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Sample records for isolated adult cardiac

  1. Neutrophil adherence to isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Induction by cardiac lymph collected during ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Youker, K; Smith, C W; Anderson, D C; Miller, D; Michael, L H; Rossen, R D; Entman, M L

    1992-01-01

    Canine neutrophils can be induced to adhere in vitro to isolated adult cardiac myocytes by stimulation of the neutrophils with chemotactic factors such as zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) only if the myocytes have been previously exposed to cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These cytokines induce synthesis and surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the myocyte, and neutrophil adhesion is almost entirely CD18 and ICAM-1 dependent. The present study examines cardiac-specific lymph collected from awake dogs during 1-h coronary occlusion and 3 d of reperfusion for its ability to induce both ICAM-1 expression in cardiac myocytes, and neutrophil-myocyte adherence. Reperfusion lymph induced ICAM-1 expression in isolated myocytes, and myocyte adherence to ZAS-stimulated neutrophils that was completely inhibited by anti-CD18 and anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies. This activity peaked at 90 min of reperfusion and persisted for up to 72 h. Preischemic lymph was not stimulatory. IL-1 appeared not to be a stimulating factor in lymph in that dilutions of lymph were found to inhibit the stimulatory effects of recombinant IL-1 beta. However, investigation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) revealed that recombinant IL-6 stimulated myocyte adhesiveness for ZAS-stimulated neutrophils (ED50 = 0.002 U/ml) and expression of ICAM-1 by isolated myocytes. IL-6 neutralizing antibody markedly reduced the ability of reperfusion lymph to stimulate adhesion and ICAM-1 expression, and estimates of levels of IL-6 in reperfusion lymph ranged from 0.035 to 0.14 U/ml. These results indicate that cytokines capable of promoting neutrophil-myocyte adhesion occur in extracellular fluid during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, and that one of these cytokines is IL-6. Neutrophil-myocyte adhesion may be of pathogenic significance because it may enhance the cytotoxic activity of the neutrophil. Images PMID:1346618

  2. Cardiac imaging in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  3. Effects of pressure- or volume-overload hypertrophy on passive stiffness in isolated adult cardiac muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.; Koide, M.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the changes in myocardial stiffness induced by chronic hemodynamic overloading are dependent on changes in the passive stiffness of the cardiac muscle cell (cardiocyte). However, no previous studies have examined the passive constitutive properties of cardiocytes isolated from animals with myocardial hypertrophy. Accordingly, changes in relative passive stiffness of cardiocytes isolated from animals with chronic pressure- or volume-overload hypertrophy were determined by examining the effects of anisosmotic stress on cardiocyte size. Anisosmotic stress was produced by altering superfusate osmolarity. Hypertrophied cardiocytes were enzymatically isolated from 16 adult cats with right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) and from 6 adult cats with RV volume-overload hypertrophy induced by creating an atrial septal defect (ASD). Left ventricular (LV) cardiocytes from each cat served as nonhypertrophied, normally loaded, same-animal controls. Superfusate osmolarity was decreased from 305 +/- 3 to 135 +/- 5 mosM and increased to 645 +/- 4 mosM. During anisosmotic stress, there were no significant differences between hypertrophied RV and normal LV cardiocytes in pressure overload PAB cats with respect to percent change in cardiocyte area (47 +/- 2% in RV vs. 48 +/- 2% in LV), diameter (46 +/- 3% in RV vs. 48 +/- 2% in LV), or length (2.4 +/- 0.2% in RV vs. 2.0 +/- 0.3% in LV), or sarcomere length (1.5 +/- 0.1% in RV vs. 1.3 +/- 0.3% in LV). Likewise, there were no significant differences in cardiocyte strain between hypertrophied RV and normal LV cardiocytes from ASD cats. In conclusion, chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy and chronic volume-overload hypertrophy did not alter the cardiocyte response to anisosmotic stress. Thus chronic overload hypertrophy did not alter relative passive cardiocyte stiffness.

  4. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, David W; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    The biology of aging and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap, with the effect that CVD is endemic in the growing population of older adults. Moreover, CVD in older adults is usually complicated by age-related complexities, including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, and other intricacies that add to the risks of ambiguous symptoms, deconditioning, iatrogenesis, falls, disability, and other challenges. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with cardiovascular conditions. Although CR was originally designed primarily as an exercise training program for younger adults after a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, it has evolved as a comprehensive lifestyle program (promoting physical activity as well as education, diet, risk reduction, and adherence) for a broader range of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and valvular heart disease). It provides a valuable opportunity to address and moderate many of the challenges pertinent for the large and growing population of older adults with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation promotes physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness as well as strength and balance) that helps overcome disease and deconditioning as well as related vulnerabilities such as disability, frailty, and falls. Similarly, CR facilitates education, monitoring, and guidance to reduce iatrogenesis and promote adherence. Furthermore, CR fosters cognition, socialization, and independence in older patients. Yet despite all its conceptual benefits, CR is significantly underused in older populations. This review discusses benefits and the paradoxical underuse of CR, as well as evolving models of care that may achieve greater application and efficacy. PMID:27297002

  5. Myoplasmic free calcium concentration reached during the twitch of an intact isolated cardiac cell and during calcium-induced release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a skinned cardiac cell from the adult rat or rabbit ventricle

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Intact cardiac cells from the adult rat or rabbit ventricle were isolated by enzymatic digestion with a progressive increase of the [free Ca2+] in the solution. These cells were electrically stimulated in the presence of 2.50 mM free Ca2+, and a twitch of maximum amplitude was elicited by the positive inotropic interventions that were found to be optimum. Then the cells were chemically skinned, and the maximum tension induced by a saturating [free Ca2+] was used as a reference to express the tension developed during the twitch of the intact cells. The myoplasmic [free Ca2+] reached during the twitch was inferred from the tension-pCa curve. In mechanically skinned cells of the same animal species, the myoplasmic [free Ca2+] reached during Ca2+-induced release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was inferred by two methods using (a) the tension-pCa curve and (b) a direct calibration of the transients of aequorin bioluminescence. The induction of a maximum Ca2+ release from the SR required a larger Ca2+ preload of the SR and a higher [free Ca2+] trigger in the rabbit than in the rat skinned cells. However, the results obtained with the two methods of inference of the myoplasmic [free Ca2+] suggest that in both animal species a maximum myoplasmic [free Ca2+] of pCa approximately 5.40 was reached during both the optimum Ca2+-induced release of Ca2+ from the SR of the skinned cells and the optimum twitch of the intact cells. This was much lower than the [free Ca2+] necessary for the full activation of the myofilaments (pCa approximately 4.90). PMID:6796647

  6. Modeling the isolated cardiac myocyte.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Jose L; Wang, Fei; Bers, Donald M

    2004-01-01

    Computer modeling of cardiac myocytes has flourished in recent years. Models have evolved from mathematical descriptions of ionic channels alone to more sophisticated formulations that include calcium transport mechanisms, ATP production and metabolic pathways. The increased complexity is fueled by the new data available in the field. The continuous production of experimental data has led to the evolution of increasingly refined descriptions of the phenomena by modelers. Integrating the numerous systems involved in cardiac myocyte homeostasis makes the use of computer models necessary due to the unreliability of intuitive approaches. However the complexity of the model should not imply a cumbersome operation of the program. As with any tool, computer models have to be easy to operate or their strength will be diminished and potential users will not benefit fully from them. The contribution of the computer modeler to their respective biological fields will be more successful and enduring if modelers devote sufficient time to implement their equations into a model with user-friendly characteristics. PMID:15142742

  7. Isolated cardiac sarcoidosis: clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Mitsuaki; Tezuka, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of noncaseating epithelioid granulomas in multiple organs. Despite extensive investigations over a long period of time, the etiology of this disease remains unknown. Cardiac involvement of this disease is the most ominous complication leading to fatal outcome. Recently, attention has been focused on isolated cardiac sarcoidosis, which exists without clinically apparent sarcoidosis elsewhere. One of the critical issues of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis is difficulty in diagnosis, since existence of the cardiac lesion should be detected from cardiac manifestations alone. Because specificity of biomarkers or sensitivity of histological examination of biopsied sample is very low, diagnosis of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis mainly depends on imaging modalities. In this review article we summarized current knowledge on the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, clinical features of cardiac sarcoidosis especially that isolated to the heart by showing some typical cases. Utilities and problems of diagnostic imaging tests for this condition including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography are discussed. Advances in pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment for cardiac sarcoidosis have improved the prognosis of cardiac sarcoidosis to a great deal; however, there are many issues that remain to be solved in the management of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis.

  8. Mechanically induced orientation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuel, J.-L.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    The present study describes the spatial orientation of a population of freshly isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes using a computerized mechanical cell stimulator device for tissue cultured cells. A continuous unidirectional stretch of the substratum at 60 to 400 microns/min for 120 to 30 min, respectively, during the cell attachment period in a serum-free medium was found to induce a significant threefold increase in the number of rod-shaped myocytes oriented parallel to the direction of movement. The myocytes orient less well with unidirectional substratum stretching after their adhesion to the substratum. Adult myocytes plated onto a substratum undergoing continuous 10-percent stretch-relaxation cycling show no significant change in the myocyte orientation or cytoskeletal organization. In addition to the type of mechanical activity, orientation of rod-shaped myocytes is dependent on the speed of the substratum, the final stretch amplitude, and the timing between initiation of substratum stretching and adhesion of myocytes to the substratum.

  9. Knowledge Management in Cardiac Surgery: The Second Tehran Heart Center Adult Cardiac Surgery Database Report

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Kyomars; Karimi, Abbasali; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Davoodi, Saeed; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Movahedi, Namdar; Salehiomran, Abbas; Shirzad, Mahmood; Bina, Peyvand

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Adult Cardiac Surgery Databank (ACSD) of Tehran Heart Center was established in 2002 with a view to providing clinical prediction rules for outcomes of cardiac procedures, developing risk score systems, and devising clinical guidelines. This is a general analysis of the collected data. Methods: All the patients referred to Tehran Heart Center for any kind of heart surgery between 2002 and 2008 were included, and their demographic, medical, clinical, operative, and postoperative data were gathered. This report presents general information as well as in-hospital mortality rates regarding all the cardiac procedures performed in the above time period. Results: There were 24959 procedures performed: 19663 (78.8%) isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgeries (CABGs); 1492 (6.0%) isolated valve surgeries; 1437 (5.8%) CABGs concomitant with other procedures; 832 (3.3%) CABGs combined with valve surgeries; 722 (2.9%) valve surgeries concomitant with other procedures; 545 (2.2%) surgeries other than CABG or valve surgery; and 267 (1.1%) CABGs concomitant with valve and other types of surgery. The overall mortality was 205 (1.04%), with the lowest mortality rate (0.47%) in the isolated CABGs and the highest (4.49%) in the CABGs concomitant with valve surgeries and other types of surgery. Meanwhile, the overall mortality rate was higher in the female patients than in the males (1.90% vs. 0.74%, respectively). Conclusion: Isolated CABG was the most prevalent procedure at our center with the lowest mortality rate. However, the overall mortality was more prevalent in our female patients. This database can serve as a platform for the participation of the other countries in the region in the creation of a regional ACSD. PMID:23304179

  10. Sudden cardiac death in adults: causes, incidence and interventions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wendy Marina

    Many nurses will be familiar with the unexpected death of an adult patient following a sudden, life-threatening cardiac event. It is a situation that demands sensitive nursing care and skilled interventions to provide a foundation for recovery and promote healthy bereavement. This article examines the causes and incidence of sudden cardiac death in adults. Possible reactions of those who are suddenly bereaved are described and immediate care interventions aimed at dealing with the grief process are discussed. The article concludes by identifying ways in which the incidence of sudden cardiac death may be reduced.

  11. Isolation, culture, purification and ultrastructural investigation of cardiac telocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Song; Li, Yi-Gang; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs), a novel type of stromal cells, are crucial to cardiac renovation and regeneration. To dissect the pathophysiological effects of cardiac TCs in heart disease, it is essential to develop an effective method to isolate, culture, purify and characterize these cells. In the present study, cardiac TCs were isolated from the hearts of rats by enzymatic digestion. Histology and CD34/PDGFRα expression by flow cytometric assay were used to characterize the cultured cardiac TCs, which were purified by flow cytometric sorting and confirmed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Typical TCs were observed in primary culture, with these exhibiting typical fusiform cell bodies with long moniliform telopodes. Based on flow cytometric sorting with antibodies to CD34 and PDGFRα, there was a substantial increase in the purity of cardiac TCs. Furthermore, immunofluorescence demonstrated that almost all the sorted TCs expressed vimentin, a marker of TCs. Moreover, electron micrographs showed typical TCs based on their ultrastructural features. Using this method, we developed a reproducible protocol for the isolation and purification of cardiac TCs from rat hearts, which yielded TCs with typical characteristics. PMID:27314536

  12. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database: The Driving Force for Improvement in Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winkley Shroyer, Annie Laurie; Bakaeen, Faisal; Shahian, David M; Carr, Brendan M; Prager, Richard L; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Ferraris, Victor; Edwards, Fred; Grover, Frederick L

    2015-01-01

    Initiated in 1989, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) includes more than 1085 participating centers, representing 90%-95% of current US-based adult cardiac surgery hospitals. Since its inception, the primary goal of the STS ACSD has been to use clinical data to track and improve cardiac surgical outcomes. Patients' preoperative risk characteristics, procedure-related processes of care, and clinical outcomes data have been captured and analyzed, with timely risk-adjusted feedback reports to participating providers. In 2006, STS initiated an external audit process to evaluate STS ACSD completeness and accuracy. Given the extremely high inter-rater reliability and completeness rates of STS ACSD, it is widely regarded as the "gold standard" for benchmarking cardiac surgery risk-adjusted outcomes. Over time, STS ACSD has expanded its quality horizons beyond the traditional focus on isolated, risk-adjusted short-term outcomes such as perioperative morbidity and mortality. New quality indicators have evolved including composite measures of key processes of care and outcomes (risk-adjusted morbidity and risk-adjusted mortality), longer-term outcomes, and readmissions. Resource use and patient-reported outcomes would be added in the future. These additional metrics provide a more comprehensive perspective on quality as well as additional end points. Widespread acceptance and use of STS ACSD has led to a cultural transformation within cardiac surgery by providing nationally benchmarked data for internal quality assessment, aiding data-driven quality improvement activities, serving as the basis for a voluntary public reporting program, advancing cardiac surgery care through STS ACSD-based research, and facilitating data-driven informed consent dialogues and alternative treatment-related discussions.

  13. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lin; Daniels, Joseph; Glaser, Alex E.; Wolf, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFRA887T, Ras85DV12 and Ras85DV12S35, which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr) RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERKD334N, which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for

  14. pH regulation in adult cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallert, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the pH{sub i} regulatory mechanisms of adult ventricular myocytes, the cells that perform the pumping work of the heart. The cell system for this study was the ventricular myocyte, isolated by enzymatic dissociation from adult rate heart. In agreement with the findings on other cardiac model cells, I demonstrated the existence of a Cl{sup {minus}}/HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} exchanger and a Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger in ventricular myocytes. The existence of the anion exchanger was demonstrated in {sup 36}Cl{sup {minus}} flux experiments and as stilbene disulfonate-inhibitable and Cl{sup {minus}} gradient-dependent intracellular pH shifts in the presence of bicarbonate. The fluorescein derivative BCECF served as a fluorescent probe of intracellular pH in the these experiments. The existence of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger was demonstrated in pH{sub i} experiments using BCECF. Further experiments characterized the kinetics of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger and its regulation. The steady-state pH{sub i} of ventricular myocytes was 7.16 {+-} 0.11 at pH{sub 0} = 7.4. Several agonists caused a rise in steady-state pH{sub i}: the protein kinase stimulator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), the {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic agonist 6-fluoro-norepinephrine (6F-NE) and the {beta}-agonist UK14304, and ATP.

  15. Cardiac involvement in adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Thomas; Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Sanner, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) include the main subgroups polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM (JDM). The mentioned subgroups are characterised by inflammation of skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and other organs can also be affected as well. Even though clinically significant heart involvement is uncommon, heart disease is one of the major causes of death in IIM. Recent studies show an increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in JDM and DM/PM, which need attention. The risk of developing atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is increased twofold to fourfold in DM/PM. New and improved diagnostic methods have in recent studies in PM/DM and JDM demonstrated a high prevalence of subclinical cardiac involvement, especially diastolic dysfunction. Interactions between proinflammatory cytokines and traditional risk factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction. Heart involvement could also be related to myocarditis and/or myocardial fibrosis, leading to arrhythmias and congestive heart failure, demonstrated both in adult and juvenile IIM. Also, reduced heart rate variability (a known risk factor for cardiac morbidity and mortality) has been shown in long-standing JDM. Until more information is available, patients with IIM should follow the same recommendations for cardiovascular risk stratification and prevention as for the corresponding general population, but be aware that statins might worsen muscle symptoms mimicking myositis relapse. On the basis of recent studies, we recommend a low threshold for cardiac workup and follow-up in patients with IIM. PMID:27752355

  16. Epigenomic Reprogramming of Adult Cardiomyocyte-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Zhong, Jiang F; Qiu, Hongyu; Robb MacLellan, W.; Marbán, Eduardo; Wang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    It has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes (ACMs) are terminally-differentiated and are unable to proliferate. Recently, using a bi-transgenic ACM fate mapping mouse model and an in vitro culture system, we demonstrated that adult mouse cardiomyocytes were able to dedifferentiate into cardiac progenitor-like cells (CPCs). However, little is known about the molecular basis of their intrinsic cellular plasticity. Here we integrate single-cell transcriptome and whole-genome DNA methylation analyses to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and cell cycle reentry of mouse ACMs. Compared to parental cardiomyocytes, dedifferentiated mouse cardiomyocyte-derived CPCs (mCPCs) display epigenomic reprogramming with many differentially-methylated regions, both hypermethylated and hypomethylated, across the entire genome. Correlated well with the methylome, our transcriptomic data showed that the genes encoding cardiac structure and function proteins are remarkably down-regulated in mCPCs, while those for cell cycle, proliferation, and stemness are significantly up-regulated. In addition, implantation of mCPCs into infarcted mouse myocardium improves cardiac function with augmented left ventricular ejection fraction. Our study demonstrates that the cellular plasticity of mammalian cardiomyocytes is the result of a well-orchestrated epigenomic reprogramming and a subsequent global transcriptomic alteration. PMID:26657817

  17. Cardiac primitive cells become committed to a cardiac fate in adult human heart with chronic ischemic disease but fail to acquire mature phenotype: genetic and phenotypic study.

    PubMed

    Nurzynska, Daria; Di Meglio, Franca; Romano, Veronica; Miraglia, Rita; Sacco, Anna Maria; Latino, Francesca; Bancone, Ciro; Della Corte, Alessandro; Maiello, Ciro; Amarelli, Cristiano; Montagnani, Stefania; Castaldo, Clotilde

    2013-01-01

    Adult human heart hosts a population of cardiac primitive CD117-positive cells (CPCs), which are responsible for physiological tissue homeostasis and regeneration. While the bona fide stem cells express telomerase, their progenies are no longer able to preserve telomeric DNA; hence the balance between their proliferation and differentiation has to be tightly controlled in order to prevent cellular senescence and apoptosis of CPCs before their maturation can be accomplished. We have examined at cellular and molecular level the proliferation, apoptosis and commitment of CPCs isolated from normal (CPC-N) and age-matched pathological adult human hearts (CPC-P) with ischemic heart disease. In the CPC-P, genes related to early stages of developmental processes, nervous system development and neurogenesis, skeletal development, bone and cartilage development were downregulated, while those involved in mesenchymal cell differentiation and heart development were upregulated, together with the transcriptional activation of TGFβ/BMP signaling pathway. In the pathological heart, asymmetric division was the prevalent type of cardiac stem cell division. The population of CPC-P consisted mainly of progenitors of cardiac cell lineages and less precursors; these cells proliferated more, but were also more susceptible to apoptosis with respect to CPC-N. These results indicate that CPCs fail to reach terminal differentiation and functional competence in pathological conditions. Adverse effects of underlying pathology, which disrupts cardiac tissue structure and composition, and cellular senescence, resulting from cardiac stem cell activation in telomere dysfunctional environment, can be responsible for such outcome.

  18. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  19. Isolation Syndrome after Cardiac Arrest and Therapeutic Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Forgacs, Peter B.; Fridman, Esteban A.; Goldfine, Andrew M.; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the first description of an isolation syndrome in a patient who suffered prolonged cardiac arrest and underwent a standard therapeutic hypothermia protocol. Two years after the arrest, the patient demonstrated no motor responses to commands, communication capabilities, or visual tracking at the bedside. However, resting neuronal metabolism and electrical activity across the entire anterior forebrain was found to be normal despite severe structural injuries to primary motor, parietal, and occipital cortices. In addition, using quantitative electroencephalography, the patient showed evidence for willful modulation of brain activity in response to auditory commands revealing covert conscious awareness. A possible explanation for this striking dissociation in this patient is that altered neuronal recovery patterns following therapeutic hypothermia may lead to a disproportionate preservation of anterior forebrain cortico-thalamic circuits even in the setting of severe hypoxic injury to other brain areas. Compared to recent reports of other severely brain-injured subjects with such dissociation of clinically observable (overt) and covert behaviors, we propose that this case represents a potentially generalizable mechanism producing an isolation syndrome of blindness, motor paralysis, and retained cognition as a sequela of cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Our findings further support that highly-preserved anterior cortico-thalamic integrity is associated with the presence of conscious awareness independent from the degree of injury to other brain areas. PMID:27375420

  20. Isolation Syndrome after Cardiac Arrest and Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Peter B; Fridman, Esteban A; Goldfine, Andrew M; Schiff, Nicholas D

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the first description of an isolation syndrome in a patient who suffered prolonged cardiac arrest and underwent a standard therapeutic hypothermia protocol. Two years after the arrest, the patient demonstrated no motor responses to commands, communication capabilities, or visual tracking at the bedside. However, resting neuronal metabolism and electrical activity across the entire anterior forebrain was found to be normal despite severe structural injuries to primary motor, parietal, and occipital cortices. In addition, using quantitative electroencephalography, the patient showed evidence for willful modulation of brain activity in response to auditory commands revealing covert conscious awareness. A possible explanation for this striking dissociation in this patient is that altered neuronal recovery patterns following therapeutic hypothermia may lead to a disproportionate preservation of anterior forebrain cortico-thalamic circuits even in the setting of severe hypoxic injury to other brain areas. Compared to recent reports of other severely brain-injured subjects with such dissociation of clinically observable (overt) and covert behaviors, we propose that this case represents a potentially generalizable mechanism producing an isolation syndrome of blindness, motor paralysis, and retained cognition as a sequela of cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Our findings further support that highly-preserved anterior cortico-thalamic integrity is associated with the presence of conscious awareness independent from the degree of injury to other brain areas. PMID:27375420

  1. Early life exposure to air pollution induces adult cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gorr, Matthew W; Velten, Markus; Nelin, Timothy D; Youtz, Dane J; Sun, Qinghua; Wold, Loren E

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the progression of cardiovascular disease, particularly in susceptible populations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether early life exposure to air pollution causes persistent cardiovascular consequences measured at adulthood. Pregnant FVB mice were exposed to filtered (FA) or concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) during gestation and nursing. Mice were exposed to PM2.5 at an average concentration of 51.69 μg/m(3) from the Columbus, OH region for 6 h/day, 7 days/wk in utero until weaning at 3 wk of age. Birth weight was reduced in PM2.5 pups compared with FA (1.36 ± 0.12 g FA, n = 42 mice; 1.30 ± 0.15 g PM2.5, n = 67 P = 0.012). At adulthood, mice exposed to perinatal PM2.5 had reduced left ventricular fractional shortening compared with FA-exposed mice (43.6 ± 2.1% FA, 33.2 ± 1.6% PM2.5, P = 0.001) with greater left ventricular end systolic diameter. Pressure-volume loops showed reduced ejection fraction (79.1 ± 3.5% FA, 35.5 ± 9.5% PM2.5, P = 0.005), increased end-systolic volume (10.4 ± 2.5 μl FA, 39.5 ± 3.8 μl PM2.5, P = 0.001), and reduced dP/dt maximum (11,605 ± 200 μl/s FA, 9,569 ± 800 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.05) and minimum (-9,203 ± 235 μl/s FA, -7,045 ± 189 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.0005) in PM2.5-exposed mice. Isolated cardiomyocytes from the hearts of PM2.5-exposed mice had reduced peak shortening (%PS, 8.53 ± 2.82% FA, 6.82 ± 2.04% PM2.5, P = 0.003), slower calcium reuptake (τ, 0.22 ± 0.09 s FA, 0.26 ± 0.07 s PM2.5, P = 0.048), and reduced response to β-adrenergic stimulation compared with cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to FA. Histological analyses revealed greater picro-sirius red-positive-stained areas in the PM2.5 vs. FA group, indicative of increased collagen deposition. We concluded that these data demonstrate the detrimental role of early life exposure to ambient particulate air pollution in programming of adult cardiovascular

  2. Isolation and expansion of functionally-competent cardiac progenitor cells directly from heart biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Darryl R; Kizana, Eddy; Terrovitis, John; Barth, Andreas S.; Zhang, Yiqiang; Smith, Rachel Ruckdeschel; Miake, Junichiro; Marbán, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The adult heart contains reservoirs of progenitor cells that express embryonic and stem cell-related antigens. While these antigenically-purified cells are promising candidates for autologous cell therapy, clinical application is hampered by their limited abundance and tedious isolation methods. Methods that involve an intermediate cardiosphere-forming step have proven successful and are being tested clinically, but it is unclear whether the cardiosphere step is necessary. Accordingly, we investigated the molecular profile and functional benefit of cells that spontaneously emigrate from cardiac tissue in primary culture. Adult Wistar-Kyoto rat hearts were minced, digested and cultured as separate anatomical regions. Loosely-adherent cells that surround the plated tissue were harvested weekly for a total of five harvests. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that a small proportion of the direct outgrowth from cardiac samples originates from myocardial cells. This outgrowth contains sub-populations of cells expressing embryonic (SSEA-1) and stem cell-related antigens (c-Kit, abcg2) that varied with time in culture but not with the cardiac chamber of origin. This direct outgrowth, and its expanded progeny, underwent marked in vitro angiogenic/cardiogenic differentiation and cytokine secretion (IGF-1, VGEF). In vivo effects included long-term functional benefits as gauged by MRI following cell injection in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Outgrowth cells afforded equivalent functional benefits to cardiosphere-derived cells, which require more processing steps to manufacture. These results provide the basis for a simplified and efficient process to generate autologous cardiac progenitor cells (and mesenchymal supporting cells) to augment clinically-relevant approaches for myocardial repair. PMID:20211627

  3. Cardiac surgery for adults with mental retardation. Dilemmas in management.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, S Z; Reardon, F E; Goulart, D T; Rubin, I L

    1985-10-01

    In summary, cardiac surgery for adults with mental retardation raises a series of controversial legal, economic, ethical, medical, and nursing dilemmas. During the past 20 years, many improvements have taken place in the care of these patients. However, in the future, judicial and statutory mandates requiring high-quality medical care for persons with mental retardation may conflict increasingly with hospital cost-control legislation and thereby affect clinical decisions. For example, it is conceivable that elective repair of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect in an asymptomatic patient will expend the limited resources necessary to carry out emergency revascularization in a symptomatic patient with impending myocardial infarction. This issue becomes even more delicate when the asymptomatic patient is a mentally retarded ward of the state, and the symptomatic patient is a middle-aged man supporting a wife and several college-age children. There may be no easy solution to this problem, and it will provide the grist for many bioethicists. Fortunately, from a practical point of view, we do not currently have to choose between these patients to receive treatment. Our hope is that health care for mentally retarded patients will not be compromised. We believe that decisions about patient management should be based on enlightened clinical judgment rather than on preconceived notions about this population. In the quest for optimal health care delivery, the special needs of these patients should be considered when cardiac catheterization and possible cardiac surgery are contemplated. Although we have presented an approach to a patient with cardiac disease requiring cardiac surgery, we believe that this approach can be utilized for any retarded patient requiring acute medical care. Currently, because there has not been much training in this area, many physicians and nurses lack first-hand experience in caring for the mentally retarded. This inexperience may lead to

  4. Ketamine in adult cardiac surgery and the cardiac surgery Intensive Care Unit: An evidence-based clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeffi, Michael; Johnson, Kyle; Paciullo, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a unique anesthetic drug that provides analgesia, hypnosis, and amnesia with minimal respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Because of its sympathomimetic properties it would seem to be an excellent choice for patients with depressed ventricular function in cardiac surgery. However, its use has not gained widespread acceptance in adult cardiac surgery patients, perhaps due to its perceived negative psychotropic effects. Despite this limitation, it is receiving renewed interest in the United States as a sedative and analgesic drug for critically ill-patients. In this manuscript, the authors provide an evidence-based clinical review of ketamine use in cardiac surgery patients for intensive care physicians, cardio-thoracic anesthesiologists, and cardio-thoracic surgeons. All MEDLINE indexed clinical trials performed during the last 20 years in adult cardiac surgery patients were included in the review. PMID:25849690

  5. Adult-Onset Still's Disease and Cardiac Tamponade: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Doroteia; de Jesus Silva, Maria; André, Rui; Varela, Manuel Gato; Diogo, António Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare disorder with potentially severe clinical features, including cardiac involvement. This systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pericarditis, with or without pericardial effusion. Cardiac tamponade is a very rare sequela that requires an invasive approach, such as percutaneous or surgical pericardial drainage, in addition to the usual conservative therapy. The authors describe a case of adult-onset Still's disease rendered more difficult by pericarditis and cardiac tamponade, and they briefly review the literature on this entity. PMID:26175648

  6. Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

    2002-01-01

    Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

  7. Optimizing Survival Outcomes For Adult Patients With Nontraumatic Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julianna

    2016-10-01

    Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm. Management of cardiac arrest in circumstances such as pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, opioid overdose and other toxicologic causes, hypothermia, and coronary ischemia are also reviewed.

