination and imaging (alpha angle >55° (cam FAI), and lateral centre edge angle >39° and/or positive crossover sign (combined FAI))) and 14 age- and sex-matched disease-free controls (no morphological FAI on magnetic resonance imaging) underwent strength testing. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength of hip muscle groups and isokinetic hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength (20°/s) were measured. Groups were compared with independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Participants with FAI had 20% lower isometric abduction strength than controls (p=0.04). There were no significant differences in isometric strength for other muscle groups or peak isokinetic ER or IR strength. The ratio of isometric, but not isokinetic, ER/IR strength was significantly higher in the FAI group (p=0.01). There were no differences in ratios for other muscle groups. Angle of peak IR torque was the only feature correlated with symptoms. Individuals with symptomatic FAI demonstrate isometric hip abductor muscle weakness and strength imbalance in the hip rotators. Strength measurement, including agonist/antagonist ratios, may be relevant for clinical management of FAI. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Xaverova, Zuzana; Dirnberger, Johannes; Lehnert, Michal; Belka, Jan; Wagner, Herbert; Orechovska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women’s Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8) or the Women’s National Handball Team (NT, n=9). The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric) and 60°/s (eccentric). The Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD) for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02). However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:26839626

  13. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Xaverova, Zuzana; Dirnberger, Johannes; Lehnert, Michal; Belka, Jan; Wagner, Herbert; Orechovska, Karolina

    2015-12-22

    Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women's Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8) or the Women's National Handball Team (NT, n=9). The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric) and 60°/s (eccentric). The Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD) for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02). However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  14. Neuromuscular and muscle-tendon system adaptations to isotonic and isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, G; Cornu, C; Guével, A

    2010-06-01

    To present the properties of an eccentric contraction and compare neuromuscular and muscle-tendon system adaptations induced by isotonic and isokinetic eccentric trainings. An eccentric muscle contraction is characterized by the production of muscle force associated to a lengthening of the muscle-tendon system. This muscle solicitation can cause micro lesions followed by a regeneration process of the muscle-tendon system. Eccentric exercise is commonly used in functional rehabilitation for its positive effect on collagen synthesis but also for resistance training to increase muscle strength and muscle mass in athletes. Indeed, eccentric training stimulates muscle hypertrophy, increases the fascicle pennation angle, fascicles length and neural activation, thus inducing greater strength gains than concentric or isometric training programs. Eccentric exercise is commonly performed either against a constant external load (isotonic) or at constant velocity (isokinetic), inducing different mechanical constraints. These different mechanical constraints could induce structural and neural adaptive strategies specific to each type of exercise. The literature tends to show that isotonic mode leads to a greater strength gain than isokinetic mode. This observation could be explained by a greater neuromuscular activation after IT training. However, the specific muscle adaptations induced by each mode remain difficult to determine due to the lack of standardized, comparative studies. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Isokinetic Evaluation of the Hip Flexor and Extensor Muscles: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zapparoli, Fabricio Yuri; Riberto, Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic dynamometry testing is a safe and reliable method accepted as the "gold standard" in the evaluation of muscle strength in the open kinetic chain. Isokinetic hip examinations face problems in the standardization of the position of the equipment axis, in the individual being examined, and in the adjustment of the lever arm and in stabilization strategies for the patients during the tests. Identification of the methodologic procedures with best reproducibility is also needed. To review the literature to evaluate the parameters used for the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles and its reproducibility. This is a systematic literature review of the Cochrane, LILACS, PEDro, PubMed, and SciELO databases. The inclusion criteria were articles on the evaluation of hip flexor and/or extensor muscular strength with an isokinetic dynamometer and articles that analyzed the ICC or Pearson's reproducibility. The information extracted was positioning of the patient; positioning of the dynamometer axis; positioning of the lever arm; angular speed; sample size, pathology; type of contraction; and ICC and Pearson's results. 204 articles were found, from which 14 were selected that evaluated hip flexor and extensor muscles, involving 550 individuals who were submitted to an isokinetic hip evaluation. Five articles obtained the best result in reproducibility and had their methodology analyzed. To obtain better reproducibility of the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles, the following recommendations must be followed: the individual must be positioned in the supine position and the dynamometer axis must be aligned with the greater trochanter of the femur. The positioning of the lever arm must be in the most distal region of the thigh possible. The angular speed used to analyze torque peak and muscle work was 60°/s, and to evaluate the muscle power it was 180°/s, with concentric and eccentric contractions being analyzed.

  16. The isokinetic rotator cuff strength ratios in overhead athletes: Assessment and exercise effect.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, Kelly; Maenhout, Annelies G; Matthijs, Lien; Pieters, Louise; Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann M

    2017-09-01

    Muscle strength imbalance in the shoulder region can be considered as a predisposing factor in the development of movement dysfunctions, possibly leading to overuse injuries. Repetitive overhead throwing, performed in sports, may result in muscle imbalance between the external (ER) and internal (IR) rotators. Muscle strength measured with an isokinetic device, is reported as a concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) force. The balance between an agonist and an antagonist is mentioned as a ratio (CON/CON or ECC/CON). The aim of this systematic literature review is to provide an overview of the existing evidence considering the isokinetic muscle strength ratios of ER and IR of the shoulder in healthy overhead athletes. In addition, the effect of exercise programs on these ratios was investigated. Two online databases (Web of Science and PubMed) were consulted using different search strategies. Articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. All included articles were assessed on their methodological quality. There is moderate evidence for a lower functional deceleration ratio (ECC ER/CON IR) at the dominant side. This lower ratio is due to a large overweight of CON IR strength on that side. There is no consensus about which exercise program is the most effective in altering the shoulder isokinetic strength ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of isokinetic knee strength in elite young female basketball players: correlation with vertical jump.

    PubMed

    Rouis, M; Coudrat, L; Jaafar, H; Filliard, J-R; Vandewalle, H; Barthelemy, Y; Driss, T

    2015-12-01

    To explore the isokinetic concentric strength of the knee muscle groups, and the relationship between the isokinetic knee extensors strength and the vertical jump performance in young elite female basketball players. Eighteen elite female basketball players performed a countermovement jump, and an isokinetic knee test using a Biodex dynamometer. The maximal isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was recorded at four angular velocities (90°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s and 300°/s) for the dominant and non-dominant legs. The conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q) was assessed at each angular velocity for both legs. There was no significant difference between dominant and non-dominant leg whatever the angular velocity (all P>0.05). However, the H/Q ratio enhanced as the velocity increased from 180°/s to 300°/s (P<0.05). Furthermore, low to high significant positive correlations were detected between the isokinetic measures of the knee extensors and the vertical jump height. The highest one was found for the knee extensors peak torque at a velocity of 240°/s (r=0.88, P<0.001). The results accounted for an optimal velocity at which a strong relationship could be obtained between isokinetic knee extensors strength and vertical jump height. Interestingly, the H/Q ratio of the young elite female basketball players in the present study was unusual as it was close to that generally observed in regular sportsmen.

  18. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  19. Reliability of a device for the knee and ankle isometric and isokinetic strength testing in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bergamin, Marco; Gobbo, Stefano; Bullo, Valentina; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Frizziero, Antonio; Di Blasio, Andrea; Cugusi, Lucia; Zaccaria, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Lower extremity muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance are critical determinants of independent functioning in later life. Isokinetic dynamometers are becoming very common in assessing different features of muscle strength, in both research and clinical practice; however, reliability studies are still needed to support the extended use of those devices. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of knee and ankle isokinetic and isometric strength testing protocols in a sample of older healthy subjects, using a new and untested isokinetic multi-joint evaluation system. Methods Sixteen male and fourteen female older adults (mean age 65.2 ± 4.6 years) were assessed in two testing sessions. Each participant performed a randomized testing procedure that includes different isometric and isokinetic tests for knee and ankle joints. Results All participants concluded the trial safety and no subject reported any discomfort throughout the overall assessment. Coefficients of correlation between measures were calculated showing moderate to strong effects among all test-retest assessments and paired-sample t test showed only one significant difference (p<0.05) in the maximal isokinetic bilateral knee flexion torque. Conclusions The multi-joint evaluation system for the assessment of knee and ankle isokinetic and isometric strength provided reliable test-retest measures in healthy older adults. Level of evidence Ib. PMID:29264344

  20. Reliability of a device for the knee and ankle isometric and isokinetic strength testing in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, Marco; Gobbo, Stefano; Bullo, Valentina; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Frizziero, Antonio; Di Blasio, Andrea; Cugusi, Lucia; Zaccaria, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Lower extremity muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance are critical determinants of independent functioning in later life. Isokinetic dynamometers are becoming very common in assessing different features of muscle strength, in both research and clinical practice; however, reliability studies are still needed to support the extended use of those devices. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of knee and ankle isokinetic and isometric strength testing protocols in a sample of older healthy subjects, using a new and untested isokinetic multi-joint evaluation system. Sixteen male and fourteen female older adults (mean age 65.2 ± 4.6 years) were assessed in two testing sessions. Each participant performed a randomized testing procedure that includes different isometric and isokinetic tests for knee and ankle joints. All participants concluded the trial safety and no subject reported any discomfort throughout the overall assessment. Coefficients of correlation between measures were calculated showing moderate to strong effects among all test-retest assessments and paired-sample t test showed only one significant difference (p<0.05) in the maximal isokinetic bilateral knee flexion torque. The multi-joint evaluation system for the assessment of knee and ankle isokinetic and isometric strength provided reliable test-retest measures in healthy older adults. Ib.

  1. Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Sekir, Ufuk; Yildiz, Yavuz; Hazneci, Bulent; Ors, Fatih; Aydin, Taner

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on strength, joint position sense and functionality in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI). Strength, proprioception and balance of 24 recreational athletes with unilateral FAI were evaluated by using isokinetic muscle strength measurement, ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test. The functional ability was evaluated using five different tests. These were; single limb hopping course (SLHC), one legged and triple legged hop for distance (OLHD-TLHD), and six and cross six meter hop for time (SMHT-CSMHT). Isokinetic peak torque of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were assessed eccentrically and concentrically at test speeds of 120 degrees /s. Isokinetic exercise protocol was carried out at an angular velocity of 120 degrees /s. The exercise session was repeated three times a week and lasted after 6 weeks. At baseline, concentric invertor strength was found to be significantly lower in the functionally unstable ankles compared to the opposite healthy ankles (p < 0.001). This difference was not present after executing the 6 weeks exercise sessions (p > 0.05). Ankle joint position sense in the injured ankles declined significantly from 2.35 +/- 1.16 to 1.33 +/- 0.62 degrees for 10 degrees of inversion angle (p < 0.001) and from 3.10 +/- 2.16 to 2.19 +/- 0.98 degrees for 20 degrees of inversion angle (p < 0.05) following the isokinetic exercise. One leg standing test score decreased significantly from 15.17 +/- 8.50 to 11.79 +/- 7.81 in the injured ankles (p < 0.001). Following the isokinetic exercise protocol, all of the worsened functional test scores in the injured ankles as compared to the opposite healthy ankles displayed a significant improvement (p < 0.01 for OLHD and CSMHT, p < 0.001 for SLHC, TLHD, and SMHT). These results substantiate the deficits of strength, proprioception, balance and functionality in recreational athletes with FAI. The

  2. Isokinetic and isometric strength in osteoarthrosis of the knee. A comparative study with healthy women.

    PubMed

    Tan, J; Balci, N; Sepici, V; Gener, F A

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic stability of the knee joint depends on the appropriate strength ratio of quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the maximum peak torque (MPT) and MPT ratios of hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Two groups of patients were included in the study. The first group consisted of 30 patients (Group A) with the clinical and radiologic findings of knee OA. The second group consisted of 30 patients (Group B) exhibiting knee joint pain without roentgenologic findings of knee OA. The findings of two patient groups were compared with each other and also with 30 healthy subjects (Group C). Isokinetic (at 60 degrees/s and at 180 degrees/s) and isometric (at 30 degrees and at 60 degrees of knee flexion) tests were performed by the rate-limiting isokinetic dynamometer system. Isokinetic and isometric MPT loss of knee flexors and extensors was found in both patient groups with respect to controls, but MPT ratios of H/Q muscles did not show a statistically significant difference compared with the control group. This may be related to the equal strength loss of knee flexors and knee extensors in patients with knee OA. It is concluded that strengthening exercises of hamstring muscles is as important as quadriceps strengthening in rehabilitation of knee OA.

  3. The isokinetic strength profile of elite soccer players according to playing position

    PubMed Central

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Hojszyk, Radosław; Jadczak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare isokinetic strength performance profiles in elite soccer players across different field positions. A total of 111 elite international players of Polish Ekstraklasa (the top division in Poland) were examined during the 2010–2015 seasons. The players were classified into six positional roles: central defenders (CD), external defenders (ED), central midfielders (CM), external midfielders (EM), forwards (F), and goalkeepers (G). The concentric isokinetic strength (peak torque [PT] of quadriceps and hamstrings, H/Q ratios) was calculated for the dominant leg and the non-dominant leg at angular velocity of 1.05 rad ·s–1, whereas to assess isokinetic muscle endurance, the total work [TW] at angular velocity of 4.19 rad ·s–1, was taken into consideration. The results showed that isokinetic strength performance varies significantly among players in different playing positions. The analysis of PT for quadriceps (PT-Q) and hamstrings (PT-H) generally showed that the goalkeepers and central midfielders had lower strength levels compared to other playing positions. In the case of PT-H and hamstring/quadricep (H/Q) peak torque ratios, statistically significant differences were also noted for the legs, where mean values noted for the dominant leg were higher than for the non-dominant leg. For TW for quadriceps (TW-Q) and hamstrings (TW-H), statistically significant differences were noted only between playing positions. TW-Q values for goalkeepers were lower than for central defenders and external midfielders. TW-H values for goalkeepers were lower than for central midfielders, central defenders and external midfielders. This study showed that specific functional activity of players in individual positions on the field influences the varied profile of isokinetic strength performance. PMID:28759603

  4. The isokinetic strength profile of elite soccer players according to playing position.

    PubMed

    Śliwowski, Robert; Grygorowicz, Monika; Hojszyk, Radosław; Jadczak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare isokinetic strength performance profiles in elite soccer players across different field positions. A total of 111 elite international players of Polish Ekstraklasa (the top division in Poland) were examined during the 2010-2015 seasons. The players were classified into six positional roles: central defenders (CD), external defenders (ED), central midfielders (CM), external midfielders (EM), forwards (F), and goalkeepers (G). The concentric isokinetic strength (peak torque [PT] of quadriceps and hamstrings, H/Q ratios) was calculated for the dominant leg and the non-dominant leg at angular velocity of 1.05 rad ·s-1, whereas to assess isokinetic muscle endurance, the total work [TW] at angular velocity of 4.19 rad ·s-1, was taken into consideration. The results showed that isokinetic strength performance varies significantly among players in different playing positions. The analysis of PT for quadriceps (PT-Q) and hamstrings (PT-H) generally showed that the goalkeepers and central midfielders had lower strength levels compared to other playing positions. In the case of PT-H and hamstring/quadricep (H/Q) peak torque ratios, statistically significant differences were also noted for the legs, where mean values noted for the dominant leg were higher than for the non-dominant leg. For TW for quadriceps (TW-Q) and hamstrings (TW-H), statistically significant differences were noted only between playing positions. TW-Q values for goalkeepers were lower than for central defenders and external midfielders. TW-H values for goalkeepers were lower than for central midfielders, central defenders and external midfielders. This study showed that specific functional activity of players in individual positions on the field influences the varied profile of isokinetic strength performance.

  5. Relative differences in strength and power from slow to fast isokinetic velocities may reflect dynapenia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Palmer, Ty B; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Johnson, Glen O; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-07-01

    We compared absolute and normalized values for peak torque (PT), mean power (MP), rate of velocity development, and electromyography (EMG) amplitude during maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic leg extension muscle actions, as well as the %decrease in PT and %increase in MP from 1.05 to 3.14 rad·s(-1) in younger versus older men. Measurements were performed twice for reliability. Isokinetic measurements were normalized to the isometric muscle actions. Absolute isometric PT, isokinetic PT and MP, and EMG amplitudes at 1.05 and 3.14 rad·s(-1) were greater in the younger men, although normalizing to isometric PT eliminated the age differences. The older men exhibited greater %decrease in PT (37.2% vs. 31.3%) and lower %increase in MP (87.6% vs. 126.4%) regardless of normalization. Normalization eliminated absolute differences in isokinetic strength and power, but the relative differences from slow to fast velocities may reflect dynapenia characterized by age-related decreases in fast-twitch fiber function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Isokinetic muscle performance of the hip and ankle muscles in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Yetişgin, Alparslan; Tiftik, Tülay; Kara, Murat; Karabay, İlkay; Akkuş, Selami; Ersöz, Murat

    2016-06-01

    To compare isokinetic muscle performances of a proximal (hip) and a distal (ankle) muscle of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients with those of age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy subjects. Thirty female patients with FMS (mean age: 41.5 ± 6.7 years [range, 27-54]) and 30 age- (mean age: 40.6 ± 6.0 years [range, 27-54]) and BMI-matched female healthy controls were consecutively enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were recorded. Isokinetic measurements of hip and ankle flexion and extension at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s, peak torques, flexor-extensor torque ratios, muscle fatigue resistance values and average power were obtained. Mean disease duration of FMS patients was 2.4 ± 1.9 years. Mean weight, height and BMI values were 70.4 ± 12.5 kg, 159.5 ± 6.0 cm and 27.7 ± 4.7 kg/m² (FMS patients) and 69.3 ± 10.1 kg, 161.7 ± 6.2 cm and 26.6 ± 4.3 kg/m² (control subjects), respectively (all P > 0.05). All isokinetic values were statistically decreased in the FMS group when compared with the control group, except for the peak torques at angular velocity of 180°/s on flexion of the hip and extension of the ankle and the total work and average power on extension of the ankle. We did not find any correlation between isokinetic values and disease related parameters of FMS patients. In the light of our results, we may conclude that muscle strength and muscle fatigue seem to decrease in FMS patients' both proximal and distal lower extremity muscles. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Beta-alanine supplementation improves isometric, but not isotonic or isokinetic strength endurance in recreationally strength-trained young men.

    PubMed

    Bassinello, Diogo; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Dolan, Eimear; Lixandrão, Manoel; Cajueiro, Monique; de Capitani, Mariana; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Artioli, Guilherme G; Gualano, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2018-06-15

    β-Alanine (BA) supplementation may be ergogenic during high-intensity exercise, primarily due to the buffering of hydrogen cations, although the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on strength endurance are equivocal. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle endurance using a battery of performance tests. This study employed a parallel group, repeated measures, randomised, double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Twenty recreationally strength-trained healthy males completed tests of isotonic strength endurance (repeated bench and leg press), along with tests of isometric and isokinetic endurance conducted using an isokinetic dynamometer. Tests were performed before and after a 4 week intervention, comprising an intake of 6.4 g day -1 of BA (n = 9) or placebo (maltodextrin, n = 11). Time-to-exhaustion during the isometric endurance test improved by ~ 17% in the BA group (p < 0.01), while PL remained unchanged. No significant within-group differences (p > 0.1) were shown for any of the performance variables in the isokinetic test (peak torque, fatigue index, total work) nor for the total number of repetitions performed in the isotonic endurance tests (leg or bench press). Four weeks of BA supplementation (6.4 g day -1 ) improved isometric, but not isokinetic or isotonic endurance performance.

  8. Strength deficits of the shoulder complex during isokinetic testing in people with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Lucas R.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Polese, Janaine C.; Ada, Louise; Faria, Christina D. C. M.; Laurentino, Glória E. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the strength deficits of the shoulder complex after stroke and to characterize the pattern of weakness according to type of movement and type of isokinetic parameter. METHOD: Twelve chronic stroke survivors and 12 age-matched healthy controls had their shoulder strength measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric measures of peak torque and work during shoulder movements were obtained in random order at speeds of 60°/s for both groups and sides. Type of movement was defined as scapulothoracic (protraction and retraction), glenohumeral (shoulder internal and external rotation) or combined (shoulder flexion and extension). Type of isokinetic parameter was defined as maximum (peak torque) or sustained (work). Strength deficits were calculated using the control group as reference. RESULTS: The average strength deficit for the paretic upper limb was 52% for peak torque and 56% for work. Decreases observed in the non-paretic shoulder were 21% and 22%, respectively. Strength deficit of the scapulothoracic muscles was similar to the glenohumeral muscles, with a mean difference of 6% (95% CI -5 to 17). Ability to sustain torque throughout a given range of motion was decreased as much as the peak torque, with a mean difference of 4% (95% CI -2 to 10). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that people after stroke might benefit from strengthening exercises directed at the paretic scapulothoracic muscles in addition to exercises of arm elevation. Clinicians should also prescribe different exercises to improve the ability to generate force and the ability to sustain the torque during a specific range of motion. PMID:25003280

  9. Isokinetic trunk muscle performance in pre-teens and teens with and without back pain.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J-C; Boudokhane, S; Pujol, A; Chaléat-Valayer, E; Le Blay, G; Deceuninck, J

    2014-02-01

    To assess with an isokinetic dynamometer the force and endurance of the spinal flexor and extensor muscles in pre-teens or teens aged 11 to 13 and 14 to 16 years with and without low back pain (LBP). The control group and the LBP group were homogeneous in terms of age, weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI). Assessment was carried out with the isokinetic dynamometer Cybex Norm®. The spinal flexors and extensors were explored concentrically at speeds of 60°, 90° and 120°/sec. The parameters chosen were: maximal moment of force (MMF), mean power (MP), total work (TW), F/E ratios (between the flexors and the extensors for the aforesaid parameters). In the LBP groups, clinical information (pain, extensibility of the spinal and sub-pelvic muscles, sports practice) and sagittal radiological data were all measured. While no significant difference in isokinetic performance was found between asymptomatic and LBP children in the 11-to-13-year-old group, the isokinetic performances of the LBP children were influenced positively by BMI value, number of hours of physical activity and radiologic value of the lumbar lordosis. As regards these pre-teens, assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer does not highlight muscle characteristics that might explain LBP occurrence. As regards the 14-to-16-year-old group, muscle strength has been found to be correlated with age. LBP teens were showed to have weaker extensors and stronger flexors than the healthy teens. It is with regard to this age group that assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer clearly yields interesting results. Since we have yet to standardize our evaluation criteria (working speed, number of trials…), it is difficult to compare our results with those reported in the literature. This is a preliminary study involving a relatively low number of patients. That said, given the fact that numerous parameters are connected with the age and height of the subjects, assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer can be

  10. Profiling Isokinetic Strength by Leg Preference and Position in Rugby Union Athletes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt; Bridgeman, Lee A

    2016-05-01

    Muscle imbalances aid in the identification of athletes at risk for lower-extremity injury. Little is known regarding the influence that leg preference or playing position may have on lower-extremity muscle strength and asymmetry. To investigate lower-extremity strength profiles in rugby union athletes and compare isokinetic knee- and hip-strength variables between legs and positions. Thirty male academy rugby union athletes, separated into forwards (n = 15) and backs (n = 15), participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque, angle of peak torque, and strength ratios of the preferred and nonpreferred legs during seated knee extension/flexion and supine hip extension/flexion at 60°/s. Backs were older (ES = 1.6) but smaller in stature (ES = -0.47) and body mass (ES = -1.3) than the forwards. The nonpreferred leg was weaker than the preferred leg for forwards during extension (ES = -0.37) and flexion (ES = -0.21) actions and for backs during extension (ES = -0.28) actions. Backs were weaker at the knee than forwards in the preferred leg during extension (ES = -0.50) and flexion (ES = -0.66) actions. No differences were observed in strength ratios between legs or positions. Backs produced peak torque at longer muscle lengths in both legs at the knee (ES = -0.93 to -0.94) and hip (ES = -0.84 to -1.17) than the forwards. In this sample of male academy rugby union athletes, the preferred leg and forwards displayed superior strength compared with the nonpreferred leg and backs. These findings highlight the importance of individualized athletic assessments to detect crucial strength differences in male rugby union athletes.

  11. ARE THERE DIFFERENCES IN STRENGTH TESTS USING ISOKINETIC DYNAMOMETRY BETWEEN FIELD AND INDOOR PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS?

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar Leonardi, Adriano Barros; Martinelli, Mauro Olivio; Junior, Aires Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis on isokinetic strength assessments between field and indoor male professional soccer players and correlate the findings with the higher levels of injury risk described in the literature. Methods: We analyzed 16 field soccer players and 15 indoor soccer players. All these professionals were male. Isokinetic muscle strength assessments were made on their knees. Results: The mean weight was 81.81 kg for field soccer and 80.33 kg for indoor soccer. The right and left peak extensor torque left and right for field soccer and indoor soccer were, respectively, 302.50 and 313.31 Nm and 265.20 and 279.80 Nm, and for flexors, 178 and 184.88 Nm and 158.27 and 154 Nm. The peak torque rates according to body weight for the left and right extensors for field soccer and indoor soccer were, respectively, 3.84 and 3.7 Nm/kg and 3.32 and 3.52 Nm/kg, and for flexors, 2.17 and 2.26 Nm/kg and 1.98 and 1.93 Nm/kg. The balance relationships between flexors and extensors on the right and left sides for field soccer and indoor soccer were, respectively, 59.81 and 59.44% and 60.47% and 54.80%. The relationships for extensors between the right and left sides for field soccer and indoor soccer were, respectively, 11.44 and 9.20%, and for the flexors, 7.31 and 8.80%. Conclusions: In accordance with international parameters, comparative analysis on isokinetic strength assessments between field and indoor male professional soccer players before the season showed that there was muscle balance and low probability of injury. There were no statistically significant differences in the parameters analyzed between the players of the two types of soccer. PMID:27042649

  12. Isokinetic strength and endurance during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Bulbulian, R.; Bond, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if an intensive, intermittent, isokinetic, lower extremity exercise training program would attenuate or eliminate the decrease of muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bed rest (BR). The 19 male subjects (36 +/- 1 yr, 178 +/- 2 cm, 76.5 +/- 1.7 kg) were allocated into a no exercise (NOE) training group (N = 5), an isotonic (lower extremity cycle ergometer) exercise (ITE) training group (N = 7), and an isokinetic (isokinetic knee flexion-extension) exercise (IKE) training group (N = 7). Peak knee (flexion and extension) and shoulder (abduction-adduction) functions were measured weekly in all groups with one 5-repetition set. After BR, average knee extension total work decreased by 16% with NOE, increased by 27% with IKE, and was unchanged with ITE. Average knee flexion total work and peak torque (strength) responses were unchanged in all groups. Force production increased by 20% with IKE and was unchanged with NOE and ITE. Shoulder total work was unchanged in all groups, while gross average peak torque increased by 27% with ITE and by 22% with IKE, and was unchanged with NOE. Thus, while ITE training can maintain some isokinetic functions during BR, maximal intermittent IKE training can increase other functions above pre-BR control levels.

  13. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance During 30-day 6 deg Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Bond, M.; Bulbulian, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if an intensive, intermittent, isokinetic, lower extremity exercise training program would attenuate or eliminate the decrease of muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bed rest (BR). The 19 male subjects (36 +/- 1 yr, 178 +/- 2 cm, 76.5 +/- 1.7 kg) were allocated into a no exercise (NOE) training group (N = 5), an isotonic (lower extremity cycle orgometer) exercise (ITE) training group (N = 7), and an isokinetic (isokinetic knee flexion-extension) exercise (IKE) training group (N = 7). Peak knee (flexion and extension) and shoulder (abduction-adduction) functions were measured weekly in all groups with one 5-repetition set. After BR, average knee extension total work decreased by 16% with NOE, increased by 27% with IKE, and was unchanged with ITE. Average knee flexion total work and peak torque (strength) responses were unchanged in all groups. Force production increased by 20% with IKE and was unchanged with NOE and ITE. Shoulder total work was unchanged in all groups, while gross average peak torque increased by 27% with ITE and by 22% with IKE, and was unchanged with NOE. Thus, while ITE training can maintain some isokinetic functions during BR, maximal intermittent IKE training can increase other functions above pre-BR control levels.

  14. ACL deficient potential copers and non-copers reveal different isokinetic quadriceps strength profiles in the early stage after injury

    PubMed Central

    Eitzen, I; Eitzen, TJ; Holm, I; Snyder-Mackler, L; Risberg, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background Isokinetic muscle strength tests using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured subjects. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in ACL deficient subjects classified as potential copers or non-copers, and investigate whether these curve profiles were associated with single-leg hop performance. We hypothesized that quadriceps muscle torque at other knee flexion angles than peak torque would give more information about quadriceps muscle strength deficits. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be significant torque differences between potential copers and non-copers, and a significant relationship between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2 Methods Seventy-six individuals with a complete unilateral ACL rupture within the last 3 months were included. The subjects were classified into potential copers and non-copers according to the criteria from Fitzgerald et al12. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests were performed at 60°/sec (Biodex 6000). Mean torque values were calculated for peak torque as well as for specific knee flexion angles. The one-leg hop and the 6 meter timed hop tests were included and symmetry indices were used. Results The peak torque value did not identify the largest quadriceps muscle strength deficit. Rather, these were established at knee flexion angles of less than 40°. There were significant differences in angle specific torque values between potential copers and non-copers (p<0.05). Moderate to strong associations were disclosed between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance, but only for non-copers (r≥0.32– 0.58). Conclusions Angle specific quadriceps muscle torque values of less than 40° of knee flexion provide more information on the quadriceps

  15. Bilateral and Unilateral Asymmetries of Isokinetic Strength and Flexibility in Male Young Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated bilateral and unilateral asymmetries of strength and flexibility in male young professional soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) participated in this study. A Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to assess the hamstring and quadriceps strength at selected speeds of 60°/s, 180°/s and 300°/s. Hip joint flexibility was measured using a goniometer. No difference was observed in conventional strength ratio, dynamic control ratio and fast/slow speed ratio between the dominant and non-dominant legs (p>0.05). All but one of the players (97.2%) had musculoskeletal abnormality (bilateral imbalance > 10%) in one or more specific muscle groups. The dominant leg had greater hip joint flexibility compared with the non-dominant leg (108.8 ± 10.7° versus 104.6 ± 9.8°, respectively). The findings support the hypothesis that physical performance and movement pattern experienced during soccer playing may negatively change the balance of strength in both legs (bilateral strength balance), but not on the same leg of the young male professional soccer players. The results can be helpful for trainers and coaches to decide whether the players need to improve their balance and strength which in turn may prevent injury. It is suggested that in professional soccer training, quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength, as well as hip joint flexibility should not be overlooked. PMID:23717354

  16. Isokinetic exercise: A review of the literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.; Corbin, B.; Smith, C.

    1978-01-01

    Isokinetic muscle training has all the advantages of isometrics and isotonics while minimizing their deficiencies. By holding the speed of movement constant throughout the full range of motion, isokinetic training devices respond with increased resistance rather than acceleration when the power output of the muscle is increased. Isokinetic training is superior to isometric and isotonic training with respect to increases in strength, specificity of training, desirable changes in motor performance tasks, lack of muscle soreness, and decreases in relative body fat.

  17. Effects of rest interval on isokinetic strength and functional performance after short-term high intensity training.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, D M; Lephart, S M; Karunakara, R G

    1997-09-01

    The ability to maximally generate active muscle tension during resistance training has been established to be a primary determinant for strength development. The influence of intrasession rest intervals may have a profound effect on strength gains subsequent to short-term high intensity training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rest interval on strength and functional performance after four weeks of isokinetic training. Fifteen healthy college aged individuals were randomly assigned to either a short rest interval group (group 1, n = 8) or a long rest interval group (group 2, n = 7). Subjects were evaluated for quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic strength at 60 (five repetitions) and 180 (30 repetitions) degrees/second and functional performance with the single leg hop for distance test. One leg of each subject was randomly assigned to a four week, three days/week isokinetic strength training programme for concentric knee extension and flexion performed at 90 degrees/second. Subjects in group 1 received a 40 second rest interval in between exercise sets, whereas subjects in group 2 received a 160 second rest period. A two factor analysis of variance for the pre-test--post-test gain scores (%) showed significantly greater improvements for isokinetic hamstring total work and average power at 180 degrees/second for the trained limb of subjects in group 2 than their contralateral non-trained limb and the subjects in group 1. Significantly greater improvements for the single leg hop for distance were also found for the trained limbs of subjects in both groups as compared with the non-trained limbs. The findings indicate that a relatively longer intrasession rest period resulted in a greater improvement in hamstring muscle strength during short term high intensity training.

  18. Hamstring and Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength Deficits Are Weak Risk Factors for Hamstring Strain Injuries: A 4-Year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Whiteley, Rodney; Tol, Johannes L; Kumar, Bhavesh D; Hamilton, Bruce; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-07-01

    A hamstring strain injury (HSI) has become the most common noncontact injury in soccer. Isokinetic muscle strength deficits are considered a risk factor for HSIs. However, underpowered studies with small sample sizes unable to determine small associations have led to inconclusive results regarding the role of isokinetic strength and strength testing in HSIs. To examine whether differences in isokinetic strength measures of knee flexion and extension represent risk factors for hamstring injuries in a large cohort of professional soccer players in an adequately powered study design. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 614 professional soccer players from 14 teams underwent isokinetic strength testing during preseason screening. Testing consisted of concentric knee flexion and extension at 60 deg/s and 300 deg/s and eccentric knee extension at 60 deg/s. A clustered multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with the risk of HSIs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity. Of the 614 players, 190 suffered an HSI during the 4 seasons. Quadriceps concentric strength at 60 deg/s (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92; P = .03) and hamstring eccentric strength at 60 deg/s (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.85; P = .04) adjusted for bodyweight were independently associated with the risk of injuries. The absolute differences between the injured and uninjured players were 6.9 N·m and 9.1 N·m, with small effect sizes (d < 0.2). The ROC analyses showed an area under the curve of 0.54 and 0.56 for quadriceps concentric strength and hamstring eccentric strength, respectively, indicating a failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the 2 strength variables identified in the logistic regression models. This study identified small absolute strength differences and a wide overlap of the absolute strength measurements at the group level. The small associations between lower

  19. Analysis of isokinetic muscle function and postural control in individuals with intermittent claudication

    PubMed Central

    Lanzarin, Morgan; Parizoto, Patricia; Santos, Gilmar M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC) is a debilitating condition that mostly affects elderly people. IC is manifested by a decrease in ambulatory function. Individuals with IC present with motor and sensory nerve dysfunction in the lower extremities, which may lead to deficits in balance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure postural control and isokinetic muscle function in individuals with intermittent claudication. METHOD: The study included 32 participants of both genders, 16 IC participants (mean age: 64 years, SD=6) and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 67 years, SD=5), which were allocated into two groups: intermittent claudication group (ICG) and control group (CG). Postural control was assessed using the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) during the sensory organization test (SOT) and the motor control test (MCT). Muscle function of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee and ankle was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer. Independent t tests were used to calculate the between-group differences. RESULTS: The ICG presented greater displacement (p =0.027) and speed (p =0.033) of the COP in the anteroposterior direction (COPap) during the MCT, as well as longer latency (p =0.004). There were no between-group differences during the SOT. The ICG showed decreased muscle strength and power in the plantar flexors compared to the CG. CONCLUSION: Subjects with IC have lower values of strength and muscle power of plantiflexores, as well as changes in postural control in dynamic conditions. These individuals may be more vulnerable to falls than healthy subjects. PMID:26786077

  20. Gender Differences in Isokinetic Strength after 60 and 90 d Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, K. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that changes in muscle strength following disuse may differ between males and females. PURPOSE: To examine potential gender differences in strength changes following 60 and 90 d of experimental bed rest. METHODS: Isokinetic extensor and flexor strength of the knee (60deg and 180deg/s, concentric only), ankle (30deg/s, concentric and eccentric), and trunk (60deg/s, concentric only) were measured following 60 d (males: n=4, 34.5+/-9.6 y; females: n=4, 35.5+/-8.2 y) and 90 d (males: n=10, 31.4+/-4.8 y; females: n=5, 37.6+/-9.9 y) of 6-degree head-down-tilt bed rest (BR; N=23). Subjects were fed a controlled diet (55%/15%/ 30%, CHO/PRO/FAT) that maintained body weight within 3% of the weight recorded on Day 3 of bed rest. After a familiarization session, testing was conducted 6 d before BR and 2 d after BR completion. Peak torque and total work were calculated for the tests performed. To allow us to combine data from both 60- and 90-d subjects, we used a mixed-model statistical analysis in which time and gender were fixed effects and bed rest duration was a random effect. Log-transformations of strength measures were utilized when necessary in order to meet statistical assumptions. RESULTS: Main effects were seen for both time and gender (p<0.05), showing decreased strength in response to bed rest for both males and females, and males stronger than females for most strength measures. Only one interaction effect was observed: females exhibited a greater loss of trunk extensor peak torque at 60 d versus pre-BR, relative to males (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Sixty and 90 d of BR induced significant losses in isokinetic muscle strength of the locomotor and postural muscles of the knee, ankle, and trunk. Although males were stronger than females for most of the strength measures that we examined, only changes in trunk extensor peak torque were greater for females than males at day 60 of bed rest

  1. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  2. Predictors of chronic ankle instability: Analysis of peroneal reaction time, dynamic balance and isokinetic strength.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Guzmán, Rafael; Jiménez, Fernando; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have reported the factors contributing to chronic ankle instability, which could lead to more effective treatments. However, factors such as the reflex response and ankle muscle strength have not been taken into account in previous investigations. Fifty recreational athletes with chronic ankle instability and 55 healthy controls were recruited. Peroneal reaction time in response to sudden inversion, isokinetic evertor muscle strength and dynamic balance with the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Biodex Stability System were measured. The relationship between the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and performance on each test was assessed and a backward multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. Participants with chronic ankle instability showed prolonged peroneal reaction time, poor performance in the Biodex Stability System and decreased reach distance in the Star Excursion Balance Test. No significant differences were found in eversion and inversion peak torque. Moderate correlations were found between the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and the peroneal reaction time and performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test. Peroneus brevis reaction time and the posteromedial and lateral directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test accounted for 36% of the variance in the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Dynamic balance deficits and delayed peroneal reaction time are present in participants with chronic ankle instability. Peroneus brevis reaction time and the posteromedial and lateral directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test were the main contributing factors to the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score. No clear strength impairments were reported in unstable ankles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance Tests used Pre- and Post-Spaceflight: Test-Retest Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Amonette, William E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess changes in muscular strength and endurance after microgravity exposure, NASA measures isokinetic strength and endurance across multiple sessions before and after long-duration space flight. Accurate interpretation of pre- and post-flight measures depends upon the reliability of each measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) isokinetic protocol. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 M/12 F, 32.0 +/- 5.6 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic knee, ankle, and trunk flexion and extension strength as well as endurance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer. The first weekly session was considered a familiarization session. Data were collected and analyzed for weeks 2-4. Repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha=0.05) was used to identify weekly differences in isokinetic measures. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1). No significant differences were found between weeks in any of the strength measures and the reliability of the strength measures were all considered excellent (ICC greater than 0.9), except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion (ICC=0.67). Although a significant difference was noted in weekly endurance measures of knee extension (p less than 0.01), the reliability of endurance measure by week were considered excellent for knee flexion (ICC=0.97) and knee extension (ICC=0.96). Except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion, the isokinetic strength and endurance measures are highly reliable when following the NASA ISS protocol. This protocol should allow accurate interpretation isokinetic data even with a small number of crew members.

  4. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. Purpose: To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m2) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm2). Results: Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOKINETIC KNEE STRENGTH AND JUMP CHARACTERISTICS FOLLOWING ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin; Evans, Daniel; Wong, Regan; Allen, Aaron; Kirsch, Tom; Long, Brian; Meister, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Clinicians are often challenged when making return-to-play decisions following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). Isokinetic strength and jump performance testing are common tools used to make this decision. Unfortunately, vertical jump performance standards have not been clearly established and many clinicians do not have access to isokinetic testing equipment. To establish normative jump and strength characteristics in ACL-R patients cleared by an orthopedic physician to return-to-play and to determine if relationships exist between knee isokinetic strength measurements and jump characteristics described using an electronic jump map system. Descriptive laboratory study. Thirty-three ACL-R patients who had been cleared to return to athletic competition participated in this study. Twenty-six of these ACL-R participants were also matched to 26 asymptomatic athletes based on sex, limb, height, and mass to determine isokinetic strength and jump characteristic differences between groups. Jump tests consisted of single leg vertical, double leg vertical, and a 4-jump single leg vertical jump assessed using an electronic jump mat system. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups and multiple regression analyses were used to identify any relationships between jump performance and knee strength (p<0.05). The ACL-R group had lower vertical jump capabilities and some bilateral knee strength deficiencies compared to the matched control group. The ACL-R group also showed several moderate-to-strong positive relationships for both knee extension and flexion strength with several jump performance characteristics, such as single and double leg vertical jump height. The current results indicate that ACL-R patients present with several knee strength and vertical jump differences compared to a matched control group at the time of return-to-play. Also, ACL-R patient's performance on an electronic jump mat system is strongly related to

  6. Isokinetic strength and endurance after percutaneous and open surgical repair of Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Goren, David; Ayalon, Moshe; Nyska, Meir

    2005-04-01

    Reports on complete spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures and associated treatment have become more frequent in the literature in the past two decades, as has the request for treatments that enable the finest possible functional recovery. The best available treatment is a matter of considerable controversy in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare the isokinetic strength and endurance of the plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit in subjects who sustained rupture of the Achilles tendon and underwent either open surgery or closed percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon. Twenty patients (18 males, 2 females) with spontaneous ruptures of the Achilles tendon were included in this study. Ten patients were treated by open surgery, and 10 patients were treated percutaneously. All patients had ruptured their Achilles tendon more than 6 months before the study, and all of the ruptures occurred 3.5 years or less before the day of the testing. All patients underwent an oriented physical examination. An isokinetic Biodex dynamometer (Biodex Medical System, Shirley, NY) was used to measure ankle joint angle, and in plantarflexion to calculate the torque at the ankle joint (Newton/meter), and the average work (jouls) for both maximal power and endurance. Each measurement was compared to the normal ankle. Biodex dynamometer evaluations at 90 deg/sec demonstrated a significant difference of maximal voluntary plantarflexor torque, endurance performance and range of motion at the ankle joint between the involved and uninvolved sides in patients treated by either mode of treatment. Yet, no statistically significant differences were revealed for the parameters mentioned above between the subjects that were treated either percutaneously or by an open surgery. In functional terms, the biomechanical outcomes of open surgery and percutaneous repair for acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon are both effective.

  7. Isokinetic profile of elbow flexion and extension strength in elite junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Roetert, E Paul

    2003-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine whether bilateral differences exist in concentric elbow flexion and extension strength in elite junior tennis players. The repetitive nature of tennis frequently produces upper extremity overuse injuries. Prior research has identified tennis-specific strength adaptation in the dominant shoulder and distal upper extremity musculature of elite players. No previous study has addressed elbow flexion and extension strength. Thirty-eight elite junior tennis players were bilaterally tested for concentric elbow flexion and extension muscle performance on a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer at 90 degrees/s, 210 degrees/s, and 300 degrees/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to test for differences between extremities, muscle groups, and speed. Significantly greater (P<0.002) dominant-arm elbow extension peak torque values were measured at 90 degrees/s, 210 degrees/s, and 300 degrees/s for males. Significantly greater (P<0.002) dominant-arm single-repetition work values were also measured at 90 degrees/s and 210 degrees/s for males. No significant difference was measured between extremities in elbow flexion muscular performance in males and for elbow flexion or extension peak torque and single-repetition work values in females. No significant difference between extremities was measured in elbow flexion/extension strength ratios in females and significant differences between extremities in this ratio were only present at 210 degrees/s in males (P<0.002). These data indicate muscular adaptations around the dominant elbow in male elite junior tennis players but not females. These data have ramifications for clinicians rehabilitating upper extremity injuries in patients from this population.

  8. Muscle recruitment patterns of the subscapularis, serratus anterior and other shoulder girdle muscles during isokinetic internal and external rotations.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Sylvain; Tremblay, Jonathan; Begon, Mickael

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in peak muscle activity and recruitment patterns during high- and low-velocity, concentric and eccentric, internal and external isokinetic shoulder rotations. Electromyographic activity of the rotator cuff and eight superficial muscles of the shoulder girdle was recorded on 25 healthy adults during isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotation at 60°/s and 240°/s. Peak muscle activity, electromyographic envelopes and peak isokinetic moments were analyzed using three-factor ANOVA and statistical parametric mapping. The subscapularis and serratus anterior showed moderate to high peak activity levels during each conditions, while the middle and posterior deltoids, upper, middle and lower trapezius, infraspinatus and supraspinatus showed higher peak activity levels during external rotations (+36.5% of maximum voluntary activation (MVA)). The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi were more active during internal rotations (+40% of MVA). Only middle trapezius and pectoralis major electromyographic activity decreased with increasing velocity. Peak muscle activity was similar or lower during eccentric contractions, although the peak isokinetic moment increased by 35% on average. The subscapularis and serratus anterior appear to be important stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint and scapula. Isokinetic eccentric training at high velocities may allow for faster recruitment of the shoulder girdle muscles, which could improve joint stability during shoulder internal and external rotations.

  9. Lower-extremity isokinetic strength profiling in professional rugby league and rugby union.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt; Griffiths, Peter C; Cronin, John B

    2014-03-01

    While several studies have documented isokinetic knee strength in junior and senior rugby league players, investigations of isokinetic knee and hip strength in professional rugby union players are limited. The purpose of this study was to provide lower-extremity strength profiles and compare isokinetic knee and hip strength of professional rugby league and rugby union players. 32 professional rugby league and 25 professional rugby union players. Cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque and strength ratios of the dominant and nondominant legs during seated knee-extension/ flexion and supine hip-extension/flexion actions at 60°/s. Forwards from both codes were taller and heavier and had a higher body-mass index than the backs of each code. Rugby union forwards produced significantly (P < .05) greater peak torque during knee flexion in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.81 and 2.02) compared with rugby league forwards. Rugby league backs produced significantly greater hip-extension peak torque in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 0.83 and 0.77) compared with rugby union backs. There were no significant differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios between code, position, or leg. Rugby union forwards and backs produced significantly greater knee-flexion-to-hip-extension ratios in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.49-2.26) than rugby union players. It seems that the joint torque profiles of players from rugby league and union codes differ, which may be attributed to the different demands of each code.

  10. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on leg flexor and extensor isokinetic strength in elite women athletes.

    PubMed

    Sekir, U; Arabaci, R; Akova, B; Kadagan, S M

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of static and dynamic stretching of the leg flexors and extensors on concentric and eccentric peak torque (PT) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the leg extensors and flexors in women athletes. Ten elite women athletes completed the following intervention protocol in a randomized order on separate days: (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching, and (c) dynamic stretching. Stretched muscles were the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. Before and after the stretching or control intervention, concentric and eccentric isokinetic PT and EMG activity of the leg extensors and flexors were measured at 60 and 180 degrees/s. Concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength at both test speeds displayed a significant decrease following static stretching (P<0.01-0.001). In contrast, a significant increase was observed after dynamic stretching for these strength parameters (P<0.05-0.001). Parallel to this, normalized EMG amplitude parameters exhibited significant decreases following static (P<0.05-0.001) and significant increases following dynamic stretching (P<0.05-0.001) during quadriceps and hamstring muscle actions at both concentric and eccentric testing modes. Our findings suggest that dynamic stretching, as opposed to static or no stretching, may be an effective technique for enhancing muscle performance during the pre-competition warm-up routine in elite women athletes.

  11. Elbow isokinetic strength characteristics among collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G; Wilson, James T; Meister, Keith

    2012-05-01

    To compare the bilateral strength characteristics of the wrist flexors, extensors, pronators, and supinators among baseball players. Cross-sectional. Laboratory. 30 collegiate baseball players with no recent history of upper extremity injury. Bilateral pronation, supination, wrist flexion, and wrist extension peak torque (PT) and peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) strength were measured at speeds of 90 and 180°/second. Paired t-tests showed that the throwing arm of baseball players produced significantly less PT/BW strength for supination at 90°/second compared to the non-throwing arm (P = .001). The throwing arm produced significantly more PT/BW strength for pronation (P = .001) at 180°/second compared to the non-throwing arm. Furthermore, the throwing arm had more PT and PT/BW strength for wrist extension (P < .005) at 180°/second. Conversely, the throwing arm had less PT and PT/BW strength for supination (P < .004) and wrist flexion (P < .004) at 180°/second compared to the non-throwing arm. Significant bilateral strength differences exist in pronation, supination, wrist flexion, and wrist extension among collegiate baseball players. With the steady increase in ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the elbow among baseball players and the proven resistance to valgus force provided by the flexor-pronator mass of the elbow, the results of this study may prove beneficial in the prevention, evaluation, and rehabilitation of such dysfunctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isokinetic imbalance of adductor-abductor hip muscles in professional soccer players with chronic adductor-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, K; Meftah, S; Mahir, L; Lmidmani, F; Elfatimi, A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to compare the isokinetic profile of hip abductor and adductor muscle groups between soccer players suffering from chronic adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), soccer players without ARGP and healthy volunteers from general population. Study included 36 male professional soccer players, who were randomly selected and followed-up over two years. Of the 21 soccer players eligible to participate in the study, 9 players went on to develop chronic ARGP and 12 players did not. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly selected from the general population as a control group. Comparison between the abductor and adductor muscle peak torques for players with and without chronic ARGP found a statistically significant difference on the dominant and non-dominant sides (p < .005), with the abductor muscle significantly stronger than the adductor muscle. In the group of healthy volunteers, the adductor muscle groups were significantly stronger than the abductor muscle groups on both dominant and non-dominant sides (p < .05). For the group of players who had developed chronic ARGP, abductor-adductor torque ratios were significantly higher on the affected side (p = .008). The adductor muscle strength was also significantly decreased on the affected side. This imbalance appears to be a risk factor for adductor-related groin injury. Therefore, restoring the correct relationship between these two agonist and antagonist hip muscles may be an important preventative measure that should be a primary concern of training and rehabilitation programmes.

