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Sample records for isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria caused

  1. What causes the isolation effect?

    PubMed

    Hunt, R R; Lamb, C A

    2001-11-01

    Events that are incongruent with their prevailing context are usually very well remembered. This fact often is described as the distinctiveness effect in memory, an effect that has served as explanation not only of memory phenomena but also of various other phenomena, including social judgment. The core laboratory paradigm for studying distinctiveness in memory research has long been the isolation paradigm. This paradigm, sometimes attributed to H. von Restorff, yields better memory for an item categorically isolated from surrounding items than for the surrounding items and a proper control item. The authors offer an interpretation of the isolation effect based on the analysis of the processing of similarities and differences among the items. Two experiments provide evidence for this interpretation. The results are discussed in the context of current theories of distinctiveness effects in memory. An appeal is made for a different conceptualization of distinctiveness effects, one that treats distinctiveness as a discriminative process in memory that requires processing of both similarities and differences among items. PMID:11713872

  2. Reproductive isolation caused by colour pattern mimicry.

    PubMed

    Jiggins, C D; Naisbit, R E; Coe, R L; Mallet, J

    2001-05-17

    Speciation is facilitated if ecological adaptation directly causes assortative mating, but few natural examples are known. Here we show that a shift in colour pattern mimicry was crucial in the origin of two butterfly species. The sister species Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno recently diverged to mimic different model taxa, and our experiments show that their mimetic coloration is also important in choosing mates. Assortative mating between the sister species means that hybridization is rare in nature, and the few hybrids that are produced are non-mimetic, poorly adapted intermediates. Thus, the mimetic shift has caused both pre-mating and post-mating isolation. In addition, individuals from a population of H. melpomene allopatric to H. cydno court and mate with H. cydno more readily than those from a sympatric population. This suggests that assortative mating has been enhanced in sympatry. PMID:11357131

  3. Isolated musculocutaneous neuropathy caused by a proximal humeral exostosis.

    PubMed

    Juel, V C; Kiely, J M; Leone, K V; Morgan, R F; Smith, T; Phillips, L H

    2000-01-25

    We report an isolated musculocutaneous neuropathy caused by a proximal humeral osteochondroma that became symptomatic after the patient played recreational basketball. Lesion resection resulted in complete deficit resolution. Mass lesions involving the musculocutaneous nerve should be considered in patients with atraumatic, isolated musculocutaneous neuropathies that are recurrent or fail to recover, even in the setting of strenuous exercise.

  4. Pneumothorax Caused by an Isolated Midshaft Clavicle Fracture.

    PubMed

    Feriani, Najla; Ben Ghezala, Hassen; Snouda, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Patients with isolated clavicle fractures are frequent in the emergency department. However, unusual clavicle fractures complications, such as pneumothorax, are rare. Previous reports indicated that all pneumothorax cases were treated via performing thoracostomy. Conservatively, the treatment of the clavicle fracture, like in our case, was successful. Despite the fact that isolated clavicle fractures rarely cause complications and generally heal with immobilization, serious complications may occur requiring urgent treatment. It has been proven that physical examinations, with particular attention to the neurovascular and chest examinations, and radiographs of the clavicle are necessary to prevent overlooking these potentially dangerous complications. PMID:27148462

  5. Infectious conjunctivitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a bathroom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The elucidation of the routes of transmission of a pathogen is crucial for the prevention of infectious diseases caused by bacteria that are not a resident in human tissue. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of suture-related conjunctivitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa for which we identified the transmission route using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Case presentation A 38-year-old man, who had undergone surgery for glaucoma 2 years ago previously, presented with redness, discomfort, and mucopurulent discharge in the right eye. A 9–0 silk suture had been left on the conjunctiva. A strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from a culture obtained from the suture, and the patient was therefore diagnosed with suture-related conjunctivitis caused by P. aeruginosa. The conjunctivitis was cured by the application of an antimicrobial ophthalmic solution and removal of the suture. We used PFGE to survey of the indoor and outdoor environments around the patient’s house and office in order to elucidate the route of transmission of the infection. Three strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from the patient’s indoor environment, and the isolate obtained from the patient’s bathroom was identical to that from the suture. Conclusion The case highlights the fact that an indoor environmental strain of P. aeruginosa can cause ocular infections. PMID:23815865

  6. Isolation of an agent causing bilirubinemia and jaundice in raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    An infectious agent, which appears to be a virus (RJV) has been isolated from the liver of a wild raccoon which has led to a highly fatal type of disease characterized by conjunctivitis and an elevated serum bilirubin frequently accompanied by jaundice on inoculation of raccoons. Ferrets also appear to be susceptible to infections with this agent.

  7. [Isolated left ventricular noncompaction causing refractory heart failure].

    PubMed

    Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael Alexandre; Rodrigues da Costa Teixeira, Felipe; Rossi Neto, João Manoel; Finger, Marco Aurélio; Casadei, Carolina; Castillo, Maria Teresa; Sanchez de Almeida, Antonio Flávio

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by excessive left ventricular trabeculation, deep intertrabecular recesses and a thin compacted layer due to the arrest of compaction of myocardial fibers during embryonic development. We report the case of a young patient with isolated left ventricular noncompaction, leading to refractory heart failure that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by emergency heart transplantation. PMID:26928017

  8. Dissemination of clonal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates causing salmonellosis in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Issack, Mohammad I; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Ramsamy, Veemala D; Svendsen, Christina A; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is one of the leading causes of salmonellosis in Mauritius, where it has also been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. However, little is known about its molecular epidemiology in the country. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the clonality and source of Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius by studying human, food, and poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration determination. Forty-nine isolates collected between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed, including 25 stool isolates from foodborne illness outbreaks and sporadic gastroenteritis cases, four blood isolates, one postmortem colon isolate, 14 food isolates, and five poultry isolates. All isolates were pansusceptible to the 16 antibiotics tested, except for two isolates that were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Overall characterization of the isolates by PFGE digested with XbaI and BlnI resulted in eight different patterns. The largest of the clusters in the composite dataset consisted of 20 isolates, including two raw chicken isolates, four poultry isolates, and nine human stool isolates from two outbreaks. A second cluster consisted of 18 isolates, of which 12 originated from human blood and stool samples from both sporadic and outbreak cases. Six food isolates were also found in this cluster, including isolates from raw and grilled chicken, marlin mousse, and cooked pork. One poultry isolate had a closely related PFGE pattern. The results indicate that one clone of Salmonella Typhimurium found in poultry has been causing outbreaks of foodborne illness in Mauritius and another clone that has caused many cases of gastrointestinal illness and bacteremia in humans could also be linked to poultry. Thus, poultry appears to be a major reservoir for Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius. Initiating on-farm control strategies and measures against future dissemination may

  9. Surgical management for isolated cricoid fracture causing arytenoid immobility.

    PubMed

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Nakazono, Hideki; Fukahori, Mioko; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2014-04-01

    Cricoid cartilage fractures usually occur concurrently with disorders of laryngeal function. In, particular, displaced cricoid lamina fractures can affect arytenoid movement. However, functional, recovery may require proper repositioning of the cricoid lamina, which is associated with a high rate of, complications. Here we present a case in which an isolated cricoid cartilage fracture with arytenoid, immobility due to displacement of the fracture in the cricoarytenoid joint space was successfully, treated. Our findings suggest that a combination of external approaches with temporary, cricothyrotomy and wide suturing of the entire cricoid framework has the potential to improve, arytenoid movement and prevent associated complications.

  10. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of isolated speech and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Barnett, C P; van Bon, B W M

    2015-11-01

    The importance of a precise molecular diagnosis for children with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy has become widely accepted and genetic testing is an integral part of the diagnostic evaluation of these children. In contrast, children with an isolated speech or language disorder are not often genetically evaluated, despite recent evidence supporting a role for genetic factors in the aetiology of these disorders. Several chromosomal copy number variants and single gene disorders associated with abnormalities of speech and language have been identified. Individuals without a precise genetic diagnosis will not receive optimal management including interventions such as early testosterone replacement in Klinefelter syndrome, otorhinolaryngological and audiometric evaluation in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, cardiovascular surveillance in 7q11.23 duplications and early dietary management to prevent obesity in proximal 16p11.2 deletions. This review summarises the clinical features, aetiology and management options of known chromosomal and single gene disorders that are associated with speech and language pathology in the setting of normal or only mildly impaired cognitive function. PMID:26139234

  11. Control of an Isolated Table's Fluctuation Caused by Supplied Air Pressure Using a Voice Coil Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Habiburahman; Wakui, Shinji

    Pneumatic type anti-vibration apparatuses are used in the field of semiconductor manufacturing and precision measurement. The variation of the supplied air pressure from the air compressor causes the position fluctuation of the isolated table. A control method using a voice coil motor (VCM) as the actuator is proposed in this study to control the position fluctuation of the isolated table caused by the supplied air pressure. The feedforward compensator control scheme is used to provide a proper controlled signal to the VCM. According to the controlled signal, VCM exerts driving force in the opposite direction of the air spring expansion or compression to suppress the vibration of the isolated table.

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Different Bordetella sp. Isolates Causing Human Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yanhui; Loparev, Vladimir; Batra, Dhwani; Bowden, Katherine E.; Cassiday, Pamela K.; Davis, Jamie K.; Johnson, Taccara; Juieng, Phalasy; Miner, Christine E.; Rowe, Lori; Sheth, Mili; Tondella, M. Lucia; Williams, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Bordetella associate with various animal hosts, frequently causing respiratory disease. Bordetella pertussis is the primary agent of whooping cough and other Bordetella species can cause similar cough illness. Here, we report four complete genome sequences from isolates of different Bordetella species recovered from human respiratory infections. PMID:27795250

  13. Pathogenic variation in isolates of Pseudomonas causing the brown blotch of cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Zeid, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty seven bacterial isolates were isolated from superficial brown discolorations on the caps of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. After White Line Assay (WLA) and the assist of Biolog computer-identification system, isolates were divided into groups: (I) comprised ninteen bacterial isolates that positively responded to a Pseudomonas “reactans” reference strain (NCPPB1311) in WLA and were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii, (II) comprised two isolates which were WLA+ towards the reference strain (JCM21583) of P. tolaasii and were proposed to be P. “reactans”. The third group comprised six isolates, two of which weakly responded to the strain of P. tolaasii and were identified as P. gingeri whereas the other four were WLA-and identified as P. fluorescens (three isolates) and P. marginalis (one isolate). Isolates of P. tolaasii showed high aggressiveness compared with those of P. “reactans” in pathogenicity tests. Cubes of 1 cm3 of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when were inoculated with 10 µl of P. tolaasii suspension containing 108 CFU ml-1, whereas a similar concentration of P. “reactans” caused only light browning. Fifty µl of the same concentration of P. tolaasii isolates gave typical brown blotch symptoms on fresh mushroom sporophores whereas the two P. “reactans” isolates caused superficial light discoloration only after inoculation with 100 µl of the same concentration. Mixture from both bacterial suspensions increased the brown areas formed on the pileus. This is the first pathogenicity report of P. tolasii and P. “reactans” isolated from cultivated A. bisporus in Egypt. PMID:24031938

  14. Onychomycosis caused by an isolate conforming to the description of Trichophyton raubitschekii.

    PubMed

    Papini, Manuela; Greco, Consuelo; Pileri, Ferruccio

    2004-06-01

    Trichophyton raubitschekii is currently regarded as a synonymous name betokening a variant form of Trichophyton rubrum. Nonetheless, isolates conforming to this morphotaxonomic concept have morphological, physiological and clinical features very different from those of typical T. rubrum. Isolates are mainly obtained from subjects originating from certain tropical and subtropical countries, and are mainly obtained from upper body skin infections, rarely from onychomycosis. In this paper the authors report the first known Italian case of onychomycosis caused by such an isolate. The patient, a male student from Cameroon, had a typical fingernail tinea unguium, without any other sign of skin or nail infection. 'T. raubitschekii' was identified on morphological and physiological grounds by the following features: velvety colony surface, brownish pigment, abundant macroconidia and microconidia, and positive urease activity. Such isolates may prove very difficult to identify correctly, especially in areas like Italy where T. rubrum is normally seen only as isolates presenting a strongly differing phenotype.

  15. Isolated sinusitis sphenoidalis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum in an immunocompetent patient with headache.

    PubMed

    Molnár-Gábor, Etelka; Dóczi, Ilona; Hatvani, Lóránt; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kredics, László

    2013-08-01

    We present a case of isolated sinusitis sphenoidalis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an emerging causal agent of fungal infections with an often fatal outcome. A Trichoderma strain was isolated from secretion obtained from the sinus sphenoidalis of a rhinosinusitis patient and identified by sequence analysis of two loci as Trichoderma longibrachiatum from the Longibrachiatum Clade of the genus Trichoderma. T. longibrachiatum can trigger a fatal pathomechanism in immunodeficient patients, but only rarely causes disease in healthy people. The case presented is unique because the patient was not immunocompromised.

  16. Rate of FKS Mutations among Consecutive Candida Isolates Causing Bloodstream Infection.

    PubMed

    Shields, Ryan K; Nguyen, M Hong; Press, Ellen G; Cumbie, Richard; Driscoll, Eileen; Pasculle, A William; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2015-12-01

    Precise FKS mutation rates among Candida species are undefined because studies have not systematically screened consecutive, disease-causing isolates. The Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) assay measures echinocandin MICs against Candida with less variability than reference broth microdilution methods. However, clinical breakpoint MICs may overstate caspofungin nonsusceptibility compared to other agents. Our objectives were to determine Candida FKS mutation rates by studying consecutive bloodstream isolates and to determine if discrepant susceptibility results were associated with FKS mutations. FKS hot spots were sequenced in echinocandin-intermediate and -resistant isolates and those from patients with breakthrough candidemia or ≥ 3 days of prior echinocandin exposure. Overall, 453 isolates from 384 patients underwent susceptibility testing; 16% were echinocandin intermediate or resistant. Intermediate susceptibility rates were higher for Candida glabrata than for other species (P < 0.0001) and higher for caspofungin than for other agents (P < 0.0001). Resistance rates were similar between agents. FKS mutations were detected in 5% of sequenced isolates and 2% of isolates overall. Corresponding rates among C. glabrata isolates were 8% and 4%, respectively. Among Candida albicans isolates, rates were 5% and <1%, respectively. Mutations occurred exclusively with prior echinocandin exposure and were not detected in other species. Isolates with discrepant susceptibility results did not harbor FKS mutations. Mutation rates among isolates resistant to ≥ 2, 1, and 0 agents were 75%, 13%, and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, FKS mutations were uncommon among non-C. glabrata species, even with prior echinocandin exposure. Discrepancies in echinocandin susceptibility by SYO testing were not driven by mutations and likely reflect imprecise caspofungin clinical breakpoints.

  17. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis.

    PubMed Central

    Aarestrup, F M; Dangler, C A; Sordillo, L M

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the coagulase gene. A variable region of the coagulase gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by AluI restriction enzyme digestion. A total of 15 different RFLP patterns were observed. The predominant pattern was found in 35% of the isolates. The ease of analysing coagulase gene polymorphisms among a large number of strains, and the multiple distinct polymorphic patterns generated, supports the use of this technique in epidemiological investigations of bovine mastitis. The predominating variants may have predelection for causing intramammary infections. PMID:7648524

  18. Epidemiological markers of Serratia marcescens isolates causing nosocomial infections in Spain (1981-1991).

    PubMed

    Boquete, T; Vindel, A; Martin-Bourgon, C; Azañedo, L; Sáez-Nieto, J A

    1996-12-01

    The distribution of epidemiological markers (serotyping and phage-typing) of Serratia marcescens isolates from nosocomial episodes (63 nosocomial cutbreaks with 475 isolates, and 1208 sporadic cases) received in our laboratory during the period 1981-1991 was studied. The records for 1683 isolates from Spanish hospitals have been analyzed. In relation with the sporadic cases, the predominant types were serotype O6 (13.4%) and serotype O14 (11.4%); polyagglutinable strains accounted for 15.6%; in outbreaks, type O14 is clearly predominant (27.4%). Phage-typing was a good secondary marker, with a 87.9% of typability; the number of lytic patterns was very high, extended patterns (six or more phages) being the most frequent. We have studied the characteristics of S. marcescens isolates causing infections in the nosocomial environment in Spain.

  19. Urovirulence determinants in Escherichia coli isolates causing first-episode and recurrent cystitis in women.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, A; Moseley, S; Stamm, W E

    1991-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of urovirulence determinants among Escherichia coli isolates from women with acute uncomplicated cystitis, 121 isolates from 87 women with first-episode or recurrent cystitis and 156 fecal isolates from 52 women without recent urinary tract infection were tested using DNA probes for P fimbriae, hemolysin, aerobactin, and diffuse adhesin and for expression of hemolysin and P and F adhesins. P fimbrial genotype (P = .002), hemolysin phenotype (P = .007), and the diffuse adhesin determinant (P = .03), but not aerobactin, were found more frequently in E. coli from women with acute cystitis, and expression of the F adhesin (41%) was more common than the P adhesin (24%; P = .001). E. coli isolates that caused cystitis in women using diaphragms had fewer virulence determinants than those from nonusers (P = .04), suggesting that diaphragm use may allow infection with less virulent E. coli.

  20. Conjunctivitis caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced cephalosporin susceptibility and multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kitagawa, Yutaka; Maruyama, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakane, Yuri; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2013-12-01

    We report two cases of conjunctivitis caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced cephalosporin susceptibility. Patients showed no response to cefmenoxime eye drops and intravenous ceftriaxone administration. The patients' condition improved after the addition of oral minocycline. The isolates contained the mosaic penA for reduction of β-lactam susceptibility.

  1. Disseminated tuberculosis causing isolated splenic vein thrombosis and multiple splenic abscesses.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak; Verma, Kamal; Jain, Promil

    2014-09-01

    Tuberculosis is a common infectious cause of splenic enlargement in developing countries, but tubercular splenic abscesses are a rare presentation, found predominantly in immunocompromised populations. We report a case of tubercular splenic abscesses with isolated splenic vein thrombosis in an immunocompetent person.

  2. Isolated injury of the superior mesenteric artery caused by a lap belt in a child.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Gaetano; Castello, Giorgio; Barbagallo, Francesco; Grasso, Emanuele; Latteri, Saverio; Scala, Vincenzo; Russello, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Isolated vascular injuries are rare in cases of blunt abdominal trauma, and superior mesenteric artery injury is extremely rare but potentially lethal. The incidence of this kind of life-threatening injury has increased in recent years. The diagnosis of these isolated injuries is difficult, and its delay is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. The authors report on the case of a child with an isolated injury of the superior mesenteric artery caused by a lap belt, during a motor-vehicle crash which was successfully managed. Correct use of all types of restraints is to be recommended. The diagnosis of this rare intraabdominal vascular injury is possible especially when the major signs are evident, but an awareness of this rare possibility is essential for the outcome.

  3. Neonatal isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD): a potentially life-threatening but treatable cause of neonatal cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Alsaleem, Mahdi; Saadeh, Lina; Misra, Amrit; Madani, Shailender

    2016-01-01

    Isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) is a rare cause of neonatal cholestasis and hypoglycaemia. This diagnosis has a 20% mortality potential if unrecognised. We describe a case of an infant presenting with cholestatic jaundice and hypoglycaemia. The patient had laboratory findings suggestive of IAD, which was later confirmed with molecular genetic testing. One of the mutations this patient had is a new finding. The patient was started on glucocorticoid replacement therapy after which his bilirubin and glucose levels normalised. PMID:27535729

  4. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Caused by Isolated Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Abu Saleh, Walid K; Lin, Chun Huie; Reardon, Michael J; Ramlawi, Basel

    2016-08-01

    Isolated sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare occurrence, with an incidence of <1.5% among congenital heart disease repairs in the world. We recount the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with right-sided heart failure symptoms caused by a severely dilated right coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm that substantially obstructed the right ventricular outflow tract. Successful surgical repair involved right ventricular outflow tract resection and subcoronary patch repair. PMID:27547152

  5. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552

  6. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium.

  7. Non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 isolates that cause bacteremia in humans stimulate less inflammasome activation than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Carden, Sarah; Okoro, Chinyere; Dougan, Gordon; Monack, Denise

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella is an enteric pathogen that causes a range of diseases in humans. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium generally cause a self-limiting gastroenteritis whereas typhoidal serovars cause a systemic disease, typhoid fever. However, S. Typhimurium isolates within the multi-locus sequence type ST313 have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a major cause of bacteremia in humans. The S. Typhimurium ST313 lineage is phylogenetically distinct from classical S. Typhimurium lineages, such as ST19, that cause zoonotic gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the ST313 lineage has undergone genome degradation when compared to the ST19 lineage, similar to that observed for typhoidal serovars. Currently, little is known about phenotypic differences between ST313 isolates and other NTS isolates. We find that representative ST313 isolates invade non-phagocytic cells less efficiently than the classical ST19 isolates that are more commonly associated with gastroenteritis. In addition, ST313 isolates induce less Caspase-1-dependent macrophage death and IL-1β release than ST19 isolates. ST313 isolates also express relatively lower levels of mRNA of the genes encoding the SPI-1 effector sopE2 and the flagellin, fliC, providing possible explanations for the decrease in invasion and inflammasome activation. The ST313 isolates have invasion and inflammatory phenotypes that are intermediate; more invasive and inflammatory than Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and less than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis. This suggests that both phenotypically and at the genomic level ST313 isolates are evolving signatures that facilitate a systemic lifestyle in humans.

  8. Non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 isolates that cause bacteremia in humans stimulate less inflammasome activation than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Carden, Sarah; Okoro, Chinyere; Dougan, Gordon; Monack, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is an enteric pathogen that causes a range of diseases in humans. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium generally cause a self-limiting gastroenteritis whereas typhoidal serovars cause a systemic disease, typhoid fever. However, S. Typhimurium isolates within the multi-locus sequence type ST313 have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a major cause of bacteremia in humans. The S. Typhimurium ST313 lineage is phylogenetically distinct from classical S. Typhimurium lineages, such as ST19, that cause zoonotic gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the ST313 lineage has undergone genome degradation when compared to the ST19 lineage, similar to that observed for typhoidal serovars. Currently, little is known about phenotypic differences between ST313 isolates and other NTS isolates. We find that representative ST313 isolates invade non-phagocytic cells less efficiently than the classical ST19 isolates that are more commonly associated with gastroenteritis. In addition, ST313 isolates induce less Caspase-1-dependent macrophage death and IL-1β release than ST19 isolates. ST313 isolates also express relatively lower levels of mRNA of the genes encoding the SPI-1 effector sopE2 and the flagellin, fliC, providing possible explanations for the decrease in invasion and inflammasome activation. The ST313 isolates have invasion and inflammatory phenotypes that are intermediate; more invasive and inflammatory than Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and less than ST19 isolates associated with gastroenteritis. This suggests that both phenotypically and at the genomic level ST313 isolates are evolving signatures that facilitate a systemic lifestyle in humans. PMID:25808600

  9. Recessive mutations in a distal PTF1A enhancer cause isolated pancreatic agenesis.

    PubMed

    Weedon, Michael N; Cebola, Inês; Patch, Ann-Marie; Flanagan, Sarah E; De Franco, Elisa; Caswell, Richard; Rodríguez-Seguí, Santiago A; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cho, Candy H-H; Lango Allen, Hana; Houghton, Jayne A L; Roth, Christian L; Chen, Rongrong; Hussain, Khalid; Marsh, Phil; Vallier, Ludovic; Murray, Anna; Ellard, Sian; Ferrer, Jorge; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of cis-regulatory mutations to human disease remains poorly understood. Whole-genome sequencing can identify all noncoding variants, yet the discrimination of causal regulatory mutations represents a formidable challenge. We used epigenomic annotation in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells to guide the interpretation of whole-genome sequences from individuals with isolated pancreatic agenesis. This analysis uncovered six different recessive mutations in a previously uncharacterized ~400-bp sequence located 25 kb downstream of PTF1A (encoding pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a) in ten families with pancreatic agenesis. We show that this region acts as a developmental enhancer of PTF1A and that the mutations abolish enhancer activity. These mutations are the most common cause of isolated pancreatic agenesis. Integrating genome sequencing and epigenomic annotation in a disease-relevant cell type can thus uncover new noncoding elements underlying human development and disease. PMID:24212882

  10. Recessive mutations in a distal PTF1A enhancer cause isolated pancreatic agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Sarah E.; De Franco, Elisa; Caswell, Richard; Rodríguez-Seguí, Santiago A.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Cho, Candy H-H.; Allen, Hana Lango; Houghton, Jayne AL.; Roth, Christian L.; Chen, Rongrong; Hussain, Khalid; Marsh, Phil; Vallier, Ludovic; Murray, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of cis-regulatory mutations to human disease remains poorly understood. Whole genome sequencing can identify all non-coding variants, yet discrimination of causal regulatory mutations represents a formidable challenge. We used epigenomic annotation in hESC-derived embryonic pancreatic progenitor cells to guide the interpretation of whole genome sequences from patients with isolated pancreatic agenesis. This uncovered six different recessive mutations in a previously uncharacterized ~400bp sequence located 25kb downstream of PTF1A (pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a) in ten families with pancreatic agenesis. We show that this region acts as a developmental enhancer of PTF1A and that the mutations abolish enhancer activity. These mutations are the most common cause of isolated pancreatic agenesis. Integrating genome sequencing and epigenomic annotation in a disease-relevant cell type can uncover novel non-coding elements underlying human development and disease. PMID:24212882

  11. Morganella morganii causing fatal sepsis in a platelet recipient and also isolated from a donor's stool.

    PubMed

    Golubić-Cepulić, B; Budimir, A; Plecko, V; Plenković, F; Mrsić, M; Sarlija, D; Vuk, T; Skrlin, J; Kalenić, S; Labar, B

    2004-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products causes significant patient morbidity and mortality. Contaminated platelet transfusion is a frequent cause of bacteraemia and sepsis because of the storage conditions of platelets. A fatal case of Morganella morganii platelet transfusion associated with sepsis is described, along with procedures traced back to the isolation of M. morganii from a donor's stool. Molecular typing was performed, and the same M. morganii strain was found in blood and post-mortem organ cultures of platelet recipient and platelet bag and in the donor's stool. The route of contamination is unknown. The contamination could be due to either insufficient venipuncture site disinfection or the donor's transient bacteraemia. Patient died 5 days after the transfusion.

  12. GPR101 Mutations are not a Frequent Cause of Congenital Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castinetti, F; Daly, A F; Stratakis, C A; Caberg, J-H; Castermans, E; Trivellin, G; Rostomyan, L; Saveanu, A; Jullien, N; Reynaud, R; Barlier, A; Bours, V; Brue, T; Beckers, A

    2016-06-01

    Patients with Xq26.3 microduplication present with X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome, an early-childhood form of gigantism due to marked growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion from mixed GH-PRL adenomas and hyperplasia. The microduplication includes GPR101, which is upregulated in patients' tumor tissue. The GPR101 gene codes for an orphan G protein coupled receptor that is normally highly expressed in the hypothalamus. Our aim was to determine whether GPR101 loss of function mutations or deletions could be involved in patients with congenital isolated GH deficiency (GHD). Taking advantage of the cohort of patients from the GENHYPOPIT network, we studied 41 patients with unexplained isolated GHD. All patients had Sanger sequencing of the GPR101 gene and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) to look for deletions. Functional studies (cell culture with GH secretion measurements, cAMP response) were performed. One novel GPR101 variant, c.589 G>T (p.V197L), was seen in the heterozygous state in a patient with isolated GHD. In silico analysis suggested that this variant could be deleterious. Functional studies did not show any significant difference in comparison with wild type for GH secretion and cAMP response. No truncating, frameshift, or small insertion-deletion (indel) GPR101 mutations were seen in the 41 patients. No deletion or other copy number variation at chromosome Xq26.3 was found on aCGH. We found a novel GPR101 variant of unknown significance, in a patient with isolated GH deficiency. Our study did not identify GPR101 abnormalities as a frequent cause of GH deficiency. PMID:26797872

  13. Epidemiological isolation causing variable mortality in Island populations during the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. Dennis; Hussell, Tracy; Brundage, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Shanks et al. (2012) Epidemiological isolation causing variable mortality in Island populations during the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(6), 417–423. Background  During the 1918 pandemic period, influenza‐related mortality increased worldwide; however, mortality rates varied widely across locations and demographic subgroups. Islands are isolated epidemiological situations that may elucidate why influenza pandemic mortality rates were so variable in apparently similar populations. Objectives  Our objectives were to determine and compare the patterns of pandemic influenza mortality on islands. Methods  We reviewed historical records of mortality associated with the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in various military and civilian groups on islands. Results and Conclusions  Mortality differed more than 50‐fold during pandemic‐related epidemics on Pacific islands [range: 0·4% (Hawaii) to 22% (Samoa)], and on some islands, mortality sharply varied among demographic subgroups of island residents such as Saipan: Chamorros [12%] and Caroline Islanders [0·4%]. Among soldiers from island populations who had completed initial military training, influenza‐related mortality rates were generally low, for example, Puerto Rico (0·7%) and French Polynesia (0·13%). The findings suggest that among island residents, those who had been exposed to multiple, antigenically diverse respiratory pathogens prior to infection with the 1918 pandemic strain (e.g., less isolated) experienced lower mortality. The continuous circulation of antigenically diverse influenza viruses and other respiratory infectious agents makes widespread high mortality during future influenza pandemics unlikely. PMID:22226378

  14. An isolated hyoid bone fracture caused by blunt trauma to the neck.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Baris; Erdogan, Mehmet Ozgur; Colak, Sahin; Kibici, Ozge; Bozan, Korkut; Alper, Baris

    2015-11-01

    Hyoid bone fractures due to blunt trauma are exceedingly rare. Here, we present an isolated hyoid bone fracture caused by blunt trauma as well as a detailed discussion of the injury and treatment options. A 32-year-old male was admitted to emergency department with odynophagia and severe neck pain. He had been hit in the neck with a metal rod during a fight. Computed tomography scan revealed a fracture on hyoid bone and local swelling of adjacent soft tissues. The patient\\'s head was elevated, and ice packs were used to reduce the swelling. Diclofenac sodium and prednisolone were administered. Patient was discharged with a recommendation of out-patient control. Odynophagia, dysphagia and dyspnoea should alert the physician to possible hyoid or laryngeal damage. Fibre optic laryngoscopy and neck CT are important diagnostic steps to reveal a possible life-threatening injury. Conservative treatment is usually adequate, and patients rarely require surgical intervention. PMID:26564301

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits. PMID:26628254

  17. Mutations in IFT172 cause isolated retinal degeneration and Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bujakowska, Kinga M; Zhang, Qi; Siemiatkowska, Anna M; Liu, Qin; Place, Emily; Falk, Marni J; Consugar, Mark; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Lonjou, Christine; Carpentier, Wassila; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; den Hollander, Anneke I; Cremers, Frans P M; Leroy, Bart P; Gai, Xiaowu; Sahel, José-Alain; van den Born, L Ingeborgh; Collin, Rob W J; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle; Pierce, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles present on most mammalian cells. The assembly and maintenance of primary cilia are facilitated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), a bidirectional protein trafficking along the cilium. Mutations in genes coding for IFT components have been associated with a group of diseases called ciliopathies. These genetic disorders can affect a variety of organs including the retina. Using whole exome sequencing in three families, we identified mutations in Intraflagellar Transport 172 Homolog [IFT172 (Chlamydomonas)] that underlie an isolated retinal degeneration and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Extensive functional analyses of the identified mutations in cell culture, rat retina and in zebrafish demonstrated their hypomorphic or null nature. It has recently been reported that mutations in IFT172 cause a severe ciliopathy syndrome involving skeletal, renal, hepatic and retinal abnormalities (Jeune and Mainzer-Saldino syndromes). Here, we report for the first time that mutations in this gene can also lead to an isolated form of retinal degeneration. The functional data for the mutations can partially explain milder phenotypes; however, the involvement of modifying alleles in the IFT172-associated phenotypes cannot be excluded. These findings expand the spectrum of disease associated with mutations in IFT172 and suggest that mutations in genes originally reported to be associated with syndromic ciliopathies should also be considered in subjects with non-syndromic retinal dystrophy.

  18. Erwinia oleae sp. nov., isolated from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Chiaraluce; Hosni, Taha; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Brady, Carrie; De Vos, Paul; Buonaurio, Roberto; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2011-11-01

    Three endophytic bacterial isolates were obtained in Italy from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Phenotypic tests in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated a phylogenetic position for these isolates in the genera Erwinia or Pantoea, and revealed two other strains with highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences (>99 %), CECT 5262 and CECT 5264, obtained in Spain from olive knots. Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting of the five strains from olive knots with BOX, ERIC and REP primers revealed three groups of profiles that were highly similar to each other. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB gene sequences indicated that the strains constituted a single novel species in the genus Erwinia. The strains showed general phenotypic characteristics typical of the genus Erwinia and whole genome DNA-DNA hybridization data confirmed that they represented a single novel species of the genus Erwinia. The strains showed DNA G+C contents ranging from 54.7 to 54.9 mol%. They could be discriminated from phylogenetically related species of the genus Erwinia by their ability to utilize potassium gluconate, l-rhamnose and d-arabitol, but not glycerol, inositol or d-sorbitol. The name Erwinia oleae sp. nov. (type strain DAPP-PG 531(T)= LMG 25322(T) = DSM 23398(T)) is proposed for this novel taxon.

  19. A nairovirus isolated from African bats causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and severe hepatic disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Mweene, Aaron S.; Umemura, Takashi; Ito, Kimihito; Hall, William W.; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Bats can carry important zoonotic pathogens. Here we use a combination of next-generation sequencing and classical virus isolation methods to identify novel nairoviruses from bats captured from a cave in Zambia. This nairovirus infection is highly prevalent among giant leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros gigas (detected in samples from 16 individuals out of 38). Whole-genome analysis of three viral isolates (11SB17, 11SB19 and 11SB23) reveals a typical bunyavirus tri-segmented genome. The strains form a single phylogenetic clade that is divergent from other known nairoviruses, and are hereafter designated as Leopards Hill virus (LPHV). When i.p. injected into mice, the 11SB17 strain causes only slight body weight loss, whereas 11SB23 produces acute and lethal disease closely resembling that observed with Crimean–Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus in humans. We believe that our LPHV mouse model will be useful for research on the pathogenesis of nairoviral haemorrhagic disease. PMID:25451856

  20. Distribution of strain type and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates causing meningitis in a large urban setting in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Berman, Hillary; Barberino, Maria Goreth; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Riley, Lee; Reis, Joice N

    2014-05-01

    The clinical management of meningitis caused by Escherichia coli is greatly complicated when the organism becomes resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics. We sought to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibilities, sequence types (ST), and presence of known drug resistance genes of E. coli isolates that caused meningitis between 1996 and 2011 in Salvador, Brazil. We then compared these findings to those for E. coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) that occurred during the same time period and in the same city. We found that 19% of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis and less than 1% of isolates from UTI were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The sequence types of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis included ST131, ST69, ST405, and ST62, which were also found among isolates from UTI. Additionally, among the E. coli isolates that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, we found genes that encode the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-15. These observations demonstrate that compared to E. coli strains isolated from cases of community-acquired UTI, those isolated from cases of meningitis are more resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, even though the same sequence types are shared between the two forms of extraintestinal infections.

  1. Isolation, identification and increasing importance of 'free-living' amoebae causing human disease.

    PubMed

    Szénási, Z; Endo, T; Yagita, K; Nagy, E

    1998-01-01

    Amphizoic small amoebic protozoa are capable of existing both in 'free-living' and in 'parasitic' form depending on the actual conditions. Two genera (Naegleria and Acanthamoeba) have become recognised as opportunist human parasites. Since the first description in 1965 of a lethal case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria, many more (mostly lethal) cases have been reported, while granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), as well as eye (keratinitis, conjunctivitis, etc.), ear, nose, skin and internal organ infections caused by Acanthamoeba have also occurred in rapidly increasing numbers. Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic species of Naegleria and Acanthamoeba are found worldwide in water, soil and dust, where they provide a potential source of infection. Successful differential diagnosis and appropriate (specific) therapy depends on precise laboratory identification of the 'free-living' amoebae. In most cases, isolation from the environment can be achieved, but identification and differentiation of the pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains is not easy. The methods presently available do not fulfil completely the requirements for specificity, sensitivity and reliability. Morphological criteria are inadequate, while thermophilic character, pH dependency and even virulence in infected mice, are not unambiguous features of pathogenicity of the different strains. More promising are molecular methods, such as restriction endonuclease digestion of whole-cell DNA or mitochondrial DNA, as well as iso-enzyme profile analysis after iso-electric focusing and staining for acid phosphatase and propionyl esterase activity. Use of appropriate monoclonal antibodies has also yielded promising results in the differentiation of human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. However, quicker, simpler, more specific and reliable methods are still highly desirable. The significance of endosymbiosis (especially with Legionella strains) is not well understood

  2. Genetic diversity and dynamic distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srilohasin, Prapaporn; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nishida, Nao; Prammananan, Therdsak; Smittipat, Nat; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Chaiyasirinroje, Boonchai; Yanai, Hideki; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the genetic diversity and dynamicity of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Thailand using nearly neutral molecular markers. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes of 1,414 culture-positive M. tuberculosis isolates from 1,282 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 132 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients collected from 1995 to 2011 were characterized. Among the eight SNP cluster groups (SCG), SCG2 (44.1%), which included the Beijing (BJ) genotype, and SCG1 (39.4%), an East African Indian genotype, were dominant. Comparisons between the genotypes of M. tuberculosis isolates causing PTB and EPTB in HIV-negative cases revealed similar prevalence trends although genetic diversity was higher in the PTB patients. The identification of 10 reported sequence types (STs) and three novel STs was hypothesized to indicate preferential expansion of the SCG2 genotype, especially the modern BJ ST10 (15.6%) and ancestral BJ ST19 (13.1%). An association between SCG2 and SCG1 genotypes and particular patient age groups implies the existence of different genetic advantages among the bacterial populations. The results revealed that increasing numbers of young patients were infected with M. tuberculosis SCGs 2 and 5, which contrasts with the reduction of the SCG1 genotype. Our results indicate the selection and dissemination of potent M. tuberculosis genotypes in this population. The determination of heterogeneity and dynamic population changes of circulating M. tuberculosis strains in countries using the Mycobacterium bovis BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine are beneficial for vaccine development and control strategies.

  3. Soluble Prion Protein Binds Isolated Low Molecular Weight Amyloid-β Oligomers Causing Cytotoxicity Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas L; Choi, Jin-Kyu; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K

    2015-12-16

    A growing number of observations indicate that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers play a major role in Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies strongly suggest that at least some of the neurotoxic effects of these oligomers are mediated by cellular, membrane-anchored prion protein and that Aβ neurotoxicity can be inhibited by soluble recombinant prion protein (rPrP) and its fragments. However, the mechanism by which rPrP interacts with Aβ oligomers and prevents their toxicity is largely unknown, and studies in this regard are hindered by the large structural heterogeneity of Aβ oligomers. To overcome this difficulty, here we used photoinduced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) to isolate well-defined oligomers of Aβ42 and characterize these species with regard to their cytotoxicity and interaction with rPrP, as well the mechanism by which rPrP inhibits Aβ42 cytotoxicity. Our data shows that the addition of rPrP to the assembling Aβ42 results in a shift in oligomer size distribution, decreasing the population of toxic tetramers and higher order oligomers and increasing the population of nontoxic (and possibly neuroprotective) monomers. Isolated oligomeric species of Aβ42 are cytotoxic to primary neurons and cause permeation of model lipid bilayers. These toxic effects, which are oligomer size-dependent, can be inhibited by the addition of rPrP, and our data suggest potential mechanisms of this inhibitory action. This insight should help in current efforts to develop PrP-based therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26466138

  4. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46) or severe (O11) mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4%) were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland. PMID:21324116

  5. Social Isolation During Postweaning Development Causes Hypoactivity of Neurons in the Medial Nucleus of the Male Rat Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2016-06-01

    Children exposed to neglect or social deprivation are at heightened risk for psychiatric disorders and abnormal social patterns as adults. There is also evidence that prepubertal neglect in children causes abnormal metabolic activity in several brain regions, including the amygdala area. The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) is a key region for performance of social behaviors and still undergoes maturation during the periadolescent period. As such, the normal development of this region may be disrupted by social deprivation. In rodents, postweaning social isolation causes a range of deficits in sexual and agonistic behaviors that normally rely on the posterior MeA (MeAp). However, little is known about the effects of social isolation on the function of MeA neurons. In this study, we tested whether postweaning social isolation caused abnormal activity of MeA neurons. We found that postweaning social isolation caused a decrease of in vivo firing activity of MeAp neurons, and reduced drive from excitatory afferents. In vitro electrophysiological studies found that postweaning social isolation caused a presynaptic impairment of excitatory input to the dorsal MeAp, but a progressive postsynaptic reduction of membrane excitability in the ventral MeAp. These results demonstrate discrete, subnucleus-specific effects of social deprivation on the physiology of MeAp neurons. This pathophysiology may contribute to the disruption of social behavior after developmental social deprivation, and may be a novel target to facilitate the treatment of social disorders.

  6. Patients with isolated oligo/hypodontia caused by RUNX2 duplication.

    PubMed

    Molin, Arnaud; Lopez-Cazaux, Serena; Pichon, Olivier; Vincent, Marie; Isidor, Bertrand; Le Caignec, Cédric

    2015-06-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of RUNX2 are responsible for cleidocranial dysplasia, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed closure of cranial sutures, aplastic or hypoplastic clavicles, moderate short stature and supernumerary teeth. By contrast, an increased gene dosage is expected for duplication of the entire RUNX2 sequence and thus, a phenotype different from cleidocranial dysplasia. To date, two cousins with a duplication including the entire RUNX2 sequence in addition to MIR586, CLIC5 and the 5' half of SUPT3H have been reported. These patients presented with metopic synostosis and hypodontia. Here, we report on a family with an affected mother and three affected children. The four patients carried a 285 kb duplication identified by array comparative genomic hybridization. The duplication includes the entire sequence of RUNX2 and the 5' half of SUPT3H. We confirmed the duplication by real-time quantitative PCR in the four patients. Two children presented with the association of metopic craniosynostosis and oligo/hypodontia previously described, confirming the phenotype caused by RUNX2 duplication. Interestingly, the mother and one child had isolated hypodontia without craniosynostosis, broadening the phenotype observed in patients with such duplications. PMID:25899668

  7. Genetic Diversity and Virulence Profiles of Escherichia coli Isolates Causing Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis and Bacteremia in Patients with Cirrhosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Frédéric; Johnson, James R.; Ouattara, Bénédicte; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Johnston, Brian; Marcon, Estelle; Valla, Dominique; Moreau, Richard; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Among patients with cirrhosis, infections caused by Escherichia coli organisms that translocate from the gut are a frequent and severe complication. One hundred ten E. coli isolates from 110 cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and/or spontaneous bacteremia were characterized for their phylogenetic group and virulence genotype (34 extraintestinal virulence factor genes). Genetic relatedness was investigated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence type 2 (ERIC-2) PCR typing and multilocus sequence typing. Phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D accounted for 24%, 4%, 48%, and 24% of the population, respectively. Overall, 68 distinct ERIC-2 profiles were encountered. Eleven clonal groups, represented by multiple isolates (2 to 11) from the same sequence type (ST) or sequence type complex, were identified. These clonal groups accounted for 54 (49%) isolates overall. Membership in one of these clonal groups was more frequent among B2 isolates than non-B2 isolates (67% versus 32%, P < 0.001). The most frequent sequence types were ST95 (n = 13) and ST73 (n = 8), followed by the ST14 and ST10 complexes (n = 7). ST131 and ST69 were represented by three isolates each. Clonal group-associated isolates exhibited a greater prevalence of 11 virulence genes, including pap elements, than the other isolates. However, no association between clonal groups and host factors, type of infection, or mortality was observed. In conclusion, E. coli isolates causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia in cirrhotic patients are genetically diverse. However, approximately half of the isolates belong to familiar clonal groups and exhibit extensive virulence profiles that may be associated with greater invasive potential. PMID:20519468

  8. Characterization of new ACADSB gene sequence mutations and clinical implications in patients with 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria identified by newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Alfardan, Jaffar; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Copeland, Sara; Ellison, Jay; Keppen-Davis, Laura; Rohrbach, Marianne; Powell, Berkley R; Gillis, Jane; Matern, Dietrich; Kant, Jeffrey; Vockley, Jerry

    2010-08-01

    Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SBCAD) deficiency, also known as 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, is a recently described autosomal recessive disorder of isoleucine metabolism. Most patients reported thus far have originated from a founder mutation in the Hmong Chinese population. While the first reported patients had severe disease, most of the affected Hmong have remained asymptomatic. In this study, we describe 11 asymptomatic non-Hmong patients brought to medical attention by elevated C5-carnitine found by newborn screening and one discovered because of clinical symptoms. The diagnosis of SBCAD deficiency was determined by metabolite analysis of blood, urine, and fibroblast samples. PCR and bidirectional sequencing were performed on genomic DNA from five of the patients covering the entire SBCAD (ACADSB) gene sequence of 11 exons. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA from each patient identified variations in the SBCAD gene not previously reported. Escherichia coli expression studies revealed that the missense mutations identified lead to inactivation or instability of the mutant SBCAD enzymes. These findings confirm that SBCAD deficiency can be identified through newborn screening by acylcarnitine analysis. Our patients have been well without treatment and call for careful follow-up studies to learn the true clinical impact of this disorder.