  8. Cardiac issues in adults with the mucopolysaccharidoses: current knowledge and emerging needs.

    PubMed

    Braunlin, Elizabeth; Wang, Raymond

    2016-08-15

    The growing availability of innovative treatments for rare genetic diseases with a cardiac component-such as the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs)-has changed these syndromes from 'back of the textbook' curiosities of childhood to chronic, but rare, adult cardiac conditions that require both centres of expertise and knowledgeable subspecialists. The MPSs are inherited progressive lysosomal storage diseases, occurring in about 1:25 000 births and resulting from absence of functional hydrolases responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, naturally occurring complex sugars ubiquitous throughout the body. In the heart, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans occurs within the cardiac valves, the epicardial coronary arteries, the myocytes and cardiac interstitium and the walls of the great vessels. As a consequence, cardiac valve regurgitation and stenosis, diffuse coronary artery stenosis, myocardial dysfunction and aortic root dilation often occur. Haematopoietic cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy have changed the previously lethal natural history of the MPSs to one of survival well into adulthood. Despite this improved lifespan, the left-sided cardiac valves continue to show progressive functional involvement and cardiac valve replacement is not uncommon, especially in adults. The risk of any intervention is increased in these patients because of the systemic effects of the disease on the respiratory system and cervical cord. Our current understanding of other cardiac issues in adults with the MPSs, especially with the coronary circulation and myocardium, is meagre and more needs to be known to effectively care for this emerging population of adults. Incorporation of the MPSs, as well as other now-treatable rare diseases, into the educational curriculum of current and future adult subspecialists is an important next step. PMID:27102649

  9. Provision of Transition Education and Referral Patterns from Pediatric Cardiology to Adult Cardiac Care.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Anna L; Grady, Stafford; Chi, Kevin; Fernandes, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    ACC/AHA guidelines recommend a structured preparation for and transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care for adult survivors of pediatric onset heart disease (POHD). Given this, we sought to describe the transition and transfer practices for a cohort of young adults with POHD and to determine factors associated with successful transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care. We performed a single-center, retrospective chart review on patients ≥18 years of age, with POHD likely to require lifelong cardiac care, who were seen in outpatient pediatric cardiology (PC) between 2008 and 2011. Successful transfer was defined as the subsequent attendance at adult cardiology (AC) within 2 years of PC visit. We identified 118 patients who met study criteria. Mean age 22.4 ± 2.0 years, 59 % male, 64 % white and 40 % Hispanic. Mean transition education topics noted was 3.3 ± 1.8 out of 20 and covered the underlying cardiac disease (89 %), follow-up and current medications (56 %) and exercise limitations (34 %). Recommendations for follow-up were AC (57 %) and PC (33 %). Of those told to transfer to AC, 79 % successfully transferred. Characteristics of successful transfer included: prior cardiac surgery (p = 0.008), cardiac medication use (p = 0.006) and frequency of follow-up ≤1 year (p = 0.037). One-quarter of all subjects did not follow-up within at least 2 years. Despite published guidelines, transition education appears lacking and the approach to transfer to adult cardiac care is not consistent. Given the increased risk of morbidity and mortality in this patient population, standardization of transition education and transfer processes appear warranted. PMID:26385471

  10. Moderate Physical Activity in Healthy Adults Is Associated With Cardiac Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Timothy J.W.; Corden, Ben; Cotter, Sorcha; de Marvao, Antonio; Walsh, Roddy; Ware, James S.; Cook, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Background— Cardiac mass and volumes are often elevated in athletes, but it is not known whether moderate physical activity is also associated with cardiac dilatation and hypertrophy in a healthy adult population. Methods and Results— In total, 1096 adults (54% female, median age 39 years) without cardiovascular disease or cardiomyopathy-associated genetic variants underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine biventricular volumes and function. Physical activity was assessed using a validated activity questionnaire. The relationship between cardiac parameters and activity was assessed using multiple linear regression adjusting for age, sex, race, and systolic blood pressure. Logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of activity on the likelihood of subjects having cardiac dilatation or hypertrophy according to standard cardiac magnetic resonance normal ranges. Increasing physical activity was associated with greater left ventricular (LV) mass (β=0.23; P<0.0001) and elevated LV and right ventricular volumes (LV: β=0.26, P<0.0001; right ventricular: β=0.26, P<0.0001). Physical activity had a larger effect on cardiac parameters than systolic blood pressure (0.06≤β≤0.21) and a similar effect to age (−0.20≤β≤−0.31). Increasing physical activity was a risk factor for meeting imaging criteria for LV hypertrophy (adjusted odds ratio 2.1; P<0.0001), LV dilatation (adjusted odds ratio 2.2; P<0.0001), and right ventricular dilatation (adjusted odds ratio 2.2; P<0.0001). Conclusions— Exercise-related cardiac remodeling is not confined to athletes, and there is a risk of overdiagnosing cardiac dilatation or hypertrophy in a proportion of active, healthy adults. PMID:27502059

  11. Isolated myocardial bridging and exercise-related cardiac events.

    PubMed

    Gowd, B M P; Thompson, P D

    2014-12-01

    Myocardial bridging, which is defined as cardiac muscle overlying a part of a coronary artery, is the most common congenital coronary artery anomaly. Myocardial bridging is usually benign, but has been associated with exercise-related cardiac events. Guidelines for athletic participation in these patients are primarily based on reports from the general population with myocardial bridging. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Ovid and Google Scholar for articles addressing exercise-related cardiac events associated with myocardial bridging. We identified 69 cases of which only 35 were well defined. We conclude that there are insufficient data to form definitive guidelines as to how physically active individuals with myocardial bridging should be managed. Prudence suggests that management should be individualized for those with possible symptoms. Beta adrenergic blockade is recommended as initial medical therapy. Surgery should be restricted to those with continued symptoms despite beta blocker therapy. There is no evidence that asymptomatic individuals without clinical evidence of ischemia should be restricted from vigorous activity. PMID:25144435

  12. Optimal range for parvalbumin as relaxing agent in adult cardiac myocytes: gene transfer and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Coutu, Pierre; Metzger, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV) has recently been shown to increase the relaxation rate when expressed in intact isolated cardiac myocytes via adenovirus gene transfer. We report here a combined experimental and mathematical modeling approach to determine the dose-response and the sarcomere length (SL) shortening-frequency relationship of PV in adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture. The dose-response was obtained experimentally by observing the PV-transduced myocytes at different time points after gene transfer. Calcium transients and unloaded mechanical contractions were measured. The results were as follows. At low estimated [PV] (approximately 0.01 mM), contractile parameters were unchanged; at intermediate [PV], relaxation rate of the mechanical contraction and the decay rate of the calcium transient increased with little effects on amplitude; and at high [PV] (approximately 0.1 mM), relaxation rate was further increased, but the amplitudes of the mechanical contraction and the calcium transient were diminished when compared with control myocytes. The SL shortening-frequency relationship exhibited a biphasic response to increasing stimulus frequency in controls (decrease in amplitude and re-lengthening time from 0.2 to 1.0 Hz followed by an increase in these parameters from 2.0 to 4.0 Hz). The effect of PV was to flatten this frequency response. This flattening effect was partly explained by a reduction in the variation in fractional binding of PV to calcium during beats at high frequency. In conclusion, experimental results and mathematical modeling indicate that there is an optimal PV range for which relaxation rate is increased with little effect on contractile amplitude and that PV effectiveness decreases as the stimulus frequency increases. PMID:11964244

  13. Cardiac-Specific Disruption of GH Receptor Alters Glucose Homeostasis While Maintaining Normal Cardiac Performance in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Jara, Adam; Liu, Xingbo; Sim, Don; Benner, Chance M; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Qian, Yanrong; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Kim, Jason K; Kopchick, John J

    2016-05-01

    GH is considered necessary for the proper development and maintenance of several tissues, including the heart. Studies conducted in both GH receptor null and bovine GH transgenic mice have demonstrated specific cardiac structural and functional changes. In each of these mouse lines, however, GH-induced signaling is altered systemically, being decreased in GH receptor null mice and increased in bovine GH transgenic mice. Therefore, to clarify the direct effects GH has on cardiac tissue, we developed a tamoxifen-inducible, cardiac-specific GHR disrupted (iC-GHRKO) mouse line. Cardiac GH receptor was disrupted in 4-month-old iC-GHRKO mice to avoid developmental effects due to perinatal GHR gene disruption. Surprisingly, iC-GHRKO mice showed no difference vs controls in baseline or postdobutamine stress test echocardiography measurements, nor did iC-GHRKO mice show differences in longitudinal systolic blood pressure measurements. Interestingly, iC-GHRKO mice had decreased fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity at 6.5 months of age. By 12.5 months of age, however, iC-GHRKO mice no longer had significant decreases in fat mass and had developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, investigation via immunoblot analysis demonstrated that iC-GHRKO mice had appreciably decreased insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation, specifically in heart and liver, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels in 12.5-month-old iC-GHRKO mice. These data indicate that whereas the disruption of cardiomyocyte GH-induced signaling in adult mice does not affect cardiac function, it does play a role in systemic glucose homeostasis, in part through modulation of circulating IGF-1. PMID:27035649

  14. Radionuclide angiocardiography in the clinical evaluation of cardiac malpositions in situs solitus in adults.

    PubMed

    Guit, G L; Kroon, H M; Chin, J G; Pauwels, E K; van Voorthuisen, A E

    1986-04-01

    A right-sided position of the heart in the chest in situs solitus is an abnormal feature easily discernible from a plain chest radiograph. This cardiac malposition may be due to cardiac displacement (dextroposition), which is usually a feature of lung disease, or a structural abnormality of the heart (dextrocardia). Because each condition has different clinical pathologic implications, it is important to distinguish them. Chest films, however, often provide no conclusive information. We performed radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) in six adults with a cardiac malposition in situs solitus. It was found that morphologic data obtained from the serial images may distinguish dextroposition from dextrocardia. In addition, these images permitted us to diagnose congenitally corrected transposition, a cardiac anomaly which occurs with increased frequency in situs solitus with dextrocardia. Quantitative shunt detection performed during this procedure is helpful in the differential diagnosis of dextroposition and able to distinguish uncomplicated dextrocardia from dextrocardia associated with other cardiac abnormalities. RNA therefore is a valuable and easily performed method in the analysis of cardiac malpositions in adults.

  15. Calsequestrins in skeletal and cardiac muscle from adult Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Sandra; Mosole, Simone; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Argenton, Francesco; Volpe, Pompeo; Nori, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    Calsequestrin (Casq) is a high capacity, low affinity Ca(2+)-binding protein, critical for Ca(2+)-buffering in cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. All vertebrates have multiple genes encoding for different Casq isoforms. Increasing interest has been focused on mammalian and human Casq genes since mutations of both cardiac (Casq2) and skeletal muscle (Casq1) isoforms cause different, and sometime severe, human pathologies. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is a powerful model for studying function and mutations of human proteins. In this work, expression, biochemical properties cellular and sub-cellular localization of D. rerio native Casq isoforms are investigated. By quantitative PCR, three mRNAs were detected in skeletal muscle and heart with different abundances. Three zebrafish Casqs: Casq1a, Casq1b and Casq2 were identified by mass spectrometry (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002455). Skeletal and cardiac zebrafish calsequestrins share properties with mammalian Casq1 and Casq2. Skeletal Casqs were found primarily, but not exclusively, at the sarcomere Z-line level where terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum are located. PMID:26585961

  16. [Permanent cardiac stimulation in a patient with isolated dextrocardia and ventricular septal defect].

    PubMed

    Słowiński, S; Derlaga, B; Kapusta, J

    A case of pacemaker implantation because of acquired atrioventricular block third degree in woman aged 39 years with rare isolated dextrocardia with inversion of cardiac ventricles, compensatory transposition of both aorta and pulmonary artery, and ventricular septal defect. The end of electrode has wedged in the apex of the arterial ventricle. Following pacemaker implantation, patients clinical course of gynaecological operation was uneventful.

  17. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    SciTech Connect

    Arsic, Nikola; Mamaeva, Daria; Lamb, Ned J.; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal {beta} III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders.

  18. Undernutrition during pregnancy in mice leads to dysfunctional cardiac muscle respiration in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Brittany; Thrush, A. Brianne; Quizi, Jessica; Antoun, Ghadi; McIntosh, Nathan; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. However, its effect on energetics in heart remains unknown. In the present study, we examined respiration in cardiac muscle and liver from adult mice that were undernourished in utero. We report that in utero undernutrition is associated with impaired cardiac muscle energetics, including decreased fatty acid oxidative capacity, decreased maximum oxidative phosphorylation rate and decreased proton leak respiration. No differences in oxidative characteristics were detected in liver. We also measured plasma acylcarnitine levels and found that short-chain acylcarnitines are increased with in utero undernutrition. Results reveal the negative impact of suboptimal maternal nutrition on adult offspring cardiac energy metabolism, which may have life-long implications for cardiovascular function and disease risk. PMID:26182362

  19. From ontogenesis to regeneration: learning how to instruct adult cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Isotta; Forte, Elvira; Angelini, Francesco; Giacomello, Alessandro; Messina, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Since the first observations over two centuries ago by Lazzaro Spallanzani on the extraordinary regenerative capacity of urodeles, many attempts have been made to understand the reasons why such ability has been largely lost in metazoa and whether or how it can be restored, even partially. In this context, important clues can be derived from the systematic analysis of the relevant distinctions among species and of the pathways involved in embryonic development, which might be induced and/or recapitulated in adult tissues. This chapter provides an overview on regeneration and its mechanisms, starting with the lesson learned from lower vertebrates, and will then focus on recent advancements and novel insights concerning regeneration in the adult mammalian heart, including the discovery of resident cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Subsequently, it explores all the important pathways involved in regulating differentiation during development and embryogenesis, and that might potentially provide important clues on how to activate and/or modulate regenerative processes in the adult myocardium, including the potential activation of endogenous CPCs. Furthermore the importance of the stem cell niche is discussed, and how it is possible to create in vitro a microenvironment and culture system to provide adult CPCs with the ideal conditions promoting their regenerative ability. Finally, the state of clinical translation of cardiac cell therapy is presented. Overall, this chapter provides a new perspective on how to approach cardiac regeneration, taking advantage of important lessons from development and optimizing biotechnological tools to obtain the ideal conditions for cell-based cardiac regenerative therapy.

  20. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  1. Adult c-kit(pos) cardiac stem cells are necessary and sufficient for functional cardiac regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Georgina M; Vicinanza, Carla; Smith, Andrew J; Aquila, Iolanda; Leone, Angelo; Waring, Cheryl D; Henning, Beverley J; Stirparo, Giuliano Giuseppe; Papait, Roberto; Scarfò, Marzia; Agosti, Valter; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Indolfi, Ciro; Ottolenghi, Sergio; Torella, Daniele; Nadal-Ginard, Bernardo

    2013-08-15

    The epidemic of heart failure has stimulated interest in understanding cardiac regeneration. Evidence has been reported supporting regeneration via transplantation of multiple cell types, as well as replication of postmitotic cardiomyocytes. In addition, the adult myocardium harbors endogenous c-kit(pos) cardiac stem cells (eCSCs), whose relevance for regeneration is controversial. Here, using different rodent models of diffuse myocardial damage causing acute heart failure, we show that eCSCs restore cardiac function by regenerating lost cardiomyocytes. Ablation of the eCSC abolishes regeneration and functional recovery. The regenerative process is completely restored by replacing the ablated eCSCs with the progeny of one eCSC. eCSCs recovered from the host and recloned retain their regenerative potential in vivo and in vitro. After regeneration, selective suicide of these exogenous CSCs and their progeny abolishes regeneration, severely impairing ventricular performance. These data show that c-kit(pos) eCSCs are necessary and sufficient for the regeneration and repair of myocardial damage. PMID:23953114

  2. Direct cardiac effects of dobutamine, dopamine, epinephrine, and levosimendan in isolated septic rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Zausig, York A; Geilfus, Diana; Missler, Goetz; Sinner, Barbara; Graf, Bernhard M; Zink, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    In septic patients, myocardial depression-the so-called septic cardiomyopathy-needing inotropic support is common. The aim of this study was to compare the dose-responsive electrophysiological and mechanical properties concerning metabolic effects of clinically available inotropic agents in an isolated septic rat heart model. After 20 h of incubation, both sham-operated and septic (cecal ligation and single puncture) hearts from male Wistar rats (n = 64) were isolated and received dobutamine, dopamine, epinephrine, or levosimendan at concentrations of 10 to 10 M. Electrophysiological, mechanical, and metabolic properties were measured, and the myocardial oxygen supply-demand ratio and cardiac efficiency were calculated. With the exception of levosimendan, all of the drugs tested showed dose-dependent, significantly positive changes in chronotropy, inotropy, and lusitropy in all hearts. Maximum increases in septic hearts were dose-dependent and were ordered as follows: epinephrine > dopamine > dobutamine > levosimendan. These increases in cardiac performance were accompanied by a decrease in the myocardial oxygen supply-demand ratio. However, cardiac efficiency was significantly improved in the epinephrine-treated septic hearts. With the drug-induced increase in cardiac performance, the myocardial oxygen supply-demand ratio decreased proportionally in the epinephrine-, dobutamine-, and dopamine-treated septic hearts. However, epinephrine showed the most favorable results with regard to cardiac efficiency, and levosimendan showed no beneficial effect in septic hearts with regard to efficiency in this study.

  3. Zebrafish cardiac muscle thick filaments: isolation technique and three-dimensional structure.

    PubMed

    González-Solá, Maryví; Al-Khayat, Hind A; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W

    2014-04-15

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes.

  4. Zebrafish Cardiac Muscle Thick Filaments: Isolation Technique and Three-Dimensional Structure

    PubMed Central

    González-Solá, Maryví; AL-Khayat, Hind A.; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. PMID:24739166

  5. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  6. Embryonic and adult-derived resident cardiac macrophages are maintained through distinct mechanisms at steady state and during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Slava; Lavine, Kory J; Beaudin, Anna E; Sojka, Dorothy K; Carrero, Javier A; Calderon, Boris; Brija, Thaddeus; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Ivanov, Stoyan; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Schilling, Joel D; Schwendener, Reto; Sergin, Ismail; Razani, Babak; Forsberg, E Camilla; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Unanue, Emil R; Colonna, Marco; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Mann, Douglas L

    2014-01-16

    Cardiac macrophages are crucial for tissue repair after cardiac injury but are not well characterized. Here we identify four populations of cardiac macrophages. At steady state, resident macrophages were primarily maintained through local proliferation. However, after macrophage depletion or during cardiac inflammation, Ly6c(hi) monocytes contributed to all four macrophage populations, whereas resident macrophages also expanded numerically through proliferation. Genetic fate mapping revealed that yolk-sac and fetal monocyte progenitors gave rise to the majority of cardiac macrophages, and the heart was among a minority of organs in which substantial numbers of yolk-sac macrophages persisted in adulthood. CCR2 expression and dependence distinguished cardiac macrophages of adult monocyte versus embryonic origin. Transcriptional and functional data revealed that monocyte-derived macrophages coordinate cardiac inflammation, while playing redundant but lesser roles in antigen sampling and efferocytosis. These data highlight the presence of multiple cardiac macrophage subsets, with different functions, origins, and strategies to regulate compartment size.

  7. A mouse model for adult cardiac-specific gene deletion with CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kelli J.; Makarewich, Catherine A.; McAnally, John; Anderson, Douglas M.; Zentilin, Lorena; Liu, Ning; Giacca, Mauro; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)9 genomic editing has revolutionized the generation of mutant animals by simplifying the creation of null alleles in virtually any organism. However, most current approaches with this method require zygote injection, making it difficult to assess the adult, tissue-specific functions of genes that are widely expressed or which cause embryonic lethality when mutated. Here, we describe the generation of cardiac-specific Cas9 transgenic mice, which express high levels of Cas9 in the heart, but display no overt defects. In proof-of-concept experiments, we used Adeno-Associated Virus 9 (AAV9) to deliver single-guide RNA (sgRNA) that targets the Myh6 locus exclusively in cardiomyocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of postnatal cardiac-Cas9 transgenic mice with AAV9 encoding sgRNA against Myh6 resulted in robust editing of the Myh6 locus. These mice displayed severe cardiomyopathy and loss of cardiac function, with elevation of several markers of heart failure, confirming the effectiveness of this method of adult cardiac gene deletion. Mice with cardiac-specific expression of Cas9 provide a tool that will allow rapid and accurate deletion of genes following a single injection of AAV9-sgRNAs, thereby circumventing embryonic lethality. This method will be useful for disease modeling and provides a means of rapidly editing genes of interest in the heart. PMID:26719419

  8. Lung ultrasound in adult and paediatric cardiac surgery: is it time for routine use?

    PubMed

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Giordano, Raffaele; Volpicelli, Giovanni; Kutty, Shelby; Murzi, Bruno; Assanta, Nadia; Gargani, Luna

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory complications are common causes of morbidity and the need of repeated X-ray examinations after cardiac surgery. Ultrasound of the chest, including the lung parenchyma, has been recently introduced as a new tool to detect many pulmonary abnormalities. Despite this, the use of lung ultrasound (LUS) in adult and congenital cardiac surgery remains limited. In particular, lung ultrasound has been mainly used in the evaluation of pleural effusion (PLE), but no consensus exists on methods to quantify the volume of the effusion. Usefulness of LUS for the assessment of diaphragmatic motion in children has also been highlighted, but no clear recommendation exists regarding its routine use. Accuracy of LUS in detecting pulmonary congestion after adult cardiac surgery has been demonstrated, whereas studies in children are still scarce, and data on pneumothorax and lung consolidations are limited in the paediatric population. There are methodological and practicality issues regarding diagnostic protocols (i.e. image views and their sequential order) and instrumentation (transducers and their setting) used in different studies. It also remains unclear which practitioner-the cardiologist, intensivist, pulmonologist or the radiologist, should perform the examination. Cost analysis pertaining to extensive clinical application of lung ultrasound in cardiac surgery has never been performed. Guidelines and recommendations are warranted for a systematic and extensive use of this technique in cardiac surgery at different ages, as it could serve as a useful, versatile tool that could potentially decrease time, radiation exposure and costs. PMID:26586677

  9. Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies and cardiac arrhythmias in the adult: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lazzerini, P E; Capecchi, P L; Laghi-Pasini, F

    2010-09-01

    It is well established that the passive trans-placental passage of anti-Ro/SSA antibodies from mother to foetus is associated with the risk to develop an uncommon syndrome named neonatal lupus (NLE), where the congenital heart block represents the most severe clinical feature. Recent evidence demonstrated that also adult heart, classically considered invulnerable to the anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, may represent a target of the arrhythmogenicity of these autoantibodies. In particular, the prolongation of the QTc interval appears the most frequent abnormality observed in adults with circulating anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, with some data suggesting an association with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias, also life threatening. Moreover, even though the association between anti-Ro/SSA antibodies and conduction disturbances is undoubtedly less evident in adults than in infants, from the accurate dissection of the literature data the possibility arises that sometimes also the adult cardiac conduction tissue may be affected by such antibodies. The exact arrhythmogenic mechanisms involved in foetus/newborns and adults, respectively, have not been completely clarified as yet. However, increasing evidence suggests that anti-Ro/SSA antibodies may trigger rhythm disturbances through an inhibiting cross-reaction with several cardiac ionic channels, particularly the calcium channels (L-type and T-type), but also the potassium channel hERG, whose different expression and involvement in the cardiac electrophysiology during lifespan might account for the occurrence of age-related differences.

  10. Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies and cardiac arrhythmias in the adult: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lazzerini, P E; Capecchi, P L; Laghi-Pasini, F

    2010-09-01

    It is well established that the passive trans-placental passage of anti-Ro/SSA antibodies from mother to foetus is associated with the risk to develop an uncommon syndrome named neonatal lupus (NLE), where the congenital heart block represents the most severe clinical feature. Recent evidence demonstrated that also adult heart, classically considered invulnerable to the anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, may represent a target of the arrhythmogenicity of these autoantibodies. In particular, the prolongation of the QTc interval appears the most frequent abnormality observed in adults with circulating anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, with some data suggesting an association with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias, also life threatening. Moreover, even though the association between anti-Ro/SSA antibodies and conduction disturbances is undoubtedly less evident in adults than in infants, from the accurate dissection of the literature data the possibility arises that sometimes also the adult cardiac conduction tissue may be affected by such antibodies. The exact arrhythmogenic mechanisms involved in foetus/newborns and adults, respectively, have not been completely clarified as yet. However, increasing evidence suggests that anti-Ro/SSA antibodies may trigger rhythm disturbances through an inhibiting cross-reaction with several cardiac ionic channels, particularly the calcium channels (L-type and T-type), but also the potassium channel hERG, whose different expression and involvement in the cardiac electrophysiology during lifespan might account for the occurrence of age-related differences. PMID:20696018

  11. Severe Obesity in Adolescents and Young Adults Is Associated With Subclinical Cardiac and Vascular Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Lawrence M.; Khoury, Philip R.; Gao, Zhiqan; Kimball, Thomas R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Severe obesity is the fastest growing subgroup of obesity in youth. Objective: We sought to explore the association between severe obesity and subclinical measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function in adolescents and young adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a cross-sectional comparison of 265 adolescents and young adults with severe obesity (defined as body mass index [BMI] ≥120% of the 95th percentile) to 182 adolescents and young adults with obesity (defined as BMI ≥100–119th of the 95th percentile) at tertiary medical center. Main Outcomes: Noninvasive measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function were assessed. Results: Participants were a mean age of 17.9 years, 62% were non-Caucasian, and 68% were female. Systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and frequency of type 2 diabetes were higher in participants with severe obesity (all P < .05). Arterial thickness and stiffness, cardiac structure, and diastolic function were also significantly worse in youth with severe obesity as measured by higher left ventricular mass index, worse diastolic function, higher carotid intima media thickness, and pulse wave velocity and lower brachial distensibility (all P < .05). Regression modeling showed that severe obesity (compared with obesity) was independently associated with each of the above outcomes after adjustment for age, race, sex, blood pressure, lipids, and inflammatory markers (P < .05). Conclusions: Adolescents and young adults with severe obesity have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile and worse cardiac and vascular structure and function. More importantly, severe obesity is independently associated with these subclinical cardiac and vascular changes. PMID:25974736

  12. The Impact of Moderate Intensity Physical Activity on Cardiac Structure and Performance in Older Sedentary Adults

    PubMed Central

    Suboc, Tisha B.; Strath, Scott J.; Dharmashankar, Kodlipet; Harmann, Leanne; Couillard, Allison; Malik, Mobin; Haak, Kristoph; Knabel, Daniel; Widlansky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary aging leads to adverse changes in vascular function and cardiac performance. We published improvements in vascular function with moderate intensity physical activity (PA) in continuous bouts. Whether moderate intensity PA also impacts cardiac structure and cardiovascular performance of the aging left ventricle (LV) is unknown. Methods We recruited and analyzed results from 102 sedentary older adults ages ≥ 50 from a randomized controlled trial with 3 study groups: control (group 1), a pedometer-only intervention (group 2), or a pedometer with an interactive website employing strategies to increase habitual physical activity (PA, group 3) for 12 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiograms were performed prior to and following the 12 week intervention period to assess cardiac morphology, left ventricular (LV) systolic performance, LV diastolic function, arterial and LV ventricular elastance. Step count and PA intensity/distribution were measured by pedometer and accelerometer. Results We found no significant changes in cardiac morphology. Further, we found no improvement in the aforementioned cardiac functional parameters. Comparing those who achieved the following benchmarks to those who did not showed no significant changes in cardiac structure or performance: 1)10,000 steps/day, 2) ≥ 30 minutes/day of moderate intensity physical activity, or 3) moderate intensity PA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes for ≥ 20 minutes/day Conclusions In sedentary older adults, increasing moderate intensity PA to currently recommend levels does not result in favorable changes in LV morphology or performance over 12 weeks. More prolonged exposure, higher PA intensity, or earlier initiation of PA may be necessary to see benefits. PMID:25530947

  13. Reduced Long-Term Relative Survival in Females and Younger Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Enger, Tone Bull; Pleym, Hilde; Stenseth, Roar; Greiff, Guri; Wahba, Alexander; Videm, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. Methods 8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates) and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths). Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality. Results During follow-up (median 6.4 years), 2,044 patients (23.9%) died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1). Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR) 1.35 (1.19–1.54), p<0.001). Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79–0.84), p<0.001)). Conclusions Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The

  14. Mortality of adult Stomoxys calcitrans fed isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Kalischuk-Tymensen, L D; Selinger, L B

    2012-10-01

    We examined the ability of five isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to cause mortality in adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Isolates Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi 4L3 (serotype 9), Bacillus thuringiensis darmstadiensis 4M1 (serotype 10a10b), Bacillus thuringiensis thompsoni 401 (serotype 12), Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis HD2 (serotype 1), and Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD945 (serotype 3a3b3c) were administered to adult flies in diets containing blood only, sugar only, and both sugar and blood combined. B. t. tolworthi 4L3 had no effect on adult mortality regardless of the feeding substrate. The remaining isolates tended to cause the greatest mortality when administered in blood alone. B. t. thompsoni 401 was the only isolate that consistently caused adult mortality when fed in blood at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 50.0 microg of protein per ml of blood. This isolate also caused mortality when applied topically. The time to 50% mortality declined with dose and reached a lower asymptote at approximately equal to 1.3 d at an oral dose of 8.75 microg/ml and at a topical dose of 0.14 microg per fly.

  15. Constitutive properties of adult mammalian cardiac muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zile, M. R.; Richardson, K.; Cowles, M. K.; Buckley, J. M.; Koide, M.; Cowles, B. A.; Gharpuray, V.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in the constitutive properties of the cardiac muscle cell play a causative role in the development of diastolic dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiocytes from normal and pressure-hypertrophied cats were embedded in an agarose gel, placed on a stretching device, and subjected to a change in stress (sigma), and resultant changes in cell strain (epsilon) were measured. These measurements were used to examine the passive elastic spring, viscous damping, and myofilament activation. The passive elastic spring was assessed in protocol A by increasing the sigma on the agarose gel at a constant rate to define the cardiocyte sigma-versus-epsilon relationship. Viscous damping was assessed in protocol B from the loop area between the cardiocyte sigma-versus-epsilon relationship during an increase and then a decrease in sigma. In both protocols, myofilament activation was minimized by a reduction in [Ca2+]i. Myofilament activation effects were assessed in protocol C by defining cardiocyte sigma versus epsilon during an increase in sigma with physiological [Ca2+]i. In protocol A, the cardiocyte sigma-versus-epsilon relationship was similar in normal and hypertrophied cells. In protocol B, the loop area was greater in hypertrophied than normal cardiocytes. In protocol C, the sigma-versus-epsilon relation in hypertrophied cardiocytes was shifted to the left compared with normal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in viscous damping and myofilament activation in combination may cause pressure-hypertrophied cardiocytes to resist changes in shape during diastole and contribute to diastolic dysfunction.

  16. Audio-visual relaxation training for anxiety, sleep, and relaxation among Chinese adults with cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sing-Ling

    2004-12-01

    The long-term effect of an audio-visual relaxation training (RT) treatment involving deep breathing, exercise, muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and meditation was compared with routine nursing care for reducing anxiety, improving sleep, and promoting relaxation in Chinese adults with cardiac disease. This research was a quasi-experimental, two-group, pretest-posttest study. A convenience sample of 100 cardiology patients (41 treatment, 59 control) admitted to one large medical center hospital in the Republic of China (ROC) was studied for 1 year. The hypothesized relationships were supported. RT significantly (p <.05) improved anxiety, sleep, and relaxation in the treatment group as compared to the control group. It appears audio-visual RT might be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for adult cardiac patients. However, considerable further work using stronger research designs is needed to determine the most appropriate instructional methods and the factors that contribute to long-term consistent practice of RT with Chinese populations.

  17. Congenital isolation of the subclavian artery in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, G A; Weathers, S

    1997-01-01

    The congenital anomaly of isolation of the subclavian artery, on the left side, is associated with a right aortic arch. The subclavian artery loses its connection with the aorta and is connected to the left pulmonary artery via the ligamentum arteriosum. Subclavian steal syndrome accompanies this anomaly in a minority of patients. We report 2 cases of adults with subclavian artery isolation, one of whom was symptomatic, and we discuss the importance of recognizing its presence. Images PMID:9068141

  18. Nuclear Compartmentalization of α1-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in Adult Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Although convention dictates that G protein-coupled receptors localize to and signal at the plasma membrane, accumulating evidence suggests that G protein-coupled receptors localize to and signal at intracellular membranes, most notably the nucleus. In fact, there is now significant evidence indicating that endogenous alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) localize to and signal at the nuclei in adult cardiac myocytes. Cumulatively, the data suggest that α1-ARs localize to the inner nuclear membrane, activate intranuclear signaling, and regulate physiologic function in adult cardiac myocytes. Although α1-ARs signal through Gαq, unlike other Gq-coupled receptors, α1-ARs mediate important cardioprotective functions including adaptive/physiologic hypertrophy, protection from cell death (survival signaling), positive inotropy, and preconditioning. Also unlike other Gq-coupled receptors, most, if not all, functional α1-ARs localize to the nuclei in adult cardiac myocytes, as opposed to the sarcolemma. Together, α1-AR nuclear localization and cardioprotection might suggest a novel model for compartmentalization of Gq-coupled receptor signaling in which nuclear Gq-coupled receptor signaling is cardioprotective. PMID:25264754

  19. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 is a novel regulator of collagen synthesis in adult human cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Karen M; Malhotra, Ricky; Philip, Jennifer L; Staron, Michelle L; Theccanat, Tiju; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Akhter, Shahab A

    2011-04-29

    Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) make up 60-70% of the total cell number in the heart and play a critical role in regulating normal myocardial function and in adverse remodeling following myocardial infarction and the transition to heart failure. Recent studies have shown that increased intracellular cAMP can inhibit CF transformation and collagen synthesis in adult rat CF; however, mechanisms by which cAMP production is regulated in CF have not been elucidated. We investigated the potential role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) in modulating collagen synthesis by adult human CF isolated from normal and failing left ventricles. Baseline collagen synthesis was elevated in failing CF and was not inhibited by β-agonist stimulation in contrast to normal controls. β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling was markedly uncoupled in the failing CF, and expression and activity of GRK2 were increased 3-fold. Overexpression of GRK2 in normal CF recapitulated a heart failure phenotype with minimal inhibition of collagen synthesis following β-agonist stimulation. In contrast, knockdown of GRK2 expression in normal CF enhanced cAMP production and led to greater β-agonist-mediated inhibition of basal and TGFβ-stimulated collagen synthesis versus control. Inhibition of GRK2 activity in failing CF by expression of the GRK2 inhibitor, GRK2ct, or siRNA-mediated knockdown restored β-agonist-stimulated inhibition of collagen synthesis and decreased collagen synthesis in response to TGFβ stimulation. GRK2 appears to play a significant role in regulating collagen synthesis in adult human CF, and increased activity of this kinase may be an important mechanism of maladaptive ventricular remodeling as mediated by cardiac fibroblasts.

  20. Interventional and surgical treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Koyak, Zeliha; de Groot, Joris R; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2010-12-01

    Arrhythmias are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and hospital admission in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). The etiology of arrhythmias in this population is often multifactorial and includes electrical disturbances as part of the underlying defect, surgical intervention or hemodynamic abnormalities. Despite the numerous existing arrhythmia management tools including drug therapy, pacing and ablation, management of arrhythmias in adults with CHD remains difficult and challenging. Owing to improvement in mapping and ablation techniques, ablation and arrhythmia surgery are being performed more frequently in adults with CHD. However, there is little information on the long-term results of these treatment strategies. The purpose of this article is therefore to review the available data on nonpharmacological treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in adult patients with CHD and to give an overview of the available data on the early and late outcomes of these treatment strategies.

  1. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  2. Isolation, characterization and cardiac differentiation of human thymus tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ze Bang; Qian, Bo; Yang, Yu Zhong; Zhou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Mo, Xu Ming; Wu, Kai Hong

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidate donor cells for replacement of cardiomyocyte loss during ischemia and in vitro generation of myocardial tissue. We have successfully isolated MSCs from the discarded neonatal thymus gland during cardiac surgery. The thymus MSCs were characterized by cell-surface antigen expression. These cells have high ability for proliferation and are able to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. For cardiac differentiation, the cells were divided into 3 groups: untreated control; 5-azacytidine group and sequential exposure to 5-azacytidine, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Thymus MSCs showed a fibrolast-like morphology and some differentiated cells increased in size, formed a ball-like appearance over time and spontaneously contracting cells were observed in sequential exposure group. Immunostaining studies, cardiac specific genes/protein expression confirmed the cardiomyocyte phenotype of the differentiated cells. These results demonstrate that thymus MSCs can be a promising cellular source for cardiac cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  3. The heterogeneity of socially isolated older adults: a social isolation typology.