  13. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise; part II: control development and testing.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. The controller, based on an inverse three-element phenomenological model and adaptive nonlinear control, allows the system to operate as a type of haptic device. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator was developed (as described in Part I of this work) so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. Tracking error results indicate that the control system is effective at producing PMA displacement and resistance necessary for a scaled, simulated neuromuscular actuator to maintain low-velocity isokinetic movement during simulated concentric and eccentric knee extension.

  14. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Isokinetic strength assessment offers limited predictive validity for detecting risk of future hamstring strain in sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Green, Brady; Bourne, Matthew N; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-03-01

    To examine the value of isokinetic strength assessment for predicting risk of hamstring strain injury, and to direct future research into hamstring strain injuries. Systematic review. Database searches for Medline, CINAHL, Embase, AMED, AUSPORT, SPORTDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library from inception to April 2017. Manual reference checks, ahead-of-press and citation tracking. Prospective studies evaluating isokinetic hamstrings, quadriceps and hip extensor strength testing as a risk factor for occurrence of hamstring muscle strain. Independent search result screening. Risk of bias assessment by independent reviewers using Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. Best evidence synthesis and meta-analyses of standardised mean difference (SMD). Twelve studies were included, capturing 508 hamstring strain injuries in 2912 athletes. Isokinetic knee flexor, knee extensor and hip extensor outputs were examined at angular velocities ranging 30-300°/s, concentric or eccentric, and relative (Nm/kg) or absolute (Nm) measures. Strength ratios ranged between 30°/s and 300°/s. Meta-analyses revealed a small, significant predictive effect for absolute (SMD=-0.16, P=0.04, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01) and relative (SMD=-0.17, P=0.03, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.014) eccentric knee flexor strength (60°/s). No other testing speed or strength ratio showed statistical association. Best evidence synthesis found over half of all variables had moderate or strong evidence for no association with future hamstring injury. Despite an isolated finding for eccentric knee flexor strength at slow speeds, the role and application of isokinetic assessment for predicting hamstring strain risk should be reconsidered, particularly given costs and specialised training required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Evaluation of Suited and Unsuited Human Functional Strength Using Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazadeh, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the planned summer research was to develop a procedure to determine the isokinetic functional strength of suited and unsuited participants in order to estimate the coefficient of micro-gravity suit on human strength. To accomplish this objective, the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility's Multipurpose, Multiaxial Isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) was used. Development of procedure involved selection and testing of seven routines to be tested on MMID. We conducted the related experiments and collected the data for 12 participants. In addition to the above objective, we developed a procedure to assess the fatiguing characteristics of suited and unsuited participants using EMG technique. We collected EMG data on 10 participants while performing a programmed routing on MMID. EMG data along with information on the exerted forces, effector speed, number of repetitions, and duration of each routine were recorded for further analysis. Finally, gathering and tabulation Of data for various human strengths for updating of MSIS (HSIS) strength requirement, which started in summer 2003, also continued.

  17. A ground-based comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Kirk L.; Hackney, Kyle J.; De Witt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Goetchius, Elizabeth L.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2013-11-01

    IntroductionInternational Space Station (ISS) crewmembers perform muscle strength and endurance testing pre- and postflight to assess the physiologic adaptations associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. However, a reliable and standardized method to document strength changes in-flight has not been established. To address this issue, a proprietary dynamometer, the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) has been developed and flown aboard the ISS. The aims of this ground-based investigation were to: (1) evaluate the test-retest reliability of MARES and (2) determine its agreement with a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer previously used for pre- and postflight medical testing. MethodsSix males (179.5±4.7 cm; 82.0±8.7 kg; 31.3±4.0 yr) and four females (163.2±7.3 cm; 63.2±1.9 kg; 32.3±6.8 yr) completed two testing sessions on a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer (NORM) and two sessions on MARES using a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design. Peak torque values at 60° and 180° s-1 were calculated from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF) for each session. Total work at 180° s-1 was determined from the area under the torque versus displacement curve during 20 maximal repetitions of KE and KF. ResultsIntraclass correlation coefficients were relatively high for both devices (0.90-0.99). Only one dependent measure, KE peak torque at 60° s-1 exhibited good concordance between devices (ρ=0.92) and a small average difference (0.9±17.3 N m). ConclusionMARES demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability and thus should serve as a good tool to monitor in-flight strength changes. However, due to poor agreement with NORM, it is not advisable to compare absolute values obtained on these devices.

  18. Changes in muscle strength in patients with statin myalgia.

    PubMed

    Panza, Gregory A; Taylor, Beth A; Roman, William; Thompson, Paul D

    2014-10-15

    Statins can produce myalgia or muscle pain, which may affect medication adherence. We measured the effects of statins on muscle strength in patients with previous statin myalgia. Leg isokinetic extension average power at 60° per second (-8.8 ± 10.5N-M, p = 0.02) and average peak torque at 60° per second (-14.0 ± 19.7N-M, p = 0.04) decreased slightly with statin use, but 8 of 10 other variables for leg strength did not change (all p >0.13). Handgrip, muscle pain, respiratory exchange ratio, and daily activity also did not change (all p >0.09). In conclusion, statin myalgia is not associated with reduced muscle strength or muscle performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Tennis players show a lower coactivation of the elbow antagonist muscles during isokinetic exercises.

    PubMed

    Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Riccio, Maria Elena; Felici, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that muscle coactivation could be reduced by a recurrent activity (training, daily activities). If this was correct, skilled athletes should show a specific muscle activation pattern with a low level of coactivation of muscles which are typically involved in their discipline. In particular, the aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the amount of antagonist activation of biceps brachii (BB) and triceps brachii (TB) is different between tennis players and non-players individuals during maximal isokinetic contractions. Ten young healthy men and eight male tennis players participated in the study. The surface electromyographic signals (sEMG) were recorded from the BB and TB muscles during three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of elbow flexors and extensors and a set of three maximal elbow flexions and extensions at 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , 120 degrees , 180 degrees and 240 degrees /s. Normalized root mean square (RMS) of sEMG was calculated as an index of sEMG amplitude. Antagonist activation (%RMSmax) of TB was significantly lower in tennis players (from 14.0+/-7.9% at MVC to 16.3+/-8.9% at 240 degrees /s) with respect to non-players (from 27.7+/-19.7% at MVC to 38.7+/-17.6% at 240 degrees /s) at all angular velocities. Contrary to non-players, tennis players did not show any difference in antagonist activation between BB and TB muscles. Tennis players, with a constant practice in controlling forces around the elbow joint, learn how to reduce coactivation of muscles involved in the control of this joint. This has been shown by the lower antagonist muscular activity of triceps brachii muscle during isokinetic elbow flexion found in tennis players with respect to non-players.

  20. Does choice of angular velocity affect pain level during isokinetic strength testing of knee osteoarthritis patients?

    PubMed

    Almosnino, S; Brandon, S C E; Sled, E A

    2012-12-01

    Thigh musculature strength assessment in individuals with knee osteoarthritis is routinely performed in rehabilitative settings. A factor that may influence results is pain experienced during testing. To assess whether pain experienced during isokinetic testing in individuals with knee osteoarthritis is dependent on the angular velocity prescribed. Experimental, repeated measures. University laboratory. Thirty-five individuals (19 women, 16 men) with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Participants performed three randomized sets of five maximal concentric extension-flexion repetitions at 60°/s, 90°/s and 120°/s. Pain intensity was measured immediately after the completion of each set. Strength outcomes for each set were the average peak moment. Across gender, pain level was not significantly affected by testing velocity (P=0.18, η(p)(2) =0.05). There was a trend of women reporting more pain than men across all testing velocities, however this comparison did not reach statistical significance (P=0.18, η(p)(2)=0.05). There was a significant main effect of testing velocity on strength, with the highest level attained at 60°/s. However, no difference in strength was noted when testing was performed at 90°/s or 120°/s. A large variation in pain scores within and across conditions and gender was noted, suggesting that at the current stage: 1) isokinetic angular velocity prescription be performed on an individual patient basis; and 2) improvements in the manner pain is recorded are needed in order to reduce the variations in pain scores. Individual prescription of angular velocity may be necessary for optimal strength output and reduction of pain during effort exertion in this patient population.

  1. Effects of the Competitive Season on the Isokinetic Muscle Parameters Changes in World-Class Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Maurelli, Olivier; Bernard, Pierre L; Dubois, Romain; Ahmaidi, Said; Prioux, Jacques

    2018-05-25

    Maurelli, O, Bernard, PL, Dubois, R, Ahmaidi, S, and Prioux, J. Effects of the competitive season on the isokinetic muscle parameters changes in world-class handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the competitive season on isokinetic muscular parameters of the lower limbs in world-class handball players. Nineteen, male, world-class, handball players (age, 26.6 ± 5.4 years) participated in the study. Two bilateral isokinetic tests of knee joint flexors (H; hamstring) and extensors (Q; quadriceps) were performed in the beginning and end of the competitive season to determine the peak torque (PT), the mean power, and agonist-antagonist ratio, dominant-nondominant ratio (DNDR), and combined ratio. The results showed a significant decrease in PT values at low angular velocity (60°·s) in concentric mode for Q on dominant leg (p < 0.001). The other PT values for dominant and nondominant legs at low and high angular velocities (240°·s) and in eccentric mode (30°·s) were not significantly different for Q and H. For mean power, values did not change at 60°·s. At 240°·s, we found a significant decrease in H for dominant leg (p < 0.001) but not for nondominant leg. In eccentric mode, the results showed a significant increase on both legs (p < 0.001). For the ratios, values significantly decreased for DNDR at 60°·s for Q (p < 0.03) and for agonist/antagonist ratio at 240°·s for the dominant leg (p < 0.01). The present results highlight the importance of integrating regular strength training sessions during the competitive season in world-class handball players. Accordingly, this study should help trainers to modify their planning to maximize strength and power qualities of the lower limbs of their players in addition to avoiding injuries.

  2. Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Isokinetic Peak Torques and Electromyographic Activities of the Antagonist Muscles.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Abdullah; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Akova, Bedrettin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if static and dynamic stretching exercises of the knee muscles (quadriceps and hamstring muscles) have any effects on concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torques and electromyographic amplitudes (EMG) of the antagonist muscles. Twenty healthy male athletes (age between 18-30 years) voluntarily participated in this study. All of the subjects visited the laboratory to complete the following intervention in a randomized order on 5 separate days; (a) non-stretching (control), (b) static stretching of the quadriceps muscles, (c) static stretching of the hamstring muscles, (d) dynamic stretching of the quadriceps muscles, and (e) dynamic stretching of the hamstring muscles. Static stretching exercises either for the quadriceps or the hamstring muscles were carried out at the standing and sitting positions. Subjects performed four successive repetitions of each stretching exercises for 30 seconds in both stretching positions. Similar to static stretching exercises two different stretching modes were designed for dynamic stretching exercises. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic peak torque for the non-stretched antagonist quadriceps or hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and their concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured before and immediately after the intervention. Isokinetic peak torques of the non-stretched agonist hamstring and quadriceps muscles did not represent any significant (p > 0.05) differences following static and dynamic stretching of the antagonist quadriceps and hamstring muscles, respectively. Similarly, the EMG activities of the agonist muscles exhibited no significant alterations (p > 0.05) following both stretching exercises of the antagonist muscles. According to the results of the present study it is possible to state that antagonist stretching exercises either in the static or dynamic modes do not affect the isokinetic peak torques and the EMG activities

  3. Torque, power and muscle activation of eccentric and concentric isokinetic cycling.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Thomas, Kevin; Ross, Emma Z; Green, Steven C; Pringle, Jamie S M; Howatson, Glyn

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the effect of cycling mode and cadence on torque, external power output, and lower limb muscle activation during maximal, recumbent, isokinetic cycling. After familiarisation, twelve healthy males completed 6 × 10 s of maximal eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) cycling at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 rpm with five minutes recovery. Vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris surface electromyography was recorded throughout. As cadence increased, peak torque linearly decreased during ECC (350-248 N·m) and CON (239-117 N·m) and peak power increased in a parabolic manner. Crank angle at peak torque increased with cadence in CON (+13°) and decreased in ECC (-9.0°). At all cadences, peak torque (mean +129 N·m, range 111-143 N·m), and power (mean +871 W, range 181-1406 W), were greater during ECC compared to CON. For all recorded muscles the crank angle at peak muscle activation was greater during ECC compared to CON. This difference increased with cadence in all muscles except the vastus lateralis. Additionally, peak vastus laterallis and biceps femoris activation was greater during CON compared to ECC. Eccentric cycling offers a greater mechanical stimulus compared to concentric cycling but the effect of cadence is similar between modalities. Markers of technique (muscle activation, crank angle at peak activation and torque) were different between eccentric and concentric cycling and respond differently to changes in cadence. Such data should be considered when comparing between, and selecting cadences for, recumbent, isokinetic, eccentric and concentric cycling. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of a Novel Isokinetic Squat Device With Strength-Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Lee A; McGuigan, Michael R; Gill, Nicholas D; Dulson, Deborah K

    2016-11-01

    Bridgeman, LA, McGuigan, MR, Gill, ND, and Dulson, DK. Test-retest reliability of a novel isokinetic squat device with strength-trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3261-3265, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of a novel multijoint isokinetic squat device. The subjects in this study were 10 strength-trained athletes. Each subject completed 3 maximal testing sessions to assess peak concentric and eccentric force (N) over a 3-week period using the Exerbotics squat device. Mean differences between eccentric and concentric force across the trials were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CVs) for the variables of interest were calculated using an excel reliability spreadsheet. Between trials 1 and 2 an 11.0 and 2.3% increase in mean concentric and eccentric forces, respectively, was reported. Between trials 2 and 3 a 1.35% increase in the mean concentric force production and a 1.4% increase in eccentric force production was reported. The mean concentric peak force CV and ICC across the 3 trials was 10% (7.6-15.4) and 0.95 (0.87-0.98) respectively. However, the mean eccentric peak force CV and ICC across the trials was 7.2% (5.5-11.1) and 0.90 (0.76-0.97), respectively. Based on these findings it is suggested that the Exerbotics squat device shows good test-retest reliability. Therefore practitioners and investigators may consider its use to monitor changes in concentric and eccentric peak force.

  5. Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Osmankac, Nedzad; Vicente João, Paulo; Dervisevic, Edvin; Hadzic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations noted potential importance of isokinetic strength in rapid muscular performances, such as jumping. This study aimed to identify the influence of isokinetic-knee-strength on specific jumping performance in volleyball. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate reliability and validity of the two volleyball-specific jumping tests. The sample comprised 67 female (21.96±3.79 years; 68.26±8.52 kg; 174.43±6.85 cm) and 99 male (23.62±5.27 years; 84.83±10.37 kg; 189.01±7.21 cm) high- volleyball players who competed in 1st and 2nd National Division. Subjects were randomly divided into validation (N.=55 and 33 for males and females, respectively) and cross-validation subsamples (N.=54 and 34 for males and females, respectively). Set of predictors included isokinetic tests, to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors, and flexors for dominant and non-dominant leg. The main outcome measure for the isokinetic testing was peak torque (PT) which was later normalized for body mass and expressed as PT/Kg. Block-jump and spike-jump performances were measured over three trials, and observed as criteria. Forward stepwise multiple regressions were calculated for validation subsamples and then cross-validated. Cross validation included correlations between and t-test differences between observed and predicted scores; and Bland Altman graphics. Jumping tests were found to be reliable (spike jump: ICC of 0.79 and 0.86; block-jump: ICC of 0.86 and 0.90; for males and females, respectively), and their validity was confirmed by significant t-test differences between 1st vs. 2nd division players. Isokinetic variables were found to be significant predictors of jumping performance in females, but not among males. In females, the isokinetic-knee measures were shown to be stronger and more valid predictors of the block-jump (42% and 64% of the explained variance for validation and cross-validation subsample, respectively

  6. Anthropometric, biomechanical, and isokinetic strength predictors of ball release speed in high-performance cricket fast bowlers.

    PubMed

    Wormgoor, Shohn; Harden, Lois; Mckinon, Warrick

    2010-07-01

    Fast bowling is fundamental to all forms of cricket. The purpose of this study was to identify parameters that contribute to high ball release speeds in cricket fast bowlers. We assessed anthropometric dimensions, concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of selected knee and shoulder muscle groups, and specific aspects of technique from a single delivery in 28 high-performance fast bowlers (age 22.0 +/- 3.0 years, ball release speed 34.0 +/- 1.3 m s(-1)). Six 50-Hz cameras and the Ariel Performance Analysis System software were used to analyse the fast and accurate deliveries. Using Pearson's correlation, parameters that showed significant associations with ball release speed were identified. The findings suggest that greater front leg knee extension at ball release (r=0.52), shoulder alignment in the transverse plane rotated further away from the batsman at front foot strike (r=0.47), greater ankle height during the delivery stride (r=0.44), and greater shoulder extension strength (r=0.39) contribute significantly to higher ball release speeds. Predictor variables failed to allow their incorporation into a multivariate model, which is known to exist in less accomplished bowlers, suggesting that factors that determine ball release speed found in other groups may not apply to high-performance fast bowlers.

  7. Muscle activation and the isokinetic torque-velocity relationship of the human triceps surae.

    PubMed

    Harridge, S D; White, M J

    1993-01-01

    The influence of muscle activation and the time allowed for torque generation on the angle-specific torque-velocity relationship of the triceps surae was studied during plantar flexion using supramaximal electrical stimulation and a release technique on six male subjects [mean (SD) age 25 (4) years]. Torque-velocity data were obtained under different levels of constant muscle activation by varying the stimulus frequency and the time allowed for isometric torque generation prior to release and isokinetic shortening. To eliminate the effects of the frequency response on absolute torque the isokinetic data were normalized to the maximum isometric torque values at 0.44 rad. There were no significant differences in the normalized torques generated at any angular velocity using stimulus frequencies of 20, 50 or 80 Hz. When the muscle was stimulated at 50 Hz the torques obtained after a 400 ms and 1 s pre-release isometric contraction did not differ significantly. However, with no pre-release contraction significantly less torque was generated at all angular velocities beyond 1.05 rad.s-1 when compared with either the 200, 400 ms or 1 s condition. With a 200 ms pre-release contraction significantly less torque was generated at angular velocities beyond 1.05 rad.s-1 when compared with the 400 ms or 1 s conditions. It would seem that the major factor governing the shape of the torque-velocity curve at a constant level of muscle activation is the time allowed for torque generation.

  8. Single-Leg Hop Test Performance and Isokinetic Knee Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Nakahata, Akihiro; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2017-01-01

    Background: Isokinetic strength and hop tests are commonly used to assess athletes’ readiness to return to sport after knee surgery. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of single-leg hop and isokinetic knee strength testing in athletes who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) upon returning to sport participation as well as to study the correlation between these 2 test batteries. The secondary purpose was to compare the test results by graft type (patellar tendon or hamstring). It was hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant limb difference in either isokinetic knee strength or single-leg hop tests, that there would be a moderate to strong correlation between the 2 test batteries, and that there would be no significant difference between graft types. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty-nine high school and collegiate athletes who underwent ACLR participated in this study. At the time of return to full sport participation, a series of hop tests and knee extension/flexion isokinetic strength measurements were conducted. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation (r). Results: The timed 6-m hop test was the only hop test that showed a significant difference between the involved and uninvolved limbs (2.3 and 2.2 seconds, respectively; P = .02). A significant difference between limbs in knee strength was found for flexion peak torque/body weight at 180 deg/s (P = .03), flexion total work/body weight at 180 deg/s (P = .04), and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s (P = .03). The strongest correlation between the hop tests and knee strength was found between the total distance of the hop tests and flexion total work/body weight at 300 deg/s (r = 0.69) and between the timed 6-m hop test and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s (r = –0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in hop

  9. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M

    1996-01-01

    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  10. Persistence of long term isokinetic strength deficits in subjects with lateral ankle sprain as measured with a protocol including maximal preloading.

    PubMed

    Perron, Marc; Moffet, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Hébert, Luc J; Belzile, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of muscle function is a cornerstone in the management of subjects who have sustained a lateral ankle sprain. The ankle range of motion being relatively small, the use of preloading allows to measure maximal strength throughout the whole amplitude and therefore to better characterize ankle muscles weaknesses. This study aimed to assess muscle strength of the injured and uninjured ankles in subjects with a lateral ankle sprain, to document the timeline of strength recovery, and to determine the influence of sprain grade on strength loss. Maximal torque of the periarticular muscles of the ankle in a concentric mode using a protocol with maximal preloading was tested in 32 male soldiers at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury. The evertor muscles of the injured ankles were weaker than the uninjured ones at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury (P<0.0001, effect size=0.31-0.42). Muscle weaknesses also persisted in the plantarflexors of the injured ankles at 8 weeks (P=0.0014, effect size=0.52-0.58) while at 6 months, only the subjects with a grade II sprain displayed such weaknesses (P<0.0001, effect size 0.27-0.31). The strength of the invertor and dorsiflexor muscles did not differ between sides. The use of an isokinetic protocol with preloading demonstrates significant but small strength deficits in the evertor and plantarflexor muscles. These impairments may contribute to the high incidence of recurrence of lateral ankle sprain in very active individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin preserves muscle strength in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Markvardsen, L H; Harbo, T; Sindrup, S H; Christiansen, I; Andersen, H; Jakobsen, J

    2014-12-01

    Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is superior to placebo treatment for maintenance of muscle strength during 12 weeks in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The present study evaluated whether SCIG preserves muscle strength for 1 year in an open-label follow-up study. Seventeen responders to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) who had participated in the previous study of SCIG versus placebo in CIDP were included. After one IVIG infusion 2 weeks prior to baseline, all continued on SCIG treatment at weekly equal dosage and were evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-points were changes in muscle strength evaluated by isokinetic dynamometry in four affected muscle groups and a composite score of muscle performance and function tests, including Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, 40-m walking test (40-MWT) and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Secondary end-points were changes of each of the listed parameters at each time point as well as an overall disability sum score (ODSS). The dose of SCIG was significantly unaltered during the follow-up period. Overall the isokinetic dynamometry value increased by 7.2% (P = 0.033) and after 3, 6 and 12 months by 5.7%, 8.2% and 6.8% (ns). The overall composite score at all time intervals and for each interval remained unchanged. Amongst the secondary parameters the MRC score increased significantly by 1.7% (P = 0.007), whereas grip strength, 40-MWT, 9-HPT and ODSS remained unchanged. SCIG preserves muscle strength and functional ability in patients with CIDP who previously responded to IVIG. SCIG should be considered as an alternative in long-term treatment of CIDP patients. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  12. Impaired hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Mechlenburg, Inger; Lund, Bent; Søballe, Kjeld; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-12-01

    Patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) experience hip pain as well as decreased function and lowered quality of life. The aim was to compare maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength (MVC) during hip flexion and extension and rate of force development (RFD) during extension between patients with FAI and a matched reference group. Secondary, the aim was to compare patient hips and subgroups defined by gender and age as well as to investigate associations between hip muscle strength and self-reported outcomes. Design Cross-sectional, comparative study Methods Sixty patients (36±9 years, 63% females) and 30 age and gender matched reference persons underwent MVC tests in an isokinetic dynamometer. During hip flexion and extension, patients' affected hip showed a strength deficit of 15-21% (p<0.001) and 10-25% (p<0.03) compared with reference MVC, respectively. The affected hip of the patients was significantly weaker than their contralateral hip. RFD was significantly decreased for both patient hips compared to the reference group (p<0.05). While age had less effect on MVC, female patients were more affected than male patients. Self-reported measures were associated with isometric hip muscle strength. Patients with FAI demonstrate decreased hip flexion and extension strength when compared to (1) reference persons and (2) their contralateral hip. There seems to be a gender specific affection which should be investigated further and addressed when planning training protocols. Furthermore, self-reported measures were associated with isometric muscle strength, which underlines the clinical importance of the reduced muscle strength. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do oarsmen have asymmetries in the strength of their back and leg muscles?

    PubMed

    Parkin, S; Nowicky, A V; Rutherford, O M; McGregor, A H

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether asymmetry of the strength of the leg and trunk musculature is more prominent in rowers than in controls. Nineteen oarsmen and 20 male controls matched for age, height and body mass performed a series of isokinetic and isometric strength tests on an isokinetic dynamometer. These strength tests focused on the trunk and leg muscles. Comparisons of strength were made between and within groups for right and left symmetry patterns, hamstring: quadriceps ratios, and trunk flexor and extensor ratios. The results revealed no left and right asymmetries in either the knee extensor or flexor strength parameters (including both isometric and isokinetic measures). Knee extensor strength was significantly greater in the rowing population, but knee flexor strength was similar between the two groups. No difference was seen between the groups for the hamstring: quadriceps strength ratio. In the rowing population, stroke side had no influence on leg strength. No differences were observed in the isometric strength of the trunk flexors and extensors between groups, although EMG activity was significantly higher in the rowing population. Patterns of asymmetry of muscle activity were observed between the left and right erector spinae muscles during extension, which was significantly related to rowing side (P < 0.01). These observations could be related to the high incidence of low back pain in oarsmen.

  14. Absolute and relative reliability of isokinetic and isometric trunk strength testing using the IsoMed-2000 dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to assess the between day reliability of isokinetic and isometric peak torque (PT) during trunk measurement on an isokinetic device (IsoMed 2000). Test-retest-protocol on five separate days. Fifteen healthy sport students (8 female and 7 male) aged 21 to 26. PT was assessed in isometric back extension and flexion as well as right and left rotation. Isokinetic strength was captured at a speed of 60°/s and 150°/s for all tasks. For none of the assessed parameters a meaningful variation in PT during test days was observed. Relative reliability (ICC = 0.85-0.96) was excellent for all tasks. Estimates of absolute reliability as Coefficient of Variation (CoV) and Standard Error of Measurement (SEM in Nm/kg lean body mass) remained stable for isometric (6.9% < CoV < 9.4%; 0.15 < SEM < 0.23) and isokinetic mode (60°/s: 3.7% < CoV < 8.6%; 0.08 < SEM < 0.24; 150°/s: 6.9% < CoV < 12.4%; 0.10 < SEM < 0.31). In contrast, reliability between familiarization day and day 1 was lower (6.6% < CoV < 26.2%; 0.10 < SEM < 0.65). Trunk strength measurement in flexion and extension or trunk rotation in either isometric or isokinetic condition is highly reliable. Therefore, it seems possible to elucidate changes which are smaller than 10% due to intervention programs when a preceding familiarization condition was applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between national and international level high school freestyle swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yu, Jae-Ho; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength between international and national level freestyle high school student swimmers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 participants (14 international level swimmers and 14 national level freestyle high school student swimmers) with no known pathology were included. We used a cross-sectional study to examine three variables: basic physical fitness, aerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength. [Results] The mean values of these variables in the international level swimmers were higher than those in the national level swimmers. Swimmers are generally physically fit with a good competition record. [Conclusion] An appropriate training program, which considers specific individual characteristics is likely to have a positive impact on the improvement of total physical fitness, and subsequently, on the performance of the freestyle high school swimmer. PMID:27134379

  16. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: The experimental group (N=5) and the control group (N=5). The experimental group underwent peculiar complex core balance training. [Results] According to the analysis of covariance, there was a significant effect of peculiar complex core balance training. Therefore, the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus in the experimental group participating in peculiar complex core balance training was significantly increased compared to the control group. [Conclusion] It is concluded that peculiar complex core balance training had a positive effect on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee and lumbus in throwing event athletes. PMID:27190470

  17. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: The experimental group (N=5) and the control group (N=5). The experimental group underwent peculiar complex core balance training. [Results] According to the analysis of covariance, there was a significant effect of peculiar complex core balance training. Therefore, the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus in the experimental group participating in peculiar complex core balance training was significantly increased compared to the control group. [Conclusion] It is concluded that peculiar complex core balance training had a positive effect on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee and lumbus in throwing event athletes.

  18. Changes in muscle strength in individuals with statin-induced myopathy: A summary of 3 investigations.

    PubMed

    Panza, Gregory A; Taylor, Beth A; Dada, Marcin R; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    There are inconsistent findings regarding muscular weakness in individuals with statin-induced myalgia. We used rigorous muscle testing to compare findings from 3 investigations in 3 different study populations to determine if statin myalgia is associated with measurable weakness. In all 3 studies, we measured maximal isometric handgrip strength, resting respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and knee extensor isometric and isokinetic force. In 2 of the 3 studies, elbow flexor isometric and isokinetic force and knee endurance fatigue index were also assessed. Knee extensor and elbow flexor measurements were obtained using an isokinetic dynamometer. Resting RER was measured using a metabolic breath-by-breath collection method. Measurement outcomes were compared on vs off drug. In study 1, 18 participants fit the criteria for statin myalgia. Participants taking atorvastatin 80 mg daily had significantly lower muscle strength in 5 (P < .05) of 14 measured variables. Participants on placebo (N = 10) with myalgia had significantly lower muscle strength in 4 (P < .05) of 14 measured variables. In study 2, 18 participants tested positive for statin-induced myalgia when receiving simvastatin 20 mg daily and displayed no significant muscle strength changes (all P > .05). In study 3, 11 patients with statin-induced myalgia completed the study and had a significant decrease in 2 (P < .05) of 10 leg muscle strength variables. In all 3 studies, no significant changes were shown for handgrip strength or RER (all P > .05). Our results indicate that after a short-term treatment with statin therapy, a rigorous muscle strength protocol does not show decrements of muscle strength in subjects with statin myalgia. Short-term treatment with statin therapy is not common in clinical practice. Thus, future studies should examine the effects of prolonged statin therapy on muscle strength. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Muscle strength at the trunk*.

    PubMed

    Smidt, G L; Amundsen, L R; Dostal, W F

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of trunk flexors and extensors in normal male subjects during isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions. Subjects were tested in the sidelying position to minimize the effects of gravity. The pelvis and lower extremities were measured on a custom built force table (lowa Force Table). Muscle strength was expressed as a moment of force (external force times the moment arm) in Newton-meter (Nm) units. Greater Nm were registered in the muscle-lengthened position than in the muscle-shortened position for all isometric contractions. The Nm registered for eccentric contractions always exceeded the Nm registered for concentric contractions of the same muscle group. The Nm registered during contractions of trunk extensors always exceeded the values obtained during corresponding modes of contractions (isometric, eccentric, and concentric) of trunk flexors.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1980;1(3):165-170.

  20. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscle strength in breast cancer patients receiving different treatment regimes

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Oliver; Schmidt, Martina E.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia have been associated with poor performance status, an increased mortality risk, and greater side effects in oncologic patients. However, little is known about how performance is affected by cancer therapy. We investigated muscle strength in breast cancer patients in different adjuvant treatment settings and also compared it with data from healthy individuals. Methods Breast cancer patients (N = 255) from two randomized controlled exercise trials, staged 0–III and aged 54.4 ± 9.4 years, were categorized into four groups according to their treatment status. In a cross‐sectional design, muscle function was assessed bilaterally by isokinetic dynamometry (0°, 60°, 180°/s) as maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and maximal isokinetic peak torque (MIPT) in shoulder rotators and knee flexors and extensors. Additionally, muscular fatigue index (FI%) and shoulder flexibility were evaluated. Healthy women (N = 26), aged 53.3 ± 9.8 years, were tested using the same method. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate the impact of different cancer treatments on skeletal muscle function with adjustment for various clinical and socio‐demographic factors. Results Consistently, lower muscle strength was measured in shoulder and knee strength in patients after chemotherapy. On average, patients had up to 25% lower strength in lower extremities and 12–16% in upper extremities in MVIC and MIPT during cancer treatment compared with healthy women. No substantial difference between patient groups in shoulder strength, but significantly lower shoulder flexibility in patients with radical mastectomy was measured. Chemotherapy‐treated patients had consistently higher FI%. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Breast cancer patients showed markedly impaired muscle strength and joint dysfunctions before and after anticancer treatment. The significant differences between patients

  2. Balance and Muscle Strength in Elderly Women Who Dance Samba

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Marcos Maurício; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Peterson, Mark; Mochizuki, Luis; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group—elderly participants of the carnival parades in the “Wing of Baianas”, and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.04); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.007); larger amplitudes of medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.001); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.001); increased mean velocity (p < 0.01); and elliptical area (p < 0.01) There were no differences in the isokinetic peak torque corrected by body weight, total work and flexor/extensor ratio. Participation in the Wing of Baianas is associated with better balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength. PMID:27906984

  3. Balance and Muscle Strength in Elderly Women Who Dance Samba.

    PubMed

    Serra, Marcos Maurício; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Peterson, Mark; Mochizuki, Luis; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group-elderly participants of the carnival parades in the "Wing of Baianas", and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.04); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.007); larger amplitudes of medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.001); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.001); increased mean velocity (p < 0.01); and elliptical area (p < 0.01) There were no differences in the isokinetic peak torque corrected by body weight, total work and flexor/extensor ratio. Participation in the Wing of Baianas is associated with better balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength.

  4. Pilates: Build Strength in Your Core Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... an accessible way to build strength in your core muscles for better posture, balance and flexibility. By ... an accessible way to build strength in your core muscles for better posture, balance and flexibility. If ...

  5. Influence of Isokinetic Strength Training of Unilateral Ankle on Ipsilateral One-legged Standing Balance of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sung Min; Kang, Kyung Woo; Lee, Na Kyung; Nam, Seok Hyun; Kwon, Jung Won; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate the changes in one-legged standing balance of the ipsilateral lower limb following unilateral isokinetic strength training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group, so that each group included 15 subjects. Subjects in the training group performed unilateral ankle isokinetic exercises of the dominant leg using the Biodex 3 PRO System for a period of four weeks. Ipsilateral one-legged standing balance was evaluated before and after the intervention with three stability indexes of balance using the Biodex System: Anterior-Posterior Stability Index (APSI), Medial-Lateral Stability Index (MLSI), and Overall Stability Index (OSI). [Results] Comparison of pre- and post-test data revealed significant improvements in strength values (dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, eversion, and inversion) and stability indexes (APSI, MLSI, OSI). [Conclusion] These results suggest that ankle strengthening exercise can be considered as a form of exercise that may assist individuals with improvement of balance. PMID:24259783

  6. Association of Muscle Endurance, Fatigability, and Strength With Functional Limitation and Mortality in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Fried, Linda F.; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Boer, Ian H.; Harris, Tamara; Murphy, Rachel A.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Shlipak, Michael; Newman, Anne B.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mobility limitation is highly prevalent among older adults and is central to the loss of functional independence. Dynamic isokinetic muscle fatigue testing may reveal increased vulnerability to disability and mortality beyond strength testing. Methods: We studied community-dwelling older adults enrolled in the Health Aging and Body Composition study (age range: 71–82) free of mobility disability and who underwent isokinetic muscle fatigue testing in 1999–2000 (n = 1,963). Isokinetic quadriceps work and fatigue index was determined over 30 repetitions and compared with isometric quadriceps maximum torque. Work was normalized to leg lean mass accounting for gender-specific differences (specific work). The primary outcome was incident persistent severe lower extremity limitation (PSLL), defined as two consecutive reports of either having a lot of difficulty or being unable to walk 1/4 mile or climb 10 steps without resting. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results: There were 608 (31%) occurrences of incident PSLL and 488 (25%) deaths during median follow-up of 9.3 years. After adjustment, lower isokinetic work was associated with significantly greater risks of PSLL and mortality across the full measured range. Hazard ratios per standard deviation lower specific isokinetic work were 1.22 (95% CI 1.12, 1.33) for PSLL and 1.21 (95% CI 1.13, 1.30) for mortality, respectively. Lower isometric strength was associated with PSLL, but not mortality. Fatigue index was not associated with PSLL or mortality. Conclusions: Muscle endurance, estimated by isokinetic work, is an indicator of muscle health associated with mobility limitation and mortality providing important insight beyond strength testing. PMID:27907890

  7. Identification of human skeletal muscle miRNA related to strength by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; D'Souza, Randall F; Schierding, William; Zeng, Nina; Ramzan, Farha; O'Sullivan, Justin M; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2018-06-01

    The loss of muscle size, strength, and quality with aging is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The regulatory pathways that impact the muscle phenotype include the translational regulation maintained by microRNAs (miRNA). Yet the miRNAs that are expressed in human skeletal muscle and relationship to muscle size, strength, and quality are unknown. Using next-generation sequencing, we selected the 50 most abundantly expressed miRNAs and then analyzed them in vastus lateralis muscle, obtained by biopsy from middle-aged males ( n = 48; 50.0 ± 4.3 yr). Isokinetic strength testing and midthigh computed tomography was undertaken for muscle phenotype analysis. Muscle attenuation was measured by computerized tomography and is inversely proportional to myofiber lipid content. miR-486-5p accounted for 21% of total miR sequence reads, with miR-10b-5p, miR-133a-3p, and miR-22-3p accounting for a further 15, 12, and 10%, respectively. Isokinetic knee extension strength and muscle cross-sectional area were positively correlated with miR-100-5p, miR-99b-5p, and miR-191-5p expression. Muscle attenuation was negatively correlated to let-7f-5p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-125b-5p expression. In silico analysis implicates miRNAs related to strength and muscle size in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin, while miRNAs related to muscle attenuation may have potential roles regulating the transforming growth factor-β/SMAD3 pathway.

  8. Isokinetic Testing in Evaluation Rehabilitation Outcome After ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cvjetkovic, Dragana Dragicevic; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Talic, Goran; Radulovic, Tatjana Nozica; Kosanovic, Milkica Glogovac; Manojlovic, Slavko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous rehab protocols have been used in rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Isokinetic testing is an objective way to evaluate dynamic stability of the knee joint that estimates the quality of rehabilitation outcome after ACL reconstruction. Our investigation goal was to show importance of isokinetic testing in evaluation thigh muscle strength in patients which underwent ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation protocol. Subjects and methods: In prospective study, we evaluated 40 subjects which were divided into two groups. Experimental group consisted of 20 recreational males which underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon and rehabilitation protocol 6 months before isokinetic testing. Control group (20 subjects) consisted of healthy recreational males. In all subjects knee muscle testing was performed on a Biodex System 4 Pro isokinetic dynamo-meter et velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. We followed average peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) and classic H/Q ratio. In statistical analysis Student’s T test was used. Results: There were statistically significant differences between groups in all evaluated parameters except of the mean value of PT/BW of the quadriceps et velocity of 60°/s (p>0.05). Conclusion: Isokinetic testing of dynamic stabilizers of the knee is need in diagnostic and treatment thigh muscle imbalance. We believe that isokinetic testing is an objective parameter for return to sport activities after ACL reconstruction. PMID:25870471

  9. Isokinetic Testing in Evaluation Rehabilitation Outcome After ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cvjetkovic, Dragana Dragicevic; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Talic, Goran; Radulovic, Tatjana Nozica; Kosanovic, Milkica Glogovac; Manojlovic, Slavko

    2015-02-01

    Numerous rehab protocols have been used in rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Isokinetic testing is an objective way to evaluate dynamic stability of the knee joint that estimates the quality of rehabilitation outcome after ACL reconstruction. Our investigation goal was to show importance of isokinetic testing in evaluation thigh muscle strength in patients which underwent ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation protocol. In prospective study, we evaluated 40 subjects which were divided into two groups. Experimental group consisted of 20 recreational males which underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon and rehabilitation protocol 6 months before isokinetic testing. Control group (20 subjects) consisted of healthy recreational males. In all subjects knee muscle testing was performed on a Biodex System 4 Pro isokinetic dynamo-meter et velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. We followed average peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) and classic H/Q ratio. In statistical analysis Student's T test was used. There were statistically significant differences between groups in all evaluated parameters except of the mean value of PT/BW of the quadriceps et velocity of 60°/s (p>0.05). Isokinetic testing of dynamic stabilizers of the knee is need in diagnostic and treatment thigh muscle imbalance. We believe that isokinetic testing is an objective parameter for return to sport activities after ACL reconstruction.

  10. 3D strength surfaces for ankle plantar- and dorsi-flexion in healthy adults: an isometric and isokinetic dynamometry study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sara J; Frey-Law, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The ankle is an important component of the human kinetic chain, and deficits in ankle strength can negatively impact functional tasks such as balance and gait. While peak torque is influenced by joint angle and movement velocity, ankle strength is typically reported for a single angle or movement speed. To better identify deficits and track recovery of ankle strength after injury or surgical intervention, ankle strength across a range of movement velocities and joint angles in healthy adults is needed. Thus, the primary goals of this study were to generate a database of strength values and 3-dimensional strength surface models for plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) ankle strength in healthy men and women. Secondary goals were to develop a means to estimate ankle strength percentiles as well as examine predictors of maximal ankle strength in healthy adults. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, we tested PF and DF peak torques at five joint angles (-10° [DF], 0° [neutral], 10° [PF], 20° [PF] and 30° [PF]) and six velocities (0°/s, 30°/s, 60°/s, 90°/s, 120°/s and 180°/s) in 53 healthy adults. These data were used to generate 3D plots, or "strength surfaces", for males and females for each direction; surfaces were fit using a logistic equation. We also tested predictors of ankle strength, including height, weight, sex, and self-reported physical activity levels. Torque-velocity and torque-angle relationships at the ankle interact, indicating that these relationships are interdependent and best modeled using 3D surfaces. Sex was the strongest predictor of ankle strength over height, weight, and self-reported physical activity levels. 79 to 97 % of the variance in mean peak torque was explained by joint angle and movement velocity using logistic equations, for men and women and PF and DF directions separately. The 3D strength data and surface models provide a more comprehensive dataset of ankle strength in healthy adults than previously reported. These

  11. The Effect of Eight Weeks Plyometric Training on Anaerobic Power, Counter Movement Jumping and Isokinetic Strength in 15-18 Years Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adigüzel, Niyazi Sidki; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks plyometric training on anaerobic power, counter movement jumping and isokinetic strength in 15-18 years aged basketball players. This study was including 30 male Basketball players. The subjects were divided into two groups as: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control…

  12. Preseason Strength Assessment of the Rotator Muscles and Shoulder Injury in Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Forthomme, Bénédicte; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Delvaux, François; Kaux, Jean-François; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Gleizes-Cervera, Sophie

    2018-02-01

      Few researchers have identified intrinsic risk factors for shoulder injury in team handball players by analyzing measurements of maximal isokinetic rotator muscle strength.   To identify possible intrinsic risk factors for shoulder injury by analyzing measurements of maximal isokinetic rotator muscle strength.   Cross-sectional study.   Male team handball senior divisions (the highest level) in France and Belgium.   A total of 108 male high-level handball players (age = 24 ± 4 years, height = 189 ± 6 cm, mass = 87 ± 11 kg) were enrolled.   All players completed a preseason questionnaire and performed a bilateral isokinetic assessment of the shoulder rotator muscles. On a monthly questionnaire, players reported any shoulder injury that they sustained during the season.   On the preseason questionnaire, 51 of 108 (47%) participants reported a history of dominant-shoulder injury. A total of 106 participants completed the in-season questionnaire, with 22% (n = 23) reporting a shoulder injury on their dominant side during the subsequent season. Fourteen percent (n = 15) sustained microtraumatic injuries, and 8% (n = 8) described a traumatic injury. Backcourt players had a 3.5-times increased risk of injury during the new season compared with players in other positions. Among the isokinetic results, no risk factor for further injury was identified in handball players with microtraumatic injuries. For traumatic injuries, the concentric maximal strength developed by the internal rotators at high speed (240°/s) in the dominant shoulder was a protective factor against the risk of further injury.   These results can potentially identify intrinsic risk factors for shoulder injury and may be used to determine potential interventions for reducing this risk in handball players.

  13. Comparison of Three Methods of Assessing Muscle Strength and Imbalance Ratios of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Crayton L.; Wright, P. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Three strength measurement methods for determining muscle strength and imbalance ratios of the knee were compared in 41 (23 female, 18 male) NCAA Division I track and field athletes. Peak quadriceps extensions and hamstring flexions were measured isotonically, isometrically, and isokinetically. Isokinetic measurements were performed on a Cybex II at 60°/s. Isometric extension and flexion measurements were performed using the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester (Lafayette Instruments; Lafayette, Ind). Isotonic measurements were done on both Universal and Nautilus apparatuses. Testing order was randomized to avoid a treatment order effect. A repeated measures ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test were used to compare the three methods of assessing strength and imbalance ratios of the knee. Absolute strength values were significantly different according to gender and mode of testing. Bilateral strength imbalance ratios for knee flexion were significantly lower for the Nautilus leg curl machine. Ipsilateral strength imbalance ratios were significantly greater for the Cybex II. Our results indicated that absolute strength values cannot be interchanged between testing modes. Except for Cybex II (ipsilateral) and Nautilus (bilateral knee flexion), strength imbalance ratios could be interchanged. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.INGING PMID:16558207

  14. Recovery of calf muscle strength following acute achilles tendon rupture treatment: a comparison between minimally invasive surgery and conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Metz, Roderik; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M M; Tamminga, Rob; van der Werken, Christiaan

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures on calf muscle strength recovery. Eighty-three patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were randomly allocated to either minimally invasive surgery with functional after-treatment or conservative treatment by functional bracing. Calf muscle strength using isokinetic testing was evaluated at 3 months and after 6 or more months posttreatment. To exclusively investigate the effect of treatment on outcome, the authors excluded patients with major complications from the analysis. In 31 of 39 patients in the surgical treatment group and 25 of 34 patients in the conservative treatment group, isokinetic strength tests were performed. In the analysis of differences in mean peak torque, no statistically significant differences were found between surgery and conservative treatment, except for plantar flexion strength at 90 degrees per second at the second measurement, favoring conservative treatment. After 8 to 10 months follow- up, loss of plantar flexion strength was still present in the injured leg in both treatment groups. In conclusion, isokinetic muscle strength testing did not detect a statistically significant difference between minimally invasive surgical treatment with functional after-treatment and conservative treatment by functional bracing of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

  15. Lower Extremity Muscle Thickness During 30-Day 6 degrees Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Kirby, L. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle thickness was measured in 19 Bed-Rested (BR) men (32-42 year) subjected to IsoTonic (ITE, cycle orgometer) and IsoKi- netic (IKE, torque orgometer) lower extremity exercise training, and NO Exercise (NOE) training. Thickness was measured with ultrasonography in anterior thigh-Rectus Femoris (RF) and Vastus Intermadius (VI), and combined posterior log-soleus, flexor ballucis longus, and tibialis posterior (S + FHL +TP) - muscles. Compared with ambulatory control values, thickness of the (S + FHL + TP) decreased by 90%-12% (p less than 0.05) In all three test groups. The (RF) thickness was unchanged in the two exercise groups, but decreased by 10% (p less than 0.05) in the NOE. The (VI) thickness was unchanged In the ITE group, but decreased by 12%-l6% (p less than 0.05) in the IKE and NOE groups. Thus, intensive, alternating, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise training is as effective as intensive, intermittent, isokinetic exercise training for maintaining thicknesses of rectus femoris and vastus lntermedius anterior thigh muscles, but not posterior log muscles, during prolonged BR deconditioning.

  16. Relationship between muscle mass and physical performance: is it the same in older adults with weak muscle strength?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Jang, Soong-Nang; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Jae-Young

    2012-11-01

    the relationship between muscle mass and physical performance has not been consistent among studies. to clarify the relationship between muscle mass and physical performance in older adults with weak muscle strength. cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of 542 older men and women from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. dual X-ray absorptiometry, isokinetic dynamometer and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were performed. Two muscle mass parameters, appendicular skeletal mass divided by weight (ASM/Wt) and by height squared (ASM/Ht(2)), were measured. We divided the participants into a lower-quartile (L25) group and an upper-three-quartiles (H75) group based on the knee-extensor peak torque. Correlation analysis and logistic regression models were used to assess the association between muscle mass and low physical performance, defined as SPPB scores <9, after controlling for confounders. in the L25 group, no correlation between mass and SPPB was detected, whereas the correlation between peak torque and SPPB was significant and higher than that in the H75 group. Results from the logistic models also showed no association between muscle mass and SPPB in the L25 group, whereas muscle mass was associated with SPPB in the H75 group. muscle mass was not associated with physical performance in weak older adults. Measures of muscle strength may be of greater clinical importance in weak older adults than is muscle mass per se.