  9. Genetically similar isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 causing liver abscesses in three continents.

    PubMed

    Turton, Jane F; Englender, Hilary; Gabriel, Samantha N; Turton, Sarah E; Kaufmann, Mary E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2007-05-01

    The magA gene was sought in hypermucoviscous isolates of Klebsiella spp., the Klebsiella K serotype reference strains and in isolates of the K1 serotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the UK, Hong Kong, Israel, Taiwan and Australia. Only K1 isolates were PCR positive for magA; this gene was found in all such isolates tested. Hypermucoviscosity was not confined to magA positive isolates, nor was it found in all magA positive isolates. Comparison of XbaI PFGE profiles revealed that most (19/23) of the magA positive isolates clustered within 72 % similarity, with a further subcluster of isolates, from three different continents, clustering within >80 %. All of the 16 isolates tested within the main cluster had the same sequence type (ST 23) by multilocus sequence typing, with the exception of one isolate, which had a single nucleotide difference at one of the seven loci. This study indicates that a genotype strongly associated with highly invasive disease in Taiwan, where large numbers of cases have been reported, is geographically very widespread.

  10. Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of O142 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli causing black proventriculus and septicemia in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cao, Chunguang; Huan, Haixia; Zhang, Liuli; Mu, Xiaohui; Gao, Qingqing; Dong, Xianglei; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2015-06-01

    Avian colibacillosis, characterized by black proventriculus and caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) with an uncommon O142 serogroup, was diagnosed in young broiler breeders. Colonization and persistence assays performed in 7-day-old broilers showed that the bacterial load of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate in the lung was about 10-fold higher than that of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 heart blood isolate (P<0.01), and about 100-fold higher in the heart blood, livers, spleens, kidneys, and proventriculi of inoculated broilers (P<0.001). When 32 common virulence genes of APEC were tested, the two isolates had nearly identical profiles, except that only the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate carried the feoB gene. Furthermore, 100% mortality was observed in both 1-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers and 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens inoculated with 10(6) colony-forming units of the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate. However, black proventriculus was only observed in the dead AA broilers, consistent with the clinical occurrence of the disease. This implies that the black proventriculi seen in the dead birds, caused by the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular isolate, was breed-specific. Both the APEC 4d/9-1 O142 proventricular and heart blood isolates belong to phylogroup B2. However, the former was assigned to ST131 and the latter to ST2704 with multilocus sequence typing, demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of these two bacterial isolates, although they were derived from the same dead broiler. These results suggest that the O142 APEC isolate was the main pathogenic agent for black proventriculi in 7-day-old broiler breeders.

  11. Expanding the Spectrum of Founder Mutations Causing Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Lee, Phil H.; Shaw, Natalie D.; Hall, Janet E.; Plummer, Lacey; Buck, Cassandra L.; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Jarzabek, Katarzyna; Wołczynski, Sławomir; Quinton, Richard; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Dode, Catherine; Ogata, Tsutomu; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Layman, Lawrence C.; Gusella, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Loss of function (LoF) mutations in more than 20 genes are now known to cause isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD) in humans. Most causal IGD mutations are typically private, ie, limited to a single individual/pedigree. However, somewhat paradoxically, four IGD genes (GNRH1, TAC3, PROKR2, and GNRHR) have been shown to harbor LoF founder mutations that are shared by multiple unrelated individuals. It is not known whether similar founder mutations occur in other IGD genes. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether shared deleterious mutations in IGD-associated genes represent founder alleles. Setting: This study was an international collaboration among academic medical centers. Methods: IGD patients with shared mutations, defined as those documented in three or more unrelated probands in 14 IGD-associated genes, were identified from various academic institutions, the Human Gene Mutation Database, and literature reports by other international investigators. Haplotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats surrounding the mutations were constructed to assess genetic ancestry. Results: A total of eight founder mutations in five genes, GNRHR (Q106R, R262Q, R139H), TACR3 (W275X), PROKR2 (R85H), FGFR1 (R250Q, G687R), and HS6ST1 (R382W) were identified. Most founder alleles were present at low frequency in the general population. The estimated age of these mutant alleles ranged from 1925 to 5600 years and corresponded to the time of rapid human population expansion. Conclusions: We have expanded the spectrum of founder alleles associated with IGD to a total of eight founder mutations. In contrast to the approximately 9000-year-old PROKR2 founder allele that may confer a heterozygote advantage, the rest of the founder alleles are relatively more recent in origin, in keeping with the timing of recent human population expansion and any selective heterozygote advantage of these alleles requires further evaluation. PMID:26207952

  12. Short-gap Isolated Esophageal Atresia Causing Stridor Due to Compression of the Trachea.

    PubMed

    Sekmenli, Tamer; Ciftci, İlhan; Sivri, Mesut; Koplay, Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Isolated esophageal atresias are reported always to be associated with long gap in the literature. In this manuscript, we aimed to discuss the imaging and surgical treatment methods of an isolated esophageal atresia case with 'short gap' who had stridor due to compression of the trachea by dilated upper esophageal pouch and had not identified previously in the literature. PMID:26843741

  13. Short-gap Isolated Esophageal Atresia Causing Stridor Due to Compression of the Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Sekmenli, Tamer; Ciftci, İlhan; Sivri, Mesut; Koplay, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Isolated esophageal atresias are reported always to be associated with long gap in the literature. In this manuscript, we aimed to discuss the imaging and surgical treatment methods of an isolated esophageal atresia case with ‘short gap’ who had stridor due to compression of the trachea by dilated upper esophageal pouch and had not identified previously in the literature. PMID:26843741

  14. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Characterization among Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates Causing Severe Obstetric Infections in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Guiral, Elisabet; Sáez-López, Emma; Bosch, Jordi; Goncé, Anna; López, Marta; Sanz, Sergi; Vila, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The virulence markers and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 78 Escherichia coli isolates causing obstetric infections accompanied by sepsis or not were studied. Adhesion-related virulence factors were the most prevalent markers. Low rates of resistance to the antimicrobial agents used as first-line therapy suggest their correct implementation in stewardship guidelines. PMID:25740771

  16. Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producer Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Causing Neonatal Sepsis in Peru.

    PubMed

    García, Coralith; Astocondor, Lizeth; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Jacobs, Jan; Sáenz, Yolanda

    2016-02-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis in the low- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to describe the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producer KP in neonatal care centers from Peru. We collected 176 non-duplicate consecutive KP isolates from blood isolates of neonates from eight general public hospitals of Lima, Peru. The overall rate of ESBL production was 73.3% (N = 129). The resistance rates were higher among ESBL-producer isolates when compared with the nonproducers: 85.3% versus 12.8% for gentamicin (P < 0.01), 59.7% versus 8.5% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.01), 45.0% versus 8.5% for ciprofloxacin (P < 0.01), and 36.4% versus 12.8% for amikacin (P < 0.01). A total of 359 β-lactamase-encoding genes were detected among 129 ESBL-producer isolates; 109 isolates (84.5%) carried two or more genes. Among 37 ESBL-producer isolates randomly selected, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-2 were the most common ESBLs detected. Most of the isolates (92%) belonged to the group KpI. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that multiple KP clones were circulating among the eight neonatal units included. PMID:26643537

  17. Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producer Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Causing Neonatal Sepsis in Peru.

    PubMed

    García, Coralith; Astocondor, Lizeth; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Jacobs, Jan; Sáenz, Yolanda

    2016-02-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis in the low- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to describe the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producer KP in neonatal care centers from Peru. We collected 176 non-duplicate consecutive KP isolates from blood isolates of neonates from eight general public hospitals of Lima, Peru. The overall rate of ESBL production was 73.3% (N = 129). The resistance rates were higher among ESBL-producer isolates when compared with the nonproducers: 85.3% versus 12.8% for gentamicin (P < 0.01), 59.7% versus 8.5% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.01), 45.0% versus 8.5% for ciprofloxacin (P < 0.01), and 36.4% versus 12.8% for amikacin (P < 0.01). A total of 359 β-lactamase-encoding genes were detected among 129 ESBL-producer isolates; 109 isolates (84.5%) carried two or more genes. Among 37 ESBL-producer isolates randomly selected, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-2 were the most common ESBLs detected. Most of the isolates (92%) belonged to the group KpI. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that multiple KP clones were circulating among the eight neonatal units included.

  18. Recessive Mutations in the α3 (VI) Collagen Gene COL6A3 Cause Early-Onset Isolated Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Michael; Lam, Daniel D.; Francescatto, Ludmila; Schormair, Barbara; Salminen, Aaro V.; Jochim, Angela; Wieland, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Lochmüller, Hanns; Strom, Tim M.; Haslinger, Bernhard; Katsanis, Nicholas; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Isolated dystonia is a disorder characterized by involuntary twisting postures arising from sustained muscle contractions. Although autosomal-dominant mutations in TOR1A, THAP1, and GNAL have been found in some cases, the molecular mechanisms underlying isolated dystonia are largely unknown. In addition, although emphasis has been placed on dominant isolated dystonia, the disorder is also transmitted as a recessive trait, for which no mutations have been defined. Using whole-exome sequencing in a recessive isolated dystonia-affected kindred, we identified disease-segregating compound heterozygous mutations in COL6A3, a collagen VI gene associated previously with muscular dystrophy. Genetic screening of a further 367 isolated dystonia subjects revealed two additional recessive pedigrees harboring compound heterozygous mutations in COL6A3. Strikingly, all affected individuals had at least one pathogenic allele in exon 41, including an exon-skipping mutation that induced an in-frame deletion. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of this exon is pathognomonic for isolated dystonia by inducing a series of in-frame deletions in zebrafish embryos. Consistent with our human genetics data, suppression of the exon 41 ortholog caused deficits in axonal outgrowth, whereas suppression of other exons phenocopied collagen deposition mutants. All recessive mutation carriers demonstrated early-onset segmental isolated dystonia without muscular disease. Finally, we show that Col6a3 is expressed in neurons, with relevant mRNA levels detectable throughout the adult mouse brain. Taken together, our data indicate that loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific region of COL6A3 cause recessive isolated dystonia with underlying neurodevelopmental deficits and highlight the brain extracellular matrix as a contributor to dystonia pathogenesis. PMID:26004199

  19. Leishmaniasis as a Neglected Cause of Isolated Lymphadenopathy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    SHORAFA, Eslam; POLADFAR, Gholamreza; ADELIAN, Roholla; SHARIAT, Mahmood; MINAEE, Mohammad Reza; HASHEMI, Syeed Mohammad; TAZANG, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic parasitic disease in Iran. This paper reports the case of a 5-yr-old boy who presented with multiple isolated cervical lymphadenopathy for several months with no history of fever and no signs or symptoms. In an excisional lymph node biopsy, Leishmania parasites were histologically detected. Thus, leishmaniasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated lymphadenitis in immunocompetent patients, even if the K39 and IFA for kala-azar are reported as negative. PMID:27517003

  20. Isolated body lateropulsion caused by a lesion of the rostral vermis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung

    2006-11-15

    A 66-year-old man presented with axial lateropulsion, exhibiting sudden falling as the sole clinical sign of cerebellar infarction in the territory of the medial branch of the superior cerebellar artery (mSCA). A brain MRI showed acute infarction selectively involving the centralis of the rostral vermis. This patient illustrates that cerebellar infarction in the territory of the mSCA can present as an isolated body lateropulsion. The possible mechanism of an isolated body lateropulsion is considered.

  1. Sphenoid sinus mucocele as a cause of isolated pupil-sparing oculomotor nerve palsy mimicking diabetic ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Jahandideh, Hesam; Harandi, Ali Amini

    2013-12-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with isolated right-sided oculomotor nerve palsy. Neurologic examination revealed no other disorder. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses demonstrated complete opacification of the sphenoid sinus. Dense mucoid fluid was drained from the sphenoid sinus via an endoscopic transseptal sphenoidotomy. A biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sphenoid sinus mucocele. At follow-up 4 weeks postoperatively, the patient's ocular symptoms were markedly alleviated. Considering rare causes of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy, such as sphenoid sinus mucocele, is important in the differential diagnosis, even in patients with well-known risk factors such as diabetes mellitus.

  2. Sphenoid sinus mucocele as a cause of isolated pupil-sparing oculomotor nerve palsy mimicking diabetic ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Jahandideh, Hesam; Harandi, Ali Amini

    2013-12-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with isolated right-sided oculomotor nerve palsy. Neurologic examination revealed no other disorder. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses demonstrated complete opacification of the sphenoid sinus. Dense mucoid fluid was drained from the sphenoid sinus via an endoscopic transseptal sphenoidotomy. A biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sphenoid sinus mucocele. At follow-up 4 weeks postoperatively, the patient's ocular symptoms were markedly alleviated. Considering rare causes of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy, such as sphenoid sinus mucocele, is important in the differential diagnosis, even in patients with well-known risk factors such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:24366704

  3. Novel katG mutations causing isoniazid resistance in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jessica N; Paul, Lynthia V; Rodwell, Timothy C; Victor, Thomas C; Amallraja, Anu M; Elghraoui, Afif; Goodmanson, Amy P; Ramirez-Busby, Sarah M; Chawla, Ashu; Zadorozhny, Victoria; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Sirgel, Frederick A; Catanzaro, Donald; Rodrigues, Camilla; Gler, Maria Tarcela; Crudu, Valeru; Catanzaro, Antonino; Valafar, Faramarz

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of 23 novel mutations with previously undocumented role in isoniazid (INH) drug resistance, in catalase-peroxidase (katG) gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates. With these mutations, a synonymous mutation in fabG1g609a, and two canonical mutations, we were able to explain 98% of the phenotypic resistance observed in 366 clinical Mtb isolates collected from four high tuberculosis (TB)-burden countries: India, Moldova, Philippines, and South Africa. We conducted overlapping targeted and whole-genome sequencing for variant discovery in all clinical isolates with a variety of INH-resistant phenotypes. Our analysis showed that just two canonical mutations (katG 315AGC-ACC and inhA promoter-15C-T) identified 89.5% of resistance phenotypes in our collection. Inclusion of the 23 novel mutations reported here, and the previously documented point mutation in fabG1, increased the sensitivity of these mutations as markers of INH resistance to 98%. Only six (2%) of the 332 resistant isolates in our collection did not harbor one or more of these mutations. The third most prevalent substitution, at inhA promoter position -8, present in 39 resistant isolates, was of no diagnostic significance since it always co-occurred with katG 315. 79% of our isolates harboring novel mutations belong to genetic group 1 indicating a higher tendency for this group to go down an uncommon evolutionary path and evade molecular diagnostics. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of INH resistance in Mtb isolates that lack the canonical mutations and could improve the sensitivity of next generation molecular diagnostics. PMID:26251830

  4. Novel katG mutations causing isoniazid resistance in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jessica N; Paul, Lynthia V; Rodwell, Timothy C; Victor, Thomas C; Amallraja, Anu M; Elghraoui, Afif; Goodmanson, Amy P; Ramirez-Busby, Sarah M; Chawla, Ashu; Zadorozhny, Victoria; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Sirgel, Frederick A; Catanzaro, Donald; Rodrigues, Camilla; Gler, Maria Tarcela; Crudu, Valeru; Catanzaro, Antonino; Valafar, Faramarz

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of 23 novel mutations with previously undocumented role in isoniazid (INH) drug resistance, in catalase-peroxidase (katG) gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates. With these mutations, a synonymous mutation in fabG1 (g609a), and two canonical mutations, we were able to explain 98% of the phenotypic resistance observed in 366 clinical Mtb isolates collected from four high tuberculosis (TB)-burden countries: India, Moldova, Philippines, and South Africa. We conducted overlapping targeted and whole-genome sequencing for variant discovery in all clinical isolates with a variety of INH-resistant phenotypes. Our analysis showed that just two canonical mutations (katG 315AGC-ACC and inhA promoter-15C-T) identified 89.5% of resistance phenotypes in our collection. Inclusion of the 23 novel mutations reported here, and the previously documented point mutation in fabG1, increased the sensitivity of these mutations as markers of INH resistance to 98%. Only six (2%) of the 332 resistant isolates in our collection did not harbor one or more of these mutations. The third most prevalent substitution, at inhA promoter position -8, present in 39 resistant isolates, was of no diagnostic significance since it always co-occurred with katG 315. 79% of our isolates harboring novel mutations belong to genetic group 1 indicating a higher tendency for this group to go down an uncommon evolutionary path and evade molecular diagnostics. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of INH resistance in Mtb isolates that lack the canonical mutations and could improve the sensitivity of next generation molecular diagnostics.

  5. Isolated supra-cardiac partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection causing right heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sogomonian, Robert; Alkhawam, Hassan; Zaiem, Feras; Vyas, Neil; Jolly, JoshPaul; Nguyen, James; Haftevani, Emma A. Moradoghli; Dijanic, Christopher; Lieber, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Right heart failure (RHF) has been overlooked as left heart failure has predominated. One of the many causes of RHF is partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), an extremely rare entity in nature. Physicians should consider the unusual causes of RHF after ruling out the common causes. PMID:27124165

  6. Ultrasonography Guided Excision of Isolated Cysticercosis of the Temporalis Muscle Causing Intractable Headache: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Bhavana, Kranti; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium which involve humans as either a definitive or secondary hosts. The central nervous system is the most important primary site of involvement. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as an isolated muscle mass is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. We report an extremely unusual case of isolated cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle causing intractable headache which presented a diagnostic challenge. The condition was surgically treated by ultrasonography guided excision of the cysticercosis swelling in the temporalis muscle. We also emphasize on the role of proper imaging modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of such unique cases. PMID:27508147

  7. Endophytic fungal metabolite fumigaclavine C causes relaxation of isolated rat aortic rings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Song, Yong-Chun; Mao, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Ji-Hong; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Luo, Lan

    2006-04-01

    Two indole alkaloids were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus fumigatus (strain No. CY018), an endophytic fungus harboring inside the elder leaf of Cynodon dactylon. These two chemicals were identified as fumigaclavine C and fumitremorgin C. In screening the bioactivity of these two indole alkaloids, their vasorelaxant effects on isolated rat thoracic aortic rings were observed. The results showed that fumigaclavine C exhibited potent concentration-dependent vasorelaxant actions in isolated rat aortic rings pre-contracted by high K+ or phenylephrine (with EC50 values of 5.62 micromol/L and 1.58 micromol/L, respectively) whereas fumitremorgin C displayed a weaker vasorelaxation. A detailed investigation was therefore performed with fumigaclavine C. The vasorelaxing action of fumigaclavine C is independent of the presence of endothelium, suggesting its effect of vasorelaxation was not related to endothelial mediators. Blockage of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and inhibition of Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores may be involved in fumigaclavine C induced relaxation of rat isolated aortic rings. These results demonstrate that fumigaclavine C from the endophytic fungus has a potential capacity in vascular protection and thus may have therapeutic use in protection against cardiovascular disease. PMID:16557450

  8. Characterization of Streptomyces isolates causing colour changes of mural paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haliem, M E F; Sakr, A A; Ali, M F; Ghaly, M F; Sohlenkamp, C

    2013-08-25

    Paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs often suffer colour changes due to microbial growth and colonization. Streptomyces strains were isolated from mural paintings of Tell Basta and Tanis tombs (East of Nile Delta, Egypt) and were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The16S rDNA sequences data indicated that isolated strains were closely related to S. coelicolor, S. albidofuscus, S. ambofaciens, S. canarius, S. parvullus, S. corchorusii, S. albidofuscus and S. nigrifaciens. It could be shown that Streptomyces strains are involved on a large scale in the colour changes of paintings and stone support by producing a wide range of metabolites such as acids (oxalic, citric and sulphuric acids), biopigments of melanin, carotenoids, and hydrogen sulphide.

  9. Characterization of Streptomyces isolates causing colour changes of mural paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haliem, M E F; Sakr, A A; Ali, M F; Ghaly, M F; Sohlenkamp, C

    2013-08-25

    Paintings in ancient Egyptian tombs often suffer colour changes due to microbial growth and colonization. Streptomyces strains were isolated from mural paintings of Tell Basta and Tanis tombs (East of Nile Delta, Egypt) and were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The16S rDNA sequences data indicated that isolated strains were closely related to S. coelicolor, S. albidofuscus, S. ambofaciens, S. canarius, S. parvullus, S. corchorusii, S. albidofuscus and S. nigrifaciens. It could be shown that Streptomyces strains are involved on a large scale in the colour changes of paintings and stone support by producing a wide range of metabolites such as acids (oxalic, citric and sulphuric acids), biopigments of melanin, carotenoids, and hydrogen sulphide. PMID:23507492

  10. Isolated large vessel pulmonary vasculitis as a cause of chronic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Guy; Gopalan, Deepa; Church, Colin; Rassl, Doris; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Wistow, Trevor; Lang, Chim; Sivasothy, Pasupathy; Stewart, Susan; Jayne, David; Sheares, Karen; Tsui, Steven; Jenkins, David P.; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary artery involvement by large vessel vasculitis is rare. This case report describes two patients with large vessel pulmonary vasculitis initially thought to have chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who had their diagnosis revised following pulmonary endarterectomy surgery. Advances in imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have permitted complementary radiological methods of diagnosis and follow up of large vessel disease and these are discussed in conjunction with the immunosuppressive and operative management of these patients. PMID:22140633

  11. Characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates causing urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Giorgio; Biscaro, Valeria; Gargiulo, Franco; Caruso, Arnaldo; De Francesco, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) has been implicated in urinary tract infections but the microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of these strains are poorly investigated. In this study, 87 isolates recovered from urine samples of patients who had attended the Spedali Civili of Brescia (Italy) and had single organism GBS cultured were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular characterization of macrolide and levofloxacin resistance, PCR-based capsular typing and analysis of surface protein genes. By automated broth microdilution method, all isolates were susceptible to penicillin, cefuroxime, cefaclor, and ceftriaxone; 80%, 19.5% and 3.4% of isolates were non-susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin, respectively. Macrolide resistance determinants were iMLS(B) (n=1), cMLS(B) (n=10) and M (n=5), associated with ermTR, ermB and mefA/E. Levofloxacin resistance was linked to mutations in gyrA and parC genes. Predominant capsular types were III, Ia, V, Ib and IX. Type III was associated with tetracycline resistance, while type Ib was associated with levofloxacin resistance. Different capsular type-surface protein gene combinations (serotype V-alp2, 3; serotype III-rib; serotype Ia-epsilon) were detected. A variety of capsular types are involved in significant bacteriuria. The emergence of multidrug resistant GBS may become a significant public health concern and highlights the importance of careful surveillance to prevent the emergence of these virulent GBS. PMID:26144658

  12. Antifungal Resistance to Fluconazole and Echinocandins Is Not Emerging in Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia in a Spanish Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Sánchez, Carlos; Muñoz, Patricia; Bouza, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fungemia epidemiology requires identification of strains to the molecular level. Various studies have shown that the rate of resistance to fluconazole ranges from 2.5% to 9% in Candida spp. isolated from blood samples. However, trends in antifungal resistance have received little attention and have been studied only using CLSI M27-A3 methodology. We assessed the fungemia epidemiology in a large tertiary care institution in Madrid, Spain, by identifying isolates to the molecular level and performing antifungal susceptibility testing according to the updated breakpoints of European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) definitive document (EDef) 7.2. We studied 613 isolates causing 598 episodes of fungemia in 544 patients admitted to our hospital (January 2007 to December 2013). Strains were identified after amplification and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and further tested for in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Resistance was defined using EUCAST species-specific breakpoints, and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFFs) were applied as tentative breakpoints. Most episodes were caused by Candida albicans (46%), Candida parapsilosis (28.7%), Candida glabrata (9.8%), and Candida tropicalis (8%). Molecular identification enabled us to better detect cryptic species of Candida guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis complexes and episodes of polyfungal fungemia. The overall percentage of fluconazole-resistant isolates was 5%, although it was higher in C. glabrata (8.6%) and non-Candida yeast isolates (47.4%). The rate of resistance to echinocandins was 4.4% and was mainly due to the presence of intrinsically resistant non-Candida species. Resistance mainly affected non-Candida yeasts. The rate of resistance to fluconazole and echinocandins did not change considerably during the study period. PMID:24867979

  13. Effects of sertraline on behavioral alterations caused by environmental enrichment and social isolation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Engin; Erol, Kevser; Ulupinar, Emel

    2012-04-01

    Environmental conditions are known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. In this study, the effects of sertraline, a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were investigated in rats reared in different housing conditions. Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into three groups according to their rearing conditions (Enriched = EC, Isolated = IC and Standard = SC), after weaning at postnatal day 21. While animals in control conditions were housed as a group of 4 rats in regular size plexiglass cages, social isolation groups were housed individually in metal cages. Animals in enriched conditions were housed as a group of 12 rats in specially designed cages equipped with different stimulating objects. Six weeks later, activitymeter, elevated plus maze, rotarod, grip, forced swimming and sucrose preference tests were applied to all animals and all of the tests were repeated after i.p. injection of sertraline (10 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Environmental enrichment reduced the stereotypic behavior, improved the motor coordination and facilitated the learning skills in animals. However, housing conditions affected depression-like parameters, but not anxiety-like parameters. Sertraline treatment reduced the depression-like effect in EC and SC, but not in IC. It decreased anxiety-like behavior in IC while increased in EC. Socially isolated animals preferentially consumed more sucrose and water than the other groups, and interestingly, these differences became more significant following sertraline treatment. These results show that the responses of animals to anti-depressive drugs could be differentially affected by the behavioral consequences of the diverse housing conditions. Thus, to improve the treatment of depression; behavioral consequences of diverse housing conditions should be taken into consideration.

  14. "Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Thrombosis - A Rare Cause of Acute Flank Pain".

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, M; Sarkar, Mrityunjoy; Kumar, Kiran G

    2016-11-01

    Many patients present with severe abdominal pain. Renal Artery Thrombosis (RAT) is rare, serious and misdiagnosed. RAT has been well described in association with various disorders, but isolated spontaneously occurring RAT is rare and only 2 cases have been described as of date. We present a case of flank pain presenting to emergency for evaluation and discuss the clinical aspects and management. We would like to stress on the important role of serum LDH levels and CT scan in RAT. Early diagnosis may result in salvage of organ by minimally invasive techniques. Late diagnosis will almost always result in nephrectomy. PMID:27617211

  15. Microdeletions of chromosome 17p13 as a cause of isolated lissencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, S.A.; Kuwano, Akira; Ledbetter, D.H. ); Dobyns, W.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria) is a brain malformation manifested by a smooth cerebral surface, resulting from arrest of neuronal migration at 10-14 wk gestation. Type I, or classical, lissencephaly can occur either in association with the Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) or as an isolated finding, termed isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS). About 90% of MDS patients have visible or submicroscopic deletions of 17p13.3. The authors therefore investigated the possibility that some ILS patients have smaller deletions in this chromosomal region. Forty-five ILS patients with gyral abnormalities ranging from complete agyria to mixed agyria/pachygyria and complete pachygyria were studied. RFLP analysis with five polymorphic loci in 17p13.3 was performed on all patients and their parents. Somatic cell hybrids were constructed on three patients, to confirm a deletion or to determine the boundaries of a deletion. These data demonstrate that a locus on 17p13 represents a major genetic etiology for patients with lissencephaly, ranging from complete agyria to pachygyria. In situ hybridization allows rapid and sensitive deletion detection and is the preferred method for diagnostic evaluation of MDA and ILS patients.

  16. Successfully Treated Isolated Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm Causing Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HORIO, Yoshinobu; KATSUTA, Toshiro; SAMURA, Kazuhiro; WAKUTA, Naoki; FUKUDA, Kenji; HIGASHI, Toshio; INOUE, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    There are very few published reports of rupture of an isolated posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysm, and consequently the optimal therapeutic strategy is debatable. An 84-year-old man presented with sudden onset of restlessness and disorientation. Neuroradiological imaging showed an intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with no visible intracranial vascular lesion. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a localized subarachnoid hematoma at Th10–11. Both contrast-enhanced spinal computed tomography and enhanced MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an area of enhancement within the hematoma. Superselective angiography of the left Th12 intercostal artery demonstrated a faintly enhanced spot in the venous phase. Thirteen days after the onset of symptoms, a small fusiform aneurysm situated on the radiculopial artery was resected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he was eventually discharged in an ambulatory condition. To our knowledge, this 84-year-old man is the oldest reported case of surgical management of a ruptured isolated PSA aneurysm. This case illustrates both the validity and efficacy of this therapeutic approach. PMID:26522607

  17. Human cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and C. parvum isolates presumably transmitted from wild mice.

    PubMed

    Rasková, Veronika; Kvetonová, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; McEvoy, John; Edwinson, Adam; Stenger, Brianna; Kvác, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of severe human cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and C. parvum with an unusually high frequency of liquid stools. Wild mice were the most likely source of infection, demonstrating the potential for wild-mouse-borne Cryptosporidium to infect humans and highlighting the health risks associated with synantropic rodents.

  18. Unicentric Castleman Disease: An Unusual Cause of An Isolated Neck Mass.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anjay; Aggarwal, Krittika; Agrawal, Himanshu; Sharma, Sonal; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown aetiology. It manifests in two distinct clinical presentations: unicentric and multicentric. Unicentric CD is rare and may present as an isolated neck mass. A 22-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of right neck swelling that occupied the posterior triangle of the right neck region. After surgical exploration, a solitary, well defined, and hyper vascular mass was excise. A histopathological examination confirmed the lesion as CD, hyaline-vascular variant. CD of the neck is a diagnosis that is usually not taken into consideration while evaluating neck masses due to its rarity and unassuming presentation. It should be keep in the differential diagnosis of neck masses as the clinical and radiological features evade a firm diagnosis. The treatment of unicentric CD is complete surgical excision, which cures the patient. PMID:27660550

  19. Unicentric Castleman Disease: An Unusual Cause of An Isolated Neck Mass

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anjay; Aggarwal, Krittika; Agrawal, Himanshu; Sharma, Sonal; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown aetiology. It manifests in two distinct clinical presentations: unicentric and multicentric. Unicentric CD is rare and may present as an isolated neck mass. A 22-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of right neck swelling that occupied the posterior triangle of the right neck region. After surgical exploration, a solitary, well defined, and hyper vascular mass was excise. A histopathological examination confirmed the lesion as CD, hyaline-vascular variant. CD of the neck is a diagnosis that is usually not taken into consideration while evaluating neck masses due to its rarity and unassuming presentation. It should be keep in the differential diagnosis of neck masses as the clinical and radiological features evade a firm diagnosis. The treatment of unicentric CD is complete surgical excision, which cures the patient. PMID:27660550

  20. Pancreatic pseudocyst arising from ectopic pancreas and isolated intestinal duplication in mesocolon caused hydronephrosis in a girl with horseshoe kidney.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Fumi; Tohda, Akira; Shimada, Kenji; Kubota, Akio

    2005-07-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a relatively common congenital anomaly and is usually asymptomatic. Pancreatitis in the ectopic site and pseudocyst formation is extremely rare. To date, only 2 cases have been reported. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl with recurrent pancreatitis and unilateral hydronephrosis of the horseshoe kidney, which was produced by pancreatic pseudocyst arising from ectopic pancreas and isolated intestinal duplication in mesocolon. This is the first case of pancreatic pseudocyst that expanded to the retroperitoneal space and caused urinary tract obstruction.

  1. In vitro fructose exposure overactivates NADPH oxidase and causes oxidative stress in the isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Camila C P; Mill, José G; Vassallo, Dalton V; Baldo, Marcelo P; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2015-12-01

    Fructose acutely interferes with cardiovascular function in humans and in animals, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we tested whether fructose can affect endothelial function without the interference of its metabolic effect by exposing the rat aorta to a high fructose concentration and then evaluate the vascular responses to vasoactive agents. We observed that fructose exposure causes overactivation of NADPH oxidase, which enhances superoxide anion production and increases NO degradation. Additionally, the enhanced vasoconstrictor action of hydrogen peroxide might exacerbate contractile responses. This vasoactive imbalance might be the key role by which fructose induces vascular dysfunction.

  2. Introduction of ranavirus to isolated wood frog populations could cause local extinction.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Gray, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Amphibian declines and extinction have been attributed to many causes, including disease such as chytridiomycosis. Other pathogens may also contribute to declines, with ranavirus as the most likely candidate given reoccurring die-offs observed in the wild. We were interested in whether it is possible for ranavirus to cause extinction of a local, closed population of amphibians. We used susceptibility data from experimental challenges on different life stages combined with estimates of demographic parameters from a natural population to predict the likelihood of extinction using a stage-structured population model for wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). Extinction was most likely when the larval or metamorph stage was exposed under frequent intervals in smaller populations. Extinction never occurred when only the egg stage was exposed to ranavirus. Under the worst-case scenario, extinction could occur in as quickly as 5 years with exposure every year and 25-44 years with exposure every 2 years. In natural wood frog populations, die-offs typically occur in the larval stage and can reoccur in subsequent years, indicating that our simulations represent possible scenarios. Additionally, wood frog populations are particularly sensitive to changes in survival during the pre-metamorphic stages when ranavirus tends to be most pathogenic. Our results suggest that ranavirus could contribute to amphibian species declines, especially for species that are very susceptible to ranavirus with closed populations. We recommend that ranavirus be considered in risk analyses for amphibian species.

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel Iraqi isolate of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot in wheat.

    PubMed

    Hameed, M A; Rana, R M; Ali, Z

    2012-01-01

    Crown rot is one of the main important fungal diseases affecting wheat in many areas of the world, including Australia, USA, and Iran. Until now, there had been no report of this pathogen in Iraq. Plants displaying crown rot symptoms were observed in Shaat Alarab (Basra, Iraq); we investigated the causal agent of the disease. Samples were surface-sterilized in bleach (1% available chlorine) and cultured on quarter-strength potato dextrose agar plates. DNA was extracted from fungal mycelia, using a modified CTAB protocol. The ITS/5.8S regions were amplified using primer pair ITS1 and ITS4. PCR products purified using a gel extraction kit were sequenced. The sequence that was detected was used to BLAST against NCBI data. The most similar sequence was the ITS/5.8S rDNA region of Fusarium pseudograminearum (strain NRRL28062), showing 97.95% identity. This species normally causes crown rot, resulting in severe damage under dry spring conditions. A pathogenicity test employed to assess the disease-causing ability of the strain showed significant disease symptoms up to 57% infected spikelets. The results confirmed the presence of F. pseudograminearum as a causal agent of wheat crown rot in Iraq. The presence of this pathogen demands further investigations to develop resistant cultivars and/or mechanical control.

  4. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin.

  5. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin. PMID:26904899

  6. A mitochondrial tRNA aspartate mutation causing isolated mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Sara; Goemans, Nathalie; Van Coster, Rudy; Givron, Patrice; Reybrouck, Tony; Sciot, Raf; Meulemans, Ann; Smet, Joel; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2005-08-30

    Several mutations in mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA) genes can cause mitochondrial myopathy. We describe a young girl who presented with pronounced exercise intolerance. The anaerobic threshold and the maximal oxygen consumption were decreased. She had decreased complex I and IV enzyme activity and ragged red fibers on muscle biopsy. An A to G transition at nucleotide position 7526 in tRNA Aspartate (tRNA(Asp)) gene was heteroplasmic in several of the patient's tissues. We were unable to detect the mutation in muscle tissue from the patient's mother. This case adds a new genetic etiology for mitochondrial myopathy. It also illustrates for patients with combined deficiency of the complex I and IV enzyme activity the value of sequencing in the affected tissue muscle, and not only in blood, all mitochondrial tRNA genes including those not commonly affected, such as in this case mt tRNA(Asp).

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  8. Activation of two sites by adenosine receptor agonists to cause relaxation in rat isolated mesenteric artery

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, D J; Payne, S L; Hourani, S M O

    1997-01-01

    In this study we have characterized the receptor(s) in the rat mesenteric artery mediating relaxant responses to adenosine and a number of adenosine analogues, N6 -R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA), N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), N6-(3-iodo-benzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) and 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), by use of the non-selective antagonist 8-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) and the A2A selective ligands 2-[p-(2-carbonylethyl)-phenylethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]-triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]-triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl) phenol (ZM 241385). We have also studied the effects of endothelial removal and uptake inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) and the effects of the A3 receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-acrylate)phenylxanthine (BWA1433).Adenosine, NECA, CPA and R-PIA all elicited relaxant responses in tissues precontracted with phenylephrine (1 μM) with the following potency order: NECA>R-PIA>adenosine=CPA. However, E/[A] curves to NECA were biphasic. CGS 21680 was inactive at concentrations up to 30 μM and IB-MECA elicited relaxant responses which were resistant to blockade by 8-SPT and BWA1433 (100 μM).Removal of the endothelium produced a small but significant decrease in the asymptote of the high potency phase of E/[A] curves to NECA with no change in p[A]50. E/[A] curves to adenosine were not altered by removal of the endothelium. However, there were small rightward shifts of E/[A] curves to CPA and R-PIA in the absence of endothelium.Inhibition of uptake by NBTI (1 μM) had no effect on E/[A] curves to NECA, CPA or R-PIA, but E/[A] curves to adenosine were significantly left-shifted in the presence of NBTI.8-SPT (10–100 μM) caused significant rightward shifts of the high potency phase of the E/[A] curves to NECA (pA2=5.63±0.26). The second phase of the concentration-response curve to NECA appeared to be resistant to blockade by 8-SPT, as were E

  9. Mutations in the prostaglandin transporter encoding gene SLCO2A1 cause primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and isolated digital clubbing.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Wenke; Kühnisch, Jirko; Tüysüz, Beyhan; Specker, Christof; Brouwers, Ad; Horn, Denise

    2012-04-01

    Digital clubbing is usually secondary to different acquired diseases. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is a rare hereditary disorder with variable digital clubbing as the most prominent feature, subperiosteal new bone formation, and arthropathy. Recently, mutations in the 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) encoding gene HPGD were found to cause PHO. Here, we identified three unrelated families with different mutations in the prostaglandin transporter (PGT) encoding gene SLCO2A1 which presumably result in reduced metabolic clearance by 15-PGDH due to diminished cellular uptake of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by mutant PGT. In two consanguineous families, homozygous mutations, an intragenic deletion that results in frameshift and a missense mutation, are associated with a severe PHO phenotype. In a third family, a heterozygous carrier of a stop mutation presents with isolated digital clubbing. Thus, our study further supports the importance of PGE(2) metabolism in the pathogenesis of digital clubbing and PHO. PMID:22331663

  10. Bacteraemia caused by Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii: clinical features and susceptibilities of the isolates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Ko, Jen-Chung; Liang, Sheng-Kai; Lee, Shih-Wei; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex (M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii) is an emerging pathogen causing various human infections. However, few studies have focused on M. abscessus complex bacteraemia with detailed species differentiation. The clinical characteristics of patients with bacteraemia due to M. abscessus complex treated at National Taiwan University Hospital from 2005-2012 were evaluated. Species identification was performed by molecular methods, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using a Sensititre RAPMYCO Panel Test for preserved M. abscessus complex isolates. During the study period, 15 patients with M. abscessus complex bacteraemia were found but only 14 isolates from 13 patients were preserved for analysis. One patient had two episodes of bacteraemia (one caused by M. abscessus subsp. bolletii and one by M .abscessus subsp. abscessus with a 9-month interval). Of the remaining 12 patients, 9 patients had M. abscessus subsp. bolletii bacteraemia and 3 had M .abscessus subsp. abscessus bacteraemia. Patients were mainly middle-aged adults with various co-morbidities. Steroid usage and malignancy (5/15) were the most common immunocompromised statuses, followed by diabetes mellitus (4/15). Surgical wound infection was the most common infection foci in all patients (5/15), particularly in M. abscessus subsp. bolletii bacteraemia patients. Clarithromycin and tigecycline exhibited good in vitro activities. Overall, the 14-day mortality was 20% (3/15). M. abscessus complex bacteraemia should be considered an emerging opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Clarithromycin and tigecycline have potent in vitro activities and are promising agents for treating infections due to M. abscessus complex. PMID:24718088

  11. Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Hiral; Sharma, Paresh; Mahato, Sudipta; Saravanan, R.; Kumar, P. Anand; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24) to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml). All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA) for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602) and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer. PMID:27603123

  12. Prevalence and Characterization of Oxacillin Susceptible mecA-Positive Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bovine Mastitis in India.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiral; Sharma, Paresh; Mahato, Sudipta; Saravanan, R; Kumar, P Anand; Bhandari, Vasundhra

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a huge problem reported worldwide, resulting in prolonged antibiotic treatment and death of livestock. The current study is focused on surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility along with genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the pathogenic S. aureus strains causing mastitis in India. One hundred and sixty seven milk samples were collected from mastitis-affected cows from different farms in India resulting in thirty nine isolated S. aureus strains. Antibiotic sensitivity profiling revealed the majority of the strains (n = 24) to be multidrug resistant and eleven strains showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (MICs = 2μg/ml). All strains were oxacillin sensitive, but 19 strains were positive for the mecA gene, which revealed the occurrence of oxacillin susceptible mecA positive strains (OS-MRSA) for the first time from India. Additionally, 32 strains were positive for the pvl gene, a virulence determinant; of these 17 were also OS-MRSA strains. Molecular characterization based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec classification revealed strains belonging to different groups. Moreover, strains showed spa types (t2526, t9602) and MLST sequence types, ST-72, ST-88 and ST-239 which have been earlier reported in human infections. The prevalence of OS-MRSA strains indicates the importance of including both the genetic and phenotypic tests in characterizing S. aureus strains. Increased genotypic variability with strain related to human infections and pvl positive isolates indicates a worrisome situation with the possibility of bilateral transfer. PMID:27603123

  13. Cryptococcus gattii VGIII Isolates Causing Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Southern California: Identification of the Local Environmental Source as Arboreal

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Deborah J.; Billmyre, R. Blake; Filler, Elan E.; Voelz, Kerstin; Pursall, Rhiannon; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Larsen, Robert A.; Dietrich, Fred S.; May, Robin C.; Filler, Scott G.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing Cryptococcus gattii outbreaks in the Western United States and Canada illustrate the impact of environmental reservoirs and both clonal and recombining propagation in driving emergence and expansion of microbial pathogens. C. gattii comprises four distinct molecular types: VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, with no evidence of nuclear genetic exchange, indicating these represent distinct species. C. gattii VGII isolates are causing the Pacific Northwest outbreak, whereas VGIII isolates frequently infect HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California. VGI, VGII, and VGIII have been isolated from patients and animals in the Western US, suggesting these molecular types occur in the environment. However, only two environmental isolates of C. gattii have ever been reported from California: CBS7750 (VGII) and WM161 (VGIII). The incongruence of frequent clinical presence and uncommon environmental isolation suggests an unknown C. gattii reservoir in California. Here we report frequent isolation of C. gattii VGIII MATα and MATa isolates and infrequent isolation of VGI MATα from environmental sources in Southern California. VGIII isolates were obtained from soil debris associated with tree species not previously reported as hosts from sites near residences of infected patients. These isolates are fertile under laboratory conditions, produce abundant spores, and are part of both locally and more distantly recombining populations. MLST and whole genome sequence analysis provide compelling evidence that these environmental isolates are the source of human infections. Isolates displayed wide-ranging virulence in macrophage and animal models. When clinical and environmental isolates with indistinguishable MLST profiles were compared, environmental isolates were less virulent. Taken together, our studies reveal an environmental source and risk of C. gattii to HIV/AIDS patients with implications for the >1,000,000 cryptococcal infections occurring annually for which the causative

  14. Mechanisms governing the direct removal of wastes from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository caused by exploratory drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid (mud); a quantitative computational model based upon the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid (laminar or turbulent) and other drilling parameters is developed and example results shown. The second mechanism concerns the motion of the waste and borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Some of the available literature concerning this process is discussed, and a number of elastic and elastic-plastic finite-difference and finite-element calculations are described that confirm the potential importance of this process in directly removing wastes from the repository to the ground surface. Based upon the amount of analysis performed to date, it is concluded that it is not unreasonable to expect that volumes of waste several times greater than that resulting from direct cutting of a gauge borehole could eventually reach the ground surface. No definitive quantitative model for waste removal as a result of the second mechanism is presented; it is concluded that decomposed waste constitutive data must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess further the full significance of this latter mechanism.