    PubMed

    Machielse, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show a growing number of older adults who are living alone and are socially isolated. It is against this background that, in recent years, many interventions have been developed to address social isolation among the elderly. Evaluative studies show that most interventions are hardly effective, though. An important reason for this is the heterogeneity of the socially isolated. This article offers insight into this heterogeneity by presenting a typology with different profiles of socially isolated older adults and the intervention implications of this typology. The typology is derived from an extensive qualitative study on socially isolated elderly individuals in the Netherlands. The typology imposes some degree of order to a diversity of circumstances, ambitions, and possibilities of the socially isolated elderly, thereby deepening the understanding of the heterogeneity of this population. The definition of social isolation used in this study starts from a societal angle of incidence, namely the current policy context of Western European welfare states, in which governments emphasize the importance of independence and self-reliance of their citizens. Developed from that perspective, the typology provides a theoretical basis for applying interventions aimed at increasing self-reliance of social isolated elderly. This perspective on social isolation also has consequences for the way in which the effectiveness of interventions to alleviate social isolation is assessed.

  4. Evaluation of shunt flow by multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in adult patients with isolated patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Tai; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Hsieh, I-Chang; Chang, Hern-Jia; Chern, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Fun-Chung; Wu, Delon

    2002-11-01

    The role of multiplane (M) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the diagnosis of isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in adults and its effectiveness in the assessment of the pulmonary to systemic flow ratio were evaluated and compared with those obtained from cardiac catheterization examination. Eleven consecutive patients, ranging from 17 to 56 years old (mean of 29.5 +/- 12.0), with clinically suspected PDA were subjects of this study. A complete transthoracic echocardiographic study was performed in each patient before MTEE. MTEE with Doppler color flow mapping showed clear visualization of a ductal structure between the descending aorta and pulmonary artery with a continuous turbulent mosaic flow suggestive of PDA in all 11 patients. The pulmonary/systemic flow and vascular resistance ratios obtained by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization correlated well (r = 0.8732, P =.0004; r = 0.623, P =.04, respectively). This study demonstrated that MTEE combined with transthoracic echocardiography examination is an accurate noninvasive means in the diagnosis of PDA and assessment of the pulmonary to systemic flow and vascular resistance ratios in adult patients.

  5. Stimulation of single isolated adult ventricular myocytes within a low volume using a planar microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey L; Cooper, Jon

    2003-09-01

    Microchannels (40- microm wide, 10- microm high, 10-mm long, 70- microm pitch) were patterned in the silicone elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane on a microscope coverslip base. Integrated within each microchamber were individually addressable stimulation electrodes (40- microm wide, 20- microm long, 100-nm thick) and a common central pseudo-reference electrode (60- microm wide, 500- microm long, 100-nm thick). Isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes were introduced into the chamber by micropipetting and subsequently capped with a layer of mineral oil, thus creating limited volumes of saline around individual myocytes that could be varied from 5 nL to 100 pL. Excitation contraction coupling was studied by monitoring myocyte shortening and intracellular Ca(2+) transients (using Fluo-3 fluorescence). The amplitude of stimulated myocyte shortening and Ca(2+) transients remained constant for 90 min in the larger volume (5 nL) configuration, although the shortening (but not the Ca(2+) transient) amplitude gradually decreased to 20% of control within 60 min in the low volume (100 pL) arrangement. These studies indicate a lower limit for the extracellular volume required to stimulate isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Whereas this arrangement could be used to create a screening assay for drugs, individual microchannels (100 pL) can also be used to study the effects of limited extracellular volume on the contractility of single cardiac myocytes.

  6. Stimulation of Single Isolated Adult Ventricular Myocytes within a Low Volume Using a Planar Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey L.; Cooper, Jon

    2003-01-01

    Microchannels (40-μm wide, 10-μm high, 10-mm long, 70-μm pitch) were patterned in the silicone elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane on a microscope coverslip base. Integrated within each microchamber were individually addressable stimulation electrodes (40-μm wide, 20-μm long, 100-nm thick) and a common central pseudo-reference electrode (60-μm wide, 500-μm long, 100-nm thick). Isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes were introduced into the chamber by micropipetting and subsequently capped with a layer of mineral oil, thus creating limited volumes of saline around individual myocytes that could be varied from 5 nL to 100 pL. Excitation contraction coupling was studied by monitoring myocyte shortening and intracellular Ca2+ transients (using Fluo-3 fluorescence) . The amplitude of stimulated myocyte shortening and Ca2+ transients remained constant for 90 min in the larger volume (5 nL) configuration, although the shortening (but not the Ca2+ transient) amplitude gradually decreased to 20% of control within 60 min in the low volume (100 pL) arrangement. These studies indicate a lower limit for the extracellular volume required to stimulate isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Whereas this arrangement could be used to create a screening assay for drugs, individual microchannels (100 pL) can also be used to study the effects of limited extracellular volume on the contractility of single cardiac myocytes. PMID:12944291

  7. [Implementation of post-resuscitation care in adult cardiac arrest patients - Experts' opinion].

    PubMed

    Pellis, Tommaso; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Semeraro, Federico; Grieco, Niccolò; Fabbri, Andrea; Balzanelli, Mario; Berruto, Elisa; Scapigliati, Andrea; Sciretti, Massimiliano; Cerchiari, Erga

    2015-01-01

    Current evidence on post-resuscitation care suffers from important knowledge gaps on new treatments and prognostication, mainly because of the lack of large multicenter randomized trials. However, optimization of post-resuscitation care is crucial, and the establishment of a treatment easy to be accepted and implemented locally, based on currently available evidence, is advisable. The present article is a multisociety experts' opinion on post-cardiac arrest that aims (i) to provide schematic and clear suggestions on therapeutic interventions to be delivered following resuscitation from cardiac arrest, so as to implement local protocols with a standardized post-resuscitation care; (ii) to suggest post-resuscitation therapeutic interventions that may result in improved survival with good neurological recovery, intended as a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score of 1-2; and finally (iii) to propose a pragmatic and schematic approach to post-resuscitation care for rapid initiation of intensive treatments (i.e. temperature management). The suggestions reported in this document are intended for adult patients resuscitated from both out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest. They should be considered solely as an experts' opinion aimed to improve post-cardiac arrest care and they do not represent an official national guideline.

  8. Spectrum of cardiac lesions associated with Isolated Cleft Mitral Valve and their impact on therapeutic choices

    PubMed Central

    El hammiri, Ayoub; Drighil, Abdenasser; Benhaourech, Sanaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Isolated cleft mitral valve (ICMV) may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of cardiac lesions associated with ICMV and their potential impact on therapeutic management. Methods We conducted a descriptive study with data retrieved from the Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) single-center registry of our institution, including patients with ICMV registered between December 2008 and November 2014. Results Among 2177 patients retrieved from the CHD registry, 22 (1%) had ICMV. Median age at diagnosis was 5 years (6 days to 36 years). Nine patients (40.9%) had Down syndrome. Seventeen patients (77.3%) had associated lesions, including 11 (64.7%) with accessory chordae in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) with no obstruction, 15 (88.2%) had ventricular septal defect (VSD), three had secundum atrial septal defect, and four had patent ductus arteriosus. Thirteen patients (59.1%) required surgical repair. The decision to proceed with surgery was mainly based on the severity of the associated lesion in eight patients (61.5%) and on the severity of the mitral regurgitation in four patients (30.8%). In one patient, surgery was decided based on the severity of both the associated lesion and mitral regurgitation. Conclusion Our study shows that ICMV is rare and strongly associated with Down syndrome. The most common associated cardiac abnormalities were VSD and accessory chordae in the LVOT. We conclude that cardiac lesions associated with ICMV are of major interest, since in this study patients with cardiac lesions were diagnosed earlier. The decision to operate on these patients must take into account the severity of both mitral regurgitation and associated cardiac lesions. PMID:27096525

  9. Perinatal DDT Exposure Induces Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele A.; Sethi, Sunjay; Benard, Ludovic; Moshier, Erin; Haraldsson, Borje; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice, and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. However, the use of DDT to control vector-borne diseases continues in developing countries. Prenatal DDT exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that perinatal DDT exposure causes hypertension in adult mice. Methods: DDT was administered to C57BL/6J dams from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5. Blood pressure (BP) and myocardial wall thickness were measured in male and female adult offspring. Adult mice were treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, to evaluate sensitivity to amelioration of DDT-associated hypertension by ACE inhibition. We further assessed the influence of DDT exposure on the expression of mRNAs that regulate BP through renal ion transport. Results: Adult mice perinatally exposed to DDT exhibited chronically increased systolic BP, increased myocardial wall thickness, and elevated expression of mRNAs of several renal ion transporters. Captopril completely reversed hypertension in mice perinatally exposed to DDT. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that perinatal exposure to DDT causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult offspring. A key mechanism underpinning this hypertension is an overactivated renin angiotensin system because ACE inhibition reverses the hypertension induced by perinatal DDT exposure. Citation: La Merrill M, Sethi S, Benard L, Moshier E, Haraldsson B, Buettner C. 2016. Perinatal DDT exposure induces hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1722–1727; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP164 PMID:27325568

  10. Isolation and culture of neurospheres from the adult newt brain.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Liyakath Ali Shahul; Simon, András

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) give rise to neurons in the adult brain and are possible targets in regenerative therapies. In vitro cultures of NSCs as neurospheres have been established from cells isolated from diverse species. Newts are exceptional regenerators among vertebrates. These animals are able to efficiently replace neurons following ablation of those by activation and subsequent differentiation of NSCs. Here we describe the method for isolating and culturing of NSCs from the newt brain both during self-renewing and differentiating conditions. Newt NSC culture provides a useful tool for functional studies of NSC fate with the potential of resulting in novel regenerative strategies.

  11. Post-Acute Care Services Received by Older Adults Following a Cardiac Event: A Population-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Zullo, Melissa; Shishehbor, Mehdi; Moore, Shirley M.; Rimm, Alfred A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-acute care (PAC) is available for older adults who need additional services after hospitalization for acute cardiac events. With the aging population and an increase in the prevalence of cardiac disease, it is important to determine current PAC use for cardiac patients to assist health care workers to meet the needs of older cardiac patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the current PAC use and factors associated with PAC use for older adults following hospitalization for a cardiac event that includes coronary artery bypass graph (CABG) and valve surgeries, myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and heart failure (HF). Methods and Results A cross-sectional design and the 2003 Medicare Part A database were used for this study. The sample (n=1,493,521) consisted of patients aged 65 years and older discharged after their first cardiac event. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with PAC use. Overall, PAC use was 55% for cardiac valve surgery, 50% for MI, 45% for HF, 44% for CABG, and 5% for PCI. Medical patients use more skilled nursing facility care and surgical patients use more home health care. Only 0.1–3.4% of the cardiac patients use intermediate rehabilitation facilities. Compared to those who do not use PAC, those who use home health care and skilled nursing facility care are older, female, have a longer hospital length of stay, and more comorbidity. Asians, Hispanics and Native Americans were less likely to use PAC after hospitalization for an MI or HF. Conclusions The current rate of PAC use indicates that almost half of non-disabled Medicare patients discharged from the hospital following a cardiac event use one of these services. Healthcare professionals can increase PAC use for Asians, Hispanics and Native Americans by including culturally targeted communication. Optimizing recovery for cardiac patients who use PAC may require focused cardiac rehabilitation

  12. Sleep Disruption is Associated with Increased Ventricular Ectopy and Cardiac Arrest in Hospitalized Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Steven Edward Stuart; Pahal, Dev; Nichols, Laurel; Darwood, Amanda; Nield, Lynne Elizabeth; Wulffhart, Zaev

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether sleep disruption increases ventricular ectopy and the risk of cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients. Methods: Hospital emergency codes (HEC) trigger multiple hospital-wide overhead announcements. In 2014 an electronic “code white” program was instituted to protect staff from violent patients. This resulted in an increase in nocturnal HEC. Telemetry data was examined between September 14 and October 2, 2014. The frequency of nocturnal announcements was correlated with changes in frequency of premature ventricular complexes per hour (PVC/h). Cardiac arrest data were examined over a 3-y period. All HEC were assumed to have triggered announcements. The relationship between nocturnal HEC and the incidence of subsequent cardiac arrest was examined. Results: 2,603 hours of telemetry were analyzed in 87 patients. During nights with two or fewer announcements, PVC/h decreased 33% and remained 30% lower the next day. On nights with four or more announcements, PVC/h increased 23% (P < 0.001) and further increased 85% the next day (P = 0.001). In 2014, following the introduction of the code white program, the frequency of all HEC increased from 1.1/day to 6.2/day (P < 0.05). The frequency of cardiac arrest/24 h rose from 0.46/day in 2012–2013 to 0.62/day in 2014 (P = 0.001). During daytime hours (06:00–22:00), from 2012 through 2014, the frequency of cardiac arrest following zero, one or at least two nocturnal HEC were 0.331 ± 0.03, 0.396 ± 0.04 and 0.471 ± 0.09 respectively (R2 = 0.99, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Sleep disruption is associated with increased ventricular ectopy and increased frequency of cardiac arrest. Citation: Miner SE, Pahal D, Nichols L, Darwood A, Nield LE, Wulffart Z. Sleep disruption is associated with increased ventricular ectopy and cardiac arrest in hospitalized adults. SLEEP 2016;39(4):927–935. PMID:26715226

  13. The protective role of neocuproine against cardiac damage in isolated perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Y J; Kuvin, J; Borman, J B; Uretzky, G; Chevion, M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neocuproine on cardiac injury was studied using retrogradely perfused isolated rat hearts in two experimental systems. In the first system, where hydrogen peroxide-induced damage was studied, neocuproine at the range of 40-175 microM provided protection at the level of 70-85%, as demonstrated by the reduced loss in the peak systolic pressure (P), in +dP/dt and in -dP/dt. In the second system, where ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias were studied, neocuproine (42 microM) provided a marked protection against cardiac injury as demonstrated by the lowering of the incidence in irreversible ventricular fibrillation, by decreasing the duration of ventricular fibrillation and by the concomitant increase of the duration of normal sinus rhythm, and by improving the post-ischemic recovery of P, +dP/dt and -dP/dt. Free radicals have already been implicated as causative agents in cardiac injury resulting from either hydrogen peroxide or ischemia followed by reperfusion. Additionally, iron and copper have already been shown to drastically exacerbate the injurious effects of free radicals. Thus, the results reported here with neocuproine, a highly effective chelator for both iron and copper, as well as with adventitious copper and with the combination of neocuproine and copper, are in accord with the mediatory role of transition metals in enhancing the deleterious effects induced by free radicals.

  14. Neutrophil adherence to isolated adult canine myocytes. Evidence for a CD18-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Entman, M L; Youker, K; Shappell, S B; Siegel, C; Rothlein, R; Dreyer, W J; Schmalstieg, F C; Smith, C W

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes were isolated from adult dogs and incubated with isolated canine neutrophils (PMN). Intercellular adhesion was low and unchanged by stimulation of the PMN with zymosan activated serum or platelet activating factor (PAF) at concentrations that significantly enhance PMN adhesion to protein-coated glass and canine endothelial cell monolayers. Intercellular adhesion was significantly increased only when both myocytes and PMN were stimulated (e.g., myocytes incubated with IL-1, tumor necrosis factor, or phorbol myristate acetate, and PMN were chemotactically stimulated). Inhibitors of protein synthesis diminished the IL-1 beta-induced effect by greater than 80%. The IL-1 beta, PAF-stimulated PMN-myocyte adhesion was associated with substantial H2O2 production. Under conditions with low PMN-myocyte adhesion (i.e., IL-1 beta alone, PAF alone, or no stimulus) H2O2 production was generally less than 5% of that occurring with high adhesion. An anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (R15.7) inhibited stimulated PMN-myocyte adhesion by greater than 95% and reduced H2O2 production by greater than 90%. Control isotype-matched, binding, and nonbinding antibodies were without effect on adherence or H2O2 production. The results indicate that cytokine stimulation of adult myocytes induces expression of a ligand involved in CD18-dependent adherence of canine neutrophils. Images PMID:1970581

  15. Cardiac Mechanics in Isolated Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease With Normal Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xijun; Zhu, Meihua; He, Tao; Yuan, Jianjun; Zhu, Haohui; Morrisroe, Dennis E.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Sahn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic regurgitation (AR) are associated with congenital isolated bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease. The chronic pressure overload of AS and the volume overload of AR are known to impair the left ventricular function. This study assessed whether two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) is capable of detecting the myocardial dysfunction associated with BAV caused by various aortic valve lesions in patients retaining normal ejection fraction (EF). Thirty-two isolated BAV patients and 20 healthy tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) volunteers were recruited. BAV patients were divided into 4 subgroups based on aortic valvular lesion types: normal function (NF) group, isolated AS group, isolated AR group, and a group who had both AS&AR. Myocardial strain and degree of twist were analyzed and compared between the BAV and TAV groups, as well as between valvular lesion groups and the NF group. Compared with healthy TAV controls, global radial strain (GRS), global circumferential strain (GCS), global longitudinal strain (GLS), and twist angle absolute values were lower in the BAV group (P < 0.05). The AS, AR, and AS&AR groups all demonstrated a significant decrease in GRS and GCS when compared with the TAV group. The AS and AS&AR groups demonstrated lower GLS than the TAV group, and the smallest degree of twist was detected in the AR group. There were no significant differences between the NF and TAV groups. The AR and AS&AR groups demonstrated significant differences in multiple parameters of cardiac mechanics compared with the NF group. 2D-STE is able to detect altered cardiac mechanics associated with aortic lesion types in BAV patients with normal EF compared with normal TAV controls, and so can provide valuable information for clinical decision-making. PMID:26632719

  16. Applying the Gender Lens to Risk Factors and Outcome after Adult Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eifert, Sandra; Guethoff, Sonja; Kaczmarek, Ingo; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Seeland, Ute; Gulbins, Helmut; Seeburger, Jörg; Deutsch, Oliver; Jungwirth, Bettina; Katsari, Elpiniki; Dohmen, Pascal; Pfannmueller, Bettina; Hultgren, Rebecka; Schade, Ina; Kublickiene, Karolina; Mohr, Friedrich W.; Gansera, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Applying the gender lens to risk factors and outcome after adult cardiac surgery is of major clinical interest, as the inclusion of sex and gender in research design and analysis may guarantee more comprehensive cardiovascular science and may consecutively result in a more effective surgical treatment as well as cost savings in cardiac surgery. Methods We have reviewed classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking) according to a gender-based approach. Furthermore, we have examined comorbidities such as depression, renal insufficiency, and hormonal influences in regard to gender. Gender-sensitive economic aspects have been evaluated, surgical outcome has been analyzed, and cardiovascular research has been considered from a gender perspective. Results The influence of typical risk factors and outcome after cardiac surgery has been evaluated from a gender perspective, and the gender-specific distribution of these risk factors is reported on. The named comorbidities are listed. Economic aspects demonstrated a gender gap. Outcome after coronary and valvular surgeries as well as after heart transplantation are displayed in this regard. Results after postoperative use of intra-aortic balloon pump are shown. Gender-related aspects of clinical and biomedical cardiosurgical research are reported. Conclusions Female gender has become an independent risk factor of survival after the majority of cardiosurgical procedures. Severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction independently predicts survival in men, whereas age does in females. PMID:26288584

  17. Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Bondanelli, Marta; Bonadonna, Stefania; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Doga, Mauro; Gola, Monica; Onofri, Alessandro; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Giustina, Andrea; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2005-09-01

    Chronic growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess is associated with considerable mortality in acromegaly, but no data are available in pituitary gigantism. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to GH and IGF-I excess on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in adult patients with pituitary gigantism. Six adult male patients with newly diagnosed gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma were studied and compared with 6 age- and sex-matched patients with acromegaly and 10 healthy subjects. Morphologic and functional cardiac parameters were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Glucose metabolism was assessed by evaluating glucose tolerance and homeostasis model assessment index. Disease duration was significantly longer (P<.05) in patients with gigantism than in patients with acromegaly, whereas GH and IGF-I concentrations were comparable. Left ventricular mass was increased both in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, as compared with controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 2 of 6 of both patients with gigantism and patients with acromegaly, and isolated intraventricular septum thickening in 1 patient with gigantism. Inadequate diastolic filling (ratio between early and late transmitral flow velocity<1) was detected in 2 of 6 patients with gigantism and 1 of 6 patients with acromegaly. Impaired glucose metabolism occurrence was higher in patients with acromegaly (66%) compared with patients with gigantism (16%). Concentrations of IGF-I were significantly (P<.05) higher in patients with gigantism who have cardiac abnormalities than in those without cardiac abnormalities. In conclusion, our data suggest that GH/IGF-I excess in young adult patients is associated with morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities that are similar in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, whereas occurrence of impaired glucose metabolism appears to be higher in

  18. Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism.

    PubMed

    Bondanelli, Marta; Bonadonna, Stefania; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Doga, Mauro; Gola, Monica; Onofri, Alessandro; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Giustina, Andrea; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2005-09-01

    Chronic growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess is associated with considerable mortality in acromegaly, but no data are available in pituitary gigantism. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to GH and IGF-I excess on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in adult patients with pituitary gigantism. Six adult male patients with newly diagnosed gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma were studied and compared with 6 age- and sex-matched patients with acromegaly and 10 healthy subjects. Morphologic and functional cardiac parameters were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Glucose metabolism was assessed by evaluating glucose tolerance and homeostasis model assessment index. Disease duration was significantly longer (P<.05) in patients with gigantism than in patients with acromegaly, whereas GH and IGF-I concentrations were comparable. Left ventricular mass was increased both in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, as compared with controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 2 of 6 of both patients with gigantism and patients with acromegaly, and isolated intraventricular septum thickening in 1 patient with gigantism. Inadequate diastolic filling (ratio between early and late transmitral flow velocity<1) was detected in 2 of 6 patients with gigantism and 1 of 6 patients with acromegaly. Impaired glucose metabolism occurrence was higher in patients with acromegaly (66%) compared with patients with gigantism (16%). Concentrations of IGF-I were significantly (P<.05) higher in patients with gigantism who have cardiac abnormalities than in those without cardiac abnormalities. In conclusion, our data suggest that GH/IGF-I excess in young adult patients is associated with morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities that are similar in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, whereas occurrence of impaired glucose metabolism appears to be higher in

  19. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery in the adult: surgical instruments, equipment, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, M; Uwabe, K; Hirota, J; Kawai, A; Endo, M; Koyanagi, H

    1998-09-01

    To clarify the special instruments and equipment used for minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS), we examined the initial experiences with MICS operations with ministernotomy or minithoracotomy at our institution. Fifty adult patients with congenital, valvular, and/or ischemic heart diseases underwent MICS operations, and all surgical procedures were completed without conversion to full sternotomy. The length of the skin incision was about 10 cm or less in all patients. Postoperative recovery was favorable, and the majority of the patients were discharged from the hospital around the end of the second postoperative week. In this series of patients, an oscillating bone saw, lifting type retractor, 2 blade spreader, cannula with a balloon, and right-angled aortic clamp among other items, were very useful for successfully performing various operations with MICS approaches and techniques. The associated results suggest that MICS with ministernotomy or minithoracotomy was feasible using special instruments and equipment and could be encouraged for adult patients with various cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Natural ECM as biomaterial for scaffold based cardiac regeneration using adult bone marrow derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sreejit, P; Verma, R S

    2013-04-01

    Cellular therapy using stem cells for cardiac diseases has recently gained much interest in the scientific community due to its potential in regenerating damaged and even dead tissue and thereby restoring the organ function. Stem cells from various sources and origin are being currently used for regeneration studies directly or along with differentiation inducing agents. Long term survival and minimal side effects can be attained by using autologous cells and reduced use of inducing agents. Cardiomyogenic differentiation of adult derived stem cells has been previously reported using various inducing agents but the use of a potentially harmful DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) has been found to be critical in almost all studies. Alternate inducing factors and conditions/stimulant like physical condition including electrical stimulation, chemical inducers and biological agents have been attempted by numerous groups to induce cardiac differentiation. Biomaterials were initially used as artificial scaffold in in vitro studies and later as a delivery vehicle. Natural ECM is the ideal biological scaffold since it contains all the components of the tissue from which it was derived except for the living cells. Constructive remodeling can be performed using such natural ECM scaffolds and stem cells since, the cells can be delivered to the site of infraction and once delivered the cells adhere and are not "lost". Due to the niche like conditions of ECM, stem cells tend to differentiate into tissue specific cells and attain several characteristics similar to that of functional cells even in absence of any directed differentiation using external inducers. The development of niche mimicking biomaterials and hybrid biomaterial can further advance directed differentiation without specific induction. The mechanical and electrical integration of these materials to the functional tissue is a problem to be addressed. The search for the perfect extracellular matrix for

  1. Adolescents and adults differ in the immediate and long-term impact of nicotine administration and withdrawal on cardiac norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Stadler, Ashley; Skavicus, Samantha; Seidler, Frederic J

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular responses to smoking cessation may differ in adolescents compared to adults. We administered nicotine by osmotic minipump infusion for 17 days to adolescent and adult rats (30 and 90 days of age, respectively) and examined cardiac norepinephrine levels during treatment, after withdrawal, and for months after cessation. In adults, nicotine evoked a significant elevation of cardiac norepinephrine and a distinct spike upon withdrawal, after which the levels returned to normal; the effect was specific to males. In contrast, adolescents did not show significant changes during nicotine treatment or in the immediate post-withdrawal period. However, beginning in young adulthood, males exposed to adolescent nicotine showed sustained elevations of cardiac norepinephrine, followed by later-emerging deficits that persisted through six months of age. We then conducted adolescent exposure using twice-daily injections, a regimen that augments stress associated with inter-dose withdrawal episodes. With the injection route, adolescents showed an enhanced cardiac norepinephrine response, reinforcing the relationship between withdrawal stress and a surge in cardiac norepinephrine levels. The relative resistance of adolescents to the acute nicotine withdrawal response is likely to make episodic nicotine exposure less stressful or aversive than in adults. Equally important, the long-term changes after adolescent nicotine exposure resemble those known to be associated with risk of hypertension in young adulthood (elevated norepinephrine) or subsequent congestive heart disease (norepinephrine deficits). Our findings reinforce the unique responses and consequences of nicotine exposure in adolescence, the period in which most smokers commence tobacco use. PMID:26993795

  2. Three-dimensional scaffolds of fetal decellularized hearts exhibit enhanced potential to support cardiac cells in comparison to the adult.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, J; Nunes, A M; Sampaio-Pinto, V; Resende, T P; Oliveira, M J; Barbosa, M A; Thorsteinsdóttir, S; Nascimento, D S; Pinto-do-Ó, P

    2016-10-01

    A main challenge in cardiac tissue engineering is the limited data on microenvironmental cues that sustain survival, proliferation and functional proficiency of cardiac cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of fetal (E18) and adult myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) to support cardiac cells. Acellular three-dimensional (3D) bioscaffolds were obtained by parallel decellularization of fetal- and adult-heart explants thereby ensuring reliable comparison. Acellular scaffolds retained main constituents of the cardiac ECM including distinctive biochemical and structural meshwork features of the native equivalents. In vitro, fetal and adult ECM-matrices supported 3D culture of heart-derived Sca-1(+) progenitors and of neonatal cardiomyocytes, which migrated toward the center of the scaffold and displayed elongated morphology and excellent viability. At the culture end-point, more Sca-1(+) cells and cardiomyocytes were found adhered and inside fetal bioscaffolds, compared to the adult. Higher repopulation yields of Sca-1(+) cells on fetal ECM relied on β1-integrin independent mitogenic signals. Sca-1(+) cells on fetal bioscaffolds showed a gene expression profile that anticipates the synthesis of a permissive microenvironment for cardiomyogenesis. Our findings demonstrate the superior potential of the 3D fetal microenvironment to support and instruct cardiac cells. This knowledge should be integrated in the design of next-generation biomimetic materials for heart repair.

  3. Possible mechanism of cardiac depressant activity of Berberis orthobotrys roots in isolated rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Bashir, Sajid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Karim, Sabeha; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Rasool, Shahid; Latif, Fozia; Tabbasum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Berberis orhob, otrvs Bien. ex Aitch. (B.o.) has been reported to have antihypertensive effect in different experimental models. The aim of present study was to evaluate the possible antihypertensive mechanism. Aqueous methanolic extract of B.o. roots and its various fractions namely (ethyl acetate, n-butanol or aqueous) in different concentrations (10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, I pg/mL, 10 pg/mL, 100 pg/mL ) were evaluated in isolated perfused rabbit heart to assess their effect on force of contraction, HR and perfusion pressure. The crude extract of B.o. and its fractions exhibited a significant decrease in heart rate, contractility and perfusion pressure of isolated rabbit heart, however, butanolic fraction produced more prominent effect and was selected for further study. The effects of butanol fraction were not blocked by atropine (10' M) in isolated perfused heart. However, butanol fraction significantly blocked the effects of adrenaline (10' M). It is therefore conceivable that cardiac depressant activity of B.o. butanol fraction might be due to the presence of certain 3-blocking agents which might be responsible for antihypertensive effect However, further experiments are required to isolate the active compound(s) and elucidate exact mechanism of action.

  4. PRKAR1A in the development of cardiac myxoma: a study of 110 cases including isolated and syndromic tumors.

    PubMed

    Maleszewski, Joseph J; Larsen, Brandon T; Kip, Nefize Sertac; Castonguay, Mathieu C; Edwards, William D; Carney, J Aidan; Kipp, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac myxoma usually occurs as a solitary mass, but occasionally develops as part of a familial syndrome, the Carney complex (CNC). Two thirds of CNC-associated cardiac myxomas exhibit mutations in PRKAR1A. PRKAR1A mutations occur in both familial and sporadic forms of CNC but have not been described in isolated (nonsyndromic) cardiac myxomas. A total of 127 consecutive cardiac myxomas surgically resected at Mayo Clinic (1993 to 2011) from 110 individuals were studied. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. Of these, 103 patients had isolated cardiac myxomas, and 7 patients had the tumor as a component of CNC. Age and sex distributions were different for CNC (mean 26 y, range 14 to 44 y, 71% female) and non-CNC (mean 62 y, range 18 to 92 y, 63% female) patients. PRKAR1A immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) was performed, and myxoma cell reactivity was graded semiquantitatively. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing was performed in 3 CNC patients and 29 non-CNC patients, to test for the presence of mutations in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the PRKAR1A gene. IHC staining showed that all 7 CNC cases lacked PRKAR1A antigenicity and that 33 (32%) isolated cardiac myxomas were similarly nonreactive. Of tumors subjected to sequencing analysis, 2 (67%) CNC myxomas and 9 (31%) non-CNC myxomas had pathogenic PRKAR1A mutations. No germline mutations were found in 4 non-CNC cases tested. PRKAR1A appears to play a role in the development of both syndromic and nonsyndromic cardiac myxomas. Routine IHC evaluation of cardiac myxomas for PRKAR1A expression may be useful in excluding a diagnosis of CNC. PMID:24618615

  5. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Vinicius S.; Fan, Yunxia; Kurita, Hisaka; Wang, Qin; Ko, Chia-I; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Zhang, Xiang; Biesiada, Jacek; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26555816

  6. Mitochondrial membrane potential in single living adult rat cardiac myocytes exposed to anoxia or metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lisa, F; Blank, P S; Colonna, R; Gambassi, G; Silverman, H S; Stern, M D; Hansford, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. The relation between mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) and cell function was investigated in single adult rat cardiac myocytes during anoxia and reoxygenation. delta psi m was studied by loading myocytes with JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetra-ethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide), a fluorescent probe characterized by two emission peaks (539 and 597 nm with excitation at 490 nm) corresponding to monomer and aggregate forms of the dye. 2. De-energizing conditions applied to mitochondria, cell suspensions or single cells decreased the aggregate emission and increased the monomer emission. This latter result cannot be explained by changes of JC-1 concentration in the aqueous mitochondrial matrix phase indicating that hydrophobic interaction of the probe with membranes has to be taken into account to explain JC-1 fluorescence properties in isolated mitochondria or intact cells. 3. A different sensitivity of the two JC-1 forms to delta psi m changes was shown in isolated mitochondria by the effects of ADP and FCCP and the calibration with K+ diffusion potentials. The monomer emission was responsive to values of delta psi m below 140 mV, which hardly modified the aggregate emission. Thus JC-1 represents a unique double sensor which can provide semi-quantitative information in both low and high potential ranges. 4. At the onset of glucose-free anoxia the epifluorescence of individual myocytes studied in the single excitation (490 nm)-double emission (530 and 590 nm) mode showed a gradual decline of the aggregate emission, which reached a plateau while electrically stimulated (0.2 Hz) contraction was still retained. The subsequent failure of contraction was followed by the rise of the emission at 530 nm, corresponding to the monomer form of the dye, concomitantly with the development of rigor contracture. 5. The onset of the rigor was preceded by the increase in intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) monitored by mag-indo-1 epifluorescence

  7. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  8. Selection of Beauveria Isolates Pathogenic to Adults of Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoye; Li, Shiguang; Xu, Amei; Lin, Huafeng; Chen, Dexin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a destructive invasive pest and has become one of the most economically-important rice pests in China. Effective control measures are desperately needed. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and B. brongniartii (Saccardo), have shown great potential for the management of some sucking pest species. In this study, to explore alternative strategies for sustainable control of the sucking pest population, nine isolates of Beauveria from different pests were bioassayed under the concentrated standard spray of 1000 conidia/mm2 in laboratory. The cumulative mortalities of adults ranged from 17.2 to 79.1% 10 days after inoculation. The virulence among all tested isolates exhibited significant differences (at p = 0.05). The highest virulent isolate was Bb09, which killed 79.1% of the treated insects and had a median lethal time of 5.5 days. Its median lethal concentration values were estimated as 134 conidia/mm2 on day 10. The chitinase activities of nine isolates were also assayed. The results showed that the chitinase activity (18.7 U/mg) of isolate Bbr09 was the highest among all tested isolates. The biological characteristics of these strains, including growth rate, sporulation, and germination rate, were further investigated. The results showed that strain Bbr09 exhibited the best biological characteristics with relatively higher hyphal growth rate, the highest spore production, and the fastest spore germination. The isolate of Bbr09 had strong pathogenicity and exhibited great potential for sustainable control of N. lugens. PMID:25373179

  9. Selection of Beauveria isolates pathogenic to adults of Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Li, Maoye; Li, Shiguang; Xu, Amei; Lin, Huafeng; Chen, Dexin; Wang, Hui

    2014-02-26

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a destructive invasive pest and has become one of the most economically-important rice pests in China. Effective control measures are desperately needed. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and B. brongniartii (Saccardo), have shown great potential for the management of some sucking pest species. In this study, to explore alternative strategies for sustainable control of the sucking pest population, nine isolates of Beauveria from different pests were bioassayed under the concentrated standard spray of 1000 conidia/mm(2) in laboratory. The cumulative mortalities of adults ranged from 17.2 to 79.1% 10 days after inoculation. The virulence among all tested isolates exhibited significant differences (at p = 0.05). The highest virulent isolate was Bb09, which killed 79.1% of the treated insects and had a median lethal time of 5.5 days. Its median lethal concentration values were estimated as 134 conidia/mm(2) on day 10. The chitinase activities of nine isolates were also assayed. The results showed that the chitinase activity (18.7 U/mg) of isolate Bbr09 was the highest among all tested isolates. The biological characteristics of these strains, including growth rate, sporulation, and germination rate, were further investigated. The results showed that strain Bbr09 exhibited the best biological characteristics with relatively higher hyphal growth rate, the highest spore production, and the fastest spore germination. The isolate of Bbr09 had strong pathogenicity and exhibited great potential for sustainable control of N. lugens.