  17. Leg muscle volume during 30-day 6-degree head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Lee, P. L.; Ellis, S.; Selzer, R. H.; Ortendahl, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to compare the effect of two modes of lower-extremity exercise training on the mass (volume) of posterior leg group (PLG) muscles (soleus, flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, lateral and medial gastrocnemius, and flexor digitorum longus) on 19 men (ages 32-42 years) subjected to intense dynamic-isotonic (ITE, cycle ergometer, number of subjects (N) = 7), isokinetic (IKE, torque egrometer, N = 7), and no exercise (NOE, N = 5) training for 60 min/day during head-down bed rest (HDBR). Total volume of the PLG muscles decreased (p less than 0.05) similarly: ITE = 4.3 +/- SE 1.6%, IKE = 7.7 +/- 1.6%, and NOE = 6.3 +/- 0.8%; combined volume (N = 19) loss was 6.1 +/- 0.9%. Ranges of volume changes were 2.6% to -9.0% (ITE), -2.1% to -14.9% (IKE), and -3.4% to -8/1% (NOE). Correlation coefficients (r) of muscle volume versus thickness measured with ultrasonography were: ITE r + 0.79 (p less than 0.05), IKE r = 0.27 (not significant (NS)), and NOE r = 0.63 (NS). Leg-muscle volume and thickness were highly correlated (r = 0.79) when plasma volume was maintained during HDBR with ITE. Thus, neither intensive lower extremity ITE nor IKE training influence the normal non-exercised posterior leg muscle atrophy during HDBR. The relationship of muscle volume and thickness may depend on the mode of exercise training associated with the maintenance of plasma volume.

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of Innovated Strength Tests for Hip Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christophe; Corten, Kristoff; Wesseling, Mariska; Peers, Koen; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research. PMID:24260550

  19. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    PubMed

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p < 0.001), also when normalized to body mass (4.1%) (p = 0.012), but not for weight-adjusted hamstring muscle strength. The H:Q ratio was higher on the dominant compared with the nondominant leg for handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p < 0.02). These normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion torques of healthy, elite, female handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be

  20. Coactivation of the elbow antagonist muscles is not affected by the speed of movement in isokinetic exercise.

    PubMed

    Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Sbriccoli, Paola; Marzattinocci, Giulia; Felici, Francesco

    2006-02-01

    Since muscle coactivation increases the stiffness and stability of a joint, greater coactivation is likely during faster than slower movements. Very few studies, though, have been conducted to verify this hypothesis. Moreover, a large number of studies have examined coactivation of muscles surrounding the knee joint whereas there are few reports on the elbow joint. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the antagonist activation of the elbow flexors and extensors during isokinetic concentric exercises and to investigate the influence of angular velocity on their activation. Twelve men participated in the study. The surface electromyographic signals (sEMG) were recorded from the biceps brachii (BB) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles during three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of elbow flexors and extensors and a set of three maximal elbow flexions and extensions each at 15 degrees, 30 degrees , 60 degrees, 120 degrees, 180 degrees, and 240 degrees.s(-1). Normalized root mean square (RMS) of sEMG was calculated during the isokinetic phase of movement as an index of sEMG amplitude. During elbow flexion, the antagonist activation of BB averaged 16.2% lower than TB, and this difference was statistically significant at all angular velocities. The normalized RMS values ranged from 26.0% +/- 19.0 at MVC to 37.8% +/- 13.9 at 240 degrees.s(-1) for antagonist TB activation, and from 5.7% +/- 5.2 at MVC to 18.9% +/- 8.6 at 240 degrees.s(-1) for antagonist BB activation. No influence of angular velocity on agonist and antagonist activity was found. Moreover, flexion and extension torques were both strongly affected by the amount of antagonist activation. The functional specialization of the two muscle groups could be responsible for the different levels of antagonist activation. The frequent use of BB, which is not assisted by gravity during daily activities, could lead to reduced coactivation due to a better functioning of the control system based upon

  1. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Muscle Strength, Pain, or Physical Performance in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    Baert, Isabel A C; Meeus, Mira; Mahmoudian, Armaghan; Luyten, Frank P; Nijs, Jo; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, namely, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and maladaptive coping strategies, with muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related symptoms. A total of 109 women (64 with knee OA-related symptoms) with a mean age of 65.4 years (49-81 years) were recruited for this study. Psychosocial factors were quantified by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Coping Inventory. Clinical features were assessed using isometric and isokinetic knee muscle strength measurements, visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and functional tests. Associations were examined using correlation and regression analysis. In knee OA patients, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy explained a significant proportion of the variability in isometric knee extension and flexion strength (6.3%-9.2%), accounting for more overall variability than some demographic and medical status variables combined. Psychosocial factors were not significant independent predictors of isokinetic strength, knee pain, or physical performance. In understanding clinical features related to knee OA, such as muscle weakness, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy might offer something additional beyond what might be explained by traditional factors, underscoring the importance of a biopsychosocial approach in knee OA management. Further research on individual patient characteristics that mediate the effects of psychosocial factors is, however, required in order to create opportunities for more targeted, personalized treatment for knee OA.

  2. Output of skeletal muscle contractions. a study of isokinetic plantar flexion in athletes.

    PubMed

    Fugl-Meyer, A R; Mild, K H; Hörnsten, J

    1982-06-01

    Maximum torques, total work and mean power of isokinetic plantar flexions were measured with simultaneous registrations. The integrated electromyograms (iEMG) were obtained by surface electrodes from all three heads of the m. triceps surae. The method applied offers possibilities for adequate description of dynamic muscular work which in the case of plantar flexion in trained man declines as a negative exponential function of angular motion velocity. The decline is parallel to that of maximum torques. The summed triceps surae iEMG was inversely proportional to the velocity and direct proportional to time suggesting that structural rather than neural factors determine the relationships between velocity of angular motion and maximum torque/total work of single Mmaneuvers. Moreover, the fact that maximum mean power as well as maximum electrical efficiency were reached at the functional velocity of toe-off during gait suggests an influence of pragmatic demands on plantar flexion mechanical output.

  3. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  4. Differential Effect of Taekwondo Training on Knee Muscle Strength and Reactive and Static Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Chung, Joanne W. Y.; Chow, Lina P. Y.; Ma, Ada W. W.; Tsang, William W. N.

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the effect of short-term intensive TKD training on the isokinetic knee muscle strength and reactive and static balance control of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Among the 44 children with DCD (mean age: 7.6 plus or minus 1.3 years) recruited, 21 were randomly assigned…

  5. Combined Effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis Supplementation and Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power, Anaerobic and Aerobic Fitness Level, and Immune Parameters in Young Males

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Hamdan, Nor Faeiza; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Wan Abd Hamid, Wan Zuraida

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis (LRS) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters in young males. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (C), LRS, RT, and combined RT-LRS (RT-LRS). Participants in the LRS and RT-LRS groups consumed 500 mg of LRS daily for 8 weeks. RT was conducted 3 times/week for 8 weeks for participants in the RT and RT-LRS groups. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention period: Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, and anaerobic and aerobic fitness. Blood samples were also collected to determine immune parameters. Results: Isokinetic muscular strength and power were increased (P < 0.05) in participants of both RT and RT-LRS groups. RT-LRS group had shown increases (P < 0.05) in shoulder extension peak torque, shoulder flexion and extension average power, knee flexion peak torque, and knee flexion and extension average power. There were also increases (P < 0.05) in anaerobic power and capacity and aerobic fitness in this group. Similarly, RT group had increases (P < 0.05) in shoulder flexion average power, knee flexion and extension peak torque, and knee flexion and extension average power. In addition, increases (P < 0.05) in anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic fitness, T lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4), and B lymphocytes (CD19) counts were observed in the RT group. Conclusions: RT elicited increased isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters among young males. However, supplementation with LRS during RT did not provide additive benefits. PMID:27833721

  6. Combined Effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis Supplementation and Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power, Anaerobic and Aerobic Fitness Level, and Immune Parameters in Young Males.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chee Keong; Hamdan, Nor Faeiza; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Wan Abd Hamid, Wan Zuraida

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis (LRS) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters in young males. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (C), LRS, RT, and combined RT-LRS (RT-LRS). Participants in the LRS and RT-LRS groups consumed 500 mg of LRS daily for 8 weeks. RT was conducted 3 times/week for 8 weeks for participants in the RT and RT-LRS groups. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention period: Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, and anaerobic and aerobic fitness. Blood samples were also collected to determine immune parameters. Isokinetic muscular strength and power were increased ( P < 0.05) in participants of both RT and RT-LRS groups. RT-LRS group had shown increases ( P < 0.05) in shoulder extension peak torque, shoulder flexion and extension average power, knee flexion peak torque, and knee flexion and extension average power. There were also increases ( P < 0.05) in anaerobic power and capacity and aerobic fitness in this group. Similarly, RT group had increases ( P < 0.05) in shoulder flexion average power, knee flexion and extension peak torque, and knee flexion and extension average power. In addition, increases ( P < 0.05) in anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic fitness, T lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4), and B lymphocytes (CD19) counts were observed in the RT group. RT elicited increased isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters among young males. However, supplementation with LRS during RT did not provide additive benefits.

  7. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, P<0.001), but were similar to preoperative level at six months (18.4 N∙m, 7.4 N∙m P<0.001) and were maintained for up to one year (15.9 N∙m, 4.1 N∙m P<0.001). The pooled mean differences in changes in quadriceps and hamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808

  8. Isokinetic and isometric strength-endurance after 6 hours of immersion and 6 degrees head-down tilt in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer-Bailey, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Hutchinson, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine weight (water) loss levels for onset of muscular strength and endurance changes during deconditioning. METHODS: Seven men (27-40 yr) performed maximal shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint isometric (0 degree.s(-1) load) and isokinetic (60 degrees, 120 degrees, 180 degrees.s(-1) velocity) exercise tests during ambulatory control (AC), after 6 h of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT; dry-bulb temp. = 23.2 +/- SD 0.6 degrees C, relative humidity = 31.1+/- 11.1%) and after 6 h of 80 degrees foot-down head-out water immersion (WI; water temp. = 35.0 +/- SD 0.1 degree C) treatments. RESULTS: Weight (water) loss after HDT (1.10 +/- SE 0.14 kg, 1.4 +/- 0.2% body wt) and WI (1.54+/- 0.19 kg, 2.0 +/- 0.2% body wt) were not different, but urinary excretion with WI (1,354 +/- 142 ml.6 h(-1)) was 28% greater (p < 0.05) than that of 975 +/- 139 ml.6 h(-1) with HDT. Muscular endurance (total work; maximal flexion-extension of the non-dominant knee at 180 degrees.s(-1) for 30 s) was not different between AC and the WI or HDT treatments. Shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint strength was unchanged except for three knee-joint peak torques: AC torque (120 degrees.s(-1), 285 +/- 20 Nm) decreased to 268 +/- 21 Nm (delta = -6%, p < 0.05) with WI; and AC torques (180 degrees.s(-1), 260 +/- 19 Nm) decreased to 236 +/- 15 Nm (delta = -9%, p < 0.01) with HDT, and to 235 +/- 19 Nm (delta = -10%, p < 0.01) with WI. CONCLUSION: Thus, the total body hypohydration threshold level for shoulder- and ankle-joint strength and endurance decrements is more than 2% body weight (water) loss, while significant reduction in knee-joint muscular strength-endurance occurred only at moderate (120 degrees.s(-1) and lighter (180 degrees.s(-1)) loads with body weight loss of 1.4-2.0% following WI or HDT, respectively. These weight (water) losses and knee-joint strength decrements are somewhat less than the mean weight loss of 2.6% and knee-joint strength decrements of 6-20% of American astronauts after

  9. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players. PMID:27942136

  10. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players.

  11. Long-term functional results and isokinetic strength evaluation after arthroscopic tenotomy of the long head of biceps tendon

    PubMed Central

    The, Bertram; Brutty, Mike; Wang, Allan; Campbell, Peter T.; Halliday, Michael J. C.; Ackland, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical function of the upper arm after arthroscopic long head of biceps (LHB) tenotomy at long-term follow-up. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male subjects ranging from 30 to 63 years old were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 7.0 years after tenotomy. Bilateral isokinetic testing was performed to obtain peak torque values, as well as total work done throughout the full range of elbow flexion and supination. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed nine unrecognized LHB ruptures in the contralateral arm, leaving 16 subjects to complete the testing protocol. The mean quickDASH score was 8.1 (standard error [SE] 2.5). The mean oxford elbow score was 97.9 (SE 1.6). The tenotomy arm recorded a decrease in peak flexion torque of 7.0% (confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.8), and a decrease in the peak supination torque of 9.1% (CI 1.8-16.4) relative to the contralateral arm. The total work carried out through the full range of joint motion was reduced in elbow flexion by 5.1% (CI −1.3-11.4) and in forearm supination by 5.7% (CI-2.4-13.9). Discussion: Maximum strength in elbow flexion and forearm supination is significantly reduced compared with the contralateral arm. However, this impairment is partially compensated for by relatively greater strength sustained through the latter stages of joint motion. This results in comparable total work measurements between the tenotomised and contralateral side, potentially accounting for ongoing high levels of patient satisfaction and clinical function in the long term after LHB tenotomy. Level of Evidence IV: Case series without comparison group. PMID:25258498

  12. Long-term functional results and isokinetic strength evaluation after arthroscopic tenotomy of the long head of biceps tendon.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Brutty, Mike; Wang, Allan; Campbell, Peter T; Halliday, Michael J C; Ackland, Timothy R

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical function of the upper arm after arthroscopic long head of biceps (LHB) tenotomy at long-term follow-up. Twenty-five male subjects ranging from 30 to 63 years old were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 7.0 years after tenotomy. Bilateral isokinetic testing was performed to obtain peak torque values, as well as total work done throughout the full range of elbow flexion and supination. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed nine unrecognized LHB ruptures in the contralateral arm, leaving 16 subjects to complete the testing protocol. The mean quickDASH score was 8.1 (standard error [SE] 2.5). The mean oxford elbow score was 97.9 (SE 1.6). The tenotomy arm recorded a decrease in peak flexion torque of 7.0% (confidence interval [CI] 1.2-12.8), and a decrease in the peak supination torque of 9.1% (CI 1.8-16.4) relative to the contralateral arm. The total work carried out through the full range of joint motion was reduced in elbow flexion by 5.1% (CI -1.3-11.4) and in forearm supination by 5.7% (CI-2.4-13.9). Maximum strength in elbow flexion and forearm supination is significantly reduced compared with the contralateral arm. However, this impairment is partially compensated for by relatively greater strength sustained through the latter stages of joint motion. This results in comparable total work measurements between the tenotomised and contralateral side, potentially accounting for ongoing high levels of patient satisfaction and clinical function in the long term after LHB tenotomy. Case series without comparison group.

  13. Differences in muscle strength after ACL reconstruction do not influence cardiorespiratory responses to isometabolic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marília S.; Lira, Claudio A. B.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; Nakamoto, Fernanda P.; Cohen, Moisés; Silva, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the muscle strength decrease that follows anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction would lead to different cardiorespiratory adjustments during dynamic exercise. Method Eighteen active male subjects were submitted to isokinetic evaluation of knee flexor and extensor muscles four months after ACL surgery. Thigh circumference was also measured and an incremental unilateral cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed separately for both involved and uninvolved lower limbs in order to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, and ventilatory pattern (breath rate, tidal volume, inspiratory time, expiratory time, tidal volume/inspiratory time) at three different workloads (moderate, anaerobic threshold, and maximal). Results There was a significant difference between isokinetic extensor peak torque measured in the involved (116.5±29.1 Nm) and uninvolved (220.8±40.4 Nm) limbs, p=0.000. Isokinetic flexor peak torque was also lower in the involved limb than in the uninvolved limb (107.8±15.4 and 132.5±26.3 Nm, p=0.004, respectively). Lower values were also found in involved thigh circumference as compared with uninvolved limb (46.9±4.3 and 48.5±3.9 cm, p=0.005, respectively). No differences were found between the lower limbs in any of the variables of the incremental cardiopulmonary tests at all exercise intensities. Conclusions Our findings indicate that, four months after ACL surgery, there is a significant deficit in isokinetic strength in the involved limb, but these differences in muscle strength requirement do not produce differences in the cardiorespiratory adjustments to exercise. Based on the hypotheses from the literature which explain the differences in the physiological responses to exercise for different muscle masses, we can deduce that, after 4 months of a rehabilitation program after an ACL reconstruction, individuals probably do not present differences in muscle oxidative and peripheral

  14. Achilles tendinosis and calf muscle strength. The effect of short-term immobilization after surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Pietilä, T; Ohberg, L; Lorentzon, R

    1998-01-01

    We prospectively studied calf muscle strength in 7 men and 4 women (mean age, 40.9 +/- 10.1 years) who had surgical treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weightbearing below-the-knee plaster cast for 2 weeks followed by a stepwise increasing strength training program. Strength measurements (peak torque and total work) were done preoperatively (Week 0) and at 16, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. We measured isokinetic concentric plantar flexion strength at 90 and 225 deg/sec and eccentric flexion strength at 90 deg/sec on both the injured and noninjured sides. Preoperatively, concentric and eccentric strength were significantly lower on the injured side at 90 and 225 deg/sec. Postoperatively, concentric peak torque on the injured side decreased significantly between Weeks 0 and 16 and increased significantly between Weeks 26 and 52 at 90 deg/sec but was significantly lower than that on the noninjured side at all periods and at both velocities. The eccentric strength was significantly lower on the injured side at Week 26 but increased significantly until at Week 52 no significant differences between the sides could be demonstrated. It seems, therefore, that the recovery in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength after surgery for Achilles tendinosis is slow. We saw no obvious advantages in recovery of muscle strength with a short immobilization time (2 weeks) versus a longer (6 weeks) period used in a previous study.

  15. Joint laxity and the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Knol, D L; Dinant, H; Dekker, J

    2006-12-15

    To establish the impact of knee joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A cross-sectional study of 86 patients with OA of the knee was conducted. Tests were performed to determine varus-valgus laxity, muscle strength, and functional ability. Laxity was assessed using a device that measures the angular deviation of the knee in the frontal plane. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by observation (100-meter walking test) and self report (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]). Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. In regression analyses, the interaction between muscle strength and joint laxity contributed to the variance in both walking time (P = 0.002) and WOMAC score (P = 0.080). The slope of the regression lines indicated that the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability (walking time, WOMAC) was stronger in patients with high knee joint laxity. Patients with knee OA and high knee joint laxity show a stronger relationship between muscle strength and functional ability than patients with OA and low knee joint laxity. Patients with OA, high knee joint laxity, and low muscle strength are most at risk of being disabled.

  16. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (E<45), and “low conscientiousness” (C<45) have been associated with multiple risky health behaviors but have not been investigated with regards to muscle strength. Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between individual and combined typologies consisting of high N, low E, and low C and muscle strength, and whether physical activity and body mass index act as mediators. Method This cross-sectional study includes 1,220 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results High N was found among 18%, low E among 31%, and low C among 26% of the sample. High levels of N, particularly when combined with either low E or low C, were associated with lower muscle strength compared with having only one or none of these personality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  17. Soccer-Specific Fatigue and Eccentric Hamstrings Muscle Strength

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Matt; Siegler, Jason C

    2009-01-01

    Context: Epidemiologic findings of higher incidences of hamstrings muscle strains during the latter stages of soccer match play have been attributed to fatigue. Objective: To investigate the influence of soccer-specific fatigue on the peak eccentric torque of the knee flexor muscles. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Patients or Other Participants: Ten male professional soccer players (age  =  24.7 ± 4.4 years, mass  =  77.1 ± 8.3 kg, V̇o2max  =  63.0 ± 4.8 mL·kg−1·min−1). Intervention(s): Participants completed an intermittent treadmill protocol replicating the activity profile of soccer match play, with a passive halftime interval. Before exercise and at 15-minute intervals, each player completed isokinetic dynamometer trials. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak eccentric knee flexor torque was quantified at isokinetic speeds of 180° · s−1, 300° · s−1, and 60° · s−1, with 5 repetitions at each speed. Results: Peak eccentric knee flexor torque at the end of the game (T300eccH105  =  127 ± 25 Nm) and at the end of the passive halftime interval (T300eccH60  =  133 ± 32 Nm) was reduced relative to T300eccH00 (167 ± 35 Nm, P < .01) and T300eccH15 (161 ± 35 Nm, P  =  .02). Conclusions: Eccentric hamstrings strength decreased as a function of time and after the halftime interval. This finding indicates a greater risk of injuries at these specific times, especially for explosive movements, in accordance with epidemiologic observations. Incorporating eccentric knee flexor exercises into resistance training sessions that follow soccer-specific conditioning is warranted to try to reduce the incidence or recurrence of hamstrings strains. PMID:19295963

  18. Reference values for muscle strength: a systematic review with a descriptive meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Benfica, Poliana do Amaral; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Brito, Sherindan Ayessa Ferreira de; Bernardino, Luane Helena Nunes; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2018-05-03

    Muscle strength is an important component of health. To describe and evaluate the studies which have established the reference values for muscle strength on healthy individuals and to synthesize these values with a descriptive meta-analysis approach. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Studies that investigated the reference values for muscle strength of two or more appendicular/axial muscle groups of health individuals were included. Methodological quality, including risk of bias was assessed by the QUADAS-2. Data extracted included: country of the study, sample size, population characteristics, equipment/method used, and muscle groups evaluated. Of the 414 studies identified, 46 were included. Most of the studies had adequate methodological quality. Included studies evaluated: appendicular (80.4%) and axial (36.9%) muscles; adults (78.3%), elderly (58.7%), adolescents (43.5%), children (23.9%); isometric (91.3%) and isokinetic (17.4%) strength. Six studies (13%) with similar procedures were synthesized with meta-analysis. Generally, the coefficient of variation values that resulted from the meta-analysis ranged from 20.1% to 30% and were similar to those reported by the original studies. The meta-analysis synthesized the reference values of isometric strength of 14 muscle groups of the dominant/non-dominant sides of the upper/lower limbs of adults/elderly from developed countries, using dynamometers/myometer. Most of the included studies had adequate methodological quality. The meta-analysis provided reference values for the isometric strength of 14 appendicular muscle groups of the dominant/non-dominant sides, measured with dynamometers/myometers, of men/women, of adults/elderly. These data may be used to interpret the results of the evaluations and establish appropriate treatment goals. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  19. Asymmetries in functional hop tests, lower extremity kinematics, and isokinetic strength persist 6 to 9 months following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xergia, Sofia A; Pappas, Evangelos; Zampeli, Franceska; Georgiou, Spyros; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2013-03-01

    Within-subject and between-subject cross-sectional study. To investigate symmetry in hop-test performance, strength, and lower extremity kinematics 6 to 9 months following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Despite the extensive body of literature involving persons following ACLR, no study has comprehensively evaluated measures of strength, lower extremity kinematics, and functional performance of functional hop tests in this population. The subjects were 22 men (mean ± SD age, 28.8 ± 11.2 years) who had ACLR using a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft 6 to 9 (7.01 ± 0.93) months previously and 22 healthy male controls (age, 24.8 ± 9.1 years). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire and underwent isokinetic strength testing and functional and kinematic assessment of the single-, triple-, and crossover-hop tests. Two-way analyses of variance were used to test for differences between the ACLR group and the control group, and between the 2 lower extremities of the ACLR group. Compared to the control group, the ACLR group had greater isokinetic knee extension torque deficits at all speeds (P ≤.001) and greater performance asymmetry for all 3 hop tests (P<.001). Compared to the noninvolved lower extremity, the involved lower extremity of the ACLR group exhibited less ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion in the phases of propulsion (P ≤.014) and landing (P ≤.032). When compared to the control group, the involved lower extremity exhibited less ankle dorsiflexion in the propulsion phase (P<.001) but higher hip flexion in the landing phase (P = .014). Six to 9 months following ACLR, patients continue to demonstrate functional hop and isokinetic knee extension deficits, as well as kinematic differences, during the propulsion and landing phases of the hop tests.

  20. Strength characterization of knee flexor and extensor muscles in Prader-Willi and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Paolo; Vismara, Luca; Menegoni, Francesco; Baccalaro, Gabriele; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano

    2009-05-06

    despite evidence of an obesity-related disability, there is a lack of objective muscle functional data in overweight subjects. Only few studies provide instrumental strength measurements in non-syndromal obesity, whereas no data about Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the lower limb muscle function of patients affected by PWS as compared to non-syndromal obesity and normal-weight subjects. We enrolled 20 obese (O) females (age: 29.1 +/- 6.5 years; BMI: 38.1 +/- 3.1), 6 PWS females (age: 27.2 +/- 4.9 years; BMI: 45.8 +/- 4.4) and 14 healthy normal-weight (H) females (age: 30.1 +/- 4.7 years; BMI: 21 +/- 1.6). Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in both lower limbs at the fixed angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 180 degrees /s, 240 degrees /s was measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer. the H, O and PWS populations appear to be clearly stratified with regard to muscle strength.: PWS showed the lowest absolute peak torque (PT) for knee flexor and extensor muscles as compared to O (-55%) and H (-47%) (P = 0.00001). O showed significantly higher strength values than H as regard to knee extension only (P = 0.0014). When strength data were normalised by body weight, PWS showed a 50% and a 70% reduction in PT as compared to O and H, respectively. Knee flexors strength values were on average half of those reported for extension in all of the three populations. the novel aspect of our study is the determination of objective measures of muscle strength in PWS and the comparison with O and H patients. The objective characterization of muscle function performed in this study provides baseline and outcome measures that may quantify specific strength deficits amendable with tailored rehabilitation programs and monitor effectiveness of treatments.

  1. The Immediate Effect of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation (NJF) Treatment on Hip Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdan; Huo, Ming; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the change in hip muscle strength of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 21 subjects (11 males, 10 females), and the PNF group consisted of 24 subjects (11 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength during isokinetic movement of the hip joint before and after intervention in both groups. The angular velocities used were 60°/sec and 180°/sec. [Results] The NJF group showed significant increases in the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength after the intervention at each angular velocity. In the PNF group, the maximal flexor strength of 60°/sec and the maximal extensor strength of 180°/sec were significant increases. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on hip muscle strength.

  2. Validity and test–retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Methods: Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations (r). Test–retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. Results: A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry (r = 0.824, p < 0.001). For the novel back extensor strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971–0.990), p < 0.001 and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.901 (95% confidence interval, 0.833–0.943), p < 0.001, respectively). Limits of agreement for short-term repeated back extensor strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were −6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density (p < 0.05) and 9% of lumbar spine index of bone structural strength (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our novel hand-held dynamometer method to determine back extensor muscle strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates

  3. Effects of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masahiro; Gomi, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting by performing simultaneous measurements with a handheld dynamometer (HHD) and an isokinetic dynamometer (IKD) in the same seated condition. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy volunteers. Isometric knee extension muscle strength was simultaneously measured with a HHD and an IKD by using an IKD-specific chair. The measurement was performed twice. Measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were examined by using the analysis of variance and correlation tests. [Results] The measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were not significantly different. The correlation coefficients between the HHD and IKD measurements were ≥0.96. [Conclusion] Isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement using the HHD in the sitting position resulted in a lower value than that using the IKD, presumably because of the effect of trunk stability on the measurement. In the same seated posture with trunk stability, no significant difference in measurement values was observed between the HHD and IKD. The present findings suggest that trunk stability while seated during isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement influenced the HHD measurement.

  4. Intra-rater Reliability of Arm and Hand Muscle Strength Measurements in Persons With Late Effects of Polio.

    PubMed

    Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Carlsson, Håkan; Lexell, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Muscle weakness in the upper limb is common in persons with late effects of polio. To be able to measure muscle strength and follow changes over time, reliable measurements are needed. To evaluate the intra-rater reliability of isometric and isokinetic arm and hand muscle strength measurements in persons with late effects of polio. A test-retest design. A university hospital outpatient clinic. Twenty-eight persons (mean age 68 years, SD 11 years) with late effects of polio in their upper limbs. Isometric shoulder abduction, isokinetic concentric elbow flexion and extension, isometric elbow flexion, and isometric grip strength were measured twice, 14 days apart. Reliability was evaluated with the intra-class correlation coefficient, the mean difference between the test sessions (d¯), together with the 95% confidence intervals for d¯ , the standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%), the smallest real difference (SRD and SRD%), and Bland-Altman graphs. A fixed dynamometer (Biodex) was used to measure arm strength and an electronic dynamometer (GRIP-it) was used to measure grip strength. Intra-rater reliability was high, with intra-class correlation coefficients between 0.87 and 0.98. The SEM%, representing the smallest change for a group of persons, ranged from 7%-24% for all strength measurements, and the SRD%, representing the smallest change for an individual person, ranged from 20%-67%. Muscle strength in the upper limbs can be reliably measured in persons with late effects of polio. However, the measurement errors indicate that the method is more suitable to detect changes in muscle strength for a group of persons than for an individual person. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Joint proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Harlaar, J; Knol, D; Lems, W; Dekker, J

    2007-06-15

    To test the hypotheses that poor knee joint proprioception is related to limitations in functional ability, and poor proprioception aggravates the impact of muscle weakness on limitations in functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Sixty-three patients with symptomatic OA of the knee were tested. Proprioceptive acuity was assessed by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT) in the anteroposterior direction. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by the 100-meter walking test, the Get Up and Go (GUG) test, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of proprioception on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was related to more limitation in functional ability (walking time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; GUG time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; WOMAC-PF r = 0.26, P <0.05). In regression analyses, the interaction between proprioception and muscle strength was significantly related to functional ability (walking time, P < 0.001 and GUG time, P < 0.001) but not to WOMAC-PF score (P = 0.625). In patients with poor proprioception, reduction of muscle strength was associated with more severe deterioration of functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception. Patients with poor proprioception show more limitation in functional ability, but this relationship is rather weak. In patients with poor proprioception, muscle weakness has a stronger impact on limitations in functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception.

  6. Relationships of muscle strength and bone mineral density in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-L; Lin, K-C; Wu, C-Y; Ke, J-Y; Wang, C-J; Chen, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The knee extensor strength, but not motor function, was related to aBMD. Thus, muscle strength, especially antigravity muscle strength, was more associated with aBMD in these children than motor function. Muscle strength is related to bone density in normal children. However, no studies have examined these relationships in ambulatory children with CP. This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and aBMD in ambulatory children with CP. Forty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP, aged 5-15 years, were classified into two groups based on Gross Motor Function Classification System levels: I (n = 28) and II (n = 20). Another 31 normal development (ND) children were recruited as the comparison group for the aBMD. Children with CP underwent assessments of growth, lumbar and distal femur aBMD, Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66), and muscle strength of knee extensor and flexor by isokinetic dynamometer. The distal femur aBMD, but not lumbar aBMD, was lower in children with CP than in ND children (p < 0.05). Children with level I had greater knee flexor strength and GMFM-66 scores than those with level II (p < 0.001). However, the knee extensor strength and distal femur and lumbar aBMD did not differ between two groups. Regression analysis revealed the weight and knee extensor strength, but not GMFM-66 scores, were related positively to the distal femur and lumbar aBMD (adjusted r (2) = 0.56-0.65, p < 0.001). These results suggest the muscle strength, especially antigravity muscle strength, were more associated with the bone density of ambulatory children with CP than motor function. The data may allow clinicians for early identifying the ambulatory CP children of potential low bone density.

  7. Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods/Design A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index – normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle

  8. Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; El-Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues; Frigero, Marcelo; Antonialli, Fernanda Colella; Vanin, Adriane Aver; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo

    2014-04-09

    Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index - normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle performance in Individuals with DM-2

  9. Age, weight, and the front abdominal power test as predictors of isokinetic trunk strength and work in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Patrick M; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Sottung, Kyle; Swensen, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    First we tested the reliability of two new field tests of core stability (plank to fatigue test [PFT] and front abdominal power test [FAPT]), as well as established measures of core stability (isokinetic trunk extension and flexion strength [TES and TFS] and work [TEW and TFW]) over 3 days in 8 young men and women (24.0 +/- 3.1 years). The TES, TFS, TFW, and FAPT were highly reliable, TEW was moderately reliable, and PFT were unreliable for use during a single testing session. Next, we determined if age, weight, and the data from the reliable field test (FAPT) were predictive of TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW in 50 young men and women (19.0 +/- 1.2 years). The FAPT was the only significant predictor of TES and TEW in young women, explaining 16 and 15% of the variance in trunk performance, respectively. Weight was the only significant predictor of TFS and TFW in young women, explaining 28 and 14% of the variance in trunk performance, respectively. In young men, weight was the only significant predictor of TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW, and explained 27, 35, 42, and 33%, respectively, of the variance in trunk performance. In conclusion, the ability of weight and the FAPT to predict TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW was more frequent in young men than women. Additionally, because the FAPT requires few pieces of equipment, is fast to administer, and predicts isokinetic TES and TEW in young women, it can be used to provide a field-based estimate of isokinetic TES and TEW in women without history of back or lower-extremity injury.

  10. Preferential reduction of quadriceps over respiratory muscle strength and bulk after lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pinet, C; Scillia, P; Cassart, M; Lamotte, M; Knoop, C; Mélot, C; Estenne, M

    2004-09-01

    In the absence of complications, recipients of lung transplants for cystic fibrosis have normal pulmonary function but the impact of the procedure on the strength and bulk of respiratory and limb muscles has not been studied. Twelve stable patients who had undergone lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis 48 months earlier (range 8-95) and 12 normal subjects matched for age, height, and sex were studied. The following parameters were measured: standard lung function, peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometry, diaphragm surface area by computed tomographic (CT) scanning, diaphragm and abdominal muscle thickness by ultrasonography, twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, quadriceps isokinetic strength, and quadriceps cross section by CT scanning, and lean body mass. Diaphragm mass was computed from diaphragm surface area and thickness. Twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, diaphragm mass, and abdominal muscle thickness were similar in the two groups but quadriceps strength and cross section were decreased by nearly 30% in the patients. Patients had preserved quadriceps strength per unit cross section but reduced quadriceps cross section per unit lean body mass. The cumulative dose of corticosteroids was an independent predictor of quadriceps atrophy. Peak oxygen uptake showed positive correlations with quadriceps strength and cross section in the two groups, but peak oxygen uptake per unit quadriceps strength or cross section was reduced in the patient group. The diaphragm and abdominal muscles have preserved strength and bulk in patients transplanted for cystic fibrosis but the quadriceps is weak due to muscle atrophy. This atrophy is caused in part by corticosteroid therapy and correlates with the reduction in exercise capacity.

  11. Characteristics of upper extremity's muscle strength in Turkish national wheelchair basketball players team.

    PubMed

    Akınoğlu, Bihter; Kocahan, Tuğba

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to reveal characteristics of muscle strength of upper extremities of wheelchair (WC) basketball players and to ensure more-specific training program preparation. Isokinetic muscle strength of 12 WC basketball players were assessed by ISOMED 2000 device. The assessment protocol was evaluated at 60°/sec velocity with 5 times repeated force and at 240°/sec with 15 times repeated force. This protocol was carried out individually for shoulder flexion-extension and wrist flexion-extension movements at the right and left extremities. The flexion/extension ratio was determined to be outside of the ratios accepted as normal for primarily shoulder joint and for wrist joint. The extension movement was stronger than flexion movement in the shoulders at both velocities and the flexion movement was stronger than ex-tension movement in the wrist. The repeat times where the peak torque occurred were 2-3 repeats at 60°/sec velocity during flexion and extension movements for the wrist and shoulders, and the peak torque occurred at an average of 5-6 repeats in the shoulders at 240°/sec velocity and it occurred at 3-4 repeats in the wrist. The angles where the peak torque of the shoulder flexion and extension occurred varied between 80°-115° at both velocities, and it varied between 5°-30° angles for the wrist. As this study revealed, determination of muscle strength characteristics of WC athletes and especially using objective isokinetic devices will guide the planning of the appropriate training and exercise programs and preventing sports injuries in long term.

  12. [Correlations Between Joint Proprioception, Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yoa; Yu, Yong; He, Cheng-qi

    2015-11-01

    To establish correlations between joint proprioception, muscle flexion and extension peak torque, and functional ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty-six patients with symptomatic knee OA were recruited in this study. Both proprioceptive acuity and muscle strength were measured using the isomed-2000 isokinetic dynamometer. Proprioceptive acuity was evaluated by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT). Muscle strength was evaluated by Max torque (Nm) and Max torque/weight (Nm/ kg). Functional ability was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlational analyses were performed between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. A multiple stepwise regression model was established, with WOMAC-PF as dependent variable and patient age, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale (VAS)-score, mean grade for Kellgren-Lawrance of both knees, mean strength for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of both knees, and mean JMDT of both knees as independent variables. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was negatively correlated with muscle strength (P<0.05). There was no significant correlation between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint pain (WOMAC pain score), and between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint stiffness (WOMAC stiffness score). Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was correlated with limitation in functional ability (WOMAC physical function score r=0.659, P<0.05). WOMAC score was correlated with poor muscle strength (quadriceps muscle strength r = -0.511, P<0.05, hamstring muscle strength r = -0.408, P<0.05). The multiple stepwise regression model showed that high JMDT C standard partial regression coefficient (B) = 0.385, P<0.50 and high VAS-scale score (B=0.347, P<0.05) were significant predictors of WOMAC-PF score. Patients with poor proprioception is associated with poor muscle strength and limitation in functional

  13. The comparison of muscle strength and short-term endurance in the different periods of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are subjected to reduction in the quality and oxidative capacity of muscles. The effect of duration of diabetes on the muscle endurance response is not clear and strength as well. Objective The aim of this study was the assessment of strength and endurance of knee extensor and flexor in the patients with T2DM < 10 and T2DM > 10 years in comparison with age, sex, BMI, ABI and PAI-matched health control subjects. Methods Isometric maximal peak torque (MPT) of knee extensor and flexor before and after 40 isokinetic repetitions with velocity of 150 degree/s were recorded in 18 patients with T2DM < 10 Y , 12 patients with T2DM > 10 Y and 20 matched health control (HC) groups. Results Both diabetic patient groups had significant lower isometric and isotonic knee extensor and flexor strength than HC. The endurance indices indicated that whereas the isometric MPT of flexor movement was reduced after isokinetic protocol in the both patient groups in comparison with HC, the less decline was seen in the isotonic torque and work during isokinetic protocol in the T2DM > 10 Y group in comparison with two other groups. The HbA1c and FPG were significantly correlated with strength not with endurance indices. Conclusions It seems the progression of diabetes accompanied with vascular, neural and muscular deficits activate, some adaptive and compensatory processes which can maintain muscle performance. PMID:24476108

  14. The relationship of strength and muscle balance to shoulder pain and impingement syndrome in elite quadriplegic wheelchair rugby players.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, M; Sleivert, G G; Gerrard, D F

    1998-04-01

    Wheelchair athletes are susceptible to injuries related to overuse of the shoulder, in particular shoulder impingement syndrome. The present study examined the relationship of shoulder pain to demographic details, isokinetic strength and muscle balance in 8 elite quadriplegic rugby players. Demographic data were collected using personal interviews and each subject was clinically examined for signs of impingement syndrome by a physician. In addition each subject underwent bilateral isokinetic strength testing of the shoulder at 60 and 180 deg/s for abduction/adduction and internal/external rotation. A series of step-wise multiple discriminant analysis successfully predicted clinical symptoms from demographic, muscular strength and balance data. In particular, there was a significant deficit in adductor strength and this was related to shoulder pain and wasting of the scapular muscles. This strength deficit may be due to the high level of spinal lesions in the quadriplegic population. The level of spinal lesion may contribute to the aetiology of shoulder pathology in quadriplegia, and differentiate it from that observed in able-bodied athletes who exhibit weak abductors.

  15. The Relationship between Vitamin D and Muscle Size and Strength in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Patricia L.; Sakkas, Giorgos K.; Doyle, Julie W.; Shubert, Tiffany; Johansen, Kirsten L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vitamin D has various actions in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to compare lower limb muscle size and strength in hemodialysis (HD) patients being treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) or a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D analog (paricalcitol) to HD patients who were receiving none. DESIGN This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING Outpatient hemodialysis centers. PATIENTS HD patients receiving calcitriol or paricalcitol (active vitamin D) for control of secondary hyperparathyroidism (VitD, n = 49) were compared to HD patients who were not (n = 30). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of thigh and tibialis anterior muscles by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and three measures of strength; three-repetition maximum (3RM) for knee extension (isotonic), peak torque of knee extensors (isokinetic), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the ankle dorsiflexor muscles (isometric). RESULTS There were no differences in age, weight, dialysis vintage, or intact parathyroid hormone levels between the groups, although serum albumin was higher in the VitD group (p <0.05). Patients in the VitD group had larger thigh muscle CSA (p < 0.05) and were stronger across all strength measures (p< 0.05) after controlling for age and gender (ANCOVA). When all analyses were subsequently adjusted for serum albumin concentration, only the difference in 3RM knee extension strength lost significance. There were no significant differences in any measurements between patients who received calcitriol or paricalcitol. CONCLUSION Treatment with active vitamin D was associated with greater muscle size and strength in this cohort of HD patients. PMID:17971312

  16. Importance and challenges of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrinsic foot muscle weakness has been implicated in a range of foot deformities and disorders. However, to establish a relationship between intrinsic muscle weakness and foot pathology, an objective measure of intrinsic muscle strength is needed. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy and role of intrinsic foot muscles, implications of intrinsic weakness and evaluate the different methods used to measure intrinsic foot muscle strength. Method Literature was sourced from database searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PEDro and CINAHL up to June 2012. Results There is no widely accepted method of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength. Methods to estimate toe flexor muscle strength include the paper grip test, plantar pressure, toe dynamometry, and the intrinsic positive test. Hand-held dynamometry has excellent interrater and intrarater reliability and limits toe curling, which is an action hypothesised to activate extrinsic toe flexor muscles. However, it is unclear whether any method can actually isolate intrinsic muscle strength. Also most methods measure only toe flexor strength and other actions such as toe extension and abduction have not been adequately assessed. Indirect methods to investigate intrinsic muscle structure and performance include CT, ultrasonography, MRI, EMG, and muscle biopsy. Indirect methods often discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, but lack the ability to measure muscle force. Conclusions There are many challenges to accurately measure intrinsic muscle strength in isolation. Most studies have measured toe flexor strength as a surrogate measure of intrinsic muscle strength. Hand-held dynamometry appears to be a promising method of estimating intrinsic muscle strength. However, the contribution of extrinsic muscles cannot be excluded from toe flexor strength measurement. Future research should clarify the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles

  17. Isokinetic evaluation of internal/external tibial rotation strength after the use of hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Armour, Tanya; Forwell, Lorie; Litchfield, Robert; Kirkley, Alexandra; Amendola, Ned; Fowler, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the knee after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the use of the semitendinosus and gracilis (hamstring) autografts has primarily focused on flexion and extension strength. The semitendinosus and gracilis muscles contribute to internal tibial rotation, and it has been suggested that harvest of these tendons for the purpose of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction contributes to internal tibial rotation weakness. Internal tibial rotation strength may be affected by the semitendinosus and gracilis harvest after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Prospective evaluation of internal and external tibial rotation strength. Inclusion criteria for subjects (N = 30): unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least 2 years previously, a stable anterior cruciate ligament (<5-mm side-to-side difference) at time of testing confirmed by surgeon and KT-1000 arthrometer, no history of knee problems after initial knee reconstruction, a normal contralateral knee, and the ability to comply with the testing protocol. In an attempt to minimize unwanted subtalar joint motion, subjects were immobilized using an ankle brace and tested at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 120 degrees /s, and 180 degrees /s at a knee flexion angle of 90 degrees . The mean peak torque measurements for internal rotation strength of the operative limb (60 degrees /s, 17.4 +/- 4.5 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 13.9 +/- 3.3 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 11.6 +/- 3.0 ft-lb) were statistically different compared to the nonoperated limb (60 degrees /s, 20.5 +/- 4.7 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 15.9 +/- 3.8 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 13.4 +/- 3.8 ft-lb) at 60 degrees /s (P = .012), 120 degrees /s (P = .036), and 180 degrees /s (P = .045). The nonoperative limb demonstrated greater strength at all speeds. The mean torque measurements for external rotation were statistically similar when compared to the nonoperated limb at all angular velocities. We have shown through our study that

  18. Walking performance and muscle strength in the later stage poststroke: a nonlinear relationship.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Cristiane; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Willén, Carin

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the relation between muscle strength in the lower extremities and walking performance (speed and distance) in subjects in the later stage poststroke and to compare this with normative data. A cross-sectional observational study. University hospital department. Subjects poststroke (n=41; 31 men, 10 women) with a mean age of 59±5.8 years and a time from stroke onset of 52±36 months were evaluated. An urban sample (n=144) of 40- to 79-year-olds (69 men, 75 women) formed the healthy reference group. Not applicable. Muscle strength in the lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer and combined into a strength index. Values for the 30-meter walk test for self-selected and maximum speed and the 6-minute walk test were measured. A nonlinear regression model was used. The average strength index was 730±309 in the subjects after stroke compared with 1112±362 in the healthy group. A nonlinear relation between walking performance and muscle strength was evident. The model explained 37% of the variance in self-selected speed in the stroke group and 20% in the healthy group, and 63% and 38%, respectively, in the maximum walking speed. For the 6-minute walk test, the model explained 44% of the variance in the stroke group. Subjects in the later stage poststroke were weaker than the healthy reference group, and their weakness was associated with walking performance. At the same strength index, subjects walked at lower speeds and shorter distances after stroke, indicating that there are multiple impairments that affect walking ability. Treatments focused on increasing muscle strength thus continue to hold promise. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of diffuse optical spectroscopy to monitor muscle and brain oxygenation dynamics during isometric and isokinetic exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Goutham; Cotter, Joshua; Reuland, Warren; Warren, Robert V.; Mirzaei Zarandi, Soroush M.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-03-01

    The use of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS-20, Hamamatsu Corporation) in two resistance type exercise applications in human subjects is described. First, using isometric flexion of the biceps, we compared the magnitude and relevance of tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation (stO2) changes when assuming constant scattering versus continuous measurement of reduced scattering coefficients at three wavelengths. It was found that the assumption of constant scattering resulted in significant errors in hemoglobin concentration assessment during sustained isometric contractions. Secondly, we tested the effect of blood flow restriction (BFR) on oxygenation in a muscle (vastus medialis oblique, VMO) and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the brain. The BFR training technique resulted in considerably more fatigability in subjects, and correlated with reduced muscle stO2 between sets of exertion. Additionally, exercise with BFR resulted in greater PFC deoxygenation than a condition with equivalent work performance but no BFR. These experiments demonstrate novel applications for diffuse optical spectroscopy in strength testing and targeted muscle rehabilitation.

  20. Foot and ankle muscle strength in people with gout: A two-arm cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sarah; Mawston, Grant; Davidtz, Lisa; Dalbeth, Nicola; Vandal, Alain C; Carroll, Matthew; Morpeth, Trish; Otter, Simon; Rome, Keith

    2016-02-01

    Foot and ankle structures are the most commonly affected in people with gout. However, the effect of gout on foot and ankle muscle strength is not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in foot and ankle muscle strength for plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion between people with gout and age- and sex-matched controls. The secondary aim was to determine whether foot and ankle muscle strength was correlated with foot pain and disability. Peak isokinetic concentric muscle torque was measured for ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion in 20 participants with gout and 20 matched controls at two testing velocities (30°/s and 120°/s) using a Biodex dynamometer. Foot pain and disability was measured using the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI). Participants with gout demonstrated reduced muscle strength at both the 30°/s and 120°/s testing velocities for plantarflexion, inversion and eversion (P<0.05). People with gout also displayed a reduced plantarflexion-to-dorsiflexion strength ratio at both 30°/s and 120°/s (P<0.05). Foot pain and disability was higher in people with gout (P<0.0001) and MFPDI scores were inversely correlated with plantarflexion and inversion muscle strength at the 30°/s testing velocity, and plantarflexion, inversion and eversion muscle strength at the 120°/s testing velocity (all P<0.05). People with gout have reduced foot and ankle muscle strength and experience greater foot pain and disability compared to controls. Foot and ankle strength reductions are strongly associated with increased foot pain and disability in people with gout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Impaired muscle strength may contribute to fatigue in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Wouter J; Ribbers, Gerard M; Zegers, Bart; Sneekes, Emiel M; Praet, Stephan F E; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Khajeh, Ladbon; van Kooten, Fop; Neggers, Sebastiaan J C M M; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J

    2017-03-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (a-SAH) show long-term fatigue and face difficulties in resuming daily physical activities. Impaired muscle strength, especially of the lower extremity, impacts the performance of daily activities and may trigger the onset of fatigue complaints. The present study evaluated knee muscle strength and fatigue in patients with a-SAH. This study included 33 patients, 6 months after a-SAH, and 33 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls. Isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors was measured at 60 and 180°/s. Maximal voluntary muscle strength was defined as peak torque and measured in Newton-meter. Fatigue was examined using the Fatigue Severity Scale. In patients with a-SAH, the maximal knee extension was 22% (60°/s) and 25% (180°/s) lower and maximal knee flexion was 33% (60°/s) and 36% (180°/s) lower compared with that of matched controls (P≤0.001). The Fatigue Severity Scale score was related to maximal knee extension (60°/s: r=-0.426, P=0.015; 180°/s: r=-0.376, P=0.034) and flexion (60°/s: r=-0.482, P=0.005; 180°/s: r=-0.344, P=0.083). The knee muscle strength was 28-47% lower in fatigued (n=13) and 11-32% lower in nonfatigued (n=20) patients; deficits were larger in fatigued patients (P<0.05), particularly when the muscle strength (peak torque) was measured at 60°/s. The present results indicate that patients with a-SAH have considerably impaired knee muscle strength, which is related to more severe fatigue. The present findings are exploratory, but showed that knee muscle strength may play a role in the severity of fatigue complaints, or vice versa. Interventions targeting fatigue after a-SAH seem necessary and may consider strengthening exercise training in order to treat a debilitating condition.