  15. Long-lasting endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated arteries caused by an extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Francisco das Chagas; Cavalcanti, Paulo Marques da Silva; Passaglia, Rita de Cassia Aleixo Tostes; Ballejo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals. Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations. Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances. Conclusions Combretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors. PMID:26466063

  16. Bias Caused by Using Different Isolation Media for Assessing the Genetic Diversity of a Natural Microbial Population.

    PubMed

    Tabacchioni; Chiarini; Bevivino; Cantale; Dalmastri

    2000-08-01

    The influence of isolation medium on the biodiversity of Burkholderia cepacia strains recovered from the rhizosphere of Zea mays was evaluated by comparing the genetic diversity of isolates obtained by plating serial dilutions of root macerates on the two selective media TB-T and PCAT. From each medium, 50 randomly chosen colonies were isolated. On the basis of the restriction patterns of DNA coding for 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) amplified by means of PCR (ARDRA), all strains isolated from TB-T medium were assigned to the B. cepacia species, whereas among PCAT isolates only 74% were assigned to the B. cepacia species. Genetic diversity among the PCAT and TB-T isolates was evaluated by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) method was applied to determine the variance component for RAPD patterns. Most of the genetic diversity (90.59%) was found within the two groups of isolates, but an appreciable amount (9.41%) still separated the two groups (P < 0.001). Mean genetic distances among PCAT isolates (10.39) and TB-T isolates (9.36) were significantly different (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that the two different isolation media select for B. cepacia populations with a different degree of genetic diversity. Moreover, a higher degree of genetic diversity was observed among strains isolated from PCAT medium than among those isolated from TB-T medium. PMID:11080375

  17. Biocontrol of tomato plant diseases caused by Fusarium solani using a new isolated Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kriaa, Mouna; Hammami, Inès; Sahnoun, Mouna; Azebou, Manel Cheffi; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-10-01

    The present study focuses on the potential of glucose oxidase (GOD) as a promising biocontrol agent for fungal plant pathogens. In fact, a new GOD producing fungus was isolated and identified as an Aspergillus tubingensis. GOD (125 AU) has been found to inhibit Fusarium solani growth and spore production. Indeed, GOD caused the reduction of spores, the formation of chlamydospores, the induction of mycelial cords and the vacuolization of mycelium. In vivo assays, GOD acted as a curative treatment capable of protecting the tomato plants against F. solani diseases. In fact, the incidence was null in the curative treatment with GOD and it is around 45% for the preventive treatment. The optimization of media composition and culture conditions led to a 2.6-fold enhancement in enzyme activity, reaching 81.48U/mL. This study has demonstrated that GOD is a potent antifungal agent that could be used as a new biofungicide to protect plants from diseases. PMID:26299190

  18. Decrease of reduced glutathione in isolated rat hepatocytes caused by acrolein, acrylonitrile, and the thermal degradation products of styrene copolymers.

    PubMed

    Zitting, A; Heinonen, T

    1980-01-01

    Decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) was induced in isolated rat hepatocytes by incubation with acrolein or acrylonitrile for 120 min or exposure to the products of oxidative thermal degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS), styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN), and high impact polystyrene (SB). The decrease of GSH by acrolein was rapid but the cells soon recovered at acrolein concentrations of 0.025--0.25 mM. 0.5 mM acrolein depleted the cells of GSH and they were uncapable of further GSH synthesis. At concentrations of 0.25--0.5 mM concomitant lipid peroxidation impaired the integrity of the cell membranes. Also acrylonitrile induced a dose dependent GSH decrease at concentrations of 0.05--1 mM. Neither membrane damage nor lipid peroxidation was detected during 120-min incubations at these acrylonitrile concentrations. The thermal degradation products of ABS, SAN and SB caused a decrease of GSH in hepatocytes. The extent of the decrease depended on the degradation temperature and the type of the plastic. The membrane integrity was impaired in the cases where GSH was depleted almost completely; ABS degraded at 350 degrees C and SB at 250 degrees C. The measurements of lipid peroxidation by the thiobarbituric acid and the diene conjugation methods were impossible because the degradation products contained compounds which interfered with these tests.

  19. Biofilm Formation Caused by Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Is Associated with Overexpression of the AdeFGH Efflux Pump

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinlong; Lu, Feng; Yuan, Fenglai; Jiang, Donglin; Zhao, Peng; Zhu, Jie; Cheng, Huali

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wound infections are associated with biofilm formation, which in turn has been correlated with drug resistance. However, the mechanism by which bacteria form biofilms in clinical environments is not clearly understood. This study was designed to investigate the biofilm formation potency of Acinetobacter baumannii and the potential association of biofilm formation with genes encoding efflux pumps, quorum-sensing regulators, and outer membrane proteins. A total of 48 clinically isolated A. baumannii strains, identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR as types A-II, A-III, and A-IV, were analyzed. Three representative strains, which were designated A. baumannii ABR2, ABR11, and ABS17, were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm inducibility, and gene transcription (abaI, adeB, adeG, adeJ, carO, and ompA). A significant increase in the MICs of different classes of antibiotics was observed in the biofilm cells. The formation of a biofilm was significantly induced in all the representative strains exposed to levofloxacin. The levels of gene transcription varied between bacterial genotypes, antibiotics, and antibiotic concentrations. The upregulation of adeG correlated with biofilm induction. The consistent upregulation of adeG and abaI was detected in A-III-type A. baumannii in response to levofloxacin and meropenem (1/8 to 1/2× the MIC), conditions which resulted in the greatest extent of biofilm induction. This study demonstrates a potential role of the AdeFGH efflux pump in the synthesis and transport of autoinducer molecules during biofilm formation, suggesting a link between low-dose antimicrobial therapy and a high risk of biofilm infections caused by A. baumannii. This study provides useful information for the development of antibiofilm strategies. PMID:26033730

  20. Biofilm Formation Caused by Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Is Associated with Overexpression of the AdeFGH Efflux Pump.

    PubMed

    He, Xinlong; Lu, Feng; Yuan, Fenglai; Jiang, Donglin; Zhao, Peng; Zhu, Jie; Cheng, Huali; Cao, Jun; Lu, Guozhong

    2015-08-01

    Chronic wound infections are associated with biofilm formation, which in turn has been correlated with drug resistance. However, the mechanism by which bacteria form biofilms in clinical environments is not clearly understood. This study was designed to investigate the biofilm formation potency of Acinetobacter baumannii and the potential association of biofilm formation with genes encoding efflux pumps, quorum-sensing regulators, and outer membrane proteins. A total of 48 clinically isolated A. baumannii strains, identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR as types A-II, A-III, and A-IV, were analyzed. Three representative strains, which were designated A. baumannii ABR2, ABR11, and ABS17, were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm inducibility, and gene transcription (abaI, adeB, adeG, adeJ, carO, and ompA). A significant increase in the MICs of different classes of antibiotics was observed in the biofilm cells. The formation of a biofilm was significantly induced in all the representative strains exposed to levofloxacin. The levels of gene transcription varied between bacterial genotypes, antibiotics, and antibiotic concentrations. The upregulation of adeG correlated with biofilm induction. The consistent upregulation of adeG and abaI was detected in A-III-type A. baumannii in response to levofloxacin and meropenem (1/8 to 1/2× the MIC), conditions which resulted in the greatest extent of biofilm induction. This study demonstrates a potential role of the AdeFGH efflux pump in the synthesis and transport of autoinducer molecules during biofilm formation, suggesting a link between low-dose antimicrobial therapy and a high risk of biofilm infections caused by A. baumannii. This study provides useful information for the development of antibiofilm strategies.

  1. Reidentification of Streptococcus bovis Isolates Causing Bacteremia According to the New Taxonomy Criteria: Still an Issue? ▿

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Loza, Elena; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Navas, Enrique; Cantón, Rafael; del Campo, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    All Streptococcus bovis blood culture isolates recovered from January 2003 to January 2010 (n = 52) at the Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal were reidentified on the basis of their genetic traits using new taxonomic criteria. Initial identification was performed by the semiautomatic Wider system (Fco. Soria-Melguizo, Spain) and the API 20 Strep system (bioMérieux, France). All isolates were reidentified by PCR amplification and sequencing of both the 16S rRNA and sodA genes and by mass spectrometry using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; Bruker, Germany). Results of 16S rRNA/sodA gene sequencing were as follows: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, 14/14 (number of isolates identified by 16S rRNA/number of isolates identified by sodA gene sequencing); Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, 24/24; Streptococcus spp., 7/0; Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, 0/2; Streptococcus lutetiensis, 0/5; Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 4/0; and Lactococcus lactis, 3/3. MALDI-TOF MS identified 27 S. gallolyticus isolates but not at the subspecies level, 4 L. mesenteroides isolates, 3 L. lactis isolates, and 6 S. lutetiensis isolates, whereas 12 isolates rendered a nonreliable identification result. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis grouped all S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates into 3 major clusters clearly different from those of the S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolates, which, in turn, exhibited no clonal relationship. The percentages of resistance to the tested antimicrobials were 38% for erythromycin, 23% for fosfomycin, 10% for levofloxacin, 6% for tetracycline, and 4% for co-trimoxazole. The most frequent underlying diseases were hepatobiliary disorders (53%), endocarditis (17%), and malignancies (12%). We conclude that sequencing of the sodA gene was the most discriminatory method and that S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus appears to have a higher genetic diversity

  2. Microbicidal activity of neutrophils is inhibited by isolates from recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVVC) caused by Candida albicans through fungal thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; de Souza Bonfim Mendonça, Patrícia; Bidóia, Danielle Lazarin; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Lopes Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine; Estivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is characterized by an infection of the vulva and vagina, mainly caused by Candida albicans, a commensal microorganism that inhabits the vaginal, digestive, and respiratory mucosae. Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects approximately 75% of women, and 5% develop the recurrent form (RVVC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether neutrophils microbicidal response is triggered when activated with RVVC isolates caused by C. albicans. Our results showed that RVVC isolates induced neutrophil migration but significantly decrease the microbicidal activity of neutrophils, compared with VVC and ASS isolates. The microbicidal activity of neutrophils is highly dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). However, this isolate induced detoxification of ROS/RNS produced by neutrophils, reflected by the high level of thiol groups and by the oxygen consumption. Therefore, RVVC isolates induced biochemical changes in the inflammatory response triggered by neutrophils, and these effects were mainly related to the detoxification of ROS/RNS through the thioredoxin reductase (TR), a key antioxidant enzyme in fungi. This might be one of the resistance mechanisms triggered by RVVC caused by C. albicans. PMID:25497972

  3. Evaluation of bacteria isolated from rice rhizosphere for biological control of charcoal rot of sorghum caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Humayun, Pagidi; Kiran, Bandru Keerthi; Kannan, Iyer Girish Kumar; Vidya, Meesala Sree; Deepthi, Kanala; Rupela, Om

    2011-06-01

    A total of 360 bacteria, isolated from the rhizospheres of a system of rice intensification (SRI) fields, were characterized for the production of siderophore, fluorescence, indole acetic acid (IAA), hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and solubilization of phosphorus. Of them, seven most promising isolates (SRI-156, -158, -178, -211, -229, -305 and -360) were screened for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina (causes charcoal rot in sorghum) by dual culture assay, blotter paper assay and in greenhouse. All the seven isolates inhibited M. phaseolina in dual culture assay, whereas six isolates solubilized phosphorous (except SRI-360), all seven produced siderophore, four produced fluorescence (except SRI-178, -229 and -305), six produced IAA (except SRI-305) and five produced HCN (except SRI-158 and -305). In the blotter paper assay, no charcoal rot infection was observed in SRI-156-treated sorghum roots, indicating complete inhibition of the pathogen, while the roots treated with the other isolates showed 49-76% lesser charcoal rot infection compared to the control. In the antifungal activity test (in green house on sorghum), all the isolates increased shoot dry mass by 15-23% and root dry mass by 15-20% (except SRI-158 and -360), over the control. In order to confirm the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits of the isolates, the green house experiment was repeated but, in the absence of M. phaseolina. The results further confirmed the PGP traits of the isolates as evidenced by increases in shoot and root dry mass, 22-100% and 5-20%, respectively, over the control. The sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the isolates SRI-156, -158, -178, -211, -229, -305 and -360 were matched with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Brevibacterium antiquum, Bacillus altitudinis, Enterobacter ludwigii, E. ludwigii, Acinetobacter tandoii and P. monteilii, respectively in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected bacterial isolates have the potential for PGP and control of

  4. Characterization and PCR Detection Of Binary, Pir-Like Toxins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates that Cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) in Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Sirikharin, Ratchanok; Taengchaiyaphum, Suparat; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Chi, Thanh Duong; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Proespraiwong, Porranee; Nuangsaeng, Bunlung; Thitamadee, Siripong; Flegel, Timothy W.; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2015-01-01

    Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP), proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture) have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24–48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA) and 50 kDa (ToxB). Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1) and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B), respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium). The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for detection of

  5. Possible healthcare-associated transmission as a cause of secondary infection and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two wound treatment centres in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kpeli, G; Darko Otchere, I; Lamelas, A; Buultjens, A L; Bulach, D; Baines, S L; Seemann, T; Giulieri, S; Nakobu, Z; Aboagye, S Y; Owusu-Mireku, E; Pluschke, G; Stinear, T P; Yeboah-Manu, D

    2016-09-01

    We have previously shown that secondary infections of Buruli ulcer wounds were frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To gain understanding into possible routes of secondary infection, we characterized S. aureus isolates from patient lesions and surrounding environments across two Ghanaian health centres. One hundred and one S. aureus isolates were isolated from wounds (n = 93, 92.1%) and the hospital environment (n = 8, 7.9%) and characterized by the spa gene, mecA and the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin followed by spa sequencing and whole genome sequencing of a subset of 49 isolates. Spa typing and sequencing of the spa gene from 91 isolates identified 29 different spa types with t355 (ST152), t186 (ST88), and t346 dominating. Although many distinct strains were isolated from both health centres, genotype clustering was identified within centres. In addition, we identified a cluster consisting of isolates from a healthcare worker, patients dressed that same day and forceps used for dressing, pointing to possible healthcare-associated transmission. These clusters were confirmed by phylogenomic analysis. Twenty-four (22.8%) isolates were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and lukFS genes encoding Panton-Valentine leucocidin were identified in 67 (63.8%) of the isolates. Phenotype screening showed widespread resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampicin, amikacin and streptomycin. Genomics confirmed the widespread presence of antibiotic resistance genes to β-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, quinolone, streptomycin and tetracycline. Our findings indicate that the healthcare environment probably contributes to the superinfection of Buruli ulcer wounds and calls for improved training in wound management and infection control techniques. PMID:27547406

  6. Genomic Analysis Reveals Multi-Drug Resistance Clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 Hypervirulent Isolates Causing Neonatal Invasive Disease in Southern Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rosini, Roberto; Ji, Wenjing; Guidotti, Silvia; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Geng, Guozhu; Deng, Qiulian; Zhong, Huamin; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Haiying; Nan, Cassandra; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution, and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013–2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide type, pilus islands (PIs) distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD). Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases), particularly among LOD strains (n = 11), followed by types Ib (n = 5), V (n = 3), Ia (n = 2) and II (n = 1). We performed whole-genome sequencing analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17). The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistance could in part explain the spread

  7. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates show potential to cause endogenous infection in patients admitted to the ICU in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nagarjuna, D.; Mittal, G.; Dhanda, R.S.; Verma, P.K.; Gaind, R.; Yadav, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are acquired during hospital treatment or in a hospital environment. One such infecting agent, Escherichia coli, harbours many virulence genes that enable it to become pathogenic, causing damage to the host. The mechanism of the E. coli virulence factors provenance to cause infection in host environments is not clearly elucidated. We investigated the virulence and pathogenicity of E. coli affected by the host environment. For this, blood (n = 78) and faecal (n = 83) E. coli isolates were collected from patients with and without sepsis, respectively, who had been admitted to the intensive care unit. The E. coli genomic DNA was isolated; the phylogenetic grouping was conducted by triplex PCR. The occurrence of nine virulence genes among the all the isolates was confirmed by gene-specific PCR. The prevalence of E. coli in blood isolates was more in phylogenetic groups B2 and D compared to groups A and B1. However, in faecal isolates, there was no significant difference. The prevalence of adhesin and toxin (papG, sfa, afa, cnf1, hlyA) genes was higher in blood compared to faecal E. coli isolates. However, the prevalence of aer, traT and PAI was similar as well as higher among both of these groups. These observations indicate a role of external environment (hospital setting) on host susceptibility (development of infection) in the faecal E. coli isolates, thereby making the patient prone to a sepsis condition. PMID:26257914

  8. Genomic Analysis Reveals Multi-Drug Resistance Clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 Hypervirulent Isolates Causing Neonatal Invasive Disease in Southern Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rosini, Roberto; Ji, Wenjing; Guidotti, Silvia; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Geng, Guozhu; Deng, Qiulian; Zhong, Huamin; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Haiying; Nan, Cassandra; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C D

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution, and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013-2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide type, pilus islands (PIs) distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD). Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases), particularly among LOD strains (n = 11), followed by types Ib (n = 5), V (n = 3), Ia (n = 2) and II (n = 1). We performed whole-genome sequencing analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17). The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistance could in part explain the spread of

  9. Isolation and characterization of a distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus causing an outbreak of duckling short beak and dwarfism syndrome in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilong; Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Lin, Fengqiang; Wu, Nanyang; Wang, Jinxiang; Huang, Meiqing; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shaoying; Yu, Fusong

    2016-09-01

    Many mule duck and Cherry Valley duck flocks in different duck-producing regions of China have shown signs of an apparently new disease designated "short beak and dwarfism syndrome" (SBDS) since 2015. The disease is characterized by dyspraxia, weight loss, a protruding tongue, and high morbidity and low mortality rates. In order to characterize the etiological agent, a virus designated SBDSV M15 was isolated from allantoic fluid of dead embryos following serial passage in duck embryos. This virus causes a cytopathic effect in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. Using monoclonal antibody diagnostic assays, the SBDSV M15 isolate was positive for the antigen of goose parvovirus but not Muscovy duck parvovirus. A 348-bp (2604-2951) VP1gene fragment was amplified, and its sequence indicated that the virus was most closely related to a Hungarian GPV strain that was also isolated from mule ducks with SBDS disease. A similar disease was reproduced by inoculating birds with SBDSV M15. Together, these data indicate that SBDSV M15 is a GPV-related parvovirus causing SBDS disease and that it is divergent from classical GPV isolates. PMID:27314945

  10. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions. PMID:21745408

  11. Tactile stimuli perceived by the antennae cause the isolated females to produce gregarious offspring in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Koutaro; Tanaka, Seiji; Harano, Ken-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    Maternal determination of progeny body size and coloration in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, depends on the crowding conditions experienced during the short sensitive period that occurs two to six days before the deposition of the egg pod. Solitarious (isolated-reared) females produce relatively small eggs that yield solitarious green hatchlings but, females that are exposed to crowded conditions during the sensitive period, produce larger eggs that yield the dark-colored hatchlings characteristic of gregarious forms. The present study aimed to determine the stimuli influencing the maternal determination of progeny characteristics as well as the site at which such stimuli are perceived. By exposing isolated female adults to various combinations of visual, olfactory and tactile stimuli from a crowd of other adults, we found that no crowding effects could be elicited without tactile stimulation. Coating of various body surfaces with nail polish followed by exposure to crowding stimulation suggested that female adults perceive crowding stimuli with their antennae. This finding was supported by another experiment in which the antennae were either removed or covered with wax before the isolated females were exposed to crowded conditions. Neither serotonin nor an antagonist of its receptor affected the density-dependent maternal determination of progeny characteristics when injected into isolated or crowded female adults. PMID:20888831

  12. Assessing the Role of the Courts in Addressing the Educational Problems Caused by Racial Isolation in School Finance Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Preston C., III.

    2013-01-01

    Since the separate-but-equal era, students attending schools with high concentrations of Black students have attempted to improve the quality of their educations through school finance litigation. Because of the negative effects of racial isolation, Black students might consider mounting school finance litigation to force states to explicitly…

  13. Outbreak Caused by blaOXA-72-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST417 Detected in Clinical and Environmental Isolates.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Legorreta, Elsa; Turrubiartes-Martínez, Edgar; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Barrios, Humberto; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Tovar-Oviedo, Juana; Magaña-Aquino, Martin; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    We characterized an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical and environmental isolates from a tertiary care hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. During a 4-month period, a total of 32 nonrepetitive imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline and resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and meropenem. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a major clone (A). Multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis was performed, revealing sequence type (ST) 417 (ST417) and 208 (ST208). The blaIMP-, blaVIM-, blaGIM-, blaSIM-, blaNDM-type, and blaOXA-type (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like) genes were screened and showed that the blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-24-like genes were present in all isolates. Sequencing and southern hybridization were performed, confirming the presence of the blaOXA-72 gene and its plasmid-borne nature. In addition, the blaOXA-72-XerC/XerD-like association was identified. These findings indicate that a clonal spread of blaOXA-72-producing A. baumannii ST417 had occurred throughout the hospital. The ST417 corresponded with a previous ST described in the United States.

  14. Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility of Yeast Isolates Causing Fungemia Collected in a Population-Based Study in Spain in 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Guinea, Jesús; Zaragoza, Óscar; Escribano, Pilar; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella; Pemán, Javier; Sánchez-Reus, Ferrán

    2014-01-01

    We report the molecular identifications and antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates causing fungemia collected in the CANDIPOP population-based study conducted in 29 Spanish hospitals. A total of 781 isolates (from 767 patients, 14 of them having mixed fungemia) were collected. The species found most frequently were Candida albicans (44.6%), Candida parapsilosis (24.5%), Candida glabrata (13.2%), Candida tropicalis (7.6%), Candida krusei (1.9%), Candida guilliermondii (1.7%), and Candida lusitaniae (1.3%). Other Candida and non-Candida species accounted for approximately 5% of the isolates. The presence of cryptic species was low. Compared to findings of previous studies conducted in Spain, the frequency of C. glabrata has increased. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by using EUCAST and CLSI M27-A3 reference procedures; the two methods were comparable. The rate of fluconazole-susceptible isolates was 80%, which appears to be a decrease compared to findings of previous studies, explained mainly by the higher frequency of C. glabrata. Using the species-specific breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values, the rate of voriconazole and posaconazole in vitro resistance was low (<2%). In the case of C. tropicalis, using the EUCAST procedure, the rate of azole resistance was around 20%. There was a correlation between the previous use of azoles and the presence of fluconazole-resistant isolates. Resistance to echinocandins was very rare (2%), and resistance to amphotericin B also was very uncommon. The sequencing of the hot spot (HS) regions from FKS1 or FKS2 genes in echinocandin-resistant isolates revealed previously described point mutations. The decrease in the susceptibility to fluconazole in Spanish isolates should be closely monitored in future studies. PMID:24366741

  15. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing skin and soft tissue infections in patients from Malakand, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Madzgalla, S; Syed, M A; Khan, M A; Rehman, S S; Müller, E; Reissig, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S

    2016-09-01

    Comparatively few studies have been published describing Staphylococcus aureus/MRSA epidemiology in Central Asia including Pakistan. Here, we report the genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains (that include both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) from community- and hospital-acquired skin and soft-tissue infections in a tertiary care hospital in the Malakand district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Forty-five isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were characterized by microarray hybridization. Twenty isolates (44 %) were MRSA, whereas 22 (49 %) were PVL-positive. Fourteen isolates (31 %) harboured both mecA and PVL genes. The dominant clones were CC121-MSSA (n = 15, 33 %) and the PVL-positive "Bengal Bay Clone" (ST772-MRSA-V; n = 13, 29 %). The PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV strain "USA300" was found once. The pandemic ST239-MRSA-III strain was absent, although it has previously been observed in Pakistan. These observations require a re-assessment of schemes for initial antibiotic therapy to cover MRSA and they emphasise the need for a rapid and non-molecular test for PVL.

  16. Isolation of rpoB Mutations Causing Rifampicin Resistance in Bacillus subtilis Spores Exposed to Simulated Martian Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Amy E.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2008-12-01

    Bacterial spores are considered prime candidates for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight activities. Previous studies have shown that exposure of Bacillus subtilis spores to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) characteristic of space both increased the spontaneous mutation rate and altered the spectrum of mutation in various marker genes; but, to date, mutagenesis studies have not been performed on spores exposed to milder low pressures encountered in the martian environment. Mutations to rifampicin-resistance (RifR) were isolated in B. subtilis spores exposed to simulated martian atmosphere (99.9% CO2, 710 Pa) for 21 days in a Mars Simulation Chamber (MSC) and compared to parallel Earth controls. Exposure in the MSC reduced spore viability by ˜67% compared to Earth controls, but this decrease was not statistically significant (P = 0.3321). The frequency of mutation to RifR was also not significantly increased in the MSC compared to Earth-exposed spores (P = 0.479). Forty-two and 51 RifR mutant spores were isolated from the MSC- and Earth-exposed controls, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing located the RifR mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the β subunit of RNA polymerase at residue V135F of the N-cluster and at residues Q469K/L, H482D/P/R/Y, and S487L in Cluster I. No mutations were found in rpoB Clusters II or III. Two new alleles, Q469L and H482D, previously unreported in B. subtilis rpoB, were isolated from spores exposed in the MSC; otherwise, only slight differences were observed in the spectra of spontaneous RifR mutations from spores exposed to Earth vs. the MSC. However, both spectra are distinctly different from RifR mutations previously reported arising from B. subtilis spores exposed to simulated space vacuum.

  17. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from Hebridean cloud and rain water produce biosurfactants but do not cause ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, H. E.; Walsh, K. A.; Hill, T. C. J.; Moffett, B. F.

    2007-02-01

    Microorganisms were discovered in clouds over 100 years ago but information on bacterial community structure and function is limited. Clouds may not only be a niche within which bacteria could thrive but they might also influence dynamic processes using ice nucleating and cloud condensing abilities. Cloud and rain samples were collected from two mountains in the Outer Hebrides, NW Scotland, UK. Community composition was determined using a combination of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and sequencing. 256 clones yielded 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of which half were related to bacteria from terrestrial psychrophilic environments. Cloud samples were dominated by a mixture of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., some of which have been reported to be ice nucleators. It was therefore possible that these bacteria were using the ice nucleation (IN) gene to trigger the Bergeron-Findeisen process of raindrop formation as a mechanism for dispersal. In this study the IN gene was not detected in any of the isolates using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Instead 55% of the total isolates from both cloud and rain samples displayed significant biosurfactant activity when analyzed using the drop-collapse technique. All isolates were characterised as fluorescent pseudomonads. Surfactants have been found to be very important in lowering atmospheric critical supersaturations required for the activation of aerosols into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is also known that surfactants influence cloud droplet size and increase cloud lifetime and albedo. Some bacteria are known to act as CCN and so it is conceivable that these fluorescent pseudomonads are using surfactants to facilitate their activation from aerosols into CCN. This would allow water scavenging,~countering desiccation, and assist in their widespread dispersal.

  18. Isolation of rpoB mutations causing rifampicin resistance in Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to simulated Martian surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Amy E; Schuerger, Andrew C; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2008-12-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial spores are considered prime candidates for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight activities. Previous studies have shown that exposure of Bacillus subtilis spores to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) characteristic of space both increased the spontaneous mutation rate and altered the spectrum of mutation in various marker genes; but, to date, mutagenesis studies have not been performed on spores exposed to milder low pressures encountered in the martian environment. Mutations to rifampicin-resistance (Rif(R)) were isolated in B. subtilis spores exposed to simulated martian atmosphere (99.9% CO(2), 710 Pa) for 21 days in a Mars Simulation Chamber (MSC) and compared to parallel Earth controls. Exposure in the MSC reduced spore viability by approximately 67% compared to Earth controls, but this decrease was not statistically significant (P = 0.3321). The frequency of mutation to Rif(R) was also not significantly increased in the MSC compared to Earth-exposed spores (P = 0.479). Forty-two and 51 Rif(R) mutant spores were isolated from the MSC- and Earth-exposed controls, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing located the Rif(R) mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase at residue V135F of the N-cluster and at residues Q469K/L, H482D/P/R/Y, and S487L in Cluster I. No mutations were found in rpoB Clusters II or III. Two new alleles, Q469L and H482D, previously unreported in B. subtilis rpoB, were isolated from spores exposed in the MSC; otherwise, only slight differences were observed in the spectra of spontaneous Rif(R) mutations from spores exposed to Earth vs. the MSC. However, both spectra are distinctly different from Rif(R) mutations previously reported arising from B. subtilis spores exposed to simulated space vacuum.

  19. Acute mechanical overstimulation of isolated outer hair cells causes changes in intracellular calcium levels without shape changes.

    PubMed

    Fridberger, A; Ulfendahl, M

    1996-01-01

    Impaired auditory function following acoustic overstimulation, or noise, is mainly reported to be accompanied by cellular changes such as damage to the sensory hair bundles, but changes in the cell bodies of the outer hair cells have also been described. To investigate more closely the immediate cellular responses to overstimulation, isolated guinea pig outer hair cells were subjected to a 200 Hz oscillating water jet producing intense mechanical stimulation. The water jet was aimed at the cell body of the isolated outer hair cell. Cell shape changes were studied using video microscopy, and intracellular calcium concentration changes were monitored by means of the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-3. Cells exposed to a high-intensity stimulus showed surprisingly small light-microscopical alterations. The cytoplasmic calcium concentration increased in most cells, although some cells appeared very resistant to the mechanical stress. No correlation could be found be tween the calcium concentration changes and the cell length. The changes in calcium concentration reported here are suggested to be involved in the long-term pathogenesis of noise-induced hair cell damage.

  20. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  1. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis.

  2. Serological and Molecular Studies of a Novel Virus Isolate Causing Yellow Mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS – PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78–82% and 91–95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  3. Massive Hematuria and Shock Caused by Ilio-Ureteral Fistula in a Patient with an Isolated Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yuhei; Setozaki, Shuji; Harada, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    An emergent operation was performed on a 73-year-old woman with massive hematuria and serious shock. A computed tomography (CT) revealed that the cause of the shock was hemorrhage from an aneurysm into the ureter, with resultant massive hematuria. During surgery, we observed that the ureter was encased into the wall of the aneurysm, with exposure of the pre-positioned ureteric stent inside the aneurysmal space. Reconstruction of the ureter was performed by wrapping the tissues with the ureteric stent inside. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and CT angiography showed complete exclusion of the right internal iliac artery with the in situ ureteric stent. PMID:23641292

  4. Isolated iliotibial band rupture after corticosteroid injection as a cause of subjective instability and knee pain in a military special warfare trainee.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Sandeep R; Solomon, Daniel J; Gross, Daniel J; Golijanin, Petar; Provencher, Matthew T

    2014-04-01

    Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) of the knee is a common overuse injury in athletes, especially in runners. The syndrome occurs when the ITB, a lateral thickening of the fascia lata of the thigh moves repetitively over the lateral femoral condyle. A variety of nonoperative measures are used for ITBFS treatment, including stretching, core strengthening, and therapeutic injection. Isolated distal ITB rupture is a rare entity and has never yet to be reported in the orthopedic literature. We present a case of isolated ITB rupture as a cause of varus instability and knee pain in a Naval Special Warfare candidate diagnosed with ITBFS and previously treated with several local corticosteroid injections before ITB rupture. Because of continued knee pain and a sense of instability, along with an inability to return to his military special warfare duties, the ITB was surgically repaired. This case highlights the presentation and management of isolated distal ITB rupture and discusses some of the potential risk factors for rupture, including prior local corticosteroid injection.

  5. Capillary-force-induced clustering of micropillar arrays: is it caused by isolated capillary bridges or by the lateral capillary meniscus interaction force?

    PubMed

    Chandra, Dinesh; Yang, Shu

    2009-09-15

    Because of their increased mechanical compliance, arrays of high-aspect-ratio microstructures are susceptible to deformation by capillary forces. In the literature, the collapse of a 1D array of tall line patterns during liquid evaporation off of their surface has been attributed to the Laplace pressure difference due to isolated capillary bridges. The same argument has often been simply extended to 2D arrays of tall microstructures to explain the collapse behavior. Using a short-chain polystyrene (PS) melt as a wetting liquid on a 2D array of epoxy micropillars, we showed that the collapse occurred while the micropillars were still completely surrounded by liquid, thus the clustering of micropillars should be caused by the lateral capillary meniscus interaction force rather than by often-reported isolated capillary bridges. We showed that the capillary meniscus interaction force was more than an order of magnitude smaller than that calculated from the Laplace pressure difference due to isolated capillary bridges. This result suggested a much lower critical elastic modulus for stable micropillar arrays, which agreed well with our experimental observation. PMID:19735125

  6. Analysis of the cbhE' plasmid gene from acute disease-causing isolates of Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Minnick, M F; Small, C L; Frazier, M E; Mallavia, L P

    1991-07-15

    A gene termed cbhE' was cloned from the QpH1 plasmid of Coxiella burnetii. Expression of recombinants containing cbhE' in vitro and in Escherichia coli maxicells, produced an insert-encoded polypeptide of approx. 42 kDa. The CbhE protein was not cleaved when intact maxicells were treated with trypsin. Hybridizations of total DNA isolated from the six strains of C. burnetii indicate that this gene is unique to C. burnetii strains associated with acute disease, i.e., Hamilton[I], Vacca[II], and Rasche[III]. The cbhE' gene was not detected in strains associated with chronic disease (Biotzere[IV] and Corazon[V]) or the Dod[VI] strain. The cbhE' open reading frame (ORF) is 1022 bp in length and is preceded by a predicted promoter/Shine-Dalgarno (SD) region of TCAACT(-35)-N16-TAAAAT(-10)-N14-AGAAGGA (SD) located 10 nucleotides (nt) before the presumed AUG start codon. The ORF ends with a single UAA stop codon and has no apparent Rho-factor-independent terminator following it. The cbhE' gene codes for the CbhE protein of 341 amino acid (aa) residues with a deduced Mr of 39,442. CbhE is predominantly hydrophilic with a predicted pI of 4.43. The function of CbhE is unknown. No nt or aa sequences with homology to cbhE' or CbhE, respectively, were found in searches of a number of data bases.

  7. Parrot Bornavirus (PaBV)-2 isolate causes different disease patterns in cockatiels than PaBV-4.

    PubMed

    Piepenbring, Anne K; Enderlein, Dirk; Herzog, Sibylle; Al-Ibadi, Basim; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Heckmann, Julia; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Herden, Christiane; Lierz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Psittaciform 1 bornavirus (PaBV) has already been shown to be the aetiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a significant disease of birds. However, the pathogenesis of PaBV infection has not yet been resolved and valid data regarding the pathogenicity of different PaBV species are lacking. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the influence of two different PaBV species on the course of disease. Eighteen cockatiels were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with a PaBV-2 isolate under the same conditions as in a previous study using PaBV-4. Birds were surveyed and sampled for 33 weeks to analyse the course of infection and disease in comparison to that of PaBV-4. Similar to PaBV-4, PaBV-2 induced a persistent infection with seroconversion (from day 6 p.i. onwards) and shedding of viral RNA (from day 27 p.i. onwards). However, in contrast to PaBV-4, more birds displayed clinical signs and disease progression was more severe. After PaBV-2 infection, 12 birds exhibited clinical signs and 10 birds revealed a dilated proventriculus in necropsy. After PaBV-4 infection only four birds revealed clinical signs and seven birds showed a dilatation of the proventriculus. Clinically, different courses of disease were observed after PaBV-2 infection, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. This had not been detected after PaBV-4 infection where more neurological signs were noted. The results provide evidence for different disease patterns according to different PaBV species, allowing the comparison between the infection with two PaBV species, and thus underlining the role of viral and individual host factors for disease outcome. PMID:27100150

  8. A Missense Mutation in the Human Cytochrome b5 Gene causes 46,XY Disorder of Sex Development due to True Isolated 17,20 Lyase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Idkowiak, Jan; Randell, Tabitha; Dhir, Vivek; Patel, Pushpa; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.; Taylor, Norman F.; Krone, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Context: Isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency is commonly defined by apparently normal 17α-hydroxylase activity but severely reduced 17,20 lyase activity of the bifunctional enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme 17A1 (CYP17A1), resulting in sex steroid deficiency but normal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid reserve. Cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) is thought to selectively enhance 17,20 lyase activity by facilitating the allosteric interaction of CYP17A1 with its electron donor P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Objective: We investigated a large consanguineous family including three siblings with 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) presenting with isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency. Design: We investigated the clinical and biochemical phenotype, conducted genetic analyses, and functionally characterized the identified CYB5A mutation in cell-based CYP17A1 coexpression assays. Results: All three siblings presented with 46,XY DSD, sex steroid deficiency, normal mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, and a urine steroid metabolome suggestive of isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency. CYP17A1 and POR sequences were normal, but we detected a homozygous CYB5A missense mutation (g.28,400A→T; p.H44L). Functional in vitro analysis revealed normal CYP17A1 17α-hydroxylase activity but severely impaired 17,20 lyase activity. In silico analysis suggested the disruption of CYB5A heme binding by p.H44L. Conclusion: We have identified the first human CYB5A missense mutation as the cause of isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency in three individuals with 46,XY DSD. Detailed review of previously reported cases with apparently isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency due to mutant CYP17A1 and POR reveals impaired 17α-hydroxylase activity as assessed by steroid metabolome analysis and short cosyntropin testing. This suggests that truly isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency is observed only in individuals with inactivating CYB5A mutations. PMID:22170710

  9. Isolated and Syndromic Retinal Dystrophy Caused by Biallelic Mutations in RCBTB1, a Gene Implicated in Ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Frauke; Ascari, Giulia; Dannhausen, Katharina; Nikopoulos, Konstantinos; Peelman, Frank; Karlstetter, Marcus; Xu, Mingchu; Brachet, Cécile; Meunier, Isabelle; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Tsika, Chrysanthi; Blazaki, Styliani V; Vergult, Sarah; Farinelli, Pietro; Van Laethem, Thalia; Bauwens, Miriam; De Bruyne, Marieke; Chen, Rui; Langmann, Thomas; Sui, Ruifang; Meire, Françoise; Rivolta, Carlo; Hamel, Christian P; Leroy, Bart P; De Baere, Elfride

    2016-08-01

    Inherited retinal dystrophies (iRDs) are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous conditions resulting from mutations in over 250 genes. Here, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a consanguineous family revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.973C>T (p.His325Tyr), in RCBTB1. In affected individuals, it was found to segregate with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), goiter, primary ovarian insufficiency, and mild intellectual disability. Subsequent analysis of WES data in different cohorts uncovered four additional homozygous missense mutations in five unrelated families in whom iRD segregates with or without syndromic features. Ocular phenotypes ranged from typical RP starting in the second decade to chorioretinal dystrophy with a later age of onset. The five missense mutations affect highly conserved residues either in the sixth repeat of the RCC1 domain or in the BTB1 domain. A founder haplotype was identified for mutation c.919G>A (p.Val307Met), occurring in two families of Mediterranean origin. We showed ubiquitous mRNA expression of RCBTB1 and demonstrated predominant RCBTB1 localization in human inner retina. RCBTB1 was very recently shown to be involved in ubiquitination, more specifically as a CUL3 substrate adaptor. Therefore, the effect on different components of the CUL3 and NFE2L2 (NRF2) pathway was assessed in affected individuals' lymphocytes, revealing decreased mRNA expression of NFE2L2 and several NFE2L2 target genes. In conclusion, our study puts forward mutations in RCBTB1 as a cause of autosomal-recessive non-syndromic and syndromic iRD. Finally, our data support a role for impaired ubiquitination in the pathogenetic mechanism of RCBTB1 mutations. PMID:27486781

  10. Hypomethylation of the H19 Gene Causes Not Only Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) but Also Isolated Asymmetry or an SRS-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Bliek, Jet; Terhal, Paulien; van den Bogaard, Marie-José; Maas, Saskia; Hamel, Ben; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette; Simon, Marleen; Letteboer, Tom; van der Smagt, Jasper; Kroes, Hester; Mannens, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) controls the allele-specific expression of both the imprinted H19 tumor-suppressor gene and the IGF2 growth factor. Hypermethylation of this DMR—and subsequently of the H19 promoter region—is a major cause of the clinical features of gigantism and/or asymmetry seen in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or in isolated hemihypertrophy. Here, we report a series of patients with hypomethylation of the H19 locus. Their main clinical features of asymmetry and growth retardation are the opposite of those seen in patients with hypermethylation of this region. In addition, we show that complete hypomethylation of the H19 promoter is found in two of three patients with the full clinical spectrum of Silver-Russell syndrome. This syndrome is also characterized by growth retardation and asymmetry, among other clinical features. We conclude that patients with these clinical features should be analyzed for H19 hypomethylation. PMID:16532391

  11. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  12. Molecular characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae causing invasive disease during the period of vaccination in Switzerland: analysis of strains isolated between 1986 and 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Muhlemann, K; Balz, M; Aebi, S; Schopfer, K

    1996-01-01

    The broad use of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b may select for strains to which the polysaccharide vaccine does not provide immunity. We analyzed 392 consecutive H. influenzae isolates from Swiss children 0 to 16 years of age with invasive disease during the years 1986 to 1993. Bacterial strains were characterized by serotyping, capsular genotyping, outer membrane protein (OMP) subtyping, and ribotyping. Of 392 strains, 372 were serotype b, 1 was serotype a, 3 were serotype f, and 16 were nontypeable H. influenzae. After the introduction of Haemophilus conjugate vaccines in 1990, there was a relative increase of nontypeable strains from 3 to 6.6% (P = 0.27). Of the type b strains, 281 (75.5%) had the same OMP subtype and ribotype pattern. This clone predominated in the pre- and postvaccine periods. After the year 1990, the proportions of OMP subtype 1c and OMP subtype 3 tended to increase. Isolates from previously vaccinated (n = 10) and nonvaccinated patients did not differ in their subtype distributions. We conclude that the administration of conjugated vaccines decreased invasive disease caused by the most prevalent H. influenzae type b clone. However, further surveillance of circulating H. influenzae strains during the period of vaccination is indicated. PMID:8904414

  13. Photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress to the toxic Phaeocystis globosa caused by a diketopiperazine isolated from products of algicidal bacterium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shuo; Hu, Xiaoli; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Algicidal bacteria have been turned out to be available for inhibiting Phaeocystis globosa which frequently caused harmful algal blooms and threatened to economic development and ecological balance. A marine bacterium Bacillus sp. Ts-12 exhibited significant algicidal activity against P. globosa by indirect attack. In present study, an algicidal compound was isolated by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and HPLC, further identified as hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, cyclo-(Pro-Gly), by GC-MS and (1)H-NMR. Cyclo-(Pro-Gly) significantly increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within P. globosa cells, further activating the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA). The increase in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content showed that the surplus ROS induced lipid peroxidation on membrane system. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis revealed that cyclo-(Pro-Gly) caused reduction of Chl-a content, destruction of cell membrane integrity, chloroplasts and nuclear structure. Real-time PCR assay showed that the transcriptions of photosynthesis related genes (psbA, psbD, rbcL) were significantly inhibited. This study indicated that cyclo-(Pro-Gly) from marine Bacillus sp. Ts-12 exerted photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress to P. globosa and eventually led to the algal cells lysis. This algicidal compound might be potential bio-agent for controlling P. globosa red tide. PMID:27095455

  14. The inheritance of resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in the lettuce cultivar La Brillante.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Ryan J; McHale, Leah K; Vallad, Gary E; Truco, Maria Jose; Michelmore, Richard W; Klosterman, Steve J; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2011-08-01

    Verticillium wilt of lettuce caused by Verticillium dahliae can cause severe economic damage to lettuce producers. Complete resistance to race 1 isolates is available in Lactuca sativa cultivar (cv.) La Brillante and understanding the genetic basis of this resistance will aid development of new resistant cultivars. F(1) and F(2) families from crosses between La Brillante and three iceberg cultivars as well as a recombinant inbred line population derived from L. sativa cv. Salinas 88 × La Brillante were evaluated for disease incidence and disease severity in replicated greenhouse and field experiments. One hundred and six molecular markers were used to generate a genetic map from Salinas 88 × La Brillante and for detection of quantitative trait loci. Segregation was consistent with a single dominant gene of major effect which we are naming Verticillium resistance 1 (Vr1). The gene described large portions of the phenotypic variance (R(2) = 0.49-0.68) and was mapped to linkage group 9 coincident with an expressed sequence tag marker (QGD8I16.yg.ab1) that has sequence similarity with the Ve gene that confers resistance to V. dahliae race 1 in tomato. The simple inheritance of resistance indicates that breeding procedures designed for single genes will be applicable for developing resistant cultivars. QGD8I16.yg.ab1 is a good candidate for functional analysis and development of markers suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  15. Acute abdomen due to group A streptococcus bacteremia caused by an isolate with a mutation in the csrS gene.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masahiko; Maruta, Masaki; Shikata, Hisaharu; Hanayama, Masakazu; Ikebe, Tadayoshi