  10. Sliding velocity of isolated rabbit cardiac myosin correlates with isozyme distribution.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, H; Sugiura, S; Serizawa, T; Sugimoto, T; Iizuka, M; Katayama, E; Shimmen, T

    1992-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between the mechanical and biochemical properties of cardiac myosin, the sliding velocity of isolated cardiac myosin obtained from both euthyroid and hyperthyroid rabbits on actin cables was measured with an in vitro motility assay system. Ten rabbits (T) were treated with L-thyroxine to induce hyperthyroidism, and eight nontreated animals (N) were used as controls. Myosin was purified from the left ventricles of anesthetized animals. Myosin isozyme content was analyzed by the pyrophosphate gel electrophoresis method, and myosin adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity was determined on the same sample. Long well-organized actin cables of green algae, Nitellopsis, were used in the in vitro motility assay. Small latex beads were coated with purified cardiac myosin and introduced onto the Nitellopsis actin cables. Active unidirectional movement of the beads on the actin cables was observed under a photomicroscope, and the velocity was measured. The velocity was dependent on ATP concentrations, and the optimal pH for bead movement was approximately 7.0-7.5. The mean velocity was higher in T than in N (0.66 +/- 0.12 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.09 micron/s, P less than 0.01). Both Ca(2+)-activated ATPase activity and the percentage of alpha-myosin heavy chain were also higher in T than in N (0.691 +/- 0.072 vs. 0.335 +/- 0.072 microM Pi.mg-1.min-1, P less than 0.01, and 79 +/- 12 vs. 26 +/- 7%, P less than 0.01, respectively). The velocity of myosin closely correlated with both Ca(+2)-activated myosin ATPase activity (r = 0.87, P less than 0.01) and the percentage of alpha-myosin heavy chain (r = 0.87, P less than 0.01).

  11. Gene Transfer into Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sarah E.; Westfall, Margaret V.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for DNA transfection are often inefficient and toxic for terminally differentiated cells, such as cardiac myocytes. Vector-based gene transfer is an efficient approach for introducing exogenous cDNA into these types of primary cell cultures. In this chapter, separate protocols for adult rat cardiac myocyte isolation and gene transfer with recombinant adenovirus are provided and are routinely utilized for studying the effects of sarcomeric proteins on myofilament function. PMID:25836585

  12. Dynamic Measurement of Hemodynamic Parameters and Cardiac Preload in Adults with Dengue: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Wattanathum, Anan; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Wacharasint, Petch; Chamnanchanunt, Supat; Khine Kyaw, Ei; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Naksomphun, Mali; Surabotsophon, Manoon; Desakorn, Varunee

    2016-01-01

    Few previous studies have monitored hemodynamic parameters to determine the physiological process of dengue or examined inferior vena cava (IVC) parameters to assess cardiac preload during the clinical phase of dengue. From January 2013 to July 2015, we prospectively studied 162 hospitalized adults with confirmed dengue viral infection using non-invasive cardiac output monitoring and bedside ultrasonography to determine changes in hemodynamic and IVC parameters and identify the types of circulatory shock that occur in patients with dengue. Of 162 patients with dengue, 17 (10.5%) experienced dengue shock and 145 (89.5%) did not. In patients with shock, the mean arterial pressure was significantly lower on day 6 after fever onset (P = 0.045) and the pulse pressure was significantly lower between days 4 and 7 (P<0.05). The stroke volume index and cardiac index were significantly decreased between days 4 and 15 and between days 5 and 8 after fever onset (P<0.05), respectively. A significant proportion of patients with dengue shock had an IVC diameter <1.5 cm and IVC collapsibility index >50% between days 4 and 5 (P<0.05). Hypovolemic shock was observed in 9 (52.9%) patients and cardiogenic shock in 8 (47.1%), with a median (interquartile range) time to shock onset of 6.0 (5.0–6.5) days after fever onset, which was the median day of defervescence. Intravascular hypovolemia occurred before defervescence, whereas myocardial dysfunction occurred on the day of defervescence until 2 weeks after fever onset. Hypovolemic shock and cardiogenic shock each occurred in approximately half of the patients with dengue shock. Therefore, dynamic measures to estimate changes in hemodynamic parameters and preload should be monitored to ensure adequate fluid therapy among patients with dengue, particularly patients with dengue shock. PMID:27196051

  13. Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L.; Ix, Joachim H.; Zieman, Susan J.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Siscovick, David S.; Sotoodehnia, Nona

    2013-01-01

    Although fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) may increase risk of diabetes and exert negative cardiac inotropy, it is unknown whether plasma concentrations of FABP4 are associated with incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). We prospectively analyzed data on 4,560 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study. FABP4 was measured at baseline using ELISA, and SCD events were adjudicated through review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards to estimate effect measures. During a median followup of 11.8 years, 146 SCD cases occurred. In a multivariable model adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and metabolic factors, relative risk of SCD associated with each higher standard deviation (SD) of plasma FABP4 was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95–1.38), P = 0.15. In a secondary analysis stratified by prevalent diabetes status, FABP4 was associated with higher risk of SCD in nondiabetic participants, (RR per SD higher FABP4: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.07–1.65), P = 0.009) but not in diabetic participants (RR per SD higher FABP4: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62–1.27), P = 0.50), P for diabetes-FABP4 interaction 0.049. In summary, a single measure of plasma FABP4 obtained later in life was not associated with the risk of SCD in older adults overall. Confirmation of our post-hoc results in nondiabetic people in other studies is warranted. PMID:24455402

  14. Adult stem cells for cardiac repair: a choice between skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Haider, Husnain Kh; Sim, Eugene K W

    2006-01-01

    The real promise of a stem cell-based approach for cardiac regeneration and repair lies in the promotion of myogenesis and angiogenesis at the site of the cell graft to achieve both structural and functional benefits. Despite all of the progress and promise in this field, many unanswered questions remain; the answers to these questions will provide the much-needed breakthrough to harness the real benefits of cell therapy for the heart in the clinical perspective. One of the major issues is the choice of donor cell type for transplantation. Multiple cell types with varying potentials have been assessed for their ability to repopulate the infarcted myocardium; however, only the adult stem cells, that is, skeletal myoblasts (SkM) and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMC), have been translated from the laboratory bench to clinical use. Which of these two cell types will provide the best option for clinical application in heart cell therapy remains arguable. With results pouring in from the long-term follow-ups of previously conducted phase I clinical studies, and with the onset of phase II clinical trials involving larger population of patients, transplantation of stem cells as a sole therapy without an adjunct conventional revascularization procedure will provide a deeper insight into the effectiveness of this approach. The present article discusses the pros and cons of using SkM and BMC individually or in combination for cardiac repair, and critically analyzes the progress made with each cell type.

  15. An uncommon case of isolated parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve in an adult.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Yuko; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    A 31-year-old asymptomatic male was referred to hospital for an examination of right bundle brunch block. Both, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed normal left ventricular function, and two different-sized papillary muscles; the anterolateral muscle was more pronounced, with almost major chordae tendineae inserted into this dominant muscle, whereas the immature, flat posteromedial papillary muscle had very short chordae tendineae and was located higher in the left ventricle, inserted directly into the mitral annulus. The mitral valve orifice was eccentrically located at the lateral side, but no significant mitral stenosis or regurgitation was observed. No other congenital heart anomalies were identified. Thus, the final diagnosis was isolated parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve (PLAMV), without any other congenital heart anomalies. The patient was followed up closely with periodic echocardiographic examinations. Parachute mitral valve is a rare congenital cardiac defect characterized by focalized attachment of the chordae tendineae of both leaflets to a single papillary muscle. In contrast to true parachute mitral valve, PLAMV has two separate papillary muscles, one of which is more pronounced and into which all chordae are inserted. PLAMV was highly associated with other congenital heart anomalies, and the involved dominant muscle was most frequently a posteromedial papillary muscle. Isolated PLAMV in an adult is even more rare, while the presence of an immature posteromedial papillary muscle--as in the present case--is extremely rare. PMID:25799716

  16. An uncommon case of isolated parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve in an adult.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Yuko; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    A 31-year-old asymptomatic male was referred to hospital for an examination of right bundle brunch block. Both, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed normal left ventricular function, and two different-sized papillary muscles; the anterolateral muscle was more pronounced, with almost major chordae tendineae inserted into this dominant muscle, whereas the immature, flat posteromedial papillary muscle had very short chordae tendineae and was located higher in the left ventricle, inserted directly into the mitral annulus. The mitral valve orifice was eccentrically located at the lateral side, but no significant mitral stenosis or regurgitation was observed. No other congenital heart anomalies were identified. Thus, the final diagnosis was isolated parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve (PLAMV), without any other congenital heart anomalies. The patient was followed up closely with periodic echocardiographic examinations. Parachute mitral valve is a rare congenital cardiac defect characterized by focalized attachment of the chordae tendineae of both leaflets to a single papillary muscle. In contrast to true parachute mitral valve, PLAMV has two separate papillary muscles, one of which is more pronounced and into which all chordae are inserted. PLAMV was highly associated with other congenital heart anomalies, and the involved dominant muscle was most frequently a posteromedial papillary muscle. Isolated PLAMV in an adult is even more rare, while the presence of an immature posteromedial papillary muscle--as in the present case--is extremely rare.

  17. Enrichment of vital adult cardiac muscle cells by continuous silica sol gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Maisch, B

    1981-01-01

    A major improvement in the isolation of vital adult cardiocytes was achieved by isopycnic preformed continuous silica sol gradient centrifugation after perfusion of the heart with collagenase. Vital rat cardiocytes were enriched to 90-95% vital cells reproducibly and constantly by one- or two-step gradient centrifugations. The isolated cardiocytes were tolerant to calcium concentrations up to 0.03 mmol/l, to diluted human serum, and to human complement. Gentamycin (50 microgram/ml) exerted a cytotoxic effect on myocytes, whereas Penicillium and Streptomycin in concentrations of 50 IU/ml did not induce cytolysis of vital cells. Digoxin 15 ng/ml) decreased the natural decay of myocytes of 20% in 25 hours to 8%. Enriched of vital cardiocytes by silica sol gradient centrifugation following their isolation by perfusion with collagenase may be helpful for investigations depending on a high yield of vital myocardial cells. PMID:6277294

  18. Isolating the segment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain responsible for mitochondrial damage during cardiac ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qun; Yin, Guotian; Stewart, Sarah; Hu, Ying; Lesnefsky, Edward J.

    2010-07-09

    Ischemia damages the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), mediated in part by damage generated by the mitochondria themselves. Mitochondrial damage resulting from ischemia, in turn, leads to cardiac injury during reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to localize the segment of the ETC that produces the ischemic mitochondrial damage. We tested if blockade of the proximal ETC at complex I differed from blockade distal in the chain at cytochrome oxidase. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused for 15 min followed by 30 min stop-flow ischemia at 37 {sup o}C. Amobarbital (2.5 mM) or azide (5 mM) was used to block proximal (complex I) or distal (cytochrome oxidase) sites in the ETC. Time control hearts were buffer-perfused for 45 min. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. Ischemia decreased cytochrome c content in SSM but not in IFM compared to time control. Blockade of electron transport at complex I preserved the cytochrome c content in SSM. In contrast, blockade of electron transport at cytochrome oxidase with azide did not retain cytochrome c in SSM during ischemia. Since blockade of electron transport at complex III also prevented cytochrome c loss during ischemia, the specific site that elicits mitochondrial damage during ischemia is likely located in the segment between complex III and cytochrome oxidase.

  19. Isolation and characterization of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Maass, Karen; Shekhar, Akshay; Lu, Jia; Kang, Guoxin; See, Fiona; Kim, Eugene E; Delgado, Camila; Shen, Steven; Cohen, Lisa; Fishman, Glenn I

    2015-04-01

    The cardiac Purkinje fiber network is composed of highly specialized cardiomyocytes responsible for the synchronous excitation and contraction of the ventricles. Computational modeling, experimental animal studies, and intracardiac electrical recordings from patients with heritable and acquired forms of heart disease suggest that Purkinje cells (PCs) may also serve as critical triggers of life-threatening arrhythmias. Nonetheless, owing to the difficulty in isolating and studying this rare population of cells, the precise role of PC in arrhythmogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for their proarrhythmic behavior are not fully characterized. Conceptually, a stem cell-based model system might facilitate studies of PC-dependent arrhythmia mechanisms and serve as a platform to test novel therapeutics. Here, we describe the generation of murine embryonic stem cells (ESC) harboring pan-cardiomyocyte and PC-specific reporter genes. We demonstrate that the dual reporter gene strategy may be used to identify and isolate the rare ESC-derived PC (ESC-PC) from a mixed population of cardiogenic cells. ESC-PC display transcriptional signatures and functional properties, including action potentials, intracellular calcium cycling, and chronotropic behavior comparable to endogenous PC. Our results suggest that stem-cell derived PC are a feasible new platform for studies of developmental biology, disease pathogenesis, and screening for novel antiarrhythmic therapies.

  20. Contraction and relaxation of isolated cardiac myocytes of the frog under varying mechanical loads.

    PubMed

    Parikh, S S; Zou, S Z; Tung, L

    1993-02-01

    The mechanics of cardiac systole and relaxation have been studied primarily at the level of the whole heart or intact muscle. End-systolic pressure-volume relations of frog hearts have been found to be load dependent, whereas those of the mammal are relatively load independent. On the other hand, myocardial relaxation as studied at the muscle level is load independent in the frog but markedly load dependent in the mammal. Interpretation of these studies is complicated because of the unknown contribution of extracellular connective tissue, neurohumoral factors, and, in the case of the heart, the complex chamber geometry. Therefore, it is valuable to study cardiac mechanics at the level of the basic unit of contractile activity--the isolated myocyte. The goal of this study was to subject isolated frog cardiomyocytes to mechanical loading paradigms that mimic those presented to the cells within the heart. In the first part of this study, the afterload and preload of contracting cells were varied to study their effects on the end-systolic force-length relation, which was consistently found to be load independent over the range of isotonic shortening tested (typically 5%). We also investigated the force-length-time response of the cells to test the concept of the heart behaving as a time-varying elastance. Our results suggest that in this regard the frog myocyte behaves like mammalian muscle, and they are consistent with the presence of a small viscosity within the cell. We conclude that the tissue structure of the frog heart may contribute to disparity in mechanical behavior at the different structural levels. In the second part of this study, we subjected isolated frog cardiomyocytes to four different loading paradigms to test the hypothesis that myocardial relaxation in the frog is independent of load. These sequences consisted of afterloaded contractions followed by conventional isotonic-isometric relaxation (ACCR) or afterloaded contractions followed by

  1. Impaired adult myelination in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Dietz, Karen; DeLoyht, Jacqueline M; Pedre, Xiomara; Kelkar, Dipti; Kaur, Jasbir; Vialou, Vincent; Lobo, Mary Kay; Dietz, David M; Nestler, Eric J; Dupree, Jeffrey; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Protracted social isolation of adult mice induced behavioral, transcriptional and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and impaired adult myelination. Social re-integration was sufficient to normalize behavioral and transcriptional changes. Short periods of isolation affected chromatin and myelin, but did not induce behavioral changes. Thus, myelinating oligodendrocytes in the adult PFC respond to social interaction with chromatin changes, suggesting that myelination acts as a form of adult plasticity. PMID:23143512

  2. Isolation of a multispecific organic anion and cardiac glycoside transporter from rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Noé, Birgitta; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Stieger, Bruno; Meier, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel multispecific organic anion transporting polypeptide (oatp2) has been isolated from rat brain. The cloned cDNA contains 3,640 bp. The coding region extends over 1,983 nucleotides, thus encoding a polypeptide of 661 amino acids. Oatp2 is homologous to other members of the oatp gene family of membrane transporters with 12 predicted transmembrane domains, five potential glycosylation, and six potential protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. In functional expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes, oatp2 mediated uptake of the bile acids taurocholate (Km ≈ 35 μM) and cholate (Km ≈ 46 μM), the estrogen conjugates 17β-estradiol-glucuronide (Km ≈ 3 μM) and estrone-3-sulfate (Km ≈ 11 μM), and the cardiac gylcosides ouabain (Km ≈ 470 μM) and digoxin (Km ≈ 0.24 μM). Although most of the tested compounds are common substrates of several oatp-related transporters, high-affinity uptake of digoxin is a unique feature of the newly cloned oatp2. On the basis of Northern blot analysis under high-stringency conditions, oatp2 is highly expressed in brain, liver, and kidney but not in heart, spleen, lung, skeletal muscle, and testes. These results provide further support for the overall significance of oatps as a new family of multispecific organic anion transporters. They indicate that oatp2 may play an especially important role in the brain accumulation and toxicity of digoxin and in the hepatobiliary and renal excretion of cardiac glycosides from the body. PMID:9294213

  3. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Rami; Kasneci, Amanda; Mepham, Kathryn; Sebag, Igal A.; and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  4. The Importance of Emotional and Social Isolation to Loneliness among Very Old Rural Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, Elizabeth; Kivett, Vira R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relative importance of emotional and social isolation to loneliness among very old rural adults (n=119). Found that emotional isolation, specifically loss of spouse, accounted for more loneliness than did social isolation. Hearing acuity and visits with siblings (social isolation variables) also were significant predictors of loneliness.…

  5. Embryonic caffeine exposure acts via A1 adenosine receptors to alter adult cardiac function and DNA methylation in mice.

    PubMed

    Buscariollo, Daniela L; Fang, Xiefan; Greenwood, Victoria; Xue, Huiling; Rivkees, Scott A; Wendler, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.09% NaCl) i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2-4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8-10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts, including 7719 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within the genome and an overall decrease in DNA methylation of 26%. Analysis of genes associated with DMRs revealed that many are associated with cardiac hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that A1ARs mediate in utero caffeine effects on cardiac function and growth and that caffeine exposure leads to changes in DNA methylation.

  6. Review of isolated systolic hypertension in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Neetha; Cappuzzo, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    A 75-year-old patient comes to a community pharmacy to refill her blood pressure (BP) medications. She approached the pharmacist complaining of a headache and an unusually high BP reading that she had gotten from the automated machine. The patient was unaware of her usual BP, but knew that the reading was unusually high for her. Following evaluation of the patient and after obtaining several high systolic BP readings, the pharmacist appropriately calls for an ambulance. At the hospital, the patient is told she is in need of triple-bypass surgery. After her hospital stay, the patient is now diligent about refilling her BP medications on time and consistently monitors and records her BP at home. Isolated systolic hypertension is a growing concern in older adults, and a large percentage of adults are not appropriately managed. Pharmacists play an active role in educating patients on the importance of high BP monitoring and adherence to minimize the risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:20534408

  7. Sudden cardiac death in adults with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    McCombe, A; Touma, F; Jackson, D; Canniffe, C; Choudhary, P; Pressley, L; Tanous, D; Robinson, Peter J; Celermajer, D

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) is a rare congenital heart disease. There have been only few reports of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with ccTGA and reasonable ventricular function. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients attending our adult congenital heart centre, with known ccTGA. Results From a database of over 3500 adult patients with congenital heart disease, we identified 39 (∼1%) with ccTGA and ‘two-ventricle’ circulations. 65% were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.4±11.4 years and the mean age at last time of review was 34.3±11.3 years. 24 patients (56%) had a history of surgical intervention. 8 (19%) had had pacemaker implantation and 2 had had a defibrillator implanted for non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). In 544 years of patient follow-up, there had been five cases of SCD in our population; 1 death per 109 patient-years. Two of these patients had had previously documented supraventricular or NSVT. However, they were all classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I or II, and systemic (right) ventricular function had been recorded as normal, mildly or mildly–moderately impaired, at most recent follow-up. Conclusions Our experience suggests the need for improved risk stratification and/or surveillance for malignant arrhythmia in adults with ccTGA, even in those with reasonable functional class on ventricular function. PMID:27493760

  8. Hospital Resource Utilization for Common Noncardiac Diagnoses in Adult Survivors of Single Cardiac Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Seckeler, Michael D; Moe, Tabitha G; Thomas, Ian D; Meziab, Omar; Andrews, Jennifer; Heller, Elissa; Klewer, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Single ventricle congenital heart disease (SV CHD) has transformed from a nearly universally fatal condition to a chronic illness. As the number of adults living with SV CHD continues to increase, there needs to be an understanding of health care resource utilization (HCRU), particularly for noncardiac conditions, for this patient population. We performed a retrospective database review of the University HealthSystem Consortium Clinical Database/Resource Manager for adult patients with SV CHD hospitalized for noncardiac conditions from January 2011 to November 2014. Patients with SV CHD were identified using International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 codes associated with SV CHD (hypoplastic left heart, tricuspid atresia, and SV) and stratified into 2 groups by age (18 to 29 years and 30 to 40 years). Direct cost, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate and mortality data were compared with age-matched patients without CHD. There were 2,083,651 non-CHD and 590 SV CHD admissions in Group 1 and 2,131,046 non-CHD and 297 SV CHD admissions in Group 2. There was no difference in LOS in Group 1, but there were higher costs for several diagnoses. LOS and costs were higher for several diagnoses in Group 2. ICU admission rate and in-hospital mortality were higher for several diagnoses for patients with SV CHD in both groups. In conclusion, adults with SV CHD admitted for noncardiac diagnoses have higher HCRU (longer LOS and higher ICU admission rates) compared with similarly aged patients without CHD. These findings stress the importance of good primary care in this population with complex, chronic cardiac disease to prevent hospitalizations and higher HCRU. PMID:26455384

  9. Epinephrine, but not vasopressin, improves survival rates in an adult rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Hua; Xie, Lu; Liu, Tang-Wei; Song, Feng-Qing; He, Tao; Zeng, Zhi-yu; Mo, Shu-Rong

    2007-06-01

    Although vasopressin has been reported to be more effective than epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in ventricular fibrillation animal models, its efficacy in asphyxia model remains controversy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vasopressin vs epinephrine on restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in a rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced by clamping endotracheal tube. After 5 minutes of basic life-support cardiopulmonary resuscitation, animals who had no ROSC were randomly assigned to receive either epinephrine alone (epinephrine group; 200 microg/kg) or vasopressin alone (vasopressin group; 0.8 U/kg). The coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as the difference between the minimal diastolic aortic and simultaneously recorded right atrial pressure. Restoration of spontaneous circulation was defined as an unassisted pulse with a systolic arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg or higher for 5 minutes or longer. We induced arrest in 62 rabbits, 15 of whom had ROSC before drug administration and were excluded from analysis. The remaining 47 rabbits were randomized to epinephrine group (n = 24) and vasopressin group (n = 23). Before and after drug administration, CPP in epinephrine group increased significantly (from -4 +/- 4 to 36 +/- 9 mm Hg at peak value, P = .000), whereas CPP in vasopressin group increased only slightly (from 9 +/- 5 to 18 +/- 6 mm Hg at peak value, P = .20). After drug administration, 13 of 24 epinephrine rabbit had ROSC, and only 2 of 23 vasopressin rabbit had ROSC (P < .01). Consequently, we conclude that epinephrine, but not vasopressin, increases survival rates in this adult rabbit asphyxia model.

  10. Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Michael E; Alkhalaf, Ahmed M; Whalley, Ben

    2013-12-01

    The use of physical punishment for children is associated with poor psychological and behavioral outcomes, but the causal pathway is controversial, and the effects on later physical health unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of asthma, cancer, and cardiac patients (150 in each category, 75 male) recruited from outpatient clinics and 250 healthy controls (125 male). All participants were 40-60 years old and citizens of Saudi Arabia, where the use of beating and insults is an acceptable parenting style. Demographic data and recalled frequency of beatings and insults as a child were assessed on an 8-point scale. Beating and insults were highly correlated (ρ = 0.846). Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic differences between the disease and healthy groups. After controlling for differences, more frequent beating (once or more per month) and insults were associated with a significantly increased risk for cancer (RR = 1.7), cardiac disease (RR = 1.3) and asthma (RR = 1.6), with evidence of increased risk for cancer and asthma with beating frequency of once every 6 months or more. Our results show that a threatening parenting style of beating and insults is associated with increased risk for somatic disease, possibly because this form of parenting induces stress. Our findings are consistent with previous research showing that child abuse and other early life stressors adversely affect adult somatic health, but provide evidence that the pathogenic effects occur also with chronic minor stress. A stress-inducing parenting style, even when normative, has long term adverse health consequences. PMID:23054177

  11. HAND1 and HAND2 are expressed in the adult-rodent heart and are modulated during cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Thattaliyath, Bijoy D; Livi, Carolina B; Steinhelper, Mark E; Toney, Glenn M; Firulli, Anthony B

    2002-10-01

    The HAND basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors are essential for normal cardiac and extraembryonic development. Although highly evolutionarily conserved genes, HAND cardiac expression patterns differ across species. Mouse expression of HAND1 and HAND2 was reported absent in the adult heart. Human HAND genes are expressed in the adult heart and HAND1 expression is downregulated in cardiomyopathies. As rodent and human expression profiles are inconsistent, we re-examined expression of HAND1 and HAND2 in adult-rodent hearts. HAND1 and HAND2 are expressed in adult-rodent hearts and HAND2 is expressed in the atria. Induction of cardiac hypertrophy shows modulation of HAND expression, corresponding with observations in human cardiomyopathy. The downregulation of HAND expression observed in rodent hypertrophy and human cardiomyopathy may reflect a permissive role allowing, cardiomyocytes to reinitiate the fetal gene program and initiate the adaptive physiological changes that allow the heart to compensate (hypertrophy) for the increase in afterload.

  12. Human embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages in contrast to their adult counterparts.

    PubMed

    Ramkisoensing, Arti A; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Askar, Saïd F A; Passier, Robert; Swildens, Jim; Goumans, Marie José; Schutte, Cindy I; de Vries, Antoine A F; Scherjon, Sicco; Mummery, Christine L; Schalij, Martin J; Atsma, Douwe E

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show unexplained differences in differentiation potential. In this study, differentiation of human (h) MSCs derived from embryonic, fetal and adult sources toward cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells was investigated. Labeled hMSCs derived from embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs), fetal umbilical cord, bone marrow, amniotic membrane and adult bone marrow and adipose tissue were co-cultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (nrCMCs) or cardiac fibroblasts (nrCFBs) for 10 days, and also cultured under angiogenic conditions. Cardiomyogenesis was assessed by human-specific immunocytological analysis, whole-cell current-clamp recordings, human-specific qRT-PCR and optical mapping. After co-culture with nrCMCs, significantly more hESC-MSCs than fetal hMSCs stained positive for α-actinin, whereas adult hMSCs stained negative. Furthermore, functional cardiomyogenic differentiation, based on action potential recordings, was shown to occur, but not in adult hMSCs. Of all sources, hESC-MSCs expressed most cardiac-specific genes. hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs contained significantly higher basal levels of connexin43 than adult hMSCs and co-culture with nrCMCs increased expression. After co-culture with nrCFBs, hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs did not express α-actinin and connexin43 expression was decreased. Conduction velocity (CV) in co-cultures of nrCMCs and hESC-MSCs was significantly higher than in co-cultures with fetal or adult hMSCs. In angiogenesis bioassays, only hESC-MSCs and fetal hMSCs were able to form capillary-like structures, which stained for smooth muscle and endothelial cell markers.Human embryonic and fetal MSCs differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages, in contrast to adult MSCs. Cardiomyogenesis is determined by stimuli from the cellular microenvironment, where connexin43 may play an important role.

  13. Ambient particulate air pollution and cardiac arrhythmia in a panel of older adults in Steubenville, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, S E; Suh, H H; Coull, B A; Schwartz, J; Stone, P H; Gold, D R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathways by which particles may act involve autonomic nervous system dysfunction or inflammation, which can affect cardiac rate and rhythm. The importance of these pathways may vary by particle component or source. In an eastern US location with significant regional pollution, the authors examined the association of air pollution and odds of cardiac arrhythmia in older adults. Methods Thirty two non‐smoking older adults were evaluated on a weekly basis for 24 weeks during the summer and autumn of 2000 with a standardised 30 minute protocol that included continuous electrocardiogram measurements. A central ambient monitoring station provided daily concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5, sulfate, elemental carbon) and gases. Sulfate was used as a marker of regional pollution. The authors used logistic mixed effects regression to examine the odds of having any supraventricular ectopy (SVE) or ventricular ectopy (VE) in association with increases in air pollution for moving average pollutant concentrations up to 10 days before the health assessment. Results Participant specific mean counts of arrhythmia over the protocol varied between 0.1–363 for SVE and 0–350 for VE. The authors observed odds ratios for having SVE over the length of the protocol of 1.42 (95% CI 0.99 to 2.04), 1.70 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.57), and 1.78 (95% CI 0.95 to 3.35) for 10.0 μg/m3, 4.2 μg/m3, and 14.9 ppb increases in five day moving average PM2.5, sulfate, and ozone concentrations respectively. The other pollutants, including elemental carbon, showed no effect on arrhythmia. Participants reporting cardiovascular conditions (for example, previous myocardial infarction or hypertension) were the most susceptible to pollution induced SVE. The authors found no association of pollution with VE. Conclusion Increased levels of ambient sulfate and ozone may increase

  14. Putative population of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from mediastinal tissue during cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amit N; Yockman, James; Vargas, Vanessa; Bull, David A

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been isolated from various adult human tissues and are valuable for not only therapeutic applications but for the study of tissue homeostasis and disease progression. Subcutaneous adipose depots have been shown to contain large amounts of stem cells. There is little information that has been reported to date describing the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from visceral adipose tissue. In this study, we describe a mesenchymal stem cell population isolated from mediastinal adipose depots. The cells express CD44, CD105, CD166, and CD90 and are negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. In addition, the cells have a multilineage potential, with the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cell types. The biological function of visceral adipose tissue remains largely unknown and uncharacterized. However, the proximity of adipose tissue to the heart suggests a potential role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in obesity. In addition, with the ability of fat to regulate metabolic activity in humans, this novel stem cell source may be useful to further study the mechanisms involved in metabolic disorders.