  3. Effects of 8 Weeks’ Specific Physical Training on the Rotator Cuff Muscle Strength and Technique of Javelin Throwers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  4. Effects of 8 weeks' specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers.

  5. Short-term effects of upper extremity circuit resistance training on muscle strength and functional independence in patients with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Adem; Sürücü, Gülseren Dost; Karamercan, Ayşe; Gedik, Dilay Eken; Atci, Nermin; Dülgeroǧlu, Deniz; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2016-11-21

    A number of exercises to strengthen the upper extremities are recommended to increase functional independence and quality of life (QoL) in patients with paraplegia. Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a type of progressive resistive exercise performed repeatedly at fixed mechanical exercise stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of CRT for upper extremity muscle strength, functional independence, and QoL in patients with paraplegia. Twenty-six patients with paraplegia who were participating in a conventional rehabilitation program at a tertiary education and research hospital were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The exercise group participated in the CRT program, which consisted of repetitive exercises for the upper extremities performed at fixed mechanical stations 5 sessions per week for 6 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Participants in the control group received only conventional rehabilitation over the same period. We compared the groups with respect to QoL, as well as isokinetic muscle test outcomes in the upper extremities, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Borg's scale. We observed significant increases in scores on the physical component of the FIM, Borg's scale, and QoL in both the exercise and control groups. Furthermore, the large majority of isokinetic values were significantly more improved in the exercise group compared to the control group. When post-treatment outcomes were compared between the groups, improvements in scores on the physical component of the FIM and in most isokinetic values were significantly greater in the exercise group. This study showed that CRT has positive effects on muscle strength in the upper extremities and the physical disability components of the FIM when added to conventional rehabilitation programs for paraplegic patients. However, we observed no significant improvement in QoL scores after adding CRT

  6. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  7. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  8. Muscle volume, strength, endurance, and exercise loads during 6-month missions in space.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Genc, Kerim O; Rice, Andrea J; Lee, Stuart M C; Evans, Harlan J; Maender, Christian C; Ilaslan, Hakan; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2010-02-01

    Decrements in muscular strength during long-duration missions in space could be mission-critical during construction and exploration activities. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in muscle volume, strength, and endurance of crewmembers on the International Space Station (ISS) in the context of new measurements of loading during exercise countermeasures. Strength and muscle volumes were measured from four male ISS crewmembers (49.5 +/- 4.7 yr, 179.3 +/- 7.1 cm, 85.2 +/- 10.4 kg) before and after long-duration spaceflight (181 +/- 15 d). Preflight and in-flight measurements of forces between foot and shoe allowed comparisons of loading from 1-g exercise and exercise countermeasures on ISS. Muscle volume change was greater in the calf (-10 to 16%) than the thigh (-4% to -7%), but there was no change in the upper arm (+0.4 to -0.8%). Isometric and isokinetic strength changes at the knee (range -10.4 to -24.1%), ankle (range -4 to -22.3%), and elbow (range -7.5 to -16.7%) were observed. Although there was an overall postflight decline in total work (-14%) during the endurance test, an increase in postflight resistance to fatigue was observed. The peak in-shoe forces during running and cycling on ISS were approximately 46% and 50% lower compared to 1-g values. Muscle volume and strength were decreased in the lower extremities of crewmembers during long-duration spaceflight on ISS despite the use of exercise countermeasures. in-flight countermeasures were insufficient to replicate the daily mechanical loading experienced by the crewmembers before flight. Future exercise protocols need careful assessment both in terms of intensity and duration to maximize the "dose" of exercise and to increase loads compared to the measured levels.

  9. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, İlhan; Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Yıldız, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uludağ, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Özkaya, Murat; Karamehmetoğlu, Şafak Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. Study Design: A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Methods: Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. Results: In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15

  10. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity.

    PubMed

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Yıldız, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uludağ, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Ozkaya, Murat; Karamehmetoğlu, Safak Sahir

    2014-03-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15.2% (p=0.031) in the exercise group and increased by

  11. Autism Severity and Muscle Strength: A Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Troutman, Melissa R.; Davis, Georgia; King, Paul G.; Young, John L.; Geier, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between muscle strength, as measured by hand grip strength, and autism severity, as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Thirty-seven (37) children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were evaluated using the CARS and then tested for hand muscle strength using a hand grip…

  12. Strength characterization of knee flexor and extensor muscles in Prader-Willi and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Capodaglio, Paolo; Vismara, Luca; Menegoni, Francesco; Baccalaro, Gabriele; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano

    2009-01-01

    Background despite evidence of an obesity-related disability, there is a lack of objective muscle functional data in overweight subjects. Only few studies provide instrumental strength measurements in non-syndromal obesity, whereas no data about Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the lower limb muscle function of patients affected by PWS as compared to non-syndromal obesity and normal-weight subjects. Methods We enrolled 20 obese (O) females (age: 29.1 ± 6.5 years; BMI: 38.1 ± 3.1), 6 PWS females (age: 27.2 ± 4.9 years; BMI: 45.8 ± 4.4) and 14 healthy normal-weight (H) females (age: 30.1 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 21 ± 1.6). Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in both lower limbs at the fixed angular velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s was measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer. Results the H, O and PWS populations appear to be clearly stratified with regard to muscle strength.: PWS showed the lowest absolute peak torque (PT) for knee flexor and extensor muscles as compared to O (-55%) and H (-47%) (P = 0.00001). O showed significantly higher strength values than H as regard to knee extension only (P = 0.0014). When strength data were normalised by body weight, PWS showed a 50% and a 70% reduction in PT as compared to O and H, respectively. Knee flexors strength values were on average half of those reported for extension in all of the three populations. Conclusion the novel aspect of our study is the determination of objective measures of muscle strength in PWS and the comparison with O and H patients. The objective characterization of muscle function performed in this study provides baseline and outcome measures that may quantify specific strength deficits amendable with tailored rehabilitation programs and monitor effectiveness of treatments. PMID:19419559

  13. Effects of Six Weeks of Medicine Ball Training on Throwing Velocity, Throwing Precision, and Isokinetic Strength of Shoulder Rotators in Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Raeder, Christian; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of medicine ball training (MBT) on throwing velocity, throwing precision, and isokinetic strength of shoulder rotators in competitive female handball players. Twenty-eight players (mean ± SD; age: 20.8 ± 3.3 years, height: 170.5 ± 5.6 cm, body mass: 65.2 ± 8.0 kg) were randomly assigned to an MBT group (TG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 13). TG performed a supervised MBT program, 3 times a week for a total of 6 weeks, focusing on handball-specific movement patterns. Both groups, TG and CG, also conducted a supervised shoulder injury prevention program with elastic tubes, as part of the warm-up, finishing with regular handball throws. Results showed a significant group × time interaction in throwing velocity (p < 0.001) with the TG posttest results being significantly higher compared with CG (d = 2.1), and also a significant main time effect (p < 0.001), with an increase in throwing velocity of 14% (d = 3.0) and 3.7% (d = 0.3) for both TG and CG, respectively. Throwing precision did not significantly differ between groups and time points. Isokinetic strength measures revealed a significant group × time interaction (p ≤ 0.05) with the TG posttest results being significantly higher compared with CG (d = 0.9) and also a significant main time effect (p < 0.01) with an increase of 15% (d = 0.9) in concentric shoulder internal rotation at 180°·s⁻¹ in the dominant arm in TG, whereas no significant changes occurred in CG. The present results indicate that 6 weeks of MBT elicit significant improvements in functional performance (i.e., throwing velocity) in female handball players, whereas throwing precision remained unaffected. Medicine ball training exercises seem to be a useful and inexpensive strength training strategy in enhancing functional performance by closely mimicking sport-specific movement activities.

  14. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10−30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20−50%) increased 24–48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM+ satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM+- and Pax7+-positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinaseThr421/Ser424 increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. Key points Cold water immersion is a popular strategy to recover from exercise. However, whether regular cold water immersion influences muscle adaptations to strength training is not well understood. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on changes in muscle mass and strength after 12 weeks of strength training. We also examined the effects of these

  15. Side-alternating vibration training for balance and ankle muscle strength in untrained women.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Styliani I; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Tsigganos, Georgios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2013-01-01

    Side-alternating vibration (SAV) may help reduce the risk of falling by improving body balance control. Such training has been promoted as a strength-training intervention because it can increase muscle activation through an augmented excitatory input from the muscle spindles. To determine the effect of SAV training on static balance during 3 postural tasks of increasing difficulty and lower limb strength. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Laboratory. A total of 21 healthy women were divided into training (n = 11; age = 43.35 ± 4.12 years, height = 169 ± 6.60 cm, mass = 68.33 ± 11.90 kg) and control (n = 10; age = 42.31 ± 3.73 years, height = 167 ± 4.32 cm, mass = 66.29 ± 10.74 kg) groups. The training group completed a 9-week program during which participants performed 3 sessions per week of ten 15-second isometric contractions with a 30-second active rest of 3 exercises (half-squat, wide-stance squat, 1-legged half-squat) on an SAV plate (acceleration = 0.91-16.3g). The control group did not participate in any form of exercise over the 9-week period. We evaluated isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee extensors and flexors and ankle plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and evertors. Static balance was assessed using 3 tasks of increasing difficulty (quiet bipedal stance, tandem stance, 1-legged stance). The electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded during postural task performance, baseline and pretraining, immediately posttraining, and 15 days posttraining. After training in the training group, ankle muscle strength improved (P = .03), whereas knee muscle strength remained unaltered (P = .13). Improved ankle-evertor strength was observed at all angular velocities (P = .001). Postural sway decreased in both directions but was greater in the mediolateral (P < .001) than anteroposterior (P = .02) direction. The electromyographic activity of the peroneus

  16. The eccentric, concentric strength relationship of the hamstring muscles in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul W M; Mannion, Jamie; Murphy, Bernadette A

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to measure hamstring muscle eccentric and concentric strength in individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). Two composite scores for the relative balance of eccentric to concentric strength at the different movement velocities were calculated (the DEC and SEC), to determine whether or not self perceived pain, disability, or fear avoidance measures were associated with hamstring strength characteristics. Cross-sectional repeated measures design. University laboratory. Fifteen individuals with chronic LBP and 15 matched controls. Isokinetic eccentric and concentric strength at 30 degrees s(-1) and 120 degrees s(-1)(.) Composite scores (DEC and SEC) based on peak torque were calculated to evaluate the relationship between the different muscle actions across the test velocities. Self report measures included the Oswestry disability index, general health and well being, fear avoidance, and pain. Eccentric/concentric strength ratio at 30 degrees s(-1) was higher for the LBP group (F(1,58)=4.81, p=0.032). The SEC was also higher for the LBP (F(1,58)=5.97, p=0.018). Fear avoidance beliefs and mental well-being were significantly associated with the SEC only in the LBP group (adjusted r(2)=0.26, (F(2,27)=5.8, p=.008). For the control group both the DEC and SEC were associated with self report measures. Matched differences between groups' for the SEC were best explained by fear avoidance beliefs about work (adjusted r(2)=0.12, F(1,28)=5.1, p=0.03). Reduced concentric relative to eccentric strength is best identified by the SEC. The SEC was significantly associated with impaired self report measures of fear avoidance and mental well being in individuals with LBP. Differences between groups for the SEC were best explained by fear avoidance beliefs about work.

  17. Reliability of muscle strength assessment in chronic post-stroke hemiparesis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Michelle; Nunes, Guilherme S; da Costa Amante, Natália Menezes; de Noronha, Marcos; Fachin-Martins, Emerson

    2016-02-01

    Muscle weakness is the main cause of motor impairment among stroke survivors and is associated with reduced peak muscle torque. To systematically investigate and organize the evidence of the reliability of muscle strength evaluation measures in post-stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis. Two assessors independently searched four electronic databases in January 2014 (Medline, Scielo, CINAHL, Embase). Inclusion criteria comprised studies on reliability on muscle strength assessment in adult post-stroke patients with chronic hemiparesis. We extracted outcomes from included studies about reliability data, measured by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and/or similar. The meta-analyses were conducted only with isokinetic data. Of 450 articles, eight articles were included for this review. After quality analysis, two studies were considered of high quality. Five different joints were analyzed within the included studies (knee, hip, ankle, shoulder, and elbow). Their reliability results varying from low to very high reliability (ICCs from 0.48 to 0.99). Results of meta-analysis for knee extension varying from high to very high reliability (pooled ICCs from 0.89 to 0.97), for knee flexion varying from high to very high reliability (pooled ICCs from 0.84 to 0.91) and for ankle plantar flexion showed high reliability (pooled ICC = 0.85). Objective muscle strength assessment can be reliably used in lower and upper extremities in post-stroke patients with chronic hemiparesis.

  18. Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength and Mortality in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, A. S.; Boyle, P. A.; Wilson, R.S.; Gu, Liping; Bienias, Julia L.; Bennett, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous reports have linked extremity muscle strength with mortality but the mechanism underlying this association is not known. We used data from 960 older persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project to test two sequential hypotheses: first, that extremity muscle strength is a surrogate for respiratory muscle strength, and second, that the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality is mediated by pulmonary function. In a series of proportional hazards models, we first demonstrated that the association of extremity muscle strength with mortality was no longer significant after including a term for respiratory muscle strength, controlling for age, sex, education, and body mass index. Next, the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality was attenuated by more than 50% and no longer significant after including a term for pulmonary function. The findings were unchanged after controlling for cognitive function, parkinsonian signs, physical frailty, balance, physical activity, possible COPD, use of pulmonary medications, vascular risk factors including smoking, chronic vascular diseases, musculoskeletal joint pain, and history of falls. Overall, these findings suggest that pulmonary function may partially account for the association of muscle strength and mortality. PMID:18755207

  19. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  20. Isokinetic peak torque and flexibility changes of the hamstring muscles after eccentric training: Trained versus untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Soliman, Elsadat Saad; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of eccentric isotonic training on hamstring flexibility and eccentric and concentric isokinetic peak torque in trained and untrained subjects. Sixty healthy subjects (mean age: 21.66 ± 2.64) were divided into three equal groups, each with 20 voluntary participants. Two experimental groups (untrained and trained groups) participated in a hamstring eccentric isotonic strengthening program (five days/week) for a six-week period and one control group that was not involved in the training program. The passive knee extension range of motion and hamstring eccentric and concentric isokinetic peak torque were measured at angular velocities 60° and 120°/s for all groups before and after the training period. Two-way analysis of variance showed that there was a significant increase in the hamstring flexibility of the untrained and trained groups (25.65 ± 6.32°, 26.55 ± 5.99°, respectively), (p < 0.05) without a significant increase in the control group (31.55 ± 5.84°), (p > 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant increase in eccentric isokinetic peak torque of both the untrained and trained groups (127.25 ± 22.60Nm, 139.65 ± 19.15Nm, 125.40 ± 21.61Nm, 130.90 ± 18.71Nm, respectively), (p < 0.05) without a significant increase in the control group (109.15 ± 20.89Nm, 105.70 ± 21.31Nm, respectively), (p > 0.05) at both angular velocities. On the other hand, there was no significant increase in the concentric isokinetic peak torque of the three groups (92.50 ± 20.50Nm, 79.05 ± 18.95Nm, 92.20 ± 21.96Nm, 79.85 ± 18.97Nm, 100.45 ± 25.78Nm, 83.40 ± 23.73Nm, respectively), (p > 0.05) at both angular velocities. The change scores in the hamstring flexibility (06.25 ± 1.86°) and eccentric peak torque of the untrained group (16.60 ± 4.81Nm, 17.45 ± 5.40Nm, respectively) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the trained group (03.40 ± 1.14°, 9.90

  1. Respiratory Muscle Strength Predicts Decline in Mobility in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, A.S.; Boyle, P.A.; Wilson, R.S.; Leurgans, S.; Shah, R.C.; Bennett, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that respiratory muscle strength is associated with the rate of change in mobility even after controlling for leg strength and physical activity. Methods Prospective study of 890 ambulatory older persons without dementia who underwent annual clinical evaluations to examine change in the rate of mobility over time. Results In a linear mixed-effect model adjusted for age, sex, and education, mobility declined about 0.12 unit/year, and higher levels of respiratory muscle strength were associated with a slower rate of mobility decline (estimate 0.043, SE 0.012, p < 0.001). Respiratory muscle strength remained associated with the rate of change in mobility even after controlling for lower extremity strength (estimate 0.036, SE 0.012, p = 0.004). In a model that included terms for respiratory muscle strength, lower extremity strength and physical activity together, all three were independent predictors of mobility decline in older persons. These associations remained significant even after controlling for body composition, global cognition, the development of dementia, parkinsonian signs, possible pulmonary disease, smoking, joint pain and chronic diseases. Conclusion Respiratory muscle strength is associated with mobility decline in older persons independent of lower extremity strength and physical activity. Clinical interventions to improve respiratory muscle strength may decrease the burden of mobility impairment in the elderly. PMID:18784416

  2. Functional polymorphisms associated with human muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul D; Moyna, Niall; Seip, Richard; Price, Thomas; Clarkson, Priscilla; Angelopoulos, Theodore; Gordon, Paul; Pescatello, Linda; Visich, Paul; Zoeller, Robert; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish, Heather; Bilbie, Stephen; Hoffman, Eric P

    2004-07-01

    Skeletal muscle is critically important to human performance and health, but little is known of the genetic factors influencing muscle size, strength, and its response to exercise training. The Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Associated with Muscle Size and Strength, or FAMuSS, Study is a multicenter, NIH-funded program to examine the influence of gene polymorphisms on skeletal muscle size and strength before and after resistance exercise training. One thousand men and women, age 18 - 40 yr, will train their nondominant arm for 12 wk. Skeletal muscle size (magnetic resonance imaging) and isometric and dynamic strength will be measured before and after training. Individuals whose baseline values or response to training deviate > or = 1.5 SD will be defined as outliers and examined for genetic variants. Initially candidate genes previously associated with muscle performance will be examined, but the study will ultimately attempt to identify genes associated with muscle performance. FAMuSS should help identify genetic factors associated with muscle performance and the response to exercise training. Such insight should contribute to our ability to predict the individual response to exercise training but may also contribute to understanding better muscle physiology, to identifying individuals who are susceptible to muscle loss with environmental challenge, and to developing pharmacologic agents capable of preserving muscle size and function.

  3. Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength, and Incident Mobility Disability in Elders

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Evans, Denis A.; Bennett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle strength, including leg strength and respiratory muscle strength, are relatively independently associated with mobility disability in elders. However, the factors linking muscle strength with mobility disability are unknown. To test the hypothesis that pulmonary function mediates the association of muscle strength with the development of mobility disability in elders, we used data from a longitudinal cohort study of 844 ambulatory elders without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project with a mean follow-up of 4.0 years (SD = 1.39). A composite measure of pulmonary function was based on spirometric measures of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, and peak expiratory flow. Respiratory muscle strength was based on maximal inspiratory pressure and expiratory pressure and leg strength based on hand-held dynamometry. Mobility disability was defined as a gait speed less than or equal to 0.55 m/s based on annual assessment of timed walk. Secondary analyses considered time to loss of the ability to ambulate. In separate proportional hazards models which controlled for age, sex, and education, composite measures of pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and leg strength were each associated with incident mobility disability (all P values < 0.001). Further, all three were related to the development of incident mobility disability when considered together in a single model (pulmonary function: hazard ratio [HR], 0.721; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.577, 0.902; respiratory muscle strength: HR, 0.732; 95% CI, 0.593, 0.905; leg strength: HR, 0.791; 95% CI, 0.640, 0.976). Secondary analyses examining incident loss of the ability to ambulate revealed similar findings. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of pulmonary function and muscle strength are relatively independently associated with the development of mobility disability in the elderly. PMID:19934353

  4. Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Patients during Hospitalization: The EMPOWER Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Ancum, Jeanine M.; Scheerman, Kira; Pierik, Vincent D.; Numans, Siger T.; Verlaan, Sjors; Smeenk, Hanne E.; Slee-Valentijn, Monique; Kruizinga, Roeliene C.; Meskers, Carel G.M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with an increased length of hospital stay and higher mortality rate in inpatients. To what extent hospitalization affects muscle strength and muscle mass is unclear. Objective We aimed to assess muscle strength and muscle mass at admission and during hospitalization in older patients and its relation with being at risk of geriatric conditions. Methods The EMPOWER study included patients aged 70 years and older, admitted to 4 wards of the VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands between April and December 2015. At admission, patients were screened for being at risk of 4 geriatric conditions: delirium, falls, malnutrition, and functional disability. At admission and at discharge, muscle strength and muscle mass were assessed. Results A total of 373 patients (mean age, standard deviation [SD]: 79.6, 6.38 years) were included at admission, and 224 patients (mean age, SD: 80.1, 6.32 years) at discharge. At admission, lower muscle strength in both female and male patients and low muscle mass in male patients were associated with being at risk of a higher cumulative number of geriatric conditions. Muscle strength increased during hospitalization, but no change in muscle mass was observed. Changes in muscle measures were not associated with being at risk of geriatric conditions. Discussion Older patients with lower muscle strength and muscle mass at admission were at risk of a higher cumulative number of geriatric conditions. However, being at risk of geriatric conditions did not forecast further decrease in muscle strength and muscle mass during hospitalization PMID:28817825

  5. Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Patients during Hospitalization: The EMPOWER Study.

    PubMed

    Van Ancum, Jeanine M; Scheerman, Kira; Pierik, Vincent D; Numans, Siger T; Verlaan, Sjors; Smeenk, Hanne E; Slee-Valentijn, Monique; Kruizinga, Roeliene C; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2017-01-01

    Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with an increased length of hospital stay and higher mortality rate in inpatients. To what extent hospitalization affects muscle strength and muscle mass is unclear. We aimed to assess muscle strength and muscle mass at admission and during hospitalization in older patients and its relation with being at risk of geriatric conditions. The EMPOWER study included patients aged 70 years and older, admitted to 4 wards of the VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands between April and December 2015. At admission, patients were screened for being at risk of 4 geriatric conditions: delirium, falls, malnutrition, and functional disability. At admission and at discharge, muscle strength and muscle mass were assessed. A total of 373 patients (mean age, standard deviation [SD]: 79.6, 6.38 years) were included at admission, and 224 patients (mean age, SD: 80.1, 6.32 years) at discharge. At admission, lower muscle strength in both female and male patients and low muscle mass in male patients were associated with being at risk of a higher cumulative number of geriatric conditions. Muscle strength increased during hospitalization, but no change in muscle mass was observed. Changes in muscle measures were not associated with being at risk of geriatric conditions. Older patients with lower muscle strength and muscle mass at admission were at risk of a higher cumulative number of geriatric conditions. However, being at risk of geriatric conditions did not forecast further decrease in muscle strength and muscle mass during hospitalization. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Immediate effects of kinesiotaping on quadriceps muscle strength: a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Stefano; Sartorio, Francesco; Foti, Calogero; Colletto, Lorenzo; Virton, Domenico; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the immediate effects on maximal muscle strength of kinesiotaping (KT) applied to the dominant quadriceps of healthy subjects. Single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. "Salvatore Maugeri" Foundation. With ethical approval and informed consent, a convenience sample of 36 healthy volunteers were recruited. Two subjects did not complete the sessions and were excluded from the analysis. Subjects were tested across 3 different sessions, randomly receiving 2 experimental KT conditions applied with the aim of enhancing and inhibiting muscle strength and a sham KT application. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured by means of an isokinetic maximal test performed at 60 and 180 degrees per second. Two secondary outcome measures were performed: the single-leg triple hop for distance to measure limb performance and the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRCS) to calculate agreement between KT application and subjective perception of strength. Compared with baseline, none of the 3 taping conditions showed a significant change in muscle strength and performance (all P > 0.05). Effect size was very low under all conditions (≤0.08). Very few subjects showed an individual change greater than the minimal detectable change. Global Rating of Change Scale scores demonstrated low to moderate agreement with the type of KT applied, but some placebo effects were reported independently of condition. Our findings indicated no significant effect in the maximal quadriceps strength immediately after the application of inhibition, facilitation, or sham KT. These results do not support the use of KT applied in this way to change maximal muscle strength in healthy people.

  7. Early postoperative repair status after rotator cuff repair cannot be accurately classified using questionnaires of patient function and isokinetic strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Colliver, Jessica; Wang, Allan; Joss, Brendan; Ebert, Jay; Koh, Eamon; Breidahl, William; Ackland, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated if patients with an intact tendon repair or partial-thickness retear early after rotator cuff repair display differences in clinical evaluations and whether early tendon healing can be predicted using these assessments. We prospectively evaluated 60 patients at 16 weeks after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Evaluation included the Oxford Shoulder Score, 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, visual analog scale for pain, 12-item Short Form Health Survey, isokinetic strength, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Independent t tests investigated clinical differences in patients based on the Sugaya MRI rotator cuff classification system (grades 1, 2, or 3). Discriminant analysis determined whether intact repairs (Sugaya grade 1) and partial-thickness retears (Sugaya grades 2 and 3) could be predicted. No differences (P < .05) existed in the clinical or strength measures. Although discriminant analysis revealed the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand produced a 97% true-positive rate for predicting partial thickness retears, it also produced a 90% false-positive rate whereby it incorrectly predicted a retear in 90% of patients whose repair was intact. The ability to discriminate between groups was enhanced with up to 5 variables entered; however, only 87% of the partial-retear group and 36% of the intact-repair group were correctly classified. No differences in clinical scores existed between patients stratified by the Sugaya MRI classification system at 16 weeks. An intact repair or partial-thickness retear could not be accurately predicted. Our results suggest that correct classification of healing in the early postoperative stages should involve imaging. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relation between knee muscle strength and performance tests in orienteering athletes.

    PubMed

    Çinar-Medeni, Özge; Colakoglu, Fatma F; Yüce, Koray; Ipekoğlu, Gökhan; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of knee muscle strength on performance tests in orienteers. Thirty-seven orienteers were voluntarily included in this study. Isokinetic knee flexor and extensor muscles' strength was assessed at 120°/s velocity for both "dominant leg" (DL) and "non-dominant leg" (NDL). "Single-legged hop test" (SLHT), "flamingo balance test" (FBT), "star excursion balance test" (SEBT), vertical jump-and-reach test (for anaerobic power), T-drill test and 20-meter shuttle run test (for aerobic power) were carried out. Correlation and regression analyses were performed on the data. VO2max levels showed moderate correlations with DL's "flexor peak torque" (FPT) and NDL's "extensor peak torque" (EPT) and FPT values respectively (r=0.49, r=0.38, r=0.58). FPT of NDL was a predictor of VO2max level (R2=0.33). Anaerobic power has a relationship with EPT of NDL (r=0.43) and T-drill test with EPT and FPT values of both DL and NDL respectively (r=-0.35, r=-0.63, r=-0.53, r=-0.58). EPT of NDL was a predictor for anaerobic power (R2=0.19) and FPT of DL for agility (R2=0.40). Nonparametric linear regression results showed that EPT is a predictor in DL (median slope=-0.71, P=0.01), and FPT in NDL (median slope=-0.90, P=0.006) for FBT. FPT was a predictor of SEBT scores for both legs (0.13muscle strength are of importance to improve orienteering performance.

  9. Low level laser therapy associated with a strength training program on muscle performance in elderly women: a randomized double blind control study.

    PubMed

    Toma, Renata Luri; Vassão, Patrícia Gabrielli; Assis, Livia; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2016-08-01

    The aging process leads to a gradual loss of muscle mass and muscle performance, leading to a higher functional dependence. Within this context, many studies have demonstrated the benefits of a combination of physical exercise and low level laser therapy (LLLT) as an intervention that enhances muscle performance in young people and athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination of LLLT and strength training on muscle performance in elderly women. For this, a hundred elderly women were screened, and 48 met all inclusion criteria to participate in this double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Volunteers were divided in three groups: control (CG = 15), strength training associated with placebo LLLT (TG = 17), and strength training associated with active LLLT (808 nm, 100 mW, 7 J) (TLG = 16). The strength training consisted of knee flexion-extension performed with 80 % of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) during 8 weeks. Several outcomes related to muscle performance were analyzed through the 6-min walk test (6-MWT), isokinetic dynamometry, surface electromyography (SEMG), lactate concentration, and 1-RM. The results revealed that a higher work (p = 0.0162), peak torque (p = 0.0309), and power (p = 0.0223) were observed in TLG compared to CG. Furthermore, both trained groups increased the 1-RM load (TG vs CG: p = 0.0067 and TLG vs CG: p < 0.0001) and decreased the lactate concentration in the third minute after isokinetic protocol (CG vs TLG: p = 0.0289 and CG vs TG: p = 0.0085). No difference in 6-MWT and in fatigue levels were observed among the groups. The present findings suggested that LLLT in combination with strength training was able to improve muscle performance in elderly people.

  10. Lower Cognitive Function in Older Patients with Lower Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Romee; Van Ancum, Jeanine M; Verlaan, Sjors; Scheerman, Kira; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2018-06-18

    Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with adverse outcomes in older hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cognitive functioning and muscle strength and muscle mass in hospitalized older patients. This prospective inception cohort included 378 patients aged 70 years or older. At admission patients were assessed for cognitive functioning by use of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT). Muscle strength and muscle mass were assessed using handheld dynamometry and segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, within 48 h after admission and on day 7, or earlier on the day of discharge. The data of 371 patients (mean age ± standard deviation 80.1 ± 6.4 years, 49.3% female) were available for analyses. The median (interquartile range) 6-CIT score was 4 (0-8) points. At admission, lower cognitive functioning was associated with lower muscle strength, lower skeletal muscle mass (SMM), lower appendicular lean mass, and lower SMM index. Cognitive functioning was not associated with change in muscle strength and muscle mass during hospitalization. This study further strengthens evidence for an association between lower cognitive functioning and lower muscle strength and muscle mass, but without a further decline during hospitalization. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Acute Effect of Cryotherapy on Muscle Strength and Shoulder Proprioception.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rui; Silva, Filipa; Pedrosa, Vera; Ferreira, João; Lopes, Alexandre

    2017-11-01

    Cryotherapy, a common intervention used by clinicians, poses several benefits in managing acute injuries. However, cooling muscle tissue can interfere with muscular properties and the sensory-motor system. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy with a crushed-ice pack on shoulder proprioception concerning joint position sense, force sense, the threshold for detecting passive movement, and maximal force production. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial. 48 healthy women aged 22.6 ± 0.4 y with a mean body mass index of 22.8 ±0.37 kg/m2 and a percentage of body fat of 15.4 ± 1.5%. In the experimental group, a crushed-ice pack was applied to the shoulder for 15 min, whereas participants in the control group applied a sandbag at skin temperature, also for 15 min. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction, force sense, joint position sense, and the threshold for detecting passive movement. Paired sample t tests revealed that maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased significantly after cryotherapy (P ≤ .001), or approximately 10% of the reduction found in both muscular groups assessed. Shoulder position sense (P < .001) and the threshold for detecting passive movement (P = .01 and P = .01 for lateral and medial shoulder rotator muscles, respectively) also suffered significant impairment. Nevertheless, no significant differences emerged in force sense at 20% and 50% of maximal force reproduction (P = .41 and P = .10 for lateral rotator muscles at 20% and 50%, respectively; and P = .20 and P = .09 for medial rotator muscles at 20% and 50%, respectively). Applying a crushed-ice pack to the shoulder for 15 min negatively affected muscle strength and impaired shoulder proprioception by decreasing joint position sense and the threshold for detecting passive movement.

  12. Evaluation of rotator cuff muscle strength in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Paulo José Oliveira; Tomazini, José Elias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the strength generated by the rotator muscles of the shoulder joint between the right upper limb and left upper limb among healthy individuals. METHODS: To evaluate the muscle strength of upper limbs from isometric contractions in the horizontal direction (rotation) an isometric dynamometer was used, equipped with transducers, signal conditioning, a data acquisition board, and finally, a computer. Study participants were 22 male military subjects, aged between 18 and 19 years old, body mass between 57.7 and 93.0 kg (71.8 ± 9.45 kg) and height between 1.67 and 1.90 m (1.75 ± 0.06 m), healthy and without clinical diseases or any type of orthopedic injury in the muscle skeletal system. RESULTS: The internal rotation in the right upper limb (RUL) was higher than the average strength of internal rotation in the left upper limb (LUL) (p = 0.723). The external rotation strength in RUL was lower than the average strength of external rotation in the LUL (p=0.788). No statistical difference was observed by comparing the strength values of all isometric strength tests. CONCLUSION: For the sample and methodology used to assess muscle strength, there was no statistical difference between the strength generated by the muscles of the rotator cuff of the right and left upper limbs. Experimental Study. PMID:26207091

  13. Association between muscle strength and metabolic syndrome in older Korean men and women: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Joo; Lim, Soo; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak Chul; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and muscle strength in community-dwelling older men and women in Korea. Korean men and women 65 years and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n = 647) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. The diagnosis of MS was evaluated according to the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors, as determined by peak torque per body weight (newton meter per kilogram) and hand-grip strength per body weight (newton per kilogram), was measured. Participants without MS had greater leg muscle strength and grip strength per weight. The effect of MS on muscle strength was more prominent in men than in women in our study population. Only men showed a significant interaction between MS and age for muscle strength (P = .014), and the effect was greater in men aged 65 to 74 years compared with those older than 75 years (119.2 ± 31.2 vs 134.5 ± 24.3 N m/kg). Participants with MS had weaker knee extensor strength after controlling the covariates (β = -90.80, P = .003), and the interaction term (age × MS × male sex) was significant (β = 1.00, P = .017). Metabolic syndrome is associated with muscle weakness, and this relationship is particularly pronounced in men. Age can modify the impact of MS on muscle strength. Men aged 65 to 74 years with MS need a thorough assessment of muscle strength to prevent disability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximal voluntary isokinetic knee flexion torque is associated with femoral shaft bone strength indices in knee replacement patients.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Valtonen, A; Sipilä, S; Pöyhönen, T; Heinonen, A

    2012-03-01

    It is currently unknown whether knee replacement-associated bone loss is modified by rehabilitation programs. Thus, a sample of 45 (18 men and 25 women) persons with unilateral knee replacement were recruited; age 66 years (sd 6), height 169 cm (sd 8), body mass 83 kg (sd 15), time since operation 10 months (sd 4) to explore the associations between maximal torque/power in knee extension/flexion and femoral mid-shaft bone traits (Cortical cross-sectional area (CoA, mm(2)), cortical volumetric bone mineral density (CoD, mg/mm(3)) and bone bending strength index (SSI, mm(3))). Bone traits were calculated from a single computed tomography slice from the femoral mid-shaft. Pain in the operated knee was assessed with the WOMAC questionnaire. Stepwise regression models were built for the operated leg bone traits, with knee extension and flexion torque and power, age, height, body mass, pain score and time since operation as independent variables. CoA was 2.3% (P=0.015), CoD 1.2% (P<0.001) and SSI 1.6% (P=0.235) lower in the operated compared to non-operated leg. The overall proportions of the variation explained by the regression models were 50%, 29% and 55% for CoA, CoD and SSI, respectively. Body mass explained 12% of Coa, 11% of CoD and 11% of SSI (P≤0.003). Maximal knee flexion torque explained 38% of Coa, 7% of CoD and 44% of SSI (p≤0.047). For CoD time since operation also became a significant predictor (11%, P=0.045). Knee flexion torque of the operated leg was positively associated with bone strength in the operated leg. Thus, successful rehabilitation may diminish bone loss in the operated leg. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Skeletal muscle strength and endurance in recipients of lung transplants.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sunita; Levy, Robert D; Reid, W Darlene

    2008-09-01

    Exercise limitation in recipients of lung transplant may be a result of abnormalities in the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether these abnormalities are merely a reflection of the changes observed in the pretransplant condition. The purpose of this paper was to compare thigh muscle volume and composition, strength, and endurance in lung transplant recipients to people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Single lung transplant recipients (n=6) and people with COPD (n=6), matched for age, sex, and BMI participated in the study. Subjects underwent MRI to determine muscle size and composition, lower extremity strength testing and an isometric endurance test of the quadriceps. Lung transplant recipients had similar muscle volumes and intramuscular fat infiltration of their thigh muscles and similar strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings to people with COPD who had not undergone transplant. However, quadriceps endurance tended to be lower in transplant recipients compared to people with COPD (15 +/- 7 seconds in transplant versus 31 +/- 12 seconds in COPD, p = 0.08). Recipients of lung transplant showed similar changes in muscle size and strength as people with COPD, however muscle endurance tended to be lower in people with lung transplants. Impairments in muscle endurance may reflect the effects of immunosuppressant medications on skeletal muscle in people with lung transplant.

  16. Strength Training Using Elastic Bands: Improvement of Muscle Power and Throwing Performance in Young Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos Andrade, Marilia

    2017-05-01

    Imbalance in shoulder-rotator muscles has been considered a risk factor for injuries in handball. Strength training programs (STPs) may play an important preventive role. To verify the effects of an STP using elastic bands on shoulder muscles and ball-throwing speed. Randomized and prospective controlled trial. Exercise physiology laboratory. Thirty-nine female handball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (EG, n = 21, 15.3 ± 1.1 y) or a control (CG, n = 18, 15.0 ± 0.8 y) group. The EG performed the STP with elastic-band progressive exercises for 6 wk before regular handball training, and the CG underwent only their regular training. Before and after the STP, both groups underwent a ball-throwing-speed test and isokinetic test to assess shoulder internal- (IR) and external-rotator muscle performance. Average power values for IR muscles presented a significant group-vs-time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = .05); EG presented significantly higher values after the STP (P = .03). Ball speed presented higher values in EG after the STP in standing (P = .04) and jumping (P = .03) throws. IR peak-torque values and balance in shoulder-rotator muscles presented no group-vs-time interaction effect. STP using elastic bands performed for 6 wk was effective to improve muscle power and ball speed for young female handball players.

  17. Early phase adaptations in muscle strength and hypertrophy as a result of low-intensity blood flow restriction resistance training.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ethan C; Housh, Terry J; Keller, Joshua L; Smith, Cory M; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2018-06-22

    Low-intensity venous blood flow restriction (vBFR) resistance training has been shown to promote increases in muscle strength and size. Eccentric-only muscle actions are typically a more potent stimulus to increase muscle strength and size than concentric-only muscle actions performed at the same relative intensities. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the time-course of changes in muscle strength, hypertrophy, and neuromuscular adaptations following 4 weeks of unilateral forearm flexion low-intensity eccentric vBFR (Ecc-vBFR) vs. low-intensity concentric vBFR (Con-vBFR) resistance training performed at the same relative intensity. Thirty-six women were randomly assigned to either Ecc-vBFR (n = 12), Con-vBFR (n = 12) or control (no intervention, n = 12) group. Ecc-vBFR trained at 30% of eccentric peak torque and Con-vBFR trained at 30% of concentric peak torque. All training and testing procedures were performed at an isokinetic velocity of 120° s - ¹. Muscle strength increased similarly from 0 to 2 and 4 weeks of training as a result of Ecc-vBFR (13.9 and 35.0%) and Con-vBFR (13.4 and 31.2%), but there were no changes in muscle strength for the control group. Muscle thickness increased similarly from 0 to 2 and 4 weeks of training as a result of Ecc-vBFR (11.4 and 12.8%) and Con-vBFR (9.1 and 9.9%), but there were no changes for the control group. In addition, there were no changes in any of the neuromuscular responses. The Ecc-vBFR and Con-vBFR low-intensity training induced comparable increases in muscle strength and size. The increases in muscle strength, however, were not associated with neuromuscular adaptations.

  18. Validity and reliability of an instrumented leg-extension machine for measuring isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Caroline; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Jacomel, Gabriel Fernandes; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Santos, Daniela Pacheco dos; Scoz, Robson Dias; Roesler, Helio

    2015-05-20

    Isometric muscle strength of knee extensors has been assessed for estimating performance, evaluating progress during physical training, and investigating the relationship between isometric and dynamic/functional performance. To assess the validity and reliability of an adapted leg-extension machine for measuring isometric knee extensor force. Validity (concurrent approach) and reliability (test and test-retest approach) study. University laboratory. 70 healthy men and women aged between 20 and 30 y (39 in the validity study and 31 in the reliability study). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values calculated for the maximum voluntary isometric torque of knee extensors at 30°, 60°, and 90°, measured with the prototype and with an isokinetic dynamometer (ICC2,1, validity study) and measured with the prototype in test and retest sessions, scheduled from 48 h to 72 h apart (ICC1,1, reliability study). In the validity analysis, the prototype showed good agreement for measurements at 30° (ICC2,1 = .75, SEM = 18.2 Nm) and excellent agreement for measurements at 60° (ICC2,1 = .93, SEM = 9.6 Nm) and at 90° (ICC2,1 = .94, SEM = 8.9 Nm). Regarding the reliability analysis, between-days' ICC1,1 were good to excellent, ranging from .88 to .93. Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable difference based on test-retest ranged from 11.7 Nm to 18.1 Nm and 32.5 Nm to 50.1 Nm, respectively, for the 3 analyzed knee angles. The analysis of validity and repeatability of the prototype for measuring isometric muscle strength has shown to be good or excellent, depending on the knee joint angle analyzed. The new instrument, which presents a relative low cost and easiness of transportation when compared with an isokinetic dynamometer, is valid and provides consistent data concerning isometric strength of knee extensors and, for this reason, can be used for practical, clinical, and research purposes.

  19. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  20. Exercise capacity, muscle strength and fatigue in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marcellis, R G J; Lenssen, A F; Elfferich, M D P; De Vries, J; Kassim, S; Foerster, K; Drent, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the prevalence of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and fatigue in sarcoidosis patients. Additionally, we evaluated whether fatigue can be explained by exercise capacity, muscle strength or other clinical characteristics (lung function tests, radiographic stages, prednisone usage and inflammatory markers). 124 sarcoidosis patients (80 males) referred to the Maastricht University Medical Centre (Maastricht, the Netherlands) were included (mean age 46.6±10.2 yrs). Patients performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and handgrip force (HGF), elbow flexor muscle strength (EFMS), quadriceps peak torque (QPT) and hamstring peak torque (HPT) tests. Maximal inspiratory pressure (P(I,max)) was recorded. All patients completed the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) questionnaire. The 6MWT was reduced in 45% of the population, while HGF, EFMS, QPT and HPT muscle strength were reduced in 15, 12, 27 and 18%, respectively. P(I,max) was reduced in 43% of the population. The majority of the patients (81%) reported fatigue (FAS ≥22). Patients with reduced peripheral muscle strength of the upper and/or lower extremities were more fatigued and demonstrated impaired lung functions, fat-free mass, P(I,max), 6MWT and quality of life. Fatigue was neither predicted by exercise capacity, nor by muscle strength. Besides fatigue, exercise intolerance and muscle weakness are frequent problems in sarcoidosis. We therefore recommend physical tests in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis patients, even in nonfatigued patients.

  1. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio.

    PubMed

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Sargeant, Anthony J

    2003-08-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also investigated whether, apart from CSA, MVA and MRR were determinants of muscle strength. Polio subjects had significantly less strength, CSA, and MRR in the more-affected quadriceps than control subjects. MVA was reduced in 18 polio subjects and normal in all controls. PPS subjects differed from non-PPS subjects only in that the MVA of the more-affected quadriceps was significantly lower. Both CSA and MVA were found to be associated with muscle strength. Quadriceps strength in polio subjects was dependent not only on muscle mass, but also on the ability to activate the muscles. Since impaired activation was more pronounced in PPS subjects, the new muscle weakness and functional decline in PPS may be due not only to a gradual loss of muscle fibers, but also to an increasing inability to activate the muscles.

  2. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength. This systematic review investigates the current evidence regarding the effects of WBV training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PEDro, and Science citation index for research articles published prior to March 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, strength and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading 'Osteoarthritis knee'. This meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by two independent evaluators using the PEDro scale and criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) for reporting WBV intervention studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool for domain-based evaluation. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. Eighteen studies were identified in the search. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of these four studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Out of the four studies, only one study found significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength gains following WBV compared to the control group. In three of the four studies that compared a control group performing the same exercise as the WBV groups, no additional effect of WBV on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee OA was indicated. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inspiratory muscle training increases inspiratory muscle strength in patients weaning from mechanical ventilation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Lisa; Reeve, Julie; Elkins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Does inspiratory muscle training improve inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, facilitate weaning, improve survival, and reduce the rate of reintubation and tracheostomy in adults receiving mechanical ventilation? Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials. Adults over 16 years of age receiving mechanical ventilation. Inspiratory muscle training versus sham or no inspiratory muscle training. Data were extracted regarding inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, the duration of unassisted breathing periods, weaning success and duration, reintubation and tracheostomy, survival, adverse effects, and length of stay. Three studies involving 150 participants were included in the review. The studies varied in time to commencement of the training, the device used, the training protocol, and the outcomes measured. Inspiratory muscle training significantly increased inspiratory muscle strength over sham or no training (weighted mean difference 8 cmH(2)O, 95% CI 6 to 9). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in weaning success or duration, survival, reintubation, or tracheostomy. Inspiratory muscle training was found to significantly increase inspiratory muscle strength in adults undergoing mechanical ventilation. Despite data from a substantial pooled cohort, it is not yet clear whether the increase in inspiratory muscle strength leads to a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation, improved weaning success, or improved survival. Further large randomised studies are required to clarify the impact of inspiratory muscle training on patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PROSPERO CRD42011001132. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of equal-volume resistance training with different training frequencies in muscle size and strength in trained men

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James; Steele, James; Campos, Mario H.; Silva, Marcelo H.; Paoli, Antonio; Giessing, Jurgen; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training (RT) performed with different training frequencies on muscle size and strength in trained young men. Methods Sixteen men with at least one year of RT experience were divided into two groups, G1 and G2, that trained each muscle group once and twice a week, respectively, for 10 weeks. Elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) was measured using a B-Mode ultrasound and concentric peak torque of elbow extensors and flexors were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. Results ANOVA did not reveal group by time interactions for any variable, indicating no difference between groups for the changes in MT or PT of elbow flexors and extensors. Notwithstanding, MT of elbow flexors increased significantly (3.1%, P < 0.05) only in G1. PT of elbow flexors and extensors did not increase significantly for any group. Discussion The present study suggest that there were no differences in the results promoted by equal-volume resistance training performed once or twice a week on upper body muscle strength in trained men. Only the group performing one session per week significantly increased the MT of their elbow flexors. However, with either once or twice a week training, adaptations appear largely minimal in previously trained males.

  5. Effects of equal-volume resistance training with different training frequencies in muscle size and strength in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Paulo; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Campos, Mario H; Silva, Marcelo H; Paoli, Antonio; Giessing, Jurgen; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training (RT) performed with different training frequencies on muscle size and strength in trained young men. Sixteen men with at least one year of RT experience were divided into two groups, G1 and G2, that trained each muscle group once and twice a week, respectively, for 10 weeks. Elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) was measured using a B-Mode ultrasound and concentric peak torque of elbow extensors and flexors were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. ANOVA did not reveal group by time interactions for any variable, indicating no difference between groups for the changes in MT or PT of elbow flexors and extensors. Notwithstanding, MT of elbow flexors increased significantly (3.1%, P  < 0.05) only in G1. PT of elbow flexors and extensors did not increase significantly for any group. The present study suggest that there were no differences in the results promoted by equal-volume resistance training performed once or twice a week on upper body muscle strength in trained men. Only the group performing one session per week significantly increased the MT of their elbow flexors. However, with either once or twice a week training, adaptations appear largely minimal in previously trained males.