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) is an aerobic gram-positive coccus that causes infections ranging from non-invasive pharyngitis to severely invasive necrotizing fasciitis. Mutations in csrS/csrR and rgg, negative regulator genes of group A streptococcus, are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, which is a severe, invasive infection characterized by sudden onset of shock and multiorgan failure, resulting in a high mortality rate. Here we present a case of group A streptococcal bacteremia in a 28-year-old Japanese woman with no relevant previous medical history. The patient developed progressive abdominal symptoms that may have been due to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, followed by a state of shock, which did not fulfill the proposed criteria for streptococcal toxic shock. The isolate was found to harbor a mutation in the negative regulator csrS gene, whereas the csrR and rgg genes were intact. It was noteworthy that this strain carrying a csrS mutation had caused group A streptococcal bacteremia characterized by acute abdomen as the presenting symptom in a young individual who had been previously healthy. This case indicates that group A streptococcus with csrS mutations has potential virulence factors that are associated with the onset of group A streptococcal bacteremia that does not meet the diagnostic criteria for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

  16. Isolated septic facet joint arthritis as a rare cause of acute and chronic low back pain – a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Klekot, Dominika; Zimny, Anna; Czapiga, Bogdan; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: The most common cause of low back pain is degenerative disease of the intervertebral disc and other structures of the lumbar spine. However, in some cases other less frequent causes of such pain can be seen, for example septic facet joint arthritis. Until now, only 40 cases of such inflammatory changes within the spine have been reported in the literature. The disease is probably underestimated due to improper diagnostic pathway. Case Report: The authors describe a case of a 53-year-old woman who was repeatedly hospitalized during a five-month period because of an acute, severe low back pain, with sphincter dysfunction, partially resembling sciatic symptoms. Physical examinations revealed also focal tenderness in the area of the lumbar spine. Inflammatory markers (ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP – C-reactive protein) were elevated. Conservative analgetic treatment brought only partial and temporary relief of the pain and symptoms. The final accurate diagnosis of isolated septic facet joint arthritis at the level of L5/S1 was established after several months from the onset of the first symptoms, after performing various imaging examinations, including bone scintigraphy as well as CT and MRI of the lumbosacral spine. The patient fully recovered after antibiotic therapy and surgery, which was proven in several follow-up examinations showing no relevant pathology of the lumbar spine. The authors broadly describe the etiology and clinical symptoms of the septic facet joint arthritis as well as the significant role of imaging methods, especially MRI, in diagnostic process. The authors also discuss currently available treatment options, both conservative and surgical. Conclusions: The diagnostic procedure of septic facet joint arthritis requires several steps to be taken. Establishing a correct diagnosis may be difficult, that is why it is important to remember about rare causes of low back pain and to perform detailed physical

  17. Where Should We Look for Clues to Resolve the Physical Mechanism Causing Deep Earthquakes? Consider: Deep Moonquakes, and Isolated Deep Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, C.; Nakamura, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The physical mechanism responsible for deep earthquakes has been a puzzle since their discovery by Wadati 85 years ago. Today the three most widely accepted mechanisms are dehydration embrittlement (for depths above about 300 km), 'anticracks' in metastable olivine (for deeper events), and thermal runaway. Yet, the puzzle remains: no single mechanism seems satisfactory, and having three mechanisms seems contrary to Occams Razor. Where might we look for observations to help resolve this problem? One of the 20thcenturies greatest scientific surprises was when seismic data collected during the Apollo projects proved that the Moon was seismically active at depths of 850-1100 km. These deep moonquakes occurred repeatedly within clusters or "nests", with occurrence times strongly correlated with solid tides. Although they occur under temperature-pressure conditions highly similar to terrestrial earthquakes at depths of ~120 km, it seems unlikely they are caused by dehydration embrittlement, as there is no subduction on the Moon, and possibly little or no water. Must we propose a fourth mechanism for deep quakes? Or are our explanations for terrestrial deep quakes incorrect? The development of plate tectonics was one of the 20thcentury science's great paradigm shifts; one observation it helped explain was why numerous earthquakes with focal depths exceeding 400 km occurred in the mantle in areas like Tonga where very old, fast-moving plates converged. But some "isolated deep earthquakes" are exceptional; these earthquakes occur separated from neighboring events by hundreds of km. Some, like earthquakes in Spain in 1954 and Colombia in 1970, with Mw exceeding 7.5 are among the largest deep-focus earthquakes known, yet occurred singly without any fore- or aftershocks. What physical mechanism allows such large, isolated earthquakes to occur? The tendency is to focus attention on areas like Tonga where the majority of deep events occur. But understanding rare isolated events

  18. Isolated Loss of PMS2 Immunohistochemical Expression is Frequently Caused by Heterogenous MLH1 Promoter Hypermethylation in Lynch Syndrome Screening for Endometrial Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Naoki; Sugawara, Tae; Takahashi, Kazue; Kito, Masahiko; Makino, Kenichi; Sato, Toshiharu; Shimizu, Dai; Shirasawa, Hiromistu; Miura, Hiroshi; Sato, Wataru; Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Sato, Akira; Kumagai, Jin; Terada, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder mainly caused by a germline mutation in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) and is associated with increased risk for various cancers, particularly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (EC). Women with LS account for 2% to 6% of EC patients; it is clinically important to identify LS in such individuals for predicting and/or preventing additional LS-associated cancers. PMS2 germline mutation (PMS2-LS) is the rarest contribution to LS etiology among the 4 LS-associated MMR germline mutations, and its detection is complicated. Therefore, prudent screening for PMS2-LS is important as it leads to an efficient LS identification strategy. Immunohistochemistry is recommended as a screening method for LS in EC. Isolated loss of PMS2 (IL-PMS2) expression is caused not only by PMS2-LS but also by MLH1 germline mutation or MLH1 promoter hypermethylation (MLH-PHM). This study aimed to determine the association between MLH1-PHM and IL-PMS2 to avoid inappropriate genetic analysis. We performed MLH1 methylation analysis and MLH1/PMS2 germline mutation testing on the IL-PMS2 cases. By performing MMR-immunohistochemistry on 360 unselected ECs, we could select 8 (2.2%) cases as IL-PMS2. Heterogenous MLH1 staining and MLH1-PHM were detected in 4 of 8 (50%) IL-PMS2 tumors. Of the 5 IL-PMS2 patients who underwent genetic analysis, 1 had PMS2 germline mutation with normal MLH1 expression (without MLH1-PHM), and no MLH1 germline mutation was detected. We suggest that MLH1 promoter methylation analysis for IL-PMS2 EC should be performed to exclude sporadic cases before further PMS2 genetic testing. PMID:26848797

  19. Effect of pinaverium and other calcium channel blockers on contraction of isolated gastric antral smooth muscle cells caused by gastrointestinal hormones.

    PubMed

    Bobo, M H; Magous, R; Christen, M O; Bali, J P

    1994-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and motilin, are known to induce contraction of digestive smooth muscle cells from various species. In this paper, we studied the effect of calcium channel blockers, diltiazem, nicardipine, and pinaverium on the hormone-dependent contraction of smooth muscle cells isolated from rabbit antrum. Gastrin, CCK-8, and motilin caused dose-dependent contraction with EC-50 values in the physiological range (10-100 pM). This contractile effect was dependent upon extracellular calcium for gastrin and CCK-8 but not for motilin. When used alone, calcium channel blockers diltiazem, nicardipine, but not pinaverium, caused a weak but significant contraction of the cells. Pinaverium inhibited both gastrin- and CCK-8-induced contractions with IC-50 values of 1 nM and it was much less potent in the inhibition of motilin-induced contractions (IC-50 = 25 nM). The effect of pinaverium was equivalent to that of diltiazem in the inhibition of CCK-8- or gastrin-induced contractions. Both drugs were slightly more potent than nicardipine (IC-50 = 10 nM versus 1 nM for pineaverium and 5 nM for diltiazem). In contrast, diltiazem and pinaverium were less potent against motilin stimulation, diltiazem being 5 times more potent than pinaverium. In conclusion, it appears that since Ca2+ antagonists pinaverium, diltiazem and nicardipine inhibited contraction of smooth muscle cells stimulated by gastrointestinal hormones, "L-type" calcium channels of the plasma membrane might also be regulated through occupation of gastrin or CCK receptors. PMID:8201843

  20. A missense mutation in ALDH1A3 causes isolated microphthalmia/anophthalmia in nine individuals from an inbred Muslim kindred.

    PubMed

    Mory, Adi; Ruiz, Francesc X; Dagan, Efrat; Yakovtseva, Evgenia A; Kurolap, Alina; Parés, Xavier; Farrés, Jaume; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Nine affected individuals with isolated anophthalmia/microphthalmia from a large Muslim-inbred kindred were investigated. Assuming autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance, whole-genome linkage analysis, on DNA samples from four affected individuals, was undertaken. Homozygosity mapping techniques were employed and a 1.5-Mbp region, homozygous in all affected individuals, was delineated. The region contained nine genes, one of which, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3), was a clear candidate. This gene seems to encode a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic-acid gradient along the dorsoventral axis during an early eye development and the development of the olfactory system. Sanger sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation, causing a substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) at position 71. Analyzing the p.Val71Met missense mutation using standard open access software (MutationTaster online, PolyPhen, SIFT/PROVEAN) predicts this variant to be damaging. Enzymatic activity, studied in vitro, showed no changes between the mutated and the wild-type ALDH1A3 protein.

  1. Induced resistance in melon plants against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis caused by a nonpathogenic isolate of the same formae specialis.

    PubMed

    Chikh-Rouhou, H; Alvarez, M; González-Torres, R

    2006-01-01

    Melon 'Charentais T' susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1.2 was pre-inoculated, as a resistance inducer agent, with a nonpathogenic isolate of Fom. The biocontrol agent was only effective when it was applied one or two days before a challenge inoculation with the pathogen. Simultaneous inoculation did not provide any durable protection. Melon cv 'Charentais Fom 1' carries a single dominant gene conferring resistance against Fom races 0 and 2, whereas 'Charentais Fom 2' carries a single dominant gene conferring resistance against races 0 and 1 but both genotypes are susceptible to Fom race 1.2. Co-inoculation with conidia of race 0 provided almost complete protection against the pathogenic race 1.2. It may be hypothesised that while in contact with the host, the non-pathogenic races of the melon Fusarium either possess or secrete an inducing factor causing a defence reaction in melons possessing a resistance gene and preventing the proliferation of the pathogenic race either by formation of a mechanical barrier or by the synthesis of fungistatic substances.

  2. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  3. Distribution of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, AmpC β-Lactamases, and Carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Causing Intra-Abdominal Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region: Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area. PMID:23587958

  4. Identification of molecular marker and aggressiveness for different groups of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates causing spot blotch disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, S K; Sweta; Prasad, L C; Sharma, S; Kumar, S; Prasad, R; Pandey, S P; Chand, R; Joshi, A K

    2007-08-01

    One hundred fifty-five isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana of wheat were studied for their morphopathological characterization. These isolates were grouped in five categories--black, brown/dull black, gray cottony growth, dull white/greenish black, and white--on the basis of their growth pattern. The frequency of the black suppressed type was maximum (45.63%), whereas the white isolate displayed lowest frequency (6.96%) in the natural population. Twenty RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) primers were used to observe the variability among the identified groups of B. sorokininana. From each group, eight random isolates were investigated. A total of 143 bands were amplified, out of which 107 (74.83%) were polymorphic and 36 (25.17%) were monomorphic. On an average, the total numbers of bands generated per primer were 7.15, of which 5.35 and 1.80 were polymorphic and monomorphic, respectively. Dendrograms based on molecular polymorphism unveiled a considerable amount of diversity among the isolates. Specific DNA bands were identified for selected isolates. The distinct markers appeared to be potential enough to be employed as genetic fingerprints for future strain identification and classification. The study indicated that the RAPD primers provide an easy, rapid, and simple technique for the preliminary assessment of genetic diversity among the fungal isolates.

  5. Dominance of multidrug-resistant Denmark(14)-32 (ST230) clone among Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A isolates causing pneumococcal disease in Bulgaria from 1992 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Setchanova, Lena Petrova; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Dacheva, Daniela; Mitov, Ivan; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio

    2015-02-01

    A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in Bulgarian national immunization program since April 2010. Clonal composition based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing genotyping of 52 serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates was analyzed. These were invasive and respiratory isolates collected between 1992 and 2013 from both children (78.8% <5 years) and adults with pneumococcal infections. Multidrug resistance was found in 82.7% of all 19A isolates. The most prevalent genotype (63.5%) among serotype 19A pneumococcal strains was the multidrug-resistant clonal complex CC230, which is a capsular switched variant of the Denmark(14)-32 (ST230) global clone. The most frequent sequence type (ST) was ST230 (48.1%) and together with four other closely related STs (15.4%), belonging to ST1611, ST276, ST7466, and ST2013, which were single- and double-locus variants; they were included in the main CC230. The disappearance of highly drug-resistant ST663 clone and emergence of new clones as CC320 and CC199 was also observed among the rest 19A isolates. A comparison of clonal composition between invasive and noninvasive isolates did not show a great genetic diversity among both kinds of isolates. Continuous surveillance of serotype 19A population following the introduction of PCV10 is essential to evaluate the impact of the vaccine on the epidemiology of this serotype.

  6. Comparison of genomic and antimicrobial resistance features of latex agglutination test-positive and latex agglutination test-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Moser, A; Stephan, R; Corti, S; Johler, S

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry suffers massive economic losses due to staphylococcal mastitis in cattle. The Staphaureux latex agglutination test (Oxoid, Basel, Switzerland) was reported to lead to negative results in 54% of bovine Staphylococcus aureus strains, and latex-negative strains are thought to be less virulent than Staphaurex latex-positive strains. However, comparative information on virulence and resistance profiles of these 2 groups of Staph. aureus is scarce. Our objective was to associate the latex agglutination phenotype of Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis milk with data on clonal complexes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance to (1) determine the virulence profiles of the Staphaureux test positive and Staphaurex test negative groups, and (2) provide data needed to improve treatment of bovine mastitis and to identify potential vaccine targets. Seventy-eight Staph. aureus strains isolated from 78 cows on 57 Swiss farms were characterized. Latex agglutination was tested by Staphaureux kit, and resistance profiles were generated by disk diffusion. A DNA microarray was used to assign clonal complexes (CC) and to determine virulence and resistance gene profiles. By the Staphaureux test, 49% of the isolates were latex-positive and 51% were latex-negative. All latex-negative strains were assigned to CC151, whereas latex-positive strains were assigned to various clonal complexes, including CC97 (n=16), CC8 (n=10), CC479 (n=5), CC20 (n=4), CC7 (n=1), CC9 (n=1), and CC45 (n=1). Although the latex-negative isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, 24% of latex-positive isolates were classified as intermediate with regard to cefalexin-kanamycin and 13% were resistant to both ampicillin and penicillin. Microarray profiles of latex-negative isolates were highly similar, but differed largely from those of latex-positive isolates. Although the latex-negative group lacked several enterotoxin genes and sak, it exhibited significantly

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Isolated from Prunus persica Which Are Dissimilar to Strains That Cause Bacterial Spot Disease on Prunus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas arboricola, isolated from asymptomatic peach trees in Spain, are reported here. These strains are avirulent and do not belong to the same phylogroup as X. arboricola pv. pruni, a causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almonds. PMID:27609931

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Isolated from Prunus persica Which Are Dissimilar to Strains That Cause Bacterial Spot Disease on Prunus spp.

    PubMed

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M; Cubero, Jaime

    2016-09-08

    The draft genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas arboricola, isolated from asymptomatic peach trees in Spain, are reported here. These strains are avirulent and do not belong to the same phylogroup as X. arboricola pv. pruni, a causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almonds.

  9. Clinical characteristics of bacteraemia caused by Lactobacillus spp. and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates at a medical centre in Taiwan, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Liang, Sheng-Kai; Lin, Ching-Kai; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-10-01

    The clinical characteristics of 89 patients with Lactobacillus bacteraemia treated at a university-affiliated hospital in northern Taiwan during 2000-2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Lactobacillus spp. were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by broth microdilution. The most commonly isolated species was Lactobacillus salivarius (n = 21), followed by Lactobacillus paracasei (n = 16) and Lactobacillus fermentum (n = 13). Excluding three isolates with lower 16S rRNA sequence similarity, MALDI-TOF/MS provided correct identification for 84.9% (73/86) of Lactobacillus isolates. Concordant identification was lowest for Lactobacillus casei (11%). The main infection foci were intra-abdominal infection (49%) and catheter-related bloodstream infection (17%). Only one-half of the patients received adequate antibiotic treatment during the bacteraemic episode. The majority of patients with Lactobacillus bacteraemia were immunocompromised. The 7-day and in-hospital mortality rates were 21% and 62%, respectively, and underlying malignancy was associated with a higher in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio = 2.666). There were no significant differences in mortality (7-day, 14-day, 30-day and in-hospital) among patients with bacteraemia due to different Lactobacillus spp. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were highest for glycopeptides, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and were lowest for carbapenems and aminopenicillins. Lactobacillus bacteraemia was associated with a high mortality rate, and patient outcome was associated with underlying malignancy. MALDI-TOF/MS was able to accurately identify 84.9% of the Lactobacillus isolates, and L. salivarius was the predominant pathogen. The accuracy rate for identification of Lactobacillus spp. by MALDI-TOF/MS was lowest for L. casei.

  10. Isolation over 35 years in a heated biotest basin causes selection on MHC class IIß genes in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Mats; Aho, Teija; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2015-01-01

    Genes that play key roles in host immunity such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are expected to be major targets of selection. It is well known that environmental conditions can have an effect on host–parasite interactions and may thus influence the selection on MHC. We analyzed MHC class IIß variability over 35 years in a population of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea that was split into two populations separated from each other. One population was subjected to heating from cooling water of a nuclear power plant and was isolated from the surrounding environment in an artificial lake, while the other population was not subjected to any change in water temperature (control). The isolated population experienced a change of the allelic composition and a decrease in allelic richness of MHC genes compared to the control population. The two most common MHC alleles showed cyclic patterns indicating ongoing parasite–host coevolution in both populations, but the alleles that showed a cyclic behavior differed between the two populations. No such patterns were observed at alleles from nine microsatellite loci, and no genetic differentiation was found between populations. We found no indications for a genetic bottleneck in the isolated population during the 35 years. Additionally, differences in parasitism of the current perch populations suggest that a change of the parasite communities has occurred over the isolation period, although the evidence in form of in-depth knowledge of the change of the parasite community over time is lacking. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a selective sweep imposed by a change in the parasite community. PMID:25897384

  11. Outbreak caused by Proteus mirabilis isolates producing weakly expressed TEM-derived extended-spectrum β-lactamase in spinal cord injury patients with recurrent bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Cremet, Lise; Bemer, Pascale; Rome, Joanna; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Navas, Dominique; Bourigault, Celine; Guillouzouic, Aurelie; Caroff, Nathalie; Lepelletier, Didier; Asseray, Nathalie; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Corvec, Stephane

    2011-12-01

    We performed a retrospective extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) molecular characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from urine of spinal cord injury patients. A incorrectly detected TEM-24-producing clone and a new weakly expressed TEM-derived ESBL were discovered. In such patients, ESBL detection in daily practice should be improved by systematic use of a synergy test in strains of P. mirabilis resistant to penicillins.

  12. Isolation over 35 years in a heated biotest basin causes selection on MHC class IIß genes in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.).

    PubMed

    Björklund, Mats; Aho, Teija; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2015-04-01

    Genes that play key roles in host immunity such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are expected to be major targets of selection. It is well known that environmental conditions can have an effect on host-parasite interactions and may thus influence the selection on MHC. We analyzed MHC class IIß variability over 35 years in a population of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea that was split into two populations separated from each other. One population was subjected to heating from cooling water of a nuclear power plant and was isolated from the surrounding environment in an artificial lake, while the other population was not subjected to any change in water temperature (control). The isolated population experienced a change of the allelic composition and a decrease in allelic richness of MHC genes compared to the control population. The two most common MHC alleles showed cyclic patterns indicating ongoing parasite-host coevolution in both populations, but the alleles that showed a cyclic behavior differed between the two populations. No such patterns were observed at alleles from nine microsatellite loci, and no genetic differentiation was found between populations. We found no indications for a genetic bottleneck in the isolated population during the 35 years. Additionally, differences in parasitism of the current perch populations suggest that a change of the parasite communities has occurred over the isolation period, although the evidence in form of in-depth knowledge of the change of the parasite community over time is lacking. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a selective sweep imposed by a change in the parasite community. PMID:25897384

  13. Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica Isolates Causing Fungemia: a Multicenter, Prospective Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wang, He; Guo, Dawen; Pan, Yuhong; Xiao, Yuling; Yue, Na; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Xu, Yingchun; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat

    2015-11-01

    Our case series showed that uncomplicated Yarrowia lipolytica fungemia might be treated with catheter removal alone. The Vitek 2 YST identification (ID) card system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and internal transcribed spacer and 25S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) gene sequencing provided reliable identification. All isolates had low MICs to voriconazole, echinocandins, and amphotericin B.

  14. Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica Isolates Causing Fungemia: a Multicenter, Prospective Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wang, He; Guo, Dawen; Pan, Yuhong; Xiao, Yuling; Yue, Na; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui

    2015-01-01

    Our case series showed that uncomplicated Yarrowia lipolytica fungemia might be treated with catheter removal alone. The Vitek 2 YST identification (ID) card system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and internal transcribed spacer and 25S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) gene sequencing provided reliable identification. All isolates had low MICs to voriconazole, echinocandins, and amphotericin B. PMID:26311865

  15. Outbreak caused by Proteus mirabilis isolates producing weakly expressed TEM-derived extended-spectrum β-lactamase in spinal cord injury patients with recurrent bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Cremet, Lise; Bemer, Pascale; Rome, Joanna; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Navas, Dominique; Bourigault, Celine; Guillouzouic, Aurelie; Caroff, Nathalie; Lepelletier, Didier; Asseray, Nathalie; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Corvec, Stephane

    2011-12-01

    We performed a retrospective extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) molecular characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from urine of spinal cord injury patients. A incorrectly detected TEM-24-producing clone and a new weakly expressed TEM-derived ESBL were discovered. In such patients, ESBL detection in daily practice should be improved by systematic use of a synergy test in strains of P. mirabilis resistant to penicillins. PMID:21888562

  16. Using Major Outer Membrane Protein Typing as an Epidemiological Tool To Investigate Outbreaks Caused by Milk-Borne Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in California

    PubMed Central

    Mandrell, Robert E.; Yuan, Jean; Bates, Anna; Manalac, Rosa; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Kimura, Akiko; Lidgard, Janice; Miller, William G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the Campylobacter jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milk-borne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. The genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental strains with identical or closely related porA sequences was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The first outbreak involved 1,644 C. jejuni infections at 11 state correctional facilities and was associated with consumption of pasteurized milk supplied by an on-site dairy (dairy A) at a prison in the central valley. The second outbreak involved eight confirmed and three suspect C. jejuni cases linked to consumption of commercial raw milk and raw chocolate colostrum at another central valley dairy (dairy B). Both dairies bottled fluid milk on the farm and distributed the finished product to off-site locations. Altogether, C. jejuni was isolated from 7 of 15 (46.7%) bovine fecal, 12 of 20 (60%) flush alley water, and 1 of 20 (5%) lagoon samples collected on dairy A. At dairy B, C. jejuni was cultured from 9 of 26 (34.6%) bovine fecal samples. Environmental strains indistinguishable from the clinical outbreak strains were found in five flush alley water samples (dairy A) and four bovine fecal samples (dairy B). The findings demonstrate that MOMP typing is a useful tool to triage environmental isolates prior to conducting more labor-intensive molecular typing methods. PMID:23115263

  17. Emergence of a mutL mutation causing multilocus sequence typing-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discrepancy among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a cystic fibrosis patient.

    PubMed

    García-Castillo, María; Máiz, Luis; Morosini, María-Isabel; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Suarez, Lucrecia; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; del Campo, Rosa

    2012-05-01

    A multilocus sequence type (MLST) shift (from ST242 to ST996) was detected in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a uniform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern obtained from a chronically colonized patient. MLST mutational change involved the mutL gene with the consequent emergence of a hypermutable phenotype. This observation challenges the required neutrality of mutL as an appropriate marker in MLST and alerts researchers to the limitations of MLST-only-based population studies in chronic infections under constant antibiotic selective pressure. PMID:22322352

  18. Emergence of a mutL mutation causing multilocus sequence typing-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discrepancy among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a cystic fibrosis patient.

    PubMed

    García-Castillo, María; Máiz, Luis; Morosini, María-Isabel; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Suarez, Lucrecia; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; del Campo, Rosa

    2012-05-01

    A multilocus sequence type (MLST) shift (from ST242 to ST996) was detected in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a uniform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern obtained from a chronically colonized patient. MLST mutational change involved the mutL gene with the consequent emergence of a hypermutable phenotype. This observation challenges the required neutrality of mutL as an appropriate marker in MLST and alerts researchers to the limitations of MLST-only-based population studies in chronic infections under constant antibiotic selective pressure.

  19. Emergence of a mutL Mutation Causing Multilocus Sequence Typing–Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Discrepancy among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    García-Castillo, María; Máiz, Luis; Morosini, María-Isabel; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Suarez, Lucrecia; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    A multilocus sequence type (MLST) shift (from ST242 to ST996) was detected in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a uniform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern obtained from a chronically colonized patient. MLST mutational change involved the mutL gene with the consequent emergence of a hypermutable phenotype. This observation challenges the required neutrality of mutL as an appropriate marker in MLST and alerts researchers to the limitations of MLST-only-based population studies in chronic infections under constant antibiotic selective pressure. PMID:22322352

  20. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Wright, Christine E; Winkel, Kenneth D; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Angus, James A

    2011-03-25

    The in vitro cardiac and vascular pharmacology of Malo maxima, a newly described jellyfish suspected of causing Irukandji syndrome in the Broome region of Western Australia, was investigated in rat tissues. In left atria, M. maxima crude venom extract (CVE; 1-100μg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inotropic responses which were unaffected by atropine (1μM), but significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1μM), propranolol (1μM), Mg(2+) (6mM) or calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP(8-37); 1μM). CVE caused no change in right atrial rate until 100μg/mL, which elicited bradycardia. This was unaffected by atropine, TTX, propranolol or CGRP(8-37). In the presence of Mg(2+), CVE 30-100μg/mL caused tachycardia. In small mesenteric arteries CVE caused concentration-dependent contractions (pEC(50) 1.03±0.07μg/mL) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.3μM), ω-conotoxin GVIA (0.1μM) or Mg(2+) (6mM). There was a 2-fold increase in sensitivity in the presence of CGRP(8-37) (3μM). TTX (0.1μM), box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri antivenom (92.6U/mL) and benextramine (3μM) decreased sensitivity by 2.6, 1.9 and 2.1-fold, respectively. CVE-induced maximum contractions were attenuated by C. fleckeri antivenom (-22%) or benextramine (-49%). M. maxima CVE appears to activate the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, nervous system and to stimulate sensory nerve CGRP release in left atria and resistance arteries. These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release. PMID:21237252

  1. Overexpression of IRS2 in isolated pancreatic islets causes proliferation and protects human {beta}-cells from hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, S.; Spinas, G.A.; Maedler, K.; Zuellig, R.A.; Lehmann, R.; Donath, M.Y.; Trueb, T.; Niessen, M. . E-mail: markus.niessen@usz.ch

    2005-02-01

    Studies in vivo indicate that IRS2 plays an important role in maintaining functional {beta}-cell mass. To investigate if IRS2 autonomously affects {beta}-cells, we have studied proliferation, apoptosis, and {beta}-cell function in isolated rat and human islets after overexpression of IRS2 or IRS1. We found that {beta}-cell proliferation was significantly increased in rat islets overexpressing IRS2 while IRS1 was less effective. Moreover, proliferation of a {beta}-cell line, INS-1, was decreased after repression of Irs2 expression using RNA oligonucleotides. Overexpression of IRS2 in human islets significantly decreased apoptosis of {beta}-cells, induced by 33.3 mM D-glucose. However, IRS2 did not protect cultured rat islets against apoptosis in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitic acid. Overexpression of IRS2 in isolated rat islets significantly increased basal and D-glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as determined in perifusion experiments. Therefore, IRS2 is sufficient to induce proliferation in rat islets and to protect human {beta}-cells from D-glucose-induced apoptosis. In addition, IRS2 can improve {beta}-cell function. Our results indicate that IRS2 acts autonomously in {beta}-cells in maintenance and expansion of functional {beta}-cell mass in vivo.

  2. Evidence of the formation of noctilucent clouds due to propagation of an isolated gravity wave caused by a tropospheric occluded front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, P.; Pogoreltsev, A.; Pertsev, N.; Perminov, V.; Shevchuk, N.; Dubietis, A.; Zalcik, M.; Kulikov, S.; Zadorozhny, A.; Kudabayeva, D.; Solodovnik, A.; Salakhutdinov, G.; Grigoryeva, I.

    2015-03-01

    We consider a unique case of a propagating internal gravity wave that has generated in situ a compact and thin layer of noctilucent clouds (NLC) at 82.7-85.2 km with a characteristic horizontal scale of 65-70 km, as observed in the Moscow region on the night of 18-19 July 2013. This particular transient isolated gravity wave together with the whole NLC layer suddenly appeared in the clear twilight sky and lasted about 1 h traveling eastward, which differs significantly from previously observed cases of gravity waves propagating through preexisting NLC layers. Our model studies demonstrate that the wave had a tropospheric source connected to the passage of an occluded front. The wave was likely generated due to strong horizontal wind shears at about 5 km altitude.

  3. Identification of a highly cross-reactive outer surface protein B epitope among diverse geographic isolates of Borrelia spp. causing Lyme disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shoberg, R J; Jonsson, M; Sadziene, A; Bergström, S; Thomas, D D

    1994-01-01

    The outer surface lipoprotein B (OspB) of Borrelia burgdorferi is a major component of the borrelial protein profile and has been shown to be highly immunogenic in experimentally immunized and infected mammals. However, the ospB loci of different strains show considerable heterology at the nucleic acid sequence level, and the progeny of a clonal strain of B. burgdorferi exhibited OspB polymorphisms with respect to apparent molecular weights and reactivities with monoclonal antibodies. These data suggest that OspB is not a good candidate for vaccination or diagnostic purposes. The present study describes a monoclonal antibody, designated 84C, directed against a very highly conserved domain of the OspB lipoprotein. Western immunoblot analysis with 84C demonstrated reactivity in 84.2% of human, tick, and other vertebrate isolate strains examined from widely diverse geographic regions, including strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and two closely related species, B. garinii and B. afzelii. The 84C-binding region was delimited to a highly conserved 11-amino-acid region in the carboxyl terminus of OspB as demonstrated by (i) DNA sequence analysis of wild-type and 84C-resistant mutant ospB alleles and (ii) deletion mutagenesis of a recombinant ospB gene in Escherichia coli. Finally, the 84C epitope was demonstrated to be exposed on the borrelial surface in situ as (i) the monoclonal antibody 84C was able to agglutinate borrelias in culture and (ii) 84C-resistant escape variants were isolated. These data suggest that the potential value of OspB as a vaccine candidate or diagnostic tool be examined more closely, in the context of the 84C-reactive domain. Images PMID:7512097

  4. Identification of a Novel Gene (HSN2) Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type II through the Study of Canadian Genetic Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Lafrenière, Ronald G.; MacDonald, Marcia L. E.; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; MacFarlane, Julie; O’Driscoll, Mary; Brais, Bernard; Meilleur, Sébastien; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Dadivas, Owen; Pape, Terry; Platon, Christèle; Radomski, Chris; Risler, Jenni; Thompson, Jay; Guerra-Escobio, Ana-Maria; Davar, Gudarz; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Pimstone, Simon N.; Green, Roger; Pryse-Phillips, William; Goldberg, Y. Paul; Younghusband, H. Banfield; Hayden, Michael R.; Sherrington, Robin; Rouleau, Guy A.; Samuels, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type II is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impairment of pain, temperature, and touch sensation owing to reduction or absence of peripheral sensory neurons. We identified two large pedigrees segregating the disorder in an isolated population living in Newfoundland and performed a 5-cM genome scan. Linkage analysis identified a locus mapping to 12p13.33 with a maximum LOD score of 8.4. Haplotype sharing defined a candidate interval of 1.06 Mb containing all or part of seven annotated genes, sequencing of which failed to detect causative mutations. Comparative genomics revealed a conserved ORF corresponding to a novel gene in which we found three different truncating mutations among five families including patients from rural Quebec and Nova Scotia. This gene, termed “HSN2,” consists of a single exon located within intron 8 of the PRKWNK1 gene and is transcribed from the same strand. The HSN2 protein may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of peripheral sensory neurons or their supporting Schwann cells. PMID:15060842

  5. Identification of a novel gene (HSN2) causing hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II through the Study of Canadian Genetic Isolates.

    PubMed

    Lafreniere, Ronald G; MacDonald, Marcia L E; Dube, Marie-Pierre; MacFarlane, Julie; O'Driscoll, Mary; Brais, Bernard; Meilleur, Sebastien; Brinkman, Ryan R; Dadivas, Owen; Pape, Terry; Platon, Christele; Radomski, Chris; Risler, Jenni; Thompson, Jay; Guerra-Escobio, Ana-Maria; Davar, Gudarz; Breakefield, Xandra O; Pimstone, Simon N; Green, Roger; Pryse-Phillips, William; Goldberg, Y Paul; Younghusband, H Banfield; Hayden, Michael R; Sherrington, Robin; Rouleau, Guy A; Samuels, Mark E

    2004-05-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type II is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impairment of pain, temperature, and touch sensation owing to reduction or absence of peripheral sensory neurons. We identified two large pedigrees segregating the disorder in an isolated population living in Newfoundland and performed a 5-cM genome scan. Linkage analysis identified a locus mapping to 12p13.33 with a maximum LOD score of 8.4. Haplotype sharing defined a candidate interval of 1.06 Mb containing all or part of seven annotated genes, sequencing of which failed to detect causative mutations. Comparative genomics revealed a conserved ORF corresponding to a novel gene in which we found three different truncating mutations among five families including patients from rural Quebec and Nova Scotia. This gene, termed "HSN2," consists of a single exon located within intron 8 of the PRKWNK1 gene and is transcribed from the same strand. The HSN2 protein may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of peripheral sensory neurons or their supporting Schwann cells.

  6. Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing acute otitis media isolated from children with spontaneous middle-ear drainage over a 12-year period (1999-2010) in a region of northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Marta; Marimon, José M; Ercibengoa, María; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM) and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5%) in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%), the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n=214) Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n=227, 27.8%), 3 (n=92, 11.2%) and 19F (n=74, 9%). Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999-2001) to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008-2010). Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008-2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326) in 1999-2004 to 14.6% (72/492) in 2005-2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and reinfections.

  7. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chew, SY; Cheah, YK; Seow, HF; Sandai, D; Than, LTL

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Methods and Results Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Conclusions Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. PMID:25688886

  8. Species-Level Identification of Actinomyces Isolates Causing Invasive Infections: Multiyear Comparison of Vitek MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry) to Partial Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T; Gregson, D; Church, D L

    2016-03-01

    Actinomyces species are uncommon but important causes of invasive infections. The ability of our regional clinical microbiology laboratory to report species-level identification of Actinomyces relied on molecular identification by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal gene prior to the implementation of the Vitek MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF MS]) system. We compared the use of the Vitek MS to that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for reliable species-level identification of invasive infections caused by Actinomyces spp. because limited data had been published for this important genera. A total of 115 cases of Actinomyces spp., either alone or as part of a polymicrobial infection, were diagnosed between 2011 and 2014. Actinomyces spp. were considered the principal pathogen in bloodstream infections (n = 17, 15%), in skin and soft tissue abscesses (n = 25, 22%), and in pulmonary (n = 26, 23%), bone (n = 27, 23%), intraabdominal (n = 16, 14%), and central nervous system (n = 4, 3%) infections. Compared to sequencing and identification from the SmartGene Integrated Database Network System (IDNS), Vitek MS identified 47/115 (41%) isolates to the correct species and 10 (9%) isolates to the correct genus. However, the Vitek MS was unable to provide identification for 43 (37%) isolates while 15 (13%) had discordant results. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA sequences demonstrate high diversity in recovered Actinomyces spp. and provide additional information to compare/confirm discordant identifications between MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA gene sequences. This study highlights the diversity of clinically relevant Actinomyces spp. and provides an important typing comparison. Based on our analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing should be used to rapidly identify Actinomyces spp. until MALDI-TOF databases are optimized.

  9. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Jacobs, Emily; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2014-08-22

    A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed.

  10. A Novel Sterol Isolated from a Plant Used by Mayan Traditional Healers Is Effective in Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gaurav; Peine, Kevin J; Abdelhamid, Dalia; Snider, Heidi; Shelton, Andrew B; Rao, Latha; Kotha, Sainath R; Huntsman, Andrew C; Varikuti, Sanjay; Oghumu, Steve; Naman, C Benjamin; Pan, Li; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Papenfuss, Tracy L; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Bachelder, Eric M; Ainslie, Kristy M; Fuchs, James R; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment of VL largely depends on therapeutic drugs such as pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, and others, which have major drawbacks due to drug resistance, toxicity, and high cost. In this study, for the first time, we have successfully demonstrated the synthesis and antileishmanial activity of the novel sterol pentalinonsterol (PEN), which occurs naturally in the root of a Mexican medicinal plant, Pentalinon andrieuxii. In the experimental BALB/c mouse model of VL induced by infection with L. donovani, intravenous treatment with liposome-encapsulated PEN (2.5 mg/kg) led to a significant reduction in parasite burden in the liver and spleen. Furthermore, infected mice treated with liposomal PEN showed a strong host-protective TH1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ production and formation of matured hepatic granulomas. These results indicate that PEN could be developed as a novel drug against VL. PMID:27623316

  11. A Novel Sterol Isolated from a Plant Used by Mayan Traditional Healers Is Effective in Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gaurav; Peine, Kevin J; Abdelhamid, Dalia; Snider, Heidi; Shelton, Andrew B; Rao, Latha; Kotha, Sainath R; Huntsman, Andrew C; Varikuti, Sanjay; Oghumu, Steve; Naman, C Benjamin; Pan, Li; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Papenfuss, Tracy L; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Bachelder, Eric M; Ainslie, Kristy M; Fuchs, James R; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment of VL largely depends on therapeutic drugs such as pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, and others, which have major drawbacks due to drug resistance, toxicity, and high cost. In this study, for the first time, we have successfully demonstrated the synthesis and antileishmanial activity of the novel sterol pentalinonsterol (PEN), which occurs naturally in the root of a Mexican medicinal plant, Pentalinon andrieuxii. In the experimental BALB/c mouse model of VL induced by infection with L. donovani, intravenous treatment with liposome-encapsulated PEN (2.5 mg/kg) led to a significant reduction in parasite burden in the liver and spleen. Furthermore, infected mice treated with liposomal PEN showed a strong host-protective TH1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ production and formation of matured hepatic granulomas. These results indicate that PEN could be developed as a novel drug against VL.

  12. Are isolated wetlands isolated?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

    2011-01-01

    While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

  13. [Isolated ipsilateral lateropulsion caused by bulbar hematoma].

    PubMed

    Hommel, M; Borgel, F; Gaio, J M; Lavernhe, G; Perret, J

    1985-01-01

    A case of hematoma involving probably the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata is reported. Examination showed a soft palate paresis and an ipsilateral axial lateropulsion without vertigo or oculomotor disorders. The mechanism of the lateropulsion is discussed. During the spontaneous recovery a transient hydrocephalus was observed.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  15. [Botryomycosis caused by fusobacteria].

    PubMed

    Gudat, W; Böckers, M; Bräuninger, W

    1992-07-01

    In the Anglo-American literature botrymycosis is described as a chronic cutaneous granulomatous reaction to bacterial infection, containing granules resembling the sulphur granules seen in actinomycosis. The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects are discussed with reference to a recently observed patient. Fusobacterium nucleatum was isolated as the bacterial cause of the pathologic disorder.

  16. In vivo effects of fumonisin B1-producing and fumonisin B1-nonproducing Fusarium moniliforme isolates are similar: fumonisins B2 and B3 cause hepato- and nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Voss, K A; Plattner, R D; Riley, R T; Meredith, F I; Norred, W P

    1998-01-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and related Fusarium species found on corn. They occur naturally in corn-based feeds and foods and are suspected human esophageal carcinogens. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most common homologue, causes the animal diseases associated with F. moniliforme. Hepato- and nephrotoxicities, disrupted sphingolipid metabolism, and liver cancer have been found in rats fed FB1. To determine the in vivo effects of diets containing fumonisins B2 (FB2) or B3 or (FB3), male rats were fed culture materials (CM) of FB1 non-producing F. moniliforme isolates to provide low (4.6-6.7 ppm), mid (32-49 ppm) or high (219-295 ppm) dietary levels of either FB2 (FB2CM) or FB3 (FB3CM). Other groups were fed culture material of an FB1 producing isolate (FB1CM) providing 6.9, 53 or 303 ppm total fumonisins (FB1: FB2: FB3 = 1.0: 0.38: 0.15) and a tenth group was fed a control diet having no detectable fumonisins. One-half (n = 5/group) the animals were killed after three weeks, at which time the toxicological and histopathological effects of the three culture materials were similar, mimicked the effects of FB1, and included decreased body weight gains, serum chemical indicators of hepatotoxicity, decreased kidney weights, and apoptosis of hepatocytes and kidney tubular epithelium. FB1CM, FB2CM, and FB3CM affected sphingolipids, causing increased sphinganine to sphingosine ratios (Sa/So) in both liver and kidneys. The remaining animals (n = 5/group0 were fed a control diet for three additional weeks. All body weight and tissue specific effects, including increased Sa/So, induced by the FB2Cm, FB3CM and low level FB1CM diets were absent following the recovery period. Except for mild biliary lesions found in the high dose of FB1CM group and a few apoptotic hepatocytes present in one mid- and two high-dose FB1CM rats, no evidence of toxicity remained in these groups, following the recovery period.

  17. Occurrence of 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP) biodegradation in an aquatic sample caused by the presence of Spirodela polyrrhiza and isolation of a 4-t-BP-utilizing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yuka; Toyama, Tadashi; Yu, Ning; Wang, Xuan; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2013-04-01

    Although 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP) is a serious aquatic pollutant, its biodegradation in aquatic environments has not been well documented. In this study, 4-t-BP was obviously and repeatedly removed from water from four different environments in the presence of Spirodela polyrrhiza, giant duckweed, but 4-t-BP persisted in the environmental waters in the absence of S. polyrrhiza. Also, 4-t-BP was not removed from autoclaved pond water with sterilized S. polyrrhiza. These results suggest that the 4-t-BP removal from the environmental waters was caused by biodegradation stimulated by the presence of S. polyrrhiza rather than by uptake by the plant. Moreover, Sphingobium fuliginis OMI capable of utilizing 4-t-BP as a sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the S. polyrrhiza rhizosphere. Strain OMI degraded 4-t-BP via a meta-cleavage pathway, and also degraded a broad range of alkylphenols with linear or branched alkyl side chains containing two to nine carbon atoms. Root exudates of S. polyrrhiza stimulated 4-t-BP degradation and cell growth of strain OMI. Thus, the stimulating effects of S. polyrrhiza root exudates on 4-t-BP-degrading bacteria might have contributed to 4-t-BP removal in the environmental waters with S. polyrrhiza. These results demonstrate that the S. polyrrhiza-bacteria association may be applicable to the removal of highly persistent 4-t-BP from wastewaters or polluted aquatic environments.

  18. Module isolation devices

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  19. Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India

    PubMed Central

    Yergolkar, Prasanna N.; Tandale, Babasaheb V.; Arankalle, Vidya A.; Sathe, Padmakar S.; Gandhe, Swati S.; Gokhle, Mangesh D.; Jacob, George P.; Hundekar, Supriya L.