  15. Bench-to-bedside review: Inotropic drug therapy after adult cardiac surgery – a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Michael; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Doolan, Laurie; Buxton, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Many adult patients require temporary inotropic support after cardiac surgery. We reviewed the literature systematically to establish, present and classify the evidence regarding choice of inotropic drugs. The available evidence, while limited in quality and scope, supports the following observations; although all β-agonists can increase cardiac output, the best studied β-agonist and the one with the most favourable side-effect profile appears to be dobutamine. Dobutamine and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDIs) are efficacious inotropic drugs for management of the low cardiac output syndrome. Dobutamine is associated with a greater incidence of tachycardia and tachyarrhythmias, whereas PDIs often require the administration of vasoconstrictors. Other catecholamines have no clear advantages over dobutamine. PDIs increase the likelihood of successful weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass as compared with placebo. There is insufficient evidence that inotropic drugs should be selected for their effects on regional perfusion. PDIs also increase flow through arterial grafts, reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure and improve right heart performance in pulmonary hypertension. Insufficient data exist to allow selection of a specific inotropic agent in preference over another in adult cardiac surgery patients. Multicentre randomized controlled trials focusing on clinical rather than physiological outcomes are needed. PMID:15987381

  16. Comparative impact of AAV and enzyme replacement therapy on respiratory and cardiac function in adult Pompe mice

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Darin J; Soustek, Meghan S; Todd, Adrian Gary; Mah, Cathryn S; Cloutier, Denise A; Kelley, Jeffry S; Clement, Nathalie; Fuller, David D; Byrne, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme responsible for degradation of lysosomal glycogen (acid α-glucosidase (GAA)). Cardiac dysfunction and respiratory muscle weakness are primary features of this disorder. To attenuate the progressive and rapid accumulation of glycogen resulting in cardiorespiratory dysfunction, adult Gaa–/– mice were administered a single systemic injection of rAAV2/9-DES-hGAA (AAV9-DES) or bimonthly injections of recombinant human GAA (enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)). Assessment of cardiac function and morphology was measured 1 and 3 months after initiation of treatment while whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic contractile function was evaluated at 3 months post-treatment in all groups. Gaa–/– animals receiving either AAV9-DES or ERT demonstrated a significant improvement in cardiac function and diaphragmatic contractile function as compared to control animals. AAV9-DES treatment resulted in a significant reduction in cardiac dimension (end diastolic left ventricular mass/gram wet weight; EDMc) at 3 months postinjection. Neither AAV nor ERT therapy altered minute ventilation during quiet breathing (eupnea). However, breathing frequency and expiratory time were significantly improved in AAV9-DES animals. These results indicate systemic delivery of either strategy improves cardiac function but AAV9-DES alone improves respiratory parameters at 3 months post-treatment in a murine model of Pompe disease. PMID:26029718

  17. Inhibition of ref-1 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and induces differentiation in adult cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Narasimman; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Bearzi, Claudia; Bardelli, Silvana; Das, Dipak K

    2009-03-01

    Redox effector protein-1 (Ref-1) plays an essential role in DNA repair and redox regulation of several transcription factors. In the present study, we examined the role of Ref-1 in maintaining the redox status and survivability of adult cardiac stem cells challenged with a subtoxic level of H2O2 under inhibition of Ref-1 by RNA interference. Treatment of cardiac stem cells with a low concentration of H2O2 induced Ref-1-mediated survival signaling through phosphorylation of Akt. However, Ref-1 inhibition followed by H2O2 treatment extensively induced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of the components of NADPH oxidase, like p22( phox ), p47( phox ), and Nox4. Cardiac differentiation markers (Nkx2.5, MEF2C, and GATA4), and cell death by apoptosis were significantly elevated in Ref-1 siRNA followed by H2O2-treated stem cells. Further, inhibition of Ref-1 increased the level of p53 but decreased the phosphorylation of Akt, a molecule involved in survival signaling. Treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine attenuated Ref-1 siRNA-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase and cardiac differentiation. Taken together, these results indicate that Ref-1 plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of cardiac stem cells and protects them from oxidative injury-mediated cell death and differentiation.

  18. [Study of pantothenic acid derivatives as cardiac protectors in a model of experimental ischemia and reperfusion of the isolated heart].

    PubMed

    Kumerova, A O; Utno, L Ia; Lipsberga, Z E; Shkestere, I Ia

    1992-04-01

    An isolated heart model with experimental ischemia and reperfusion was used to show effective decrease in lactate, increase in ATP content and prevention of conjugated dienes accumulation in the myocardium by derivatives of pantothenic acid: panthenol (9.0 mg/kg), calcium pantothenate (15.6 mg/kg) and by these ones applied simultaneously as ingredients of perfusate (25 microM) in postischemic period. In that way derivatives of pantothenic acid should be regarded as cardiac protectors. PMID:1391892

  19. Adrenergic responsiveness is reduced, while baseline cardiac function is preserved in old adult conscious monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Shen, Y. T.; Vatner, S. F.; Vatner, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the physiological deficit to adrenergic stimulation with aging, five younger adult (3 +/- 1 yr old) and nine older adult (17 +/- 1 yr old) healthy monkeys were studied after instrumentation with a left ventricular (LV) pressure gauge, aortic and left atrial catheters, and aortic flow probes to measure cardiac output directly. There were no significant changes in baseline hemodynamics in conscious older monkeys. For example, an index of contractility, the first derivative of LV pressure (LV dP/dt) was similar (3,191 +/- 240, young vs. 3,225 +/- 71 mmHg/s, old) as well as in isovolumic relaxation, tau (24.3 +/- 1.7 ms, young vs. 23.0 +/- 1.0 ms, old) was similar. However, inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (Iso; 0.1 micrograms/kg), norepinephrine (NE; 0.4 micrograms/kg), and forskolin (For; 75 nmol/kg) were significantly (P < 0.05) depressed in older monkeys. For example. Iso increased LV dP/dt by by 146 +/- 14% in younger monkeys and by only 70 +/- 5% in older monkeys. Iso also reduced tau more in younger monkeys (-28 +/- 7%) compared with older monkeys (-13 +/- 3%). Furthermore, peripheral vascular responsiveness to Iso, NE, For, and phenylephrine (PE; 5 micrograms/kg) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in older monkeys. For example, phenylephrine (5 micrograms/kg) increased total peripheral resistence by 69 +/- 4% in younger monkeys and by only 45 +/- 3% in older monkeys. Thus in older monkeys without associated cardiovascular disease, baseline hemodynamics are preserved, but adrenergic receptor responsiveness is reduced systemically, not just in the heart.

  20. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. CaMKII-dependent SR Ca leak contributes to doxorubicin-induced impaired Ca handling in isolated cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sag, Can M.; Köhler, Anne C.; Anderson, Mark E.; Backs, Johannes; Maier, Lars S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, but cardiotoxicity limits DOX therapy. Although the mechanisms are not entirely understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to be involved in DOX cardiotoxicity. Ca/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) can be activated by ROS through oxidation and is known to contribute to myocardial dysfunction through Ca leakage from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Rationale We hypothesized that CaMKII contributes to DOX-induced defects in intracellular Ca ([Ca]i) handling. Methods Cardiac myocytes were isolated from wild-type (WT) adult rat hearts and from mouse hearts lacking the predominant myocardial CaMKII isoform (CaMKIIδ−/−, KO) vs. WT. Isolated cardiomyocytes were investigated 30 min after DOX (10 µmol/L) superfusion, using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. Intracellular ROS-generation ([ROS]i) and [Ca]i handling properties were assessed. In a subset of experiments, KN-93 or AIP (each 1 µmol/L) were used to inhibit CaMKII. Melatonin (Mel, 100 µmol/L) served as ROS-scavenger. Western blots were performed to determine the amount of CaMKII phosphorylation and oxidation. Results DOX increased [ROS]i and led to significant diastolic [Ca]i overload in rat myocytes. This was associated with reduced [Ca]i transients, a 5.8-fold increased diastolic SR Ca leak and diminished SR Ca content. ROS-scavenging partially rescued Ca handling. Western blots revealed increased CaMKII phosphorylation, but not CaMKII oxidation after DOX. Pharmacological CaMKII inhibition attenuated diastolic [Ca]i overload after DOX superfusion and led to partially restored [Ca]i transients and SR Ca content, presumably due to reduced Ca spark frequency. In line with this concept, isoform-specific CaMKIIδ-KO attenuated diastolic [Ca]i overload and Ca spark frequency. Conclusions DOX exposure induces CaMKII-dependent SR Ca leakage, which partially contributes to impaired cellular [Ca]i homeostasis

  2. Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Post-robotic Radiosurgical Pulmonary Vein Isolation (RRPVI): First Case in the World

    PubMed Central

    Azpiri, Jose; De La Peña, Cuauhtémoc; Cardona, Carlos; Hinojosa, Miguel; Zamarripa, Rafael; Assad, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation using robotic radiosurgery system CyberKnife is a new non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation, currently in clinical phase. Robotic radiosurgical pulmonary vein isolation (RRPVI) uses stereotactic, non-invasive (painless) pinpoint radiation energy delivery to a small, precise area to accomplish ablation. The purpose of this report is to describe the finding of an increase in the enhancement of the left atrium demonstrated with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE-CMR) as a result of RRPVI in the first case in the world in humans using CyberKnife as a treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). PMID:27660737

  3. Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Post-robotic Radiosurgical Pulmonary Vein Isolation (RRPVI): First Case in the World.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Edgar; Azpiri, Jose; De La Peña, Cuauhtémoc; Cardona, Carlos; Hinojosa, Miguel; Zamarripa, Rafael; Assad, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation using robotic radiosurgery system CyberKnife is a new non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation, currently in clinical phase. Robotic radiosurgical pulmonary vein isolation (RRPVI) uses stereotactic, non-invasive (painless) pinpoint radiation energy delivery to a small, precise area to accomplish ablation. The purpose of this report is to describe the finding of an increase in the enhancement of the left atrium demonstrated with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE-CMR) as a result of RRPVI in the first case in the world in humans using CyberKnife as a treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). PMID:27660737

  4. Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Post-robotic Radiosurgical Pulmonary Vein Isolation (RRPVI): First Case in the World

    PubMed Central

    Azpiri, Jose; De La Peña, Cuauhtémoc; Cardona, Carlos; Hinojosa, Miguel; Zamarripa, Rafael; Assad, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation using robotic radiosurgery system CyberKnife is a new non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation, currently in clinical phase. Robotic radiosurgical pulmonary vein isolation (RRPVI) uses stereotactic, non-invasive (painless) pinpoint radiation energy delivery to a small, precise area to accomplish ablation. The purpose of this report is to describe the finding of an increase in the enhancement of the left atrium demonstrated with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE-CMR) as a result of RRPVI in the first case in the world in humans using CyberKnife as a treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF).

  5. In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: Effects on fetal and adult cardiac gene expression and adult cardiac and renal morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mouse heart is a target of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during fetal development, and microarray analysis demonstrates significant changes in expression of cardiac genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that developmental TCDD exposure wo...

  6. Cardiopulmonary manifestations of isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis demonstrated with cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Passen, Edward; Feng, Zekun

    2015-01-01

    Right-sided infective endocarditis involving the pulmonary valve is rare. This pictorial essay discusses the use and findings of cardiac CT combined with delayed chest CT and noncontrast chest CT of pulmonary valve endocarditis. Cardiac CT is able to show the full spectrum of right-sided endocarditis cardiopulmonary features including manifestations that cannot be demonstrated by echocardiography.

  7. Cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shanewise, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Cardiac transplantation is a proven, accepted mode of therapy for selected patients with end-stage heart failure, but the inadequate number of suitable donor hearts available ultimately limits its application. This chapter reviews adult cardiac transplantation, with an emphasis on the anesthetic considerations of the heart transplant operation itself.

  8. Centrifugal pump and roller pump in adult cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Saczkowski, Richard; Maklin, Michelle; Mesana, Thierry; Boodhwani, Munir; Ruel, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Centrifugal pump (CP) and roller pump (RP) designs are the dominant main arterial pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Trials reporting clinical outcome measures comparing CP and RP are controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate clinical variables from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Keyword searches were performed on Medline (1966-2011), EmBase (1980-2011), and CINAHL (1981-2011) for studies comparing RP and CP as the main arterial pump in adult CPB. Pooled fixed-effects estimates for dichotomous and continuous data were calculated as an odds ratio and weighted-mean difference, respectively. The P value was utilized to assess statistical significance (P < 0.05) between CP and RP groups. Eighteen RCTs met inclusion criteria, which represented 1868 patients (CP = 961, RP = 907). The prevailing operation was isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CP = 88%, RP = 87%). Fixed-effects pooled estimates were performed for end-of-CPB (ECP) and postoperative day one (PDO) for platelet count (ECP: P = 0.51, PDO: P = 0.16), plasma free hemoglobin (ECP: P = 0.36, PDO: P = 0.24), white blood cell count (ECP: P = 0.21, PDO: P = 0.66), and hematocrit (ECP: P = 0.06, PDO: P = 0.51). No difference was demonstrated for postoperative blood loss (P = 0.65) or red blood cell transfusion (P = 0.71). Intensive care unit length of stay (P = 0.30), hospital length of stay (P = 0.33), and mortality (P = 0.91) were similar between the CP and RP groups. Neurologic outcomes were not amenable to pooled analysis; nevertheless, the results were inconclusive. There was no reported pump-related malfunction or mishap. The meta-analysis of RCTs comparing CP and RP in adult cardiac surgery suggests no significant difference for hematological variables, postoperative blood loss, transfusions, neurological outcomes, or mortality.

  9. Acute effects of nonexcitatory electrical stimulation during systole in isolated cardiac myocytes and perfused heart

    PubMed Central

    Blinova, Ksenia; Stohlman, Jayna; Krauthamer, Victor; Knapton, Alan; Bloomquist, Erik; Gray, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Application of electrical field to the heart during the refractory period of the beat has been shown to increase the force of contraction both in animal models and in heart failure patients (cardiac contractility modulation, or CCM). A direct increase in intracellular calcium during CCM has been suggested to be the mechanism behind the positive inotropic effect of CCM. We studied the effect of CCM on isolated rabbit cardiomyocytes and perfused whole rat hearts. The effect of CCM was observed in single cells via fluorescent measurements of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and cell length (L). Cells were paced once per second throughout these recordings, and CCM stimulation was delivered via biphasic electric fields of 20 ms duration applied during the refractory period. CCM increased the peak amplitude of both [Ca2+]i and L for the first beat during CCM compared to control, but then [Ca2+]i and L decayed to levels lower than the control. During CCM, all contractions had a faster time to peak for both [Ca2+]i and L; after stopping CCM the rise times returned to control levels. In the whole rat heart, the positive inotropic effect of CCM stimulation on left ventricular pressure was completely abolished in the presence of metoprolol, a beta‐1 adrenergic blocker. In summary, the CCM‐induced changes in intracellular calcium handling by cardiomyocytes did not explain the sustained positive inotropic effect in the whole heart and the β‐adrenergic pathway may be involved in the CCM mechanism of action. PMID:25096553

  10. Drosophila Models of Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Nicole; Wessells, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a useful model for cardiac diseases, both developmental abnormalities and adult functional impairment. Using the tools of both classical and molecular genetics, the study of the developing fly heart has been instrumental in identifying the major signaling events of cardiac field formation, cardiomyocyte specification, and the formation of the functioning heart tube. The larval stage of fly cardiac development has become an important model system for testing isolated preparations of living hearts for the effects of biological and pharmacological compounds on cardiac activity. Meanwhile, the recent development of effective techniques to study adult cardiac performance in the fly has opened new uses for the Drosophila model system. The fly system is now being used to study long-term alterations in adult performance caused by factors such as diet, exercise, and normal aging. The fly is a unique and valuable system for the study of such complex, long-term interactions, as it is the only invertebrate genetic model system with a working heart developmentally homologous to the vertebrate heart. Thus, the fly model combines the advantages of invertebrate genetics (such as large populations, facile molecular genetic techniques, and short lifespan) with physiological measurement techniques that allow meaningful comparisons with data from vertebrate model systems. As such, the fly model is well situated to make important contributions to the understanding of complicated interactions between environmental factors and genetics in the long-term regulation of cardiac performance. PMID:21377627

  11. Human fetal cardiac progenitors: The role of stem cells and progenitors in the fetal and adult heart.

    PubMed

    Bulatovic, Ivana; Månsson-Broberg, Agneta; Sylvén, Christer; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik

    2016-02-01

    The human fetal heart is formed early during embryogenesis as a result of cell migrations, differentiation, and formative blood flow. It begins to beat around gestation day 22. Progenitor cells are derived from mesoderm (endocardium and myocardium), proepicardium (epicardium and coronary vessels), and neural crest (heart valves, outflow tract septation, and parasympathetic innervation). A variety of molecular disturbances in the factors regulating the specification and differentiation of these cells can cause congenital heart disease. This review explores the contribution of different cardiac progenitors to the embryonic heart development; the pathways and transcription factors guiding their expansion, migration, and functional differentiation; and the endogenous regenerative capacity of the adult heart including the plasticity of cardiomyocytes. Unfolding these mechanisms will become the basis for understanding the dynamics of specific congenital heart disease as well as a means to develop therapy for fetal as well as postnatal cardiac defects and heart failure.

  12. The cardiac effects of a novel A1-adenosine receptor agonist in guinea pig isolated heart.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, L; Lu, J; Dennis, D; Martens, J; Shryock, J C

    1994-12-01

    Adenosine increases atrioventricular (AV) nodal conduction time and is used for termination of AV nodal re-entrant tachycardias, but it is rapidly metabolized. The purposes of the present study were to characterize the cardiac actions and effects of an orally active and stable adenosine analog, N6-cyclohexyl-2-O-methyladenosine (SDZ WAG-994) and to evaluate its potential as an antiarrhythmic agent. Guinea pig hearts were isolated and perfused with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit solution. SDZ WAG-994 slowed the atrial rate and prolonged the AV nodal conduction time of spontaneously beating hearts in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 values for the negative chronotropic and dromotropic effects of SDZ WAG-994 were 0.69 +/- 0.04 and 1.49 +/- 0.54 microM, respectively. The A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.2 microM) significantly antagonized SDZ WAG-994-induced stimulus-to-His bundle (S-H) interval prolongation. The negative dromotropic effect of SDZ WAG-994 showed very strong frequency dependence. In hearts paced at an atrial cycle length of 300 msec (200 beats/min), the EC50 value of SDZ WAG-994 to prolong the S-H interval was 3.7-fold lower (0.40 +/- 0.02 microM) than in unpaced hearts, and at atrial pacing cycle lengths of 500 and 250 msec, 0.3 microM SDZ WAG-994 prolonged the S-H interval by 8 and 26 msec, respectively. SDZ WAG-994 also decreased coronary perfusion pressure (EC50 = 1.50 +/- 0.80 microM); this effect of SDZ WAG-994 was attenuated by adenosine deaminase and by 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (2 microM). Radioligand binding assays revealed that SDZ WAG-994 had a 280-fold greater affinity for A1- than for A2a receptors of the guinea pig brain. The marked frequency dependence of the negative dromotropic effect of SDZ WAG-994 suggests that this A1 agonist may be highly effective in the termination of AV nodal re-entrant tachycardias. PMID:7996449

  13. Three-Dimensional Adult Cardiac Extracellular Matrix Promotes Maturation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ashley H; Romero-López, Mónica; Heylman, Christopher M; Keating, Mark; Tran, David; Sobrino, Agua; Tran, Anh Q; Pham, Hiep H; Fimbres, Cristhian; Gershon, Paul D; Botvinick, Elliot L; George, Steven C; Hughes, Christopher C W

    2016-08-01

    Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) have great potential in the development of new therapies for cardiovascular disease. In particular, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may prove especially advantageous due to their pluripotency, their self-renewal potential, and their ability to create patient-specific cell lines. Unfortunately, pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs are immature, with characteristics more closely resembling fetal CMs than adult CMs, and this immaturity has limited their use in drug screening and cell-based therapies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences cellular behavior and maturation, as does the geometry of the environment-two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D). We therefore tested the hypothesis that native cardiac ECM and 3D cultures might enhance the maturation of iPSC-derived CMs in vitro. We demonstrate that maturation of iPSC-derived CMs was enhanced when cells were seeded into a 3D cardiac ECM scaffold, compared with 2D culture. 3D cardiac ECM promoted increased expression of calcium-handling genes, Junctin, CaV1.2, NCX1, HCN4, SERCA2a, Triadin, and CASQ2. Consistent with this, we find that iPSC-derived CMs in 3D adult cardiac ECM show increased calcium signaling (amplitude) and kinetics (maximum upstroke and downstroke) compared with cells in 2D. Cells in 3D culture were also more responsive to caffeine, likely reflecting an increased availability of calcium in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Taken together, these studies provide novel strategies for maturing iPSC-derived CMs that may have applications in drug screening and transplantation therapies to treat heart disease. PMID:27392582

  14. Incidence of inferior vena cava thrombosis detected by transthoracic echocardiography in the immediate postoperative period after adult cardiac and general surgery.

    PubMed

    Saranteas, T; Kostopanagiotou, G; Tzoufi, M; Drachtidi, K; Knox, G M; Panou, F

    2013-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism is an important complication after general and cardiac surgery. Using transthoracic echocardiography, this study assessed the incidence of inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis among a total of 395 and 289 cardiac surgical and major surgical patients in the immediate postoperative period after cardiac and major surgery, respectively. All transthoracic echocardiography was performed by a specialist intensivist within 24 hours after surgery with special emphasis on using the subcostal view in the supine position to visualise the IVC. Of the 395 cardiac surgical patients studied, the IVC was successfully visualised using the subcostal view in 315 patients (79.8%) and eight of these patients (2.5%) had a partially obstructive thrombosis in the IVC. In 250 out of 289 (85%) general surgical patients, the IVC was also clearly visualised, but only one patient (0.4%) had an IVC thrombosis (2.5 vs 0.4%, P <0.05). In summary, visualisation of the IVC was feasible in most patients in the immediate postoperative period after both adult cardiac and major surgery. IVC thrombosis appeared to be more common after adult cardiac surgery than general surgery. A large prospective cohort study is needed to define the risk factors for IVC thrombus and whether early thromboprophylaxis can reduce the incidence of IVC thrombus after adult cardiac surgery.

  15. Individual sarcomere length determination from isolated cardiac cells using high-resolution optical microscopy and digital image processing.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, K P; Brady, A J

    1982-01-01

    Discrete sarcomere lengths have been determined from dynamically contracting isolated cardiac cells with a high-speed, high-resolution direct optical imaging system. Calcium-tolerant cardiac cells from the rat are isolated by perfusion with collagenase and hyaluronidase. Individual sarcomere lengths can be determined by directly imaging the cell's striation pattern onto a solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector interfaced with a digital computer. The precision of detection in a real light microscopic optical system is discussed in relation to the type of image detector, optical contract enhancement techniques, and digital image processing. The optical performance of the direct striation pattern image apparatus has been determined empirically with test grids under standard bright-field and Nomarski-differential interference contrast (DIC) conditions for application to real muscle imaging. Discrete striation positions of isolated cells have been detected and followed with high precision during phasic contraction-relaxation cycles down to average sarcomere lengths as short as 1.43 +/- 0.053 microns. The maximum rates of contraction and relaxation are rapid and synchronous in time course along the length of the cell. These results indicate that direct optical imaging can provide an accurate means to monitor discrete striations and sarcomere lengths along the length of Ca2+-tolerant heart cells. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 PMID:7183337

  16. Efficacy of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation compared to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for adult cardiac arrest patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chiwon; Kim, Wonhee; Cho, Youngsuk; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Lim, Tae Ho

    2016-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to compare the impact of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) to that of conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR) in adult patients who experience cardiac arrest of cardiac origin. A literature search was performed using criteria set forth in a predefined protocol. Report inclusion criteria were that ECPR was compared to CCPR in adult patients with cardiac arrest of cardiac origin, and that survival and neurological outcome data were available. Exclusion criteria were reports describing non-cardiac origin arrest, review articles, editorials, and nonhuman studies. The efficacies of ECPR and CCPR were compared in terms of survival and neurological outcome. A total of 38,160 patients from 7 studies were ultimately included. ECPR showed similar survival (odds ratio [OR] 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–11.20) and neurologic outcomes (OR 3.14, 95% CI 0.66–14.85) to CCPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. For in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) patients, however, ECPR was associated with significantly better survival (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.44–3.98) and neurologic outcomes (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.38–5.02) than CCPR. Hence, ECPR may be more effective than CCPR as an adjuvant therapy for survival and neurologic outcome in cardiac-origin IHCA patients. PMID:27659306

  17. In-hospital resuscitation: recognising and responding to adults in cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth

    2016-08-17

    Survival rates following in-hospital cardiac arrest remain low. The majority of patients who survive a cardiac arrest will be in a monitored environment, have a witnessed cardiac arrest and present with a shockable rhythm, usually ventricular fibrillation. Nurses have a responsibility to preserve safety, which requires the ability to accurately assess patients for signs of deterioration in physical health, and to provide assistance when an emergency arises in practice. Nurses must work within the limits of their competence and be able to establish the urgency of a situation. Nurses in all areas of practice must be able to recognise the signs of cardiac arrest and know the prompt response sequence required to improve the patient's chances of survival. This article focuses on inpatient resuscitation in acute healthcare environments and is aimed at staff who may be the first to respond to an in-hospital cardiac arrest. This does not include specialist units such as neurosurgery, intensive therapy units and cardiac catheterisation laboratories, where medical experts are available and clinical priorities may differ. PMID:27533415

  18. Spectrally resolved time-correlated single photon counting: a novel approach for characterization of endogenous fluorescence in isolated cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Chorvat, D; Chorvatova, A

    2006-12-01

    A new setup for time-resolved fluorescence micro-spectroscopy of cells, based on multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting, was designed and tested. Here we demonstrate that the spectrometer allows fast and reproducible measurements of endogenous flavin fluorescence measured directly in living cardiac cells after excitation with visible picosecond laser diodes. Two complementary approaches for the analysis of spectrally- and time-resolved autofluorescence data are presented, comprising the fluorescence decay fitting by exponential series and the time-resolved emission spectroscopy analysis. In isolated cardiac myocytes, we observed three distinct lifetime pools with characteristic lifetime values spanning from picosecond to nanosecond range and the time-dependent red shift of the autofluorescence emission spectra. We compared obtained results to in vitro recordings of free flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and FAD in lipoamide dehydrogenase (LipDH). The developed setup combines the strength of both spectral and fluorescence lifetime analysis and provides a solid base for the study of complex systems with intrinsic fluorescence, such as identification of the individual flavinoprotein components in living cardiac cells. This approach therefore constitutes an important instrumental advancement towards redox fluorimetry of living cardiomyocytes, with the perspective of its applications in the investigation of oxidative metabolic state under pathophysiological conditions, such as ischemia and/or metabolic disorders. PMID:17033778

  19. Sufficient myocardial protection of del Nido cardioplegia regardless of ventricular mass and myocardial ischemic time in adult cardiac surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Seong; Jeong, Jin Hee; Moon, Sin Ju; Ahn, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Background Del Nido (DN) cardioplegic solution (CPS) has been widely used during pediatric cardiac surgery. However, its use in the field of adult cardiac surgery is not popular yet. We evaluated efficacy of DN cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgical patients. Methods Fifty-three adult patients (mean age, 54±16 years) who underwent cardiovascular surgery using DN cardioplegia were enrolled. Myocardial troponin I (TnI) level up to three days after surgery and early clinical outcomes were evaluated. Propensity score matching was performed to compare these results with those after surgery using blood cardioplegia (BC). Results DN cardioplegia was infused with an initial dose of 1,126±221 mL, and an additional 500 mL was reinfused in 15 patients 91 minutes after initial infusion. After release of aortic cross clamp (ACC), spontaneous defibrillation was achieved in 94.3% (50/53). The peak TnI level after surgery was 9.8 ng/mL (range, 2.0–90.2 ng/mL). Linear regression models demonstrated that neither left ventricular mass (LVM) nor ACC time was associated with increased level of peak TnI (P=0.928 and 0.595, respectively). Early mortality occurred in one patient (1.9%). Postoperative complications included atrial fibrillation (n=18, 34.0%), acute kidney injury (n=4, 7.5%), low cardiac output syndrome (n=1, 1.9%), and respiratory complications (n=1, 1.9%). Propensity score matching extracted 39 pairs. Spontaneous defibrillation was achieved more frequently in the DN than BC groups (37/39 vs. 12/39, P<0.001). Peak level and serial changes of TnI were not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.085 and 0.959, respectively). There were also no significant differences in early mortality and postoperative complication rates between the two groups. Conclusions DN cardioplegia is as effective as BC for adult patients in terms of myocardial protection and early clinical outcomes.

  20. Isolated congenital cardiac diverticulum originating from the left ventricular apex: Report of a pediatric case

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Fahrettin; Bostan, Ozlem Mehtap; Toprak, Muhammed Hamza Halil; Signak, Isik Senkaya; Cil, Ergun

    2016-01-01

    Congenital ventricular diverticulum is a rare cardiac anomaly defined as a localized protrusion of the ventricular free wall. Although, it is usually asymptomatic, complications such as embolism, infective endocarditis, and arrhythmias can occur. The diagnosis can be made by echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or catheter angiography. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice in symptomatic patients, whereas the management of asymptomatic patients often represents a therapeutic dilemma. We report here, a 9-month-old patient with asymptomatic congenital left ventricular (LV) diverticulum associated with epigastric hernia. PMID:27212863

  1. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of milrinone in adults undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, J F; Hines, R L; Royster, R L; James, R L

    1995-10-01

    Milrinone can reverse acute postischemic myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass, although neither the appropriate bolus dose nor its pharmacokinetics has been established for cardiac surgical patients. Consenting patients undergoing cardiac surgery received milrinone (25, 50, or 75 micrograms/kg) in an open-label, dose-escalating study if their cardiac index was < 3 L.min-1.m-2 after separation from bypass. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and cardiac index were determined before and after the administration of milrinone. Timed blood samples were obtained for measurement of milrinone plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic analysis. Twenty-nine of 60 consenting patients had cardiac indices < 3 L.min-1.m-2 after separation from bypass, received milrinone, and completed the protocol. All three bolus doses of milrinone significantly increased cardiac index. The 50- and 75-micrograms/kg doses produced significantly larger increases in cardiac index than the 25-micrograms/kg dose; however, the 75-micrograms/kg dose did not produce a significantly larger increase in cardiac index than did the 50-micrograms/kg dose. Two of 10 patients receiving milrinone 25 micrograms/kg, but no patient receiving either 50 or 75 micrograms/kg, required early epinephrine rescue when the cardiac index failed to increase by > 15%. The 75-micrograms/kg dose was associated with a case of ventricular tachycardia. The three-compartment model better described milrinone drug disposition than the two-compartment model by both visual inspection and Schwartz-Bayesian criterion. There was only limited evidence of dose-dependence, so data from all three doses are reported together (and normalized to the 50-micrograms/kg dose). Data from one patient was discarded (samples mislabeled). Using mixed-effects nonlinear regression (for n = 28), the following volumes were determined for the three compartments: V1 = 11.1 L, V2 = 16.9 L, and V3 = 363 L

  2. Non dominant-negative KCNJ2 gene mutations leading to Andersen-Tawil syndrome with an isolated cardiac phenotype.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Maren M; Zumhagen, Sven; Netter, Michael F; Coffey, Alison J; Grace, Andrew; Rogers, Jane; Böckelmann, Doris; Rinné, Susanne; Stallmeyer, Birgit; Decher, Niels; Schulze-Bahr, Eric

    2013-05-01

    Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by dysmorphic features, periodic paralyses and abnormal ventricular repolarization. After genotyping a large set of patients with congenital long-QT syndrome, we identified two novel, heterozygous KCNJ2 mutations (p.N318S, p.W322C) located in the C-terminus of the Kir2.1 subunit. These mutations have a different localization than classical ATS mutations which are mostly located at a potential interaction face with the slide helix or at the interface between the C-termini. Mutation carriers were without the key features of ATS, causing an isolated cardiac phenotype. While the N318S mutants regularly reached the plasma membrane, W322C mutants primarily resided in late endosomes. Co-expression of N318S or W322C with wild-type Kir2.1 reduced current amplitudes only by 20-25 %. This mild loss-of-function for the heteromeric channels resulted from defective channel trafficking (W322C) or gating (N318S). Strikingly, and in contrast to the majority of ATS mutations, neither mutant caused a dominant-negative suppression of wild-type Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 currents. Thus, a mild reduction of native Kir2.x currents by non dominant-negative mutants may cause ATS with an isolated cardiac phenotype.

  3. Cardiac and pulmonary anaphylaxis in guinea pigs and rabbits induced by glycoprotein isolated from tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, R.; Zavecz, J.H.; Burke, J.A.; Becker, C.G.

    1982-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for heart attack. The pathologic mechanisms responsible for this association are obscure. It has been reported that approximately one-third of human volunteers, smokers and nonsmokers, exhibit immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to a glycoprotein antigen (TGP) purified from cured tobacco leaves and present in cigarette smoke. It is also known that the heart is a primary target organ for anaphylactic reaction in many animals, including primates. In experiments described herein anaphylaxis was induced in the isolated hearts and lungs of rabbits and guinea pigs previously sensitized by immunization with TGP and challenged with TGP isolated from either tobacco leaf or cigarette smoke condensate. Cardiac anaphylaxis was characterized by sinus tachycardia, decreased contractility, decreased coronary perfusion accompanied by hypoxic electrocardiographic changes, and a variety of rhythm disturbances, including idioventricular tachyarrhythmias. These observations suggest that allergic reactions to tobacco constituents may initiate cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death in some smokers and may, in part, underly the association between cigarette smoking and heart attack.

  4. Isolation of Bacillus cereus in the feces of healthy adults in Taipei City.

    PubMed

    Yea, C L; Lee, C L; Pan, T M; Horng, C B

    1994-08-01

    Fecal specimens from 100 healthy adults were collected and examined for the presence of Bacillus cereus which has been associated with 28% of the outbreaks of food poisoning on Taiwan within the last 3 years. Total isolate rate from these specimens was 8%. Variations in isolation rates were found not only in sexes, but also in different age-groups. Therefore, presence of B. cereus in the feces of healthy adults may be unpredictable and relate to foods consumed or to other factors. Obviously, an isolation rate of B. cereus as high as 30% during the outbreak investigation is still not a strong evidence to implicate this organism as an etiological agent.