  6. Objective evaluation of muscle strength in infants with hypotonia and muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Staal, J Bart; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Otten, Barto J; Pelzer, Ben J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-04-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17 infants with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) aged 24 months. The inter-rater reliability of the measurement method was good (ICC=.84) and the convergent validity was confirmed by high Pearson's correlations between muscle strength, age, height, and weight (r=.79-.85). A multiple linear regression model was developed to predict muscle strength based on age, height, and weight, explaining 73% of the variance in muscle strength. In infants with PWS, muscle strength was significantly decreased. Pearson's correlations showed that infants with PWS in which muscle strength was more severely affected also had a larger motor developmental delay (r=.75). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A structural equation model of the relationship between muscle strength, balance performance, walking endurance and community integration in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To use structural equation modelling (SEM) to determine (1) the direct and indirect associations of strength of paretic lower limb muscles with the level of community integration, and (2) the direct association of walking endurance and balance performance with the level of community integration in community-dwelling stroke survivors. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional study of 105 stroke survivors, the Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO) was used to measure the level of community integration. Lower-limb strength measures included isometric paretic ankle strength and isokinetic paretic knee peak torque. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) were used to evaluate balance performance and walking endurance, respectively. Results SEM revealed that the distance walked on the 6MWT had the strongest direct association with the SIPSO score (β = 0.41, p <0.001). An increase of one standard deviation in the 6MWT distance resulted in an increase of 0.41 standard deviations in the SIPSO score. Moreover, dorsiflexion strength (β = 0.18, p = 0.044) and the BBS score (β = 0.21, p = 0.021) had direct associations with the SIPSO score. Conclusions The results of the proposed model suggest that rehabilitation training of community-dwelling stroke survivors could focus on walking endurance, balance performance and dorsiflexor muscle strengthening if the aim is to augment the level of community integration. PMID:29049293

  8. Muscle strength and golf performance: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Golf has become an increasingly popular sport and a growing body of research trying to identify its main physical requirements is being published. The aim of this review was twofold: first, to examine the existing scientific literature regarding strength training and golf in healthy, non-injured, subjects; and second, to reach conclusions that could provide information on how to design more effective strength training programs to improve golf performance as well as directions for future research. Studies which analyzed the relationship between muscle strength, swing performance variables (club head speed, driving distance, ball speed) and skill (handicap, score) were reviewed. Changes in swing performance following different strength training programs were also investigated. Finally, a critical analysis about the methodologies used was carried out. The results of the reviewed studies seem to indicate that: 1) a positive relationship exists between handicap and swing performance (even though few studies have investigated this issue); 2) there is a positive correlation between skill (handicap and/or score) and muscle strength; and 3) there is a relationship between driving distance, swing speed, ball speed and muscle strength. Results suggest that training leg-hip and trunk power as well as grip strength is especially relevant for golf performance improvement. Studies that analyzed variations in swing performance following resistance-only training programs are scarce, thus it is difficult to prove whether the observed improvements are attributable to changes in strength levels. Many of the studies reviewed presented some methodological errors in their design and not all strength assessment protocols seemed appropriate. Further studies should determine muscle strength needs in relation to final swing performance, using well designed experiments and strict isoinertial assessment protocols which adequately relate to specific golf motion, age and skill level. More

  9. Muscle Strength And Golf Performance: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan J.

    2011-01-01

    Golf has become an increasingly popular sport and a growing body of research trying to identify its main physical requirements is being published. The aim of this review was twofold: first, to examine the existing scientific literature regarding strength training and golf in healthy, non-injured, subjects; and second, to reach conclusions that could provide information on how to design more effective strength training programs to improve golf performance as well as directions for future research. Studies which analyzed the relationship between muscle strength, swing performance variables (club head speed, driving distance, ball speed) and skill (handicap, score) were reviewed. Changes in swing performance following different strength training programs were also investigated. Finally, a critical analysis about the methodologies used was carried out. The results of the reviewed studies seem to indicate that: 1) a positive relationship exists between handicap and swing performance (even though few studies have investigated this issue); 2) there is a positive correlation between skill (handicap and/or score) and muscle strength; and 3) there is a relationship between driving distance, swing speed, ball speed and muscle strength. Results suggest that training leg-hip and trunk power as well as grip strength is especially relevant for golf performance improvement. Studies that analyzed variations in swing performance following resistance-only training programs are scarce, thus it is difficult to prove whether the observed improvements are attributable to changes in strength levels. Many of the studies reviewed presented some methodological errors in their design and not all strength assessment protocols seemed appropriate. Further studies should determine muscle strength needs in relation to final swing performance, using well designed experiments and strict isoinertial assessment protocols which adequately relate to specific golf motion, age and skill level. More

  10. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    PubMed

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p < 0.001) and physiological cross-sectional area (16.1 vs. 18.1 cm 2 , p = 0.032). There were no significant changes to muscle fascicle length, stiffness, or eccentric hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  11. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of combined aerobic-resistance exercise on muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and health-related quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H; Santos, Vitoria; Goncalves, Helena; Ramos, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a 12-weeks combined aerobic-resistance exercise therapy on fatigue and isokinetic muscle strength, glycemic control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in moderately affected type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. A randomized controlled trial design was employed. Forty-three T2DM patients were assigned to an exercise group (N.=22), performing 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes of combined aerobic-resistance exercise for 12-weeks; or a no exercise control group (N.=21). Both groups were evaluated at a baseline and after 12-weeks of exercise therapy for: 1) muscle strength and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry; 2) plasma glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C); and 3) HRQoL utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire. The exercise therapy led to improvements in muscle fatigue in knee extensors (-55%) and increased muscle strength in knee flexors and extensors (+15 to +30%), while HbA1C decreased (-18%). In addition, the exercising patients showed sizeable improvements in HRQoL: physical function (+53%), vitality (+21%) and mental health (+40%). Twelve-weeks of combined aerobic-resistance exercise was highly effective to improve muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and several aspects of HRQoL in T2DM patients. These data encourage the use of aerobic and resistance exercise in the good clinical care of T2DM.

  12. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Kênia Kp; Nascimento, Lucas R; Ada, Louise; Polese, Janaine C; Avelino, Patrick R; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-07-01

    After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8), showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14) and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25); it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96) compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. PROSPERO (CRD42015020683). [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016) Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review.Journal of Physiotherapy62: 138-144]. Copyright © 2016 Australian

  13. Back muscle strength, lifting, and stooped working postures.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, E; Jørgensen, K

    1971-09-01

    When lifting loads and working in a forward stooped position, the muscles of the back rather than the ligaments and bony structures of the spine should overcome the gravitational forces. Formulae, based on measurements of back muscle strength, for prediction of maximal loads to be lifted, and for the ability to sustain work in a stooped position, have been worked out and tested in practical situations. From tests with 50 male and female subjects the simplest prediction formulae for maximum loads were: max. load = 1.10 x isometric back muscle strength for men; and max. load = 0.95 x isometric back muscle strength - 8 kg for women. Some standard values for maximum lifts and permissible single and repeated lifts have been calculated for men and women separately and are given in Table 1. From tests with 65 rehabilitees it was found that the maximum isometric strength of the back muscles measured at shoulder height should exceed 2/3 of the body weight, if fatigue and/or pain in the back muscles is to be avoided during work in a standing stooped position.

  14. Normal isometric strength of rotatorcuff muscles in adults.

    PubMed

    Chezar, A; Berkovitch, Y; Haddad, M; Keren, Y; Soudry, M; Rosenberg, N

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for each decade of life. Maximal isometric force was measured at standardised positions for supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles in both shoulders in every person. Torque of the force was calculated and normalised to lean body mass. The profiles of mean torque-time curves for each age and gender group were compared. Our data showed that men gradually gained maximal strength in the fifth decade, and showed decreased strength in the sixth. In women the maximal strength was gained in the fourth decade with gradual decline to the sixth decade of life. The dominant arm was stronger in most of the tested groups. The torque profiles of the rotator cuff muscles in men at all ages were significantly higher than that in women. We found previously unrecognised variations of rotator cuff muscles' isometric strength according to age, gender and dominancy in a normal population. The presented data may serve as a basis for the future studies for identification of the abnormal patterns of muscle isometric strength in patients with pathology of the rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:214-19.

  15. Insulin resistance and muscle strength in older persons.

    PubMed

    Abbatecola, Angela M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ceda, Gianpaolo; Russo, Cosimo R; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barbieri, Michelangela; Valenti, Giorgio; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2005-10-01

    The functional consequences of an age-related insulin resistance (IR) state on muscle functioning are unknown. Because insulin is needed for adequate muscle function, an age-related insulin-resistant state may also be a determining factor. We evaluated the relationship between IR and handgrip muscle strength in men and women from a large population-based study (n = 968). The degree of IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and muscle strength was assessed using handgrip. Simple sex-stratified correlations demonstrated that, in men, body mass index-adjusted handgrip strength correlated positively with physical activity (r = 0.321; p < .001), muscle area (r = 0.420; p < .001), muscle density (r = 0.263; p = .001), plasma albumin (r = 0.156; p = .001), insulin-like growth factor-1 (r = 0.258; p < .001), calcium (r = 0.140; p = .006), and testosterone (r = 0.325; p < .001) concentrations, whereas a negative association was found for age (r = -0.659; p < .001) and myoglobin plasma levels (r = -0.164; p =.001). In women, body mass index-adjusted handgrip strength correlated positively with physical activity (r = 0.280; p < .001), muscle area (r = 0.306; p < .001), muscle density (r = 0.341; p = .001), plasma albumin (r = 0.140; p =.001), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (r = 0.300; p < .001), whereas a negative association was found for age (r = -0.563; p < .001), myoglobin levels (r = -0.164; p = .001), and IR (r = -0.130; p = .04). Sex-stratified analyses adjusted for multiple confounders showed that the relationship between IR and handgrip strength was found significant in women, whereas it was negligible and not significant in men.

  16. Effect of eccentric strengthening on pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors in male patients with achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yu, JaeHo; Park, DaeSung; Lee, GyuChang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eccentric strengthening on pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors in Achilles tendinopathy patients. Thirty-two male patients with Achilles tendinopathy were assigned to either the experimental group that performed eccentric strengthening or the control group that performed concentric strengthening (n = 16, both groups) for 8 wks (50 mins per day, three times per week). A visual analog scale, an isokinetic muscle testing equipment, the side-step test, and the Sargent jump test were used to assess pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors before and after the intervention. In comparison with the control group, the experimental group showed significant improvement in pain, ankle dorsiflexion endurance, total balance index, and agility after the intervention (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in dexterity between the two groups. Eccentric strengthening was more effective than concentric strengthening in reducing pain and improving function in patients with Achilles tendinopathy; therefore, regular eccentric strengthening is important for patients in a clinical setting.

  17. Effects of intensive whole-body vibration training on muscle strength and balance in adults with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tankisheva, Ekaterina; Bogaerts, An; Boonen, Steven; Feys, Hilde; Verschueren, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a 6-week whole body vibration (WBV) training program in patients with chronic stroke. Randomized controlled pilot trial with 6 weeks' follow-up. University hospital. Adults with chronic stroke (N=15) were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=7) or a control group (n=8). Supervised, intensive WBV training. The vibration group performed a variety of static and dynamic squat exercises on a vibration platform with vibration amplitudes of 1.7 and 2.5mm and frequencies of 35 and 40Hz. The vibration lasted 30 to 60 seconds, with 5 to 17 repetitions per exercise 3 times weekly for 6 weeks. Participants in the control group continued their usual activities and were not involved in any additional training program. The primary outcome variable was the isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of the quadriceps (isokinetic dynamometer). Additionally, hamstrings muscle strength, static and dynamic postural control (dynamic posturography), and muscle spasticity (Ashworth Scale) were assessed. Compliance with the vibration intervention was excellent, and the participants completed all 18 training sessions. Vibration frequencies of both 35 and 40Hz were well tolerated by the patients, and no adverse effects resulting from the vibration were noted. Overall, the effect of intensive WBV intervention resulted in significant between-group differences in favor of the vibration group only in isometric knee extension strength (knee angle, 60°) (P=.022) after 6 weeks of intervention and in isokinetic knee extension strength (velocity, 240°/s) after a 6-week follow-up period (P=.005), both for the paretic leg. Postural control improved after 6 weeks of vibration in the intervention group when the patients had normal vision and a sway-referenced support surface (P<.05). Muscle spasticity was not affected by vibration (P>.05). These preliminary results suggest that intensive WBV might potentially be a safe and feasible way to increase some aspect of lower

  18. Muscle strength and knee range of motion after femoral lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Anil; Shabtai, Lior; Woelber, Erik; Apelyan, Arman; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Femoral lengthening may result in decrease in knee range of motion (ROM) and quadriceps and hamstring muscle weakness. We evaluated preoperative and postoperative knee ROM, hamstring muscle strength, and quadriceps muscle strength in a diverse group of patients undergoing femoral lengthening. We hypothesized that lengthening would not result in a significant change in knee ROM or muscle strength. Patients and methods - This prospective study of 48 patients (mean age 27 (9-60) years) compared ROM and muscle strength before and after femoral lengthening. Patient age, amount of lengthening, percent lengthening, level of osteotomy, fixation time, and method of lengthening were also evaluated regarding knee ROM and strength. The average length of follow-up was 2.9 (2.0-4.7) years. Results - Mean amount of lengthening was 5.2 (2.4-11.0) cm. The difference between preoperative and final knee flexion ROM was 2° for the overall group. Congenital shortening cases lost an average of 5% or 6° of terminal knee flexion, developmental cases lost an average of 3% or 4°, and posttraumatic cases regained all motion. The difference in quadriceps strength at 45° preoperatively and after lengthening was not statistically or clinically significant (2.7 Nm; p = 0.06). Age, amount of lengthening, percent lengthening, osteotomy level, fixation time, and lengthening method had no statistically significant influence on knee ROM or quadriceps strength at final follow-up. Interpretation - Most variables had no effect on ROM or strength, and higher age did not appear to be a limiting factor for femoral lengthening. Patients with congenital causes were most affected in terms of knee flexion.

  19. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  20. Muscle strength and endurance following lowerlimb suspension in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, Per A.; Berg, Hans E.; Haggmark, Tom; Ohlsen, Hans; Dudley, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lower-limb suspension on the muscle strength and muscle endurance was investigated in six men subjected to four weeks of unilateral unloading of a lower limb (using of a harness attached to a modified shoe), followed by seven weeks of weight-bearing recovery. Results showed a decrease in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle and in the average peak torque (APT) during three bouts of 30 concentric knee extensions. While the the thigh muscle CSA returned to normal after seven weeks of recovery, the APT recovery was still reduced by 11 percent, suggesting that muscle metabolic function was severely affected by unloading and was not restored by ambulation.

  1. The Effect of Aquatic Exercise Therapy on Muscle Strength and Joint's Range of Motion in Hemophilia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Dehghadani, Mehdi; Ghias, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was to evaluate the effect of a period of aquatic exercise therapy on muscle strength and joints range of motion in hemophilia patients. Methods: This was a semiexperimental, pretest, post-test study with a control group. This semi-experimental study comprised twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected by convenience sampling method from patients of a referral hospital. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups of equal number. The hemophilia patients who were referred to Sayedo-Shohada Hospital enrolled in this study. Twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided randomly into intervention and control groups (10 patients in each group). Subjects of aquatic exercise therapy group underwent activity in water in three sessions (45-60 minutes) per week for 8 weeks, while the control group was only under follow-up and during this period did not experience any effective physical activity. The patients’ muscle strength and joint range of motion were evaluated through standard laboratory tools, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, Systems III) and a standard goniometer in the beginning and at end of the study. Finally, data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: The strength of the muscles around the knee joint (to perform extension and flexion movements) increased significantly in the case group while the control group experienced a significant reduction of strength in left leg, but in right leg remarkable change was observed. Range of motion in all joints was improved in the case group, while the control group did not improve significantly. Conclusion: The results showed that aquatic exercise therapy can be a useful method to improve joints’ strength and range of motion in hemophilia patients in order to improve their daily functioning and quality of life. PMID:23412736

  2. The Effect of Aquatic Exercise Therapy on Muscle Strength and Joint's Range of Motion in Hemophilia Patients.

    PubMed

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Dehghadani, Mehdi; Ghias, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a period of aquatic exercise therapy on muscle strength and joints range of motion in hemophilia patients. This was a semiexperimental, pretest, post-test study with a control group. This semi-experimental study comprised twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected by convenience sampling method from patients of a referral hospital. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups of equal number. The hemophilia patients who were referred to Sayedo-Shohada Hospital enrolled in this study. Twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided randomly into intervention and control groups (10 patients in each group). Subjects of aquatic exercise therapy group underwent activity in water in three sessions (45-60 minutes) per week for 8 weeks, while the control group was only under follow-up and during this period did not experience any effective physical activity. The patients' muscle strength and joint range of motion were evaluated through standard laboratory tools, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, Systems III) and a standard goniometer in the beginning and at end of the study. Finally, data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The strength of the muscles around the knee joint (to perform extension and flexion movements) increased significantly in the case group while the control group experienced a significant reduction of strength in left leg, but in right leg remarkable change was observed. Range of motion in all joints was improved in the case group, while the control group did not improve significantly. The results showed that aquatic exercise therapy can be a useful method to improve joints' strength and range of motion in hemophilia patients in order to improve their daily functioning and quality of life.

  3. Age at spinal cord injury determines muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christine K.; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) age they report noticeable deficits in muscle strength, endurance and functional capacity when performing everyday tasks. These changes begin at ~45 years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (≤46 years) in relation to data from uninjured age-matched individuals. First, completely paralyzed thenar muscles were weaker when C6 SCI occurred at an older age. Muscles were also significantly weaker if the injury was closer to the thenar motor pools (C6 vs. C4). More muscles were strong (>50% uninjured) in those injured at a younger (≤25 years) vs. young age (>25 years), irrespective of SCI level. There was a reduction in motor unit numbers in all muscles tested. In each C6 SCI, only ~30 units survived vs. 144 units in uninjured subjects. Since intact axons only sprout 4–6 fold, the limits for muscle reinnervation have largely been met in these young individuals. Thus, any further reduction in motor unit numbers with time after these injuries will likely result in chronic denervation, and may explain the late-onset muscle weakness routinely described by people with SCI. In a second dataset, paralyzed thenar motor units were more fatigable than uninjured units. This gap widened with age and will reduce functional reserve. Force declines were not due to electromyographic decrements in either group so the site of failure was beyond excitation of the muscle membrane. Together, these results suggest that age at SCI is an important determinant of long-term muscle strength, and fatigability, both of which influence functional capacity. PMID:24478643

  4. The Relationship between Walk Distance and Muscle Strength, Muscle Pain in Visually Disabled People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Betül

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between six-minute walk test and muscle pain, muscle strength in visually disabled people. The study includes 50 visually disabled people, aged between 17, 21 ± 5,3. Participants were classified into three categories according to their degree of vision (B1, B2, B3). All participants were…

  5. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and quadriceps strength in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Zwarts, Machiel J; Nollet, Frans; van Dijk, Johannes P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether muscle ultrasound can distinguish muscles affected by post-polio syndrome (PPS) from healthy muscles and whether severity of ultrasound abnormalities is associated with muscle strength. Echo intensity, muscle thickness, and isometric strength of the quadriceps muscles were measured in 48 patients with PPS and 12 healthy controls. Patients with PPS had significantly higher echo intensity and lower muscle thickness than healthy controls. In patients, both echo intensity and muscle thickness were associated independently with muscle strength. A combined measure of echo intensity and muscle thickness was more strongly related to muscle strength than either parameter alone. Quantitative ultrasound distinguishes healthy muscles from those affected by PPS, and measures of muscle quality and quantity are associated with muscle strength. Hence, ultrasound could be a useful tool for assessing disease severity and monitoring changes resulting from disease progression or clinical intervention in patients with PPS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Strength and fatigability of selected muscles in upper limb: assessing muscle imbalance relevant to tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Alizadehkhaiyat, O; Fisher, A C; Kemp, G J; Frostick, S P

    2007-08-01

    The aetiology of tennis elbow has remained uncertain for more than a century. To examine muscle imbalance as a possible pathophysiological factor requires a reliable method of assessment. This paper describes the development of such a method and its performance in healthy subjects. We propose a combination of surface and fine-wire EMG of shoulder and forearm muscles and wrist strength measurements as a reliable tool for assessing muscle imbalance relevant to the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Six healthy volunteers participated. EMG data were acquired at 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction from five forearm muscles during grip and three shoulder muscles during external rotation and abduction, and analysed using normalized median frequency slope as a fatigue index. Wrist extension/flexion strength was measured using a purpose-built dynamometer. Significant negative slope of median frequency was found for all muscles, with good reproducibility, and no significant difference in slope between the different muscles of the shoulder and the wrist. (Amplitude slope showed high variability and was therefore unsuitable for this purpose.) Wrist flexion was 27+/-8% stronger than extension (mean+/-SEM, p=0.006). This is a reliable method for measuring muscle fatigue in forearm and shoulder. EMG and wrist strength studies together can be used for assessing and identifying the muscle balance in the wrist-forearm-shoulder chain.

  7. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; P<0.001) and between EMG activity and submaximal isometric torque (r ⩾ 0.99; P<0.05), for both extensor and flexor muscles. Intraclass correlation coefficients were comprised between 0.87 and 0.95, and standard errors of measurement were lower than 9% for all contraction modes. The mean difference in peak torque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of muscle length on strength and dexterity after stroke.

    PubMed

    Ada, L; Canning, C; Dwyer, T

    2000-02-01

    The effect of muscle length on strength and dexterity after stroke was investigated. The aim was to determine if poor function at a particular muscle length could be attributed solely to differential weakness at this joint angle or whether an additional problem of differential dexterity exists. This descriptive research study measured elbow flexor and extensor strength as well as dexterity at three elbow joint angles: 30 degrees , 60 degrees and 90 degrees flexion. Dexterity was measured independently of strength. Fifteen (seven female, eight male) chronic stroke patients (mean age 67 years) who could actively flex and extend their affected elbow participated. Ten neurologically normal control subjects (mean age 67 years) acted as controls. Strength was measured as peak elbow flexor and extensor torque at three angles; and dexterity was measured as coherence for slow and fast tracking also at three angles. Dexterity was not affected by muscle length but strength was and this finding was the same for both stroke and controls. While the magnitude of the torque-angle curves was not significantly different between stroke and controls, the shape of torque-angle curves was altered after stroke so that both the elbow flexors (p < 0.05) and extensors (p < 0.05) tested weaker in the testing position where they were shortest. Since there was no differential loss of dexterity, it appears that differential loss of strength, especially in the shortened range, may explain the clinical observation of poorer function at one muscle length than another after stroke. Specific training to strengthen the muscles in these ranges is therefore of clinical importance for rehabilitation.

  9. Muscle strength and body composition are clinical indicators of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rikkonen, Toni; Sirola, Joonas; Salovaara, Kari; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Honkanen, Risto; Kröger, Heikki

    2012-08-01

    We examined the role of muscle strength, lean tissue distribution, and overall body composition as indicators of osteoporosis (OP) in a pooled sample of 979 Finnish postmenopausal women (mean age 68.1 years) from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck (FN) and total body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. The women (n = 979) were divided into three groups according to WHO criteria, based on FN BMD T score: normal (n = 474), osteopenia (n = 468), and OP (n = 37). Soft tissue proportions, fat mass index (FMI, fat/height²), lean mass index (LMI, lean/height²), and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, (arms + legs)/height²) were calculated. Handgrip and knee extension strength measurements were made. OP subjects had significantly smaller LMI (p = 0.001), ASM (p = 0.001), grip strength (p < 0.0001), and knee extension strength (p < 0.05) but not FMI (p > 0.05) compared to other subjects. Grip and knee extension strength were 19 and 16 % weaker in OP women compared to others, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 69 % for grip and 71 % for knee extension strength. In tissue proportions only LMI showed predictive power (63 %, p = 0.016). An overall linear association of LMI (R² = 0.007, p = 0.01) and FMI (R² = 0.028, p < 0.001) with FN BMD remained significant. In the multivariate model, after adjusting for age, grip strength, leg extension strength, FMI, LMI, number of medications, alcohol consumption, current smoking, dietary calcium intake, and hormone therapy, grip strength (adjusted OR = 0.899, 95 % CI 0.84-0.97, p < 0.01), leg extension strength (OR = 0.998, 95 % CI 0.99-1, p < 0.05), and years of hormone therapy (OR = 0.905, 95 % CI 0.82-1, p < 0.05) remained as significant determinants of OP. Muscle strength tests, especially grip strength, serve as an independent and useful tool for postmenopausal OP risk assessment

  10. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  11. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  12. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength*

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Pedro; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Cardenas, Leticia Zumpano; Ferreira, Jeferson George; Prina, Elena; Trevizan, Patrícia Fernandes; Pereira, Mayra Caleffi; Iamonti, Vinicius; Pletsch, Renata; Macchione, Marcelo Ceneviva; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength. PMID:25972965

  13. Myotonometry as a Surrogate Measure of Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, B. S.; Feeback, D. L.; Leonard, C. T.; Sykes, J.; Kruger, E.; Clarke, M. S. F.

    2007-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy/neuromuscular degradation and the consequent decrements in crew-member performance are of increasing concern as mission duration lengthens, and planetary exploration after extended space flight is planned. Pre- to post-flight strength measures have demonstrated that specific countermeasures, such as resistive exercise, are effective at countering microgravity-induced muscle atrophy and preventing decrements in muscle strength. However, in-flight assessment/monitoring of exercise countermeasure effectiveness will be essential during exploration class missions due to their duration. The ability to modify an exercise countermeasure prescription based on such real-time information will allow each individual crew member to perform the optimal amount and type of exercise countermeasure to maintain performance. In addition, such measures can be used to determine if a crew member is physically capable of performing a particular mission-related task during exploration class missions. The challenges faced in acquiring such data are those common to all space operations, namely the requirement for light-weight, low power, mechanically reliable technologies that make valid measurements in microgravity, in this case of muscle strength/neuromuscular function. Here we describe a simple, light-weight, low power, non-invasive device, known as the Myotonometer, that measures tissue stiffness as an indirect measure of muscle contractile state and muscle force production. Repeat myotonometer measurements made at the same location on the surface of the rectis femoris muscle (as determined using a 3D locator device, SEM plus or minus 0.34 mm) were shown to be reproducible over time at both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and at rest in a total of 17 sedentary subjects assessed three times over a period of seven days. In addition, graded voluntary isometric force production (i.e. 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% & 100% of MVC) during knee extension was shown to

  14. Strength and muscle mass loss with aging process. Age and strength loss.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karsten; Engelhardt, Martin

    2013-10-01

    aging process is associated with changes in muscle mass and strength with decline of muscle strength after the 30(th) life year. The aim of this study was to investigate these changes in muscle mass and strength. for this analysis 26 participants were subdivided in two groups. Group 1 comprises participants aged <40 years (n=14), group 2 those >40 years (n=12). We assessed anthropometrics, range of motions, leg circumferences and isometric strength values of the knee joints. besides comparable anthropometrics, circumferences and strength were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Circumference of upper leg (20 cm above knee articular space) showed for right leg a trend to a significant (median: 54.45 cm (1(st) quartile: 49.35/3(rd) quartile: 57.78) vs 49.80 cm (49.50/50.75), p=0.0526) and for left leg a significant 54.30 cm (49.28/58.13) vs 49.50 cm (48.00/52.53), p=0.0356) larger circumference in group 1. Isometric strength was in 60° knee flexion significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 for right (729.88N (561.47/862.13) vs 456.92N (304.67/560.12), p=0.00448) and left leg (702.49N (581.36/983.87) vs 528.49N (332.95/648.58), p=0.0234). aging process leads to distinct muscle mass and strength loss. Muscle strength declines from people aged <40 years to those >40 years between 16.6% and 40.9%.

  15. Comparisons in fluctuation of muscle strength and function in patients with immune-mediated neuropathy treated with intravenous versus subcutaneous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Variations in muscle strength and function have not been studied in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy whose treatment regimen has been changed from intravenous to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IVIg to SCIg). In a prospective, open-label study, patients were changed from monthly IVIg to weekly SCIg. The primary endpoint was variation in isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary endpoints were variations in Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength (GS), 9-hole-peg test (9-HPT), and 40-meter-walk test (40-MWT). The coefficient of variance of cIKS during the IVIg and SCIg treatment periods was unchanged (mean ± SD: 6.97 ± 4.83% vs. 5.50 ± 3.13%, P = 0.21). The variations in the 9-HPT and 40-MWT were significantly lower in the SCIg group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.005, respectively). When therapy was changed from IVIg to SCIg, fluctuation of muscle strength was unchanged, but performance fluctuations were diminished. Muscle Nerve 57: 610-614, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  17. The value of multiple tests of respiratory muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg; Kaul, Sunny; Seymour, John; Jolley, Caroline; Rafferty, Gerrard; Man, William; Luo, Yuan M; Roughton, Michael; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John

    2007-01-01

    Background Respiratory muscle weakness is an important clinical problem. Tests of varying complexity and invasiveness are available to assess respiratory muscle strength. The relative precision of different tests in the detection of weakness is less clear, as is the value of multiple tests. Methods The respiratory muscle function tests of clinical referrals who had multiple tests assessed in our laboratories over a 6‐year period were analysed. Thresholds for weakness for each test were determined from published and in‐house laboratory data. The patients were divided into three groups: those who had all relevant measurements of global inspiratory muscle strength (group A, n = 182), those with full assessment of diaphragm strength (group B, n = 264) and those for whom expiratory muscle strength was fully evaluated (group C, n = 60). The diagnostic outcome of each inspiratory, diaphragm and expiratory muscle test, both singly and in combination, was studied and the impact of using more than one test to detect weakness was calculated. Results The clinical referrals were primarily for the evaluation of neuromuscular diseases and dyspnoea of unknown cause. A low maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (Pimax) was recorded in 40.1% of referrals in group A, while a low sniff nasal pressure (Sniff Pnasal) was recorded in 41.8% and a low sniff oesophageal pressure (Sniff Poes) in 37.9%. When assessing inspiratory strength with the combination of all three tests, 29.6% of patients had weakness. Using the two non‐invasive tests (Pimax and Sniff Pnasal) in combination, a similar result was obtained (low in 32.4%). Combining Sniff Pdi (low in 68.2%) and Twitch Pdi (low in 67.4%) reduced the diagnoses of patients with diaphragm weakness to 55.3% in group B. 38.3% of the patients in group C had expiratory muscle weakness as measured by maximum expiratory pressure (Pemax) compared with 36.7% when weakness was diagnosed by cough gastric pressure (Pgas), and 28.3% when

  18. Morphologic Characteristics and Strength of the Hamstring Muscles Remain Altered at 2 Years After Use of a Hamstring Tendon Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Jason M; Vertullo, Christopher J; Kennedy, Ben A; Bush, Hamish S; Barrett, Rod S; Lloyd, David G

    2016-10-01

    The hamstring tendon graft used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been shown to lead to changes to the semitendinosus and gracilis musculature. We hypothesized that (1) loss of donor muscle size would significantly correlate with knee muscle strength deficits, (2) loss of donor muscle size would be greater for muscles that do not experience tendon regeneration, and (3) morphological adaptations would also be evident in nondonor knee muscles. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty participants (14 men and 6 women, mean age 29 ± 7 years, mean body mass 82 ± 15 kg) who had undergone an ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon graft at least 2 years previously underwent bilateral magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent strength testing. Muscle and tendon volumes, peak cross-sectional areas (CSAs), and lengths were determined for 12 muscles and 6 functional muscle groups of the surgical and contralateral limbs. Peak isokinetic concentric strength was measured in knee flexion/extension and internal/external tibial rotation. Only 35% of the patients showed regeneration of both the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. The regenerated tendons were longer with larger volume and CSA compared with the contralateral side. Deficits in semitendinosus and gracilis muscle size were greater for muscles in which tendons did not regenerate. In addition, combined hamstring muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris) and combined medial knee muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, vastus medialis, medial gastrocnemius, and sartorius) on the surgical side were reduced in volume by 12% and 10%, respectively. A 7% larger volume was observed in the surgical limb for the biceps femoris muscle and corresponded with a lower internal/external tibial rotation strength ratio. The difference in volume, peak CSA, and length of the semitendinosus and gracilis correlated significantly with the deficit in knee flexion strength, with

  19. Muscle strength and soft tissue composition as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in women aged 18-87 years.

    PubMed

    Madsen, O R; Lauridsen, U B; Hartkopp, A; Sørensen, O H

    1997-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) offers the possibility of assessing regional soft tissue composition, i.e. lean mass (LM) and fat mass: LM may be considered a measure of muscle mass. We examined age-related differences in LM, percentage fat (%fat) and muscle strength in 100 healthy non-athletic women aged 18-87 years. Relationships between muscle strength and leg LM in 20 elite female weight lifters and in 18 inactive women with previous hip fractures were also studied. The LM and %fat of the whole body, trunk, arms and legs were derived from a whole body DEXA scan. Isokinetic knee extensor strength (KES) and flexor strength (KFS) at 30 degrees.s-1 were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. The women aged 71-87 years had 35% lower KES and KFS than the women aged 18-40 years (P < 0.0001). Differences in LM were less pronounced. The LM of the legs, for instance, was 15% lower in the old than in the young women (P < 0.0001). In a multiple regression analysis with age, body mass, height and leg LM or KES as independent variables and KES or leg LM as the dependent variable, age was the most important predictor of KES (r(partial) = -0.74, P < 0.0001). The same applied to KFS. Body mass, not age, was the most important predictor of leg LM (r(partial) = 0.65, P < 0.0001) and of LM at all other measurement sites. The LM measured at different regions decreased equally with increasing age. The KES:leg LM ratio was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.70, P < 0.0001). The weight lifters had significantly higher KES:leg LM ratios than age-matched controls (+ 12%, P < 0.0001) and vice versa for the women with previous hip fractures (-36%, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, from our study it would seem that in healthy nonathletic women, age is a more important determinant of muscle strength than is LM as measured by DEXA. Muscle strengthening exercises and inactivity seem to have a considerably stronger influence on muscle strength than on LM.

  20. Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Endurance after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Frederick M.; Prior, Steven J.; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Macko, Richard F.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction. Methods Following screening and baseline testing, hemiparetic stroke participants were randomized to either ST or an attention-matched stretch control group (SC). Those in the ST group trained each leg individually to muscle failure (20 repetition sets, 3× per week for 3 months) on each of three pneumatic resistance machines (leg press, leg extension, and leg curl). Our primary outcome measure was SME, quantified as the number of submaximal weight leg press repetitions possible at a specified cadence. The secondary measures included one-repetition maximum strength, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), 10-meter walk speeds, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak). Results ST participants (N = 14) had significantly greater SME gains compared with SC participants (N = 16) in both the paretic (178% versus 12%, P < .01) and non-paretic legs (161% versus 12%, P < .01). These gains were accompanied by group differences for 6MWD (P < .05) and VO2 peak (P < .05). Conclusion Our ST regimen had a large impact on the capacity to sustain submaximal muscle contraction, a metric that may carry more practical significance for stroke than the often reported measures of maximum strength. PMID:27865696

  1. Muscle strength is associated with vitamin D receptor gene variants.

    PubMed

    Bozsodi, Arpad; Boja, Sara; Szilagyi, Agnes; Somhegyi, Annamaria; Varga, Peter Pal; Lazary, Aron

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is an important candidate gene in muscle function. Scientific reports on the effect of its genetic variants on muscle strength are contradictory likely due to the inconsistent study designs. Hand grip strength (HGS) is a highly heritable phenotype of muscle strength but only limited studies are available on its genetic background. Association between VDR polymorphisms and HGS has been poorly investigated and previous reports are conflicting. We studied the effect of VDR gene variants on HGS in a sample of 706 schoolchildren. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and six candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the VDR gene were genotyped with Sequenom MassARRAY technique. HGS was measured with a digital dynamometer in both hands. Single marker and haplotype associations were adjusted for demographic parameters. Three SNPs, rs4516035 (A1012G; p = 0.009), rs1544410 (BsmI; p = 0.010), and rs731236 (TaqI; p = 0.038) and a 3' UTR haploblock constructed by three SNPs (Bsml-Taq1-rs10783215; p < 0.005) showed significantly associations with HGS of the dominant hand. In the non-dominant hand, the effects of the A1012G (p = 0.034) and the 3' UTR haploblock (p < 0.01) on HGS were also significant. Since the promoter SNP (A10112G) and the 3' UTR haplotype were proved to be associated with the expression and the stability of the VDR mRNA in earlier studies, VDR variants can be supposed to have a direct effect on muscle strength. The individual genetic patterns can also explain the inconsistency of the previously published clinical results on the association between vitamin D and muscle function. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2031-2037, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  3. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P < 0.05). Long-term strength training led to increased concentric (14 %; P < 0.01) and isometric (23 %; P < 0.001) quadriceps and isometric hamstring strength (44 %; P < 0.0001), whereas football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P < 0.05) and RFD (89 %, P < 0.0001). Long-term (1 year) strength training led to increased quadriceps and hamstring strength, whereas the adaptations to football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles

  4. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Natália Mariana Silva; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Mochizuki, Luis; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and non-athletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5) years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n = 26), a long-distance runner group (n = 23), and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180°/s) was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60°/s) was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners. PMID:23018298

  5. Can therapeutic Thai massage improve upper limb muscle strength in Parkinson's disease? An objective randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Yuka; Jitkritsadakul, Onanong; Sringean, Jirada; Aungkab, Nicharee; Khongprasert, Surasa; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2018-04-01

    Muscle weakness is a frequent complaint amongst Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, evidence-based therapeutic options for this symptom are limited. We objectively measure the efficacy of therapeutic Thai massage (TTM) on upper limb muscle strength, using an isokinetic dynamometer. A total of 60 PD patients with muscle weakness that is not related to their 'off' periods or other neurological causes were equally randomized to TTM intervention (n = 30), consisting of six TTM sessions over a 3-week period, or standard medical care (no intervention, n = 30). Primary outcomes included peak extension and flexion torques. Scale-based outcomes, including Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and visual analogue scale for pain (VAS) were also performed. From baseline to end of treatment, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvement on primary objective outcomes, including peak flexion torque (F = 30.613, p  < .001) and peak extension torque (F = 35.569, p  < .001) and time to maximal flexion speed (F = 14.216, p  = .001). Scale-based assessments mirrored improvements in the objective outcomes with a significant improvement from baseline to end of treatment of the UPDRS-bradykinesia of a more affected upper limb (F = 9.239, p  = .005), and VAS (F = 69.864, p  < .001) following the TTM intervention, compared to the control group. No patients reported adverse events in association with TTM. Our findings provide objective evidence that TTM used in combination with standard medical therapies is effective in improving upper limb muscle strength in patients with PD. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of TTM on other motor and non-motor symptoms in PD.

  6. Yacht type and crew-specific differences in anthropometric, aerobic capacity, and muscle strength parameters among international Olympic class sailors.

    PubMed

    Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Larsson, Benny; Magnusson, S Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2007-08-01

    Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance factors for Olympic class sailors, but the physical demands vary greatly between yacht classes, and limited information is available regarding the physical demands for the different crew positions. In the present paper, strength and aerobic capacity data from elite Olympic sailors are presented and compared with previous findings. Furthermore, a system for classification of Olympic class sailors is suggested. Peak aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake, VO(2peak)) and maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors were assessed, together with the hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q ratio). Peak aerobic capacity (ml O(2) . min(-1) . kg(-2/3)) was as follows: males - static hikers (n = 5) 215, s = 7; dynamic hikers (n = 8) 252, s = 17; trapezing helmsmen (n = 6) 234, s = 15; trapezing crew (n = 10) 239, s = 16; females - dynamic hikers (n = 6) 194, s = 16; trapezing crew (n = 2) 200, s = 13. Strength data for hikers, presented as peak moments (normalized to body weight) obtained during eccentric, isometric, and concentric contraction (Nm . kg(-1)) respectively were as follows: males - quadriceps: 3.66 (s = 0.68), 3.97 (s = 0.66), 1.82 (s = 0.34); hamstrings: 1.93 (s = 0.22), 1.38 (s = 0.41), 1.05 (s = 0.21); females - quadriceps: 3.84 (s = 0.71), 3.81 (s = 0.58), 1.60 (s = 0.28); hamstrings: 1.75 (s = 0.23), 1.10 (s = 0.16), 0.84 (s = 0.13). The peak moment based H/Q ratios for slow eccentric and concentric contractions were 0.42 (s = 0.11) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for males and 0.43 (s = 0.06) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for females respectively. Elite Olympic class sailors demonstrated high VO(2peak) values comparable to those observed in other non-endurance sports. The strength data revealed very high quadriceps strength for hikers, which is likely a result of the high muscle forces encountered during sailing, and a low H/Q ratio. To ensure optimal knee joint stabilization

  7. Muscle Strength and Flexibility without and with Visual Impairments Judoka's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine muscle strength and flexibility of judoka with and without visual impairments. A total of 32 male national judoka volunteered to participate in this study. There were 20 male judoka without visual impairments (mean ± SD; age: 19.20 ± 5.76 years, body weight: 66.45 ± 11.09 kg, height: 169.60 ± 7.98 cm, sport…

  8. Differences in muscle cross-sectional area and strength between elite senior and college Olympic weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Funato, K; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the profiles of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength capability in relation to lifting ability in Olympic weight lifters. The subjects were 8 elite senior lifters (ESL, age=25.2+/-1.3 years, height=1.64+/-0.03 m, mass=68.6+/-4.2 kg, mean+/-SEM) and 9 college lifters (CL, 20.8+/-0.3 years, 1.67+/-0.03 m, 70.53.4 kg) whose predetermined weight classes were within the same range. The CSAs of elbow or knee extensor and elbow or knee flexor muscles were measured using a B-mode ultrasound apparatus. Concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary forces were determined with an isokinetic dynamometer at a constant velocity of 1.05 rad/sec. The best score of the total mass lifted in the snatch and the clean and jerk lifts was significantly higher in ESL than in CL even in terms of per unit of fat-free mass. There were no significant differences between the two groups in fat-free mass, muscle CSA and force values with the exception that ESL compared to CL showed significantly greater force in concentric knee flexion. However, the ratios of force to muscle CSA (F/CSAs) in concentric and eccentric elbow extensions, eccentric knee extension and concentric knee flexion were significantly higher in ESL than in CL. The present results indicated that the magnitude of muscular development in limbs was similar in elite senior and college lifters whose predetermined weight classes were within the same range. As compared to college lifters, however, elite senior lifters had a higher F/CSA in specific muscle action modes, which might relate to the optimal execution of the Olympic lifts.

  9. Circuit strength training improves muscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

    PubMed

    Mazini Filho, Mauro L; Aidar, Felipe J; Gama de Matos, Dihogo; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo; Patrocínio de Oliveira, Cláudia E; de Oliveira Venturini, Gabriela R; Magalhães Curty, Victor; Menezes Touguinha, Henrique; Caputo Ferreira, Maria E

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit strength training on the muscle strength, functional autonomy and anthropometric indicators of the elderly. Were included 65 women divided in two groups: strength training (TG, n= 34) and control group (CG, n = 31). The strength-training group was subjected to a circuit shaped training program, three days per week, for a period of 12 weeks. In each training session, the circuit was repeated three times. In each circuit, all exercises wereperformed once, with 8 to 12 repetitions per exercise, with 30-seconds intervals between each exercise. TG showed significantly changes in body composition post 12 weeks, as decreases in body weight (Δ -1.5±1.8 kg) and BMI (Δ-0.57 ±0.74 kg/m²), and decreases in abdominal (Δ -3±1.61 cm), waist (Δ -1 ± 1.61 cm), hip (Δ -2.75±1.44 cm) and waist hip ratio circumference (Δ -0.02 ± 0.15 cm). For functional autonomy, TG showed increases post 12 weeks by 30-second chair stand (Δ 3.5±0.4 reps), six minute walk (Δ60.95±7.91 m), back scratch (Δ 3.2 ± 1.36 cm), and time up and go tests (Δ -1,62 ±0,15s). TG also showed increases in muscle strength post 12 weeks in both leg press (Δ 11±1,29 kg) and lat pulldown (Δ11 ±0,75 Kg). For CG, Body composition, functional autonomy and muscle strength did not improved in any moment. Hence, circuit strength training provides significant improvements inmuscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

  10. Shoulder isokinetic profile of male handball players of the Brazilian National Team

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marília S.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; de Lira, Claudio A. B.; Mascarin, Naryana C.; Fachina, Rafael J. F. G.; da Silva, Antonio C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer are useful to characterize muscle status and have been reported in muscle imbalance studies in different types of sport. However, few studies have assessed elite handball players to establish reference values. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare, for the dominant (D) and non-dominant (ND) side, the isokinetic profile of shoulder rotator muscle strength between male handball players (H) and asymptomatic non-athletes (NA). Method Isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength tests for D upper limbs were performed by the H group (n=20) and the NA group (n=12). Internal and external rotator muscle peak torque in concentric action was assessed at 60°/s and 300°/s and in eccentric action at 300°/s. We also calculated conventional balance (the ratio of external rotator peak torque to internal rotator peak torque in concentric action) and functional balance (the ratio of external rotator peak torque in eccentric action to internal rotator peak torque in concentric action). Results In the H group, dominant limbs were stronger in concentric action for external rotation at 60 and 300°/s. The conventional balance ratio for the D side was significantly lower at 60 and 300°/s for H compared to NA. The functional ratio for the D side was significantly lower at 300º/s for H compared to NA. Conclusions Compared to asymptomatic non-athletes, handball players presented significant muscular imbalance resulting from daily sports practice, a known risk factor for shoulder injuries. PMID:24271090

  11. Isokinetic Assessment and Musculoskeletal Complaints in Paralympic Athletes: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andressa; Zanca, Gisele; Alves, Eduardo Silva; Lemos, Valdir de Aquino; Gávea, Sebastião Augusto; Winckler, Ciro; Mattiello, Stela Márcia; Peterson, Ronnie; Vital, Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; De Mello, Marco Túlio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and monitor the peak torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in flexion and extension and the reports of musculoskeletal complaints in members of the main Brazilian Paralympic athletics team through 1 yr. Fourteen healthy athletes from both sexes were assessed three times in 1 yr. The volunteers were assessed for the presence of musculoskeletal complaints and muscle strength at three time points: (1) at the onset of the preparatory phase on December 2009, (2) at a follow-up assessment on June 2010, and (3) before actual competition on December 2010. The athletes' self-reported musculoskeletal complaints were assessed in structured interviews, and the muscle strength was assessed by means of isokinetic dynamometry. The knee flexor and extensor muscle strength exhibited significant increase in both the right and left lower limbs at the second and third assessments compared with the first one (P < 0.05). Muscle imbalance was associated with knee and thigh complaints at all three assessments (P < 0.05). The knee flexor and extensor muscle strength exhibited a gradual increase in both lower limbs during the course of the three assessments. In parallel, muscle imbalance was associated with the occurrence of knee and thigh complaints.

  12. Gender differences in the circadian variations in muscle strength assessed with and without superimposed electrical twitches.

    PubMed

    Giacomoni, Magali; Edwards, Ben; Bambaeichi, Effat

    The circadian rhythm in muscle strength was analysed in 12 males (28 +/- 4 years, 79.6 +/- 12.3 kg, 1.80 +/- 0.05 m) and eight females (28 +/- 4 years, 60.3 +/- 5.5 kg, 1.61 +/- 0.08 m). After two familiarization sessions, participants were tested at six different times of the day (02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00 and 22:00 hours), the order of which was randomly assigned over 3-4 days. Rectal temperature (T(rec)) was measured over 30 min before each test. Peak isokinetic torques (PT) of knee extensors and flexors were then measured at 1.05 rad s(-1) and 3.14 rad s(-1) through a 90 degrees range of motion. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extensors and flexors was measured at 60 degrees of knee flexion and the MVC of knee extensors was also assessed with superimposed electrical twitches (50 Hz, 250 V, 200 mus pulse width) in order to control for motivational effects. Three trials were performed in each condition, separated by 3 min recovery, and the highest values were retained for subsequent analyses. A significant circadian rhythm was observed for T(rec) in both males and females (acrophase, Phi, 17:29 and 16:40 hours; mesor, Me, 37.0 and 36.8 degrees C; amplitude, A, 0.28 and 0.33 degrees C for males and females, respectively). The mesor of T(rec) was higher in males than in females (p < 0.05). Significant circadian rhythms were observed for knee extensor PT at 3.14 rad s(-1) in males (Phi, 17:06 hours; Me, 178.2 N m; A, 4.7 N m) and for knee extensor PT at 1.05 rad s(-1) in females (Phi, 15:35 hours; Me, 128.7 N m; A, 3.7 N m). In males, the MVC of knee extensors demonstrated a significant circadian rhythm, but only when electrical twitches were superimposed (Phi, 16:17 h; Me, 302.1 N m; A, 13.6 N m). Acrophases of all indices of muscle strength were not statistically different between the two groups and were located in the afternoon (12:47 < Phi < 17:16 hours). The amplitude (percentage of mesor) of extensors MVC (electrically stimulated

  13. Isokinetic and Electromyographic Properties of Muscular Endurance in Short and Long-Term Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Boshra; Ghanjal, Ali; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Askary-Ashtiani, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are subject to progressive reduction of muscle mass and strength. The aim of this study was to assess muscle forces and electromyography (EMG) indices in short and long-term diabetes during an isokinetic exercise. Methods: The peak torque, work, mean power frequency (MPF) and root mean square (RMS) of knee flexors and extensors during 40 isokinetic knee extension-flexion repetitions with a velocity of 150 degree/s were recorded. 18 patients with less than 10 years with T2DM and 12 patients with equal and more than 10 years of disease were compared with 20 gender, body mass index, physical activity and peripheral circulation matched healthy controls. Results: The fatigue index and slope of line across the peak torque values of the knee flexor indicate that patients with long-term T2DM were significantly more resistant to fatigue in comparison with the two other groups (p<0.009). Whereas the MPF decrease during isokinetic protocol interact with grouping in the medial hamstring (p<0.042), but it was independent to groups in other muscles (p<0.0001). The increase of RMS after fatigue protocol interacted with sex for the medial hamstring and vastus lateralis (p<0.039) and interacted with group for the extensor muscles (p<0.045). Discussion & Conclusion: It seems that long-term T2DM cause some neuromuscular adaptations to maintain knee flexor muscle performance during functional activity especially postural control. PMID:27045412

  14. CCL2 and CCR2 variants are associated with skeletal muscle strength and change in strength with resistance training.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Brennan T; Orkunoglu-Suer, E Funda; Adham, Kasra; Larkin, Justin S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Thompson, Paul D; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Hubal, Monica J; Tosi, Laura L; Hoffman, Eric P; Devaney, Joseph M

    2010-12-01

    Baseline muscle size and muscle adaptation to exercise are traits with high variability across individuals. Recent research has implicated several chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of many conditions that are influenced by inflammatory processes, including muscle damage and repair. One specific chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is expressed by macrophages and muscle satellite cells, increases expression dramatically following muscle damage, and increases expression further with repeated bouts of exercise, suggesting that CCL2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. The present study hypothesizes that genetic variations in CCL2 and its receptor (CCR2) may help explain muscle trait variability. College-aged subjects [n = 874, Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Muscle Size and Strength (FAMUSS) cohort] underwent a 12-wk supervised strength-training program for the upper arm muscles. Muscle size (via MR imaging) and elbow flexion strength (1 repetition maximum and isometric) measurements were taken before and after training. The study participants were then genotyped for 11 genetic variants in CCL2 and five variants in CCR2. Variants in the CCL2 and CCR2 genes show strong associations with several pretraining muscle strength traits, indicating that inflammatory genes in skeletal muscle contribute to the polygenic system that determines muscle phenotypes. These associations extend across both sexes, and several of these genetic variants have been shown to influence gene regulation.