    2006-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is reported in India after 32 years. Immunoglobulin M antibodies and virus isolation confirmed the cause. Phylogenic analysis based on partial sequences of NS4 and E1 genes showed that all earlier isolates (1963–1973) were Asian genotype, whereas the current and Yawat (2000) isolates were African genotype. PMID:17176577

  20. EKG isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Rasquin, J. R.; Smith, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Light beam transmits heartbeat signal from electrodes on patient to electrocardiograph without exposing patient to possible severe electrical shock. System provides complete isolation between patient and EKG instrumentation.

  1. Secular trends (1990-2013) in serotypes and associated non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive disease in the pre-/post-era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Spanish regions without universal paediatric pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, Asunción; Granizo, Juan-José; Giménez, María-José; Yuste, José; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2015-10-13

    This study analyzed temporal trends of non-susceptibility/serotypes in invasive pneumococci from Spanish regions where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were not included in paediatric immunization programmes. All invasive pneumococcal isolates voluntarily sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci (January 1990-December 2013) from hospitals located in target study regions were analyzed by age group. The PCV estimated coverage in children <24 months was correlated with 13-valent PCV (PCV13) serotypes trends. A total of 28,124 invasive isolates were analyzed: 3138 (11.2%) from children <24 months, 2161 (7.7%) from children 24-59 months, 781 (2.8%) from children 5-14 years, and 22,044 (78.4%) from adults. The estimated coverage increased from 17.6% (2002) to around 40% (2010-2013). The percentage of PCV13 serotypes among all isolates over time followed a cubic significant trend (R(2)=0.884), with an increasing trend up to 2001 followed by a decrease (more prominent from 2010 onwards). The estimated PCVs coverage was significantly correlated with the decrease in the percentage of PCV13 isolates in children <24 months (r(2)=0.824) and in adults (r(2)=0.786), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 1 and 7F in adults, and in serogroup 6 and serotypes 7F and 19A in children <24 months. None of the non-PCV13 serotypes stood out with substantial increases in the last period. This study showed that the different serotypes (and its associated non-susceptibility trends) were not equally affected by low PCVs disposition. Lack of impact in certain serotypes as serotype 1 (in children 24-59 months), 6C (in all age groups), and 19A (in adults) suggests the need for increasing vaccine coverage in the target vaccine population to increase direct and indirect protection. PMID:26341563

  2. Secular trends (1990-2013) in serotypes and associated non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive disease in the pre-/post-era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Spanish regions without universal paediatric pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, Asunción; Granizo, Juan-José; Giménez, María-José; Yuste, José; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2015-10-13

    This study analyzed temporal trends of non-susceptibility/serotypes in invasive pneumococci from Spanish regions where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were not included in paediatric immunization programmes. All invasive pneumococcal isolates voluntarily sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci (January 1990-December 2013) from hospitals located in target study regions were analyzed by age group. The PCV estimated coverage in children <24 months was correlated with 13-valent PCV (PCV13) serotypes trends. A total of 28,124 invasive isolates were analyzed: 3138 (11.2%) from children <24 months, 2161 (7.7%) from children 24-59 months, 781 (2.8%) from children 5-14 years, and 22,044 (78.4%) from adults. The estimated coverage increased from 17.6% (2002) to around 40% (2010-2013). The percentage of PCV13 serotypes among all isolates over time followed a cubic significant trend (R(2)=0.884), with an increasing trend up to 2001 followed by a decrease (more prominent from 2010 onwards). The estimated PCVs coverage was significantly correlated with the decrease in the percentage of PCV13 isolates in children <24 months (r(2)=0.824) and in adults (r(2)=0.786), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 1 and 7F in adults, and in serogroup 6 and serotypes 7F and 19A in children <24 months. None of the non-PCV13 serotypes stood out with substantial increases in the last period. This study showed that the different serotypes (and its associated non-susceptibility trends) were not equally affected by low PCVs disposition. Lack of impact in certain serotypes as serotype 1 (in children 24-59 months), 6C (in all age groups), and 19A (in adults) suggests the need for increasing vaccine coverage in the target vaccine population to increase direct and indirect protection.

  3. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Tabbarah, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation. PMID:26483675

  4. Social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  5. Molecular characterization and epidemiology of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing health care-associated infection in Thailand, where the CTX-M family is endemic.

    PubMed

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Laesripa, Chaitat; Saifon, Piyawan

    2008-08-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for health care-associated (HA) infection. We conducted molecular detection and characterization of ESBL-related bla genes, including bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(VEB), bla(OXA), bla(PER), and bla(GES), among 362 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli (n = 235) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (n = 127) collected from patients who met the definition of HA infection at two major university hospitals in Thailand from December 2004 to May 2005. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, patient demographics and the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were described. A total of 87.3% of isolates carried several bla genes. The prevalence of bla(CTX-M) was strikingly high: 99.6% for ESBL-producing E. coli (CTX-M-14, -15, -27, -40, and -55) and 99.2% for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (CTX-M-3, -14, -15, -27, and -55). ISEcp1 was found in the upstream region of bla(CTX-M) in most isolates. Up to 77.0% and 71.7% of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, respectively, carried bla(TEM); all of them encoded TEM-1. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae carried bla(SHV) at 87.4% (SHV-1, -2a, -11, -12, -27, -71, and -75) but only at 3.8% for ESBL-producing E. coli (SHV-11 and -12). bla genes encoding VEB-1 and OXA-10 were found in both ESBL-producing E. coli (8.5% and 8.1%, respectively) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (10.2% and 11.8%, respectively). None of the isolates were positive for bla(PER) and bla(GES). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there was no major clonal relationship among these ESBL producers. This is the first study to report CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-40, SHV-27, SHV-71, and SHV-75 in Thailand and to show that CTX-M ESBL is highly endemic in the country.

  6. Genomics of isolation in hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Gompert, Zachariah; Parchman, Thomas L.; Buerkle, C. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid zones are common in nature and can offer critical insights into the dynamics and components of reproductive isolation. Hybrids between diverged lineages are particularly informative about the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation, because introgression in an admixed population is a direct measure of isolation. In this paper, we combine simulations and a new statistical model to determine the extent to which different genetic architectures of isolation leave different signatures on genome-level patterns of introgression. We found that reproductive isolation caused by one or several loci of large effect caused greater heterogeneity in patterns of introgression than architectures involving many loci with small fitness effects, particularly when isolating factors were closely linked. The same conditions that led to heterogeneous introgression often resulted in a reasonable correspondence between outlier loci and the genetic loci that contributed to isolation. However, demographic conditions affected both of these results, highlighting potential limitations to the study of the speciation genomics. Further progress in understanding the genomics of speciation will require large-scale empirical studies of introgression in hybrid zones and model-based analyses, as well as more comprehensive modelling of the expected levels of isolation with different demographies and genetic architectures of isolation. PMID:22201173

  7. Genetics Home Reference: familial isolated hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... bloodstream. In people with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism , the production of excess parathyroid hormone is caused by tumors ... a cancerous tumor called parathyroid carcinoma. Because the production of excess parathyroid hormone is caused by abnormalities ...

  8. Campylobacter insulaenigrae causing septicaemia and enteritis.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kyra; Gürtler, Volker; Montgomery, Janet; Fraenkel, Margaret; Mayall, Barrie C; Grayson, M Lindsay

    2007-11-01

    Campylobacter insulaenigrae is a novel species that has been recently only isolated from marine mammals. This is the first report of C. insulaenigrae causing enteritis and septicaemia in a patient with end-stage hepatic and renal disease.

  9. Biological control of Xanthomonas Oryzae pv. Oryzae causing rice bacterial blight disease by Streptomyces toxytricini VN08-A-12, isolated from soil and leaf-litter samples in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Hop, Duong; Phuong Hoa, Phan Thi; Quang, Nguyen Duc; Ton, Phan Huu; Ha, Trinh Hoang; Van Hung, Nguyen; Van, Nguyen Thi; Van Hai, Tong; Kim Quy, Nguyen Thi; Anh Dao, Nguyen Thi; Thi Thom, Vu

    2014-01-01

    A total of 2690 actinomycete strains were screened as potential biological control agents in controlling rice bacterial blight (BB) in Vietnam. From these microorganisms, seventeen actinomycete strains were found to be capable of inhibiting all 10 major Xoo races isolated from Xoo-infected rice leaves. One strain, namely VN08-A-12, contained effective characteristics in selectively inhibiting all 10 races in vitro, but did not inhibit most of the other tested microorganisms. Therefore, VN08-A-12 was subsequently selected for rice field trials for two seasons on two rice cultivars SS1 and KD18. Results showed VN08-A-12 was not only able to reduce Xoo lesion lengths in the two rice cultivars (lesion length reduction of up to 38.3%), but it also significantly reduced Xoo-related yield loss in infected rice cultivars from the field (yield loss reduction of up to 43.2%). Interestingly, the culture of this strain also increased the rice yield in healthy rice cultivars (from 2.66% to 16.98% for SS1 and from 3.11% to 5.94% for KD18 cultivar). The strain VN08-A-12 was shown to be identical to Streptomyces toxytricini. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting S. toxytricini as a beneficial biological agent for the control of BB in rice.

  10. Biological control of Xanthomonas Oryzae pv. Oryzae causing rice bacterial blight disease by Streptomyces toxytricini VN08-A-12, isolated from soil and leaf-litter samples in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Hop, Duong; Phuong Hoa, Phan Thi; Quang, Nguyen Duc; Ton, Phan Huu; Ha, Trinh Hoang; Van Hung, Nguyen; Van, Nguyen Thi; Van Hai, Tong; Kim Quy, Nguyen Thi; Anh Dao, Nguyen Thi; Thi Thom, Vu

    2014-01-01

    A total of 2690 actinomycete strains were screened as potential biological control agents in controlling rice bacterial blight (BB) in Vietnam. From these microorganisms, seventeen actinomycete strains were found to be capable of inhibiting all 10 major Xoo races isolated from Xoo-infected rice leaves. One strain, namely VN08-A-12, contained effective characteristics in selectively inhibiting all 10 races in vitro, but did not inhibit most of the other tested microorganisms. Therefore, VN08-A-12 was subsequently selected for rice field trials for two seasons on two rice cultivars SS1 and KD18. Results showed VN08-A-12 was not only able to reduce Xoo lesion lengths in the two rice cultivars (lesion length reduction of up to 38.3%), but it also significantly reduced Xoo-related yield loss in infected rice cultivars from the field (yield loss reduction of up to 43.2%). Interestingly, the culture of this strain also increased the rice yield in healthy rice cultivars (from 2.66% to 16.98% for SS1 and from 3.11% to 5.94% for KD18 cultivar). The strain VN08-A-12 was shown to be identical to Streptomyces toxytricini. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting S. toxytricini as a beneficial biological agent for the control of BB in rice. PMID:25252641

  11. Infectious discitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed Central

    Solans, R; Simeon, P; Cuenca, R; Fonollosa, V; Bago, J; Vilardell, M

    1992-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient who developed a vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae. The organism was isolated in cultures of blood and vertebral puncture biopsy samples. The patient was satisfactorily treated with trimethroprim and sulphamethoxazole. Enterobacter cloacae, a Gram negative organism, has been confirmed as the cause of bacteremia in patients with burns, urinary infections, in adults with pneumonia, and in children with joint infections. Spondylodiscitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae has not previously been described. Images PMID:1632668

  12. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts.

  13. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  14. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  15. Isolated neurosarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Bianca; Crişan, Doiniţa; Tompa, I; Szabo, I

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory granulomatous disease affecting multiple organ systems. Neurosarcoidosis (central nervous system involvement) is seen in approximately 25% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis, although it is subclinical in most of these cases. Clinical presentations and imaging findings in nervous system were varied. Cranial nerve abnormalities were the most common clinical presentation and involvement of the optic nerve in particular was associated with a poor prognosis for visual recovery. A patient is described who presented with decreased visual acuity, hypoesthesia of the face and multiple tumors of the eyelids on both eyes. Initial biopsy of one of the tumor of the eyelids revealed a non-caseating granulomatous inflammatory process with nodular infiltrates made up of epithelioid cells, Langhans-type giant multinucleated cells and mononuclear cells; the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was suspected. After two years of clinical and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) follow up, the diagnosis of isolated neurosarcoidosis was confirmed by histology. In this study, we analyzed clinical and radiologic records of this patient with biopsy proven and clinically diagnosed neurosarcoidosis for the following reasons: (1) to assess the concordance between abnormalities noted on MRI with neurologic symptoms at presentation; (2) to correlate changes in imaging findings during follow-up with clinical worsening; and (3) to show up the characteristic feature of this case with no general sign/symptoms of sarcoidosis.

  16. Right medial thalamic lesion causes isolated retrograde amnesia.

    PubMed

    Miller, L A; Caine, D; Harding, A; Thompson, E J; Large, M; Watson, J D

    2001-01-01

    Pervasive retrograde amnesia without anterograde memory impairment has rarely been described as a consequence of circumscribed brain damage. We report this phenomenon in a 33 yr-old, right-handed man (JG) in association with the extension in the right thalamus of a previously small, bilateral thalamic lesion. JG presented with a dense amnesia for autobiographical material more than a few years old, with some sparing of recent memories. Furthermore, he was completely unable to recognise famous people or world events. Many other aspects of semantic knowledge were intact and there was no evidence of general intellectual impairment, executive dysfunction or loss of visual imagery. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an acute lesion in the right thalamus and two small, symmetrical, bilateral non-acute thalamic lesions. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment indicated a stable pattern of impaired retrograde and spared anterograde memory over 18 months and psychiatric assessments yielded no evidence of confabulation, malingering or other symptoms to suggest psychogenic amnesia. JG's profile indicates that the division of declarative memory into just two categories - episodic and semantic - is inadequate. Rather, his case adds to the growing body evidence to suggest that world knowledge pertaining to people and events is stored or accessed similarly to autobiographical information and differently from other types of more general factual knowledge. We hypothesize that the right mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and immediately surrounding regions comprise the central processing mechanism referred to by McClelland (Revue Neurologique, 150 (1994) 570) and Markowitsch (Brain Research Review, 21 (1995) 117) as responsible for inducing and co-ordinating the recall of these sorts of cortically stored memory engrams.

  17. [Isolated giant hydatid in kidney].

    PubMed

    Ozgör, Faruk; Erbin, Akif; Berberoğlu, Ahmet Yalçın; Binbay, Murat; Sarılar, Omer; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2014-06-01

    Cyst hydatid of the kidney is parasitic condition caused by Echinococcus granulosus and identified in many countries, especially associated with sheep farming. Echinococcal larvae enter the bloodstream using the digestive system and invade any organs in the human body. The urinary system is the third most common area affected by parasitic infection after liver and lungs, but isolated renal involvement is a very rare situation, even in endemic areas. İn our case, we aimed to report a 57-year-old female patient with an 18-centimeter isolated renal cyst hydatid treated by retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed by histopathologically.

  18. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  19. What Causes Cardiomyopathy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can damage the organs, including the heart. Sarcoidosis : A disease that causes inflammation and can affect ... believe that an abnormal immune response may cause sarcoidosis. This abnormal response causes tiny lumps of cells ...

  20. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  1. Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

  2. Pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium malmoense.

    PubMed

    Alberts, W M; Chandler, K W; Solomon, D A; Goldman, A L

    1987-06-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense was isolated from pulmonary material from 4 patients. Two patients had repeatedly positive smears and cultures along with roentgenographic progression of pulmonary disease in the absence of another pathogen. These 2 patients therefore meet the criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary mycobacteriosis. Isolation of the organism may represent colonization in a third patient, and M. malmoense has been isolated from a fourth patient on 2 occasions. It is not yet definite, however, that the pulmonary process is due to mycobacterial disease. Although uncommon, pulmonary disease caused by this organism has been reported from Europe. Only 1 prior case of pulmonary disease caused by M. malmoense, however, has been reported in the United States. PMID:3592410

  3. Haploinsufficiency of NSD1 causes Sotos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurotaki, Naohiro; Imaizumi, Kiyoshi; Harada, Naoki; Masuno, Mitsuo; Kondoh, Tatsuro; Nagai, Toshiro; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Naritomi, Kenji; Tsukahara, Masato; Makita, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Tateo; Sonoda, Tohru; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Chinen, Yasuaki; Tomita Ha, Hiro-aki; Kinoshita, Akira; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshiura Ki, Koh-ichiro; Ohta, Tohru; Kishino, Tatsuya; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Niikawa, Norio; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2002-04-01

    We isolated NSD1 from the 5q35 breakpoint in an individual with Sotos syndrome harboring a chromosomal translocation. We identified 1 nonsense, 3 frameshift and 20 submicroscopic deletion mutations of NSD1 among 42 individuals with sporadic cases of Sotos syndrome. The results indicate that haploinsufficiency of NSD1 is the major cause of Sotos syndrome. PMID:11896389

  4. Acinetobacter seifertii Isolated from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunxing; Wang, Jianfeng; Fu, Ying; Ruan, Zhi; Yu, Yunsong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinical infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. have increasing public health concerns because of their global occurrence and ability to acquire multidrug resistance. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex encompasses A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, A. pittii (formerly genomic species 3), and A nosocomial (formerly genomic species 13TU), which are predominantly responsible for clinical pathogenesis in the Acinetobacter genus. In our previous study, a putative novel species isolated from 385 non-A. baumannii spp. strains based on the rpoB gene phylogenetic tree was reported. Here, the putative novel species was identified as A. seifertii based on the whole-genome phylogenetic tree. A. seifertii was recognized as a novel member of the ACB complex and close to A. baumannii and A. nosocomials. Furthermore, we studied the characteristics of 10 A. seifertii isolates, which were distributed widely in 6 provinces in China and mainly caused infections in the elderly or children. To define the taxonomic status and characteristics, the biochemical reactions, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and whole-genome sequence analysis were performed. The phenotypic characteristics failed to distinguish A. serfertii from other species in the ACB complex. Most of the A. seifertii isolates were susceptible to antibiotics commonly used for nosocomial Acinetobacter spp. infections, but one isolate (strain A362) was resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime and amikacin. The different patterns of MLST and PFGE suggested that the 10 isolates were not identical and lacked clonal relatedness. Our study reported for the first time the molecular epidemiological and genomic features of widely disseminated A. seifertii in China. These observations could enrich the knowledge of infections caused by non-A. baumannii and may provide a scientific basis for future clinical

  5. Cryogenic Faraday isolator

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A

    2010-05-26

    A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

  6. What Causes Anemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  7. What Causes Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sarcoidosis? The cause of sarcoidosis isn't known. More ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  8. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  9. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic fibrosis (CF). This gene makes ... and very salty sweat. Research suggests that the CFTR protein also affects the body in other ways. ...

  10. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series of ...

  11. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual flow Smoking Depression Never having given birth Endometriosis Chronic uterine infection Additional causes of menstrual irregularity include 1 : Endometriosis Endocrine gland-related causes Poorly controlled diabetes Polycystic ...

  12. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  13. What Causes Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » What Causes Cancer? Cancer is a complex group of diseases with ... cancer. Learn About Cancer Topics Cancer Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate ...

  14. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can't pump ... to the body. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  15. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  16. Acquired hemophilia A: A rare cause of gross hematuria.

    PubMed

    Hosier, Gregory W; Mason, Ross J; Sue Robinson, K; Bailly, Gregory G

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare condition caused by spontaneous development of factor VIII inhibitor. This condition most commonly presents with multiple hemorrhagic symptoms and isolated hematuria is exceedingly rare. Early diagnosis is important, as this condition carries a high mortality rate (13-22%). We present a case of an 82-year-old man with isolated hematuria caused by a factor VIII inhibitor who was successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII concentrate, as well as prednisone and cyclophosphamide. PMID:26834904

  17. Acquired hemophilia A: A rare cause of gross hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Hosier, Gregory W.; Mason, Ross J.; Sue Robinson, K.; Bailly, Gregory G.

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare condition caused by spontaneous development of factor VIII inhibitor. This condition most commonly presents with multiple hemorrhagic symptoms and isolated hematuria is exceedingly rare. Early diagnosis is important, as this condition carries a high mortality rate (13–22%). We present a case of an 82-year-old man with isolated hematuria caused by a factor VIII inhibitor who was successfully treated with recombinant activated factor VII concentrate, as well as prednisone and cyclophosphamide. PMID:26834904

  18. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in urinary isolates.

    PubMed

    Muratani, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2004-09-01

    Escherichia coli accounted for about 80% of organisms in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), followed by Staphylococcus spp. especially Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Proteus mirabilis. Against E. coli isolates from patients with uncomplicated UTI, faropenem was the most effective. Up to 1999, fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were not observed in patients with uncomplicated UTI, but in 2001 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates emerged and accounted for about 8%. Various types of organisms were isolated in patients with complicated UTI. Enterococcus faecalis, E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the three most frequent organisms isolated. These three organisms accounted for 44.6%. Amongst oral agents, faropenem showed the lowest rate of resistance against E. coli followed by cephems. The rates of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant and cefpodoxime-resistant E. coli isolates increased rapidly from 1998 to 2001. Fluoroquinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates accounted for about 40% in 2001. Against this species, amikacin was the most effective antimicrobials among all agents tested. About 17% of Pseudomonas were resistant to carbapenem. Eight milligram per litre of ampicillin inhibited all E. faecalis isolates; about 60% of Enterococcus faecium were resistant to ampicillin. The rates of levofloxacin-resistant isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 38 and 97% respectively. UTIs caused by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) are rare in Japan. PMID:15364302

  19. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause.

  20. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause. PMID:12858714

  1. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  2. Psychopathology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-06-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered.

  3. Analog signal isolation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  4. Analog signal isolation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  5. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Chinese Mallow Caused by Colletotrichum malvarum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Jin Hee

    2008-06-01

    Anthracnose symptoms were frequently observed on leaves, petioles, and stems of Chinese mallow grown in Namyangju, Korea, during a disease survey performed in November, 2007. The disease incidence was as high as 30% in the 12 greenhouses investigated. A total of 38 isolates of the Colletotrichum species were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms, and all the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum malvarum based on their morphological and culture characteristics. Three isolates of the fungus caused anthracnose symptoms on leaves and stems following artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed during the greenhouse survey. In this study, mycological and pathological characteristics of C. malvarum identified as causing anthracnose of Chinese mallow were clarified.

  6. New Ventilated Isolation Cage

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Reginald O.

    1968-01-01

    A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

  7. Ischemic syndromes causing dizziness and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Choi, K-D; Lee, H; Kim, J-S

    2016-01-01

    Dizziness/vertigo and imbalance are the most common symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia. Even though dizziness/vertigo usually accompanies other neurologic symptoms and signs in cerebrovascular disorders, a diagnosis of isolated vascular vertigo is increasing markedly by virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging. It is important to differentiate isolated vertigo of a vascular cause from more benign disorders involving the inner ear, since therapeutic strategies and prognosis differ between these two conditions. Over the last decade, we have achieved a marked development in the understanding and diagnosis of vascular dizziness/vertigo. Introduction of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly enhanced detection of infarctions in patients with vascular dizziness/vertigo, especially in the posterior-circulation territories. However, well-organized bedside neurotologic evaluation is even more sensitive than MRI in detecting acute infarction as a cause of spontaneous prolonged vertigo. Furthermore, detailed evaluation of strategic infarctions has elucidated the function of various vestibular structures of the brainstem and cerebellum. In contrast, diagnosis of isolated labyrinthine infarction still remains a challenge. This diagnostic difficulty also applies to isolated transient dizziness/vertigo of vascular origin. Regarding the common nonlacunar mechanisms in the acute vestibular syndrome from small infarctions, individual strategies may be indicated to prevent recurrences of stroke in patients with vascular vertigo. PMID:27638081

  8. Cerebral Aspergillosis Caused by Neosartorya hiratsukae, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kallas, Esper G.; Godoy, Patricio; Karenina, Anna; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2002-01-01

    We report the first case of infection by Neosartorya hiratsukae, an ascomycete in which the conidial state resembles Aspergillus fumigatus. The fungus caused a brain infection in a Brazilian woman, who died despite itraconazole treatment. Diagnosis was established by direct microscopic examination, computed tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and repeated cultures from the lesions. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate is provided. PMID:12194781

  9. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladosporium bantianum in Kerala (India).

    PubMed

    Amma, S M; Paniker, C K; Iype, P T; Rangaswamy, S

    1979-12-01

    A case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladosporium bantianum is reported from India for the first time. It is also the first known case of infection involving the foot caused by this fungus. The cultural characteristics and animal pathogenicity of the isolate are described.

  10. First report of a brain abscess caused by Nocardia veterana.

    PubMed

    Arends, J E; Stemerding, A M; Vorst, S P; de Neeling, A J; Weersink, A J L

    2011-12-01

    Among Nocardia species causing infections, Nocardia veterana is rarely isolated and is mostly described as causing pulmonary infections. This is the first presentation of a case of brain abscess attributable to an N. veterana infection in a patient with type 2 diabetes. Prolonged antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole led to successful clinical recovery.

  11. What Causes Bronchitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to tobacco smoke, dust, fumes, vapors, or air pollution raises your risk for the condition. These lung ... the major cause of the condition. Breathing in air pollution and dust or fumes from the environment or ...

  12. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  13. What Causes Hemochromatosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... each parent), you're at risk for iron overload and signs and symptoms of hemochromatosis. If you ... of another disease or condition that causes iron overload. Examples of such diseases and conditions include: Certain ...

  14. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  15. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  16. Causes of Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact critical functions like thought, comprehension, and speech. > Cerebral palsy CP is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain. > Friedreich’s ataxia An inherited disease that leads to ...

  17. Causes of Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  18. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily move oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide from your blood (gas exchange). This can cause a low oxygen level or high carbon dioxide level, or both, in your blood. Respiratory failure ...

  19. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  20. Mutation and premating isolation.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N

    2002-11-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  1. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  2. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  3. Hybrid isolation of micro vibrations induced by reaction wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Oen; Park, Geeyong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-02-01

    As the technology for precision satellite payloads continues to advance, the requirements for the pointing stability of the satellites are becoming extremely high. In many situations, even small amplitude disturbances generated by the onboard components may cause serious degradation in the performance of high precision payloads. In such situations, vibration isolators can be installed to reduce the vibration transmission. In this work, a hybrid vibration isolator comprising passive and active components is proposed to provide an effective solution to the vibration problems caused by the reaction wheel disturbances. Firstly, mathematical modeling and experimental study of a single axis vibration isolator having high damping and high roll-off rate for the high frequency region and active components that enhance isolation performance for narrow frequency bands are presented. This concept is then extended to multi-axis by forming Stewart platform and the performance is experimentally verified. The tests on a flexible testbed show effective vibration isolation by the proposed vibration isolator.

  4. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  5. What Causes Rainbows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  6. Landslides - Cause and effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  7. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  8. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2 . Nature Genetics , Oct;23(2), 185–188. [top] Schollen, ... 1581. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v17/n12/full/ejhg200995a.html [ ...

  9. Teacher Dismissal for Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Brad; Schumacher, Gary; Hammonds, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of events that led to the dismissal of a teacher for cause. A first year high school principal is confronted with teacher behavior that creates a dangerous situation for students. The decision process to determine the appropriate organizational response involves a number of individuals and systems. The…

  10. [Fatalities caused by exposure to heat].

    PubMed

    Fieguth, A; Kistenmacher, L; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J

    1997-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1987 52 cases of death by burning or in connection with fire (13 females and 39 males) were examined at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Medical School of Hannover. The causes were fires in flats (25), cars (15) and buildings(4), clothes set on fire (3) and explosions (3). In two cases death was caused by scalding. These cases could be divided into accidents (30), over 1/3 caused by smoking (11)), suicides (9) and homicides (6). The other seven cases could not be clarified definitively. Evidence of CO-elevation (38), soot inhalation (33), petechiae (11) and "crow's feet" (6) were noted. However, isolated findings cannot lead to a satisfactory assessment after death by burning. The reconstruction of events requires a comprehensive evaluation of the case history, the scene of death and the autopsy as well as complementary analyses. Therefore intensive cooperation between criminal investigators and forensic physicians is absolutely necessary. PMID:9446525

  11. Bacteraemia caused by periodontal probing.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; Mitchell, D; Grossberg, D; Highfield, J; Stewart, D

    1997-04-01

    Bacteraemia of oral origin may result in infective endocarditis in susceptible individuals. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the occurrence of bacteraemia due to periodontal probing. Thirty patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age 42.7 years) with untreated periodontitis were investigated. All were free of significant medical disorders and none had taken antibiotics in the previous month. Prior to and immediately following periodontal probing, 20 mL of venous blood were obtained from each patient and inoculated into aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles and incubated. Negative bottles were monitored continuously for three weeks before being discarded. Periodontal probing consisted of measuring pockets at six points around each tooth and recording the presence or absence of bleeding. A positive bacteraemia was recorded for three of the patients prior to probing. One patient exhibited Prevotella species whilst two exhibited skin commensals. Following probing, 13 patients (43 per cent) exhibited bacteraemia of oral origin. Viridans streptococci were the most common isolates (45 per cent). No significant correlations were found between bacteraemia and the severity of periodontitis or extent of bleeding on probing. The results indicate that periodontal probing can cause bacteraemia in patients with periodontitis. It would be advisable for patients considered at risk of developing infective endocarditis to receive antibiotic prophylaxis for periodontal probing if they have radiographic evidence of periodontitis.

  12. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  13. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  14. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  15. Isolation of Agrobacterium radiobacter from a central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Hammerberg, O; Bialkowska-Hobrzanska, H; Gopaul, D

    1991-05-01

    A case of septicemia caused by Agrobacterium radiobacter is reported in a patient undergoing chemotherapy treatment who had recently been neutropenic. Agrobacterium radiobacter was isolated from the Hickman line blood culture. The patient responded favorably to removal of the Hickman catheter and treatment with amikacin and piperacillin. The molecular and biochemical characteristics of the isolate are presented.

  16. Burden of isolation for multidrug-resistant organisms in a tertiary public hospital in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia R; Isaakidis, Petros; Hinderaker, Sven G; Ali, Engy; van den Boogaard, Wilma; Viana, Karen S; Cassol, Renato; Falci, Diego Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to describe the use of isolation beds between September 2011 and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital located in Southern Brazil. The main cause for isolation was gram-negative carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Huge costs were associated with isolation practices. Considering the high burden on the isolation ward, practice of surveillance cultures and contact isolation should be balanced with other infection control practices.

  17. Advanced Technology for Isolating Payloads in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    1997-01-01

    One presumption of scientific microgravity research is that while in space disturbances are minimized and experiments can be conducted in the absence of gravity. The problem with this assumption is that numerous disturbances actually occur in the space environment. Scientists must consider all disturbances when planning microgravity experiments. Although small disturbances, such as a human sneeze, do not cause most researchers on earth much concern, in space, these minuscule disturbances can be detrimental to the success or failure of an experiment. Therefore, a need exists to isolate experiments and provide a quiescent microgravity environment. The objective of microgravity isolation is to quantify all possible disturbances or vibrations and then attenuate the transmission of the disturbance to the experiment. Some well-defined vibration sources are: experiment operations, pumps, fans, antenna movements, ventilation systems and robotic manipulators. In some cases, it is possible to isolate the source using simple vibration dampers, shock absorbers and other isolation devices. The problem with simple isolation systems is that not all vibration frequencies are attenuated, especially frequencies less than 0.1 Hz. Therefore, some disturbances are actually emitted into the environment. Sometimes vibration sources are not well defined, or cannot be controlled. These include thermal "creak," random acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic drag, crew activities, and other similar disturbances. On some "microgravity missions," such as the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) and the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) missions, the goal was to create extended quiescent times and limit crew activity during these times. This might be possible for short periods, but for extended durations it is impossible due to the nature of the space environment. On the International Space Station (ISS), vehicle attitude readjustments are required to keep the vehicle in a minimum

  18. Actinomyces Species Isolated from Breast Infections.

    PubMed

    Bing, A U; Loh, S F; Morris, T; Hughes, H; Dixon, J M; Helgason, K O

    2015-10-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated.

  19. Actinomyces Species Isolated from Breast Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loh, S. F.; Morris, T.; Hughes, H.; Dixon, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated. PMID:26224846

  20. Atypical causes of cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

    2014-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have “silent” progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

  1. [Causes of camptocormia].

    PubMed

    Glocker, F X; Berninger, U G

    2013-08-01

    In this society with an ever increasing number of the elderly there is an increasing number of causes of a bent spine syndrome (camptocormia/dropped head syndrome). The causes include neurological, neuro-orthopedic, rheumatological and psychiatric disorders. Parkinson's disease, dystonia and neuromuscular diseases (motor neuron disease, myositis and muscular dystrophy) with weakness of the axial muscles may result in bent spine syndrome and is often combined with a dropped head. Disc herniation, hypertrophic spondylosis or pseudospondylolisthesis with spinal narrowing may lead to an abnormal flexion of the trunk. Ankylosing spondylitis can produce a disabling bent spine syndrome. Camptocormia may also be mimicked by osteoporotic fractures of the vertebral bones with wedge-shaped vertebrae. In some cases camptocormia is related to a psychogenic disorder.

  2. What Causes Lupus Flares?

    PubMed

    Fernandez, David; Kirou, Kyriakos A

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the prototypic systemic autoimmune disease, follows a chronic disease course, punctuated by flares. Disease flares often occur without apparent cause, perhaps from progressive inherent buildup of autoimmunity. However, there is evidence that certain environmental factors may trigger the disease. These include exposure to UV light, infections, certain hormones, and drugs which may activate the innate and adaptive immune system, resulting in inflammation, cytotoxic effects, and clinical symptoms. Uncontrolled disease flares, as well as their treatment, especially with glucocorticoids, can cause significant organ damage. Tight surveillance and timely control of lupus flares with judicial use of effective treatments to adequately suppress the excessive immune system activation are required to bring about long term remission of the disease. We hope that new clinical trials will soon offer additional effective and target-specific biologic treatments for SLE.

  3. Molecular characterisation of clinical and environmental isolates of Mycobacterium kansasii isolates from South African gold mines.

    PubMed

    Kwenda, Geoffrey; Churchyard, Gavin J; Thorrold, Catherine; Heron, Ian; Stevenson, Karen; Duse, Adriano G; Marais, Elsé

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium kansasii (M. kansasii) is a major cause of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in the South African gold-mining workforce, but the source of infection and molecular epidemiology are unknown. This study investigated the presence of M. kansasii in gold and coal mine and associated hostel water supplies and compared the genetic diversity of clinical and environmental isolates of M. kansasii. Five M. kansasii and ten other potentially pathogenic mycobacteria were cultured mainly from showerhead biofilms. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction analysis of the hsp65 gene on 196 clinical and environmental M. kansasii isolates revealed 160 subtype I, eight subtype II and six subtype IV strains. Twenty-two isolates did not show the typical M. kansasii restriction patterns, suggesting that these isolates may represent new subtypes of M. kansasii. In contrast to the clonal population structure found amongst the subtype I isolates from studies in other countries, DNA fingerprinting of 114 clinical and three environmental subtype I isolates demonstrated genetic diversity amongst the isolates. This study demonstrated that showerheads are possible sources of M. kansasii and other pathogenic non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in a gold-mining region, that subtype I is the major clinical isolate of M. kansasii strain and that this subtype exhibits genetic diversity. PMID:25719478

  4. Wire rope isolators for vibration isolation of equipment and structures - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, P. S.; Rahman, M. E.; Moussa, Leblouba; Lau, H. H.

    2015-04-01

    Vibrations and shocks are studied using various techniques and analyzed to predict their detrimental effect on the equipment and structures. In cases, where the effects of vibration become unacceptable, it may cause structural damage and affect the operation of the equipment. Hence, adding a discrete system to isolate the vibration from source becomes necessary. The Wire Rope Isolator (WRI) can be used to effectively isolate the system from disturbing vibrations. The WRI is a type of passive isolator that exhibits nonlinear behavior. It consists of stranded wire rope held between two metal retainer bars and the metal wire rope is made up of individual wire strands that are in frictional contact with each other, hence, it is a kind of friction-type isolator. This paper compiles the research work on wire rope isolators. This paper presents the research work under two categories, namely monotonic and cyclic loading behaviors of WRI. The review also discusses the different terminologies associated with vibration isolation system and highlights the comparison between various isolation systems.

  5. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  6. Extremely Isolated Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, Christopher R.; Marcum, P.; Fanelli, M.; Aars, C.

    2006-06-01

    Isolated galaxies provide a means of assessing the evolution of galactic systems. Extremely isolated galaxies define a zero-interaction baseline for comparative studies of galaxy evolution. We present results of a search for isolated elliptical galaxies (IEGs). We utilize the optical imaging data produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify candidate galaxies from Release 1-4 of the SDSS. Candidate IEGs meet strict isolation criteria: Any IEG must be separated by at least 2.5 Mpc from any neighboring non-dwarf galaxy having a MV fainter than -16.5 mag. The candidate isolated systems have no non-dwarf neighbors within a distance such that we can insure that the IEGs have never interacted with another existing galaxy since formation.In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, we have used the SDSS images in the u,g,r filters to create combined sets of images for each IEG. The stacked images permit a more robust determination of the morphology of the candidate galaxies. Verification that these are spheroidal systems is achieved through a bulge/disk decomposition technique using standard surface photometry. Our preliminary sample of 51 isolated systems defines a complete volume-limited population of extremely isolated early-type galaxies within a distance of 72Mpc

  7. Dermatophytosis of tiger caused by Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Takatori, K; Ichijo, S; Kurata, H

    1981-02-13

    Microsporum canis was isolated from the inflammatory skin lesions of a Bengal tiger in April, 1979. In clinical findings rounded area of alopecia, 3 to 8 cm in size was observed on the right haunch and the tail. The skin lesions were covered with thin scales, but the inflammatory changes were not severe. Findings, on physical examination, were unremarkable and the animal appeared healthy except for the skin lesions. The infected hairs were invaded by the fungal elements and arthroconidia were around the hair shaft. Cuticles and cortex of the infected hairs were brittle. They were evidently digested and were easily pulled out from the hair follicles. In mycological findings numerous and typical macroconidia were observed. By cross mating of a isolate from tiger and Nannizzia otae(-) strains, cleistothecia were produced. Both organic iodide and undecylenic acid ointment were effective for therapy. In this paper the dermatophytosis of tiger caused by M. canis is described.

  8. Dermatophytosis of tiger caused by Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Takatori, K; Ichijo, S; Kurata, H

    1981-02-13

    Microsporum canis was isolated from the inflammatory skin lesions of a Bengal tiger in April, 1979. In clinical findings rounded area of alopecia, 3 to 8 cm in size was observed on the right haunch and the tail. The skin lesions were covered with thin scales, but the inflammatory changes were not severe. Findings, on physical examination, were unremarkable and the animal appeared healthy except for the skin lesions. The infected hairs were invaded by the fungal elements and arthroconidia were around the hair shaft. Cuticles and cortex of the infected hairs were brittle. They were evidently digested and were easily pulled out from the hair follicles. In mycological findings numerous and typical macroconidia were observed. By cross mating of a isolate from tiger and Nannizzia otae(-) strains, cleistothecia were produced. Both organic iodide and undecylenic acid ointment were effective for therapy. In this paper the dermatophytosis of tiger caused by M. canis is described. PMID:7219512

  9. Genetics of human isolated acromesomelic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saadullah; Basit, Sulman; Khan, Muzammil Ahmad; Muhammad, Noor; Ahmad, Wasim

    2016-04-01

    Acromesomelic dysplasia is a type of skeletal malformation affecting distal and middle segments of the extremities. It occurs in both isolated (non-syndromic) and syndromic forms. In later case, it shows association with cardiac, respiratory, neurological and genital abnormalities. Acromesomelic dysplasia segregates in autosomal recessive mode. Mutations in three genes (GDF5, NPR2, BMPR1B) have been reported to cause different forms of acromesomelic dysplasia. In the present review, we have discussed clinical spectrum, genetics and signalopathies of isolated acromesomelic dysplasias. PMID:26926249

  10. Genetics of human isolated acromesomelic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saadullah; Basit, Sulman; Khan, Muzammil Ahmad; Muhammad, Noor; Ahmad, Wasim

    2016-04-01

    Acromesomelic dysplasia is a type of skeletal malformation affecting distal and middle segments of the extremities. It occurs in both isolated (non-syndromic) and syndromic forms. In later case, it shows association with cardiac, respiratory, neurological and genital abnormalities. Acromesomelic dysplasia segregates in autosomal recessive mode. Mutations in three genes (GDF5, NPR2, BMPR1B) have been reported to cause different forms of acromesomelic dysplasia. In the present review, we have discussed clinical spectrum, genetics and signalopathies of isolated acromesomelic dysplasias.

  11. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates. PMID:25843529

  12. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates.

  13. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  14. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  15. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and

  16. Cause of occupational disease.

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D C

    1995-01-01

    The concept of causality is reviewed with special emphasis on occupational diseases. Separate approaches from the philosophical, scientific, and legal points of view are identified. There is controversy over the methodology of logical causality; inductive and deductive methods are described and reference is made to the verification or refutation approach. Application of the methods to epidemiology are reviewed. It is likely that many diseases have multiple causes and that only a component of occupational causality can be identified in each patient. Methods of assigning such a component are discussed. The difficulties of developing an equitable compensation policy in such circumstances are reviewed. The possible benefits of proportional compensation are noted. PMID:7795749

  17. Landslides caused by earthquakes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Data from 40 historical world-wide earthquakes were studied to determine the characteristics, geologic environments, and hazards of landslides caused by seismic events. This sample was supplemented with intensity data from several hundred US earthquakes to study relations between landslide distribution and seismic parameters. Correlations between magnitude (M) and landslide distribution show that the maximum area likely to be affected by landslides in a seismic event increases from approximately 0 at M = 4.0 to 500 000 km2 at M = 9.2. Each type of earthquake-induced landslide occurs in a particular suite of geologic environments. -from Author

  18. Isolated perianal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Akgun, E; Tekin, F; Ersin, S; Osmanoglu, H

    2005-03-01

    Perianal tuberculosis, without the presence of any previous or active pulmonary infection, is extremely rare. A case of isolated perianal tuberculosis without gastrointestinal or pulmonary spread will be discussed here with an evaluation of the clinical features. PMID:15813425

  19. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  20. Isolation, cloning, and pathologic analysis of Trypanosoma evansi field isolates.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Hirohisa; Konnai, Satoru; Mingala, Claro N; Abes, Nancy S; Gutierrez, Charito A; Dargantes, Alan P; Witola, William H; Inoue, Noboru; Onuma, Misao; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the emergence of highly pathogenic Trypanosoma evansi strains in the Philippines has resulted in substantial losses in livestock production. In this study, we isolated T. evansi from infected-water buffaloes in the Philippines and analyzed their virulence using mice and cattle. A total of 10 strains of T. evansi were isolated. Evaluation of the virulence of each strain using mice depicted significant differences among the strains in the prepatent period, the level of parasitemia, and the survival time of the infected animals. In mice infected with the highly pathogenic T. evansi, signs of excessive inflammation such as marked splenomegaly and increase more than 6-fold in the number of leukocytes were observed at 8 days post-infection. To study the virulence of the parasite strains in cattle (which are the common T. evansi hosts in Philippines), cattle were infected with the T. evansi isolates that showed high and low virulence in mice. The rate of parasite growth and the length of the prepatent periods were found to be similar to those observed in mice for the respective strains. The cattle infected with the highly pathogenic strain developed anemia and a marked decrease in leukocyte counts. To determine the cause of the pathological changes, we analyzed the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and observed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α in anemic infected cattle. Our findings suggest that the epidemic of T. evansi in the Philippines is characterized by T. evansi strains with varying virulences from low to very high pathogenicity in cattle.