  5. Pro: early extubation in the operating room following cardiac surgery in adults.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karen E; Baum, Victor C

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence that the general current approach in many centers of continued mechanical ventilation following cardiac surgery has evolved through historical experience rather than having a strong physiological basis in current practice. There is evidence going back several decades supporting very early (in the operating room [OR]) extubation in pediatric cardiac anesthesia. The authors provide evidence from numerous sources showing that extubation in the OR or shortly after arrival in the ICU is safe and cost-effective and is not prevented by the type of cardiac surgery or the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. They query if the paradigm should not be reversed and very early extubation be the routine unless contraindicated. Like any anesthetic technique, appropriate patient selection is called for, but this technique is widely appropriate. PMID:22798230

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Associated Factor 2 Signaling Provokes Adverse Cardiac Remodeling in the Adult Mammalian Heart

    PubMed Central

    Divakaran, Vijay G.; Evans, Sarah; Topkara, Veli K.; Diwan, Abhinav; Burchfield, Jana; Gao, Feng; Dong, Jianwen; Tzeng, Huei-Ping; Sivasubramanian, Natarajan; Barger, Philip M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily ligands that provoke a dilated cardiac phenotype signal through a common scaffolding protein termed TNF receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2); however, virtually nothing is known with regard to TRAF2 signaling in the adult mammalian heart. Methods and Results We generated multiple founder lines of mice with cardiac restricted overexpression of TRAF2 and characterized the phenotype of mice with higher expression levels of TRAF2 (MHC-TRAF2HC). MHC-TRAF2HC transgenic mice developed a time-dependent increase in cardiac hypertrophy, LV dilation and adverse LV remodeling, and a significant decrease in LV +dP/dt and −dP/dt when compared to littermate (LM) controls (p < 0.05 compared to LM). During the early phases of LV remodeling there was a significant increase in total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity that corresponded with a decrease in total myocardial fibrillar collagen content. As the MHC-TRAF2HC mice aged, there was a significant decrease in total MMP activity accompanied by an increase in total fibrillar collagen content and an increase in myocardial tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels. There was a significant increase in NF-κB activation at 4 – 12 weeks and JNK activation at 4 weeks in the MHCs TRAF2HC mice. Transciptional profiling revealed that > 95% of the hypertrophic/dilated cardiomyopathy-related genes that were significantly upregulated genes in the MHC-TRAF2HC hearts contained κB elements in their promoters. Conclusions These results show for the first time that targeted overexpression of TRAF2 is sufficient to mediate adverse cardiac remodeling in the heart. PMID:23493088

  7. Cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression protects cardiac noradrenergic nerve terminals from damage by Trypanosoma cruzi infection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Guerra, L B; Andrade, L O; Galvão, L M; Macedo, A M; Machado, C R

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi-infected juvenile rats develop severe cardiac sympathetic denervation in parallel with acute myocarditis. This aspect has not been studied in adult rats, thought to be resistant to this infection. The mechanism involved in T. cruzi-induced neuronal damage remains to be completely elucidated. In juvenile rats, the mortality during the acute phase depends on T. cruzi populations, ranging from 30% to 100%. Therefore, studies of mechanisms through hazardous procedures such as immunosuppression are restricted. The current paper shows that adult rats infected with T. cruzi (Y strain) develop severe acute myocarditis and cardiac sympathetic denervation, despite null mortality and virtual absence of patent parasitaemia followed by negative haemoculture. Recovery from the myocarditis and denervation occurred but PCR studies showed persistence of parasite DNA at least until day 111 post inoculation. Immunosuppression by cyclophosphamide treatment increased the parasitaemia, prevented the acute myocarditis and the sympathetic denervation without significant alteration of the myocardial parasitism. These results argue against a direct role for parasite-derived products and implicate the inflammatory cells in the denervation process. As previous studies in juvenile animals have discarded an essential role for radiosensitive cells, the macrophages remain as the possible effectors for the T. cruzi-induced neuronal damage.

  8. 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Training Standards and Maintenance of Competency in Adult Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin S; Guerra, Peter G; Krahn, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    The last guidelines on training for adult cardiac electrophysiology (EP) were published by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society in 1996. Since then, substantial changes in the knowledge and practice of EP have mandated a review of the previous guidelines by the Canadian Heart Rhythm Society, an affiliate of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Novel tools and techniques also now allow electrophysiologists to map and ablate increasingly complex arrhythmias previously managed with pharmacologic or device therapy. Furthermore, no formal attempt had previously been made to standardize EP training across the country. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Training Standards and Maintenance of Competency in Adult Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology represent a consensus arrived at by panel members from both societies, as well as EP program directors across Canada and other select contributors. In describing program requirements, the technical and cognitive skills that must be acquired to meet training standards, as well as the minimum number of procedures needed in order to acquire these skills, the new guidelines provide EP program directors and committee members with a template to develop an appropriate curriculum for EP training for cardiology fellows here in Canada.

  9. Clinical islet isolation and transplantation outcomes with deceased cardiac death donors are similar to neurological determination of death donors.

    PubMed

    Andres, Axel; Kin, Tatsuya; O'Gorman, Doug; Livingstone, Scott; Bigam, David; Kneteman, Norman; Senior, Peter; Shapiro, A M James

    2016-01-01

    In islet transplantation, deceased cardiac death (DCD) donation has been identified as a potential extended source. There are currently no studies comparing outcomes between these categories, and our goal was to compare islet isolation success rates and transplantation outcomes between DCD and neurological determination of death (NDD) donors. Islet isolations from 15 DCD and 418 NDD were performed in our centre between September 2008 and September 2014. Donor variables, islet yields, metabolic function of isolated isled and insulin requirements at 1-month post-transplant were compared. Compared to NDD, pancreata from DCD were more often procured locally and donors required less vasopressive support (P < 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively), but the other variables were similar between groups. Pre- and postpurification islet yields were similar between NDD and DCD (576 vs. 608 × 10(3) islet equivalent, P = 0.628 and 386 vs. 379, P = 0.881, respectively). The metabolic function was similar between NDD and DCD, as well as the mean decrease in insulin requirement at 1-month post-transplantation (NDD: 64.82%; DCD: 60.17% reduction, P = 0.517). These results support the broader use of DCD pancreata for islet isolation. A much larger DCD islet experience will be required to truly determine noninferiority of both short- and long-term outcomes.

  10. The color isolation effect in free recall by adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, I N; Borter, S J

    1987-07-01

    The free recall of an isolated picture by 40 institutionalized adults with Down syndrome was investigated. Subjects were matched on the basis of IQ, CA, and length of institutionalization and divided into two groups. They were shown 10 pictures of common objects with (experimental) or without (control) the 6th picture printed in vivid color. Oral free recall immediately followed. The serial position curve of the control group lacked both the primacy and recency effects. Although overall recall performance remained unaffected, the experimental group recalled the isolated picture more frequently than did the control group. Results suggested that better memory of the isolate resulted from selective attention-encoding, which was induced by isolation. There appears to be a similarity between the adults with Down syndrome and nonretarded individuals in learning an isolated item.

  11. Lay Referral Patterns Involved in Cardiac Treatment Decision Making among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Amey, Cheryl H.; Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Muldoon, Susan B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined age and contextually related factors that are influential in lay referral patterns during cardiac treatment decision making. Design and Methods: A complementary design was used. The Myocardial Infarction (MI) Onset Study identified demographic correlates of who sought medical care for 1,388 MI (heart attack) survivors.…

  12. Past, present, and future of long-term mechanical cardiac support in adults.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Stefan; Klocke, Anna; Autschbach, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    The growing number of heart failure patients and the scarcity of donor organs give rise to the development of mechanical circulatory support devices for a long-term support. After approximately 15 years of experience, these devices should be critically evaluated. The presented article gives an overview on the currently most often used mechanical circulatory support systems, describes the indications for implantation (bridge to cardiac transplantation, destination therapy, and bridge to recovery), the complications like bleeding, thromboembolic events, infections, and technical failures, and analyzes the costs of this therapy. Furthermore, alternative treatment options like cardiac transplantation, coronary artery bypass grafting, cardiac valve surgery, defibrillator implantation, multisite pacing, dynamic and passive cardiomyoplasty, partial left ventriculectomy (PLV), Myosplint implantation (Myocor, Maple Grove, MN, USA), stem cell therapy, and xenotransplantation are shortly presented, and the future of mechanical support devices is discussed. Despite a great number of patients benefitting from mechanical support devices, the treatment with these devices will only compete with other therapeutic strategies if the rates of complications and technical failures as well as the costs are significantly reduced. Furthermore, innovative therapies like biochemical influencing of the cardiac metabolism have a high potential and may play an important role in the future.

  13. Na(+)-K+ pump cycle during beta-adrenergic stimulation of adult rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, M; Hastings, S L; Stimers, J R

    1998-03-01

    1. The mechanisms underlying the increase in Na(+)-K+ pump current (Ip) caused by adrenergic stimulation were investigated in cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique at 31-33 degrees C. 2. In myocytes perfused internally with 50 mM Na+ (0 K+i, 20 nM Ca2+, caesium aspartate solution) and externally with 5.4 mM K+o, noradrenaline (NA) and isoprenaline (Iso) (1-50 microM) stimulated Ip by 40-45%. 3. Na(+)-dependent transient Ip measurements with 0 mM K+i and 0 mM K+o revealed no change in the total charge transferred by the Na(+)-K+ pump during the conformational change, suggesting that the pump site density was not changed by adrenergic stimulation (2630 +/- 370 pumps micron-2 in control and 2540 +/- 190 pumps micron-2 in the presence of 10 microM NA). 4. With saturating Na+i or K+o (150 and 15-20 mM, respectively), Ip was still stimulated by NA and Iso. Thus, there was no indication that adrenergic activation of the Na(+)-K+ pump was mediated by accumulation of Na+i and K+o or changes in the Na(+)-K+ pump affinity for Na+i and K+o. 5. Both Ip and its increase under adrenergic stimulation were found to depend on [K+]i. While steady-state Ip decreased from 2.2 +/- 0.1 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 pA pF-1 (P < 0.05), the stimulation of Ip by 10 microM Iso increased from 0.38 +/- 0.04 to 0.67 +/- 0.06 pA pF-1 (P < 0.05) with an increase in [K+]i from 0 to 100 mM. 6. Under conditions that cause the Ip-Vm (membrane potential) relationship to express a positive slope ([Na+]o, 150 mM; [K+]o, 5.4 mM) or a negative slope ([Na+]o, 0; [K+]o, 0.3 mM) Iso stimulated Ip with no change in the shape of Ip-Vm curves. Thus, adrenergic stimulation of the Na(+)-K+ pump was not due to an alteration of voltage-dependent steps of the pump cycle. 7. Simulation of these data with a six-step model of the Na(+)-K+ pump cycle suggested that in rat ventricular myocytes a signal from adrenergic receptors increased the Na(+)-K+ pump rate by modulating the rate of K+ de

  14. Release kinetics of cardiac troponin T in coronary effluent from isolated rat hearts during hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Asayama, J; Yamahara, Y; Ohta, B; Miyazaki, H; Tatsumi, T; Matsumoto, T; Inoue, D; Nakagawa, M

    1992-01-01

    A newly developed troponin T (TnT) test for the detection of myocardial cell necrosis has been reported to be very efficient in the detection of acute myocardial infarction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cardiac TnT in coronary effluent from isolated heart perfused with albumin-free perfusion medium could be detected using the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay developed by Katus et al. Isolated rat hearts were perfused according to the method of Langendorff. Coronary flow rate was measured by timed collection of the coronary perfusate that dripped from the hearts during 5 h of hypoxia (protocol A) or 4 h of hypoxia followed by 1 h of reoxygenation (protocol B). Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) levels were compared with that of TnT. Myocardial adenine nucleotides were measured by HPLC. There was a strong correlation between TnT levels in albumin-free coronary effluent and TnT levels in coronary effluent diluted 1:1 with 5% bovine serum albumin (r = 0.996, N = 72). The coefficients of correlation between TnT and CK or LD during hypoxia and reoxygenation were 0.891 (N = 88) and 0.871 (N = 88), respectively. The coefficient of correlation between CK and LD was 0.993 (N = 88). There were no significant differences in either the decrease of coronary flow or the increase of TnT content between the hearts in the two protocols. There was no significant correlation between sigma TnT and energy charge of adenine nucleotides. These results indicate that cardiac TnT levels can be easily measured in albumin-free coronary effluent of isolated heart preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Acquisition of multiple nuclei and the activity of DNA polymerase alpha and reinitiation of DNA replication in terminally differentiated adult cardiac muscle cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Claycomb, W.C.; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Terminally differentiated ventricular cardiac muscle cells isolated from the adult rat and maintained in cell culture have been observed to acquire multiple nuclei. In one cultured myocyte as many as 10 nuclei have been counted. Apparently, these multiple nuclei are formed by DNA replication followed by karyokinesis; the cells must then fail to complete mitosis and divide. To investigate whether DNA synthesis was occurring, the cells were cultured in the presence of (3H)thymidine and then processed for autoradiography. Mononucleated, binucleated, and multinucleated cells incorporate (3H)thymidine into DNA as evidenced by the high concentration of silver grains over their nuclei. Peak periods of incorporation were observed to occur at 10- to 12-day intervals; at 11, 23, and 33 days after initially placing the cells in culture. When the cells were maintained in the presence of (3H)thymidine continuously from Day 7 to Day 17 of culture, 23% of the cells became labeled. If the cells were cultured continuously for 30 days in the presence of (3H)thymidine, from Day 10 to Day 40, 56% of the cells were labeled. Isopycnic gradient analysis indicates that this thymidine incorporation was into DNA that was being replicated semiconservatively; these experiments did not eliminate the possibility, however, that this incorporation was due to amplification of specific genes, such as those coding for the contractile proteins. The activity of DNA polymerase alpha also returns to these cells. These studies demonstrate that the terminally differentiated mammalian ventricular cardiac muscle cell, previously thought to have permanently lost the capacity to replicate DNA during early development, is able to reinitiate semiconservative DNA replication when grown in culture.

  16. Cardiac mechanics in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: a study of systolic myocardial deformation in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Naami, Ghassan; Kiblawi, Fuad; Kest, Helen; Hamdan, Ayman; Myridakis, Dorothy

    2014-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes dysfunction of different organ systems. Myocardial diastolic dysfunction has been reported previously in an adult HIV population. Our aim was to study myocardial strain in children and young adults infected by HIV who have apparently normal ejection fraction. Forty HIV-infected patients (mean age 20.6 ± 1.5 years) with normal ejection fraction and 55 matched normal controls (mean age 17 ± 1.5 years) were studied by two-dimensional echocardiogram. The images were stored then exported to velocity vector imaging software for analysis. Measures considered were left-ventricular peak global systolic strain (LV S) and strain rate (LV SR) as well as right-ventricular peak global systolic strain (RV S) and strain rate (RV SR). Circumferential measures of the left ventricle included the following: LV circumferential peak global systolic strain (LV circ S), strain rate (LV circ SR), radial velocity (LV rad vel), and rotational velocity (LV rot vel) at the level of the mitral valve. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The means of all longitudinal deformation parameters were significantly lower in HIV patients compared with normal controls: LV S (-14.15 vs. -19.31), LV SR (-0.88 vs. -1.30), RV S (-19.58 vs. -25.09), and RV SR (-1.34 vs. -2.13), respectively (p < 0.05). LV rot vel was lower in patients compared with controls (43.23 vs. 51.71, p = 0.025). LV circ S, LV circ SR, and LV rad vel showed no significant difference between the two groups (p ≥ 0.05). HIV infection affects longitudinal systolic cardiac strain and strain rate in children and young adults. Normal ejection fraction might be attributed to preserved circumferential myocardial deformation. Strain and strain rate may help identify HIV patients at high risk for cardiac dysfunction and allow early detection of silent myocardial depression.

  17. Isolation, culture and analysis of adult subependymal neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, Germán; Domingo-Muelas, Ana; Ferrón, Sacri R; Morante-Redolat, José Manuel; Fariñas, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Individual cells dissected from the subependymal neurogenic niche of the adult mouse brain proliferate in medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) as mitogens, to produce multipotent clonal aggregates called neurospheres. These cultures constitute a powerful tool for the study of neural stem cells (NSCs) provided that they allow the analysis of their features and potential capacity in a controlled environment that can be modulated and monitored more accurately than in vivo. Clonogenic and population analyses under mitogen addition or withdrawal allow the quantification of the self-renewing and multilineage potency of these cells and the identification of the mechanisms involved in these properties. Here, we describe a set of procedures developed and/or modified by our group including several experimental options that can be used either independently or in combination for the ex vivo assessment of cell properties of NSCs obtained from the adult subependymal niche. PMID:27016251

  18. Age, stress, and isolation in older adults living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Longenecker, Chris T.; Gripshover, Barbara; Hanson, Jan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Salata, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have increasingly longer life spans. This age group faces different challenges than younger PLWH, which may include increased stress and social isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine if the age and sex of PLWH is associated with measures of physiologic stress, perceived stress and social isolation. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 102 PLWH equally into four groups divided by age (< or > 50 years) and gender. Participants completed well-validated survey measurements of stress and isolation, and their heart rate variability over 60 minutes was measured by Holter monitor. The mean (standard deviation) Perceived Stress Scale score was 17.4 (6.94), mean visual analog stress scale score was 3.51 (2.79), and mean Hawthorne Friendship Scale score, a measure of social isolation, was 17.03 (4.84). Mean heart rate variability expressed as the standard deviation of successive N-N intervals was 65.47 (31.16) msec. In multivariable regression models that controlled for selected demographic variables, there was no relationship between the Perceived Stress Scale and age (coefficient=−0.09, p=−.23) or female gender (coefficient=−0.12, p=0.93); however, there was a modest relationship between female gender and stress using the visual analog stress scale (coefficient=1.24, p=0.05). Perceived Stress was negatively associated with the Hawthorne Friendship score (coefficient=−0.34, p=0.05). Hawthorne Friendship score was positively associated with younger age (coefficient=0.11, p=0.02). Age was the only independent predictor of physiologic stress as measured by heart rate variability (coefficient=−1.3, p<0.01). Our findings suggest that younger PLWH may experience more social isolation; however, age-related changes in heart rate variability do not appear to be related to perceived stress or social isolation. Future longitudinal research is required to more thoroughly understand this relationship and its impact on the

  19. Care for the adult family members of victims of unexpected cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, Robert; Gillum, Richard F; Quest, Tammie E; Griffith, James L

    2006-12-01

    More than 300,000 sudden coronary deaths occur annually in the United States, despite declining cardiovascular death rates. In 2000, deaths from heart disease left an estimated 190,156 new widows and 68,493 new widowers. A major unanswered question for emergency providers is whether the immediate care of the loved ones left behind by the deceased should be a therapeutic task for the staff of the emergency department in the aftermath of a fatal cardiac arrest. Based on a review of the literature, the authors suggest that more research is needed to answer this question, to assess the current immediate needs and care of survivors, and to find ways to improve care of the surviving family of unexpected cardiac death victims. This would include improving quality of death disclosure, improving care for relatives during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of their family member, and improved methods of referral for services for prevention of psychological and cardiovascular morbidity during bereavement. PMID:16946285

  20. O-GlcNAcylation Negatively Regulates Cardiomyogenic Fate in Adult Mouse Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zafir, Ayesha; Bradley, James A.; Long, Bethany W.; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar; Li, Qianhong; Hill, Bradford G.; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bolli, Roberto; Jones, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    In both preclinical and clinical studies, cell transplantation of several cell types is used to promote repair of damaged organs and tissues. Nevertheless, despite the widespread use of such strategies, there remains little understanding of how the efficacy of cell therapy is regulated. We showed previously that augmentation of a unique, metabolically derived stress signal (i.e., O-GlcNAc) improves survival of cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells; however, it is not known whether enhancing O-GlcNAcylation affects lineage commitment or other aspects of cell competency. In this study, we assessed the role of O-GlcNAc in differentiation of cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells. Exposure of these cells to routine differentiation protocols in culture increased markers of the cardiomyogenic lineage such as Nkx2.5 and connexin 40, and augmented the abundance of transcripts associated with endothelial and fibroblast cell fates. Differentiation significantly decreased the abundance of O-GlcNAcylated proteins. To determine if O-GlcNAc is involved in stromal cell differentiation, O-GlcNAcylation was increased pharmacologically during the differentiation protocol. Although elevated O-GlcNAc levels did not significantly affect fibroblast and endothelial marker expression, acquisition of cardiomyocyte markers was limited. In addition, increasing O-GlcNAcylation further elevated smooth muscle actin expression. In addition to lineage commitment, we also evaluated proliferation and migration, and found that increasing O-GlcNAcylation did not significantly affect either; however, we found that O-GlcNAc transferase—the protein responsible for adding O-GlcNAc to proteins—is at least partially required for maintaining cellular proliferative and migratory capacities. We conclude that O-GlcNAcylation contributes significantly to cardiac mesenchymal stromal cell lineage and function. O-GlcNAcylation and pathological conditions that may affect O-GlcNAc levels (such as diabetes) should be

  1. Management of intraoperative fluid balance and blood conservation techniques in adult cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Vretzakis, George; Kleitsaki, Athina; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2011-02-01

    Blood transfusions are associated with adverse physiologic effects and increased cost, and therefore reduction of blood product use during surgery is a desirable goal for all patients. Cardiac surgery is a major consumer of donor blood products, especially when cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used, because hematocrit drops precipitously during CPB due to blood loss and blood cell dilution. Advanced age, low preoperative red blood cell volume (preoperative anemia or small body size), preoperative antiplatelet or antithrombotic drugs, complex or re-operative procedures or emergency operations, and patient comorbidities were identified as important transfusion risk indicators in a report recently published by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. This report also identified several pre- and intraoperative interventions that may help reduce blood transfusions, including off-pump procedures, preoperative autologous blood donation, normovolemic hemodilution, and routine cell saver use.A multimodal approach to blood conservation, with high-risk patients receiving all available interventions, may help preserve vital organ perfusion and reduce blood product utilization. In addition, because positive intravenous fluid balance is a significant factor affecting hemodilution during cardiac surgery, especially when CPB is used, strategies aimed at limiting intraoperative fluid balance positiveness may also lead to reduced blood product utilization.This review discusses currently available techniques that can be used intraoperatively in an attempt to avoid or minimize fluid balance positiveness, to preserve the patient's own red blood cells, and to decrease blood product utilization during cardiac surgery. PMID:21345774

  2. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery: attachment to and accumulation on sternal fixation stainless steel wires.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Emma; Friberg, Orjan; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Koskela, Anita; Källman, Jan; Söderquist, Bo

    2007-02-01

    Sternal wound infection (SWI) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have been found to be the most common pathogen involved in this postoperative infection related to implanted foreign materials, i.e. sternal fixation wires made from stainless steel. In this study a rapid and simple assay was developed for studying attachment and accumulation of CoNS on stainless steel wires in vitro using [(3)H] thymidine. The method showed a potential to detect differences in the dynamics of the adherence patterns among various CoNS isolates. However, no differences in attachment and accumulation were found between isolates causing deep SWI after cardiac surgery and contaminant isolates. In addition, there were no differences in the distribution of the ica operon between the two groups, as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nevertheless, the ability to produce biofilm was found to be present significantly more frequently among SWI isolates than among contaminants.

  3. Adult abdominal Burkitt lymphoma with isolated peritoneal involvement.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Catarina; Matos, Hugo; Serra, Paula; Catarino, Rui; Estevão, Amélia

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a fast-growing high grade B-cell neoplasm that rarely affects adults. Three clinical variants are described in the World Health Organization classification: endemic, sporadic, and immunodeficiency-associated. The non-endemic form typically presents as an abdominal mass in children. Symptoms usually occur due to mass effect or direct intestinal involvement. We describe a very unusual presentation of a sporadic Burkitt lymphoma case in a 61-year-old male with diffuse peritoneal and omental involvement, without lymphadenopathies, mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  4. Cardiac catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization; CAD - cardiac catheterization; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization; Heart valve - cardiac catheterization; Heart failure - ...

  5. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of isolated cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, J; Lynch, R M; Balaban, R S

    1989-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) plays a critical role in oxidative phosphorylation as the primary source of reducing equivalents to the respiratory chain. Using a modified fluorescence microscope, we have obtained spectra and images of the blue autofluorescence from single rat cardiac myocytes. The optical setup permitted rapid acquisition of fluorescence emission spectra (390-595 nm) or intensified digital video images of individual myocytes. The spectra showed a broad fluorescence centered at 447 +/- 0.2 nm, consistent with mitochondrial NADH. Addition of cyanide resulted in a 100 +/- 10% increase in fluorescence, while the uncoupler FCCP resulted in a 82 +/- 4% decrease. These two transitions were consistent with mitochondrial NADH and implied that the myocytes were 44 +/- 6% reduced under the resting control conditions. Intracellular fluorescent structures were observed that correlated with the distribution of a mitochondrial selective fluorescent probe (DASPMI), the mitochondrial distribution seen in published electron micrographs, and a metabolic digital subtraction image of the cyanide fluorescence transition. These data are consistent with the notion that the blue autofluorescence of rat cardiac myocytes originates from mitochondrial NADH. Images FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 PMID:2720061

  6. Cardiac Conduction Safety during Coadministration of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir in HIV-Infected Ugandan Adults

    PubMed Central

    Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Lamorde, Mohammed; Lwabi, Peter; Nyakoojo, Wilson B.; Okaba-Kayom, Violet; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Boffito, Marta; Katabira, Elly; Back, David; Khoo, Saye; Merry, Concepta

    2011-01-01

    Background. We aimed to assess cardiac conduction safety of coadministration of the CYP3A4 inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and the CYP3A4 substrate artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in HIV-positive Ugandans. Methods. Open-label safety study of HIV-positive adults administered single-dose AL (80/400 mg) alone or with LPV/r (400/100 mg). Cardiac function was monitored using continuous electrocardiograph (ECG). Results. Thirty-two patients were enrolled; 16 taking LPV/r -based ART and 16 ART naïve. All took single dose AL. No serious adverse events were observed. ECG parameters in milliseconds remained within normal limits. QTc measurements did not change significantly over 72 hours although were higher in LPV/r arm at 24 (424 versus 406; P = .02) and 72 hours (424 versus 408; P = .004) after AL intake. Conclusion. Coadministration of single dose of AL with LPV/r was safe; however, safety of six-dose AL regimen with LPV/r should be investigated. PMID:22312553

  7. Sublethal exposure to crude oil during embryonic development alters cardiac morphology and reduces aerobic capacity in adult fish

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Corinne E.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baldwin, David H.; Willis, Maryjean L.; Myers, Mark S.; Holland, Larry; Larsen, Marie; Stekoll, Michael S.; Rice, Stanley D.; Collier, Tracy K.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of crude oil produces a lethal syndrome of heart failure in fish embryos. Mortality is caused by cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous components of petroleum. Here, we show that transient embryonic exposure to very low concentrations of oil causes toxicity that is sublethal, delayed, and not counteracted by the protective effects of cytochrome P450 induction. Nearly a year after embryonic oil exposure, adult zebrafish showed subtle changes in heart shape and a significant reduction in swimming performance, indicative of reduced cardiac output. These delayed physiological impacts on cardiovascular performance at later life stages provide a potential mechanism linking reduced individual survival to population-level ecosystem responses of fish species to chronic, low-level oil pollution. PMID:21482755

  8. Extrinsic cardiac nerve segments in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris- Linnaeus, 1758). Comparative study in young and adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Brugnaro, M; De Souza, R R; Ribeiro, A A C M

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, important connections between the two main contingents of the autonomic nervous system, intrinsic and extrinsic visceral plexus were analysed. Concerning heart innervation, the territories of extrinsic innervation are very important in the treatment of congenital or acquired cardiopathy, thoracic neoplasia and aortic arch persistence, among others. This research compared young and adult extrinsic cardiac innervation and described the surgical anatomic nerve segments. Animals were perfused with a 10% formaldehyde solution in PBS (0.1 m) (pH 7.4) and submitted to macro- and meso-scopic dissection immersed in 60% acetic acid alcoholic solution and 20% hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution. The nerve segments were assigned as: right vagus nerve segment, left vagus nerve segment, right middle cervical ganglion segment, left middle cervical ganglion segment, right caudal laryngeal nerve segment, left caudal laryngeal nerve segment, right phrenic nerve segment and left phrenic nerve segment.

  9. Evaluation of the influence of pulmonary hypertension in ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paulo Sérgio; Cartacho, Márcio Portugal Trindade; de Castro, Casimiro Cardoso; Salgado Filho, Marcello Fonseca; Brandão, Antônio Carlos Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of pulmonary hypertension in the ultra-fast-track anesthesia technique in adult cardiac surgery. Methods A retrospective study. They were included 40 patients divided into two groups: GI (without pulmonary hypertension) and GII (with pulmonary hypertension). Based on data obtained by transthoracic echocardiography. We considered as the absence of pulmonary hypertension: a pulmonary artery systolic pressure (sPAP) <36 mmHg, with tricuspid regurgitation velocity <2.8 m/s and no additional echocardiographic signs of PH, and PH as presence: a sPAP >40 mmHg associated with additional echocardiographic signs of PH. It was established as influence of pulmonary hypertension: the impossibility of extubation in the operating room, the increase in the time interval for extubation and reintubation the first 24 hours postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed when necessary. Considered significant a P value <0.05. Results The GI was composed of 21 patients and GII for 19. All patients (100%) were extubated in the operating room in a medium time interval of 17.58±8.06 min with a median of 18 min in GII and 17 min in GI. PH did not increase the time interval for extubation (P=0.397). It required reintubation of 2 patients in GII (5% of the total), without statistically significant as compared to GI (P=0.488). Conclusion In this study, pulmonary hypertension did not influence on ultra-fast-track anesthesia in adult cardiac surgery. PMID:27163419

  10. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  11. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation

  12. Novel biomarkers for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in adults

    PubMed Central

    Kališnik, Jurij Matija

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is a common and serious complication and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of acute kidney injury is based on the serum creatinine levels which rise several hours to days after the initial injury. Thus, novel biomarkers that will enable faster diagnosis are needed in clinical practice. There are numerous urine and serum proteins that indicate kidney injury and are under extensive research. Despite promising basic research results and assembled data, which indicate superiority of some biomarkers to creatinine, we are still awaiting clinical application. PMID:27212976

  13. Clutter isolation and cardiac monitoring using harmonic doppler radar with heterodyne receiver and passive RF tags.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya; Lubecke, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A harmonic radar employing the use of harmonic passive RF tags can be successfully used to isolate the human respiration from environmental clutter. This paper describes the successful use of heterodyne receiver architecture with Doppler radar to track the heart-rate of a human being using passive body-worn harmonic tags in presence of a controlled noise generator at distances up to 120 cm. The heterodyne system results have been compared with those of a conventional Doppler radar for cardiopulmonary monitoring that fails to isolate the noise from heart-rate in presence of a noise source.

  14. The Impact of Team-Based Learning's Readiness Assurance Process on Virtually Isolated Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the readiness assurance process of team-based learning (TBL) in virtually isolated settings. Many Internet sites offer courses for adults to use on their own without access to mentors or other learners. However, educational theory suggests that people learn better with others than by…

  15. Cancer survivorship: cardiotoxic therapy in the adult cancer patient; cardiac outcomes with recommendations for patient management.

    PubMed

    Steingart, Richard M; Yadav, Nandini; Manrique, Carlos; Carver, Joseph R; Liu, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Many types of cancer are now curable or, if not cured, becoming a chronic illness. In 2012, it was estimated that there were more than 13,500,000 cancer survivors in the United States. Late outcomes of these survivors are increasingly related to cardiovascular disease, either as a consequence of the direct effects of cancer therapy or its adverse effects on traditional cardiac risk factors (eg, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus). This article describes the therapies that have led to advances in cancer survival and the acute and chronic cardiovascular toxicities associated with these therapies. Recommendations are made for the surveillance and management of cancer survivors. Published guidelines on the subject of cardio-oncology are reviewed in light of clinical experience caring for these patients. To supplement this cancer-related knowledge base, appropriateness criteria and guidelines for cardiac care in the general population were extrapolated to cancer survivors. The result is a series of recommendations for surveillance and management of cardiovascular disease in cancer survivors. PMID:24331191

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Renal Function After Adult Cardiac Surgery With Pulsatile Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Nam, Myung Ji; Lim, Choon Hak; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Yong Hwi; Choi, Hyuk; Son, Ho Sung; Lim, Hae Ja; Sun, Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether pulsatile perfusion during cardiac surgery has a lesser effect on renal dysfunction than nonpulsatile perfusion after cardiac surgery in randomized controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used to identify available articles published before April 25, 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of pulsatile perfusion on postoperative renal functions, as determined by creatinine clearance (CrCl), serum creatinine (Cr), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and the incidences of acute renal insufficiency (ARI) and acute renal failure (ARF). Nine studies involving 674 patients that received pulsatile perfusion and 698 patients that received nonpulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were considered in the meta-analysis. Stratified analysis was performed according to effective pulsatility or unclear pulsatility of the pulsatile perfusion method in the presence of heterogeneity. NGAL levels were not significantly different between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups. However, patients in the pulsatile group had a significantly higher CrCl and lower Cr levels when the analysis was restricted to studies on effective pulsatile flow (P < 0.00001, respectively). The incidence of ARI was significantly lower in the pulsatile group (P < 0.00001), but incidences of ARF were similar. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that the use of pulsatile flow during CPB results in better postoperative renal function.