  15. Respiratory Muscle Strength in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Sik; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Kang, Seong-Woong; Won, Yu Hui

    2017-08-01

    To compare the respiratory muscle strength between patients with stable and acutely exacerbated (AE) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at various stages. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on patients with COPD from March 2014 to May 2016. Patients were subdivided into COPD stages 1-4 according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines: mild, moderate, severe, and very severe. A rehabilitation physician reviewed their medical records and initial assessment, including spirometry, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), COPD Assessment Test, and modified Medical Research Council scale. We then compared the initial parameters in patients with a stable condition and those at AE status. The AE group (n=94) had significantly lower MIP (AE, 55.93±20.57; stable, 67.88±24.96; p=0.006) and MIP% (AE, 82.82±27.92; stable, 96.64±30.46; p=0.015) than the stable patient group (n=36). MIP, but not MEP, was proportional to disease severity in patients with AE and stable COPD. The strength of the inspiratory muscles may better reflect severity of disease when compared to that of expiratory muscles.

  16. Bone mineral density, muscle strength and physical activity. A population-based study of 332 subjects aged 15-42 years.

    PubMed

    Düppe, H; Gärdsell, P; Johnell, O; Nilsson, B E; Ringsberg, K

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to find out whether differences in levels of physical activity have an influence on bone mass quantity and whether quadriceps muscle strength is a reliable determinant of bone mass. Included were 175 men and 157 women, aged 15-42 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at various sites by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Muscle strength was assessed using an isokinetic muscle force meter. A questionnaire was used to estimate the level of physical activity. We found a positive correlation between physical activity and BMD for boys at the distal forearm and for girls at the trochanter (age group 15-16 years). Active men (age group 21-42 years) had up to 9% higher BMD levels at the hip than those who were less active. Quadriceps muscle torque was not an independent predictor of BMD. Our data suggest that a higher level of physical activity-within the limits of a "normal life style"-may have a positive effect on BMD in the proximal femur of young adults, which in turn may lessen the subsequent risk of fracture.

  17. Muscle Strength and Changes in Physical Function in Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Andrews, James S; Trupin, Laura; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Barton, Jennifer; Margaretten, Mary; Yazdany, Jinoos; Yelin, Edward H; Katz, Patricia P

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional studies have observed that muscle weakness is associated with worse physical function among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study examines whether reduced upper and lower extremity muscle strength predict declines in function over time among adult women with SLE. One hundred forty-six women from a longitudinal SLE cohort participated in the study. All measures were collected during in-person research visits approximately 2 years apart. Upper extremity muscle strength was assessed by grip strength. Lower extremity muscle strength was assessed by peak knee torque of extension and flexion. Physical function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Regression analyses modeled associations of baseline upper and lower extremity muscle strength with followup SPPB scores controlling for baseline SPPB, age, SLE duration, SLE disease activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire), physical activity level, prednisone use, body composition, and depression. Secondary analyses tested whether associations of baseline muscle strength with followup in SPPB scores differed between intervals of varying baseline muscle strength. Lower extremity muscle strength strongly predicted changes over 2 years in physical function even when controlling for covariates. The association of reduced lower extremity muscle strength with reduced physical function in the future was greatest among the weakest women. Reduced lower extremity muscle strength predicted clinically significant declines in physical function, especially among the weakest women. Future studies should test whether therapies that promote preservation of lower extremity muscle strength may prevent declines in function among women with SLE. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Dynamometry is increasingly used as an objective measurement of muscle strength in neurological diseases. No study has applied dynamometry in untreated newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 21 MG patients before and after initial anti-myasthenic treatment. Isometric strength was compared with MG evaluation scales. Muscle strength was reduced for knee extensors and shoulder abductors but normal for ankle extensors. Isometric muscle strength did not correlate significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%; range -1.8-49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG evaluation scales. This supports the use of dynamometry in MG patients, especially for evaluation of the effect of anti-myasthenic treatment. Muscle Nerve 54: 709-714, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spinal mobility and trunk muscle strength in elite hockey players.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Twomey, L

    1988-01-01

    Elite hockey players of both sexes from the Australian Institute of Sport were assessed for lumbar spine mobility, trunk flexion and back extensor muscle strength, hamstring flexibility and postural characteristics over a two year period. All the athletes were more mobile in rotation than the 'normal' West Australian population, and demonstrated flexible hamstrings and powerful back extensor muscles; trunk flexion was less strong initially, but improved after intervention in the form of a specific exercise programme, over the measurement period. A questionnaire disclosed that low back pain is a common complaint of hockey players, but rarely required intensive physical and medical treatment. The term 'hockey player's back' has been coined in recognition of the long flat thoracolumbar spine frequently noted in these subjects. Copyright © 1988 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term effects of kinesio tape on joint position sense, isokinetic measurements, and clinical parameters in patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Emine Eda; Büyükturan, Öznur; Erdem, Hatice Rana; Tuncay, Figen; Sezgin, Hicabi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the short-term effects of kinesio tape on joint position sense, isokinetic measurements, kinesiophobia, symptoms, and functional limitations in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 90 patients (112 knees) with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomized into a kinesio tape group (n=45) or placebo kinesio tape group (n=45). Baseline isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests and measurements of joint position sense were performed in both groups. Pain was measured with a Visual Analog Scale, kinesiophobia with the Tampa kinesiophobia scale, and symptoms and functional limitations with the Kujala pain scale. Measurements were repeated 2 days after kinesio tape application. [Results] No differences were found between baseline isokinetic muscle measurements and those taken 2 days after application. However, significant improvements were observed in the kinesio tape group, with regard to joint position sense, pain, kinesiophobia, symptoms, and functional limitations after treatment. Examination of the differences between pre- and post-treatment values in both groups revealed that the kinesio tape group demonstrated greater improvements compared to the placebo kinesio tape group. [Conclusion] Although short-term kinesio tape application did not increase hamstring muscle strength, it may have improved joint position sense, pain, kinesiophobia, symptoms, and daily limitations. PMID:27512259

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Dorothea; Tjaden, Christine; Hackert, Thilo; Schneider, Lutz; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim; Steindorf, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience reduced physical fitness due to the disease itself as well as treatment-related side effects. However, studies on physical fitness in pancreatic cancer patients are missing. Therefore, we assessed cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength of pancreatic cancer patients. We included 65 pancreatic cancer patients, mostly after surgical resection. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and 6-min walk test (6MWT). Hand-held dynamometry was used to evaluate isometric muscle strength. Physical fitness values were compared to reference values of a healthy population. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables with patients' physical fitness were analyzed using multiple regression models. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak, 20.5 ± 6.9 ml/min/kg) was significantly lower (-24%) compared to healthy reference values. In the 6MWT pancreatic cancer patients nearly reached predicted values (555 vs. 562 m). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the upper (-4.3%) and lower extremities (-13.8%) were significantly lower compared to reference values. Overall differences were larger in men than those in women. Participating in regular exercise in the year before diagnosis was associated with greater VO 2 peak (p < .05) and MVIC of the knee extensors (p < .05). Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly impaired physical fitness with regard to both cardiorespiratory function and isometric muscle strength, already in the early treatment phase (median 95 days after surgical resection). Our findings underline the need to investigate exercise training in pancreatic cancer patients to counteract the loss of physical fitness.

  2. Upper Limb Isokinetic Strengthening Versus Passive Mobilization in Patients With Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Coroian, Flavia; Jourdan, Claire; Bakhti, Karima; Palayer, Claire; Jaussent, Audrey; Picot, Marie-Christine; Mottet, Denis; Julia, Marc; Bonnin, Huey-Yune; Laffont, Isabelle

    2018-02-01

    To assess the benefit of isokinetic strengthening of the upper limb (UL) in patients with chronic stroke as compared to passive mobilization. Randomized blinded assessor controlled trial. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation departments of 2 university hospitals. Patients (N=20) with incomplete hemiplegia (16 men; mean age, 64y; median time since stroke, 32mo). A 6-week comprehensive rehabilitation program, 3d/wk, 3 sessions/d. In addition, a 45-minute session per day was performed using an isokinetic dynamometer, with either isokinetic strengthening of elbow and wrist flexors/extensors (isokinetic strengthening group) or passive joint mobilization (control group). The primary endpoint was the increase in Upper Limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment (UL-FMA) score at day 45 (t1). Secondary endpoints were increases in UL-FMA scores, Box and Block Test scores, muscle strength, spasticity, and Barthel Index at t1, t2 (3mo), and t3 (6mo). Recruitment was stopped early because of excessive fatigue in the isokinetic strengthening group. The increase in UL-FMA score at t1 was 3.5±4.4 in the isokinetic strengthening group versus 6.0±4.5 in the control group (P=.2). Gains in distal UL-FMA scores were larger (3.1±2.8) in the control group versus 0.6±2.5 in the isokinetic strengthening group (P=.05). No significant group difference was observed in secondary endpoints. Mixed models confirmed those results. Regarding the whole sample, gains from baseline were significant for the UL-FMA at t1 (+4.8; P<.001), t2, and t3 and for the Box and Block Test at t1 (+3; P=.013) and t2. In a comprehensive rehabilitation program, isokinetic strengthening did not show superiority to passive mobilization for UL rehabilitation. Findings also suggest a sustained benefit in impairments and function of late UL rehabilitation programs for patients with stroke. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle hypertrophy, strength development, and serum hormones during strength training in elderly women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Valkeinen, H; Häkkinen, K; Pakarinen, A; Hannonen, P; Häkkinen, A; Airaksinen, O; Niemitukia, L; Kraemer, W J; Alén, M

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effects of strength training on maximal force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles and serum hormone concentrations in elderly females with fibromyalgia (FM). Twenty-six patients with FM were randomly assigned to a training (FMT; n = 13; mean age 60 years) or a control (FMC; n = 13; 59 years) group. FMT performed progressive strength training twice a week for 21 weeks. The measurements included maximal isometric and concentric leg extension forces, EMG activity of the vastus lateralis and medialis, CSA of the quadriceps femoris, and serum concentrations of testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol. Subjectively perceived symptoms of FM were also assessed. All patients were able to complete the training. In FMT strength training led to increases of 36% (p<0.001) and 33% (p<0.001) in maximal isometric and concentric forces, respectively. The CSA increased by 5% (p<0.001) and the EMG activity in isometric action by 47% (p<0.001) and in concentric action by 57% (p<0.001). Basal serum hormone concentrations remained unaltered during strength training. The subjective perceived symptoms showed a minor decreasing tendency (ns). No statistically significant changes occurred in any of these parameters in FMC. Progressive strength training increases strength, CSA, and voluntary activation of the trained muscles in elderly women with FM, while the measured basal serum hormone concentrations remain unaltered. Strength training benefits the overall physical fitness of the patients without adverse effects or any exacerbation of symptoms and should be included in the rehabilitation programmes of elderly patients with FM.

  4. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  5. A Novel Two-Velocity Method for Elaborate Isokinetic Testing of Knee Extensors.

    PubMed

    Grbic, Vladimir; Djuric, Sasa; Knezevic, Olivera M; Mirkov, Dragan M; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-09-01

    Single outcomes of standard isokinetic dynamometry tests do not discern between various muscle mechanical capacities. In this study, we aimed to (1) evaluate the shape and strength of the force-velocity relationship of knee extensors, as observed in isokinetic tests conducted at a wide range of angular velocities, and (2) explore the concurrent validity of a simple 2-velocity method. Thirteen physically active females were tested for both the peak and averaged knee extensor concentric force exerted at the angular velocities of 30°-240°/s recorded in the 90°-170° range of knee extension. The results revealed strong (0.960muscle force (i.e. the force-intercept), velocity (velocity-intercept), and power (their product). Moreover, the line drawn through only the 60° and 180°/s data (the '2-velocity method') revealed a high level of agreement with the force-velocity relationship obtained (0.76isokinetic testing of mechanical capacities of knee extensors and, if supported by further research, other muscles. This brief and fatigue-free testing procedure could discern between muscle force, velocity, and power-producing capacities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Skeletal muscle strength and endurance are maintained during moderate dehydration.

    PubMed

    Périard, J D; Tammam, A H; Thompson, M W

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of moderate dehydration (~2.5% body weight) on muscle strength and endurance using percutaneous electrical stimulation to quantify central and peripheral fatigue, and isolate the combined effects of exercise-heat stress and dehydration, vs. the effect of dehydration alone. Force production and voluntary activation were calculated in 10 males during 1 brief and 15 repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions performed prior to (control) walking in the heat (35°C), immediately following exercise, and the next morning (dehydration). The protocol was also performed in a euhydrated state. During the brief contractions, force production and voluntary activation were maintained in all trials. In contrast, force production decreased throughout the repeated contractions, regardless of hydration status (P<0.001). The decline in force was greater immediately following exercise-heat stress dehydration compared with control and euhydration (P<0.001). When dehydration was isolated from acute post-exercise dehydration, force production was maintained similarly to control and euhydration. Despite the progressive decline in force production and the increased fatigability observed during the repeated contractions, voluntary activation remained elevated throughout each muscle function test. Therefore, moderate dehydration, isolated from acute exercise-heat stress, does not appear to influence strength during a single contraction or enhance fatigability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Proprioceptive isokinetic exercise test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempster, P. T.; Bernauer, E. M.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Proprioception, the reception of stimuli within the body that indicates position, is an important mechanism for optimal human performance. People exposed to prolonged bed rest, microgravity, or other deconditioning situations usually experience reduced proprioceptor and kinesthetic stimuli that compromise body balance, posture, and equilibrium. A new proprioceptive test is described that utilizes the computer-driven LIDO isokinetic ergometer. An overview of the computer logic, software, and testing procedure for this proprioceptive test, which can be performed with the arms or legs, is described.

  8. Ankle muscle strength discriminates fallers from non-fallers

    PubMed Central

    Cattagni, Thomas; Scaglioni, Gil; Laroche, Davy; Van Hoecke, Jacques; Gremeaux, Vincent; Martin, Alain

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that center of pressure (CoP) displacement correlates negatively with the maximal isometric torque (MIT) of ankle muscles. This relationship has never been investigated in elderly fallers (EF). The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the relationship between the MIT of ankle muscles and CoP displacement in upright stance in a sample aged between 18 and 90 years old that included EF. The aim was to identify a threshold of torque below which balance is compromised. The MIT of Plantar flexors (PFs) and dorsal flexors (DFs) and CoP were measured in 90 volunteers: 21 healthy young adults (YA) (age: 24.1 ± 5.0), 12 healthy middle-aged adults (MAA) (age: 50.2 ± 4.5), 27 healthy elderly non-fallers (ENF) (age: 75.5 ± 7.0) and 30 EF (age: 78.8 ± 6.7). The MIT of PF and DF were summed to obtain the overall maximal ankle muscle strength. Body weight and height were used to normalize MIT (nMIT) and CoP (nCoP), respectively. nCoP correlated negatively with nMIT. 90% of EF generated an nMIT <3.1 N·m·kg−1, whereas 85% of non-fallers generated an nMIT >3.1 N·m·kg−1. The relationship between nMIT and nCoP implies that ankle muscle weakness contributes to increased postural instability and the risk of falling. We observed that below the threshold of 3.1 N·m·kg−1, postural stability was dramatically diminished and balance was compromised. Our results suggest that measuring ankle torque could be used in routine clinical practice to identify potential fallers. PMID:25566068

  9. Association Between Muscle Wasting and Muscle Strength in Patients WHO Developed Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Borges, Rodrigo Cerqueira; Soriano, Francisco Garcia

    2018-05-11

    To evaluate the association between the rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) and the muscular strength obtained at the bedside in patients forwarded to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe sepsis and septic shock. A prospective cohort study. RFCSA was assessed by ultrasound on the following day of the ICU admission and monitored during hospitalization. The patients performed clinical tests of muscle strength (Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and handgrip dynamometry), when they could understand the verbal commands of the examiners. In 37 patients hospitalized for sepsis there was a significant decline in RFCSA of 5.18 (4.49-5.96)cm on the 2nd day of ICU for 4.37 (3.71-5.02)cm at hospital discharge. Differently, the handgrip strength showed an increase from the awakening of 12.00 (7.00-20.00)Kgf to 19.00 (14.00-26.00)Kgf until hospital discharge. Patients in mechanical ventilation had a greater tendency to decline in the RFCSA compared to patients who did not receive mechanical ventilation, however without being significant (p = 0.08). There was a negative association between RFCSA delta (2nd day of ICU - ICU discharge) and handgrip strength (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), and a male and SOFA score positive association with the RFCSA delta. There was an association of RFCSA with clinical muscle strength tests. In addition, it has been shown that sepsis can lead to short-term muscle degradation, regardless of whether they are submitted to mechanical ventilation or not.

  10. Influence of muscle strength on early mobility in critically ill adult patients: Systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Audrey R; Starkweather, Angela; Grossman, Catherine; Acevedo, Edmund; Salyer, Jeanne

    Muscle strength may be one indicator of readiness to mobilize that can be used to guide decisions regarding early mobility efforts and to progressively advance mobilization. To provide a synthesis of current measures of muscle strength in the assessment of early mobilization in critically ill adult patients who are receiving MV therapy. Research studies conducted between 2000-2015 were identified using PubMed, CINHAL, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases using the search terms "muscle strength", "intensive care", "mechanical ventilation" and "muscle weakness". Nine articles used manual muscle testing, the Medical Research Council scale and/or hand-held dynamometer to provide objective measures for assessing muscle strength in the critically ill adult patient population. Further research is needed to examine the application of standardized measures of muscle strength for guiding decisions regarding early and progressive advancement of mobility goals in adult ICU patients on MV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships between muscular strength and the level of energy sources in the muscle.

    PubMed

    Wit, A; Juskiak, R; Wit, B; Zieliński, J R

    1978-01-01

    Relationships between muscular strength and the level of energy sources in the muscle. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1978, 29 (2): 139--151. An attempt was made to establish a relationship between the post-excercise changes in the level of anaerobic energy sources and changes in the muscular strength. The gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats was examined. The muscle strength was measured by the resistance tensometry. In muscle specimens ATP, CP and glycogen contents were determined. It was demonstrated that changes in the post-excersise muscle response to electric stimulus have a phasic character resembling the overcompensation curve. The percent changes in the content of anaerobic energy sources in the muscle after contractions varying in duration suggests also overcompensation the muscle content of these substances. The parallelity between the time of appearance of peak overcompensation phase in the muscle strength and in the post-exercise level of musclar ATP, CP and glycogen contents suggest a casual relationship between these changes.

  12. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening training was applied to the knee-ankle muscles bilaterally to the isokinetic group 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer was used for isokinetic evaluation. The groups were assessed by Functional Independence Measure, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, Timed 10-Meter Walk Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, Stair-Climbing Test, Timed up&go Test, Berg Balance Scale, and Rivermead Mobility Index. Compared with baseline, the isokinetic PT values of the knee and ankle on both sides significantly increased in all cases. PT change values were significantly higher in the isokinetic group than the control group (P<0.025). Furthermore, the quality of life, gait, balance and mobility index values improved significantly in both groups, besides the increase levels were found significantly higher in the isokinetic group (P<0.025, P<0.05). Bilateral isokinetic strengthening training in addition to conventional rehabilitation program after stroke seems to be effective on strengthening muscles on both sides, improving functional parameters, gait, balance and life quality.

  13. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Methods: Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening training was applied to the knee-ankle muscles bilaterally to the isokinetic group 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer was used for isokinetic evaluation. The groups were assessed by Functional Independence Measure, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, Timed 10-Meter Walk Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, Stair-Climbing Test, Timed up&go Test, Berg Balance Scale, and Rivermead Mobility Index. Results: Compared with baseline, the isokinetic PT values of the knee and ankle on both sides significantly increased in all cases. PT change values were significantly higher in the isokinetic group than the control group (P<0.025). Furthermore, the quality of life, gait, balance and mobility index values improved significantly in both groups, besides the increase levels were found significantly higher in the isokinetic group (P<0.025, P<0.05). Conclusion: Bilateral isokinetic strengthening training in addition to conventional rehabilitation program after stroke seems to be effective on strengthening muscles on both sides, improving functional parameters, gait, balance and life quality. PMID:26629238

  14. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Diurnal and day-to-day variation of isometric muscle strength in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, Lotte; Jakobsen, Johannes; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    In patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), muscle strength is expected to decrease gradually during the day due to physical activities. Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 10 MG patients (MGFA class II-IV) who were receiving usual medical treatment and in 10 control subjects. To determine diurnal and day-to-day variation, muscle strength was measured 4 times during day 1 and once at day 2. Knee extension strength decreased during the day in both patients and controls. Neither diurnal nor day-to-day variation of muscle strength was higher in patients compared with controls. Patients with mild to moderate MG did not have increased variation of isometric muscle strength during the day or from day-to-day compared with controls. This suggests that isometric muscle performance can be determined with high reproducibility in similar groups of MG patients without regard to time of day. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Manual muscle testing: a method of measuring extremity muscle strength applied to critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, Nancy; Dinglas, Victor; Fan, Eddy; Kho, Michelle; Kuramoto, Jill; Needham, Dale

    2011-04-12

    Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other causes of critical illness often have generalized weakness, reduced exercise tolerance, and persistent nerve and muscle impairments after hospital discharge. Using an explicit protocol with a structured approach to training and quality assurance of research staff, manual muscle testing (MMT) is a highly reliable method for assessing strength, using a standardized clinical examination, for patients following ARDS, and can be completed with mechanically ventilated patients who can tolerate sitting upright in bed and are able to follow two-step commands. (7, 8) This video demonstrates a protocol for MMT, which has been taught to ≥ 43 research staff who have performed >800 assessments on >280 ARDS survivors. Modifications for the bedridden patient are included. Each muscle is tested with specific techniques for positioning, stabilization, resistance, and palpation for each score of the 6-point ordinal Medical Research Council scale. Three upper and three lower extremity muscles are graded in this protocol: shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, wrist extension, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion. These muscles were chosen based on the standard approach for evaluating patients for ICU-acquired weakness used in prior publications. (1,2).

  17. Characteristics of locomotion, muscle strength, and muscle tissue in regenerating rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Akira; Fuchioka, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Koichi; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Kami, Katsuya

    2010-05-01

    Although numerous studies have aimed to elucidate the mechanisms used to repair the structure and function of injured skeletal muscles, it remains unclear how and when movement recovers following damage. We performed a temporal analysis to characterize the changes in movement, muscle function, and muscle structure after muscle injury induced by the drop-mass technique. At each time-point, movement recovery was determined by ankle kinematic analysis of locomotion, and functional recovery was represented by isometric force. As a histological analysis, the cross-sectional area of myotubes was measured to examine structural regeneration. The dorsiflexion angle of the ankle, as assessed by kinematic analysis of locomotion, increased after injury and then returned to control levels by day 14 post-injury. The isometric force returned to normal levels by day 21 post-injury. However, the size of the myotubes did not reach normal levels, even at day 21 post-injury. These results indicate that recovery of locomotion occurs prior to recovery of isometric force and that functional recovery occurs earlier than structural regeneration. Thus, it is suggested that recovery of the movement and function of injured skeletal muscles might be insufficient as markers for estimating the degree of neuromuscular system reconstitution.

  18. Statin myalgia is not associated with reduced muscle strength, mass or protein turnover in older male volunteers, but is allied with a slowing of time to peak power output, insulin resistance and differential muscle mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Mallinson, Joanne E.; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Murton, Andrew; Selby, Anna; Smith, Kenneth; Constantin‐Teodosiu, Dumitru; Rennie, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Statins cause muscle‐specific side effects, most commonly muscle aches/weakness (myalgia), particularly in older people. Furthermore, evidence has linked statin use to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown.This is the first study to measure muscle protein turnover rates and insulin sensitivity in statin myalgic volunteers and age‐matched, non‐statin users under controlled fasting and fed conditions using gold standard methods.We demonstrate in older people that chronic statin myalgia is not associated with deficits in muscle strength and lean mass or the dysregulation of muscle protein turnover compared to non‐statin users. Furthermore, there were no between‐group differences in blood or muscle inflammatory markers.Statin users did, however, show blunting of muscle power output at the onset of dynamic exercise, increased abdominal adiposity, whole body and leg insulin resistance, and clear differential expression of muscle genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, which warrant further investigation. Abstract Statins are associated with muscle myalgia and myopathy, which probably reduce habitual physical activity. This is particularly relevant to older people who are less active, sarcopaenic and at increased risk of statin myalgia. We hypothesised that statin myalgia would be allied to impaired strength and work capacity in older people, and determined whether differences aligned with divergences in lean mass, protein turnover, insulin sensitivity and the molecular regulation of these processes. Knee extensor strength and work output during 30 maximal isokinetic contractions were assessed in healthy male volunteers, nine with no statin use (control 70.4 ± 0.7 years) and nine with statin myalgia (71.5 ± 0.9 years). Whole body and leg glucose disposal, muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and leg protein breakdown (LPB) were measured during fasting (≈5 mU l−1 insulin

  19. Resistance training performed at distinct angular velocities elicits velocity-specific alterations in muscle strength and mobility status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Englund, Davis A; Sharp, Rick L; Selsby, Joshua T; Ganesan, Shanthi S; Franke, Warren D

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high and low velocity knee extension training on changes in muscle strength and mobility status in high-functioning older adults. Twenty-six (16 female, 10 male) older adults (mean age of 65) were randomized to either 6weeks of low velocity resistance training (LVRT) performed at 75°/s or high velocity resistance training (HVRT) performed at 240°/s. Both groups performed 3 sets of knee extension exercises at maximal effort, 3 times a week. Muscle strength was assessed through a range of testing velocities on an isokinetic dynamometer. Mobility status was assessed with the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) transcript levels were quantified via qRT-PCR. From baseline to post-training, there were several significant (P<0.05) differences in muscle strength and functional characteristics in LVRT (n=13) and HVRT (n=13) groups. From baseline to post-training, MyHC-α mRNA and MyHC-IIa mRNA showed a significant (P<0.05) increase within HVRT but MyHC-IIx mRNA did not change significantly. Our results demonstrate HVRT provides a greater number of muscular enhancements when compared to LVRT, particularly under conditions of high velocity muscle contraction. HVRT is emerging as the optimal training stimulus for the older adult. The present study demonstrates, in addition to increased strength and functional outcomes, HVRT elicits a potentially therapeutic (i.e., slow to fast) transcriptional response in MyHC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cut points of muscle strength associated with metabolic syndrome in men.

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Martin; McGavock, Jonathan M; Church, Timothy S; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

    2014-08-01

    The loss of muscle strength with age increases the likelihood of chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the minimal threshold of muscle strength at which the risk for MetS increases has never been established. This study aimed to identify a threshold of muscle strength associated with MetS in men. We created receiver operating curves for muscle strength and the risk of MetS from a cross-sectional sample of 5685 men age <50 yr and 1541 men age ≥50 yr enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The primary outcome measure, the MetS, was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Upper and lower body muscle strength was treated as a composite measure of one-repetition maximum tests on bench and leg press and scaled to body weight. Low muscle strength was defined as the lowest age-specific 20th percentile, whereas high muscle strength was defined as composite muscle strength above the 20th percentile. In men aged <50 yr, the odds of MetS were 2.20-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.89-2.54) higher in those with low muscle strength, independent of age, smoking, and alcohol intake. The strength of this association was similar for men age ≥50 yr (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.62-2.74). In men age < 50 yr, the composite strength threshold associated with MetS was 2.57 kg·kg body weight, whereas in men age ≥ 50 yr the threshold was 2.35 kg·kg body weight. This study is the first to identify a threshold of muscle strength associated with an increased likelihood of MetS in men. Measures of muscle strength may help identify men at risk of chronic disease.

  1. A NEW CLINICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION TEST FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIP EXTERNAL ROTATION STRENGTH: AUGUSTSSON STRENGTH TEST.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Jesper

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non-athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. Fifty-three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test-retest reliability. No significant test-retest differences were observed. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93-0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76-4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156). The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients, non-athletes and athletes

  2. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M; Sussman, Michael

    2016-07-08

    In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of motor skill ability seen in the older age

  3. [Muscle strength of the cervical and lumbar spine in triathletes].

    PubMed

    Miltner, O; Siebert, C H; Müller-Rath, R; Kieffer, O

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse the muscle strength of the cervical and lumbar spine in ironman triathletes. The values were compared to the results obtained from a reference group. The test of the triathletes was carried out in an attempt to define a specific strength profile for these athletes. In this study, 20 long-distance triathletes (∅ 37.3 ± 7.6 years of age, ∅ 1.80 ± 0.1 m, ∅ 73.7 ± 6.0 kg) were evaluated with regard to their individual and sport-specific strengths of the cervical spine in 2 planes and of the trunk strengths in all 3 planes of motion. The trunk strength profile of the triathletes revealed good average results in the trunk extensors and the lateral flexors of the left trunk. The reference group is the data base of the company Proxomed®, Alzenau. It is based on results of 1045 untrained, symptom-free subjects of different ages. Lumbar extension: The extension of the force values shows no significant difference from the reference group. Lumbar flexion: The flexion tests show highly significantly lower force values (5.025 ± 0.81 N/kg vs. 6.67 ± 0.6 N/kg) than the reference group. Flexion/extension: In the sagittal plane values for the triathletes demonstrate an imbalance in muscle strength ratios. The abdominal muscles turn in relation to the back extensor muscles too weakly to be very significant. Lumbar rotation: The force values of the athletes in both directions (right: 6.185 ± 1.46 N/kg, left: 7.1 ± 1.57 N/kg vs. 10.05 ± 0.34 N/kg) are highly significantly (p ≤ 0.001) lower than the reference values. Ratio of rotation left/right: The ratio of left/right rotation in the reference group is set at 1 and thus shows an equally strong force level between the two sides. Lumbar lateral flexion: The triathletes do not show any significant differences between the force values. Compared to the reference group there is no significant difference to the left side flexion. In the lateral bending the athletes have significantly

  4. Relationship Between Muscle Strength Asymmetry and Body Sway in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hitoshi; Kai, Yoshihiro; Murata, Shin; Osugi, Hironori; Anami, Kunihiko; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Imagita, Hidetaka

    2018-05-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle strength asymmetry and body sway while walking. We studied 63 older adult women. Strong side and weak side of knee extension strength, toe grip strength, hand grip strength, and body sway while walking were measured. The relationship between muscle strength asymmetry for each muscle and body sway while walking was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Regarding the muscles recognized to have significant correlation with body sway, the asymmetry cutoff value causing an increased sway was calculated. Toe grip strength asymmetry was significantly correlated with body sway. Toe grip strength asymmetry causing an increased body sway had a cutoff value of 23.5%. Our findings suggest toe grip strength asymmetry may be a target for improving gait stability.

  5. The variation of the strength of neck extensor muscles and semispinalis capitis muscle size with head and neck position.

    PubMed

    Rezasoltani, A; Nasiri, R; Faizei, A M; Zaafari, G; Mirshahvelayati, A S; Bakhshidarabad, L

    2013-04-01

    Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women students voluntarily participated in this study. An ultrasonography apparatus (Hitachi EUB 525) and a system of tension-meter were used to scan the right SECM at the level of third cervical spine and to measure the strength of neck extensor muscles at three head and neck positions. Neck extensor muscles were stronger in neutral than flexion or than extension positions while the size of SECM was larger in extension than neutral or than flexion position. The force generation capacity of the main neck extensor muscle was lower at two head and neck flexion and extension positions than neutral position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Citaker, Seyit; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Yazici, Gokhan; Bayraktar, Deniz; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2013-01-01

    Muscle strength and standing balance decrease in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with MS. Forty-seven patients with MS and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Neurological disability level was assessed using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Isometric strength of seven lower extremity muscles (hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor) was assessed using hand-held dynamometer. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured using digital chronometer. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS when compared with controls (p < 0.05). All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength and EDSS level was related duration of one-leg standing balance in patients with MS. All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength (except ankle dorsal flexor) was related with EDSS. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength decreases in ambulatory MS patients. Lower extremity muscle weakness and neurological disability level are related with imbalance in MS population. Hip and knee region muscles weakness increases the neurological disability level. For the better balance and decrease neurological disability level whole lower extremity muscle strengthening should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  7. Limited potential of genetic predisposition scores to predict muscle mass and strength performance in Flemish Caucasians between 19 and 73 years of age.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Ruben; Caspers, Maarten; Knaeps, Sara; Mertens, Evelien; Lambrechts, Diether; Lefevre, Johan; Thomis, Martine

    2017-03-01

    Since both muscle mass and strength performance are polygenic in nature, the current study compared four genetic predisposition scores (GPS) in their ability to predict these phenotypes. Data were gathered within the framework of the first-generation Flemish Policy Research Centre "Sport, Physical Activity and Health" (2002-2004). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 565 Flemish Caucasians (19-73 yr, 365 men). Skeletal muscle mass was determined from bioelectrical impedance. The Biodex dynamometer was used to measure isometric (PT static120° ) and isokinetic strength (PT dynamic60° and PT dynamic240° ), ballistic movement speed (S 20% ), and muscular endurance (Work) of the knee extensors. Genotyping was done for 153 gene variants, selected on the basis of a literature search and the expression quantitative trait loci of selected genes. Four GPS were designed: a total GPS (based on the sum of all 153 variants, each favorable allele = score 1), a data-driven and weighted GPS [respectively, the sum of favorable alleles of those variants with significant b-coefficients in stepwise regression (GPS dd ), and the sum of these variants weighted with their respective partial r 2 (GPS w )], and an elastic net GPS (based on the variants that were selected by an elastic net regularization; GPS en ). It was found that four different models for a GPS were able to significantly predict up to ~7% of the variance in strength performance. GPS en made the best prediction of SMM and Work. However, this was not the case for the remaining strength performance parameters, where best predictions were made by GPS dd and GPS w . Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Impact on nutrition on muscle strength and performance in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscle strength plays an important role in determining risk for falls, which result in fractures and other injuries. While bone loss has long been recognized as an inevitable consequence of aging, sarcopenia-the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age-has rec...

  9. Do muscle mass, muscle density, strength, and physical function similarly influence risk of hospitalization in older adults?

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy Mannen; Fox, Kathleen M; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Delmonico, Matthew J; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Anthony, Mary S; Sewall, Ase; Goodpaster, Bret; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steven R; Harris, Tamara B

    2009-08-01

    To examine the association between strength, function, lean mass, muscle density, and risk of hospitalization. Prospective cohort study. Two U.S. clinical centers. Adults aged 70 to 80 (N=3,011) from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Measurements were of grip strength, knee extension strength, lean mass, walking speed, and chair stand pace. Thigh computed tomography scans assessed muscle area and density (a proxy for muscle fat infiltration). Hospitalizations were confirmed by local review of medical records. Negative binomial regression models estimated incident rate ratios (IRRs) of hospitalization for race- and sex-specific quartiles of each muscle and function parameter separately. Multivariate models adjusted for age, body mass index, health status, and coexisting medical conditions. During an average 4.7 years of follow-up, 1,678 (55.7%) participants experienced one or more hospitalizations. Participants in the lowest quartile of muscle density were more likely to be subsequently hospitalized (multivariate IRR=1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-1.73) than those in the highest quartile. Similarly, participants with the weakest grip strength were at greater risk of hospitalization (multivariate IRR=1.52, 95% CI=1.30-1.78, Q1 vs. Q4). Comparable results were seen for knee strength, walking pace, and chair stands pace. Lean mass and muscle area were not associated with risk of hospitalization. Weak strength, poor function, and low muscle density, but not muscle size or lean mass, were associated with greater risk of hospitalization. Interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with sarcopenia should focus on increasing muscle strength and improving physical function rather than simply increasing lean mass.

  10. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Muscle Strength Imbalance in the Hip Joint Caused by Fast Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontaga, I.

    2003-07-01

    Eleven male sportsmen at the age of 24.3 ± 4.5 were examined. Their hip joint flexors and extensors were tested by an "REV-9000" Technogym dynamometer system during isokinetic movements at angular velocities of 100 (low) and 200 (high) °/s. The range of hip joint movements was from 30 (in flexion) to 130° (in extension). Torque values and their ratios for hip flexors and extensors at different angular positions were obtained and compared. It is shown that, at high speeds, the flexion movement significantly raises ( p < 0.001) the torque ratios of flexors and extensors in flexion positions of the hip (50 and 60°). These ratios approximately twofold exceed their values at moderate velocities. The weakness of hip joint extensors in extreme flexion positions of the hip may cause injury of this group of muscles at fast movements.

  12. Do isokinetic angular velocity and contraction types affect the predictors of different anaerobic power tests?

    PubMed

    Yapici, Aysegul; Findikoglu, Gulin; Dundar, Ugur

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the most important predictor isokinetic muscle strength determined by different angular velocities and contraction types (i.e. concentric and eccentric) for selected anaerobic power tests in volleyball players. Twenty male and ten female amateur volleyball players participated in this study. Selected anaerobic power tests included Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ). Peak torque values were obtained at 60, 120, 240˚/s for concentric contraction of quadriceps (Qconc) and Hamstring (Hconc) and at 60˚/s for eccentric contraction of quadriceps (Qecc) and Hconc. Moderate to good correlations (r:0.409 to r:0.887) were found between anaerobic tests and isokinetic data including peak torque and total work of both Hconc and Qconc at 60, 120, 240°/s and Qecc at 60°/s (P<0.05). Qconc measured at each of 60, 120, 240°/s was found to be the only significant predictor for anaerobic tests in linear regression models (P<0.05). Correlation coefficient s for Qconc increased with increasing velocity for each of the anaerobic tests. Correlation coefficient of Qconc was highest for CMJ followed by SJ and WAnT at the same angular velocity. As a distinctive feature, both Qecc and Hconc at 60˚/s were significantly predictors for CMJ and SJ. Qconc peak torque was the single significant predictor for WAnT, SJ and CMJ and strength of the relation increases with increasing angular velocity. However, both Qecc and Hconc were significant indicators for CMJ and SJ. Training with higher isokinetic angular velocities and with eccentric contraction is desirable in a training program that has a goal of improving anaerobic performance in volleyball players.

  13. Muscle strength and kinetic gait pattern in children with bilateral spastic CP.

    PubMed

    Eek, Meta Nyström; Tranberg, Roy; Beckung, Eva

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral palsy is often associated with an abnormal gait pattern. This study put focus on relation between muscle strength and kinetic gait pattern in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and compares them with a reference group. In total 20 children with CP and 20 typically developing children participated. They were all assessed with measurement of muscle strength in eight muscle groups in the legs and a 3-dimensional gait analysis including force data. It was found that children with CP were not only significantly weaker in all muscle groups but also walked with slower velocity and shorter stride length when compared with the reference group. Gait moments differed at the ankle level with significantly lower moments in children with CP. Gait moments were closer to the maximal muscle strength in the group of children with CP. Furthermore a correlation between plantarflexing gait moment and muscle strength was observed in six of the eight muscle groups in children with CP, a relation not found in the reference group. A similar pattern was seen between muscle strength and generating ankle power with a rho=0.582-0.766. The results of this study state the importance of the relationship of the overall muscle strength pattern in the lower extremity, not only the plantarflexors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of a Motorized Aquatic Treadmill Exercise Program on Muscle Strength, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and clinical function in Subacute Stroke Patients -- a Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Young; Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Im, Sang Hee

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a motorized aquatic treadmill exercise program improve the isometric strength of the knee muscles, cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, motor function, balance, functional outcomes and quality of life in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to 4-week training sessions of either aquatic therapy(n=19) or land-based aerobic exercise(n=18). Isometric strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Cardiopulmonary fitness was evaluated using a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test and by measuring brachial ankle pulse wave velocity. Moreover, motor function(Fugl-Meyer Assessment[FMA] and FMA-lower limb[FMA-LL]), balance(Berg Balance Scale[BBS]), Activities of daily living(Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and Quality of life(EQ-5D index) were examined. There were no inter-group differences between demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline(p>0.05). The results shows significant improvements in peak oxygen consumption (p=0.02), maximal isometric strength of the bilateral knee extensors (p<0.01) and paretic knee flexors (p=0.01), FMA (p=0.03), FMA-LL (p=0.01), BBS (p=0.01), K-MBI (p<0.01), and EQ-5D index (p=0.04) after treatment in the aquatic therapy group. However, only significant improvements in maximal isometric strength in the knee extensors (p=0.03) and flexors (p=0.04) were found within the aquatic therapy group and control group. Water-based aerobic exercise performed on a motorized aquatic treadmill had beneficial effect on isometric muscle strength in the lower limb.

  15. Effects of an integrated health education and elastic band resistance training program on physical function and muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women: Healthy Aging and Happy Aging II study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Lyul; Kim, Hee-Jae; Woo, Shinae; Cho, Be-Long; Song, Misoon; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Lim, Jae-Young; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of an integrated health education and elastic band resistance training program on body composition, physical function, muscle strength and quality in community-dwelling elderly women. We recruited participants with eligibility inclusion criteria, and randomly assigned them to either the control group (n = 19) or the intervention group (n = 19). The integrated intervention program comprised of health education and individual counseling, and elastic band training for 18 weeks (8 weeks of supervised training and 10 weeks of self-directed training). We assessed body composition, muscle strength and quality, and physical function at pre-, after 8 weeks (mid-) and 18 weeks (post-training). After the intervention, there were no significant changes in skeletal muscle index, fat free mass, total lean mass and total fat mass for both the control group and intervention group. However, the interaction effect was significantly different in SPPB score (P < 0.05), isokinetic strength (60 deg/s, P < 0.001; 120 deg/s; P < 0.05) and muscle quality (P < 0.05) after 18 weeks of intervention relative to the baseline of the control and intervention groups. The supervised elastic band training of 8 weeks did not improve short physical performance battery score and isokinetic strength, whereas there was a significant increase of those outcomes (10.6% improvement, 9.8~23.5% improvement) after 10 weeks of following self-directed exercise compared with the baseline. These results show the effectiveness of following self-directed resistance training with health education after supervised training cessation in improvement of short physical performance battery and leg muscle strength. This intervention program might be an effective method to promote muscle strength and quality, and to prevent frailty in elderly women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 825-833. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Effect of mirror use on lower extremity muscle strength of patients with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Choe, Yu-Won; Shin, Young-Jun; Peng, Cheng; Choi, Eun-Hong

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect on muscle strength of lower extremity muscle strength exercise while using a mirror on the non-paretic side in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to a non-mirror lower extremity exercise group (n=10), a mirror lower extremity exercise group (n=10), or a mirror lower extremity muscle strength exercise group (n=10). Subjects were asked to do the exercise assigned to their group (5 sets 30 times a day, 5 times weekly for 4 weeks) with general physical therapy in the hospital. Muscle strength in the knee extensor and flexor of paretic and non-paretic side were measured using electrical muscle testing device before and after the intervention. [Results] Muscle strength significantly increased within each group after intervention. No significant differences were found among the three groups. [Conclusion] This study showed that the lower extremity muscle strength exercise of the non-paretic side using a mirror has a positive effect on muscle strength in patient with chronic stroke.

  17. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  18. Muscle strength in patients with acromegaly at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Olsson, Daniel S; Bengtsson, Bengt-Åke; Norrman, Lise-Lott; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-08-01

    Patients with acromegaly have decreased body fat (BF) and increased extracellular water (ECW) and muscle mass. Although there is a lack of systematic studies on muscle function, it is believed that patients with acromegaly may suffer from proximal muscle weakness despite their increased muscle mass. We studied body composition and muscle function in untreated acromegaly and after biochemical remission. Prospective observational study. Patients with acromegaly underwent measurements of muscle strength (dynamometers) and body composition (four-compartment model) at diagnosis ( n  = 48), 1 year after surgery ( n  = 29) and after long-term follow-up (median 11 years) ( n  = 24). Results were compared to healthy subjects. Untreated patients had increased body cell mass (113 ± 9% of predicted) and ECW (110 ± 20%) and decreased BF (67 ± 7.6%). At one-year follow-up, serum concentration of IGF-I was reduced and body composition had normalized. At baseline, isometric muscle strength in knee flexors and extensors was normal and concentric strength was modestly increased whereas grip strength and endurance was reduced. After one year, muscle strength was normal in both patients with still active disease and patients in remission. At long-term follow-up, all patients were in remission. Most muscle function tests remained normal, but isometric flexion and the fatigue index were increased to 153 ± 42% and 139 ± 28% of predicted values, respectively. Patients with untreated acromegaly had increased body cell mass and normal or modestly increased proximal muscle strength, whereas their grip strength was reduced. After biochemical improvement and remission, body composition was normalized, hand grip strength was increased, whereas proximal muscle fatigue increased. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Muscle strength response to strength training is influenced by insulin-like growth factor 1 genotype in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kostek, Matthew C; Delmonico, Matthew J; Reichel, Jonathan B; Roth, Stephen M; Douglass, Larry; Ferrell, Robert E; Hurley, Ben F

    2005-06-01

    Strength training (ST) is considered an intervention of choice for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Reports in the literature have suggested that the insulin-like growth factor I protein (IGF-I) plays a major role in ST-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements. A microsatellite repeat in the promoter region of the IGF1 gene has been associated with IGF-I blood levels and phenotypes related to IGF-I in adult men and women. To examine the influence of this polymorphism on muscle hypertrophic and strength responses to ST, we studied 67 Caucasian men and women before and after a 10-wk single-leg knee-extension ST program. One repetition maximum strength, muscle volume via computed tomography, and muscle quality were assessed at baseline and after 10 wk of training. The IGF1 repeat promoter polymorphism and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. For the promoter polymorphism, subjects were grouped as homozygous for the 192 allele, heterozygous, or noncarriers of the 192 allele. After 10 wk of training, 1-repetition maximum, muscle volume, and muscle quality increased significantly for all groups combined (P < 0.001). However, carriers of the 192 allele gained significantly more strength with ST than noncarriers of the 192 allele (P = 0.02). There was also a nonsignificant trend for a greater increase in muscle volume in 192 carriers than noncarriers (P = 0.08). No significant associations were observed for the other polymorphisms studied. Thus these data suggest that the IGF1 promoter polymorphism may influence the strength response to ST. Larger sample sizes should be used in future studies to verify these results.

  20. Muscle Strength Is Protective Against Osteoporosis in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Ryan P; Kraemer, William J; Vincent, Brenda M; Hall, Orman T; Peterson, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    McGrath, RP, Kraemer, WJ, Vincent, BM, Hall, OT, and Peterson, MD. Muscle strength is protective against osteoporosis in an ethnically diverse sample of adults. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2586-2589, 2017-The odds of developing osteoporosis may be affected by modifiable and nonmodifiable factors such as muscle strength and ethnicity. This study sought to (a) determine whether increased muscle strength was associated with decreased odds of osteoporosis and (b) identify whether the odds of osteoporosis differed by ethnicity. Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess femoral neck bone mineral density. A T-score of ≤2.5 was used to define osteoporosis. Separate covariate-adjusted logistic regression models were performed on each sex to determine the association between muscle strength and osteoporosis. Odds ratios (ORs) were also generated to identify if the association between muscle strength and osteoporosis differed by ethnicity using non-Hispanic blacks as the reference group. There were 2,861 participants included. Muscle strength was shown to be protective against osteoporosis for men (OR: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-0.94) and women (OR: 0.90; CI: 0.90-0.90). Although ORs varied across ethnicities, non-Hispanic Asian men (OR: 6.62; CI: 6.51-6.72) and women (OR: 6.42; CI: 6.37-6.48) were at highest odds of osteoporosis. Increased muscle strength reduced the odds of osteoporosis among both men and women in a nationally representative, ethnically diverse sample of adults. Non-Hispanic Asians had the highest odds of developing osteoporosis. Irrespective of sex or ethnicity, increased muscle strength may help protect against the odds of developing osteoporosis.