  1. Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Daria La; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrinological disorder that may be caused by several physiological and pathological conditions. Several drugs may determine a significant increase in prolactin serum concentration that is frequently associated with symptoms. The so-called typical antipsychotics are frequently responsible for drug-related hyperprolactinemia. Risperidone is one of the atypical neuroleptics most likely to induce hyperprolactinemia, while other atypical drugs are unfrequenlty and only transiently associated with increase of prolactin levels. Women are more sensitive than men to the hyperprolactinemic effect of antipsychotics. Classical and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia may be revert when a gradual antipsychotic drug discontinuation is combined with olanzapine or clozapine initiation. Antidepressant drugs with serotoninergic activity, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) and some tricyclics, can cause hyperprolactinemia. A long list of other compounds may determine an increase in prolactin levels, including prokinetics, opiates, estrogens, anti-androgens, anti-hypertensive drugs, H2-receptor antagonists, anti-convulsivants and cholinomimetics. Finally, hyperprolactinemia has also been documented during conditioning and after autologous blood stem-cell transplantation and during chemotherapy, even though disturbances of prolactin seem to occur less frequently than impairments of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad/thyroid axis after intensive treatment and blood marrow transplantation. PMID:18473017

  2. Biotyping and virulence properties of skin isolates of Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    De Bernardis, F; Mondello, F; San Millàn, R; Pontòn, J; Cassone, A

    1999-11-01

    The biotype and virulence of skin isolates of Candida parapsilosis were compared with blood isolates of the same fungus. Morphotype, resistotype, and electrophoretic karyotype determinations did not reveal any special cluster with a unique or dominant pathogenic feature among all of the isolates, regardless of their source. However, all cutaneous isolates had uniformly elevated secretory aspartyl-protease (Sap) activity, more than four times higher than the enzyme activity of the blood isolates. They were also highly vaginopathic in a rat vaginitis model, being significantly more virulent than blood isolates in this infection model. In contrast, skin isolates were nonpathogenic in systemic infection of cyclophosphamide-immunodepressed mice, while some blood isolates were, in this model, highly pathogenic (median survival time, 2 days, with internal organ invasion at autopsy). Finally, skin isolates did not differ, as a whole, from blood isolates in their adherence to plastic. This property was associated with a morphotype, as defined by a colony with continuous fringe, which was present among both skin and blood isolates. While confirming the genetic heterogenicity of C. parapsilosis, our data strongly suggest that the potential of this fungus to cause mucosal disease is associated with Sap production and is substantially distinct from that of systemic invasion.

  3. Biotyping and Virulence Properties of Skin Isolates of Candida parapsilosis

    PubMed Central

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Mondello, Francesca; San Millàn, Rosario; Pontòn, Josè; Cassone, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    The biotype and virulence of skin isolates of Candida parapsilosis were compared with blood isolates of the same fungus. Morphotype, resistotype, and electrophoretic karyotype determinations did not reveal any special cluster with a unique or dominant pathogenic feature among all of the isolates, regardless of their source. However, all cutaneous isolates had uniformly elevated secretory aspartyl-protease (Sap) activity, more than four times higher than the enzyme activity of the blood isolates. They were also highly vaginopathic in a rat vaginitis model, being significantly more virulent than blood isolates in this infection model. In contrast, skin isolates were nonpathogenic in systemic infection of cyclophosphamide-immunodepressed mice, while some blood isolates were, in this model, highly pathogenic (median survival time, 2 days, with internal organ invasion at autopsy). Finally, skin isolates did not differ, as a whole, from blood isolates in their adherence to plastic. This property was associated with a morphotype, as defined by a colony with continuous fringe, which was present among both skin and blood isolates. While confirming the genetic heterogenicity of C. parapsilosis, our data strongly suggest that the potential of this fungus to cause mucosal disease is associated with Sap production and is substantially distinct from that of systemic invasion. PMID:10523538

  4. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome. PMID:26585365

  5. Case of Onychomycosis Caused by Microsporum racemosum

    PubMed Central

    García-Martos, Pedro; Gené, Josepa; Solé, María; Mira, José; Ruíz-Henestrosa, Ricardo; Guarro, Josep

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a Spanish 60-year-old female who presented in 1997 with onychomycosis of the left thumbnail following an injury caused by a fresh fish bone. Microsporum racemosum was repeatedly cultured from nail scrapings, and its identity was confirmed by sequencing the isolate’s ITS1/ITS2 and 5.8S rRNA regions. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole, which was administered for 12 weeks. This represents the first case of onychomycosis due to M. racemosum and the first time that this species has been isolated from a human in Europe. PMID:9854108

  6. Fungal peritonitis caused by Lecythophora mutabilis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S; Johnson, R J; Hillier, S; Shelton, W R; Rinaldi, M G

    1985-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis caused by Lecythophora mutabilis, a mold rarely isolated from humans, is described. A patient on continuous peritoneal dialysis developed clinical, microbiological, and serological evidence for peritonitis due to this fungus. In vitro susceptibility testing of the fungus revealed marked differences in the activities of various antifungal agents. Although initially responding to treatment with oral ketoconazole, intraperitoneal miconazole, and catheter replacement, the patient had a documented relapse. The patient was eventually cured following the removal of a second catheter in association with prolonged imidazole treatment. Images PMID:4031032

  7. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  8. Allovahlkampfia spelaea Causing Keratitis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, Mohammed Essa Marghany; Huseein, Enas Abdelhameed Mahmoud; Farrag, Haiam Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Hanan El Deek; Kobayashi, Seiki; Suzuki, Jun; Ali, Tarek Ahmed Mohamed; Sugano, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Background Free-living amoebae are present worldwide. They can survive in different environment causing human diseases in some instances. Acanthamoeba sp. is known for causing sight-threatening keratitis in humans. Free-living amoeba keratitis is more common in developing countries. Amoebae of family Vahlkampfiidae are rarely reported to cause such affections. A new genus, Allovahlkampfia spelaea was recently identified from caves with no data about pathogenicity in humans. We tried to identify the causative free-living amoeba in a case of keratitis in an Egyptian patient using morphological and molecular techniques. Methods Pathogenic amoebae were culture using monoxenic culture system. Identification through morphological features and 18S ribosomal RNA subunit DNA amplification and sequencing was done. Pathogenicity to laboratory rabbits and ability to produce keratitis were assessed experimentally. Results Allovahlkampfia spelaea was identified as a cause of human keratitis. Whole sequence of 18S ribosomal subunit DNA was sequenced and assembled. The Egyptian strain was closely related to SK1 strain isolated in Slovenia. The ability to induce keratitis was confirmed using animal model. Conclusions This the first time to report Allovahlkampfia spelaea as a human pathogen. Combining both molecular and morphological identification is critical to correctly diagnose amoebae causing keratitis in humans. Use of different pairs of primers and sequencing amplified DNA is needed to prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27415799

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of a Clinical Isolate and an Environmental Isolate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Kong, Nguyet; Weimer, Bart C; Fischer, Markus; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-03-26

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne infections in the United States. We report complete genome sequences for two V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated in 2007, CDC_K4557 and FDA_R31 of clinical and oyster origin, respectively. These two sequences might assist in the investigation of differential virulence of this organism.

  10. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  11. Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, and L. welshimeri Isolated from Various Sources to Antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Listeriosis is a leading cause of death from foodborne illnesses in the United States. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes could cause major public health concerns. Few studies have examined antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolated fr...

  12. Acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Yu; Lu, Po-Liang; Lee, Kun-Mu; Chang, Tsung Chain; Lai, Chung-Chih; Chang, Ko; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2013-12-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system is rare but typically associated with high mortality. Treatment has not been standardized, but the combination of antifungal chemotherapy with surgical debridement is recommended. We report a 73-year-old, retired, male timber merchant with acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The patient, who had well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, presented with fever and weakness of the lower limbs. No brain abscess was apparent by cranial computed tomography. C. sphaerospermum was isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid and identified based on both morphology and DNA sequencing. He was treated with combination antifungal chemotherapy with amphotericin B and voriconazole for 28 days, followed by voriconazole monotherapy for 46 days. To date, the patient has recovered without significant sequelae. This patient represents the first reported case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. sphaerospermum. Moreover, the therapy was successful for totally less than 3 months of treatment duration.

  13. Low-loss, high-isolation, fiber-optic isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, George F. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A low-loss, high-isolation, fiber-optic isolator for use in single-mode fiber systems utilizes a Faraday rotator and two polarizers, one at each end angularly oriented from each other at the angle of rotation for isolation, and two aspheric lens connectors to couple optical fibers to the Faraday isolator to reduce forward loss to about 2.5 dB and improve isolation to greater than 70 dB.

  14. Empyema Caused by Pseudomonas luteola: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Farid; Shoja, Saeed; Honarvar, Negin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pseudomonas luteola is an uncommon opportunistic pathogen. It is recognized as an uncommon cause of infections in underlying medical disorders. Infections caused by this microorganism are health care associated. Case Presentation: The current study isolated P. luteola from empyema in a patient with tuberculous pleurisy, whose susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole differed from previous reports. Conclusions: P. luteola is resistant to TMP-SMX, but in the present case P. luteola was susceptible to TMP-SMX PMID:25368791

  15. Myopericarditis associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum-caused liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Alexis; Knoll, Bettina

    2015-03-01

    A wide clinical spectrum of bacteremic disease caused by Fusobacterium has been presented in this journal. We wish to extend this spectrum by presenting a case of myopericarditis resulting from a liver abscess caused by F. nucleatum. While F. nucleatum plays an important role in periodontal disease, and has been isolated from skin ulcers, liver abscesses, urinary tract infections, and endocarditis, a single case of F. nucleatum-induced pericarditis is documented in the literature.

  16. Neonatal sepsis caused by Shewanella algae: A case report.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marie Victor Pravin; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan; Kali, Arunava

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality among neonates, especially in developing countries. Most cases of neonatal sepsis are attributed to Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Shewanella algae (S. algae) is a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus, commonly associated with the marine environment, which has been isolated from humans. Early onset neonatal sepsis caused by S. algae is uncommon. We report a case of S. algae blood stream infection in a newborn with early onset neonatal sepsis.

  17. Isolated 'idiopathic' micropenis: hidden genetic defects?

    PubMed

    Paris, F; De Ferran, K; Bhangoo, A; Ten, S; Lahlou, N; Audran, F; Servant, N; Poulat, F; Philibert, P; Sultan, C

    2011-12-01

    Micropenis is defined as a stretched penile length of less than 2-2.5SD for age. Aetiologies include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, testicular dysgenesis, defects in testosterone synthesis, androgen resistance [5α-reductase (5αR) deficiency or partial androgen insensitivity] and other rare causes like growth hormone GH deficiency. Often, the cause remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether isolated micropenis with normal plasma testosterone could hide a molecular defect in the androgen pathway. Twenty-six boys with isolated micropenis were included in this study. All of them had 46,XY karyotype, normal luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and a normal plasma testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin testing. Androgen receptor (AR), 5αR and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) genes were sequenced. A mutation in the AR gene was found in two patients, and a new mutation in the SF1 gene was found in one patient who was the only one to have a low level of inhibin B (InhB). This is the first report of isolated micropenis as a revealing symptom of AR and SF1 mutations. Anti-Mullerian hormone and InhB should thus be evaluated in patients with isolated micropenis, even when plasma testosterone is in the normal range. Detection of gene mutations is helpful for diagnosis, treatment and genetic counselling for probands.

  18. Microarray-based genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from camels.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Wernery, Renate; Johnson, Bobby; Jose, Sherry; Wernery, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of mastitis and other diseases in camels. In order to obtain data on population structure as well as on the carriage of toxin genes and resistance markers, a collection of 45 isolates from dromedaries of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, were genotyped. These isolates belonged to clonal complexes CC6 (twenty isolates; 44.44%), CC30 (sixteen isolates; 35.56%), CC188 (five isolates; 11.11%), CC152 (1 isolate, 2.2%) and to a previously un-described sequence type (ST1755: arcc-18, aroe-115, glpf-6, gmk-2 pta-109, tpi-50 and yqil-2; three isolates; 6.67%). Resistance genes proved to be rare. Only three out of 45 isolates (6.67%) carried the beta-lactamase operon. The tetracycline resistance gene tetK was also detected in three isolates (6.67%). Neither the mecA gene, defining MRSA, nor other resistance genes were found. Common virulence markers included leukocidin genes lukD+lukE (in twenty-five isolates; 55.56%), the staphylokinase gene sak (twenty-two isolates; 48.89%), the enterotoxin gene cluster egc (fifteen isolates; 33.33%), and a distinct variant of the enterotoxin A gene (sea-320E, GenBank AY196686.1; thirteen isolates; 28.89%). One CC152 isolate was positive for genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukF-PV+lukS-PV). This study provides first genotyping data on the population structure and the presence of toxin genes and resistance markers of S. aureus strains in Middle Eastern camels.

  19. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lewis, Annette K.; Hildebrand, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  20. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  1. Clinical Islet Isolation.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Wayne J; Williams, Lindy; Chew, Yi Vee

    2016-01-01

    The overarching success of islet transplantation relies on the success in the laboratory to isolate the islets. This chapter focuses on the processes of human islet cell isolation and the ways to optimally provide islet cells for transplantation. The major improvements in regards to the choice of enzyme type, way the digested pancreas tissue is handled to best separate islets from the acinar and surrounding tissues, the various methods of purification of the islets, their subsequent culture and quality assurance to improve outcomes to culminate in safe and effective islet transplantation will be discussed. After decades of improvements, islet cell isolation and transplantation now clearly offer a safe, effective and feasible therapeutic treatment option for an increasing number of patients suffering from type 1 diabetes specifically for those with severe hypoglycaemic unawareness. PMID:27586424

  2. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K; Kuru, Burce C; Zemheri, Ebru I; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-07-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically. PMID:27648389

  3. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K.; Kuru, Burce C.; Zemheri, Ebru I.; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically. PMID:27648389

  4. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K.; Kuru, Burce C.; Zemheri, Ebru I.; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically.

  5. Genetic Characterization of Shigella flexneri Isolates in Guizhou Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D.; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838

  6. Isolated index finger palsy due to cortical infarction.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yuichi; Miyaji, Yosuke; Joki, Hideto; Seki, Syunsuke; Mori, Kentaro; Kamide, Tomoya; Tamase, Akira; Nomura, Motohiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    The case of an 86-year-old man presenting with isolated left index finger palsy caused by infarction on the lateral side of the right precentral knob is presented. Embolization from aortic atheroma was considered the cause of infarction. Cases with selective palsy of a particular group of fingers without sensory deficits due to cortical infarction of the precentral knob have been reported by several authors, and predominant weakness of radial-side fingers is known to be usually caused by laterally located infarction of the precentral knob. Among the previous reports, only 1 case involved isolated index finger palsy by an atypical, medially located infarction of the precentral knob in association with a concurrent nonrelated lesion. This is the first reported isolated index finger palsy caused by a single lateral precentral knob infarction.

  7. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  8. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample.

  9. Factors that cause trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent.

  10. Factors that cause trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent. PMID:24492367

  11. Carbon utilization profiles of Fusarium virguliforme isolates.

    PubMed

    Tang, E; Hill, C B; Hartman, G L

    2010-12-01

    Fusarium virguliforme is the cause of sudden death syndrome in soybean. Physiological variability among isolates of the fungus is unknown. One way to measure physiologic variability is to analyze growth on different carbon sources. The carbon source utilization profiles of 18 F. virguliforme isolates were examined using the Biolog FF 96-well microplate, which contains 95 different carbon sources. The utilization of dextrin,D-mannitol, maltotriose,D-lactic acid methyl ester, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, salicin, D-trehalose, and L-alanine differed significantly among isolates (P = 0.05). Carbon sources were grouped into 3 clusters based on their ability to promote growth of F. virguliforme, after calculating Euclidean distances among them. About 12% of the carbon sources promoted a high amount of mycelial growth, 39% promoted a medium amount of growth, and 49% promoted a low amount of mycelial growth; the latter was not significantly different from the water blank control. A hierarchical tree diagram was produced for the 18 isolates based on their carbon source utilization profiles using Ward's hierarchical analysis method. Two main clusters of isolates were formed. One cluster represented greater average mycelial growth on all of the carbon sources than the other cluster. In this study, variability in carbon source utilization among F. virguliforme isolates was evident, but the results were not associated with geographic origin of the isolates, year collected, or published data on aggressiveness. Additional research is needed to determine if these carbon utilization profiles are associated with other biological characteristics, like spore germination, propagule formation, and saprophytic competitiveness. PMID:21164567

  12. Novel clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Johanna M; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Devi Sekaran, Shamala; Clarke, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST), (11 of which were not previously described) were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy.

  13. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Chinese Mallow Caused by Colletotrichum malvarum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Jin Hee

    2008-06-01

    Anthracnose symptoms were frequently observed on leaves, petioles, and stems of Chinese mallow grown in Namyangju, Korea, during a disease survey performed in November, 2007. The disease incidence was as high as 30% in the 12 greenhouses investigated. A total of 38 isolates of the Colletotrichum species were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms, and all the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum malvarum based on their morphological and culture characteristics. Three isolates of the fungus caused anthracnose symptoms on leaves and stems following artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed during the greenhouse survey. In this study, mycological and pathological characteristics of C. malvarum identified as causing anthracnose of Chinese mallow were clarified. PMID:23990748

  14. Tuberculosis in Alpacas (Lama pacos) Caused by Mycobacterium bovis▿

    PubMed Central

    García-Bocanegra, I.; Barranco, I.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I. M.; Pérez, B.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Ruiz-Villamayor, E.; Perea, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes. PMID:20237097

  15. Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Causing Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Fulton P.; Medina, Anicia M.; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Sangil, Anna; Gascon, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Vila, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the presence of virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causing traveler's diarrhea. Among 52 ETEC isolates, the most common toxin type was STh, and the most frequent colonization factors (CFs) were CS21, CS6, and CS3. On the other hand, the nonclassical virulence factors EAST1 and EatA were frequently present. PMID:23224092

  16. Abscess caused by vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus confusus.

    PubMed Central

    Bantar, C E; Relloso, S; Castell, F R; Smayevsky, J; Bianchini, H M

    1991-01-01

    Several isolates of vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus confusus from human sources have been described, but to our knowledge, no well-documented infection attributable to this organism has been published. A thumb abscess caused by this bacterium in a healthy 49-year-old male is reported here. He was successfully treated by surgical drainage and cephalothin. PMID:1774335

  17. Abscess caused by vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus confusus.

    PubMed

    Bantar, C E; Relloso, S; Castell, F R; Smayevsky, J; Bianchini, H M

    1991-09-01

    Several isolates of vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus confusus from human sources have been described, but to our knowledge, no well-documented infection attributable to this organism has been published. A thumb abscess caused by this bacterium in a healthy 49-year-old male is reported here. He was successfully treated by surgical drainage and cephalothin.

  18. Bartonella Species as a Potential Cause of Epistaxis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Maggi, Ricardo; Hawkins, Eleanor; Dyer, Page

    2005-01-01

    Infection with a Bartonella species was implicated in three cases of epistaxis in dogs, based upon isolation, serology, or PCR amplification. These cases, in conjunction with previously published reports, support a potential role for Bartonella spp. as a cause of epistaxis in dogs and potentially in other animals, including humans. PMID:15872304

  19. Epidemic of Postsurgical Infections Caused by Mycobacterium massiliense▿

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Rafael Silva; Lourenço, Maria Cristina Silva; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Amorim, Efigenia de Lourdes T.; Rocha, Ingrid L. L.; Coelho, Fabrice Santana; Viana-Niero, Cristina; Gomes, Karen Machado; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; de Oliveira Lorena, Nádia Suely; Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Ferreira, Rosa M. C.; de Oliveira Garcia, Márcio Henrique; de Oliveira, Gisele Pinto; Lupi, Otilia; Vilaça, Bruno Rios; Serradas, Lúcia Rodrigues; Chebabo, Alberto; Marques, Elizabeth Andrade; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of infections after video-assisted surgery (1,051 possible cases) caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and involving 63 hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, occurred between August 2006 and July 2007. One hundred ninety-seven cases were confirmed by positive acid-fast staining and/or culture techniques. Thirty-eight hospitals had cases confirmed by mycobacterial culture, with a total of 148 available isolates recovered from 146 patients. Most (n = 144; 97.2%) isolates presented a PRA-hsp65 restriction pattern suggestive of Mycobacterium bolletii or Mycobacterium massiliense. Seventy-four of these isolates were further identified by hsp65 or rpoB partial sequencing, confirming the species identification as M. massiliense. Epidemic isolates showed susceptibility to amikacin (MIC at which 90% of the tested isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 8 μg/ml) and clarithromycin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) but resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, ≥32 μg/ml), cefoxitin (MIC90, 128 μg/ml), and doxycycline (MIC90, ≥64 μg/ml). Representative epidemic M. massiliense isolates that were randomly selected, including at least one isolate from each hospital where confirmed cases were detected, belonged to a single clone, as indicated by the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. They also had the same PFGE pattern as that previously observed in two outbreaks that occurred in other Brazilian cities; we designated this clone BRA100. All five BRA100 M. massiliense isolates tested presented consistent tolerance to 2% glutaraldehyde. This is the largest epidemic of postsurgical infections caused by RGM reported in the literature to date in Brazil. PMID:19403765

  20. Causes for "ghost" manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.

    2009-05-01

    ;71:359-82; Flockerzi D. Tutorial: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds and slow attractors. Magdeburg: Max-Planck-Institut; 2001-2005. ; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 1999;9:108-23; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 2006;16:048101]. The present work studies the causes for the "ghost" manifolds appearance for the case of a two-dimensional singularly perturbed system.

  1. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    Positive-isolation-disconnect (PID) device with two mating halves prevents leakage or spillover when two fluid lines are disconnected. Each half has shutoff poppet to stop fluid flow. When flow is shut, poppets are flush against each other, leaving no space for fluid to remain it.

  2. Biological Isolation Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  3. Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spross, F. R.

    1968-01-01

    Biological Isolation Garment /BIG/ is a one-piece loose fitting garment fabricated from a tightly woven, permeable, 100 percent-cotton fabric. Its headpiece, incorporates an integral oronsal respirator with 0.3-micron-particle filters, and a full width visor. All fabrication seams are sealed on the inside of the garment.

  4. Phylogenetic grouping, epidemiological typing, analysis of virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy broilers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to investigate the possible etiology of avian colibacillosis by examining Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy broilers. Findings Seventy-eight E. coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy broilers in Japan were subjected to analysis of phylogenetic background, virulence-associated gene profiling, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and antimicrobial resistance profiling. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that 35 of the 78 isolates belonged to group A, 28 to group B1, one to group B2, and 14 to group D. Virulence-associated genes iutA, iss, cvaC, tsh, iroN, ompT, and hlyF were found in 23 isolates (29.5%), 16 isolates (20.5%), nine isolates (11.5%), five isolates (6.4%), 19 isolates (24.4%), 23 isolates (29.5%), and 22 isolates (28.2%) respectively. Although the genetic diversity of group D isolates was revealed by MLST, the group D isolates harbored iutA (10 isolates, 71.4%), iss (6 isolates, 42.9%), cvaC (5 isolates, 35.7%), tsh (3 isolates, 21.4%), hlyF (9 isolates, 64.3%), iroN (7 isolates, 50.0%), and ompT (9 isolates, 64.3%). Conclusions Our results indicated that E. coli isolates inhabiting the intestines of healthy broilers pose a potential risk of causing avian colibacillosis. PMID:25061511

  5. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  6. Fatal sepsis caused by an unusual Klebsiella species that was misidentified by an automated identification system.

    PubMed

    Seki, Masafumi; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Akeda, Yukihiro; Yoshii, Tadashi; Miyaguchi, Shinichi; Inohara, Hidenori; Horii, Toshihiro; Oishi, Kazunori; Iida, Tetsuya; Tomono, Kazunori

    2013-05-01

    This is a description of fatal sepsis caused by infection with Klebsiella variicola, which is an isolate genetically related to Klebsiella pneumoniae. The patient's condition was incorrectly diagnosed as common sepsis caused by K. pneumoniae, which was identified using an automated identification system, but next-generation sequencing and the non-fermentation of adonitol finally identified the cause of sepsis as K. variicola.

  7. Detection of CC17 Enterococcus faecium in dogs and a comparison with human isolates.

    PubMed

    Kwon, K H; Moon, B Y; Hwang, S Y; Park, Y H

    2012-09-01

    Enterococcus faecium strains of clonal complex (CC) 17 were isolated from domestic dogs. The strains were more prevalent in infectious isolates than in colonized isolates, suggesting that strains of the CC17 lineage may have an advantage in causing infections in dogs. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns of some dog and human isolates were over 90% similar. However, antimicrobial resistance patterns and virulence factors were not identical, which might reflect different use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine or in host specificity.

  8. First report of neonatal bacteremia caused by "Haemophilus quentini" diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Italy.

    PubMed

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Cerquetti, Marina

    2015-10-01

    We report the first case of neonatal bacteremia caused by a "Haemophilus quentini" isolate in Italy. The isolate was differentiated from H. influenzae by 16S rRNA sequencing and was characterized by comparison with the wild-type "H. quentini" CCUG 36167. Both isolates carried substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 but were susceptible to aminopenicillins.

  9. Exophiala oligosperma Causing Olecranon Bursitis

    PubMed Central

    Bossler, A. D.; Richter, S. S.; Chavez, A. J.; Vogelgesang, S. A.; Sutton, D. A.; Grooters, A. M.; Rinaldi, M. G.; de Hoog, G. S.; Pfaller, M. A

    2003-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with a history of Wegener's granulomatosis and immunosuppressive therapy presented with chronic olecranon bursitis. A black velvety mould with brown septate hyphae and tapered annellides was isolated from a left elbow bursa aspirate and was identified as an Exophiala species. Internal transcribed sequence rRNA sequencing showed the isolate to be identical to Exophiala oligosperma. The patient was successfully treated with aspiration and intrabursal amphotericin B. PMID:14532219

  10. Exophiala oligosperma causing olecranon bursitis.

    PubMed

    Bossler, A D; Richter, S S; Chavez, A J; Vogelgesang, S A; Sutton, D A; Grooters, A M; Rinaldi, M G; de Hoog, G S; Pfaller, M A

    2003-10-01

    A 62-year-old male with a history of Wegener's granulomatosis and immunosuppressive therapy presented with chronic olecranon bursitis. A black velvety mould with brown septate hyphae and tapered annellides was isolated from a left elbow bursa aspirate and was identified as an Exophiala species. Internal transcribed sequence rRNA sequencing showed the isolate to be identical to Exophiala oligosperma. The patient was successfully treated with aspiration and intrabursal amphotericin B. PMID:14532219

  11. Causes and Consequences of Genital Evolution.

    PubMed

    Langerhans, R Brian; Anderson, Christopher M; Heinen-Kay, Justa L

    2016-10-01

    The study of genital diversity has experienced rapidly burgeoning attention over the past few decades. This research has shown that male genitalia in internally fertilizing animals exhibit remarkably rapid and complex evolution. In recent years, a consensus has emerged that sexual selection is responsible for much of the observed genital diversity, with natural selection largely playing a subsidiary role. Despite enhanced understanding of the key proximate forms of selection responsible for genital evolution, we still have a poor grasp of the broader, ultimate causes and consequences of the striking diversity of genitalia. Here, we highlight three topics that have so far received comparatively little attention and yet could prove critically important. First, we encourage investigation of ecology's direct and indirect roles in genital diversification, as ecological variation can influence selection on genitalia in several ways, perhaps especially by influencing the context of sexual selection. Second, we need more research into the effects of genital divergence on speciation, as genital differences could enhance reproductive isolation through either a lock-and-key process (where selection directly favors reproductive isolation) or as an incidental by-product of divergence. Third, we echo recent calls for increased research on female genitalia, as non-trivial female genital diversity exists, and multiple mechanisms can lead to rapid diversification of female genitalia. For all three topics, we review theory and empirical data, and describe specific research approaches for tackling these questions. We hope this work provides a roadmap toward increased understanding of the causes and consequences of the conspicuous diversity of primary sexual traits, and thus toward new insights into the evolution of complex traits and the phenotypic causes of speciation. PMID:27600556

  12. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with food intoxication with isolates from human nasal carriers and human infections.

    PubMed

    Wattinger, L; Stephan, R; Layer, F; Johler, S

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents an organism of striking versatility. While asymptomatic nasal colonization is widespread, it can also cause serious infections, toxinoses and life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide, results from oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins leading to violent vomiting, diarrhea and cramps shortly upon ingestion. The aim of the present study was to compare isolates associated with SFP to isolates collected from cases of human nasal colonization and clinical infections in order to investigate the role of S. aureus colonizing and infecting humans as a possible source of SFP. Spa typing and DNA microarray profiling were used to characterize a total of 120 isolates, comprising 50 isolates collected from the anterior nares of healthy donors, 50 isolates obtained from cases of clinical infections in humans and 20 isolates related to outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning. Several common spa types were found among isolates of all three sources (t015, t018, t056, t084). DNA microarray results showed highly similar virulence gene profiles for isolates from all tested sources. These results suggest contamination of foodstuff with S. aureus colonizing and infecting food handlers to represent a source of SFP.

  13. Characterization of Bacteroides forsythus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, T; Kurihara, H; Dahlen, G

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen Bacteroides forsythus strains freshly isolated from patients with periodontitis were used together with three collection strains and one type strain for characterization of growth on various media; determination of enzymatic profiles, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, 16S rRNA ribotypes, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) outer membrane protein profiles, and pathogenicity; and gas chromatography analysis by using a wound chamber model in rabbits. All strains were stimulated by N-acetylmuramic acid, while one strain needed a further supplement such as yeast extract for optimal growth. All strains showed trypsin-like activity. While 10 different ribotypes were found, the SDS-PAGE profiles revealed similar patterns for all strains. All strains were sensitive to penicillin G (MICs, <0.5 microg/ml), ampicillin (MICs, <1.0 microg/ml), amoxicillin (MICs, <0.38 microg/ml), metronidazole (MICs, <0.005 microg/ml), tetracycline (MICs, <0.19 microg/ml), doxycycline (MICs, 0.05 microg/ml), erythromycin (MICs, <0.4 microg/ml), and clindamycin (MICs, <0.016 microg/ml), while they were less sensitive to ciprofloxacin (MICs, <4 microg/ml). B. forsythus did not cause abscess formation by monoinoculation. B. forsythus coinoculated with Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 caused abscess formation in 75% of rabbits, while it caused abscess formation in 100% of rabbits when it was coinoculated with Porphyromonas gingivalis FDC 381. In the case of the latter combination, four of six rabbits died of sepsis after 6 to 7 days, and P. gingivalis and B. forsythus were recovered from the heart blood at a proportion of 10:1. B. forsythus strains were highly virulent and invasive in combination with P. gingivalis. PMID:9163447

  14. Genetic defect causing familial Alzheimer's disease maps on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    St. George-Hyslop, P.H.; Tanzi, R.E.; Polinsky, R.J.; Haines, J.L.; Nee, L.; Watkins, P.C.; Myers, R.H.; Feldman, R.G.; Pollen, D.; Drachman, D.; Growdon, J.

    1987-02-20

    Alzheimer's disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Several families have been described in which Alzheimer's disease is caused by an autosomal dominant gene defect. The chromosomal location of this defective gene has been discovered by using genetic linkage to DNA markers on chromosome 21. The localization on chromosome 21 provides an explanation for the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in Down syndrome. Isolation and characterization of the gene at this locus may yield new insights into the nature of the defect causing familial Alzheimer's disease and possibly, into the etiology of all forms of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  16. Causes of chronic bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused most often by exposure to airborne pollutants such as cigarette smoke, excessive dust in the ... becomes inflamed and the constant exposure to such pollutants begins to cause damage in the bronchioles (the ...

  17. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  18. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease? Abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S , causes sickle cell ... that hemoglobin works. ( See Overview. ) How Is Sickle Cell Disease Inherited? When the hemoglobin S gene is inherited ...

  19. Drugs that may cause impotence

    MedlinePlus

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one man may not affect another man. ...

  20. Genetic diversity among monoconidial and polyconidial isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michele B; Minotto, Elisandra; Feltrin, Thaisa; Milagre, Luciana P; Spadari, Cristina; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2014-12-01

    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat-growing regions of the world. This fungus shows a high genetic diversity and morphological and physiologic variability. In this study, 19 polysporic and 57 monosporic isolates of B. sorokiniana were characterized using universal rice primers-URP-PCR. The results obtained when the dendrogram was constructed with all the data produced with the amplification products showed very distinct clusters. However, the similarity among the isolates was low where 37 and 26.3 % of the monosporic and polysporic isolates, respectively, showed similarity above 70 %. All primers amplified multiple DNA fragments of polysporic as well as the monosporic isolates. Isolates fingerprints were constructed based on binary characters revealed by the three primers. An amplified fragment of approximately 750 bp was observed among 40 % of the isolates, when primer URP-1F was used. When primers URP-4R and URP-2R were used, a fragment of 450 and 400 bp was present in 31.5 and 29 % of the isolates, respectively. It was expected a higher similarity among the isolates since the monosporic cultures were originated from the polysporic. The dendrogram did not enable the separation of B. sorokiniana isolates by their geographic origin. This low correlation suggests that gene transfer may have occurred by parasexual combination in this fungus population. However, in spite of the research efforts for that end, it has not been possible to establish patterns that characterize the profile of B. sorokiniana.

  1. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  2. Ultrasonic thermometer isolation standoffs

    DOEpatents

    Arave, Alvin E.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for minimizing sticking of the transmission line to the protective sheath and preventing noise echoes from interfering with signal echoes in an improved high temperature ultrasonic thermometer which includes an ultrasonic transmission line surrounded by a protective sheath. Small isolation standoffs are mounted on the transmission line to minimize points of contact between the transmission line and the protective sheath, the isolation standoffs serving as discontinuities mounted on the transmission line at locations where a signal echo is desired or where an echo can be tolerated. Consequently any noise echo generated by the sticking of the standoff to the protective sheath only adds to the amplitude of the echo generated at the standoff and does not interfere with the other signal echoes.

  3. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  4. Isolated lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2012-01-01

    Isolated lung perfusion (ILP) has been historically used as a method to study basic lung physiologic concepts using animal models. More recently, ILP has been applied in lung transplantation and thoracic oncology. In lung transplantation, ILP has been used to assess physiological integrity of donor lungs after the organ is removed from the donor. This procedure is called Ex vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP), and it has also been proposed as a method for active treatment and repair of injured unsuitable donor organs ex vivo. In oncology, ILP is an attractive method to deliver high dose chemotherapy to treat pulmonary metastatic disease. Since the lung vasculature is isolated in vivo, this technique is called in vivo lung perfusion (IVLP). This review will focus on the rationale, technical aspects, experimental and clinical experience of EVLP and IVLP. A perspective on the future use of these techniques is described. PMID:22202033

  5. Isolated glucocorticoid insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Werder, E A; Haller, R; Vetter, W; Zachmann, M; Siebenmann, R

    1975-07-01

    Two cases of isolated glucocorticoid insufficiency or congenital adrenocortical unresponsiveness to ACTH-a variant of adrenocortical failure without mineralocorticoid insufficiency-are presented. Familial incidence was present only in case 1 since two of the siblings died after convulsions, possible related to hypoglycemia. The pathology specimens of one sibling were available for review showing complete lack of the fascicular zone and degenerative changes in the adrenals and evidence of increased ACTH secretion in the pituitary. In the patients who were given substitution therapy with hydrocortisone, studies of plasma renin and aldosterone revealed impairment of plasma aldosterone response to salt restriction, orthostatism and furosemide-induced diuresis combined with postural change. We conclude that in some cases of isolated glucocorticoid insufficiency, impairment of mineralocorticoid function may gradually develop, which is in contrast to the assumption of a congenital defect in the action of ACTH.

  6. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  7. Isolation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, K; Swiggard, W J; Steinman, R M; Romani, N; Schuler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents two methods for preparing dendritic cells (DCs), a highly specialized type of antigen-presenting cell (APC). The first method involves the isolation of DCs from mouse spleen, resulting in a cell population that is highly enriched in accessory cell and APC function. A support protocol for collagenase digestion of splenocyte suspensions is described to increase the yield of dendritic cells. The second method involves generating large numbers of DCs from mouse bone marrow progenitor cells. In that technique, bone marrow cells are cultured in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to yield 5-10 10(6) cells, 60% of which express DC surface markers (e.g., B-7-2/CD86). Additional techniques for isolating DCs from mouse spleens or other mouse tissues, as well as from human tissues, are also discussed.

  8. Isolation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kayo; Swiggard, William J; Steinman, Ralph M; Romani, Nikolaus; Schuler, Gerold; Brinster, Carine

    2009-08-01

    This unit presents two methods for preparing dendritic cells (DCs), a highly specialized type of antigen-presenting cell (APC). The first method involves the isolation of DCs from mouse spleen, resulting in a cell population that is highly enriched in accessory cell and APC function. A support protocol for collagenase digestion of splenocyte suspensions is described to increase the yield of dendritic cells. The second method involves generating large numbers of DCs from mouse bone marrow progenitor cells. In that technique, bone marrow cells are cultured in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to yield 5-10 x 10(6) cells, 60% of which express DC surface markers (e.g., B-7-2/CD86). Additional techniques for isolating DCs from mouse spleens or other mouse tissues, as well as from human tissues, are also discussed.

  9. Cycle isolation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C.

    2009-07-15

    There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

  10. Improved CMOS field isolation using Germaniun/Boron implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Pfiester, J.R.; Alvis, J.R. )

    1988-08-01

    A novel germanium/boron implantation technique for improving the electrical field isolation for high-density CMOS circuits is demonstrated. Germanium implantation causes a reduction in dopant diffusion and segregation during field oxidation and is shown to increase the p-well field threshold voltage by as much as 40 percent with no significant degradation to junction or device performance. Selective germanium implantation with a blanket boron field implant can also improve the electrical field isolation behavior for CMOS circuits.

  11. [Infectious aortitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Zizi, O; Jiber, H; Bouarhroum, A

    2016-02-01

    Infectious aortitis is a rare clinical entity that most often manifests itself by an aortic aneurysm. The syphilitic or tubercular forms can be subacute. When it is caused by Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus sp. or Streptococcus pneumoniae, the aortitis is acute with alarming symptoms. Germs found in most cases are Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus. S. pneumoniae rarely causes infectious aortitis. We report the case of a 75-year-old patient seen in an emergency setting for sudden-onset abdominal pain with fever. An abdominal angio-computed tomography (CT) scan showed a sacciform infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, with an inflammatory aspect and periaortic hematoma. Surgical cure was undertaken because of the impending rupture. An interposition aortic replacement graft was implanted. Blood cultures and bacteriological study of the aortic wall isolated a S. pneumoniae. The anatomical pathology study reported fibrin clot leukocyte remodeling of the aortic wall. An intravenous antibiotic regimen was started. Several organisms, including Streptococcus, can cause infectious aortitis. We found 36 cases described in the literature in addition to our patient. PMID:26775836

  12. Genetics of population isolates.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Burgos, M; Muenke, M

    2002-04-01

    Genetic isolates, as shown empirically by the Finnish, Old Order Amish, Hutterites, Sardinian and Jewish communities among others, represent a most important and powerful tool in genetically mapping inherited disorders. The main features associated with that genetic power are the existence of multigenerational pedigrees which are mostly descended from a small number of founders a short number of generations ago, environmental and phenotypic homogeneity, restricted geographical distribution, the presence of exhaustive and detailed records correlating individuals in very well ascertained pedigrees, and inbreeding as a norm. On the other hand, the presence of a multifounder effect or admixture among divergent populations in the founder time (e.g. the Finnish and the Paisa community from Colombia) will theoretically result in increased linkage disequilibrium among adjacent loci. The present review evaluates the historical context and features of some genetic isolates with emphasis on the basic population genetic concepts of inbreeding and genetic drift, and also the state-of-the-art in mapping traits, both Mendelian and complex, on genetic isolates. PMID:12030885

  13. Isolated persistent hypermethioninemia.

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S H; Levy, H L; Tangerman, A; Boujet, C; Buist, N; Davidson-Mundt, A; Hudgins, L; Oyanagi, K; Nagao, M; Wilson, W G

    1995-01-01

    New information has been obtained on 30 patients with isolated persistent hypermethioninemia, most of them previously unreported. Biopsies to confirm the presumptive diagnosis of partially deficient activity of ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT; E.C.2.5.1.6) in liver were not performed on most of these patients. However, none showed the clinical findings or the extreme elevations of serum folate previously described in other patients with isolated hypermethioninemia considered not to have hepatic MAT deficiency. Patients ascertained on biochemical grounds had no neurological abnormalities, and 27/30 had IQs or Bayley development-index scores within normal limits or were judged to have normal mental development. Methionine transamination metabolites accumulated abnormally only when plasma methionine concentrations exceeded 300-350 microM and did so more markedly after 0.9 years of age. Data were obtained on urinary organic acids as well as plasma creatinine concentrations. Patterns of inheritance of isolated hypermethioninemia were variable. Considerations as to the optimal management of this group of patients are discussed. PMID:7573050

  14. Isolation of neuromelanin granules.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Florian

    2008-12-01

    Neuromelanin granules are pigmented organelles in the human midbrain that give name to a brain area, substantia nigra pars compacta, which macroscopically appears as a dark brown region in the midbrain due to the insoluble pigment neuromelanin. The substantia nigra pars compacta massively degenerates in Parkinson's disease and gives rise to severely disabling movement symptoms. It has been suggested that neuromelanin granules play an important role in the neurodegenerative events in Parkinson's disease: redox-active iron is bound to neuromelanin and thereby retained within this compartment, but in Parkinson's disease it is thought to be increasingly released into the cytosol, promoting oxidative stress. This unit includes a methodological workflow for the isolation of neuromelanin granules from the human midbrain. This top-down approach (describes an approach that reduces the complexity of the sample stepwise from the level of tissue to cell, and from cell to organelle) encompasses the organelle isolation by sequential density gradient centrifugation and the assessment of the isolation efficacy by western blotting. PMID:19085988

  15. Endocrine causes of calcium disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine diseases that may cause hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, thyroid disorders, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, and less commonly pheochromocytoma and multiple endocrine neoplasias. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia may include malignancy (lymphoma, anal sac carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, chronic renal disease, hypoadrenocorticism, granulomatous disorders, osteolysis, or spurious causes. Hypocalcemia may be caused by puerperal tetany, pancreatitis, intestinal malabsorption, ethlyene glycol intoxication, acute renal failure, hypopararthyroidism, hypovitaminosis D, hypomagnesemia, and low albumin. This article focuses on the endocrine causes of calcium imbalance and provides diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for identifying the cause of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in veterinary patients.

  16. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia.

    PubMed

    Timchenko, Nelly F; Adgamov, Ruslan R; Popov, Alexander F; Psareva, Ekaterina K; Sobyanin, Konstantin A; Gintsburg, Alexander L; Ermolaeva, Svetlana A

    2016-03-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates from patients in Russia during 1973-2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype's dominance.

  17. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Timchenko, Nelly F.; Adgamov, Ruslan R.; Popov, Alexander F.; Psareva, Ekaterina K.; Sobyanin, Konstantin A.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated in Russia during 1973–2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype’s dominance. PMID:26889961

  18. Lodderomyces elongisporus masquerading as Candida parapsilosis as a cause of bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Messer, Shawn A; Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Ten yeast bloodstream isolates identified as Candida parapsilosis by conventional methods grew as turquoise blue colonies on Chromagar media. Subsequent sequence analysis showed that these isolates were the species Lodderomyces elongisporus. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of L. elongisporus as a cause of human disease.

  19. Isolation of Actinomyces hyovaginalis from sheep and comparison with isolates obtained from pigs.

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; Wragg, Peter; Koylass, Mark S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Hoyles, Lesley

    2012-06-15

    Actinomyces hyovaginalis, an organism initially described from pigs, was recovered from nine sheep and a moufflon. Further strains of A. hyovaginalis were recovered from five samples from pigs over the same period. 16S rRNA sequencing and extensive phenotyping demonstrated high similarity between the ovine and porcine isolates; however differences with respect to erythritol, adonitol and l-arabitol fermentation were detected. Ovine isolates were made from various sample sites including abscesses and highlight the importance of the accurate identification of the various coryneform isolates which affect sheep. A. hyovaginalis can be added to the growing list of coryneforms which can cause disease in sheep including Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Trueperella pyogenes and Arcanobacterium pluranimalium.