  17. Bispyridinium non-oximes: An evaluation of cardiac effects in isolated hearts and smooth muscle relaxing effects in jejunum.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, Katharina; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-09-01

    Bispyridinium non-oximes seem to be promising candidates for the generic treatment of nerve agent poisoning as they interact with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The lead compound MB327 showed therapeutic effectiveness in vitro and in vivo but was toxic at higher doses. In the present study, the effect of various bispyridinium non-oximes on isolated heart and small intestine function was investigated. Bispyridinium non-oximes and oximes were tested in at least seven different concentrations in rat jejunum preparations pre-treated with carbachol. All bispyridinium non-oximes showed classical dose response curves with MB327 being the most effective (EC50=6.6μM) and MB782 being slightly less effective (EC50=10.4μM). Neither the bispyridinium non-oximes nor the oximes showed cardiotoxic effects in the isolated Langendorff heart. The tested bispyridinum compounds showed no direct cardiac effect but had variable smooth muscle relaxing effects. Further in vivo studies are required to get more insight into potential toxic mechanisms of these promising nerve agent antidotes. PMID:27184650

  18. A factor from Trypanosoma cruzi induces repetitive cytosolic free Ca2+ transients in isolated primary canine cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, S C; Han, W; Andrews, N W; Lopez, J W; Ball, B A; Pannabecker, T L; Gilmour, R F

    1996-01-01

    An unusual 120-kDa alkaline peptidase contained in a trypomastigote soluble fraction (TSF) of Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with the induction of repetitive Ca2+ transients and subsequent invasion by the parasite of a number of mammalian cell lines, including tissue culture L6E2 myoblasts (B. A. Burleigh and N. W. Andrews, J. Biol. Chem. 270:5172-5180, 1995; S. N. J. Moreno, J. Silva, A. E. Vercesi, and R. Docampo, J. Exp. Med. 180:1535-1540, 1994; A. Rodríguez, M. G. Rioult, A. Ora, and N. W. Andrews, J. Cell Biol. 129:1263-1273, 1995; I. Tardieux, M. H. Nathanson, and N. W. Andrews, J. Exp. Med. 179:1017-1022, 1994). Using single cell spectrofluorometry and whole-cell patch clamping, we show that TSF produces rapid repetitive cytosolic Ca2+ transients (each associated with cell contraction) in primary cardiac myocytes isolated from dogs. The response of myocytes to TSF was dose dependent in that increasing numbers of cells responded to increasing concentrations of TSF. The TSF-induced Ca2+ transients could be obliterated when TSF was heated or treated with trypsin or the protease inhibitor leupeptin. Aprotinin, pepstatin A, and E-64 did not affect TSF activity. The TSF-induced Ca2+ transients and trypomastigote cell invasion could not be inhibited by alpha (prazosin)- or beta (propanolol)-adrenergic blockers or L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (verapamil, nisoldipine, or cadmium) or by removal of extracellular Ca2+. However, inhibition of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (with thapsigargin or ryanodine) prevented the TSF-induced Ca2+ transients and cell invasion by trypomastigotes. These data suggested that cardiac myocyte pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins are associated with the regulation of TSF-induced Ca2+ transients and myocyte invasion by trypomastigotes but are independent of Ca2+ entry into the cytosol via L-type Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ transients are dependent on release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic

  19. Connecting Socially Isolated Older Rural Adults with Older Volunteers through Expressive Arts.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation. PMID:26934547

  20. Evidence of heterogeneity within bovine satellite cells isolated from young and adult animals.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gonzalez, J M; Walker, D K; Hersom, M J; Ealy, A D; Johnson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Satellite cells are a heterogeneous population of myogenic precursors responsible for muscle growth and repair in mammals. The objectives of the experiment were to examine the growth rates and degree of heterogeneity within bovine satellite cells (BSC) isolated from young and adult animals. The BSC were harvested from the semimembranosus of young (4.3 ± 0.5 d) and adult (estimated 24 to 27 mo) cattle and cultured en masse. Young animal BSC re-enter the cell cycle sooner and reach maximal 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation earlier (P < 0.05) than adult contemporaries. Adult BSC contain fewer (P < 0.05) MyoD and myogenin immunopositive nuclei than BSC isolated from young animals after 3, 4, and 5 d in culture. These results indicate that BSC from young animals activate, proliferate, and differentiate sooner than isolates from adult animals. Lineage heterogeneity within BSC was examined using antibodies specific for Pax7 and Myf5, lineage markers of satellite cells, and myoblasts. Immunocytochemistry revealed the majority of Pax7-expressing BSC also express Myf5; a minor population (~5%) fails to exhibit Myf5 immunoreactivity. The percentage of Pax7:Myf5 BSC from young animals decreases sooner (P < 0.05) in culture than adult BSC, indicating a more rapid rate of muscle fiber formation. A subpopulation immunopositive for Myf5 only was identified in both ages of BSC isolates. The growth kinetics and heterogeneity of young BSC was further evaluated by clonal analysis. Single cell clones were established and analyzed after 10 d. Colonies segregated into 2 groups based upon population doubling time. Immunostaining of the slow-growing colonies (population doubling time ≥ 3 d) revealed that a portion exhibited asymmetric distribution of the lineage markers Pax7 and Myf5, similar to self-renewable mouse muscle stem cells. In summary, these results offer insight into the heterogeneity of BSC and provide evidence for subtle differences between rodent and bovine

  1. Cardiac AAV9 Gene Delivery Strategies in Adult Canines: Assessment by Long-term Serial SPECT Imaging of Sodium Iodide Symporter Expression

    PubMed Central

    Moulay, Gilles; Ohtani, Tomohito; Ogut, Ozgur; Guenzel, Adam; Behfar, Atta; Zakeri, Rosita; Haines, Philip; Storlie, Jimmy; Bowen, Lorna; Pham, Linh; Kaye, David; Sandhu, Gurpreet; O'Connor, Michael; Russell, Stephen; Redfield, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and cardiac gene delivery has the potential to provide novel therapeutic approaches. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) transduces the rodent heart efficiently, but cardiotropism, immune tolerance, and optimal delivery strategies in large animals are unclear. In this study, an AAV9 vector encoding canine sodium iodide symporter (NIS) was administered to adult immunocompetent dogs via epicardial injection, coronary infusion without and with cardiac recirculation, or endocardial injection via a novel catheter with curved needle and both end- and side-holes. As NIS mediates cellular uptake of clinical radioisotopes, expression was tracked by single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging in addition to Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Direct epicardial or endocardial injection resulted in strong cardiac expression, whereas expression after intracoronary infusion or cardiac recirculation was undetectable. A threshold myocardial injection dose that provides robust nonimmunogenic expression was identified. The extent of transmural myocardial expression was greater with the novel catheter versus straight end-hole needle delivery. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that cardiac NIS reporter gene expression and duration can be quantified using serial noninvasive SPECT imaging up to 1 year after vector administration. These data are relevant to efforts to develop cardiac gene delivery as heart failure therapy. PMID:25915925

  2. A multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized cardiac tissue constructs using adult stem sells, dynamic cell cultures, and porous scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Pagliari, Stefania; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Duim, Sjoerd; Goumans, Marie-Josè; Aoyagi, Takao; Forte, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D) cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment toward the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment. PMID:24917827

  3. Cardiac AAV9 Gene Delivery Strategies in Adult Canines: Assessment by Long-term Serial SPECT Imaging of Sodium Iodide Symporter Expression.

    PubMed

    Moulay, Gilles; Ohtani, Tomohito; Ogut, Ozgur; Guenzel, Adam; Behfar, Atta; Zakeri, Rosita; Haines, Philip; Storlie, Jimmy; Bowen, Lorna; Pham, Linh; Kaye, David; Sandhu, Gurpreet; O'Connor, Michael; Russell, Stephen; Redfield, Margaret

    2015-07-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and cardiac gene delivery has the potential to provide novel therapeutic approaches. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) transduces the rodent heart efficiently, but cardiotropism, immune tolerance, and optimal delivery strategies in large animals are unclear. In this study, an AAV9 vector encoding canine sodium iodide symporter (NIS) was administered to adult immunocompetent dogs via epicardial injection, coronary infusion without and with cardiac recirculation, or endocardial injection via a novel catheter with curved needle and both end- and side-holes. As NIS mediates cellular uptake of clinical radioisotopes, expression was tracked by single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging in addition to Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Direct epicardial or endocardial injection resulted in strong cardiac expression, whereas expression after intracoronary infusion or cardiac recirculation was undetectable. A threshold myocardial injection dose that provides robust nonimmunogenic expression was identified. The extent of transmural myocardial expression was greater with the novel catheter versus straight end-hole needle delivery. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that cardiac NIS reporter gene expression and duration can be quantified using serial noninvasive SPECT imaging up to 1 year after vector administration. These data are relevant to efforts to develop cardiac gene delivery as heart failure therapy. PMID:25915925

  4. Long-term hypothermic preservation of cardiac myocytes isolated from the neonatal rat ventricle: a comparison of various crystalloid solutions.

    PubMed

    Orita, H; Fukasawa, M; Uchino, H; Uchida, T; Shiono, S; Washio, M

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the functional and biochemical effects of crystalloid solutions on immature cardiac myocytes incubated under hypothermic conditions were evaluated. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rat ventricles and cultured for 4 days, following which 12.5 x 10(5) myocytes per flask were incubated at 4 degrees C for 3, 6, 12, and 18 h in five types of crystalloid solutions: lactated Ringer's (LR), St. Thomas' Hospital (ST), University of Wisconsin (UW), 5% glucose-based potassium (GK), and normal saline (NS). The levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the solutions were measured after each hypothermic incubation, following which the myocytes were cultured for an additional 24 h at 37 degrees C to evaluate the recovery of the myocyte beating rate. In the LR, UW, and NS groups, the recovery ratios of the myocyte beating rate were over 95% of the control (the beating rate prior to hypothermic incubation) at 3 h, but decreased to 20.3, 15.1, and 0%, respectively, at 18 h. The ST and GK groups had significantly lower recovery ratios than the other three groups (72.9% and 63.4%, respectively) at 3 h. The release of CPK and LDH in the LR, UW, and NS groups was significantly suppressed compared to the ST and GK groups, with the greatest suppression observed in the LR group. Moreover, the ST and GK groups had the highest CPK and LDH levels, respectively. Thus, LR solution had the least cytotoxic effects, indicating that it could be the most suitable basic solution of the various cardioplegic or preservation solutions during the neonatal period. PMID:7640455

  5. Cardiac misconceptions among healthy adults: implications for the promotion of health in the community.

    PubMed

    Figueiras, Maria João; Maroco, João; Monteiro, Rita; Caeiro, Raul

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to confirm the structure and to investigate the psychometric properties of an experimental Portuguese version of the York Cardiac Beliefs Questionnaire (YCBQ) in a general population sample. It also set out to identify the prevalent misconceptions in the community and to assess the differences according to socio-demographic characteristics. It involved a cross-sectional survey in which both test and validation samples were collected (n = 476), including participants aged between 18 and 40, recruited via e-mail and social networks. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis on both samples suggested a shorter, three factor version of the YCBQ. Also, misconceptions differed significantly according to sociodemographic variables. The validation of the YCBQ for samples in the community constitutes an important starting point to promote research on misconceptions held in the community by specific groups, as well as to provide key points for health promotion. PMID:25760124

  6. A toxin to nervous, cardiac, and endocrine ERG K+ channels isolated from Centruroides noxius scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Gurrola, G B; Rosati, B; Rocchetti, M; Pimienta, G; Zaza, A; Arcangeli, A; Olivotto, M; Possani, L D; Wanke, E

    1999-05-01

    Toxins isolated from a variety of venoms are tools for probing the physiological function and structure of ion channels. The ether-a-go-go-related genes (erg) codify for the K+ channels (ERG), which are crucial in neurons and are impaired in human long-QT syndrome and Drosophila 'seizure' mutants. We have isolated a peptide from the scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann that has no sequence homologies with other toxins, and demonstrate that it specifically inhibits (IC50=16+/-1 nM) only ERG channels of different species and distinct histogenesis. These results open up the possibility of investigating ERG channel structure-function relationships and novel pharmacological tools with potential therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Anatomic correction of ALCAPA in an adult presenting with sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Simry, Walid; Afifi, Ahmed; Hosny, Hatem; Elguindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a young adult with ALCAPA, who was successfully resuscitated after collapsing in ventricular fibrillation while playing football. This was followed by anatomical correction of the anomaly with a smooth recovery and return to his daily activities. The advantages of this approach are discussed in this brief report. PMID:26779521

  8. Genetic dissection of cardiac growth control pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLellan, W. R.; Schneider, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac muscle cells exhibit two related but distinct modes of growth that are highly regulated during development and disease. Cardiac myocytes rapidly proliferate during fetal life but exit the cell cycle irreversibly soon after birth, following which the predominant form of growth shifts from hyperplastic to hypertrophic. Much research has focused on identifying the candidate mitogens, hypertrophic agonists, and signaling pathways that mediate these processes in isolated cells. What drives the proliferative growth of embryonic myocardium in vivo and the mechanisms by which adult cardiac myocytes hypertrophy in vivo are less clear. Efforts to answer these questions have benefited from rapid progress made in techniques to manipulate the murine genome. Complementary technologies for gain- and loss-of-function now permit a mutational analysis of these growth control pathways in vivo in the intact heart. These studies have confirmed the importance of suspected pathways, have implicated unexpected pathways as well, and have led to new paradigms for the control of cardiac growth.

  9. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries: A Review of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement

    PubMed Central

    Cedars, Ari M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries encompasses a set of structural congenital cardiac lesions that has in common ventriculoarterial discordance. Primarily because of advances in medical and surgical care, an increasing number of children born with this anomaly are surviving into adulthood. Depending upon the subtype of lesion or the particular corrective surgery that the patient might have undergone, this group of adult congenital heart disease patients constitutes a relatively new population with unique medical sequelae. Among the more common and difficult to manage are cardiac arrhythmias and other sequelae that can lead to sudden cardiac death. To date, the question of whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in this cohort as a preventive measure to abort sudden death has largely gone unanswered. Therefore, we review the available literature surrounding this issue. PMID:26413012

  10. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries: A Review of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Sandeep S; Cedars, Ari M

    2015-08-01

    Transposition of the great arteries encompasses a set of structural congenital cardiac lesions that has in common ventriculoarterial discordance. Primarily because of advances in medical and surgical care, an increasing number of children born with this anomaly are surviving into adulthood. Depending upon the subtype of lesion or the particular corrective surgery that the patient might have undergone, this group of adult congenital heart disease patients constitutes a relatively new population with unique medical sequelae. Among the more common and difficult to manage are cardiac arrhythmias and other sequelae that can lead to sudden cardiac death. To date, the question of whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in this cohort as a preventive measure to abort sudden death has largely gone unanswered. Therefore, we review the available literature surrounding this issue. PMID:26413012

  11. Isolation and characterization of calcium binding glycoproteins of cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, M.; Fliegel, L.; Wlasichuk, K. )

    1990-04-05

    Two major Ca2(+)-binding glycoproteins Mr 120,000 and 100,000 were isolated from 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonic acid -solubilized bovine heart sarcolemma membrane. Peroxidase-conjugated concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin lectins bind strongly to the isolated 120- and 100-kDa glycoproteins. Treatment with endoglycosidase F resulted in conversion of the 120-kDa glycoprotein to a form migrating at about 97 kDa. Treatment of the 100-kDa band with endoglycosidase F produced form of about 80 kDa. Endoglycosidase H digestion removes only 5% of the mass of both glycoproteins. the carbohydrate structure of both glycoproteins, is therefore, predicted to be at least 75% complex structure and 25% high mannose or hybrid structure. The 120- and 100-kDa glycoproteins are the major Ca2(+)-binding proteins in the sarcolemma membranes. Intact and endoglycosidase-treated glycoproteins bind 45Ca2+ as analyzed by a 45Ca2+ overlay technique. Using polyclonal antibodies, the 120- and 100-kDa glycoproteins were identified in muscle plasma membranes (ventricles, atria, and uterus smooth muscle). They were, however, not present in non-muscle tissues such as pancreas, liver, and kidney. The 120- and 100-kDa glycoproteins appear to be homologous molecules as judged by their similar V8 protease peptide maps, cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibody, and other physicochemical properties.

  12. The neonate versus adult mammalian immune system in cardiac repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Susanne; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    The immune system is a crucial player in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. A sophisticated cascade of events triggered upon injury ensures protection from infection and initiates and orchestrates healing. While the neonatal mammal can readily regenerate damaged tissues, adult regenerative capacity is limited to specific tissue types, and in organs such as the heart, adult wound healing results in fibrotic repair and loss of function. Growing evidence suggests that the immune system greatly influences the balance between regeneration and fibrotic repair. The neonate mammalian immune system has impaired pro-inflammatory function, is prone to T-helper type 2 responses and has an immature adaptive immune system skewed towards regulatory T cells. While these characteristics make infants susceptible to infection and prone to allergies, it may also provide an immunological environment permissive of regeneration. In this review we will give a comprehensive overview of the immune cells involved in healing and regeneration of the heart and explore differences between the adult and neonate immune system that may explain differences in regenerative ability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  13. When, where and how to initiate hypothermia after adult cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Taccone, F S; Donadello, K; Beumier, M; Scolletta, S

    2011-09-01

    Therapeutich hypothermia (TH) has been shown to improve neurological outcome and survival after witnessed cardiac arrest (CA) that is due to ventricular fibrillation. Although TH is widely used following witnessed CA as well as all forms of initial rhythm, the mortality rate after CA remains unacceptably high, and additional study is needed to understand when and how to implement hypothermia in the post-resuscitation phase. Experimental studies have emphasized the importance of initiating cooling soon after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or even during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Clinical studies have shown that pre-hospital induction of hypothermia is feasible and has no major adverse events-even when used intra-arrest-and may provide some additional benefits compared to delayed in-hospital cooling. Thus, hypothermia use should not be limited to the Intensive Care Unit but can be initiated in the field/ambulance or in the Emergency Department, then continued after hospital admission- even during specific procedures such as coronary angiography-as part of the global management of CA patients. Various methods (both non-invasive and invasive) are available to achieve and maintain the target temperature; however, only some of these methods-which include cold fluids, ice packs, iced pads and helmet and trans-nasal cooling- are easily deployed in the pre-hospital setting. PMID:21878875

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates from respiratory, brain and cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Roulis, Eileen; Bachmann, Nathan L; Myers, Garry S A; Huston, Wilhelmina; Summersgill, James; Hudson, Alan; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular bacterium implicated in a wide range of human diseases including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Efforts to understand the relationships between C. pneumoniae detected in these diseases have been hindered by the availability of sequence data for non-respiratory strains. In this study, we sequenced the whole genomes for C. pneumoniae isolates from atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and compared these to previously published C. pneumoniae genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of these new C. pneumoniae strains indicate two sub-groups within human C. pneumoniae, and suggest that both recombination and mutation events have driven the evolution of human C. pneumoniae. Further fine-detailed analyses of these new C. pneumoniae sequences show several genetically variable loci. This suggests that similar strains of C. pneumoniae are found in the brain, lungs and cardiovascular system and that only minor genetic differences may contribute to the adaptation of particular strains in human disease.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes protein that binds to basal laminae of human cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Winters, B D; Ramasubbu, N; Stinson, M W

    1993-01-01

    A 9-kDa glycosaminoglycan-binding protein (GAG-BP) was isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes and purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on heparin-agarose. The protein selectively bound to the basal laminae of human cardiac muscle and had an apparent dissociation constant of 2.5 x 10(-7) M. Chemical analyses indicated that the GAG-BP was rich in alanine, lysine, and arginine (pI 9.5) and devoid of tyrosine, methionine, histidine, and half-cystine. There were no detectable carbohydrate or phosphate substituents. The amino acid sequence of the N terminus of GAG-BP showed homology with those of histone-like DNA-binding proteins of several other bacteria. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the protein was made up of 50% beta-sheet and 50% beta-turn and random coil in aqueous solution; however, when the protein complexed with heparin, it adopted a more ordered structure containing 25% alpha-helix, 50% beta-sheet, and 25% beta-turn and random coil. The GAG-BP cross-reacted serologically with a component of similar size in extracts of other group A streptococci and was present in the culture medium during late logarithmic growth. Images PMID:8335359

  16. Lanthanum Probe Studies of Cellular Pathophysiology Induced by Hypoxia in Isolated Cardiac Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Karen P.; Hagler, Herbert K.; Templeton, Gordon H.; Willerson, James T.; Buja, L. Maximilian

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate directly the relationship between evolution of irreversible myocardial injury induced by hypoxia in an isolated papillary muscle preparation and the development of pathophysiological alterations related to severely impaired membrane function. An ionic lanthanum probe technique was employed as a cytochemical marker to monitor the progression of cellular injury, and data from this cytologic technique were correlated with ultrastructure and measurements of contractile parameters in a total of 67 muscles subjected to control conditions or to graded intervals of hypoxia with or without reoxygenation. Marked depression of developed tension and rate of tension development occurred after 30 min of hypoxia. Contractile function showed significant recovery with reoxygenation after 1 h and 15 min of hypoxia but remained depressed when reoxygenation was provided after 2 or 3 h of hypoxia. Examination by transmission and analytical electron microscopy (energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis) revealed lanthanum deposition only in extracellular regions of control muscles and muscles subjected to 30 min of hypoxia. After hypoxic intervals of over 1 h, abnormal intracytoplasmic and intramitochondrial localization of lanthanum were detected. After 1 h and 15 min of hypoxia, abnormal intracellular lanthanum accumulation was associated with only minimal ultrastructural evidence of injury; muscle provided reoxygenation after 1 h and 15 min of hypoxia showed improved ultrastructure and did not exhibit intracellular lanthanum deposits upon exposure to lanthanum during the reoxygenation period. After 2 to 3 h of hypoxia, abnormal intracellular lanthanum accumulation was associated with ultrastructural evidence of severe muscle injury which persisted after reoxygenation. Thus, the data support the conclusion that cellular and membrane alterations responsible for abnormal intracellular lanthanum deposition precede the development of irreversible injury

  17. Child-to-Adult Liver Transplantation With Donation After Cardiac Death Donors: Three Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liangshuo; Liu, Xuemin; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Liang; Sha, Huanchen; Zhou, Ying; Tian, Min; Shi, Jianhua; Wang, Wanli; Liu, Chang; Guo, Kun; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Development of organ transplantation is restricted by the discrepancy between the lack of donors and increasing number of patients. The outcome of pediatric donors transplanted into adult recipients especially with donation after circulatory death (DCD) pattern has not been well studied. The aim of this paper is to describe our experience of 3 successful DCD donor child-to-adult liver transplantations lately. Three DCD donors were separately 7, 5, and 8 years old. The ratio between donor graft weight and recipient body weight was 1.42%, 1.00%, and 1.33%, respectively. Ratio between the volume of donor liver and the expected liver volume was 0.65, 0.46, and 0.60. Splenectomy was undertaken for the second recipient according to the portal vein pressure (PVP) which was observed during the operation. Two out of 3 of the recipients suffered with acute kidney injury and got recovered after renal replacement therapy. The first recipient also went through early allograft dysfunction and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The hospital course of the third recipient was uneventful. After 1 year of follow-up visit, the first and second recipients maintain good quality of life and liver function. The third patient was followed up for 5 months until now and recovered well. DCD child-to-adult liver transplantation should only be used for comparatively matched donor and recipient. PVP should be monitored during the operation. The short-term efficacy is good, but long-term follow-up and clinical study with large sample evaluation are still needed.

  18. Child-to-Adult Liver Transplantation With Donation After Cardiac Death Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liangshuo; Liu, Xuemin; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Liang; Sha, Huanchen; Zhou, Ying; Tian, Min; Shi, Jianhua; Wang, Wanli; Liu, Chang; Guo, Kun; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Development of organ transplantation is restricted by the discrepancy between the lack of donors and increasing number of patients. The outcome of pediatric donors transplanted into adult recipients especially with donation after circulatory death (DCD) pattern has not been well studied. The aim of this paper is to describe our experience of 3 successful DCD donor child-to-adult liver transplantations lately. Three DCD donors were separately 7, 5, and 8 years old. The ratio between donor graft weight and recipient body weight was 1.42%, 1.00%, and 1.33%, respectively. Ratio between the volume of donor liver and the expected liver volume was 0.65, 0.46, and 0.60. Splenectomy was undertaken for the second recipient according to the portal vein pressure (PVP) which was observed during the operation. Two out of 3 of the recipients suffered with acute kidney injury and got recovered after renal replacement therapy. The first recipient also went through early allograft dysfunction and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The hospital course of the third recipient was uneventful. After 1 year of follow-up visit, the first and second recipients maintain good quality of life and liver function. The third patient was followed up for 5 months until now and recovered well. DCD child-to-adult liver transplantation should only be used for comparatively matched donor and recipient. PVP should be monitored during the operation. The short-term efficacy is good, but long-term follow-up and clinical study with large sample evaluation are still needed. PMID:26886643

  19. Use and Utility of Hemostatic Screening in Adults Undergoing Elective, Non-Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Isabel A.; Seicean, Sinziana; Neuhauser, Duncan; Schiltz, Nicholas K.; Seicean, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One view of value in medicine is outcome relative to cost of care provided. With respect to operative care, increased attention has been placed on evaluation and optimization of patients prior to undergoing an elective surgery. We examined more than 2 million patients having elective, non-cardiac surgery to assess the incidence and utility of pre-operative hemostatic screening, compared with a composite of history variables that may indicate a propensity for bleeding, to assess several important outcomes of surgery. Materials & Methods We queried the NSQIP database to identify 2,020,533 patients and compared hemostatic tests (PT, aPTT, platelet count) and history covariables indicative of potential for abnormal hemostasis. We compared outcomes across predictor values; used Person’s chi-square tests to compare differences, and logistic regression to model outcomes. Results Approximately 36% of patients had all three tests pre-operatively while 16% had none of them; 11.2% had a history predictive of potential abnormal bleeding. Outcomes of interest across the cohort included death in 0.7%, unplanned return to the operating room or re-admission within 30 days in 3.8% and 6.2% of patients; 5.3% received a transfusion during or after surgery. Sub-analyses in each of the nine surgical specialties’ most common procedures yielded similar results. Conclusion The limited predictive value of each hemostatic screening test, as well as excess costs associated with them, across a broad spectrum of elective surgeries, suggests that limiting pre-operative testing to a more select group of patients may be reasonable, equally efficacious, efficient, and cost-effective. PMID:26623648

  20. Collections of adult Ixodes dammini in Indiana, 1987-1990, and the isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Holycross, J; Ryder, J; Mummert, M

    1991-09-01

    The collection records for Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin in Indiana are summarized for the period 1987-1990. In 1990, 13 of 729 deer examined were found to harbor adult I. dammini ticks. Eleven of these ticks were collected from 10 deer at a site in Newton County in northwestern Indiana. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were isolated from a single female I. dammini tick collected from this site.

  1. Retinyl ester synthesis by isolated adult rabbit lung type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zachman, R D; Tsao, F H

    1988-01-01

    Type II alveolar cells were isolated from adult rabbit lungs and then cultured on monolayers for 16 hours. These cells were then covered with buffered medium containing [3H]-retinol. After 30-120 minutes incubation, the cells were extracted with Hexane: Ethanol and the hexane extract analyzed by HPLC. A linear synthesis of [3H]-retinyl palmitate with time of incubation was demonstrated. PMID:3170088

  2. Mending broken hearts: cardiac development as a basis for adult heart regeneration and repair

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Mei; Olson, Eric N.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    As the adult mammalian heart has limited potential for regeneration and repair, the loss of cardiomyocytes during injury and disease can result in heart failure and death. The cellular processes and regulatory mechanisms involved in heart growth and development can be exploited to repair the injured adult heart through ‘reawakening’ pathways that are active during embryogenesis. Heart function has been restored in rodents by reprogramming non-myocytes into cardiomyocytes, by expressing transcription factors (GATA4, HAND2, myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) and T-box 5 (TBX5)) and microRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, miR-208 and miR-499) that control cardiomyocyte identity. Stimulating cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation and proliferation by activating mitotic signalling pathways involved in embryonic heart growth represents a complementary approach for heart regeneration and repair. Recent advances in understanding the mechanistic basis of heart development offer exciting opportunities for effective therapies for heart failure. PMID:23839576

  3. Effects of trimebutine maleate on electrical activities of isolated mammalian cardiac preparations.

    PubMed

    Igawa, O; Kotake, H; Hirai, S; Hisatome, I; Hasegawa, J; Mashiba, H

    1989-05-01

    The effects of trimebutine maleate on electrical activity in guinea-pig isolated papillary muscles and rabbit sino-atrial nodes have been studied by means of a standard microelectrode method. In papillary muscles, trimebutine (above 10 microM) decreased the maximum rate of rise (Vmax) and the action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD90), whereas the resting potential was not significantly altered. As to a decrease in Vmax, trimebutine produced a negative shift of the curve relating Vmax to the resting potential along the voltage axis. Trimebutine also depressed the slow action potentials of papillary muscles produced by 27 mM K and 0.2 mM Ba. In spontaneously beating sino-atrial node preparations, trimebutine (above 10 microM) decreased the heart rate, Vmax and the rate of diastolic depolarization. These results indicate that trimebutine maleate possesses a depressant action on the electrical activities of the fast- and slow-response fibres of the heart mainly due to inhibitions of both fast Na+ and slow Ca2+ channels. PMID:2569517

  4. Cardiac actions of phencyclidine in isolated guinea pig and rat heart: possible involvement of slow channels

    SciTech Connect

    Temma, K.; Akera, T.; Ng, Y.C.

    1985-03-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine were studied in isolated preparations of guinea pig and rat heart. In electrically paced left atrial muscle preparations, phencyclidine increased the force of contraction; rat heart muscle preparations were more sensitive than guinea pig heart muscle preparations. The positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine was not significantly reduced by a combination of phentolamine and nadolol; however, the effect was competitively blocked by verapamil in the presence of phentolamine and nadolol. Inhibition of the outward K+ current by tetraethylammonium chloride also produced a positive inotropic effect; however, the effect of tetraethylammonium was reduced by phentolamine and nadolol, and was almost insensitive to verapamil. The inotropic effect of phencyclidine was associated with a marked prolongation of the action potential duration and a decrease in maximal upstroke velocity of the action potential, with no change in the resting membrane potential. The specific (/sup 3/H)phencyclidine binding observed with membrane preparations from guinea pig ventricular muscle was saturable with a single class of high-affinity binding site. This binding was inhibited by verapamil, diltiazem, or nitrendipine, but not by ryanodine or tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that the positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine results from enhanced Ca/sup 2 +/ influx via slow channels, either by stimulation of the channels or secondary to inhibition of outward K/sup +/ currents.

  5. The influence of patient size on dose conversion coefficients: a hybrid phantom study for adult cardiac catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry; Lee, Choonsik; Johnson, Kevin; Siragusa, Daniel; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the influence of patient size on organ and effective dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) was investigated for a representative interventional fluoroscopic procedure—cardiac catheterization. The study was performed using hybrid phantoms representing an underweight, average and overweight American adult male. Reference body sizes were determined using the NHANES III database and parameterized based on standing height and total body mass. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients were calculated for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left anterior oblique and right anterior oblique projections using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.5.0 with the metric dose area product being used as the normalization factor. Results show body size to have a clear influence on DCCs which increased noticeably when body size decreased. It was also shown that if patient size is neglected when choosing a DCC, the organ and effective dose will be underestimated to an underweight patient and will be overestimated to an underweight patient, with errors as large as 113% for certain projections. Results were further compared with those published for a KTMAN-2 Korean patient-specific tomographic phantom. The published DCCs aligned best with the hybrid phantom which most closely matched in overall body size. These results highlighted the need for and the advantages of phantom-patient matching, and it is recommended that hybrid phantoms be used to create a more diverse library of patient-dependent anthropomorphic phantoms for medical dose reconstruction.

  6. Isolation and clonal assay of adult lung epithelial stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bertoncello, Ivan; McQualter, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Adult mouse lung epithelial stem/progenitor cells (EpiSPC) can be defined in vitro as epithelial colony-forming units that are capable of self-renewal, and which when co-cultured with lung mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are able to give rise to differentiated progeny comprising mature lung epithelial cells. This unit describes a protocol for the prospective isolation and in vitro propagation and differentiation of adult mouse lung EpiSPC. The strategy used for selection of EpiSPC and MSC from adult mouse lung by enzymatic digestion and flow cytometry is based on the differential expression of CD45, CD31, Sca-1, EpCAM, and CD24. The culture conditions required for the differentiation (co-culture with MSC) and expansion (stromal-free culture with FGF-10 and HGF) of EpiSPC are described.

  7. Pancreatic Islets: Methods for Isolation and Purification of Juvenile and Adult Pig Islets.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Heide; Johnson, Paul R V; Brandhorst, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of organ transplantation is mainly determined by the disbalance between the number of available organs and the number of patients on the waiting list. This obvious dilemma might be solved by the transplantation of porcine organs into human patients. The metabolic similarities which exist between both species made pancreatic islets of Langerhans to that donor tissue which will be most likely transplanted in human recipients. Nevertheless, the successful isolation of significant yields of viable porcine islets is extremely difficult and requires extensive experiences in the field. This review is focussing on the technical challenges, pitfalls and particularities that are associated with the isolation of islets from juvenile and adult pigs considering donor variables that can affect porcine islet isolation outcome.