  1. Quantitative MRI and strength measurements in the assessment of muscle quality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wokke, B H; van den Bergen, J C; Versluis, M J; Niks, E H; Milles, J; Webb, A G; van Zwet, E W; Aartsma-Rus, A; Verschuuren, J J; Kan, H E

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess leg muscle quality and give a detailed description of leg muscle involvement in a series of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients using quantitative MRI and strength measurements. Fatty infiltration, as well as total and contractile (not fatty infiltrated) cross sectional areas of various leg muscles were determined in 16 Duchenne patients and 11 controls (aged 8-15). To determine specific muscle strength, four leg muscle groups (quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, anterior tibialis and triceps surae) were measured and related to the amount of contractile tissue. In patients, the quadriceps femoris showed decreased total and contractile cross sectional area, attributable to muscle atrophy. The total, but not the contractile, cross sectional area of the triceps surae was increased in patients, corresponding to hypertrophy. Specific strength decreased in all four muscle groups of Duchenne patients, indicating reduced muscle quality. This suggests that muscle hypertrophy and fatty infiltration are two distinct pathological processes, differing between muscle groups. Additionally, the quality of remaining muscle fibers is severely reduced in the legs of Duchenne patients. The combination of quantitative MRI and quantitative muscle testing could be a valuable outcome parameter in longitudinal studies and in the follow-up of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory muscle training with enzyme replacement therapy improves muscle strength in late - onset Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Jevnikar, Mitja; Kodric, Metka; Cantarutti, Fabiana; Cifaldi, Rossella; Longo, Cinzia; Della Porta, Rossana; Bembi, Bruno; Confalonieri, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase. This deficiency leads to glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of muscle tissue causing progressive muscular weakness particularly of the respiratory system. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has demonstrated efficacy in slowing down disease progression in infants. Despite the large number of studies describing the effects of physical training in juvenile and adult late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). There are very few reports that analyze the benefits of respiratory muscle rehabilitation or training. The effectiveness of respiratory muscle training was investigated using a specific appliance with adjustable resistance (Threshold). The primary endpoint was effect on respiratory muscular strength by measurements of MIP and MEP. Eight late-onset Pompe patients (aged 13 to 58 years; 4 female, 4 male) with respiratory muscle deficiency on functional respiratory tests were studied. All patients received ERT at the dosage of 20 mg/kg/every 2 weeks and underwent training with Threshold at specified pressures for 24 months. A significant increase in MIP was observed during the follow-up of 24 month: 39.6 cm H 2 O (+ 25.0%) at month 3; 39.5 cm H 2 O (+ 24.9%) at month 6; 39.1 cm H 2 O (+ 23.7%) at month 9; 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 18.2%) at month 12; and 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 17.8%) at month 24. Median MEP values also showed a significant increase during the first 9 months: 29.8 cm H 2 O, (+ 14.3%) at month 3; 31.0 cm H 2 O (+ 18.6) at month 6; and 29.5 cm H 2 O (+ 12.9) at month 9. MEP was then shown to be decreased at months 12 and 24; median MEP was 27.2 cm H 2 O (+ 4.3%) at 12 months and 26.6 cm H 2 O (+ 1.9%) at 24 months. The FVC remain stable throughout the study. An increase in respiratory muscular strength was demonstrated with Threshold training when used in combination with ERT.

  3. Evaluation of the Combined Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Volitional Contractions on Thigh Muscle Strength, Knee Pain and Physical Performance in Women at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Kaitlin G; Matsuse, Hiroo; Jackson, Anthony; Segal, Neil A

    2018-05-28

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability that is associated with quadriceps weakness. However, strengthening in people with or with risk factors for knee OA can be poorly tolerated. To assess the efficacy of a twelve-week low-load exercise program, using a hybrid training system (HTS) that utilizes the combination of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional contractions, for improving thigh muscle strength, knee pain and physical performance in women with or with risk factors for knee OA. Randomized, single-blind, controlled trial SETTING: Exercise training laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two women, age 44-85 years, with risk factors for knee OA INTERVENTIONS: Participants randomized to 12 weeks of biweekly low-load resistance training either with HTS or on an isokinetic dynamometer (control). Maximum isokinetic knee extensor torque. Secondary measures included: maximum isokinetic knee flexor torque, knee pain (KOOS), and timed 20-meter walk and chair-stand tests. HTS and control both resulted in muscle strengthening, reduced knee pain and improved physical performance. HTS group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.06±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.05±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.02), respectively. Control group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.03±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.06±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.009), respectively. Knee pain improved by 11.9±11.5 points (p<.001) for the HTS group and 14.1±15.4 points (p=.001) for the control group. 20-meter walk time decreased by 1.60±2.04 seconds (p=.005) and 0.95±1.2 seconds (p=.004), and chair stand time decreased by 4.8±10.0 seconds (p>.05) and 1.9±4.7 seconds (p>.05) in the HTS and control groups, respectively. These results did not differ statistically between HTS and control groups. These results suggest HTS is effective for improving pain and physical performance in women with risk factors for knee OA. However, HTS does not appear to be superior to low-load resistance training for

  4. Effect of Wiihabilitation on strength ratio of ankle muscles in adults.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Aya A; Mohamed, Ghada A; El Rahman, Soheir M Abd; Elhafez, Salam M; Nassif, Nagui S

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Wiihabilitation on the ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion strength ratio in adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to two equal groups (experimental and control). Participants in the experimental group received a Wiihabilitation training program for six weeks. Data were collected using a Biodex system 3 Isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torques of the dorsiflexors and plantar flexors were measured at an angular velocity of 60°/sec which in turn were used to derive the ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion strength ratio. [Results] The mean values of the ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion strength ratio decreased significantly between before and after the training in the experimental group, meanwhile there was no significant difference between before and after the training period in the control group . [Conclusion] Wiihabilitation has an impact on the ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion strength ratio, so it can be considered an effective training tool in terms of the ankle strength ratio. Thus, it could be recommended for both prevention and rehabilitation of ankle instability patients.

  5. Effect of Wiihabilitation on strength ratio of ankle muscles in adults

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Aya A.; Mohamed, Ghada A.; El Rahman, Soheir M. Abd; Elhafez, Salam M.; Nassif, Nagui S.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Wiihabilitation on the ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion strength ratio in adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to two equal groups (experimental and control). Participants in the experimental group received a Wiihabilitation training program for six weeks. Data were collected using a Biodex system 3 Isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torques of the dorsiflexors and plantar flexors were measured at an angular velocity of 60°/sec which in turn were used to derive the ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion strength ratio. [Results] The mean values of the ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion strength ratio decreased significantly between before and after the training in the experimental group, meanwhile there was no significant difference between before and after the training period in the control group . [Conclusion] Wiihabilitation has an impact on the ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion strength ratio, so it can be considered an effective training tool in terms of the ankle strength ratio. Thus, it could be recommended for both prevention and rehabilitation of ankle instability patients. PMID:27821951

  6. Respiratory muscle strength is not decreased in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenstrom, Hans; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2016-03-31

    Postoperative pulmonary impairments are significant complications after cardiac surgery. Decreased respiratory muscle strength could be one reason for impaired lung function in the postoperative period. The primary aim of this study was to describe respiratory muscle strength before and two months after cardiac surgery. A secondary aim was to describe possible associations between respiratory muscle strength and lung function. In this prospective observational study 36 adult cardiac surgery patients (67 ± 10 years) were studied. Respiratory muscle strength and lung function were measured before and two months after surgery. Pre- and postoperative respiratory muscle strength was in accordance with predicted values; MIP was 78 ± 24 cmH2O preoperatively and 73 ± 22 cmH2O at two months follow-up (p = 0.19). MEP was 122 ± 33 cmH2O preoperatively and 115 ± 38 cmH2O at two months follow-up (p = 0.18). Preoperative lung function was in accordance with predicted values, but was significantly decreased postoperatively. At two-months follow-up there was a moderate correlation between MIP and FEV1 (r = 0.43, p = 0.009). Respiratory muscle strength was not impaired, either before or two months after cardiac surgery. The reason for postoperative lung function alteration is not yet known. Interventions aimed at restore an optimal postoperative lung function should focus on other interventions then respiratory muscle strength training.

  7. Relationships between eccentric hip isokinetic torque and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Baldon, Rodrigo de Marche; Lobato D, Ferreira Moreira; Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Wun P, Yan Lam; Presotti, Cátia Valéria; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2012-02-01

    Recently, attention in sports has been given to eccentric hip-muscle function, both in preventing musculoskeletal injuries and improving performance. To determine the key isokinetic variables of eccentric hip torque that predict the functional performance of women in the single-leg triple long jump (TLJ) and the timed 6-m single-leg hop (TH). Within-subject correlational study. Musculoskeletal laboratory. 32 healthy women age 18-25 y. The participants performed 2 sets of 5 eccentric hip-abductor/adductor and lateral/medial-rotator isokinetic contractions (30°/s) and 3 attempts in the TLJ and TH. The independent variables were the eccentric hip-abductor and -adductor and medial- and lateral-rotator isokinetic peak torque, normalized according to body mass (Nm/kg). The dependent variables were the longest distance achieved in the TLJ normalized according to body height and the shortest time spent during the execution of the TH. The forward-stepwise-regression analysis showed that the combination of the eccentric hip lateral-rotator and -abductor isokinetic peak torque provided the most efficient estimate of both functional tests, explaining 65% of the TLJ variance (P < .001) and 55% of the TH variance (P < .001). Higher values for eccentric hip lateral-rotator and hip-abductor torques reflected better performance. Thus, the eccentric action of these muscles should be considered in the development of physical training programs that aim to increase functional performance.

  8. Respiratory muscle strength test: is it realistic in young children?

    PubMed Central

    Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the success rate of the manovacuometry test in children between 4 and 12 years of age. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving children and adolescents from 4 to 12 years of age, enrolled in three basic education schools. All subjects had the anthropometric and respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure) data measured. Students whose parents did not authorize participation or who did not want to undergo the test were excluded. The test was considered successful when the subject reached acceptability (no air leaks) and reproducibility (variation <10% between the two major maneuvers) criteria established by guidelines. Failure was defined when subjects did not meet the above criteria. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation and the categorical variables in absolute and relative frequency. The comparison between proportions was performed using the chi-square test. Results: We included 196 children and adolescents, mean age of 8.4±2.5 years, 53.1% female. The success rate of the manovacuometry test in children and adolescents evaluated was 92.3%. When comparing the differences between the success rates of preschool children with those children and adolescents of school age, there was a significantly lower success rate in the pre-school (85.1%) group compared to the school group (94.6%) (p=0.032). However, no significant differences (p=0.575) were found when gender comparisons were performed. Conclusions: The manovacuometry test showed a high success rate in both preschool and school population assessed. Furthermore, the rate of success appears to be related to aging. PMID:26137867

  9. Lower extremity muscle size and strength and aerobic capacity decrease with caloric restriction but not with exercise-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Edward P.; Racette, Susan B.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Fontana, Luigi; Steger-May, Karen; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Klein, Samuel; Ehsani, Ali A.; Holloszy, John O.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) results in fat loss; however, it may also result in loss of muscle and thereby reduce strength and aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max). These effects may not occur with exercise-induced weight loss (EX) because of the anabolic effects of exercise on heart and skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that CR reduces muscle size and strength and V̇O2 max, whereas EX preserves or improves these parameters. Healthy 50- to 60-yr-old men and women (body mass index of 23.5–29.9 kg/m2) were studied before and after 12 mo of weight loss by CR (n = 18) or EX (n = 16). Lean mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, thigh muscle volume by MRI, isometric and isokinetic knee flexor strength by dynamometry, and treadmill V̇O2 max by indirect calorimetry. Both interventions caused significant decreases in body weight (CR: −10.7 ± 1.4%, EX: −9.5 ± 1.5%) and lean mass (CR: −3.5 ± 0.7%, EX: −2.2 ± 0.8%), with no significant differences between groups. Significant decreases in thigh muscle volume (−6.9 ± 0.8%) and composite knee flexion strength (−7.2 ± 3%) occurred in the CR group only. Absolute V̇O2 max decreased significantly in the CR group (−6.8 ± 2.3%), whereas the EX group had significant increases in both absolute (+15.5 ± 2.4%) and relative (+28.3 ± 3.0%) V̇O2 max. These data provide evidence that muscle mass and absolute physical work capacity decrease in response to 12 mo of CR but not in response to a similar weight loss induced by exercise. These findings suggest that, during EX, the body adapts to maintain or even enhance physical performance capacity. PMID:17095635

  10. [Absolute and relative strength-endurance of the knee flexor and extensor muscles: a reliability study using the IsoMed 2000-dynamometer].

    PubMed

    Dirnberger, J; Wiesinger, H P; Stöggl, T; Kösters, A; Müller, E

    2012-09-01

    Isokinetic devices are highly rated in strength-related performance diagnosis. A few years ago, the broad variety of existing products was extended by the IsoMed 2000-dynamometer. In order for an isokinetic device to be clinically useful, the reliability of specific applications must be established. Although there have already been single studies on this topic for the IsoMed 2000 concerning maximum strength measurements, there has been no study regarding the assessment of strength-endurance so far. The aim of the present study was to establish the reliability for various methods of quantification of strength-endurance using the IsoMed 2000. A sample of 33 healthy young subjects (age: 23.8 ± 2.6 years) participated in one familiarisation and two testing sessions, 3-4 days apart. Testing consisted of a series 30 full effort concentric extension-flexion cycles of the right knee muscles at an angular velocity of 180 °/s. Based on the parameters Peak, Torque and Work for each repetition, indices of absolute (KADabs) and relative (KADrel) strength-endurance were derived. KADabs was calculated as the mean value of all testing repetitions, KADrel was determined in two ways: on the one hand, as the percentage decrease between the first and the last 5 repetitions (KADrelA) and on the other, as the negative slope derived from the linear regression equitation of all repetitions (KADrelB). Detection of systematic errors was performed using paired sample t-tests, relative and absolute reliability were examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1) and standard error of measurement (SEM%), respectively. In general, for extension measurements concerning KADabs and - in an weakened form - KADrel high ICC -values of 0.76-0.89 combined with clinically acceptable values of SEM% of 1.2-5.9 % could be found. For flexion measurements this only applies to KADabs, whereas results for KADrel turned out to be clearly weaker with ICC- and SEM% values of 0.42-0.62 and 9

  11. Effects of a Strength Training Session After an Exercise Inducing Muscle Damage on Recovery Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; Lamblin, Julien; McCall, Alan; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Abaïdia, A-E, Delecroix, B, Leduc, C, Lamblin, J, McCall, A, Baquet, G, and Dupont, G. Effects of a strength training session after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery kinetics. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 115-125, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an upper-limb strength training session the day after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery of performance. In a randomized crossover design, subjects performed the day after the exercise, on 2 separate occasions (passive vs. active recovery conditions) a single-leg exercise (dominant in one condition and nondominant in the other condition) consisting of 5 sets of 15 eccentric contractions of the knee flexors. Active recovery consisted of performing an upper-body strength training session the day after the exercise. Creatine kinase, hamstring strength, and muscle soreness were assessed immediately and 20, 24, and 48 hours after exercise-induced muscle damage. The upper-body strength session, after muscle-damaging exercise accelerated the recovery of slow concentric force (effect size = 0.65; 90% confidence interval = -0.06 to 1.32), but did not affect the recovery kinetics for the other outcomes. The addition of an upper-body strength training session the day after muscle-damaging activity does not negatively affect the recovery kinetics. Upper-body strength training may be programmed the day after a competition.

  12. Influence of Whole-Body Vibration Training Without Visual Feedback on Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength of the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Lai, Chung-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ling; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Lee, Meng-Chih; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) training without visual feedback on balance and lower-extremity muscle strength in the elderly.Elderly subjects who did not exercise regularly participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a WBV with eyes open group, a visual feedback-deprived plus WBV (VFDWBV) group, and a control group (0 Hz, eyes open). WBV training was provided over a 3-month period, 3 times per week for 5 min each session. Balance performance was measured with the limits of stability test, and muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer.A total of 45 elderly subjects with an average age of 69.22  ±  3.97 years, divided into a WBV group (n = 14), a VFDWBV group (n = 17), and a control group (n = 14), completed the trial. Statistically significant differences were found in the balance performance of the 3 groups at different time points (time × group interaction: F = 13.213, P < 0.001), and the VFDWBV group had more improvement in balance than the WBV and control groups. The strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles had time × group interactions: F = 29.604, P < 0.001 and F = 4.684, P = 0.015, respectively; the VFDWBV group had more improvement on lower-extremity muscle strength than the WBV and control groups. The 6-month follow-up showed that the rates of hospital visits for medical services due to falls were 0% in the WBV group (0/14), 0% in the VFDWBV group (0/17), and 28.57% in the control group (4/14).Results showed that WBV training at 20  Hz without visual feedback can significantly improve the balance performance and lower-extremity muscle strength of the elderly.

  13. No difference in long-term trunk muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and density in patients with chronic low back pain 7 to 11 years after lumbar fusion versus cognitive intervention and exercises.

    PubMed

    Froholdt, Anne; Holm, Inger; Keller, Anne; Gunderson, Ragnhild B; Reikeraas, Olav; Brox, Jens I

    2011-08-01

    Reduced muscle strength and density observed at 1 year after lumbar fusion may deteriorate more in the long term. To compare the long-term effect of lumbar fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, density, and self-rated function in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and disc degeneration. Randomized controlled study with a follow-up examination at 8.5 years (range, 7-11 years). Patients with CLBP and disc degeneration randomized to either instrumented posterolateral fusion of one or both of the two lower lumbar levels or a 3-week cognitive intervention and exercise program were included. Isokinetic muscle strength was measured by a Cybex 6000 (Cybex-Lumex, Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY, USA). All patients had previous experience with the test procedure. The back extension (E) flexion (F) muscles were tested, and the E/F ratios were calculated. Cross-sectional area and density of the back muscles were measured at the L3-L4 segment by computed tomography. Patients rated their function by the General Function Score. Trunk muscle strength, cross-sectional area, density, and self-rated function. Fifty-five patients (90%) were included at long-term follow-up. There were no significant differences in cross-sectional area, density, muscle strength, or self-rated function between the two groups. The cognitive intervention and exercise group increased trunk muscle extension significantly (p<.05), and both groups performed significantly better on trunk muscle flexion tests (p<.01) at long-term follow-up. On average, self-rated function improved by 56%, cross-sectional area was reduced by 8.5%, and muscle density was reduced by 27%. Although this study did not assess the morphology of muscles likely damaged by surgery, trunk muscle strength and cross-sectional area above the surgical levels are not different between those who had lumbar fusion or cognitive intervention and exercises at 7- to 11-year follow-up. Copyright © 2011

  14. Anabolic and Catabolic Biomarkers As Predictors of Muscle Strength Decline: The InCHIANTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Di Iorio, Angelo; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Poor muscle strength is a major public health concern in older persons, predisposing to functional limitations, increased fall risk, and higher mortality. Understanding risk factors for muscle strength decline may offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. One of the possible causes of muscle strength decline is imbalance between catabolic and anabolic signaling. This study aims to examine whether high levels of multiple catabolic and low levels of multiple anabolic biomarkers predict accelerated decline of muscle strength. Methods In a representative sample of 716 men and women aged ≥65 years in the InCHIANTI study we measured C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 as well as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1, and bioavailable testosterone. Biomarker values were divided into tertiles and the numbers of catabolic/anabolic biomarkers in the highest/lowest tertile were calculated. Hand-grip strength was measured at baseline and 3- and 6-year follow up. Results In adjusted linear mixed models, higher concentration of IL-6 (p = 0.02) and IL-1RA (p = 0.04) as well as lower levels of DHEA-S (p = 0.01) predicted muscle strength decline. After combining all inflammatory markers, the rate of decline in grip strength was progressively greater with the increasing number of dysregulated catabolic biomarkers (p = 0.01). No effect on accelerated muscle strength decline was seen according to number of dysregulated anabolic hormones. Conclusions Having multiple elevated catabolic biomarkers is a better predictor of muscle strength decline than a single biomarker alone, suggesting that a catabolic dysregulation is at the core of the mechanism leading to muscle strength decline with aging. PMID:20230273

  15. Anabolic and catabolic biomarkers as predictors of muscle strength decline: the InCHIANTI study.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Sari; Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Di Iorio, Angelo; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-02-01

    Poor muscle strength is a major public health concern in older persons, predisposing to functional limitations, increased fall risk, and higher mortality. Understanding risk factors for muscle strength decline may offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. One of the possible causes of muscle strength decline is imbalance between catabolic and anabolic signaling. This study aims to examine whether high levels of multiple catabolic and low levels of multiple anabolic biomarkers predict accelerated decline of muscle strength. In a representative sample of 716 men and women aged >or=65 years in the InCHIANTI study we measured C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 as well as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1, and bioavailable testosterone. Biomarker values were divided into tertiles and the numbers of catabolic/anabolic biomarkers in the highest/lowest tertile were calculated. Hand-grip strength was measured at baseline and 3- and 6-year follow up. In adjusted linear mixed models, higher concentration of IL-6 (p = 0.02) and IL-1RA (p = 0.04) as well as lower levels of DHEA-S (p = 0.01) predicted muscle strength decline. After combining all inflammatory markers, the rate of decline in grip strength was progressively greater with the increasing number of dysregulated catabolic biomarkers (p = 0.01). No effect on accelerated muscle strength decline was seen according to number of dysregulated anabolic hormones. Having multiple elevated catabolic biomarkers is a better predictor of muscle strength decline than a single biomarker alone, suggesting that a catabolic dysregulation is at the core of the mechanism leading to muscle strength decline with aging.

  16. [Isokinetic profile of knee flexors and extensors in a population of rugby players].

    PubMed

    Larrat, E; Kemoun, G; Carette, P; Teffaha, D; Dugue, B

    2007-06-01

    We aimed to assess the isokinetic profile of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee within a population of rugby players. This was a descriptive study. The rugby players underwent bilateral isokinetic assessment of knee flexion and extension on a CON-TREX MJ isokinetic dynamometer functioning at four angular frequencies - 90, 120, 180 and 240 degrees/s - in a concentric manner. The isokinetic parameters were peak torque, mean power, and mean work in relation to weight and femoral bicep: quadriceps ratio. The population included 16 "Federal 1" (semi-professional) rugby players with mean age 25 years (range 20-33 years). The players were divided into two groups: "forward" players (props, hookers, second line, third line) and "back" players (scrum, inside, center, wing, tail). The values of the isokinetic parameters did not reveal use of a preferred limb. Consequently, peak torque and mean power were higher in forward players than back players, whereas back players showed a higher relative power throughout the isokinetic test. Among rugby players, forward and back players showed differences in several isokinetic parameters. Accurate knowledge of the equilibrium between the knee's effector muscles is important for stability of the joint, to not only minimize articular accidents but also pinpoint force imbalances, thereby preventing muscular lesions during the sports season.

  17. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20–45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05). During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05). These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance. PMID:26717568

  18. Regional changes in muscle mass following 17 weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Evans, Harlan J.; Pientok, Colette; Rowe, Roger; Spector, Elisabeth

    1992-01-01

    This work reports on the muscle loss and recovery after 17 wk of continuous bed rest and 8 wk of reambulation in eight normal male volunteers. Muscle changes were assessed by urinary levels of 3-methylhistidine (3-MeH), nitrogen balance, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and isokinetic muscle performance. The total body lean tissue loss during bed rest calculated from nitrogen balance was 3.9 +/- 2.1 kg. Although the total loss is minimal, DPA scans showed that nearly all of the lean tissue loss occurred in the lower limbs. Similarly, MRI muscle volume measurements showed greater percent loss in the limbs relative to the back muscles. MRI, DPA, and nitrogen balance suggest that muscle atrophy continued throughout bed rest with rapid recovery after reambulaton. Isokinetic muscle strength decreased significantly in the thigh and calf with no loss in the arms and with rapid recovery during reambulation.

  19. Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

  20. Relation between systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral muscle mass, and strength in limb muscles in stable COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Renata; Caram, Laura M O; Faganello, Marcia M; Sanchez, Fernanda F; Tanni, Suzana E; Godoy, Irma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory mediators and peripheral muscle mass and strength in COPD patients. Fifty-five patients (69% male; age: 64±9 years) with mild/very severe COPD (defined as forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] =54%±23%) were evaluated. We evaluated serum concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α. Peripheral muscle mass was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT); midthigh cross-sectional muscle area (MTCSA) and midarm cross-sectional muscle area (MACSA) were obtained. Quadriceps, triceps, and biceps strength were assessed through the determination of the one-repetition maximum. The multiple regression results, adjusted for age, sex, and FEV1%, showed positive significant association between MTCSA and leg extension (0.35 [0.16, 0.55]; P=0.001), between MACSA and triceps pulley (0.45 [0.31, 0.58]; P=0.001), and between MACSA and biceps curl (0.34 [0.22, 0.47]; P=0.001). Plasma TNF-α was negatively associated with leg extension (-3.09 [-5.99, -0.18]; P=0.04) and triceps pulley (-1.31 [-2.35, -0.28]; P=0.01), while plasma CRP presented negative association with biceps curl (-0.06 [-0.11, -0.01]; P=0.02). Our results showed negative association between peripheral muscle mass (evaluated by CT) and muscle strength and that systemic inflammation has a negative influence in the strength of specific groups of muscles in individuals with stable COPD. This is the first study showing association between systemic inflammatory markers and strength in upper limb muscles.

  1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism has Little Influences on Muscle Mass or Strength in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Min Kyong; Lee, You Jin; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Yang, Eun Joo; Lim, Jae-Young; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak C.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass, affects the muscle strength and muscle quality, and these changes decrease functional capacity. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction increases with age, and changes in thyroid hormone level lead to neuromuscular deficits. We investigated the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on the muscle mass, strength or quality in elderly people. One thousand one hundred eighteen subjects aged ≥65 yr were randomly selected from a local population and classified into a euthyroid (280 men and 358 women), subclinically hypothyroid (61 men and 75 women), or overtly hypothyroid (7 men and 16 women) group. Although women with subclinical hypothyroidism had a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, defined according to the ratio of appendicular skeletal muscle mass to the square of height, muscle mass, strength or quality did not differ in relation to thyroid status in men or in women. Multivariate analysis including age, diabetes, hypertension, acute coronary event, alcohol, smoking, presence of pain, physical activity score, and lipid profile, showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone level was not associated with muscle mass, strength or quality. In conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass, strength or quality, and may not be associated with sarcopenia. PMID:20676329

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass or strength in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Moon, Min Kyong; Lee, You Jin; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Yang, Eun Joo; Lim, Jae-Young; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak C; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2010-08-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass, affects the muscle strength and muscle quality, and these changes decrease functional capacity. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction increases with age, and changes in thyroid hormone level lead to neuromuscular deficits. We investigated the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on the muscle mass, strength or quality in elderly people. One thousand one hundred eighteen subjects aged > or = 65 yr were randomly selected from a local population and classified into a euthyroid (280 men and 358 women), subclinically hypothyroid (61 men and 75 women), or overtly hypothyroid (7 men and 16 women) group. Although women with subclinical hypothyroidism had a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, defined according to the ratio of appendicular skeletal muscle mass to the square of height, muscle mass, strength or quality did not differ in relation to thyroid status in men or in women. Multivariate analysis including age, diabetes, hypertension, acute coronary event, alcohol, smoking, presence of pain, physical activity score, and lipid profile, showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone level was not associated with muscle mass, strength or quality. In conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass, strength or quality, and may not be associated with sarcopenia.

  3. Sarcopenia during neoadjuvant therapy for oesophageal cancer: characterising the impact on muscle strength and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Guinan, Emer M; Doyle, S L; Bennett, A E; O'Neill, L; Gannon, J; Elliott, J A; O'Sullivan, J; Reynolds, J V; Hussey, J

    2018-05-01

    Preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for oesophageal cancer (OC) may have an attritional impact on body composition and functional status, impacting postoperative outcome. Physical decline with skeletal muscle loss has not been previously characterised in OC and may be amenable to physical rehabilitation. This study characterises skeletal muscle mass and physical performance from diagnosis to post-neoadjuvant therapy in patients undergoing preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for OC. Measures of body composition (axial computerised tomography), muscle strength (handgrip), functional capacity (walking distance), anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), physical activity, quality-of-life and nutritional status were captured prospectively. Sarcopenia status was defined as pre-sarcopenic (low muscle mass only), sarcopenic (low muscle mass and low muscle strength or function) or severely sarcopenic (low muscle mass and low muscle strength and low muscle function). Twenty-eight participants were studied at both time points (mean age 62.86 ± 8.18 years, n = 23 male). Lean body mass reduced by 4.9 (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 6.7) kg and mean grip strength reduced by 4.3 (2.5 to 6.1) kg from pre- to post-neoadjuvant therapy. Quality-of-life scores capturing gastrointestinal symptoms improved. Measures of anthropometry, walking distance, physical activity and nutritional status did not change. There was an increase in sarcopenic status from diagnosis (pre-sarcopenic n = 2) to post-treatment (pre-sarcopenic n = 5, severely sarcopenic n = 1). Despite maintenance of body weight, functional capacity and activity habits, participants experience declines in muscle mass and strength. Interventions involving exercise and/or nutritional support to build muscle mass and strength during preoperative therapy, even in patients who are functioning normally, are warranted.

  4. Examination of the pronator quadratus muscle during hardware removal procedures after volar plating for distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Nho, Jae-Hwi; Gong, Hyun Sik; Song, Cheol Ho; Wi, Seung Myung; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-09-01

    It is not clear whether the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle actually heals and provides a meaningful pronation force after volar plating for distal radius fractures (DRFs). We aimed to determine whether the length of the PQ muscle, which is dissected and then repaired during volar plating for a DRF, affects the forearm rotation strength and clinical outcomes. We examined 41 patients who requested hardware removal after volar plating. We measured the isokinetic forearm rotation strength and clinical outcomes including grip strength, wrist range of motion, and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores at 6 months after fracture fixation. During the hardware removal surgery, which was performed at an average of 9 months (range, 8.3 to 11.5 months) after fracture fixation, we measured the PQ muscle length. The average PQ muscle length was 68% of the normal muscle length, and no significant relationship was found between the PQ muscle length and the outcomes including isokinetic forearm rotation strength, grip strength, wrist range of motion, and DASH scores. This study demonstrates that the length of the healed PQ muscle does not affect isokinetic forearm rotation strength and clinical outcomes after volar plating for DRFs. The results of this study support our current practice of loose repair of the PQ that is performed by most of the surgeons to prevent tendon irritation over the plate, and suggest that tight repair of the PQ is not necessary for achieving improved forearm function.

  5. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  6. [Association of muscle strength with early markers of cardiovascular risk in sedentary adults].

    PubMed

    Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-10-01

    To assess the association between muscle strength and early cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers in sedentary adults. A total of 176 sedentary subjects aged 18-30 years were enrolled. Body mass index and fat percentage were calculated, and waist circumference, grip strength by dynamometry, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake by VO2max were measured as CVR markers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between muscle strength and CVR markers. Inverse correlations were found between muscle strength and adiposity (r=-.317; P=.001), waist circumference (r=-.309; P=.001), systolic blood pressure (r=-.401; P=.001), and mean arterial pressure (r=-.256; P=.001). Subjects with lower levels of muscle strength had a 5.79-fold (95% CI 1.57 to 9.34; P=.008) risk of having higher adiposity levels (≥25%) and a 9.67-fold (95% CI=3.86 to 19.22; P<.001) risk of having lower physical capacity values for VO2max (≤31.5mL/kg/min(-1)). In sedentary adults, muscle strength is associated to early manifestations of CVR. It is suggested that muscle strength testing is added to routine measurement of VO2max and traditional risk factors for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of bridge exercise method on the strength of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taewook; Lee, Jaeseok; Seo, Junghoon; Han, Dongwook

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of the method of bridge exercise on the change of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this research are healthy female students consisting of 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a supine group, 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a prone group, and 10 persons in a control group while in S university in Busan. Bridge exercise in supine position is performed in hook lying position. Bridge exercise in prone position is plank exercise in prostrate position. To measure the strength of rectus abdominis muscle, maintaining times of the posture was used. To measure the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles, EMG (4D-MT & EMD-11, Relive, Korea) was used. [Results] The strength of rectus abdominis muscle of both bridge exercises in the supine group and bridge exercises in the prone group increases significantly after exercise. The muscle activity of paraspinal muscle such as thoracic parts and lumbar parts in bridge exercises in the prone group decreases statistically while walking on a treadmill with high heels. Muscle activity of thoracic parts paraspinal muscle and bridge exercises in the supine group decreased significantly. [Conclusion] According to this study, we noticed that bridge exercise in a prone position is desirable for women who prefer wearing high heels as a back pain prevention exercise method.

  8. Muscle thickness correlates to muscle cross-sectional area in the assessment of strength training-induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Franchi, M V; Longo, S; Mallinson, J; Quinlan, J I; Taylor, T; Greenhaff, P L; Narici, M V

    2018-03-01

    Muscle thickness (MT) measured by ultrasound has been used to estimate cross-sectional area (measured by CT and MRI) at a single time point. We tested whether MT could be used as a valid marker of MRI determined muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) and volume changes following resistance training (RT). Nine healthy, young, male volunteers (24 ± 2 y.o., BMI 24.1 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ) had vastus lateralis (VL) muscle volume (VOL) and ACSA mid (at 50% of femur length, FL) assessed by MRI, and VL MT measured by ultrasound at 50% FL. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of isokinetic RT. Differences between baseline and post-training were assessed by Student's paired t test. The relationships between MRI and ultrasound measurements were tested by Pearson's correlation. After RT, MT increased by 7.5 ± 6.1% (P < .001), ACSA mid by 5.2 ± 5% (P < .001), and VOL by 5.0 ± 6.9% (P < .05) (values: means ± SD). Positive correlations were found, at baseline and 12 weeks, between MT and ACSA mid (r = .82, P < .001 and r = .73, P < .001, respectively), and between MT and VOL (r = .76, P < .001 and r = .73, P < .001, respectively). The % change in MT with training was correlated with % change in ACSA mid (r = .69, P < .01), but not % change in VOL (r = .33, P > .05). These data support evidence that MT is a reliable index of muscle ACSA mid and VOL at a single time point. MT changes following RT are associated with parallel changes in muscle ACSA mid but not with the changes in VOL, highlighting the impact of RT on regional hypertrophy. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of neck muscle strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation on the kinematic response of the head to impulsive loads.

    PubMed

    Eckner, James T; Oh, Youkeun K; Joshi, Monica S; Richardson, James K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2014-03-01

    Greater neck strength and activating the neck muscles to brace for impact are both thought to reduce an athlete's risk of concussion during a collision by attenuating the head's kinematic response after impact. However, the literature reporting the neck's role in controlling postimpact head kinematics is mixed. Furthermore, these relationships have not been examined in the coronal or transverse planes or in pediatric athletes. In each anatomic plane, peak linear velocity (ΔV) and peak angular velocity (Δω) of the head are inversely related to maximal isometric cervical muscle strength in the opposing direction (H1). Under impulsive loading, ΔV and Δω will be decreased during anticipatory cervical muscle activation compared with the baseline state (H2). Descriptive laboratory study. Maximum isometric neck strength was measured in each anatomic plane in 46 male and female contact sport athletes aged 8 to 30 years. A loading apparatus applied impulsive test forces to athletes' heads in flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and axial rotation during baseline and anticipatory cervical muscle activation conditions. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of neck strength and cervical muscle activation on head ΔV and Δω. Greater isometric neck strength and anticipatory activation were independently associated with decreased head ΔV and Δω after impulsive loading across all planes of motion (all P < .001). Inverse relationships between neck strength and head ΔV and Δω presented moderately strong effect sizes (r = 0.417 to r = 0.657), varying by direction of motion and cervical muscle activation. In male and female athletes across the age spectrum, greater neck strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation ("bracing for impact") can reduce the magnitude of the head's kinematic response. Future studies should determine whether neck strength contributes to the observed sex and age group differences in concussion incidence. Neck

  10. Cancer-Specific Mortality Relative to Engagement in Muscle-Strengthening Activities and Lower Extremity Strength.

    PubMed

    Dankel, Scott J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Skeletal muscle strength and engagement in muscle-strengthening activities are each inversely associated with all-cause mortality; however, less is known on their relationship with cancer-specific mortality. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used assessing 2773 individuals aged 50 years or older. Individuals being dichotomized at the 75th percentile for knee extensor strength, and engagement in muscle-strengthening activities was acquired through self-report with ≥2 sessions per week were classified as meeting guidelines. With respect to cancer-specific mortality, individuals in the upper quartile for muscle strength were at a 50% reduced risk (hazard ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.85; P = .01) and those meeting muscle-strengthening activities were at a nonsignificant 8% reduced risk (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-1.86, P = .81) of cancer-specific mortality after adjusting for covariates. Clinicians should routinely assess lower extremity strength and promote engagement in muscle-strengthening activities aimed at increasing muscle strength.

  11. Mouse Plantar Flexor Muscle Size and Strength After Inactivity and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    suspension. Keywords: eccentric contraction , microgravity , exercise . SPACEFLIGHT CAUSES atrophy and strength loss in antigravity skeletal muscles...isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions pre- served muscle mass in the rat medial gastrocnemius ( 2 ), the use of isometric resistance exercise ...Adams GR , Haddad F , Bodell PW , Tran PD , Baldwin KM . Com- bined isometric, concentric, and eccentric resistance exercise prevents

  12. Screen time viewing behaviors and isometric trunk muscle strength in youth.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Froberg, Karsten; Wedderkopp, Niels; Brage, Søren; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Andersen, Lars Bo; Møller, Niels Christian

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of screen time viewing behavior with isometric trunk muscle strength in youth. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 606 adolescents (14-16 yr old) participating in the Danish European Youth Heart Study, a population-based study with assessments conducted in either 1997/1998 or 2003/2004. Maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain gauge dynamometer, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was obtained using a maximal cycle ergometer test. TV viewing time, computer use, and other lifestyle behaviors were obtained by self-report. Analyses of association of screen use behaviors with isometric trunk muscle strength were carried out using multivariable adjusted linear regression. The mean (SD) isometric strength was 0.87 (0.16) N·kg-1. TV viewing, computer use, and total screen time use were inversely associated with isometric trunk muscle strength in analyses adjusted for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. After further adjustment for CRF and waist circumference, associations remained significant for computer use and total screen time, but TV viewing was only marginally associated with muscle strength after these additional adjustments (-0.05 SD (95% confidence interval, -0.11 to 0.005) difference in strength per 1 h·d-1 difference in TV viewing time, P = 0.08). Each 1 h·d-1 difference in total screen time use was associated with -0.09 SD (95% confidence interval, -0.14 to -0.04) lower isometric trunk muscle strength in the fully adjusted model (P = 0.001). There were no indications that the association of screen time use with isometric trunk muscle strength was attenuated among highly fit individuals (P = 0.91 for CRF by screen time interaction). Screen time use was inversely associated with isometric trunk muscle strength independent of CRF and other confounding factors.

  13. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kelli Maria Souza; de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; de Santana Filho, Valter Joviniano; da Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Results Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. Conclusion The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline. PMID:25372909

  14. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Kelli Maria Souza; Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz de; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Santana Filho, Valter Joviniano de; Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro da; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline.

  15. Balance and ankle muscle strength predict spatiotemporal gait parameters in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Marcela R; Barela, José A; Nozabieli, Andréa J L; Mantovani, Alessandra M; Martinelli, Alessandra R; Fregonesi, Cristina E P T

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate aspects of balance, ankle muscle strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and verify whether deficits in spatiotemporal gait parameters were associated with ankle muscle strength and balance performance. Thirty individuals with DPN and 30 control individuals have participated. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated by measuring the time to walk a set distance during self-selected and maximal walking speeds. Functional mobility and balance performance were assessed using the Functional Reach and the Time Up and Go tests. Ankle isometric muscle strength was assessed with a handheld digital dynamometer. Analyses of variance were employed to verify possible differences between groups and conditions. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to uncover possible predictors of gait deficits. Gait spatiotemporal, functional mobility, balance performance and ankle muscle strength were affected in individuals with DPN. The Time Up and Go test performance and ankle muscle isometric strength were associated to spatiotemporal gait changes, especially during maximal walking speed condition. Functional mobility and balance performance are damaged in DPN and balance performance and ankle muscle strength can be used to predict spatiotemporal gait parameters in individuals with DPN. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity and reliability of isometric muscle strength measurements of hip abduction and abduction with external hip rotation in a bent-hip position using a handheld dynamometer with a belt.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, Hidefumi; Katoh, Munenori; Hiiragi, Yukinobu; Kawasaki, Tsubasa; Kurihara, Tomohisa; Ohmi, Yorikatsu

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relatedness, reliability, and validity of isometric muscle strength measurements of hip abduction and abduction with an external hip rotation in a bent-hip position using a handheld dynamometer with a belt. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults, with a mean age of 21.5 ± 0.6 years were included. Isometric hip muscle strength in the subjects' right legs was measured under two posture positions using two devices: a handheld dynamometer with a belt and an isokinetic dynamometer. Reliability was evaluated using an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC); relatedness and validity were evaluated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. Differences in measurements of devices were assessed by two-way ANOVA. [Results] ICC (1, 1) was ≥0.9; significant positive correlations in measurements were found between the two devices under both conditions. No main effect was found between the measurement values. [Conclusion] Our findings revealed that there was relatedness, reliability, and validity of this method for isometric muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer with a belt.

  17. Isokinetic Identification of Knee Joint Torques before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Czaplicki, Adam; Jarocka, Marta; Walawski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the serial change of isokinetic muscle strength of the knees before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in physically active males and to estimate the time of return to full physical fitness. Extension and flexion torques were measured for the injured and healthy limbs at two angular velocities approximately 1.5 months before the surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after ACLR. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in peak knee extension and flexion torques, hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios, uninvolved/involved limb peak torque ratios, and the normalized work of these muscles between the four stages of rehabilitation were identified. Significant differences between extension peak torques for the injured and healthy limbs were also detected at all stages. The obtained results showed that 12 months of rehabilitation were insufficient for the involved knee joint to recover its strength to the level of strength of the uninvolved knee joint. The results helped to evaluate the progress of the rehabilitation and to implement necessary modifications optimizing the rehabilitation training program. The results of the study may also be used as referential data for physically active males of similar age. PMID:26646385

  18. [Results of shoulder isokinetic testing in volleyball players].

    PubMed

    Michael, J; König, D; Hessling, U; Popken, F; Eysel, P

    2003-06-01

    Isokinetic testing of the shoulder joint shows valuable indication to possible functional disorders and muscle imbalance. Concentric testing of several parameters using the Cybex 6000 practice unit was done by professional volleyball players performing external and internal rotation of the dominant and non-dominant shoulder at speeds of 60 degrees/s an 180 degrees/s. Sex-specific significant differences were shown which are comparable to other kind of sports.

  19. Lean muscle volume of the thigh has a stronger relationship with muscle power than muscle strength in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Davison, Michael J; Maly, Monica R; Keir, Peter J; Hapuhennedige, Sandani M; Kron, Amie T; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Thigh lean muscle and intramuscular fat have been implicated in the impairment of physical function observed in people with knee osteoarthritis. We investigated the relationships of quadriceps and hamstrings intramuscular fat fraction and lean muscle volume with muscle power and strength, controlling for neuromuscular activation, and physical performance in women with knee OA. Women (n=20) 55years or older with symptomatic, radiographic knee osteoarthritis underwent a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scan of the thigh of their most symptomatic knee. Axial fat-separated images were analyzed using software to quantify intramuscular fat and lean muscle volumes of the quadriceps and hamstrings. To quantify strength and power of the knee extensors and flexors, participants performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction and isotonic knee extensions and flexions, respectively. Electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured. Participants also completed five physical performance tests. Quadriceps and hamstrings lean muscle volumes were related to isotonic knee extensor (B=0.624; p=0.017) and flexor (B=1.518; p=0.032) power, but not knee extensor (B=0.001; p=0.615) or flexor (B=0.001; p=0.564) isometric strength. Intramuscular fat fractions were not related to isotonic knee extensor or flexor power, nor isometric strength. No relationships were found between intramuscular fat or lean muscle volume and physical performance. Muscle power may be more sensitive than strength to lean muscle mass in women with knee osteoarthritis. Thigh lean muscle mass, but neither intramuscular nor intermuscular fat, is related to knee extensor and flexor power in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after 14 weeks of isokinetic and conventional resistance training.

    PubMed

    Matta, Thiago Torres; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier; Trajano, Gabriel S; Simão, Roberto; Willardson, Jeffrey Michael; Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    One of the fundamental adaptations observed with resistance training (RT) is muscle hypertrophy. Conventional and isokinetic machines provide different forms of mechanical stress, and it is possible that these two training modes could promote differing degrees of hypertrophic adaptations. There is a lack of data comparing the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after training with a conventional knee extension machine versus an isokinetic machine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature and knee extension maximal isometric torque after 14 weeks of conventional versus isokinetic RT. Thirty-five men were assigned to three groups: control group and training groups (conventional and isokinetic) performed three sets of unilateral knee extensions per session with a progressive loading scheme twice a week. Prior to and following the intervention, maximal isometric knee extensor torque was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer, and muscle thickness (MT) of quadriceps femoris muscles was assessed via ultrasound. The results indicated non-uniform changes in MT between the muscles that comprise the quadriceps femoris group. For the conventional group, significantly greater increases in rectus femoris thickness were evident versus all other quadriceps muscles (14%). For the isokinetic group, increases in RF thickness (11%) were significantly greater in comparison with the vastus intermedius only. Although the muscle thickness did not increase for all the quadriceps femoris muscles, the relative rectus femoris adaptation suggested a selective hypertrophy favouring this portion. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Different Environment Temperatures on Some Motor Characteristics and Muscle Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakir, Ergün; Yüksek, Selami; Asma, Bülent; Arslanoglu, Erkal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was determine the effects of different environment temperatures on motor characteristics and muscle strength. 15 athletes participated to study. Flexibility, vertical jump, hand grip-leg strength, 30m sprint, 20-meter shuttle run and coordination-agility tests were measured in five different environment temperatures. (22°C,…

  2. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n = 53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n = 53); and no low back pain (n = 53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P = 0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P = 0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean = 158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean = 165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability. PMID:22294848

  3. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n = 53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n = 53); and no low back pain (n = 53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P = 0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P = 0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean = 158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean = 165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability.

  4. Exploring the Link between Serum Phosphate Levels and Low Muscle Strength, Dynapenia, and Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Yuei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Chou, Cheng-Wai; Wu, Chen-Jung; Yang, Hui-Fang; Lai, Ching-Huang; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2018-02-23

    Emerging evidences addressed an association between phosphate and muscle function. Because little attention was focused on this issue, the objective of our study was to explore the relationship of phosphate with muscle strength, dynapenia, and sarcopenia. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 7421 participants aged 20 years or older were included in our study with comprehensive examinations included anthropometric parameters, strength of the quadriceps muscle, and appendicular lean masses. Within the normal range of serum phosphate, we used quartile-based analyses to determine the potential relationships of serum phosphate with dynapenia, and sarcopenia through multivariate regression models. After adjusting for the pertinent variables, an inverse association between the serum phosphate quartiles and muscle strength was observed and the linear association was stronger than other anthropometric parameters. Notably, the significant association between phosphate and muscle strength was existed in >65 years old age group, not in 20-65 years old. The higher quartiles of phosphate had higher likelihood for predicting the presence of dynapenia rather than sarcopenia in entire population. Our study highlighted that higher quartiles of phosphate had significant association with lower muscle strength and higher risks for predicting the presence of dynapenia.

  5. Recovery of strength is dependent on mTORC1 signaling after eccentric muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory Walter; Rogers, Russell George; Otis, Jeffrey Scott; Ingalls, Christopher Paul

    2016-11-01

    Eccentric contractions may cause immediate and long-term reductions in muscle strength that can be recovered through increased protein synthesis rates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the mechanistic target-of-rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a vital controller of protein synthesis rates, is required for return of muscle strength after injury. Isometric muscle strength was assessed before, immediately after, and then 3, 7, and 14 days after a single bout of 150 eccentric contractions in mice that received daily injections of saline or rapamycin. The bout of eccentric contractions increased the phosphorylation of mTORC1 (1.8-fold) and p70s6k1 (13.8-fold), mTORC1's downstream effector, 3 days post-injury. Rapamycin blocked mTORC1 and p70s6k1 phosphorylation and attenuated recovery of muscle strength (∼20%) at 7 and 14 days. mTORC1 signaling is instrumental in the return of muscle strength after a single bout of eccentric contractions in mice. Muscle Nerve 54: 914-924, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Reliability and validity of the analysis of hand grip and pinch force in isometric and isokinetic conditions].

    PubMed

    Benaglia, P G; Franchignoni, F; Ferriero, G; Zebellin, G; Sartorio, F

    1999-01-01

    Strength measurement of the hand grip is at the core of most protocols of functional assessment of the upper limb and in rehabilitation plays a major role in the analysis of treatment efficacy and patients' occupational ability. The aims of this study were to: a) verify the repeatability of strength measurements made during performance of the hand grip and three types of pinch, carried out under isometric and isokinetic conditions; b) compare maximal isometric strength with the corresponding isokinetic value for each of the manoeuvres studied; c) investigate the correlations between the strength expressed in the different manoeuvres, under both isometric and isokinetic conditions. We studied 14 voluntary subjects over three sessions conducted at 48-hr intervals, employing a computerized isokinetic dynamometer Lido WorkSet equipped with device N(o) 21 for the study of pinch (lateral pinch, pulp pinch, chuck pinch) and device N(o) 52 for the grip study. Isometric contractions resulted stronger than isokinetic ones, and the hand grip was found to be the manoeuvre able to produce most strength. The repeatability of each strength measurement test over the three days was high (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.89-0.93). Correlations between the isometric and isokinetic performance for each of the manoeuvres examined were always high (Pearson's r coefficients: 0.89-0.95) as were those between the different manoeuvres, whether performed in isometric or isokinetic modality (r: 0.60-0.94).