  20. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  1. Vibrios associated with red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Romalde, J L; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1990-01-01

    Vibrios were isolated from red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and also throughout the year in the Ria de Pontevedra, Spain. The isolates were grouped into 14 phena by numerical toxonomy. Strains associated with red tides were restricted to four phena: phena I and II were Vibrio alginolyticus, and phena III and IV were Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio anguillarum, respectively. V. anguillarum-like strains (phena V through XI) predominated throughout the year outside the red tide areas. Cytotoxicity assays conducted in different poikilothermic and homoiothermic cell lines showed that cytotoxin production was not necessarily associated with the species selected during the red tides. PMID:2268167

  2. Dysentery caused by Balantidium coli--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Castro, J; Vazquez-Iglesias, J L; Arnal-Monreal, F

    1983-07-01

    The authors present two cases of dysentery caused by Balantidium coli with numerous colonic ulcers, documented by colonoscopy and diagnosed by endoscopic biopsies. The positive rectal exudate in one case permitted the isolation and ultrastructural study of the trophozoites. The good response to tetracyclines in the younger patient was not repeated in the older patient, who died in septic shock despite antibiotic therapy. The authors report the endoscopic findings and comment on the differential endoscopic diagnosis between parasitic and other organic colitis in view of the rarity of these examples as isolated cases in Western countries. PMID:6884287

  3. Genetic insights into human isolated gonadotropin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Trarbach, Ericka Barbosa; Silveira, Leticia Gontijo; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The identification of naturally occurring genetic mutations has provided unique insight into the current knowledge of the human hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In the past decade, several monogenic causes have been reported in patients with isolated gonadotropin deficiency. Kallmann Syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder, characterized by isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia or hyposmia. To date, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding anosmin-1 (KAL1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) have been described in the X-linked and autosomal dominant forms of this syndrome, respectively. More recently, several heterozygous, homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the G protein-coupled prokineticin receptor-2 (PROKR2) and one of its ligands, prokineticin-2 (PROK2) were described in Kallmann syndrome. In addition, complex genetic transmission (digenic inheritance) was recently demonstrated in this condition. Regarding isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism without olfactory abnormalities, loss-of-function mutations in the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRH-R) or the G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) genes, both encoding transmembrane receptors, have been described, as well as FGFR1 mutations. Finally, mutations of the beta sub-units of LH and FSH have been described in patients with selective gonadotropin deficiency. We review the role of these distinct genetic factors in human isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  4. Characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from llama and alpaca.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Anderson, David; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2013-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes a variety of infections termed necrobacillosis. There are 2 subspecies of F. necrophorum (subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme) that differ morphologically and biochemically and in virulence. Leukotoxin, a secreted protein, is considered to be the major virulence factor. In camelids, F. necrophorum causes a variety of infections, generally involving the lips, tongue, pharynx, interdigital spaces, foot pad, larynx, mandible, or maxillary bones. The objective of the current study was to characterize the presumptive Fusobacterium isolates from a variety of necrotic infections in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and determine whether the strains possess leukotoxin activities. A total of 7 isolates from alpaca and 2 isolates from llama were characterized. Based on growth characteristics in broth culture, and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analyses, all 9 isolates belonged to subsp. necrophorum and possessed the putative hemagglutinin gene. Western blot analysis with antileukotoxin antibodies raised in rabbit showed the presence of leukotoxin protein in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Furthermore, flow cytometry of the culture supernatants demonstrated cytotoxicity to bovine and alpaca polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The extent of cytotoxicity to either alpaca or bovine PMNs differed among camelid strains. The cytotoxicity of many of the camelid strains was higher (P < 0.05) toward alpaca PMNs compared to bovine PMNs. Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from llama and alpaca are similar to bovine isolates, and leukotoxin may be a major virulence factor.

  5. Isolation of Nipah virus from Malaysian Island flying-foxes.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Koh, Chong Lek; Hooi, Poh Sim; Wee, Kong Fatt; Khong, Jenn Hui; Chua, Beng Hooi; Chan, Yee Peng; Lim, Mou Eng; Lam, Sai Kit

    2002-02-01

    In late 1998, Nipah virus emerged in peninsular Malaysia and caused fatal disease in domestic pigs and humans and substantial economic loss to the local pig industry. Surveillance of wildlife species during the outbreak showed neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus mainly in Island flying-foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus) and Malayan flying-foxes (Pteropus vampyrus) but no virus reactive with anti-Nipah virus antibodies was isolated. We adopted a novel approach of collecting urine from these Island flying-foxes and swabs of their partially eaten fruits. Three viral isolates (two from urine and one from a partially eaten fruit swab) that caused Nipah virus-like syncytial cytopathic effect in Vero cells and stained strongly with Nipah- and Hendra-specific antibodies were isolated. Molecular sequencing and analysis of the 11,200-nucleotide fragment representing the beginning of the nucleocapsid gene to the end of the glycoprotein gene of one isolate confirmed the isolate to be Nipah virus with a sequence deviation of five to six nucleotides from Nipah virus isolated from humans. The isolation of Nipah virus from the Island flying-fox corroborates the serological evidence that it is one of the natural hosts of the virus.

  6. Bacterial endocarditis caused by Oerskovia turbata.

    PubMed

    Reller, L B; Maddoux, G L; Eckman, M R; Pappas, G

    1975-11-01

    Oerskovia turbata is a yellow, motile actinomycete, which before now has only been found in soil and has not been known to cause disease in man or animals. It was isolated from 29 cultures of blood taken during 6 months from an urban pensioner after homograft replacement of his aortic valve. The combination of ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim was lethal for O. turbata in vitro; however, antimicrobial therapy alone failed to eradicate the patient's infection. Cure was achieved after the infected homograft was replaced with a prosthetic aortic valve. Although the source of O. turbata in this patient is unknown, sterilization of homograft valves with antimicrobial solutions is difficult. Moreover, environmental contamination during cardiopulmonary bypass is common. Oerskovia turbata is another opportunistic pathogen of man. PMID:1200499

  7. Mortality of adult Stomoxys calcitrans fed isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Kalischuk-Tymensen, L D; Selinger, L B

    2012-10-01

    We examined the ability of five isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to cause mortality in adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Isolates Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi 4L3 (serotype 9), Bacillus thuringiensis darmstadiensis 4M1 (serotype 10a10b), Bacillus thuringiensis thompsoni 401 (serotype 12), Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis HD2 (serotype 1), and Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD945 (serotype 3a3b3c) were administered to adult flies in diets containing blood only, sugar only, and both sugar and blood combined. B. t. tolworthi 4L3 had no effect on adult mortality regardless of the feeding substrate. The remaining isolates tended to cause the greatest mortality when administered in blood alone. B. t. thompsoni 401 was the only isolate that consistently caused adult mortality when fed in blood at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 50.0 microg of protein per ml of blood. This isolate also caused mortality when applied topically. The time to 50% mortality declined with dose and reached a lower asymptote at approximately equal to 1.3 d at an oral dose of 8.75 microg/ml and at a topical dose of 0.14 microg per fly.

  8. Biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract. Patients with bile cultures positive for Aeromonas species during the period July 2004 to December 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a hospital in Taiwan. Patients with Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract were further identified. During the study period, a total of 1,142 isolates of Aeromonas species were obtained from 750 patients. Of those patients, 91 (12.1 %) had Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract. The annual incidence (episodes per 10,000 patient-days) of biliary tract infections caused by all Aeromonas species was 0.31 in 2007, 0.12 in 2010, and 0.27 in 2011. A. hydrophila was the most common species isolated (n = 41, 45.1 %), followed by A. caviae (n = 30, 33.0 %), A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 15, 16.5 %), and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 5, 5.5 %). The majority of patients (n = 77, 84.6 %) had polymicrobial infections. Hepatobiliary stones (n = 50, 54.9 %) and hepatobiliary cancer (n = 38, 41.8 %) were the most common underlying diseases, followed by diabetes mellitus (n = 29, 31.9 %) and liver cirrhosis (n = 7, 7.7 %). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8 %. Infection-related mortality was associated with underlying immunocompromised condition (p = 0.044) and use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.004), but was not associated with inappropriate antibiotic usage or concomitant bacteremia (n = 8, 8.8 %). In conclusion, biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species are not uncommon and can develop in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; however, patients with underlying hepatobiliary diseases are particularly susceptible to these infections.

  9. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Peter; Rae, Philip John; Foley, Timothy J.; Novak, Alan M.; Armstrong, Christopher Lee; Baca, Eva V.; Gunderson, Jake Alfred

    2015-09-30

    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  10. Isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency presenting as primary infertility.

    PubMed

    Atkin, S L; Masson, E A; White, M C

    1995-06-01

    A 31 year old female presented with primary infertility and gave a two year history of amenorrhea without symptoms or signs of endocrine dysfunction. Examination was normal and investigation showed low oestradiol and progesterone levels with decreased LH pulsatility. The cortisol responses were impaired following hypoglycaemic stress and a short synacthen test, but the cortisol response to a prolonged synacthen test was normal. An inadequate ACTH response to CRF testing confirmed the diagnosis of isolated ACTH deficiency. Hydrocortisone therapy was followed by an ovulatory menstrual cycle. Amenorrhea again ensued following the reduction of the steroid dose and normal menses resumed on normal steroid replacement therapy. Six hourly gonadotrophin pulsatility showed a significant increase in both pulse amplitude and mean LH and FSH levels following steroid treatment. Isolated ACTH deficiency is a rare but treatable cause of hypogonadism and infertility, and this case gives further insight on the role of cortisol on the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis.

  11. How isolated is Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Barnes, David K A; Hodgson, Dominic A

    2005-01-01

    The traditional view of Antarctica and the surrounding Southern Ocean as an isolated system is now being challenged by the recent discovery at the Antarctic Peninsula of adult spider crabs Hyas areneus from the North Atlantic and of larvae of subpolar marine invertebrates. These observations question whether the well described biogeographical similarities between the benthic fauna of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Magellan region of South America result from history (the two regions were once contiguous), or from a previously unrecognized low level of faunal exchange. Such exchange might be influenced by regional climate change, and also exacerbated by changes in human impact. PMID:16701330

  12. Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

    2013-04-12

    A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium.

  13. Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

  14. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  15. Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish.

    PubMed

    Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P

    2013-11-01

    Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique.

  16. The Four Causes of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Comprehension of a phenomenon involves identifying its origin, structure, substrate, and function, and representing these factors in some formal system. Aristotle provided a clear specification of these kinds of explanation, which he called efficient causes (triggers), formal causes (models), material causes (substrates or mechanisms), and final causes (functions). In this article, Aristotle's framework is applied to conditioning and the computation-versus-association debate. The critical empirical issue is early versus late reduction of information to disposition. Automata theory provides a grammar for models of conditioning and information processing in which that constraint can be represented. PMID:19081757

  17. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic brain - metabolic; Mild cognitive - metabolic; MCI - metabolic ... Possible metabolic causes of dementia include: Hormonal disorders, such as Addison disease , Cushing disease Heavy metal exposure, such as ...

  18. Ribotype differences between clinical and environmental isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Trakulsomboon, S; Dance, D A; Smith, M D; White, N J; Pitt, T L

    1997-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is isolated frequently from the soil in regions where the disease melioidosis occurs. However, recent surveys in Thailand have shown that the frequency of isolation of the organism from soil samples is not directly related to the incidence of melioidosis in an area. To determine whether strain populations of B. pseudomallei prevalent in soil are gentypically related to strains causing clinical disease, rRNA BamHI restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of 139 soil environmental isolates and 228 human isolates were compared. Two groups of ribotype patterns were found. Group I comprised 37 different ribotype patterns which were characterised by five to eight hybridisation bands of 2.8- > 23 kb. All of these ribotypes were identified among the clinical isolates, and 18 of them were also found in 59 environmental isolates. Group II was represented by 12 ribotypes found only in environmental strains. These ribotype patterns comprised one to five bands in the size range 9- > 23 kb. All but one of the 73 isolates in this group grew on a minimal medium supplemented with L-arabinose. In contrast, only 3% of the 66 isolates from the environment with group I ribotype patterns could utilise this sugar as their sole energy source. These findings suggest that B. pseudomallei strains that utilise arabinose constitute a population that is genetically distinct from other environmental and clinical strains.

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Environmental Sources▿

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Zak, John C.; Jeter, Randall M.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. Clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. A total of 282 Aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of Lubbock, Texas, and several rivers in West Texas and New Mexico. Of these, at least 104 were subsequently confirmed to be independent isolates. The 104 isolates were identified by Biolog and belonged to 11 different species. The MICs of six metals, one metalloid, five antibiotics, and two antimicrobial drugs were determined. All aeromonads were sensitive to chromate, cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, cefuroxime, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole. Low incidences of trimethoprim resistance, mercury resistance, and arsenite resistance were found. Dual resistances were found in 5 of the 104 Aeromonas isolates. Greater numbers of resistant isolates were obtained from samples taken in March versus July 2002 and from sediment versus water. Plasmids were isolated from selected strains of the arsenite- and mercury-resistant organisms and were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF′. Acquisition of the resistance phenotypes by the new host showed that these resistance genes were carried on the plasmids. Mercury resistance was found to be encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Despite the low incidence of resistant isolates, the six playa lakes and three rivers that were sampled in this study can be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:16950901

  20. Morphology, physiology, and virulence of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates.

    PubMed

    Poloni, A; Pessi, I S; Frazzon, A P G; Van der Sand, S T

    2009-09-01

    Bipolaris sorokiniana is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes diseases in cereal crops. The high morphological, physiological, and genetic variability makes the control of this fungus a difficult task. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphological, and physiological variability of B. sorokiniana isolates. For this, 35 B. sorokiniana isolates from different geographic regions in Brazil and other countries were used. The isolates were evaluated for their morphological variability, considering mycelium color, sector formation, and growth rate. Based on these morphological characteristics, the isolates were grouped in five different morphological groups. Extracellular enzymes activity in solid medium, virulence in wheat seeds and seedlings, and analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE were evaluated for all isolates. Variations among the isolates were found for enzymatic activity, and esterase was the enzyme that showed the highest activity indices. The results obtained from infection of seeds and seedlings showed that isolates from the same geographical region and morphological group had different degrees of virulence. The total protein profile shown by the isolates varied in the number of bands and intensity, where some of them may be used to characterize the specie.

  1. Isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Othman, M Z; Aziz, A H

    2000-06-01

    Four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from Chrysomya megacephala. Klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was predominantly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala and also from Musca domestica and Musca sorbens. A total of 18 bacterial species was isolated from the synanthropic flies trapped. Burkholderia pseudomallei had been reported for the first time.

  2. Genotypic analyses and virulence characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

    PubMed

    Li, Jinquan; Du, Pujun; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Yang; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Si; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause invasive illness in humans and farm animals. It is frequently isolated from dairy products and poultry. However, there have been few literatures on the genetic diversity and virulence potential of L. monocytogenes from freshwater animal. Thirty-nine L. monocytogenes strains from crayfish were isolated and identified in this study. Molecular subtyping and polymorphism of each isolate were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLST divided the isolates into eight sequence types (STs), six of which from crayfish were the same with the isolates from environment and clinic. PCR detection of the eight genes related to virulence and multiplex PCR for serotyping showed that the eight virulence factors were present in the isolates and all the isolates belonged to four major L. monocytogenes serotype groups (1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b) frequently isolated from patients. In vivo pathogenicity of isolates was also evaluated in murine model and survival curve of infected mice suggested that ST1, ST4, and ST9 isolates were as virulent as the reference strain EGDe. This study provides preliminary insights into the genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes from crayfish and the genetic correlation between crayfish and clinical L. monocytogenes isolates. The results indicate the contamination in aquaculture could be the source of Listeria contamination and the isolates are likely to cause human listeriosis.

  3. Antagonistic and plant growth activity of Trichoderma isolates of Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B B; Bhatt, R P; Bahukhandi, D

    2010-11-01

    The genus Trichoderma is rapidly growing colonies bearing tufted or postulate, repeatedly branched conidiophores with lageniform phialides and hyaline or green conidia born in slimy heads. 62 isolates of Trichoderma species were isolated from different rhizospheric soil samples collected from different places located in Western Himalayas region. Out of these only two species were found i.e. Trichoderma hazianum and Trichoderma viride. Their efficacy against soil borne plant pathogens like Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum revealed that only three isolates amounting to 5% of the total collected isolates of this region were found highly antagonist. Among them 5% isolates were found against S. rolfsii, 13% isolates against R. solani, 10% against sclerotium caused above 80% inhibition of mycelial growth respectively. 6% isolates out of twenty seven utilized chitin by more than 80 and 16% isolates consumed cellulose by above 80% and therefore are producers of chitinase and cellulases. 58% isolates produced colonies having cottony texture and 41% produced dark green colonies. Pigmentation as observed from reverse side of the colony revealed that 70% of them did not produced pigment in the medium. Plant growth promotion measured as root and shoot lengths were significantly higher than in control. The maximum root length and shoot length were recorded when seeds were treated with isolates were recorded at Srinagar Garhwal was 4.70 and 4.75 cm out of all the isolates in which isolate recorded from Srinagar no 3 caused maximum percent seed germination which was significantly higher 79.49%.

  4. Antagonistic and plant growth activity of Trichoderma isolates of Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B B; Bhatt, R P; Bahukhandi, D

    2010-11-01

    The genus Trichoderma is rapidly growing colonies bearing tufted or postulate, repeatedly branched conidiophores with lageniform phialides and hyaline or green conidia born in slimy heads. 62 isolates of Trichoderma species were isolated from different rhizospheric soil samples collected from different places located in Western Himalayas region. Out of these only two species were found i.e. Trichoderma hazianum and Trichoderma viride. Their efficacy against soil borne plant pathogens like Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum revealed that only three isolates amounting to 5% of the total collected isolates of this region were found highly antagonist. Among them 5% isolates were found against S. rolfsii, 13% isolates against R. solani, 10% against sclerotium caused above 80% inhibition of mycelial growth respectively. 6% isolates out of twenty seven utilized chitin by more than 80 and 16% isolates consumed cellulose by above 80% and therefore are producers of chitinase and cellulases. 58% isolates produced colonies having cottony texture and 41% produced dark green colonies. Pigmentation as observed from reverse side of the colony revealed that 70% of them did not produced pigment in the medium. Plant growth promotion measured as root and shoot lengths were significantly higher than in control. The maximum root length and shoot length were recorded when seeds were treated with isolates were recorded at Srinagar Garhwal was 4.70 and 4.75 cm out of all the isolates in which isolate recorded from Srinagar no 3 caused maximum percent seed germination which was significantly higher 79.49%. PMID:21506476

  5. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  6. Recombinant baculovirus isolation.

    PubMed

    King, Linda A; Hitchman, Richard; Possee, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    Although there are several different methods available of making recombinant baculovirus expression vectors (reviewed in Chapter 3), all require a stage in which insect cells are transfected with either the virus genome alone (Bac-to-Bac or BaculoDirect, Invitrogen) or virus genome and transfer vector. In the latter case, this allows the natural process of homologous recombination to transfer the foreign gene, under control of the polyhedrin or other baculovirus gene promoter, from the transfer vector to the virus genome to create the recombinant virus. Additionally, many systems require a plaque-assay to separate parental and recombinant virus prior to amplification and use of the recombinant virus. This chapter provides an overview of the historical development of increasingly more efficient systems for the isolation of recombinant baculoviruses (Chapter 3 provides a full account of the different systems and transfer vectors available). The practical details cover: transfection of insect cells with either virus DNA or virus DNA and plasmid transfer vector; a reliable plaque-assay method that can be used to separate recombinant virus from parental (nonrecombinant) virus where this is necessary; methods for the small-scale amplification of recombinant virus; and subsequent titration by plaque-assay. Methods unique to the Bac-to-Bac system are also covered and include the transformation of bacterial cells and isolation of bacmid DNA ready for transfection of insect cells.

  7. Foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella in Italy, 1991-4.

    PubMed Central

    Scuderi, G.; Fantasia, M.; Filetici, E.; Anastasio, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes studies on 1699 foodborne outbreaks, in Italy, reported to the Istituto Superior di Sanità (ISS) (the National Institute of Health of Italy, Rome) during the period 1991-4. The most frequently reported foodborne outbreaks were caused by salmonellae (81%), in particular by Salmonella enteritidis and non-serotyped group D salmonella (34% and 33% of the total salmonella outbreaks, respectively). A vehicle was implicated in 69% of the salmonella outbreaks; eggs were implicated in 77% of the outbreaks for which a vehicle was identified or suspected. Salmonella strains isolated in 54 outbreaks were studied for phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The isolates belonged to S. enteritidis (50 outbreaks), S. typhimurium (three outbreaks) and S. hadar (one outbreak). In the S. enteritidis outbreaks, phage type 4 was most frequently isolated (64.8%), followed by phage type 1 (14.8%). The virulence plasmid of 38 megadaltons was found in many different phage types of S. enteritidis. PMID:8666068

  8. [A case of urinary tract infection caused by Flavimonas oryzihabitans].

    PubMed

    Topkaya, Aynur E; Ozakkaş, Fatma; Aksungar, Fehime B; Tülbek, Yaşar

    2007-01-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans is an uncommon bacterial species isolated from clinical specimens. In this report, a 53 years old female patient who had been followed up with the diagnosis of rectum cancer and renal failure for five and two years, respectively, was presented. F. oryzihabitans was isolated from the urine culture of the patient, and the clinical response to ofloxacin therapy was excellent even the urinary catheter has not been removed. Although this pathogen is mostly community aquired, it was found resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. Since it was susceptible to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems, these antibiotics could be the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by F. oryzihabitans. The aim of this presentation was to withdraw attention to this bacterium which is thought to be the first urine isolate in our country.

  9. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Meisel, Jeremy; Kodsi, Samir E.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy. PMID:27493976

  10. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Meisel, Jeremy; Kodsi, Samir E

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy. PMID:27493976

  11. [A case of urinary tract infection caused by Flavimonas oryzihabitans].

    PubMed

    Topkaya, Aynur E; Ozakkaş, Fatma; Aksungar, Fehime B; Tülbek, Yaşar

    2007-01-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans is an uncommon bacterial species isolated from clinical specimens. In this report, a 53 years old female patient who had been followed up with the diagnosis of rectum cancer and renal failure for five and two years, respectively, was presented. F. oryzihabitans was isolated from the urine culture of the patient, and the clinical response to ofloxacin therapy was excellent even the urinary catheter has not been removed. Although this pathogen is mostly community aquired, it was found resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. Since it was susceptible to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems, these antibiotics could be the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by F. oryzihabitans. The aim of this presentation was to withdraw attention to this bacterium which is thought to be the first urine isolate in our country. PMID:17427563

  12. Isolation and Physiological Analysis of Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gretchen M.; Bader, David M.; Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes, the workhorse cell of the heart, contain exquisitely organized cytoskeletal and contractile elements that generate the contractile force used to pump blood. Individual cardiomyocytes were first isolated over 40 years ago in order to better study the physiology and structure of heart muscle. Techniques have rapidly improved to include enzymatic digestion via coronary perfusion. More recently, analyzing the contractility and calcium flux of isolated myocytes has provided a vital tool in the cellular and sub-cellular analysis of heart failure. Echocardiography and EKGs provide information about the heart at an organ level only. Cardiomyocyte cell culture systems exist, but cells lack physiologically essential structures such as organized sarcomeres and t-tubules required for myocyte function within the heart. In the protocol presented here, cardiomyocytes are isolated via Langendorff perfusion. The heart is removed from the mouse, mounted via the aorta to a cannula, perfused with digestion enzymes, and cells are introduced to increasing calcium concentrations. Edge and sarcomere detection software is used to analyze contractility, and a calcium binding fluorescent dye is used to visualize calcium transients of electrically paced cardiomyocytes; increasing understanding of the role cellular changes play in heart dysfunction. Traditionally used to test drug effects on cardiomyocytes, we employ this system to compare myocytes from WT mice and mice with a mutation that causes dilated cardiomyopathy. This protocol is unique in its comparison of live cells from mice with known heart function and known genetics. Many experimental conditions are reliably compared, including genetic or environmental manipulation, infection, drug treatment, and more. Beyond physiologic data, isolated cardiomyocytes are easily fixed and stained for cytoskeletal elements. Isolating cardiomyocytes via perfusion is an extremely versatile method, useful in studying cellular changes

  13. A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, S. E.; Hagen, F.; Tscharke, R. L.; Huynh, M.; Bartlett, K. H.; Fyfe, M.; MacDougall, L.; Boekhout, T.; Kwon-Chung, K. J.; Meyer, W.

    2004-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii causes life-threatening infection of the pulmonary and central nervous systems in hosts with normal immunity and traditionally has been considered to be restricted geographically to tropical and subtropical climates. The recent outbreak of C. gattii in the temperate climate of Vancouver Island, BC, Canada, led to a collaborative investigation. The objectives of the current study were to ascertain the environmental source of the outbreak infections, survey the molecular types of the outbreak and environmental cryptococcal isolates, and determine the extent of genetic diversity among the isolates. PCR-fingerprinting and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were used to examine the genotypes, and mating assays were performed to determine the mating type of the isolates. All outbreak and environmental isolates belonged to C. gattii. Concordant results were obtained by using PCR-fingerprinting and AFLP analysis. The vast majority of clinical and veterinary infections were caused by isolates of the molecular type VGII/AFLP6, but two were caused by molecular type VGI/AFLP4. All environmental isolates belonged to molecular type VGII/AFLP6. Two or three subtypes were observed within VGII/AFLP6 among outbreak and environmental isolates. All mating-competent isolates were of the α-mating type. The emergence of this usually tropical pathogen on Vancouver Island highlights the changing distribution of this genotype and emphasizes the importance of an ongoing collaborative effort to monitor the global epidemiology of this yeast. PMID:15572442

  14. FLNA genomic rearrangements cause periventricular nodular heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Clapham, K.R.; Yu, T.W.; Ganesh, V.S.; Barry, B.; Chan, Y.; Mei, D.; Parrini, E.; Funalot, B.; Dupuis, L.; Nezarati, M.M.; du Souich, C.; van Karnebeek, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify copy number variant (CNV) causes of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in patients for whom FLNA sequencing is negative. Methods: Screening of 35 patients from 33 pedigrees on an Affymetrix 6.0 microarray led to the identification of one individual bearing a CNV that disrupted FLNA. FLNA-disrupting CNVs were also isolated in 2 other individuals by multiplex ligation probe amplification. These 3 cases were further characterized by high-resolution oligo array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and the precise junctional breakpoints of the rearrangements were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing. Results: We report 3 cases of PNH caused by nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements that disrupt one copy of FLNA. The first individual carried a 113-kb deletion that removes all but the first exon of FLNA. A second patient harbored a complex rearrangement including a deletion of the 3′ end of FLNA accompanied by a partial duplication event. A third patient bore a 39-kb deletion encompassing all of FLNA and the neighboring gene EMD. High-resolution oligo array CGH of the FLNA locus suggests distinct molecular mechanisms for each of these rearrangements, and implicates nearby low copy repeats in their pathogenesis. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that FLNA is prone to pathogenic rearrangements, and highlight the importance of screening for CNVs in individuals with PNH lacking FLNA point mutations. Neurology® 2012;78:269–278 PMID:22238415

  15. Genomic divergence during speciation: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Speciation is a fundamental process responsible for the diversity of life. Progress has been made in detecting individual ‘speciation genes’ that cause reproductive isolation. In contrast, until recently, less attention has been given to genome-wide patterns of divergence during speciation. Thus, major questions remain concerning how individual speciation genes are arrayed within the genome, and how this affects speciation. This theme issue is dedicated to exploring this genomic perspective of speciation. Given recent sequencing and computational advances that now allow genomic analyses in most organisms, the goal is to help move the field towards a more integrative approach. This issue draws upon empirical studies in plants and animals, and theoretical work, to review and further document patterns of genomic divergence. In turn, these studies begin to disentangle the role that different processes, such as natural selection, gene flow and recombination rate, play in generating observed patterns. These factors are considered in the context of how genomes diverge as speciation unfolds, from beginning to end. The collective results point to how experimental work is now required, in conjunction with theory and sequencing studies, to move the field from descriptive studies of patterns of divergence towards a predictive framework that tackles the causes and consequences of genome-wide patterns. PMID:22201163

  16. Causes of mortality of the Wyoming toad.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S K; Williams, E S; Thorne, E T; Mills, K W; Withers, D I; Pier, A C

    1999-01-01

    Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) that died from January 1989 to June 1996 were submitted to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (Laramie, Wyoming, USA) for postmortem evaluation. These consisted of 108 free-ranging toads and 170 animals from six captive populations. Ninety-seven (90%) of 108 free-ranging toad carcasses were submitted during September and October. From 1989 to 1992, 27 (77%) of 35 mortalities in the captive populations occurred in October, November, and December. From 1993 to 1996, mortality in captive toads occurred without a seasonal pattern and coincided with changes in hibernation protocols that no longer mimicked natural cycles. Cause of mortality was determined in 147 (53%) of the 278 cases. Mycotic dermatitis with secondary bacterial septicemia was the most frequent diagnosis in 104 (71%) of 147 toads. Basidiobolus ranarum was found by microscopic examination of skin sections in 100 (96%) of 104 of these mortalities. This fungus was isolated from 30 (56%) of 54 free-ranging and 24 (48%) of 50 captive toads. This research documents the causes of mortality for both free-ranging and captive endangered Wyoming toads over a 7 yr period. PMID:10073345

  17. Isolated sphenoid sinus lesion: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Shahrizal, Tengku; Prepageran, Narayanan; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Isolated sphenoid sinus lesions are an uncommon entity and present with non-specific symptoms. In this case report, the patient presented with a history of headaches for a duration of one month without sinonasal symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed a soft tissue mass occupying the sphenoid sinus. An endoscopic biopsy revealed fungal infection. Endoscopic wide sphenoidotomy with excision of the sphenoid sinus lesion was then performed however, the microbiological examination post-surgery did not show any fungal elements. Instead, Citrobacter species was implicated to be the cause of infection. PMID:25320694

  18. Isolate abdominal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cetinkurşun, S; Oztürk, H; Celasun, B; Sakarya, M T; Sürer, I

    1997-04-01

    Isolated abdominal bronchogenic cysts are rare abnormalities. They are usually asymptomatic unless secondarily infected or large enough to cause compression of other vital structures. The authors report on a 20-month-old girl who had an abdominal bronchogenic cyst and presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. The evaluation and treatment of this patient is presented as well as a review of the ten previously reported cases. A literature review showed only four cases in the pediatric age group. Excision is recommended to establish diagnosis and alleviate any symptoms. Abdominal bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses.

  19. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  20. Fusarium avenaceum causes burn spot disease syndrome in noble crayfish (Astacus astacus).

    PubMed

    Makkonen, J; Jussila, J; Koistinen, L; Paaver, T; Hurt, M; Kokko, H

    2013-06-01

    Burn spot disease has been causing epidemics both in the Estonian mainland and in Saaremaa Island in the threatened noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) stocks. To study the cause of the disease, we isolated several Fusarium spp. from Estonian noble crayfish (A. astacus) populations suffering from burn spot disease syndrome. We first identified fungi directly from melanised cuticle by their ITS sequences. Then we isolated Fusarium spp. from melanised spots of crayfish showing burn spot disease symptoms, such as melanisation and shell erosion, from two different crayfish populations and watercourses in Estonia. The isolates were then identified based on ITS and EF1α-gene sequences. Isolates of Fusarium spp. taken from two separate Estonian noble crayfish populations were used in infection studies. Koch postulates confirmed that the studied agent was causing burn spot disease symptoms including shell erosion in the noble crayfish, which were significantly more severe after molts. After the infection period, an identical Fusarium spp. was re-isolated from carapace lesions and was thus shown to be the disease agent causing burn spot disease syndrome and shell erosion in noble crayfish. Based on GenBank database searches, the isolates causing burn spot disease symptoms were identified as Fusarium avenaceum in mainland Estonia and F. solani in Saaremaa crayfish.

  1. Biopathologic Characterization of Three Mixed Poultry Eimeria spp. Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arabkhazaeli, F; Nabian, S; Modirsaneii, M; Mansoori, B; Rahbari, S

    2011-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis of domestic fowl, caused by species of the Genus Eimeria, is responsible for important economic losses in poultry production. Because different species and/or strains can vary in pathogenicity and other biological parameters, their precise characterization is important for epizootiological studies. Methods Fifty samples from litter, whole intestinal tract and feces were collected from poultry houses located in different provinces of Iran. One hundred twenty male day-old broiler chicks were challenged with three selected isolates. Data on weight gain, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), food intake, lesion scoring and shedding of oocysts per gram of feces were recorded and analyzed by the Duncan's test. Results In all treatments, the challenged groups had statistically significant lower weight gain than that of unchallenged control group. Isolate three caused the lowest weight gain and food intake and the worst lesion score as well as FCR. Despite originating from close geographical regions for isolates 1 and 2, the difference in biopathologic factors may be either due to different proportion of identified species or the different pathogenicity of the species present in the isolates. Conclusion The results highlight the importance of considering various species of Eimeria in designing the preventive, control and treatment strategies to prevent coccidiosis in different regions of Iran. Further characterization of each isolate would be the next step to provide a basis for coccidiosis research with well-characterized local isolates. PMID:22347310

  2. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, Calvin J.; Dahlby, Joel W.; Gallimore, Bradford F.; Comer, Bob E.; Stone, Water A.; Carlson, David O.

    1993-01-01

    An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  3. Material isolation enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

    1993-04-27

    An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

  4. Magnetically coupled signal isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  5. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A disconnect composed basically of two halves each consisting of a poppet valve operable to isolate fluid with essentially zero fluid loss is presented. The two halves are coupled together by a quickly releasable coupling which may be either a coupling ring tightened or loosened by a twisting motion, or a clamp operated by a pivoted to prevent disconnecting the two halves until both valves are in closed condition. The positive feature of the device is one requiring a valve closing step before a disconnect step, and takes structural form in an accentric lobe mounted on the valve operating stem. If some obstruction prevents the poppet from moving to its seat, the eccentric lobe cannot be rotated to the closed position, and the interlock prevents a disconnect.

  6. Comparison of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of food poisoning outbreak isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with isolates obtained from bovine mastitis milk and pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Johler, Sophia; Layer, Franziska; Stephan, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the etiological agent in a variety of infections in humans and livestock and produces enterotoxins leading to staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), one of the most prevalent foodborne intoxication diseases worldwide. Pork and bovine milk are considered possible sources of SFP because pig skin is often colonized by S. aureus and bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus is common, but conclusive data are limited. The objective of the present study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with cases of SFP with isolates obtained from bovine mastitis milk and pig carcasses. DNA microarray analysis and spa gene typing were performed with 100 S. aureus isolates: 20 isolates related to outbreaks of SFP in humans, 39 isolates obtained from pig carcasses, and 41 isolates collected from bovine mastitis milk. No overlap in spa types was observed for SFP isolates (t008, t015, t018, t024, t056, t084, t279, t377, t383, t648, t733, t912, t1239, t1270, t4802, and t6969) and isolates gathered from milk or pork. The porcine isolates were assigned to t034, t208, t337, t524, t899, t1939, t2922, t2971, t4475, and t7006, and the bovine isolates belonged to t267, t524, t529, t1403, t2953, t7007, t7008, and t7013. Comparison of microarray profiles revealed similar virulence gene patterns for isolates collected from the same host (pigs or cattle) but few similarities between SFP isolate profiles and the profiles of isolates obtained from bovine mastitis milk and pig carcasses. Although only some bovine and porcine isolates possessed the β-lactamase gene blaZ (milk, 24%; pork, 28%), significantly higher numbers of SFP isolates contained blaZ (90%). Investigations of these isolates provided no evidence that pork or bovine mastitis milk represent common sources of SFP.

  7. An unusual skin lesion caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    PubMed Central

    Papacostas, Lindsey J.; Henderson, Andrew; Choong, Keat; Sowden, David

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. It was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. The fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with Voriconizole. PMID:25893164

  8. An unusual skin lesion caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Papacostas, Lindsey J; Henderson, Andrew; Choong, Keat; Sowden, David

    2015-06-01

    We describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. It was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. The fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with Voriconizole. PMID:25893164

  9. Treatment of infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Cisneros, José Miguel; Gudiol, Carlota; Martínez, José Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Treatment of infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is currently one of the most important challenges of infectious diseases. The available information is based on in vitro studies, some animal model data and a few case studies and retrospective cohorts; appropriate data are lacking or are very scarce for some old antibiotics that are still occasionally used. Because of the heterogeneity in clinical situations, in specific carbapenemases and in the susceptibility of isolates, individualized treatment decisions must usually be made. Here we review the different antibiotics that might be useful for treating infections caused by CPE.

  10. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed.

  11. Pulmonary Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guanglu; Wang, Guirong; Chen, Suting; Yu, Xia; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhao, Liping; Ma, Yifeng; Dong, Lingling; Huang, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in humans in China is unknown. In this study, pulmonary tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in China was studied. A total of 4069 clinical strains isolated from sputa during the 2007–2009 nationwide surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China were analyzed. M. bovis was identified by para-nitrobenzoic acid and thiophen-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide growth tests, spoligotyping and multiplex PCR amplification. In addition, a total of 1828 clinical specimens were recruited from Beijing Chest Hospital (Beijing, China) for Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture, both on standard LJ medium and LJ medium containing 4.5 mg/ml(W/V) sodium pyruvate, the latter being the preferred medium for M. bovis growth. The isolates which demonstrated more vigorous on pyruvate containing medium than on standard LJ medium were then identified by multiplex PCR amplification. Only 1 isolate from the nationwide surveillance was confirmed as M. bovis-BCG. The isolate belonged to a predominant spoligotype SB0120 (ST482). In addition, no M. bovis isolate was acquired by the continuous screening step in Beijing Chest Hospital. M. bovis has a negligible contribution to pulmonary tuberculosis in China, so neither laboratory identification nor clinical treatment of M. bovis infection need be considered in routine work. PMID:25736338

  12. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis.

  13. Isolation, identification & characterization of Proteus penneri - a missed rare pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Janak

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Indole negative Proteus species are invariably incorrectly identified as P. mirabilis, missing isolates of Proteus penneri. P. penneri is an invasive pathogen capable of causing major infectious diseases still seldom reported in individual cases. We report here the isolation, differentiation, characterization and typing of P. penneri from patients with different clinical infections. Methods: Urine, pus and body fluids collected from patients in intensive care units, wards and out patients departments of a tertiary health care institute from north India were cultured. A total of 61 indole negative Proteus isolates were subjected to extended biochemical tests to differentiate and identify P. penneri from P. mirabilis including failure to produce ornithine decarboxylase (by 0% strains of P. penneri and 100% strains of P. mirabilis) besides P. penneri being uniformly salicin negative, non-utilizer of citrate but ferments sucrose and maltose. Antibiograms and Dienes phenomenon were performed to characterize and type P. penneri isolates besides screening for β-lactamase production. Results: Eight isolates of P. penneri were identified; four from urine, three from abdominal drain-fluid and one from diabetic foot ulcer. P. penneri was isolated as the sole pathogen in all patients having underlying disease; post-operatively. Swarming was not seen in the first strain on primary isolation and was poor in strain-4. All eight isolates were biochemically homologous but multi-drug resistant (MDR) with resistance to 6-8 drugs (up to 12). β-lactamase production was seen in three of five isolates while Dienes phenomenon found four distinct types and discriminated strains differing in resistance even with a single drug. Interpretation & Conclusions: A few additional biochemical tests identified P. penneri isolates; it infected patients with underlying disease and strains were MDR and heterogenous. PMID:22561620

  14. Isolation and characterization of pigmented algicidal bacteria from seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaima, A.; Gires, U.; Asmat, A.

    2014-09-01

    Some dinoflagellate species are toxic and widely distributed in Malaysian marines ecosystems. They can cause many problems to aquatic life due to the production of various potential and natural toxins that accumulate in filter feeding shellfish and cause food poisoning to human. In recent decades, bacteria have been widely used as a biological control against these harmful algae. In the present study, pigmented bacteria isolated from marine water of Port Dickson beach was studied for their anti-algal activity towards toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Four isolates were studied and only one was capable of inhibiting algal growth when treated with bacterial culture. The algilytic effect on dinoflagellate was evaluated based on direct cell count under the microscope. Results showed that only isolate Sdpd-310 with orange colour has an inhibitory effect on A. minutum growth. This study demonstrated the rapid algicidal activity of a marine pigmented bacteria against the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum.

  15. Molecular analysis of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from cockles and patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mala, Wanida; Chomvarin, Chariya; Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah M; Faksri, Kiatichai; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus can cause septicemia, wound infection and gastroenteritis. The most severe infections are related to consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. Virulence genes, biomarkers, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationships among V vulnificus isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Thailand have not hitherto been investigated. ViuB encoding vulnibactin siderophore was detected in 33% and 50% of clinical and environmental (cockle) V. vulnificus isolates, respectively, and capsular polysaccharide allele 1 in 67% and 75% of clinical and environmental isolates, respectively. Analysis of the 16 S rDNA gene revealed that type B was the most frequent in both clinical and environmental isolates (67%) whereas the non type-able (30%) was detected only in environmental isolates. The virulence-correlated gene (vcg) with both type C and E together was the most frequently found among the clinical (67%) and environmental (72%) isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differentiated V vulnificus into 2 clusters; most cockle samples (83%) and all clinical isolates grouped into cluster II, indicating a possible clonal relationship between V. vulnificus isolated from patients and cockles. Only 20% of environmental isolates were resistant to ampicillin. These studies suggest that V vulnificus isolated from cockles has virulence genes similar to those in clinical isolates and thus may have the potential of causing disease.

  16. Characterization of a Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas epizootic in cultured shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Lakshman, Dilip K; Amundsen, Keenan; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Kaizer, Krista N; Roy, Sribash; Hasson, Kenneth W; Allnutt, F C Thomas

    2010-03-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the Taura syndrome virus (TSV) isolate that caused epizootics in shrimp farms in Texas in 2004 (Texas isolate) revealed that this virus was more virulent in laboratory bioassays than the TSV reference isolate, Hawaii 1994, causing severe symptom development and rapid mortality. Histopathology of moribund animals demonstrated epithelial necrosis within the stomach, appendages, general body cuticle and gills, and the surviving animals demonstrated moderate to numerous lymphoid organ spheroids. Purified virions showed icosahedral morphology, with a diameter of 31 nm. Comparative genome analysis showed that the Texas isolate is more closely related to TSV isolates from Thailand and China than to the Hawaii isolate. The predicted tertiary structures of the inhibition of apoptosis protein (IAP) and protease domains of the Texas isolate are very similar to those of the Hawaii isolate. However, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the Texas isolate has significant structural differences from the Hawaii isolate due to point mutation(s) in the RdRp gene. Changes in the RdRp tertiary structure might contribute to the replication fidelity, virulence and ecological adaptability of the Texas isolate.

  17. Molecular analysis of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from cockles and patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mala, Wanida; Chomvarin, Chariya; Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah M; Faksri, Kiatichai; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus can cause septicemia, wound infection and gastroenteritis. The most severe infections are related to consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. Virulence genes, biomarkers, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationships among V vulnificus isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Thailand have not hitherto been investigated. ViuB encoding vulnibactin siderophore was detected in 33% and 50% of clinical and environmental (cockle) V. vulnificus isolates, respectively, and capsular polysaccharide allele 1 in 67% and 75% of clinical and environmental isolates, respectively. Analysis of the 16 S rDNA gene revealed that type B was the most frequent in both clinical and environmental isolates (67%) whereas the non type-able (30%) was detected only in environmental isolates. The virulence-correlated gene (vcg) with both type C and E together was the most frequently found among the clinical (67%) and environmental (72%) isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differentiated V vulnificus into 2 clusters; most cockle samples (83%) and all clinical isolates grouped into cluster II, indicating a possible clonal relationship between V. vulnificus isolated from patients and cockles. Only 20% of environmental isolates were resistant to ampicillin. These studies suggest that V vulnificus isolated from cockles has virulence genes similar to those in clinical isolates and thus may have the potential of causing disease. PMID:24964659

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Penicillium expansum Strain R19, Which Causes Postharvest Decay of Apple Fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiujiang; Jurick, Wayne M; Cao, Huansheng; Yin, Yanbin; Gaskins, Verneta L; Losada, Liliana; Zafar, Nikhat; Kim, Maria; Bennett, Joan W; Nierman, William C

    2014-01-01

    Among the species that cause blue mold, isolates of Penicillium expansum are the most prevalent and virulent species, causing more than 50 percent of postharvest decay. We report the draft genome sequence of P. expansum R19 in order to identify fungal virulence factors and to understand the mechanism of infection.

  19. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  20. Isolation of five Rubrobacter strains from biodeteriorated monuments.

    PubMed

    Laiz, L; Miller, A Z; Jurado, V; Akatova, E; Sanchez-Moral, S; Gonzalez, J M; Dionísio, A; Macedo, M F; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the microbial colonisation of mural paintings in ancient monuments has been attracting the attention of microbiologists and conservators. The genus Rubrobacter is commonly found in biodeteriorated monuments, where it has been reported to cause rosy discolouration. However, to date, only three species of this genus have been isolated, all from thermophilic environments. In this paper, we studied three monuments: the Servilia and Postumio tombs in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona (Spain), and Vilar de Frades church (Portugal), in search of Rubrobacter strains. In all cases, biodeterioration and the formation of efflorescences were observed, and five Rubrobacter strains were isolated. These isolates showed different physiology and migration in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, suggesting they might represent new species within this genus. The isolates reproduced some biodeterioration processes in the laboratory and revealed their biomediation in crystal formation.

  1. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of European and African Candida glabrata isolates.