  7. Hyperventilation-induced respiratory alkalosis falls short of countering fatigue during repeated maximal isokinetic contractions.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Akihiro; Naito, Hisashi; Chow, Chin Moi

    2015-07-01

    Hyperventilation, implemented during recovery of repeated maximal sprints, has been shown to attenuate performance decrement. This study evaluated the effects of hyperventilation, using strength exercises, on muscle torque output and EMG amplitude. Fifteen power-trained athletes underwent maximal isokinetic knee extensions consisting of 12 repetitions × 8 sets at 60°/s and 25 repetitions × 8 sets at 300°/s. The inter-set interval was 40 s for both speeds. For the control condition, subjects breathed spontaneously during the interval period. For the hyperventilation condition, subjects hyperventilated for 30 s before each exercise set (50 breaths/min, PETCO2: 20-25 mmHg). EMG was recorded from the vastus medialis and lateralis muscles to calculate the mean amplitude for each contraction. Hyperventilation increased blood pH by 0.065-0.081 and lowered PCO2 by 8.3-10.3 mmHg from the control values (P < 0.001). Peak torque declined with repetition and set numbers for both speeds (P < 0.001), but the declining patterns were similar between conditions. A significant, but small enhancement in peak torque was observed with hyperventilation at 60°/s during the initial repetition phase of the first (P = 0.032) and fourth sets (P = 0.040). EMG amplitude also declined with set number (P < 0.001) for both speeds and muscles, which was, however, not attenuated by hyperventilation. Despite a minor ergogenic effect in peak torque at 60°/s, hyperventilation was not effective in attenuating the decrement in torque output at 300°/s and decrement in EMG amplitude at both speeds during repeated sets of maximal isokinetic knee extensions.

  8. Role of maximal inspiratory presure in the evaluetion of respiratory muscle strength in asthmatics - Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante Marcelino, Alessandra M F; da Silva, Hilton Justino

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic illness of the airways that can reduce respiratory muscle strength due to the resulting hyperinflation or treatment with corticosteroids. One of the ways to evaluate this respiratory muscular weakness is the Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (PImax). A systematic review of the databases PUBMED/MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO was carried through, using the key words: Asthma, respiratory muscle and muscle strength. Fifty were found and six articles that evaluated the PImax in asthmatics, from these, thirty were excluded, making a total of twenty six articles. Through the present revision we show the effectiveness of PImax in evaluating respiratory muscle strength in asthmatics. More studies are needed, however, fot better understanding of the asthmatic individual. Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (3): 463-470. © 2010 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia/SPP.

  9. Relationship between agility and lower limb muscle strength, targeting university badminton players.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Takuya; Tashiro, Yuto; Suzuki, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Yu; Zeidan, Hala; Yokota, Yuki; Kawagoe, Mirei; Nakayama, Yasuaki; Bito, Tsubasa; Shimoura, Kanako; Tatsumi, Masataka; Nakai, Kengo; Nishida, Yuichi; Yoshimi, Soyoka; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] Targeting university badminton players, this study investigated the relationship between agility, which is associated with performance in badminton, and lower limb muscle strength, and examined which muscles influence agility. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 23 male university badminton players were evaluated for side-shuffle test scores and lower limb strength. The relationships between agility, lower limb strength, and duration of experience playing badminton were evaluated using a correlation analysis. Moreover, the relationship between agility and lower limb strength was evaluated by partial correlation analysis, adjusting for the effects of experience of each badminton player. [Results] The agility score correlated with hip extension and ankle plantar flexion strength, with adjustment for badminton experience. [Conclusion] This study suggests that hip extension training and improvement in ankle plantar flexion strength may improve agility.

  10. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial--a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Silva, Juscelio P; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Dias, João M D; Dias, Rosangela C; Pereira, Leani S M

    2010-07-28

    With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1) plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), (2) functional capacity and (3) knee extensor muscle strength. The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition) who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004). All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with high sensitivity kits (QuantikineHS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.). Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro(R) isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180 degrees/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance) three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks). After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will maintain everyday activities without

  11. Blockade of Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Summermatter, Serge; Bouzan, Anais; Pierrel, Eliane; Melly, Stefan; Stauffer, Daniela; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Nolin, Erin; Dornelas, Christina; Fryer, Christy; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Glass, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo. We found that concomitant abrogation of metallothioneins 1 and 2 results in activation of the Akt pathway and increases in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength. Importantly, the beneficial effects of metallothionein blockade on muscle mass and function was also observed in the setting of glucocorticoid addition, which is a strong atrophy-inducing stimulus. Given the blockade of atrophy and the preservation of strength in atrophy-inducing settings, these results suggest that blockade of metallothioneins 1 and 2 constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of conditions which result in muscle atrophy. PMID:27956698

  12. Mind-muscle connection training principle: influence of muscle strength and training experience during a pushing movement.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of different attentional focus conditions on muscle activity during the push-up exercise and to assess the possible influence of muscle strength and training experience. Eighteen resistance-trained men performed 1RM bench press testing and were familiarized with the procedure during the first session. In the second session, three different conditions were randomly performed: regular push-up and push-up focusing on using the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles, respectively. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded and analyzed (EMG normalized to max; nEMG) for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Participants had on average 8 (SD 6) years of training experience and 1RM of 1.25 (SD 0.28) kg per kg bodyweight. Focusing on using pectoralis major increased activity in this muscle by 9% nEMG (95% CI 5-13; Cohen's d 0.60) compared with the regular condition. Triceps activity was not significantly influenced by triceps focus although borderline significant, with a mean difference of 5% nEMG (95% CI 0-10; Cohen's d 0.30). However, years of training experience was positively associated with the ability to selectively activate the triceps (β = 0.41, P = 0.04), but not the pectoralis. Bench press 1RM was not significantly associated with the ability to selectively activate the muscles. Pectoralis activity can be increased when focusing on using this muscle during push-ups, whereas the ability to do this for the triceps is dependent on years of training experience. Maximal muscle strength does not appear to be a decisive factor for the ability to selectively activate these muscles.

  13. FKBP12 deficiency reduces strength deficits after eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Benjamin T.; Rouviere, Clement; Hamilton, Susan L.; Ingalls, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Strength deficits associated with eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury stem, in part, from excitation-contraction uncoupling. FKBP12 is a 12-kDa binding protein known to bind to the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel [ryanodine receptor (RyR1)] and plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling. To assess the effects of FKBP12 deficiency on muscle injury and recovery, we measured anterior crural muscle (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles) strength in skeletal muscle-specific FKBP12-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice before and after a single bout of 150 eccentric contractions, as well as before and after the performance of six injury bouts. Histological damage of the tibialis anterior muscle was assessed after injury. Body weight and peak isometric and eccentric torques were lower in FKBP12-deficient mice compared with WT mice. There were no differences between FKBP12-deficient and WT mice in preinjury peak isometric and eccentric torques when normalized to body weight, and no differences in the relative decreases in eccentric torque with a single or multiple injury bouts. After a single injury bout, FKBP12-deficient mice had less initial strength deficits and recovered faster (especially females) than WT mice, despite no differences in the degree of histological damage. After multiple injury bouts, FKBP12-deficient mice recovered muscle strength faster than WT mice and exhibited significantly less histological muscle damage than WT mice. In summary, FKBP12 deficiency results in less initial strength deficits and enhanced recovery from single (especially females) and repeated bouts of injury than WT mice. PMID:18511525

  14. Decreased Muscle Strength Relates to Self-Reported Stooping, Crouching, or Kneeling Difficulty in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Allon; Alexander, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bending down and kneeling are fundamental tasks of daily living, yet nearly a quarter of older adults report having difficulty performing or being unable to perform these movements. Older adults with stooping, crouching, or kneeling (SCK) difficulty have demonstrated an increased fall risk. Strength (force-generating capacity) measures may be useful for determining both SCK difficulty and fall risk. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine muscle strength differences in older adults with and without SCK difficulty and (2) to examine the relative contributions of trunk and leg muscle strength to SCK difficulty. Design This was a cross-sectional observational study. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age [X̅±SD]=75.5±6.0 years) with SCK difficulty (n=27) or without SCK difficulty (n=21) were tested for leg and trunk strength and functional mobility. Isometric strength at the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle also was normalized by body weight and height. Results Compared with older adults with no SCK difficulty, those with SCK difficulty had significant decreases in normalized trunk extensor, knee extensor, and ankle dorsiflexor and plantar-flexor strength. In 2 separate multivariate analyses, raw ankle plantar-flexor strength (odds ratio [OR]=0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.95–0.99) and normalized knee extensor strength (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.82) were significantly associated with SCK difficulty. Stooping, crouching, and kneeling difficulty also correlated with measures of functional balance and falls. Limitations Although muscle groups that were key to rising from SCK were examined, there are other muscle groups that may contribute to safe SCK performance. Conclusions Decreased muscle strength, particularly when normalized for body size, predicts SCK difficulty. These data emphasize the importance of strength measurement at multiple levels in predicting self-reported functional impairment. PMID:19942678

  15. Endogenous hormones, muscle strength, and risk of fall-related fractures in older women.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Heikkinen, Eino; Cheng, Sulin; Suominen, Harri; Saari, Päivi; Kovanen, Vuokko; Alén, Markku; Rantanen, Taina

    2006-01-01

    Among older people, fracture-causing fall often leads to health deterioration. The role of endogenous hormone status and muscle strength on fall-related fracture risk is unclear. This study investigates if, after adjustment for bone density, endogenous hormones and muscle strength would predict fall-related limb fracture incidence in older community-dwelling women followed-up over 10 years. As a part of a prospective population-based study, 187 75-year-old women were investigated. Serum estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were analyzed, and isometric muscle strength and bone mineral density were assessed. Fall-related limb fractures were gathered from patient records. Serum estradiol concentration was a significant predictor of fall-related limb fractures. Women with serum estradiol concentrations less than 0.022 nmol/L had a 3-fold risk (relative risk 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-7.36), and women with estradiol concentrations between 0.022 and 0.066 nmol/L doubled the risk (relative risk 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-5.19) of fall-related limb fracture compared to the women with estradiol concentrations ()above 0.066 nmol/L. Adjustment for muscle strength and bone mineral density did not materially change the risk estimates. High muscle strength was associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures. This study showed that in 75-year-old women higher serum estradiol concentration and greater muscle strength were independently associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures even after adjustment for bone density. Our results suggest that hormonal status and muscle strength have their own separate mechanisms protecting from fall-related fractures. This finding is of importance in developing preventive strategies, but calls for further study.

  16. [Evolution in muscle strength in critical patients with invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Via Clavero, G; Sanjuán Naváis, M; Menéndez Albuixech, M; Corral Ansa, L; Martínez Estalella, G; Díaz-Prieto-Huidobro, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess the evolution of muscle strength in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) from withdrawal of sedatives to hospital discharge. A cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units in the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge from November 2011 to March 2012. Consecutive patients with MV > 72h. Dependent outcome: Muscle strength measured with the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale beginning on the first day the patient was able to answer 3 out of 5 simple orders (day 1), every week, at ICU discharge and at hospital discharge or at day 60 Independent outcomes: factors associated with muscle strength loss, ventilator-free days, ICU length of stay and hospital length of stay. The patients were distributed into two groups (MRC< 48, MRC ≥ 48) after the first measurement. Thirty-four patients were assessed. Independent outcomes associated with muscle strength weakness were: days with cardiovascular SOFA >2 (P<.001) and days with costicosteroids (P<.001). Initial MRC in MRC<48 group was 38 (27-43), and 52 (50-54) in MRC ≥ 48. The largest muscle strength gain was obtained the first week (31% versus 52%). A MRC < 48 value was associated with more MV days (P<.007) and a longer ICU stay. (P<.003). The greatest muscle strength gain after withdrawing of the sedatives was achieved in the first week. Muscle strength loss was associated with a cardiovascular SOFA > 2 and costicosteroids. Patients with a MRC < 48 required more days with MV and a longer ICU stay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Normal reference values of strength in pelvic floor muscle of women: a descriptive and inferential study.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Francine; Fernandez-Lao, Carolina; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio

    2014-11-25

    To describe the clinical, functional and quality of life characteristics in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). In addition, to analyse the relationship between the variables reported by the patients and those informed by the clinicians, and the relationship between instrumented variables and the manual pelvic floor strength assessment. Two hundred and eighteen women participated in this observational, analytical study. An interview about Urinary Incontinence and the quality of life questionnaires (EuroQoL-5D and SF-12) were developed as outcomes reported by the patients. Manual muscle testing and perineometry as outcomes informed by the clinician were assessed. Descriptive and correlation analysis were carried out. The average age of the subjects was (39.93 ± 12.27 years), (24.49 ± 3.54 BMI). The strength evaluated by manual testing of the right levator ani muscles was 7.79 ± 2.88, the strength of left levator ani muscles was 7.51 ± 2.91 and the strength assessed with the perineometer was 7.64 ± 2.55. A positive correlation was found between manual muscle testing and perineometry of the pelvic floor muscles (p < .001). No correlation was found between outcomes of quality of life reported by the patients and outcomes of functional capacity informed by the physiotherapist. A stratification of the strength of pelvic floor muscles in a normal distribution of a large sample of women with SUI was done, which provided the clinic with a baseline. There is a relationship between the strength of the pelvic muscles assessed manually and that obtained by a perineometer in women with SUI. There was no relationship between these values of strength and quality of life perceived.

  18. Shank Muscle Strength Training Changes Foot Behaviour during a Sudden Ankle Supination

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Marco; Lescher, Stephanie; Gerhardt, Andreas; Lahner, Matthias; Felber, Stephan; Hennig, Ewald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The peroneal muscles are the most effective lateral stabilisers whose tension braces the ankle joint complex against excessive supination. The purpose of this study was to identify the morphological and biomechanical effects of two machine-based shank muscle training methods. Methods Twenty-two healthy male recreationally active sports students performed ten weeks of single-set high resistance strength training with 3 training sessions per week. The subjects conducted subtalar pronator/supinator muscle training (ST) with the right leg by using a custom-made apparatus; the left foot muscles were exercised with machine-based talocrural plantar and dorsiflexor training (TT). Muscle strength (MVIC), muscle volume and foot biomechanics (rearfoot motion, ground reaction forces, muscle reaction times) during a sudden ankle supination were recorded before and after the intervention. Results Compared to TT, ST resulted in significantly higher pronator (14% vs. 8%, P<0.01) and supinator MVIC (25% vs. 12%, P<0.01). During sudden foot inversions, both ST and TT resulted in reduced supination velocity (-12%; P<0.01). The muscle reaction onset time was faster after the training in peroneus longus (PL) (P<0.01). Muscle volume of PL (P<0.01) and TA (P<0.01) increased significantly after both ST and TT. Conclusion After both ST and TT, the ankle joint complex is mechanically more stabilised against sudden supinations due to the muscle volume increase of PL and TA. As the reduced supination velocities indicate, the strength training effects are already present during free-fall. According to a sudden ankle supination in standing position, both machine-based dorsiflexor and pronator strength training is recommended for enhancing the mechanical stability of the ankle. PMID:26110847

  19. Strength, power output and symmetry of leg muscles: effect of age and history of falling.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mark C; Carville, Serena F; Smith, I Christopher H; Rutherford, Olga M; Newham, Di J

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for medically unexplained falls may include reduced muscle power, strength and asymmetry in the lower limbs. Conflicting reports exist about strength and there is little information about power and symmetry. Forty-four healthy young people (29.3 +/- 0.6 years), 44 older non-fallers (75.9 +/- 0.6 years), and 34 older fallers (76.4 +/- 0.8 years) were studied. Isometric, concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and leg extension power were measured bilaterally. The younger group was stronger in all muscles and types of contraction than both older groups (P < 0.02-0.0001). Strength differences between the older groups occasionally reached significance in individual muscles and types of contraction but overall the fallers had 85% of the strength and 79% of the power of the non-fallers (P < 0.001). Young subjects generated more power than both older groups (P < 0.0001) and the fallers generated less than the non-fallers (P = 0.03). Strength symmetry showed an inconsistent age effect in some muscles and some contraction types. This was similar overall in the two older groups. Both older groups had greater asymmetry in power than the young (P < 0.02-0.004). Power asymmetry tended to be greater in the fallers than the non-fallers but this did not reach significance. These data do not support the suggestion that asymmetry of strength and power are associated with either increasing age or fall history. Power output showed clear differences between age groups and fall status and appears to be the most relevant measurement of fall risk and highlights the cumulative effects on function of small changes in strength in individual muscle groups.

  20. Diaphragm Plasticity in Aging and Disease: Therapies for Muscle Weakness go from Strength to Strength.

    PubMed

    Greising, Sarah M; Ottenheijm, Coen A C; O'Halloran, Ken D; Barreiro, Esther

    2018-04-19

    The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle and is required to be highly active throughout the lifespan. The diaphragm muscle must be able to produce and sustain various behaviors that range from ventilatory to non-ventilatory such as those required for airway maintenance and clearance. Throughout the lifespan various circumstances and conditions may affect the ability of the diaphragm muscle to generate requisite forces and in turn the diaphragm muscle may undergo significant weakness and dysfunction. For example, hypoxic stress, critical illness, cancer cachexia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and age-related sarcopenia all represent conditions in which significant diaphragm muscle dysfunction exits. This perspective review article presents several interesting topics involving diaphragm plasticity in aging and disease that were presented at the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Conference in 2017.This review seeks to maximize the broad and collective research impact on diaphragm muscle dysfunction in the search for transformative treatment approaches to improve the diaphragm muscle health during aging and disease.

  1. Isometric muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Becher, Jules G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n = 10) or without (n = 52) walking aids, and 47 TD children. Isometric muscle strength of five muscle groups of the leg was measured using hand-held dynamometry. Mobility capacity was assessed with the 1-min walk, the 10-m walk, sit-to-stand, lateral-step-up and timed-stair tests. Isometric strength of children with CP was reduced to 36-82% of TD. When adjusted for age and height, the percentage of variance in mobility capacity that was explained by isometric strength of the leg muscles was 21-24% (walking speed), 25% (sit-to-stand), 28% (lateral-step-up) and 35% (timed-stair) in children with CP. Hip abductors and knee flexors had the largest contribution to the explained variance, while knee extensors showed the weakest correlation. Weak or no associations were found between strength and mobility capacity in TD children. Isometric strength, especially hip abductor and knee flexor strength, is moderately related to mobility capacity in children with CP, but not in TD children. To what extent training of these muscle groups will lead to better mobility capacity needs further study. Implications for Rehabilitation Strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may be targeted more specifically at hip abductors and knee flexors. The moderate associations imply that large improvements in mobility capacity may not be expected when strength increases.

  2. Acceleration effects on neck muscle strength: pilots vs. non-pilots.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Lam, Pin-Min; Lee, Vee-Sin

    2003-02-01

    Conditioning of neck muscles, if any, due to repeated exposures to +Gz forces has received little research attention. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the neck muscle strength of test volunteers representative of the general populations of fighter aircraft pilots and non-pilots. The tests were performed using a special attachment device on a computerized dynamometer. Ten pilots and ten non-pilots volunteered as test subjects. Each individual's maximal isometric neck muscle strength was evaluated in the extension, flexion, and left and right lateral bending directions in a single day. Peak values from the measurements were used for data analysis. Overall neck strength was calculated as the mean values for the four directions in each group. The overall muscular strength of the necks of pilots did not differ significantly from that of non-pilots, nor did exposure to +Gz forces lead to specific changes in isometric muscle strength across any of the four principal directions. Neck muscle strength in the four measured directions pooled across the two subgroups were statistically significant. The widespread practice of adopting protective head-positioning strategies to minimize neck strains, coupled with results from this research study, suggest that the neck muscles are subjected to reduced in-flight strengthening workouts during exposures to +Gz forces. To maximize in-flight performance and minimize +Gz-induced neck injuries, fighter pilots should be encouraged to perform on-land neck muscle strengthening exercise and in-flight head-positioning techniques. More research is needed to fine-tune this countermeasure strategy against cervical spine injury.

  3. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  4. [Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength in competition-level athletes and untrained women].

    PubMed

    Ludviksdottir, Ingunn; Hardardottir, Hildur; Sigurdardottir, Thorgerdur; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2018-01-01

    Exercise can stress the pelvic floor muscles. Numerous women experience urinary incontinence while exercising or competing in sports. This study investigated pelvic floor muscle strength, urinary incontinence, and knowledge in contracting pelvic floor muscles among female athletes and untrained women. This was a prospective case-control study measuring pelvic floor muscle strength using vaginal pressure meas-urement. Participants answered questions regarding general health, urinary incontinence, and knowledge on pelvic floor muscles. Partici-pants were healthy nulliparous women aged 18-30 years, athletes and untrained women. The athletes had competed in their sport for at least three years; including handball, soccer, gymnastics, badminton, BootCamp and CrossFit. The women were comparable in age and height. The athletes (n=18) had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.8 kg/m² vs. 25 kg/m² for the untrained (n=16); p<0.05. The athletes trained on average 11.4 hours/week while the untrained women participated in some activity on average for 1.3 hours/week; p< 0.05. Mean pelvic floor strength was 45±2 hPa in the athletes vs. 43±4 hPa in the untrained; p=0.36 for whether the athletes were stronger. Of the athletes, 61.1% experienced urinary incontinence (n=11) compared with 12.5% of the untrained women (n=2); p<0.05. Incontinence usually occurred during high intensity exercise. The athletes were more knowledgeable about the pelvic floor muscles; p<0.05. There was not a significant difference in the strength of pelvic floor muscles of athletes and untrained women. This suggests that pelvic floor muscles are not strengthened during general training but require specific exercises. This holds especially for football, handball and sports with high physical intensity. Coaches need to pay special attention to training and strengthening women's pelvic floor muscles to reduce the occurrence of urinary incontinence.

  5. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Grgic, Jozo; Trexler, Eric T; Lazinica, Bruno; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2018-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly used as an ergogenic aid. Literature about the effects of caffeine ingestion on muscle strength and power is equivocal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize results from individual studies on the effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power. A search through eight databases was performed to find studies on the effects of caffeine on: (i) maximal muscle strength measured using 1 repetition maximum tests; and (ii) muscle power assessed by tests of vertical jump. Meta-analyses of standardized mean differences (SMD) between placebo and caffeine trials from individual studies were conducted using the random effects model. Ten studies on the strength outcome and ten studies on the power outcome met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analyses. Caffeine ingestion improved both strength (SMD = 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03, 0.36; p  = 0.023) and power (SMD = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.34; p  = 0.047). A subgroup analysis indicated that caffeine significantly improves upper (SMD = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.39; p  = 0.026) but not lower body strength (SMD = 0.15; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.34; p  = 0.147). The meta-analyses showed significant ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion on maximal muscle strength of upper body and muscle power. Future studies should more rigorously control the effectiveness of blinding. Due to the paucity of evidence, additional findings are needed in the female population and using different forms of caffeine, such as gum and gel.

  7. Decreased neck muscle strength in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis.

    PubMed

    Alpayci, Mahmut; Şenköy, Emre; Delen, Veysel; Şah, Volkan; Yazmalar, Levent; Erden, Metin; Toprak, Murat; Kaplan, Şeyhmus

    2016-03-01

    The loss of cervical lordosis is associated with some negative clinical outcomes. No previous study has examined cervical muscle strength, specifically in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis. This study aims to investigate whether there is weakness of the cervical muscles or an imbalance between cervical flexor and extensor muscle strength in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis compared with healthy controls matched by age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and employment status. Thirty-two patients with the loss of cervical lordosis (23 F, 9 M) and 31 healthy volunteers (23 F, 8 M) were included in the study. Maximal isometric neck extension and flexion strength, and the strength ratio between extension and flexion were used as evaluation parameters. All measurements were conducted by a blinded assessor using a digital force gauge. The participants were positioned on a chair in a neutral cervical position and without the trunk inclined during measurements. Maximal isometric neck extension and flexion strength values were significantly lower in the patients versus healthy controls (P<0.001 and P=0.040, respectively). The mean (SD) values of the extension/flexion ratio were 1.21 (0.34) in the patients and 1.46 ± 0.33 in the controls (P=0.004). According to our results, patients with the loss of cervical lordosis have reduced neck muscle strength, especially in the extensors. These findings may be beneficial for optimizing cervical exercise prescriptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations Between Balance and Muscle Strength, Power Performance in Male Youth Athletes of Different Maturity Status.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Raouf; Chaouachi, Anis; Makhlouf, Issam; Granacher, Urs; Behm, David G

    2016-11-01

    Balance, strength and power relationships may contain important information at various maturational stages to determine training priorities. The objective was to examine maturity-specific relationships of static/dynamic balance with strength and power measures in young male athletes. Soccer players (N = 130) aged 10-16 were assessed with the Stork and Y balance (YBT) tests. Strength/power measures included back extensor muscle strength, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 3-hop jump tests. Associations between balance with strength/power variables were calculated according to peak-height-velocity (PHV). There were significant medium-large sized correlations between all balance measures with back extensor strength (r = .486-.791) and large associations with power (r = .511-.827). These correlation coefficients were significantly different between pre-PHV and circa PHV as well as pre-PHV and post-PHV with larger associations in the more mature groups. Irrespective of maturity-status, SLJ was the best strength/power predictor with the highest proportion of variance (12-47%) for balance (i.e., Stork eyes opened) and the YBT was the best balance predictor with the highest proportion of variance (43-78%) for all strength/power variables. The associations between balance and muscle strength/power measures in youth athletes that increase with maturity may imply transfer effects from balance to strength/power training and vice versa in youth athletes.

  9. Anterior knee pain and thigh muscle strength after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture: an 8-year follow-up of 28 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Väistö, Olli; Toivanen, Jarmo; Kannus, Pekka; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is a common complication after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture. The source of pain is often not known, although it correlates with a simultaneous decrease in thigh muscle strength. No long-term follow-up study has assessed whether weakness of the thigh muscles is associated with anterior knee pain after the procedure in question. Prospective study. University Hospital of Tampere, University of Tampere. The muscular performance of 40 consecutive patients with a nailed tibial shaft fracture was tested isokinetically in a follow-up examination an average of 3.2 +/- 0.4 (SD) years after the initial surgery. An 8-year follow-up was possible in 28 of these cases. Isokinetic muscle strength measurements were made in 28 patients at an average 8.1 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail insertion and an average 6.6 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail extraction. All nails were extracted at an average 1.6 +/- 0.2 years after the nailing. : Seven patients were painless initially and still were at final follow-up (never pain, or NP). In 13 patients, the previous symptom of anterior knee pain was no longer present at final follow-up [pain, no pain (PNP)], and the remaining 8 had anterior knee pain initially and at final follow-up [always pain group (AP)]. With reference to the hamstring muscles, the mean peak torque difference between the injured and uninjured limb was -2.2% +/- 12% in the NP group, 1.6% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and 10.3% +/- 30% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 1.0; P = 0.593). At a speed of 180 degrees/second, the corresponding differences were -2.9% +/- 23% and 7.0% +/- 19% and 4.4% +/- 16% (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi = 1.7; P = 0.429). With reference to the quadriceps muscles, the mean peak torque difference was -2.8% +/- 9% in the NP group, 5.9% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and -13.0% +/- 16% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 7.9; P = 0

  10. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p < 0.001), extensors (21%, p < 0.001), lateral flexors (right: 48%, p < 0.001; left: 53%, p < 0.001) and left rotators (42%, p < 0.001) in favor of the INT group. Further, training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p < 0.001) and coronal plane (11%, p = 0.06) directions, for stride velocity (9%, p < 0.05), the coefficient of variation in stride velocity (31%, p < 0.05), the Functional Reach test (20%, p < 0.05) and the Timed Up and Go test (4%, p < 0.05) in favor of the INT group. CIT proved to be a feasible exercise program for seniors with a high

  11. Bone strength and muscle properties in postmenopausal women with and without a recent distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Crockett, K; Arnold, C M; Farthing, J P; Chilibeck, P D; Johnston, J D; Bath, B; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Kontulainen, S A

    2015-10-01

    Distal radius (wrist) fracture (DRF) in women over age 50 years is an early sign of bone fragility. Women with a recent DRF compared to women without DRF demonstrated lower bone strength, muscle density, and strength, but no difference in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures, suggesting DXA alone may not be a sufficient predictor for DRF risk. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in bone and muscle properties between women with and without a recent DRF. One hundred sixty-six postmenopausal women (50-78 years) were recruited. Participants were excluded if they had taken bone-altering medications in the past 6 months or had medical conditions that severely affected daily living or the upper extremity. Seventy-seven age-matched women with a fracture in the past 6-24 months (Fx, n = 32) and without fracture (NFx, n = 45) were measured for bone and muscle properties using the nondominant (NFx) or non-fractured limb (Fx). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to estimate bone strength in compression (BSIc) at the distal radius and tibia, bone strength in torsion (SSIp) at the shaft sites, muscle density, and area at the forearm and lower leg. Areal bone mineral density at the ultradistal forearm, spine, and femoral neck was measured by DXA. Grip strength and the 30-s chair stand test were used as estimates of upper and lower extremity muscle strength. Limb-specific between-group differences were compared using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). There was a significant group difference (p < 0.05) for the forearm and lower leg, with the Fx group demonstrating 16 and 19% lower BSIc, 3 and 6% lower muscle density, and 20 and 21% lower muscle strength at the upper and lower extremities, respectively. There were no differences between groups for DXA measures. Women with recent DRF had lower pQCT-derived estimated bone strength at the distal radius and tibia and lower muscle density and strength at both extremities.

  12. The relationship between performance on the modified star excursion balance test and the knee muscle strength before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Paula Calori; Serenza, Felipe de Souza; Muniz, Thiago Batista; de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; Salim, Rodrigo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Kfuri, Mauricio; Ferreira, Aline Miranda

    2018-06-06

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamic balance of the injured and uninjured limb before and after the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the control group. Prospective longitudinal. Biomechanics laboratory. Participants are 24 males (mean age, 27.5 years) with unilateral ACL injury (ACLG) and 24 male healthy volunteers (CG). The modified star excursion balance test (SEBT) and isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength were applied in the ACLG preoperatively and after surgery. The dominant limb of CG was evaluated at a single time. There was no difference between the injured and the uninjured limb of the ACLG (P > 0.05) before and after surgery. Preoperatively, both ACLG limbs had a significantly lower reach distance in posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) directions and in composite reach (CR) score compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Postoperatively, no significant differences were found between ACLG and CG (P > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between preoperative PL (0.59) and CR (0.51), postoperative PM (0.36), PL (0.36) and CR (0.46) with flexor strength at 12 months after surgery. Patients with ACL injury presented a worse performance in the SEBT in the preoperative period compared to the control group. After ligament reconstruction, the performance in the SEBT became equivalent to that of the control group. The strong correlation between flexor strength and posterior directions of the injured limb demonstrates the importance of the knee flexor muscles in the neuromuscular control of patients submitted to ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Muscle strength and physical performance as predictors of mortality, hospitalization, and disability in the oldest old.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Delphine; Vaes, Bert; Matheï, Catharina; Adriaensen, Wim; Van Pottelbergh, Gijs; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of muscle strength and physical performance in the oldest old for all-cause mortality; hospitalization; and the onset of disability, defined as a decline in activities of daily living (ADLs), independent of muscle mass, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. A prospective, observational, population-based follow-up study. Three well-circumscribed areas of Belgium. Five hundred sixty participants aged 80 and older were followed for 33.5 months (interquartile range 31.1-35.6 months). Grip strength, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score, and muscle mass were measured at baseline; ADLs at baseline and after 20 months; and all-cause mortality and time to first hospitalization from inclusion onward. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were calculated for all-cause mortality and hospitalization. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of decline in ADLs. Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly higher all-cause mortality and hospitalization in subjects in the lowest tertile of grip strength and SPPB score. The adjusted Cox proportional hazards model showed that participants with high grip strength or a high SPPB score had a lower risk of mortality and hospitalization, independent of muscle mass, inflammatory markers, and comorbidity. A relationship was found between SPPB score and decline in ADLs, independent of muscle mass, inflammation, and comorbidity. In people aged 80 and older, physical performance is a strong predictor of mortality, hospitalization, and disability, and muscle strength is a strong predictor of mortality and hospitalization. All of these relationships were independent of muscle mass, inflammatory markers, and comorbidity. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. The impact of type 1 diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy on muscle strength and fatigability.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giorgio; Balducci, Stefano; Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Pugliese, Giuseppe; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    Although it is widely accepted that diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is linked to a marked decline in neuromuscular performance, information on the possible impact of type 1 diabetes (T1D) on muscle strength and fatigue remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of T1D and DPN on strength and fatigability in knee extensor muscles. Thirty-one T1D patients (T1D), 22 T1D patients with DPN (DPN) and 23 matched healthy control participants (C) were enrolled. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and endurance time at an intensity level of 50% of the MVC were assessed at the knee extensor muscles with an isometric dynamometer. Clinical characteristics of diabetic patients were assessed by considering a wide range of vascular and neurological parameters. DPN group had lower knee extensor muscles strength than T1D (-19%) and the C group (-37.5%). T1D group was 22% weaker when compared to the C group. Lower body muscle fatigability of DPN group was 22 and 45.5% higher than T1D and C group, respectively. T1D group possessed a higher fatigability (29.4%) compared to C group. A correlation was found between motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and muscle strength and fatigability. Patients with T1D are characterised by both a higher fatigability and a lower muscle strength, which are aggravated by DPN. Our data suggest that factors other than nervous damage play a role in the pathogenesis of such defect.

  15. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    the injury risks and inefficiencies of other methods for the more sophisticated assessment of human muscular strength and power. To provide...an environment of total safety. Limiting catches prevent injury through falling or loss of control of the loaded bar and a specially designed...J., Rodman, K.W., and Sebolt, D.R. The effect of endurance running on training adaptations in women participating in a weightlifting program. J

  16. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P < 0.05) and REC (type I: 10.0 ± 2.7%, type IIA: 14.8 ± 4.3% type IIX: 20.8 ± 6.0%, P < 0.05). In contrast, RFD decreased and fascicle angle increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. Capillary density and estimated aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. These results suggest that high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Self-Managed Exercises, Fitness and Strength Training, and Multifidus Muscle Size in Elite Footballers.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Walsh, Jazmin C; Smith, Melinda M Franettovich; Mendis, M Dilani

    2017-07-01

      Low back pain (LBP) and lower limb injuries are common among Australian Football League (AFL) players. Smaller size of 1 key trunk muscle, the lumbar multifidus (MF), has been associated with LBP and injuries in footballers. The size of the MF muscle has been shown to be modifiable with supervised motor-control training programs. Among AFL players, supervised motor-control training has also been shown to reduce the incidence of lower limb injuries and was associated with increased player availability for games. However, the effectiveness of a self-managed MF exercise program is unknown.   To investigate the effect of self-managed exercises and fitness and strength training on MF muscle size in AFL players with or without current LBP.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional AFL context.   Complete data were available for 242 players from 6 elite AFL clubs.   Information related to the presence of LBP and history of injury was collected at the start of the preseason. At the end of the preseason, data were collected regarding performance of MF exercises as well as fitness and strength training. Ultrasound imaging of the MF muscle was conducted at the start and end of the preseason.   Size of the MF muscles.   An interaction effect was found between performance of MF exercises and time (F = 13.89, P ≤ .001). Retention of MF muscle size was greatest in players who practiced the MF exercises during the preseason (F = 4.77, P = .03). Increased adherence to fitness and strength training was associated with retained MF muscle size over the preseason (F = 5.35, P = .02).   Increased adherence to a self-administered MF exercise program and to fitness and strength training was effective in maintaining the size of the MF muscle in the preseason.

  18. Strength deficits identified with concentric action of the hip extensors and eccentric action of the hamstrings predispose to hamstring injury in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    Prospective cohort study. In this prospective cohort study of elite sprinters, muscle strength of the hip extensors, as well as of the knee extensors and flexors, was measured to determine a possible relationship between strength deficits and subsequent hamstring injury within 12 months of testing. The method used for testing muscle strength simulated the specific muscle action during late swing and early contact phases when sprinting. There have been no prospective studies in elite sprinters that examine the concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hip extensors and the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in a manner that reflects their actions in late swing or early contact phases of sprinting. Consequently, the causal relationship between hip and thigh muscle strength and hamstring injury in elite sprinters may not be fully understood. Isokinetic testing was performed on 30 male elite sprinters to assess hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle strength. The occurrence of hamstring injury among the subjects was determined during the year following the muscle strength measurements. The strength of the hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles, as well as the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors- quadriceps ratios were compared. Hamstring injury occurred in 6 subjects during the 1-year period. Isokinetic testing at a speed of 60 degrees /s revealed weakness of the injured limb with eccentric action of the hamstring muscles and during concentric action of the hip extensors. When performing a side-to-side comparison for the injured sprinters, the hamstring injury always occurred on the weaker side. Differences in the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors-quadriceps strength ratios were also evident between uninjured and injured limbs, and this was attributable to deficits in hamstring strength. Hamstring injury in elite sprinters was associated with weakness during eccentric action of the hamstrings and weakness during concentric action of

  19. Bone geometry, strength, and muscle size in runners with a history of stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Popp, Kristin L; Hughes, Julie M; Smock, Amanda J; Novotny, Susan A; Stovitz, Steven D; Koehler, Scott M; Petit, Moira A

    2009-12-01

    Our primary aim was to explore differences in estimates of tibial bone strength, in female runners with and without a history of stress fractures. Our secondary aim was to explore differences in bone geometry, volumetric density, and muscle size that may explain bone strength outcomes. A total of 39 competitive distance runners aged 18-35 yr, with (SFX, n = 19) or without (NSFX, n = 20) a history of stress fracture were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (XCT 3000; Orthometrix, White Plains, NY) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg x mm(-3)), bone area (ToA, mm(2)), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index (BSI) = ToA x total volumetric density (ToD(2))) at the distal tibia (4%). Total (ToA, mm(2)) and cortical (CoA, mm(2)) bone area, cortical vBMD, and estimated bending strength (strength-strain index (SSIp), mm(3)) were measured at the 15%, 25%, 33%, 45%, 50%, and 66% sites. Muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) was measured at the 50% and 66% sites. Participants in the SFX group had significantly smaller (7%-8%) CoA at the 45%, 50%, and 66% sites (P strength, cortical area, and MCSA are all lower in runners with a history of stress fracture. However, the lower strength was appropriate for the smaller muscle size, suggesting that interventions to reduce stress fracture risk might be aimed at improving muscle size and strength.

  20. The effect of warm-ups with stretching on the isokinetic moments of collegiate men.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung-Kil; Jung, Min-Kyung; Park, Eunkyung; Lee, Chang-Young; Jee, Yong-Seok; Eun, Denny; Cha, Jun-Youl; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2018-02-01

    Performing warm-ups increases muscle temperature and blood flow, which contributes to improved exercise performance and reduced risk of injuries to muscles and tendons. Stretching increases the range of motion of the joints and is effective for the maintenance and enhancement of exercise performance and flexibility, as well as for injury prevention. However, stretching as a warm-up activity may temporarily decrease muscle strength, muscle power, and exercise performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of stretching during warm-ups on muscle strength, muscle power, and muscle endurance in a nonathletic population. The subjects of this study consisted of 13 physically active male collegiate students with no medical conditions. A self-assessment questionnaire regarding how well the subjects felt about their physical abilities was administered to measure psychological readiness before and after the warm-up. Subjects performed a non-warm-up, warm-up, or warm-up regimen with stretching prior to the assessment of the isokinetic moments of knee joints. After the measurements, the respective variables were analyzed using nonparametric tests. First, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 60°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle strength. Second, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 180°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle power. Third, the total work of the knee joints at 240°/sec, intended to measure muscle endurance, was highest in the aerobic-stretch-warm-ups (ASW) group, but no statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Finally, the psychological readiness for physical activity according to the type of warm-up was significantly higher in ASW. Simple stretching during warm-ups appears to have no effect on variables of exercise physiology in nonathletes

  1. Shoulder muscle strength in paraplegics before and after kayak ergometer training.

    PubMed

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Jansson, Anna; Thorstensson, Alf

    2006-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate if shoulder muscle strength in post-rehabilitated persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) was affected by kayak ergometer training and to compare shoulder strength in persons with SCI and able-bodied persons. Ten persons with SCI (7 males and 3 females, injury levels T3-T12) performed 60 min kayak ergometer training three times a week for 10 weeks with progressively increased intensity. Maximal voluntary concentric contractions were performed during six shoulder movements: flexion and extension (range of motion 65 degrees ), abduction and adduction (65 degrees ), and external and internal rotation (60 degrees ), with an angular velocity of 30 degrees s(-1). Position specific strength was assessed at three shoulder angles (at the beginning, middle and end of the range of motion) in the respective movements. Test-retests were performed for all measurements before the training and the mean intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.941 (95% CI 0.928-0.954). There was a main effect of kayak ergometer training with increased shoulder muscle strength after training in persons with SCI. The improvements were independent of shoulder movement, and occurred in the beginning and middle positions. A tendency towards lower shoulder muscle strength was observed in the SCI group compared to a matched reference group of able-bodied persons. Thus, it appears that post-rehabilitated persons with SCI have not managed to fully regain/maintain their shoulder muscle strength on a similar level as that of able-bodied persons, and are able to improve their shoulder muscle strength after a period of kayak ergometer training.

  2. Cardiopulmonary fitness and muscle strength in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I.

    PubMed

    Takken, Tim; Terlingen, Heike C; Helders, Paul J M; Pruijs, Hans; Van der Ent, Cornelis K; Engelbert, Raoul H H

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate cardiopulmonary function, muscle strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness (VO 2 peak) in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In 17 patients with OI type I (mean age 13.3 +/- 3.9 years) cardiopulmonary function was assessed at rest using spirometry, plethysmography, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Exercise capacity was measured using a maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer and an expired gas analysis system. Muscle strength in shoulder abductors, hip flexors, ankle dorsal flexor, and grip strength were measured. All results were compared with reference values. Cardiopulmonary function at rest was within normal ranges, but when it was compared with normal height for age and sex, vital capacities were reduced. Mean absolute and relative VO 2 peak were respectively -1.17 (+/- 0.67) and -1.41 (+/- 1.52) standard deviations lower compared with reference values ( P < .01). Muscle strength also was significantly reduced in patients with OI, ranging from -1.24 +/- 1.40 to -2.88 +/- 2.67 standard deviations lower compared with reference values. In patients with OI type I, no pulmonary or cardiac abnormalities at rest were found. The exercise tolerance and muscle strength were significantly reduced in patients with OI, which might account for their increased levels of fatigue during activities of daily living.

  3. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Ebadi, Leyla; Çetin, Ebru

    2018-03-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles' isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball) participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A) 5 min jogging; (B) 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C) 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D) 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s). Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  4. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension.

    PubMed

    Usa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: M f )-the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity-from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, M m ) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and M f was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between M f and M m in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  5. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf)—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only. PMID:28133549

  6. Promoting balance and strength in the middle-aged workforce.

    PubMed

    Granacher, U; Wick, C; Rueck, N; Esposito, C; Roth, R; Zahner, L

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of sustaining fall-related injuries is high in the middle-aged workforce. Deficits in postural control/muscle strength represent important fall-risk factors. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of balance and strength training followed by detraining on postural control and muscle strength in the workforce. Thirty-two adults with sedentary office work participated in this study and were assigned to an intervention (age 56.0 ± 3.7 yrs) or a control group (age 55.5 ± 3.4 yrs). The intervention group participated in 8 weeks of balance and strength training conducted at the worksite, followed by 8 weeks of detraining. Tests included the measurement of (a) total centre of pressure (COP) displacements during one-legged standing, (b) gait velocity and stride-to-stride variability, (c) peak isometric/isokinetic torque and rate of torque development (RTD) of the plantar flexors, and (d) jumping height. After training, significant improvements in COP displacements, gait velocity, peak isometric/isokinetic torque, RTD, and jumping height were observed. During detraining, muscle strength deteriorated, whereas postural control improved. This fall-preventive training program conducted at the worksite proved to be feasible and effective. It is suggested that this training program should be permanently conducted to maintain/improve muscle strength. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Adaptive strength gains in dystrophic muscle exposed to repeated bouts of eccentric contraction

    PubMed Central

    Call, Jarrod A.; Eckhoff, Michael D.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Warren, Gordon L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the functional recovery and adaptation of dystrophic muscle to multiple bouts of contraction-induced injury. Because lengthening (i.e., eccentric) contractions are extremely injurious for dystrophic muscle, it was considered that repeated bouts of such contractions would exacerbate the disease phenotype in mdx mice. Anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) and posterior crural muscles (gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris) from mdx mice performed one or five repeated bouts of 100 electrically stimulated eccentric contractions in vivo, and each bout was separated by 10–18 days. Functional recovery from one bout was achieved 7 days after injury, which was in contrast to a group of wild-type mice, which still showed a 25% decrement in electrically stimulated isometric torque at that time point. Across bouts there was no difference in the immediate loss of strength after repeated bouts of eccentric contractions for mdx mice (−70%, P = 0.68). However, after recovery from each bout, dystrophic muscle had greater torque-generating capacity such that isometric torque was increased ∼38% for both anterior and posterior crural muscles at bout 5 compared with bout 1 (P < 0.001). Moreover, isolated extensor digitorum longus muscles excised from in vivo-tested hindlimbs 14–18 days after bout 5 had greater specific force than contralateral control muscles (12.2 vs. 10.4 N/cm2, P = 0.005) and a 20% greater maximal relaxation rate (P = 0.049). Additional adaptations due to the multiple bouts of eccentric contractions included rapid recovery and/or sparing of contractile proteins, enhanced parvalbumin expression, and a decrease in fiber size variability. In conclusion, eccentric contractions are injurious to dystrophic skeletal muscle; however, the muscle recovers function rapidly and adapts to repeated bouts of eccentric contractions by improving strength. PMID:21960659

  8. Ischemic conditioning increases strength and volitional activation of paretic muscle in chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hyngstrom, Allison S; Murphy, Spencer A; Nguyen, Jennifer; Schmit, Brian D; Negro, Francesco; Gutterman, David D; Durand, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    Ischemic conditioning (IC) on the arm or leg has emerged as an intervention to improve strength and performance in healthy populations, but the effects on neurological populations are unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of a single session of IC on knee extensor strength and muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. Maximal knee extensor torque measurements and surface EMG were quantified in 10 chronic stroke survivors (>1 yr poststroke) with hemiparesis before and after a single session of IC or sham on the paretic leg. IC consisted of 5 min of compression with a proximal thigh cuff (inflation pressure = 225 mmHg for IC or 25 mmHg for sham) followed by 5 min of rest. This was repeated five times. Maximal knee extensor strength, EMG magnitude, and motor unit firing behavior were measured before and immediately after IC or sham. IC increased paretic leg strength by 10.6 ± 8.5 Nm, whereas no difference was observed in the sham group (change in sham = 1.3 ± 2.9 Nm, P = 0.001 IC vs. sham). IC-induced increases in strength were accompanied by a 31 ± 15% increase in the magnitude of muscle EMG during maximal contractions and a 5% decrease in motor unit recruitment thresholds during submaximal contractions. Individuals who had the most asymmetry in strength between their paretic and nonparetic legs had the largest increases in strength ( r 2  = 0.54). This study provides evidence that a single session of IC can increase strength through improved muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Present rehabilitation strategies for chronic stroke survivors do not optimally activate paretic muscle, and this limits potential strength gains. Ischemic conditioning of a limb has emerged as an effective strategy to improve muscle performance in healthy individuals but has never been tested in neurological populations. In this study, we show that ischemic conditioning on the paretic leg of chronic stroke survivors

  9. Biomechanics and Strength of Manual Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Boninger, Michael L; Souza, Aaron L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Koontz, Alicia M; Cooper, Rory A

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objective: Previous investigations have identified muscular imbalance in the shoulder as a source of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Our aim was to determine whether a correlation exists between strength and pushrim biomechanical variables including: tangential (motive) force (Ft), radial force (Fr), axial force (Fz), total (resultant) force (FR), fraction of effective force (FEF), and cadence. Methods: Peak isokinetic shoulder strength (flexion [FLX], extension [EXT], abduction [ABD], adduction [ADD], internal rotation [IR], and external rotation [ER]) was tested in 22 manual wheelchair users with a BioDex system for 5 repetitions at 60°/s. Subjects then propelled their own manual wheelchair at 2 speeds, 0.9 m/s (2 mph) and 1.8 m/s (4 mph), for 20 seconds, during which kinematic (OPTOTRAK) and kinetic (SMARTWHEEL) data were collected. Peak isokinetic forces in the cardinal planes were correlated with pushrim biomechanical variables. Results: All peak torque strength variables correlated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with Ft, Fr, and FR, but were not significantly correlated with Fz, FEF, or cadence. Finally, there were no relationships