    PubMed

    Chillemi, V; Lo Passo, C; van Diepeningen, A D; Rharmitt, S; Delfino, D; Cascio, A; Nnadi, N E; Cilo, B D; Sampaio, P; Tietz, H-J; Pemán, J; Criseo, G; Romeo, O; Scordino, F

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the genetic relatedness and epidemiology of 127 clinical and environmental Candida glabrata isolates from Europe and Africa using multilocus microsatellite analysis. Each isolate was first identified using phenotypic and molecular methods and subsequently, six unlinked microsatellite loci were analyzed using automated fluorescent genotyping. Genetic relationships were estimated using the minimum-spanning tree (MStree) method. Microsatellite analyses revealed the existence of 47 different genotypes. The fungal population showed an irregular distribution owing to the over-representation of genetically different infectious haplotypes. The most common genotype was MG-9, which was frequently found in both European and African isolates. In conclusion, the data reported here emphasize the role of specific C. glabrata genotypes in human infections for at least some decades and highlight the widespread distribution of some isolates, which seem to be more able to cause disease than others. PMID:26946511

  2. Process fault isolation based on transfer entropy algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hajihosseini, Payman; Salahshoor, Karim; Moshiri, Behzad

    2014-03-01

    Complexity of industrial plants and their stringent environmental and safety regulations have necessitated early detection and isolation of process faults. All the existing fault isolation methods can be categorized into two general groups: model-based and data-based. Transfer entropy is a data-based method for measuring propagation direction of disturbance and finding its root cause. In this paper, a new transfer entropy-based method is proposed to isolate different process faults. The novelty of this paper lies in using the transfer entropy idea to generate distinct patterns of information flow among process variables, recognize their correlations in the context of the transferred information in any abnormal condition, and finally isolate different process faults. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional methods.

  3. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gillian A; Nieh, Edward H; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Halbert, Sarah A; Pradhan, Roma V; Yosafat, Ariella S; Glober, Gordon F; Izadmehr, Ehsan M; Thomas, Rain E; Lacy, Gabrielle D; Wildes, Craig P; Ungless, Mark A; Tye, Kay M

    2016-02-11

    The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PAPERCLIP. PMID:26871628

  4. [Molecular comparison of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Mehiri-Zghal, E; Essalah, L; Ghariani, A; Mahjoubi, W; Reyrolle, M; Meugnier, H; Forey, F; Jarraud, S; Freney, J; Etienne, J; Slim-Saidi, L

    2008-07-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a common cause of hospital and community-acquired pneumonia, being transmitted by inhalation of aqueous aerosols. Most outbreaks are linked to contaminated hot water systems and cooling towers. Our study was about the molecular typing of 35 strains of L. pneumophila including four clinical isolates and 31 environmental strains isolated from the distribution systems of 14 hotels. Among the clinical strains, two have the same pattern, however, all were different from the studied environmental strains. For the 31 environmental strains, ten patterns were obtained. Among which, a same pulsotype was found for four strains isolated from four different establishments. In addition, two different pulsotypes were found for strains isolated from the same establishment. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the existence of various patterns. Although cases of legionellosis were declared in these hotels, there are no epidemiological links between the clinical and environmental strains. PMID:18191502

  5. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Gillian A; Nieh, Edward H; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Halbert, Sarah A; Pradhan, Roma V; Yosafat, Ariella S; Glober, Gordon F; Izadmehr, Ehsan M; Thomas, Rain E; Lacy, Gabrielle D; Wildes, Craig P; Ungless, Mark A; Tye, Kay M

    2016-02-11

    The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PAPERCLIP.

  6. Isolation of five Rubrobacter strains from biodeteriorated monuments.

    PubMed

    Laiz, L; Miller, A Z; Jurado, V; Akatova, E; Sanchez-Moral, S; Gonzalez, J M; Dionísio, A; Macedo, M F; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the microbial colonisation of mural paintings in ancient monuments has been attracting the attention of microbiologists and conservators. The genus Rubrobacter is commonly found in biodeteriorated monuments, where it has been reported to cause rosy discolouration. However, to date, only three species of this genus have been isolated, all from thermophilic environments. In this paper, we studied three monuments: the Servilia and Postumio tombs in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona (Spain), and Vilar de Frades church (Portugal), in search of Rubrobacter strains. In all cases, biodeterioration and the formation of efflorescences were observed, and five Rubrobacter strains were isolated. These isolates showed different physiology and migration in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, suggesting they might represent new species within this genus. The isolates reproduced some biodeterioration processes in the laboratory and revealed their biomediation in crystal formation. PMID:18953520

  7. Isolation of five Rubrobacter strains from biodeteriorated monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiz, L.; Miller, A. Z.; Jurado, V.; Akatova, E.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Dionísio, A.; Macedo, M. F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the microbial colonisation of mural paintings in ancient monuments has been attracting the attention of microbiologists and conservators. The genus Rubrobacter is commonly found in biodeteriorated monuments, where it has been reported to cause rosy discolouration. However, to date, only three species of this genus have been isolated, all from thermophilic environments. In this paper, we studied three monuments: the Servilia and Postumio tombs in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona (Spain), and Vilar de Frades church (Portugal), in search of Rubrobacter strains. In all cases, biodeterioration and the formation of efflorescences were observed, and five Rubrobacter strains were isolated. These isolates showed different physiology and migration in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, suggesting they might represent new species within this genus. The isolates reproduced some biodeterioration processes in the laboratory and revealed their biomediation in crystal formation.

  8. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  9. Endophthalmitis Caused by Fusarium proliferatum

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Consuelo; Alio, Jorge; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Andreu, Mariano; Colom, Francisca

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum caused endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Diagnosis was established by classical microbiology and molecular biology methods (PCR and DNA typing). The treatment with local amphotericin B, oral ketoconazole, and topical natamycin was successful. PMID:16208022

  10. Chromoblastomycosis caused by Rhinocladiella aquaspersa☆

    PubMed Central

    González, Gloria M.; Rojas, O. Carolina; González, José G.; Kang, Yingqian; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    A case of chromoblastomycosis of the hand caused by Rhinocladiella aquaspersa is described. The case was acquired locally in tropical Venezuela and was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:24432242

  11. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that normally lines ...

  12. Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160991.html Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression Social media attacks have ' ... Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Negative experiences on Facebook can increase the odds of depression in young ...

  13. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  14. Cervicomedullary neurocysticercosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Doris D; Huang, Michael C

    2015-09-01

    We present a 45-year-old man with tussive headache and blurred vision found to have obstructive hydrocephalus from a neurocysticercal cyst at the cervicomedullary junction who underwent surgical removal of the cyst. We performed a suboccipital craniectomy to remove the cervicomedullary cyst en bloc. Cyst removal successfully treated the patient's headaches without necessitating permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasite infection of the central nervous system causing seizures and, less commonly, hydrocephalus. Intraventricular cysts or arachnoiditis usually cause hydrocephalus in neurocysticercosis but craniocervical junction cysts causing obstructive hydrocephalus are rare. Neurocysticercosis at the craniocervical junction may cause Chiari-like symptoms. In the absence of arachnoiditis and leptomeningeal enhancement, surgical removal of the intact cyst can lead to favorable outcomes.

  15. Endophthalmitis caused by Agrobacterium radiobacter.

    PubMed

    Pierre-Filho, Paulo de Tarso P; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Y; Passos, Elane D; Torigoe, Marcelo; de Vasconcellos, José Paulo C

    2003-01-01

    Infections due to Agrobacterium radiobacter are rare. This study reports 2 cases of A. radiobacter endophthalmitis. To the authors' knowledge, these are only the second and third reported cases of endophthalmitis caused by this Gram-negative rod.

  16. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ross River Fever, a mosquito-borne tropical disease Coxiella burnetti , the agent that causes Q fever Human ... with Epstein-Barr virus, Ross River virus, and Coxiella burnetti will lead to a post-infective condition ...

  17. What Causes Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura? A lack of activity in the ADAMTS13 enzyme ( ... This leads to hemolytic anemia . Inherited Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura In inherited TTP, the ADAMTS13 gene is faulty. ...

  18. Symptoms and Causes of Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow movement of stool through the colon delayed emptying of the colon from pelvic disorders, especially in ... can cause constipation include antacids —used to neutralize stomach acid—that contain aluminum and calcium anticholinergics —used ...

  19. Isolation and characterization of outer membrane vesicles from Haemophilus parasuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a small, pleomorphic Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine. Numerous strains of this organism are capable of causing systemic disease, resulting in high morbidity and mortality in the host. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of vir...

  20. Novel Arenavirus Isolates from Namaqua Rock Mice, Namibia, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kallies, René; Hoveka, Julia; Auste, Brita; Ithete, Ndapewa L.; Šoltys, Katarína; Szemes, Tomáš; Drosten, Christian; Preiser, Wolfgang; Klempa, Boris; Mfune, John K.E.; Kruger, Detlev H.

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses are feared as agents that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers. We report the identification, isolation, and genetic characterization of 2 novel arenaviruses from Namaqua rock mice in Namibia. These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa. PMID:26079174

  1. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  2. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  3. Bacteria-induced sexual isolation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ringo, John; Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Commensal bacteria can induce sexual isolation between populations of Drosophila. This phenomenon has implications for speciation, and raises questions about its behavioral and developmental mechanisms, which are not yet known. In this Extra View, we discuss related work by others, bearing directly on these issues, and we speculate about how bacteria might influence fly behavior. There are many reports of interaction between Drosophila and their microbiota that significantly impacts mating preferences. Sexual isolation can be enhanced or reduced by altering the culture media, or the microbiota inhabiting those media. More dramatically, the endoparasite Wolbachia has induced strong mate preferences in some instances. While a sudden, ecologically induced shift in mating preferences falls far short of the changes required for speciation, it might be a first step in that direction. We hypothesize that bacteria-induced sexual isolation is caused by chemosensory cues. In our experiments, bacteria altered the profile of cuticular hydrocarbons, which function as sex pheromones. Commensal bacteria may act directly on these hydrocarbons, or they may affect their synthesis. Alternatively, bacterial metabolites might perfume the flies in ways that affect mate choice. In that event, habituation or conditioning likely plays a role.

  4. Specific Gene Loci of Clinical Pseudomonas putida Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Bernal, Patricia; Roca, Amalia; de la Torre, Jesús; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida are ubiquitous inhabitants of soils and clinical isolates of this species have been seldom described. Clinical isolates show significant variability in their ability to cause damage to hosts because some of them are able to modulate the host’s immune response. In the current study, comparisons between the genomes of different clinical and environmental strains of P. putida were done to identify genetic clusters shared by clinical isolates that are not present in environmental isolates. We show that in clinical strains specific genes are mostly present on transposons, and that this set of genes exhibit high identity with genes found in pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. The set of genes prevalent in P. putida clinical isolates, and absent in environmental isolates, are related with survival under oxidative stress conditions, resistance against biocides, amino acid metabolism and toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems. This set of functions have influence in colonization and survival within human tissues, since they avoid host immune response or enhance stress resistance. An in depth bioinformatic analysis was also carried out to identify genetic clusters that are exclusive to each of the clinical isolates and that correlate with phenotypical differences between them, a secretion system type III-like was found in one of these clinical strains, a determinant of pathogenicity in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26820467

  5. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O78:H10, the Cause of an Outbreak of Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Scheutz, Flemming; Andersen, Rebecca L.; Menard, Megan; Boisen, Nadia; Johnston, Brian; Hansen, Dennis S.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Nataro, James P.; Johnson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, multiresistant Escherichia coli O78:H10 strains caused an outbreak of urinary tract infections in Copenhagen, Denmark. The phylogenetic origin, clonal background, and virulence characteristics of the outbreak isolates, and their relationship to nonoutbreak O78:H10 strains according to these traits and resistance profiles, are unknown. Accordingly, we extensively characterized 51 archived E. coli O78:H10 isolates (48 human isolates from seven countries, including 19 Copenhagen outbreak isolates, and 1 each of calf, avian, and unknown-source isolates), collected from 1956 through 2000. E. coli O78:H10 was clonally heterogeneous, comprising one dominant clonal group (61% of isolates, including all 19 outbreak isolates) from ST10 (phylogenetic group A) plus several minor clonal groups (phylogenetic groups A and D). All ST10 isolates, versus 25% of non-ST10 isolates, were identified by molecular methods as enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (P < 0.001). Genes present in >90% of outbreak isolates included fimH (type 1 fimbriae; ubiquitous in E. coli); fyuA, traT, and iutA (associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli [ExPEC]); and sat, pic, aatA, aggR, aggA, ORF61, aaiC, aap, and ORF3 (associated with EAEC). An outbreak isolate was lethal in a murine subcutaneous sepsis model and exhibited characteristic EAEC “stacked brick” adherence to cultured epithelial cells. Thus, the 1991 Copenhagen outbreak was caused by a tight, non-animal-associated subset within a broadly disseminated O78:H10 clonal group (ST10; phylogenetic group A), members of which exhibit both ExPEC and EAEC characteristics, whereas O78:H10 isolates overall are phylogenetically diverse. Whether ST10 O78:H10 EAEC strains are both uropathogenic and diarrheagenic warrants further investigation. PMID:22972830

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis Disease-Causing Strains in Argentina, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sorhouet-Pereira, Cecilia; Efron, Adriana; Gagetti, Paula; Faccone, Diego; Regueira, Mabel; Corso, Alejandra; Gabastou, Jean-Marc; Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 133 isolates of Neisseria meningitidis obtained from meningococcal disease cases in Argentina during 2010 were performed by the National Reference Laboratory as part of a project coordinated by the PAHO within the SIREVA II network. Serogroup, serotype, serosubtype and MLST characterization were performed. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, rifampin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were determined and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Almost 49% of isolates were W135, and two serotype:serosubtype combinations, W135∶2a:P1.5,2:ST-11 and W135∶2a:P1.2:ST-11 accounted for 78% of all W135 isolates. Serogroup B accounted for 42.1% of isolates, and was both phenotypically and genotypically diverse. Serogroup C isolates represented 5.3% of the dataset, and one isolate belonging to the ST-198 complex was non-groupable. Isolates belonged mainly to the ST-11 complex (48%) and to a lesser extent to the ST-865 (18%), ST-32 (9,8%) and the ST-35 complexes (9%). Intermediate resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was detected in 35.4% and 33.1% of isolates respectively. Two W135∶2a:P1.5,2:ST-11:ST-11 isolates presented resistance to ciprofloxacin associated with a mutation in the QRDR of gyrA gene Thr91-Ile. These data show serogroup W135 was the first cause of disease in Argentina in 2010, and was strongly associated with the W135∶2a:P1.5,2:ST-11 epidemic clone. Serogroup B was the second cause of disease and isolates belonging to this serogroup were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. The presence of isolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin and the presence of fluorquinolone-resistant isolates highlight the necessity and importance of maintaining and strengthening National Surveillance Programs. PMID:23483970

  7. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis as the cause of dermatomycosis.

    PubMed

    Petanović, Mirna; Tomić Paradzik, Maja; Kristof, Zeljka; Cvitković, Ante; Topolovac, Zdenka

    2010-01-01

    Scopulariopsis (S.) brevicaulis (Saccardo) Bainier 1907 is a ubiquitous fungus frequently isolated as a saprophyte from various layers of the soil, wood, straw, paper, food, and occasionally in animals and humans. This nondermatophyte filamentous fungus is multiresistant and is frequently associated with onychomycosis in humans. In the last two decades, the number of reports on its pathogenic role in different localized and disseminated infections has been on an increase. Identification was done by native KOH microscopy and culture on the Mycobios selective agar (Biolife). From January 1, 2002 till January 23, 2008, a total of 7161 samples were examined by use of mycology methods; S. brevicaulis accounted for 39 (2.2%) of 1834 (25.6%) positive samples. During the study period, S. brevicaulis was isolated from nail, skin and scalp scrapings of 39 patients (17 male and 22 female), mean age ( SD) 43.920.7 (range 8-87) years. Specimens were most frequently obtained from the foot (n=16; 41%), i.e. great toe nail in 10 and other foot areas in 6 cases, followed by palm and fingers in 8 (20.5%), scalp in 3 (7.7%) and other parts of the body in 12 (30.8%) cases. Most of the study subjects lived in a rural setting (n=22; 56%), working as farmers in close contact with the soil and domestic animals. Seventeen (44%) subjects were from urban setting (n=9) or unknown place of residence (n=8). Underlying risk factors were present in 29 (74%) of 39 study subjects, some of them with multiple risk factors. Besides close contact with the soil, the most common predisposing factors were various dermatoses (atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, dysseborrhea, etc.), lower extremity circulatory insufficiency, trauma, microtrauma, and metabolic disorders. Although the clinical picture of onychomycosis caused by S. brevicaulis shows some specific features, timely sampling for mycology is crucial to verify the diagnosis and to identify the causative agent prior to the introduction of appropriate

  8. cis-Regulatory Mutations Are a Genetic Cause of Human Limb Malformations

    PubMed Central

    VanderMeer, Julia E.; Ahituv, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    The underlying mutations that cause human limb malformations are often difficult to determine, particularly for limb malformations that occur as isolated traits. Evidence from a variety of studies shows that cis-regulatory mutations, specifically in enhancers, can lead to some of these isolated limb malformations. Here, we provide a review of human limb malformations that have been shown to be caused by enhancer mutations and propose that cis-regulatory mutations will continue to be identified as the cause of additional human malformations as our understanding of regulatory sequences improves. PMID:21509892

  9. The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. X. A first look at isolated galaxy colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Sulentic, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Ruiz, J. E.; Sabater, J.; Sánchez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Context. The basic properties of galaxies can be affected by both nature (internal processes) or nurture (interactions and effects of environment). Deconvolving the two effects is an important current effort in astrophysics. Observed properties of a sample of isolated galaxies should be mainly the result of internal (natural) evolution. It follows that nurture-induced galaxy evolution can only be understood through a comparative study of galaxies in different environments. Aims: We take a first look at SDSS (g - r) colors of galaxies in the AMIGA sample, which consists of many of the most isolated galaxies in the local Universe. This alerted us at the same time to the pitfalls of using automated SDSS colors. Methods: We focused on median values for the principal morphological subtypes found in the AMIGA sample (E/S0 and Sb-Sc) and compared them with equivalent measures obtained for galaxies in denser environments. Results: We find a weak tendency for AMIGA spiral galaxies to be redder than objects in close pairs. We find no clear difference when we compared this with galaxies in other (e.g. group) environments. However, the (g - r) color of isolated galaxies shows a Gaussian distribution, as might be expected assuming nurture-free evolution. We find a smaller median absolute deviation in colors for isolated galaxies compared to both wide and close pairs. The majority of the deviation on median colors for spiral subtypes is caused by a color-luminosity correlation. Surprisingly, isolated and non-isolated early-type galaxies show similar (g - r). We see little evidence for a green valley in our sample because most spirals redder than (g - r) = 0.7 have spurious colors. Conclusions: The redder colors of AMIGA spirals and lower color dispersions for AMIGA subtypes - compared with close pairs - are likely caused by a more passive star formation in very isolated galaxies. Full Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130

  10. Isolation and genetic characterization of a tembusu virus strain isolated from mosquitoes in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Diao, Y; Chen, H; Ou, Q; Liu, X; Gao, X; Yu, C; Wang, L

    2015-04-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a flavivirus, presumed to be a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus subgroup. To date, however, there have been no reports indicating that mosquitoes are involved in the spread of TMUV. In this study, we report the first isolation of TMUV from Culex mosquitoes. We describe the isolation and characterization of a field strain of TMUV from mosquitoes collected in Shandong Province, China. The virus isolate, named TMUV-SDMS, grows well in mosquito cell line C6/36, in Vero and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cell lines, and causes significant cytopathic effects in these cell cultures. The TMUV-SDMS genome is a single-stranded RNA, 10 989 nt in length, consisting of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3410 amino acids, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 142 and 617 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 genes revealed that the TMUV-SDMS is closely related to the TMUV YY5 and BYD strains which cause severe egg-drop in ducks. The 3'NTR of TMUV-SDMS contains two pairs of tandem repeat CS and one non-duplicate CS, which have sequence similarities to the same repeats in the YY5 and BYD strains. Our findings indicate that mosquitoes carrying the TMUV may play an important role in the spread of this virus and in disease outbreak. PMID:23711093

  11. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  12. Causes of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) and associated factors is critical in the development of successful prevention programs. Objective: This study analyzed data from the National SCI Database (NSCID) and National Shriners SCI Database (NSSCID) in the United States to examine specific etiologies of SCI by age, sex, race, ethnicity, day and month of injury, and neurologic outcomes. Methods: NSCID and NSSCID participants who had a traumatic SCI from 2005 to 2011 with known etiology were included in the analyses (N=7,834). Thirty-seven causes of injury documented in the databases were stratified by personal characteristics using descriptive analysis. Results: The most common causes of SCI were automobile crashes (31.5%) and falls (25.3%), followed by gunshot wounds (10.4%), motorcycle crashes (6.8%), diving incidents (4.7%), and medical/surgical complications (4.3%), which collectively accounted for 83.1% of total SCIs since 2005. Automobile crashes were the leading cause of SCI until age 45 years, whereas falls were the leading cause after age 45 years. Gunshot wounds, motorcycle crashes, and diving caused more SCIs in males than females. The major difference among race/ethnicity was in the proportion of gunshot wounds. More SCIs occurred during the weekends and warmer months, which seemed to parallel the increase of motorcycle- and diving-related SCIs. Level and completeness of injury are also associated with etiology of injury. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that prevention strategies should be tailored to the targeted population and major causes to have a meaningful impact on reducing the incidence of SCI. PMID:23678280

  13. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  14. Ocular injuries caused by fireworks.

    PubMed

    Levitz, L M; Miller, J K; Uwe, M; Drüsedau, H

    1999-10-01

    What are the consequences of suddenly legalizing fireworks sales in a largely rural society? Would the spectrum of ocular injuries caused by fireworks differ from those found in the Western world? This is the first study on ocular injuries caused by fireworks conducted in the Republic of South Africa. We analyzed the presenting features and prospectively followed up all patients who presented to the casualties served by our ophthalmic department over the New Year celebrations of 1996-1997. The sale of fireworks to the public had been deregulated the previous year. Ocular injuries caused by fireworks had not been reported before 1995. We found that ocular injuries caused by fireworks occurred mainly in young male patients. The injuries were usually unilateral and responded to treatment. This mirrors worldwide studies that show that it is children who are frequently harmed by fireworks injury. Two of our patients were blinded by their injuries. Our findings echo those found in Western countries where fireworks have not been restricted by law. We suggest that young boys, regardless of race, nationality, literacy, or social circumstances, are at risk for ocular injuries caused by fireworks. Countries planning to unban fireworks should aim their education program at this target group.

  15. [Mydriasis caused by plant contact].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H; Wilhelm, B; Schiefer, U

    1991-01-01

    Uni- or bilateral dilatation of pupils that are not reactive to light and lack miosis in response to 1% pilocarpine may be caused by contact with plants containing alkaloids such as scopolamine and atropine. Other causes of a non-light-reactive dilated pupil, such as Adie's tonic pupil, third nerve palsy and lesion of the mesencephalic pretectal region, must be excluded before testing the iris sphincter reaction to 1% pilocarpine. Among the naturally growing flowers in Germany, deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), jimson weed (thornapple, Datura stramonium) and black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) contain enough alkaloids to cause mydriasis by direct contact. However, in most cases an accidental mydriasis by plants in Germany is caused by Datura arborea taxa, e.g. Datura suaveolens, D. candida, D. aurea and D. sanguinea. They contain up to 0.6% dry weight scopolamine. These plants can grow very large and are often planted in tubs. They have to be cut back each year before the winter. This is typically how the eye is contaminated by parts of the plants, which can cause dilatation of the pupil mimicing a neuroophthalmological disorder.

  16. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  17. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  18. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  19. High performance rotational vibration isolator.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

  20. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROMONAS ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are commonly isolated from both fresh and salt waters worldwide and some are believed to cause infections in humans, including gastroenteritis and wound infections. Currently, aeromonads are on the United States Environmental Protection A...

  1. Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sick, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25535488

  2. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a European Isolate of the Apple Canker Pathogen Neonectria ditissima

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cortecero, Antonio; Harrison, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The Sordariomycetes fungus Neonectria ditissima is a major pathogen of apples, causing canker on trees and fruit spoilage. We report here the draft genome sequence of a European strain isolated from cankerous tissue. PMID:26586869

  4. RCJOIN: a FORTRAN program for isolating sources of interaction in two-way tables of counts.

    PubMed

    Dallal, G E

    1988-04-01

    RCJOIN simultaneously clusters rows and columns of a two-way table of counts in an attempt to locate homogeneous subtables. Blocks of cells causing the table as a whole to be nonhomogeneous are identified and isolated.

  5. Virulence, transmission, and heterologous protection of four isolates of Haemophilus parasuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer's disease, a syndrome of polyserositis, meningitis, and arthritis in swine. Previous studies with H. parasuis have revealed virulence disparity among isolates and inconsistent heterologous protection. In this study, virulence, direct transmission, and heterologous...

  6. Nile Tilapia Infectivity by Genomically Diverse Streptoccocus agalactiae Isolates from Multiple Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), is recognized for causing cattle mastitis, human neonatal meningitis, and fish meningo-encephalitis. We investigated the genomic diversity of GBS isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regions using serological t...

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of 17 Isolates of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Dickeya

    PubMed Central

    Humphris, Sonia; Saddler, Gerry S.; Elphinstone, John G.; Pirhonen, Minna; Toth, Ian K.

    2013-01-01

    Dickeya (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) species cause diseases on a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Here we present the draft sequences of 17 Dickeya isolates spanning four Dickeya species, including five isolates that are currently unassigned to a species. PMID:24265502

  8. Baseline Sensitivity to Fluopicolide in Phytophthora Capsici Isolates from the Eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluopicolide was registered in 2007 to control diseases caused by Oomycete pathogens such as Phytophthora capsici on cucurbits and peppers. In this study, 69 isolates of P. capsici from Michigan (24 isolates), South Carolina (17), Georgia (14), Florida (11), and North Carolina (3) recovered from wa...

  9. From Teacher Isolation to Teacher Collaboration: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovar-Nameghi, Seyyed Ali; Sheikhahmadi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at: (1) reviewing the underlying causes of teacher isolation; (2) unrevealing the negative effects of isolation on teachers' professional and personal life; (2) illustrating different modes of voluntary collaboration among teachers; (4) presenting substantive evidence is support of collaboration as an efficient mode of professional…

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Rat Hepatitis E Virus Strain Isolated in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Debing, Yannick; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.; Dallmeier, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus is a common cause of acute hepatitis in humans. Related viruses have been isolated from multiple animal species, including rats, but their impact on human health is unclear. We present the first full-length genome sequence of a rat hepatitis E virus strain isolated in the United States (LA-B350). PMID:25377700

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Pathogenic Leptospira Isolates from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Barragan, Veronica; Sahl, Jason W; Wiggins, Kristin; Chiriboga, Jorge; Salinas, Ana; Cantos, Nancy E; Loor, Mariana N; Intriago, Bertha I; Morales, Melba; Trueba, Gabriel; Pearson, Talima

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. cause leptospirosis upon contact with mucosa through wounds or ingestion, leading to headaches, fever, jaundice, kidney or liver failure, or death in about 1.3 million people each year. Here, we present the draft genomes of one L. santarosai isolate and two L. interrogans isolates from Ecuador. PMID:27151788

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the First Pathogenic Leptospira Isolates from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Barragan, Veronica; Sahl, Jason W.; Wiggins, Kristin; Chiriboga, Jorge; Salinas, Ana; Cantos, Nancy E.; Loor, Mariana N.; Intriago, Bertha I.; Morales, Melba; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. cause leptospirosis upon contact with mucosa through wounds or ingestion, leading to headaches, fever, jaundice, kidney or liver failure, or death in about 1.3 million people each year. Here, we present the draft genomes of one L. santarosai isolate and two L. interrogans isolates from Ecuador. PMID:27151788

  13. Antimicrobial potential of Halophilic actinomycetes against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Sana; Sajid, Imran

    2016-03-01

    A collection of forty halophilic actinomycetes isolated from water and mud samples of the saline lake at Kalar Kahar, salt range, Pakistan, was screened to investigate their antimicrobial potential against multi drug resistant (MDR) ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacterial pathogens. The isolates exhibited significant tolerance to alkaline conditions and grew well at pH 9-11. The taxonomic status of the isolated strains was determined by morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that majority of the isolates (90%) belong to the genus Streptomyces. Most of the isolates exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity up to 20mm zone of inhibition against MDR ventilator associated pneumonia causing bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally the isolates showed moderate to high cytotoxicity in the range of 40 to 80% larval mortality against Artemia salina in a micro well cytotoxicity assay. The chemical screening or the so called metabolic fingerprinting of the methanolic extracts of each isolate, by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using various staining reagents and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), indicated an impressive diversity of the compounds produced by these strains. The study reveals that these halophilic actinomycetes are a promising source of bioactive compounds. The preparative scale fermentation, isolation, purification and structure elucidation of the compounds produced by them may yield novel antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27087086

  14. [Noroviruses: leading cause of gastroenteritis].

    PubMed

    Delacour, H; Dubrous, P; Koeck, J L

    2010-04-01

    Although noroviruses were the first viral agents to be linked to gastrointestinal disease, they were long considered a secondary cause far behind rotaviruses. Development of molecular-based diagnostic techniques has provided clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of noroviruses that are now recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks but also as an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in both children and adults. Norovirus infection is generally characterized by mild acute vomiting and diarrhea usually lasting for only a few days, but it can lead to more severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms in high-risk groups such as young children, elderly, and immunodeficient persons. It has been demonstrated that they are present in tropical countries. Molecular epidemiological studies have documented the great genetic diversity of noroviruses with regular emergence of variants. Since no vaccine is available, prevention on norovirus infection depends mainly on strict personal and community hygiene measures.

  15. Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part I: Theory, analysis, and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Chung, H.H.

    1995-07-11

    Two basic engineering strategies for the protection of equipment and structures from damages caused by seismic shock and vibration loadings are, namely, strengthening and isolation. They work on almost totally different principles; the strengthening strategy aims primarily at increasing the capacity or the ability of the structure to withstand the dynamic loading by incorporating additional structural materials and components, while the isolation strategy focuses on reducing the demand or the transmitted loading on the structure by adding an isolator or isolation system between the structure and the source of the loading. The isolation strategy is often used for filtering out unwanted vibrations and noises. In practice, the isolation strategy has the advantage of not depending on alterations to the isolated structure and is often the preferred method for applications in equipment and in some structures.

  16. Erysipelas Outbreaks in Flocks of Geese in Poland--Biochemical and Genetic Analyses of the Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bobrek, Kamila; Gaweł, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes erysipelas in many vertebrate species. Severe disease outbreaks have been noted in many poultry species--chickens, ducks, emus, pheasants, pigeons, and geese. This article describes the biochemical and genetic analyses of six E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese for meat production. The isolates came from birds kept in different poultry houses on one farm, and were collected during two erysipelas outbreaks. We analyzed and compared the isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA with the use of NK6 primer and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the restriction enzyme SmaI. Biochemical examination was performed with API Coryne test. Analyses showed that the three strains isolated during the first outbreak differed, whereas the three isolates from the second outbreak were identical to one another, but distinct from the isolates from the first outbreak. The results of biochemical and genetic analyses of E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese suggest different sources of infection for the erysipelas outbreaks. PMID:26478164

  17. Erysipelas Outbreaks in Flocks of Geese in Poland--Biochemical and Genetic Analyses of the Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bobrek, Kamila; Gaweł, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes erysipelas in many vertebrate species. Severe disease outbreaks have been noted in many poultry species--chickens, ducks, emus, pheasants, pigeons, and geese. This article describes the biochemical and genetic analyses of six E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese for meat production. The isolates came from birds kept in different poultry houses on one farm, and were collected during two erysipelas outbreaks. We analyzed and compared the isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA with the use of NK6 primer and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the restriction enzyme SmaI. Biochemical examination was performed with API Coryne test. Analyses showed that the three strains isolated during the first outbreak differed, whereas the three isolates from the second outbreak were identical to one another, but distinct from the isolates from the first outbreak. The results of biochemical and genetic analyses of E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from geese suggest different sources of infection for the erysipelas outbreaks.

  18. Clinical management of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Valverde, Mercedes; Sojo-Dorado, Jesús; Pascual, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae showing resistance to cephalosporins due to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes, and those producing carbapenemases have spread worldwide during the last decades. Many of these isolates are also resistant to other first-line agents such as fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides, leaving few available options for therapy. Thus, older drugs such as colistin and fosfomycin are being increasingly used. Infections caused by these bacteria are associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared with those caused by their susceptible counterparts. Most of the evidence supporting the present recommendations is from in vitro data, animal studies, and observational studies. While carbapenems are considered the drugs of choice for ESBL and AmpC producers, recent data suggest that certain alternatives may be suitable for some types of infections. Combined therapy seems superior to monotherapy in the treatment of invasive infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Optimization of dosage according to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics data is important for the treatment of infections caused by isolates with borderline minimum inhibitory concentration due to low-level resistance mechanisms. The increasing frequency and the rapid spread of multidrug resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae is a true and complex public health problem. PMID:25165544

  19. The First Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Strains Isolated From Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nakhost Lotfi, Masoumeh; Nikbin, Vajiheh Sadat; Shooraj, Fahimeh; Azizian, Reza; Parzadeh, Masoumeh; Allahyar Torkaman, Mohammad Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whooping cough was considered as one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Resistant isolates of Bordetella pertussis to macrolides in some countries have been recently reported. Objectives: Recent reports on macrolide-resistant B. pertussis isolates and lack of evidence for such resistance in clinical isolates of the Iranian patients led the authors of the current study to study antibiotic susceptibility of the collected isolates in the country. Susceptibility of the B. pertussis isolates to three antibiotics was studied. Relatedness of the strains recovered in this research was also examined. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates of 779 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined using MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) method. Relationship of the strains was characterized by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Among the specimens, 11 cases (1.4%) were culture-positive. Among these isolates, only two isolates had high MIC values for erythromycin and clarithromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the isolates revealed 6 PFGE profiles (A-F) among which three and two isolates had the same patterns in profiles A and B, respectively. Conclusions: Azithromycin can be a good drug of choice to treat patients infected by B. pertussis in Iran. Clonal relationship of the isolates showed that the same B. pertussis strains were isolated from different patients in Iran. PMID:25371806

  20. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  1. Comparison of atypical Brachyspira spp. clinical isolates and classic strains in a mouse model of swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Burrough, Eric; Strait, Erin; Kinyon, Joann; Bower, Leslie; Madson, Darin; Schwartz, Kent; Frana, Timothy; Songer, J Glenn

    2012-12-01

    Multiple Brachyspira spp. can colonize the porcine colon, and the presence of the strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is typically associated with clinical swine dysentery. Recently, several Brachyspira spp. have been isolated from the feces of pigs with clinical disease suggestive of swine dysentery, yet these isolates were not identified as B. hyodysenteriae by genotypic or phenotypic methods. This study used a mouse model of swine dysentery to compare the pathogenic potential of seventeen different Brachyspira isolates including eight atypical clinical isolates, six typical clinical isolates, the standard strain of B. hyodysenteriae (B204), and reference strains of Brachyspira intermedia and Brachyspira innocens. Results revealed that strongly beta-hemolytic isolates induced significantly greater cecal inflammation than weakly beta-hemolytic isolates regardless of the genetic identification of the isolate, and that strongly beta-hemolytic isolates identified as 'Brachyspira sp. SASK30446' and B. intermedia by PCR produced lesions indistinguishable from those caused by B. hyodysenteriae in this model.

  2. Sequence analysis and genetic diversity of five new Indian isolates of cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Gautam, K K; Raj, S K

    2015-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus since it causes severe losses to many economically important crops worldwide. Five new isolates of CMV were isolated from naturally infected Hippeastrum hybridum, Dahlia pinnata, Hemerocallis fulva, Acorus calamus and Typhonium trilobatum plants, all exhibiting severe leaf mosaic symptoms. For molecular identification and sequence analyses, the complete coat protein (CP) gene of these isolates was amplified by RT-PCR. The resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced and isolates were designated as HH (KP698590), DP (JF682239), HF (KP698589), AC (KP698588) and TT (JX570732). For study of genetic diversity among these isolates, the sequence data were analysed by BLASTn, multiple alignment and generating phylogenetic trees along with the respective sequences of other CMV isolates available in GenBank Database were done. The isolates under study showed 82-99% sequence diversity among them at nucleotide and amino acid levels; however they showed close relationships with CMV isolates of subgroup IB. In alignment analysis of amino acid sequences of HH and AC isolates, we have found fifteen and twelve unique substitutions, compared to HF, DP and TT isolates, suggesting the cause of high genetic diversity. PMID:26666188

  3. Morphological, genetic, and pathogenic characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum, the cause of anthracnose of almond in Australia.

    PubMed

    McKay, Suzanne F; Freeman, Stanley; Minz, Dror; Maymon, Marcel; Sedgley, Margaret; Collins, Graham C; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-08-01

    Almond anthracnose was reported for the first time in Australia in 1998 and has since been observed in all of the major almond-growing regions. The organism causing anthracnose was confirmed as Colletotrichum acutatum using taxon-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three main morphotypes of C. acutatum from almond in Australia were identified (namely, pink, orange, and cream colony color) and the optimum temperature for mycelial growth of representative isolates was 25 degrees C. Australian isolates of C. acutatum were more similar morphologically to the pink subpopulation of C. acutatum from California than to the gray Californian subpopulation and the isolates of Colletotrichum from Israel. Inter-simple-sequence-repeat (ISSR) PCR analysis revealed that the majority of Australian isolates shared an identical banding pattern whereas Australian isolates of C. acutatum from almond were distinct from isolates of the pink and gray subpopulations of C. acutatum from almond in California and of Colletotrichum spp. from almond in Israel. Sequence analysis of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS1-2) ribosomal DNA region of representative isolates differed from the results of ISSR-PCR in that polymorphisms were revealed among isolates, indicating that some genetic variation may be present. Pathogenicity experiments on detached leaves and fruit revealed pathogenic variation among representative isolates of C. acutatum from almond in Australia, California, and Israel; however, all isolates tested caused disease. Distinct subgroups among Australian isolates of C. acutatum from almond were not supported on the basis of morphology, mycelial growth rates, ISSR-PCR, and pathogenicity. PMID:19594318

  4. Genome Diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and the Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Finnan, Shirley; Morrissey, John P.; O'Gara, Fergal; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative rod that is ubiquitous in nature. P. aeruginosa is also the quintessential opportunistic pathogen, causing a wide variety of infections in compromised hosts. In cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa is the leading cause of death. In this study, the evolutionary genetic relationships among 17 P. aeruginosa isolates were examined by comparative sequence analysis of the housekeeping gene encoding malate dehydrogenase and the chaperone groEL. The P. aeruginosa isolates examined included the sequenced strain PAO1, 11 strains recovered from cystic fibrosis patients in Ireland, 4 environmental isolates recovered from a hospital environment, and 1 isolate recovered from a plant rhizosphere. Phylogenetically, clinical and environmental isolates clustered together with one another on the mdh gene tree. At the groEL locus, among the 17 isolates examined, only two polymorphic sites were observed, highlighting the close genetic relationship between isolates from these different environments. Phenotypic analysis of 12 traits among our isolates, however, found that only clinical isolates produced phenazines and elastase. Furthermore, molecular analysis of the distribution of 15 regions associated with virulence showed that two of the environmental isolates examined lacked the majority of regions. Among the clinical isolates examined, the 15 virulence regions were variably present. The distribution of two prophages (Bacto1, Pf1) was also determined, with most isolates encoding both these regions. Of the four genomic islands (the flagellum island and PAGI-1, -2, and -3) examined, only two isolates contained the flagellum island, and PAGI-1, -2, and -3 were absent from all isolates tested. Our data demonstrate the significant role horizontal gene transfer and recombination, together with gene loss, play in the evolution of this important human pathogen. PMID:15583313

  5. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  6. Male infertility. 3. Endocrine causes.

    PubMed

    McNally, M R

    1987-02-01

    Endocrine causes of male infertility range from easily manageable disorders such as hypothyroidism to complex problems such as pituitary tumors. Proper management requires a thorough understanding of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Hormonal evaluation is performed only when the patient's history and results of physical examination indicate an endocrine problem. With proper identification and treatment, most of these problems can be successfully managed.

  7. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  8. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  9. Bacteremia Caused by Kerstersia gyiorum.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, A Doran; Zhang, Cecelia; Manninen, Katja; Touchberry, Joanne; Greene, Shermalyn R; Holland, Thomas L

    2015-06-01

    Kerstersia spp. are an unusual cause of human infections. We report the first known case of bacteremia and sepsis due to Kerstersia gyiorum, in a patient with chronic lower-extremity ulcers, and we review the literature on this uncommon pathogen. PMID:25809974

  10. Bacteremia Caused by Kerstersia gyiorum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cecelia; Manninen, Katja; Touchberry, Joanne; Greene, Shermalyn R.; Holland, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Kerstersia spp. are an unusual cause of human infections. We report the first known case of bacteremia and sepsis due to Kerstersia gyiorum, in a patient with chronic lower-extremity ulcers, and we review the literature on this uncommon pathogen. PMID:25809974

  11. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  12. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  13. [Complications caused by intravenous therapy].

    PubMed

    Quirós Luque, José María; Gago Fornells, Manuel

    2005-11-01

    Nursing professionals must know everything related to complications caused by intravenous therapy including the ways to prevent and solve these complications. We need not forget that nurses are the ones mainly responsible for the insertion, manipulation, removal and care of catheters.

  14. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  15. Orbital Causes of Incomitant Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Lueder, Gregg T.

    2015-01-01

    Strabismus may result from abnormal innervation, structure, or function of the extraocular muscles. Abnormalities of the orbital bones or masses within the orbit may also cause strabismus due to indirect effects on the extraocular muscles. This paper reviews some disorders of the orbit that are associated with strabismus, including craniofacial malformations, orbital masses, trauma, and anomalous orbital structures. PMID:26180465

  16. Can Infections Cause Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mawanda, Francis; Wallace, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia among older adults, yet more than a century of research has not determined why this disease develops. One prevailing hypothesis is that late-onset AD is caused by infectious pathogens, an idea widely studied in both humans and experimental animal models. This review examines the infectious AD etiology hypothesis and summarizes existing evidence associating infectious agents with AD in humans. The various mechanisms through which different clinical and subclinical infections could cause or promote the progression of AD are considered, as is the concordance between putative infectious agents and the epidemiology of AD. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO databases for research articles pertaining to infections and AD and systematically reviewed the evidence linking specific infectious pathogens to AD. The evidence compiled from the literature linking AD to an infectious cause is inconclusive, but the amount of evidence suggestive of an association is too substantial to ignore. Epidemiologic, clinical, and basic science studies that could improve on current understanding of the associations between AD and infections and possibly uncover ways to control this highly prevalent and debilitating disease are suggested. PMID:23349428

  17. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Endocarditis caused by Rhodotorula infection.

    PubMed

    Simon, Matthew S; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L; Jenkins, Stephen G; Walsh, Thomas J; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp. PMID:24197888

  19. Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mary J.; Moffat, Christopher; Saranzewa, Nastja; Harvey, Jenni; Wright, Geraldine A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown. Here, using recordings from mushroom body Kenyon cells in acutely isolated honeybee brain, we show that the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and clothianidin, and the organophosphate miticide coumaphos oxon, cause a depolarization-block of neuronal firing and inhibit nicotinic responses. These effects are observed at concentrations that are encountered by foraging honeybees and within the hive, and are additive with combined application. Our findings demonstrate a neuronal mechanism that may account for the cognitive impairments caused by neonicotinoids, and predict that exposure to multiple pesticides that target cholinergic signalling will cause enhanced toxicity to pollinators. PMID:23535655

  20. Amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Denney, C F; Iragui, V J; Uber-Zak, L D; Karpinski, N C; Ziegler, E J; Visvesvara, G S; Reed, S L

    1997-12-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris, formerly referred to as a leptomyxid ameba, is a free-living ameba that has recently been identified as a cause of meningoencephalitis. Previously, only two genera, Naegleria and Acanthamoeba, were recognized as causes of central nervous system (CNS) infections in humans. In contrast to Naegleria, Balamuthia causes a subacute-to-chronic infection of the CNS. Distinct from Acanthamoeba, which appears to favor the immunocompromised host, Balamuthia is capable of infecting both healthy and immunosuppressed hosts. Retrospective analyses as well as an accumulation of newly identified cases have demonstrated that this ameba is an increasingly important pathogen to recognize. We report the isolation, histopathologic features, and confirmation by indirect immunofluorescence of B. mandrillaris in a case of fatal amebic meningoencephalitis. PMID:9431377