  8. Pancreatic Islets: Methods for Isolation and Purification of Juvenile and Adult Pig Islets.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Heide; Johnson, Paul R V; Brandhorst, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of organ transplantation is mainly determined by the disbalance between the number of available organs and the number of patients on the waiting list. This obvious dilemma might be solved by the transplantation of porcine organs into human patients. The metabolic similarities which exist between both species made pancreatic islets of Langerhans to that donor tissue which will be most likely transplanted in human recipients. Nevertheless, the successful isolation of significant yields of viable porcine islets is extremely difficult and requires extensive experiences in the field. This review is focussing on the technical challenges, pitfalls and particularities that are associated with the isolation of islets from juvenile and adult pigs considering donor variables that can affect porcine islet isolation outcome. PMID:27586421

  9. Linking an Anxiety-Related Personality Trait to Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Well-Defined Healthy Adults: Harm Avoidance and Resting Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Lien-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxiety trait, anxiety and depression states have all been reported to increase risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through altering cardiac autonomic regulation. Our aim was to investigate whether the relationship between harm avoidance (HA, an anxiety-related personality trait) and cardiac autonomic regulation is independent of anxiety and depression states in healthy adults. Methods We recruited 535 physically and mentally healthy volunteers. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Tri-dimensional Personality Questionnaire. Participants were divided into high or low HA groups as discriminated by the quartile value. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). We obtained the time and frequency-domain indices of HRV including variance (total HRV), the low-frequency power (LF; 0.05–0.15 Hz), which may reflect baroreflex function, the high-frequency power (HF; 0.15–0.40 Hz), which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, as well as the LF/HF ratio. Results The BDI and HA scores showed associations with HRV parameters. After adjustment for the BDI scores and other control variables, HA is still associated with reduced variance, LF and HF power. Compared with the participants with low HA, those with high HA displayed significant reductions in variance, LF and HF power and a significant increase in their LF/HF ratio. Conclusion This study highlights the independent role of HA in contributing to decreased autonomic cardiac regulation in healthy adults and provides a potential underlying mechanism for anxiety trait to confer increased risk for CVD. PMID:27482240

  10. Cardiac side population cells and Sca-1-positive cells.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Toshio; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Komuro, Issei

    2013-01-01

    Since the resident cardiac stem/progenitor cells were discovered, their ability to maintain the architecture and functional integrity of adult heart has been broadly explored. The methods for isolation and purification of the cardiac stem cells are crucial for the precise analysis of their developmental origin and intrinsic potential as tissue stem cells. Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is one of the useful cell surface markers to purify the cardiac progenitor cells. Another purification strategy is based on the high efflux ability of the dye, which is a common feature of tissue stem cells. These dye-extruding cells have been called side population cells because they locate in the side of dye-retaining cells after fluorescent cell sorting. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for the isolation of cardiac SP cells and Sca-1 positive cells.

  11. Single adult rabbit and rat cardiac myocytes retain the Ca2+- and species-dependent systolic and diastolic contractile properties of intact muscle

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    The systolic and diastolic properties of single myocytes and intact papillary muscles isolated from hearts of adult rats and rabbits were examined at 37 degrees C over a range of stimulation frequencies and bathing [Ca2+]o (Cao). In both rabbit myocytes and intact muscles bathed in 1 mM Cao, increasing the frequency of stimulation from 6 to 120 min-1 resulted in a positive staircase of twitch performance. During stimulation at 2 min-1, twitch performance also increased with increases in Cao up to 20 mM. In the absence of stimulation, both rabbit myocytes and muscles were completely quiescent in less than 15 mM Cao. Further increases in Cao caused the appearance of spontaneous asynchronous contractile waves in myocytes and in intact muscles caused scattered light intensity fluctuations (SLIF), which were previously demonstrated to be caused by Ca2+-dependent spontaneous contractile waves. In contrast to rabbit preparations, intact rat papillary muscles exhibited SLIF in 1.0 mM Cao. Two populations of rat myocytes were observed in 1 mM Cao: approximately 85% of unstimulated cells exhibited low-frequency (3-4 min-1) spontaneous contractile waves, whereas 15%, during a 1-min observation period, were quiescent. In a given Cao, the contractile wave frequency in myocytes and SLIF in intact muscles were constant for long periods of time. In both intact rat muscles and myocytes with spontaneous waves, in 1 mM Cao, increasing the frequency of stimulation from 6 to 120 min-1 resulted, on the average, in a 65% reduction in steady state twitch amplitude. Of the rat myocytes that did not manifest waves, some had a positive, some had a flat, and some had a negative staircase; the average steady state twitch amplitude of these cells during stimulation at 120 min-1 was 30% greater than that at 6 min-1. In contrast to rabbit preparations, twitch performance during stimulation at 2 min-1 saturated at 1.5 mM Cao in both intact rat muscles and in the myocytes with spontaneous waves. We

  12. Assessment of antibody mediated cytolysis of adult cardiocytes isolated by centrifugation in a continuous gradient of Percoll in patients with acute myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Maisch, B; Trostel-Soeder, R; Berg, P A; Kochsiek, K

    1981-01-01

    Principal objections to conventional cytotoxicity assays in cardiac disease with myocytes as target cells are the use of fetal or neonatal myocardium, the cell-membrane of which does not express all antigenic determinants, and the use of trypsin as enzyme for isolation of the cells, since this alters the myolemmal membrane considerably. An improved and rapid procedure for the isolation of intact adult cardiocytes with collaggenase was developed. by means of a performed continuous self-generating silica sol and gradient centrifugation average enrichment of 81% vital myocytes was achieved by a single isopycnic procedure. The yield was improved to 94 +/- 3% vital cells by identical second centrifugation. Cardiocytes isolated by this method were used as target cells in an assay measuring the cytolytic activity of antibodies in the presence of complement: sera of patients suffering from acute viral myocarditis (Coxsackie B- and influenza-virus) with complement fixing antisacrolemmal antibodies (ASA) of the IgG- and IgM-type showed significant cardiocytolysis. ASA are postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of acute Coxsackie B- and influenza-virus myocarditis. PMID:6268709

  13. Prospective isolation of a bipotential clonogenic liver progenitor cell in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Dorrell, Craig; Erker, Laura; Schug, Jonathan; Kopp, Janel L.; Canaday, Pamela S.; Fox, Alan J.; Smirnova, Olga; Duncan, Andrew W.; Finegold, Milton J.; Sander, Maike; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Grompe, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The molecular identification of adult hepatic stem/progenitor cells has been hampered by the lack of truly specific markers. To isolate putative adult liver progenitor cells, we used cell surface-marking antibodies, including MIC1-1C3, to isolate subpopulations of liver cells from normal adult mice or those undergoing an oval cell response and tested their capacity to form bilineage colonies in vitro. Robust clonogenic activity was found to be restricted to a subset of biliary duct cells antigenically defined as CD45−/CD11b−/CD31−/MIC1-1C3+/CD133+/CD26−, at a frequency of one of 34 or one of 25 in normal or oval cell injury livers, respectively. Gene expression analyses revealed that Sox9 was expressed exclusively in this subpopulation of normal liver cells and was highly enriched relative to other cell fractions in injured livers. In vivo lineage tracing using Sox9creERT2-R26RYFP mice revealed that the cells that proliferate during progenitor-driven liver regeneration are progeny of Sox9-expressing precursors. A comprehensive array-based comparison of gene expression in progenitor-enriched and progenitor-depleted cells from both normal and DDC (3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine or diethyl1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate)-treated livers revealed new potential regulators of liver progenitors. PMID:21632826

  14. Splenomegaly and adrenal weight changes in isolated adult mice chronically exposed to Lead

    SciTech Connect

    Ogilvie, D.M.; Martin, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    Inorganic lead is an environmental contaminant of continuing toxicological concern. Since the effects of chronic lead ingestion are most pronounced in neonatal or very young animals, investigations relating to the mental health effects of lead on children have to date been of prime importance. As the perspective of lead toxicity has widened, however, concern about the effects of lead exposure in adults has also been expressed, and several studies have now documented lead-induced learning abnormalities in adult animals. Recently research has shown that lead-treated adult mice fail to develop the isolation-induced aggressiveness typical of untreated control animals. Animal aggression has both neural and endocrine substrates, and with regard to the latter, it is well known that many mammals exhibit changes of adrenal weight and function when subjected to irritable aggression associated with the pressure of population density. Although impairment of adrenal gland functioning has been reported for lead-poisoned humans, few animal studies have yet investigated the effects of chronic lead exposure on the pituitary-adrenal axis. In this paper, changes are described in adrenal weights for mice subjected to isolation and lead exposure. In addition, since it is well known that lead exposure can reduce the survival time of red blood cells, the possibility that the spleen, the disposal center for discarded red cells, might also be affected by lead exposure was investigated.

  15. Changing practice of cardiac surgery in adult patients with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Srinathan, S K; Bonser, R S; Sethia, B; Thorne, S A; Brawn, W J; Barron, D J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To review 13 years’ data from a unit for grown ups with congenital heart disease (GUCH) to understand the change in surgical practice. Methods: Records were reviewed of patients over 16 years of age undergoing surgery between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002 in a dedicated GUCH unit. Patients with atrial septal defects were included but not those with Marfan’s syndrome or undergoing a first procedure for bicuspid aortic valves. Three equal time periods of 52 months were analysed. Results: Of 474 operations performed, 162 (34.2%) were repeat operations. The percentage of repeat operations increased from 24.8% (41 of 165) in January 1990–April 1994 to 49.7% (74 of 149) in September 1998–December 2002. Mortality was 6.3% (n  =  30). The median age decreased from 25.4 years (interquartile range 18.7) in January 1990–April 1994 to 23.9 (interquartile range 17.3) in September 1998–December 2002 (p  =  0.04). The proportion of patients with a “simple” diagnosis decreased from 45.4% (74 or 165) in January 1990–April 1994 to 27.5% (41 of 149) in September 1998–December 2002 (p  =  0.013). Pulmonary valve replacements in operated tetralogy of Fallot increased from one case in January 1990–April 1994 to 23 cases in September 1998–December 2002 and conduit replacement increased from five cases to 17. However, secundum atrial septal defect closures decreased from 35 cases to 14 (p < 0.0001). The estimated cost (not including salaries and prosthetics) incurred by an adult patient with congenital heart disease was £2290 compared with £2641 for a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Conclusion: Despite the impact of interventional cardiology, the total number of surgical procedures remained unchanged. The complexity of the cases increased particularly with repeat surgery. Nevertheless, the patients do well with low mortality and the inpatient costs remain comparable with costs of surgery for acquired disease. PMID

  16. High-efficiency immunomagnetic isolation of solid tissue-originated integrin-expressing adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palmon, Aaron; David, Ran; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Krief, Guy; Aframian, Doron J

    2012-02-01

    Isolation of highly pure specific cell types is crucial for successful adult stem cell-based therapy. As the number of such cells in adult tissue is low, an extremely efficient method is needed for their isolation. Here, we describe cell-separation methodologies based on magnetic-affinity cell sorting (MACS) MicroBeads with monoclonal antibodies against specific membrane proteins conjugated to superparamagnetic particles. Cells labeled with MACS MicroBeads are retained in a magnetic field within a MACS column placed in a MACS separator, allowing fast and efficient separation. Both positively labeled and non-labeled fractions can be used directly for downstream applications as the separated cell fractions remain viable with no functional impairment. As immunomagnetic separation depends on the interaction between a cell's membrane and the magnetically labeled antibody, separation of specific cells originating from solid tissues is more complex and demands a cell-dissociating pretreatment. In this paper, we detail the use of immunomagnetic separation for the purpose of regenerating damaged salivary gland (SG) function in animal and human models of irradiated head and neck cancer. Each year 500,000 new cases of head and neck cancer occur worldwide. Most of these patients lose SG function following irradiation therapy. SGs contain integrin α6β1-expressing epithelial stem cells. We hypothesized that these cells can be isolated, multiplied in culture and auto-implanted into the irradiated SGs to regenerate damaged SG function.

  17. Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: morphometric differences between adult worms from sympatric rodent and human isolates.

    PubMed

    Neves, R H; Pereira, M J; de Oliveira, R M; Gomes, D C; Machado-Silva, J R

    1998-01-01

    A computer software for image analysis (IMAGE PRO PLUS, MEDIA CYBERNETICS) was utilized in male and females adult worms, aiming the morphological characterization of Schistosoma mansoni samples isolated from a slyvatic rodent, Nectomys squamipes, and humans in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and recovered from Mus musculus C3H/He. The following characters for males's testicular lobes were analyzed: number, area, density, larger and smaller diameter, longer and shorter axis and perimeter and extension; for females: area, longer and shorter axis, larger and smaller diameter and perimeter of the eggs and spine; oral and ventral suckers area and distance between them in both sex were determined. By the analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in all studied characters, except for the density of testicular lobes. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were detected for all characters in the female worms. Data ratify that sympatric isolates present phenotypic differences and the adult female characters are useful for the proper identification of S. mansoni isolates.

  18. An Examination of the Social Networks and Social Isolation in Older and Younger Adults Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emlet, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined social networks and social isolation in older (50 years or more) and younger (ages 20 to 39) adults with HIV/AIDS. The author conducted interviews with 88 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Pacific Northwest. Both groups' social networks had similar patterns; however, older adults were more likely to live alone. More than…

  19. Preoperative evaluation of the adult patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Stefan; Imberger, Georgina; Carlisle, John; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fritsch, Gerhard; Moppett, Iain; Solca, Maurizio; Staender, Sven; Wappler, Frank; Smith, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of these guidelines on the preoperative evaluation of the adult non-cardiac surgery patient is to present recommendations based on available relevant clinical evidence. The ultimate aims of preoperative evaluation are two-fold. First, we aim to identify those patients for whom the perioperative period may constitute an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, aside from the risks associated with the underlying disease. Second, this should help us to design perioperative strategies that aim to reduce additional perioperative risks. Very few well performed randomised studies on the topic are available and many recommendations rely heavily on expert opinion and are adapted specifically to the healthcare systems in individual countries. This report aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists all over Europe to integrate - wherever possible - this knowledge into daily patient care. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of subcommittees of scientific subcommittees and individual members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched from the year 2000 until July 2010 without language restrictions. These searches produced 15 425 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for 4 weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members, individual or national (thus including most European national anaesthesia societies). Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and ESA Board ratified the guidelines.

  20. Preoperative evaluation of the adult patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Stefan; Imberger, Georgina; Carlisle, John; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fritsch, Gerhard; Moppett, Iain; Solca, Maurizio; Staender, Sven; Wappler, Frank; Smith, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of these guidelines on the preoperative evaluation of the adult non-cardiac surgery patient is to present recommendations based on available relevant clinical evidence. The ultimate aims of preoperative evaluation are two-fold. First, we aim to identify those patients for whom the perioperative period may constitute an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, aside from the risks associated with the underlying disease. Second, this should help us to design perioperative strategies that aim to reduce additional perioperative risks. Very few well performed randomised studies on the topic are available and many recommendations rely heavily on expert opinion and are adapted specifically to the healthcare systems in individual countries. This report aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on the subject with an assessment of the quality of the evidence in order to allow anaesthetists all over Europe to integrate - wherever possible - this knowledge into daily patient care. The Guidelines Committee of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) formed a task force with members of subcommittees of scientific subcommittees and individual members of the ESA. Electronic databases were searched from the year 2000 until July 2010 without language restrictions. These searches produced 15 425 abstracts. Relevant systematic reviews with meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys were selected. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network grading system was used to assess the level of evidence and to grade recommendations. The final draft guideline was posted on the ESA website for 4 weeks and the link was sent to all ESA members, individual or national (thus including most European national anaesthesia societies). Comments were collated and the guidelines amended as appropriate. When the final draft was complete, the Guidelines Committee and ESA Board ratified the guidelines. PMID

  1. Human progenitor cells derived from cardiac adipose tissue ameliorate myocardial infarction in rodents.

    PubMed

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Soler-Botija, Carolina; Farré, Jordi; Sepúlveda, Pilar; Raya, Angel; Roura, Santiago; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Montero, José Anastasio; Büscher, Dirk; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2010-11-01

    Myocardial infarction caused by vascular occlusion results in the formation of nonfunctional fibrous tissue. Cumulative evidence indicates that cell therapy modestly improves cardiac function; thus, novel cell sources with the potential to repair injured tissue are actively sought. Here, we identify and characterize a cell population of cardiac adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (ATDPCs) from biopsies of human adult cardiac adipose tissue. Cardiac ATDPCs express a mesenchymal stem cell-like marker profile (strongly positive for CD105, CD44, CD166, CD29 and CD90) and have immunosuppressive capacity. Moreover, cardiac ATDPCs have an inherent cardiac-like phenotype and were able to express de novo myocardial and endothelial markers in vitro but not to differentiate into adipocytes. In addition, when cardiac ATDPCs were transplanted into injured myocardium in mouse and rat models of myocardial infarction, the engrafted cells expressed cardiac (troponin I, sarcomeric α-actinin) and endothelial (CD31) markers, vascularization increased, and infarct size was reduced in mice and rats. Moreover, significant differences between control and cell-treated groups were found in fractional shortening and ejection fraction, and the anterior wall remained significantly thicker 30days after cardiac delivery of ATDPCs. Finally, cardiac ATDPCs secreted proangiogenic factors under in vitro hypoxic conditions, suggesting a paracrine effect to promote local vascularization. Our results indicate that the population of progenitor cells isolated from human cardiac adipose tissue (cardiac ATDPCs) may be valid candidates for future use in cell therapy to regenerate injured myocardium. PMID:20713059

  2. A cardiac-specific health-related quality of life module for young adults with congenital heart disease: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, M; Zwinderman, K H; Vogels, T; Vliegen, H W; Kamphuis, R P; Ottenkamp, J; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Bruil, J

    2004-05-01

    This study represents the development and validation of a cardiac-specific module of the generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, the TAAQOL (TNO/AZL Adult Quality Of Life), for young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Items were selected based on literature, an explorative previous study in CHD patients, interviews with patients, and the advice of experts. The newly developed Congenital Heart Disease-TNO/AZL Adult Quality of Life (CHD-TAAQOL) was tested in 156 patients with mild or complex CHD and consisted of three hypothesised subject scales: 'Symptoms' (9 items), 'Impact Cardiac Surveillance' (7 items), and 'Worries' (10 items). Cronbach's alpha for the three scales were 0.77, 0.78, and 0.82, respectively. Scale structure was confirmed by Principal Component Analysis, corrected item-scale and interscale correlations. Overall, 55% of reported health status problems were associated with negative emotions, which is an argument for assessing HRQoL as a concept distinct from health status. Convergent validity with validated generic instruments (TAAQOL and Short Form-36, SF-36) showed satisfactory coefficients. Discriminant validity was proven by significantly higher scores for mild CHD patients compared with those with complex CHD. In conclusion, the CHD-TAAQOL module together with the generic TAAQOL can be used to assess group differences for cardiac-specific HRQoL in young adults with CHD. Testing psychometric properties of the CHD-TAAQOL shows satisfactory results. However, to detect changes in HRQoL over time, further research is needed.

  3. Cardiac contraction, calcium transients, and myofilament calcium sensitivity fluctuate with the estrous cycle in young adult female mice.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jennifer K; Pyle, W Glen; Reitz, Cristine J; Howlett, Susan E

    2014-04-01

    This study established conditions to induce regular estrous cycles in female C57BL/6J mice and investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on contractions, Ca2+ transients, and underlying cardiac excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanisms. Daily vaginal smears from group-housed virgin female mice were stained to distinguish estrous stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus). Ventricular myocytes were isolated from anesthetized mice. Contractions and Ca2+ transients were measured simultaneously (4 Hz, 37 °C). Interestingly, mice did not exhibit regular cycles unless they were exposed to male pheromones in bedding added to their cages. Field-stimulated myocytes from mice in estrus had larger contractions (∼2-fold increase), larger Ca2+ transients (∼1.11-fold increase), and longer action potentials (>2-fold increase) compared with other stages. Larger contractions and Ca2+ transients were not observed in estrus myocytes voltage-clamped with shorter action potentials. Voltage-clamp experiments also demonstrated that estrous stage had no effect on Ca2+ current, EC-coupling gain, diastolic Ca2+, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content, or fractional release. Although contractions were largest in estrus, myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity was lowest (EC50 values ∼1.15-fold higher) in conjunction with increased phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C in estrus. Contractions were enhanced in ventricular myocytes from mice in estrus because action potential prolongation increased SR Ca2+ release. These findings demonstrate that cyclical changes in reproductive hormones associated with the estrous cycle can influence myocardial electrical and contractile function and modify Ca2+ homeostasis. However, such changes are unlikely to occur in female mice housed in groups under conventional conditions, since these mice do not exhibit regular estrous cycles.

  4. Isolation of intact astrocytes from the optic nerve head of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Joo; Sun, Daniel; Jakobs, Tatjana C.

    2015-01-01

    The astrocytes of the optic nerve head are a specialized subtype of white matter astrocytes that form the direct cellular environment of the unmyelinated ganglion cell axons. Due to their potential involvement in glaucoma, these astrocytes have become a target of research. Due to the heterogeneity of the optic nerve tissue, which also contains other cell types, in some cases it may be desirable to conduct gene expression studies on small numbers of well-characterized astrocytes or even individual cells. Here, we describe a simple method to isolate individual astrocytes. This method permits obtaining astrocytes with intact morphology from the adult mouse optic nerve and reduces contamination of the isolated astrocytes by other cell types. Individual astrocytes can be recognized by their morphology and collected under microscopic control. The whole procedure can be completed in 2-3 hours. We also discuss downstream applications like multiplex single-cell PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMID:26093274

  5. The Craniofacial Morphology in Adult Patients with Unoperated Isolated Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhongtai; Xu, Xue; Ahmatjian, Adalet; Bing, Shi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To address the effect of intrinsic factors on craniofacial growth by analyzing the craniofacial morphology of unoperated isolated cleft palate in Chinese adult. Materials and Methods: This study included 37 nonsyndromic isolated cleft palate and 39 age and gender matched non-clefts. Twenty-six cephalometric measurements were employed to evaluate the facial morphology. Independent samples T test and Mann-Whitney U were used for comparison. Significant difference was defined at 95% level. Results: Data from this study showed patients with unoperated isolated cleft palate have a reduced maxillary sagittal length (ANS-PMP, A-PMP, P<0.05), a smaller ANB angle (ANB, P<0.05) and a retrusive ANS point (S-N-ANS, P<0.05; Ba-N-ANS, P<0.05). Measurements descripted position of maxilla (S-Ptm, P>0.05), depth of bony pharynx (Ba-PMP, P>0.05), anterior and posterior maxillary height (N-ANS, P>0.05; R-PMP, P>0.05) and mandible morphology (including linear measurements and angle measurements) did not show any significant difference between case and control groups. Conclusions: Patients with isolated cleft palate were characterized by maxillary retrusion. Mandible morphology and cranial basal morphology in isolated cleft palate showed no significant difference with nonclefts. Patients with isolated cleft palate are more vulnerable to cross bite than nonclefts. Intrinsic deficiencies did detrimental effect on maxilla sagittal length, but did no detrimental effect on maxilla position, mandible size and position. PMID:26273503

  6. Virulence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotypes and DGGE subtypes isolated from chronic adult periodontitis in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pahumunto, Nuntiya; Ruangsri, Praphansri; Wongsuwanlert, Mutita; Piwat, Supatcharin; Dahlen, Gunnar; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2015-12-01

    A high proportion of non-serotypeable isolates of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans among Thai periodontitis cases has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of leukotoxin and toxicity, cytolethal distending toxin (Cdts), and internalization and the killing effect on fibroblasts by A. actinomycetemcomitans subtypes from Thai chronic periodontitis cases. A total of 96 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains from 37 periodontitis cases, previously serotyped with PCR and subtyped with DGGE, were examined for the presence of the ltx gene and cdt genes (cdtBC), and tested for leukotoxin expression, leukotoxicity, internalization, and apoptosis of fibroblast cells. The ltx gene was present in all isolates, while 84.4% showed the cdtBC gene. Two strains with a JP2-like ltx gene with a deletion of 530 bp in the promoter region, serotyped as c, showed virulence of similar magnitude to the JP2 strain. Furthermore, a higher virulence was found in the two non-serotypeable DGGE subtypes, NS1 and NS2, compared with the serotypeable strains (serotype a-f, serotype b and d were absent). Generally, the virulence of strains obtained from deep periodontal pockets was higher than those isolated from shallow non-bleeding pockets. A. actinomycetemcomitans subtypes isolated from adult Thais with chronic periodontitis showed a highly variable virulence, leukotoxin expression, leukotoxicity, internalization and apoptosis of fibroblast, and are regulated both genetically and environmentally. PMID:26529053

  7. Metabolic Effects of Social Isolation in Adult C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Choi, Eugene Y.; Magee, Daniel J.; Stets, Colin W.; During, Matthew J.; Lin, En-Ju D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic dysfunction are risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and certain forms of cancers. Both animal studies and human population-based and clinical studies have suggested that chronic stress is a risk factor for metabolic disorders. A good social support system is known to exert positive effects on the mental and physical well-being of an individual. On the other hand, long-term deprivation of social contacts may represent a stressful condition that has negative effects on health. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic social isolation on metabolic parameters in adult C57BL/6 mice. We found that individually housed mice had increased adipose mass compared to group-housed mice, despite comparable body weight. The mechanism for the expansion of white adipose tissue mass was depot-specific. Notably, food intake was reduced in the social isolated animals, which occurred around the light-dark phase transition periods. Similarly, reductions in heat generated and the respiratory exchange ratio were observed during the light-dark transitions. These phase-specific changes due to long-term social isolation have not been reported previously. Our study shows social isolation contributes to increased adiposity and altered metabolic functions. PMID:27433503

  8. Cardiac arrhythmias as the initial manifestation of adult primary Sjögren's syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liang, Minrui; Bao, Liwen; Xiong, Nanqing; Jin, Bo; Ni, Huanchun; Zhang, Jinjin; Zou, Hejian; Luo, Xinping; Li, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Two middle-aged female patients presenting with heart palpitation and electrocardiogram revealed complex cardiac arrhythmias. A review of systems was positive for dry mouth and transient arthralgia, while laboratory and instrumental tests enabled us to make the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Cardiac electrophysiology revealed atrioventricular node dysfunction and impaired intraventricular conduction. Prednisone therapy induced a significant improvement in symptoms and electrocardiographic readings. The diagnosis of pSS should be considered in a patient presenting with complex cardiac arrhythmias.

  9. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  10. CD13 and ROR2 Permit Isolation of Highly Enriched Cardiac Mesoderm from Differentiating Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Rhys J P; Brady, Bevin; Khoja, Suhail; Sahoo, Debashis; Engel, James; Arasaratnam, Deevina; Saleh, Kholoud K; Abilez, Oscar J; Zhao, Peng; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G; Kwon, Murray; Elliott, David A; Ardehali, Reza

    2016-01-12

    The generation of tissue-specific cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is critical for the development of future stem cell-based regenerative therapies. Here, we identify CD13 and ROR2 as cell-surface markers capable of selecting early cardiac mesoderm emerging during hESC differentiation. We demonstrate that the CD13+/ROR2+ population encompasses pre-cardiac mesoderm, which efficiently differentiates to all major cardiovascular lineages. We determined the engraftment potential of CD13+/ROR2+ in small (murine) and large (porcine) animal models, and demonstrated that CD13+/ROR2+ progenitors have the capacity to differentiate toward cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells in vivo. Collectively, our data show that CD13 and ROR2 identify a cardiac lineage precursor pool that is capable of successful engraftment into the porcine heart. These markers represent valuable tools for further dissection of early human cardiac differentiation, and will enable a detailed assessment of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac lineage cells for potential clinical applications.

  11. CD13 and ROR2 Permit Isolation of Highly Enriched Cardiac Mesoderm from Differentiating Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Rhys J P; Brady, Bevin; Khoja, Suhail; Sahoo, Debashis; Engel, James; Arasaratnam, Deevina; Saleh, Kholoud K; Abilez, Oscar J; Zhao, Peng; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G; Kwon, Murray; Elliott, David A; Ardehali, Reza

    2016-01-12

    The generation of tissue-specific cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is critical for the development of future stem cell-based regenerative therapies. Here, we identify CD13 and ROR2 as cell-surface markers capable of selecting early cardiac mesoderm emerging during hESC differentiation. We demonstrate that the CD13+/ROR2+ population encompasses pre-cardiac mesoderm, which efficiently differentiates to all major cardiovascular lineages. We determined the engraftment potential of CD13+/ROR2+ in small (murine) and large (porcine) animal models, and demonstrated that CD13+/ROR2+ progenitors have the capacity to differentiate toward cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells in vivo. Collectively, our data show that CD13 and ROR2 identify a cardiac lineage precursor pool that is capable of successful engraftment into the porcine heart. These markers represent valuable tools for further dissection of early human cardiac differentiation, and will enable a detailed assessment of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac lineage cells for potential clinical applications. PMID:26771355

  12. CD13 and ROR2 Permit Isolation of Highly Enriched Cardiac Mesoderm from Differentiating Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Rhys J.P.; Brady, Bevin; Khoja, Suhail; Sahoo, Debashis; Engel, James; Arasaratnam, Deevina; Saleh, Kholoud K.; Abilez, Oscar J.; Zhao, Peng; Stanley, Edouard G.; Elefanty, Andrew G.; Kwon, Murray; Elliott, David A.; Ardehali, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Summary The generation of tissue-specific cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is critical for the development of future stem cell-based regenerative therapies. Here, we identify CD13 and ROR2 as cell-surface markers capable of selecting early cardiac mesoderm emerging during hESC differentiation. We demonstrate that the CD13+/ROR2+ population encompasses pre-cardiac mesoderm, which efficiently differentiates to all major cardiovascular lineages. We determined the engraftment potential of CD13+/ROR2+ in small (murine) and large (porcine) animal models, and demonstrated that CD13+/ROR2+ progenitors have the capacity to differentiate toward cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells in vivo. Collectively, our data show that CD13 and ROR2 identify a cardiac lineage precursor pool that is capable of successful engraftment into the porcine heart. These markers represent valuable tools for further dissection of early human cardiac differentiation, and will enable a detailed assessment of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac lineage cells for potential clinical applications. PMID:26771355

  13. Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuei-Fang; Sicard, Flavie; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Hermann, Andreas; Storch, Alexander; Huttner, Wieland B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2009-10-01

    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are neural crest-derived cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage. Unlike the closely-related sympathetic neurons, a subpopulation of proliferation-competent cells exists even in the adult. Here, we describe the isolation, expansion, and in vitro characterization of proliferation-competent progenitor cells from the bovine adrenal medulla. Similar to neurospheres, these cells, when prevented from adherence to the culture dish, grew in spheres, which we named chromospheres. These chromospheres were devoid of mRNA specific for smooth muscle cells (MYH11) or endothelial cells (PECAM1). During sphere formation, markers for differentiated chromaffin cells, such as phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase, were downregulated while neural progenitor markers nestin, vimentin, musashi 1, and nerve growth factor receptor, as well as markers of neural crest progenitor cells such as Sox1 and Sox9, were upregulated. Clonal analysis and bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-incorporation analysis demonstrated the self-renewing capacity of chromosphere cells. Differentiation protocols using NGF and BMP4 or dexamethasone induced neuronal or endocrine differentiation, respectively. Electrophysiological analyses of neural cells derived from chromospheres revealed functional properties of mature nerve cells, such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and action potentials. Our study provides evidence that proliferation and differentiation competent chromaffin progenitor cells can be isolated from adult adrenal medulla and that these cells might harbor the potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:19609938

  14. Streptococcus pyogenes Pneumonia in Adults: Clinical Presentation and Molecular Characterization of Isolates 2006-2015

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, Esther; Montes, Milagrosa; Vicente, Diego; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the preantibiotic era Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of severe pneumonia but currently, except for postinfluenza complications, it is not considered a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Aim and Material and Methods This study aimed to identify current clinical episodes of S. pyogenes pneumonia, its relationship with influenza virus circulation and the genotypes of the involved isolates during a decade in a Southern European region (Gipuzkoa, northern Spain). Molecular analysis of isolates included emm, multilocus-sequence typing, and superantigen profile determination. Results Forty episodes were detected (annual incidence 1.1 x 100,000 inhabitants, range 0.29–2.29). Thirty-seven episodes were community-acquired, 21 involved an invasive infection and 10 developed STSS. The associated mortality rate was 20%, with half of the patients dying within 24 hours after admission. Influenza coinfection was confirmed in four patients and suspected in another. The 52.5% of episodes occurred outside the influenza seasonal epidemic. The 67.5% of affected persons were elderly individuals and adults with severe comorbidities, although 13 patients had no comorbidities, 2 of them had a fatal outcome. Eleven clones were identified, the most prevalent being emm1/ST28 (43.6%) causing the most severe cases. Conclusions S. pyogenes pneumonia had a continuous presence frequently unrelated to influenza infection, being rapidly fatal even in previously healthy individuals. PMID:27027618

  15. Is rate–pressure product of any use in the isolated rat heart? Assessing cardiac ‘effort’ and oxygen consumption in the Langendorff‐perfused heart

    PubMed Central

    Aksentijević, Dunja; Lewis, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Rate–pressure product (RPP) is commonly used as an index of cardiac ‘effort’. In canine and human hearts (which have a positive force–frequency relationship), RPP is linearly correlated with oxygen consumption and has therefore been widely adopted as a species‐independent index of cardiac work. However, given that isolated rodent hearts demonstrate a negative force–frequency relationship, its use in this model requires validation. What is the main finding and its importance? Despite its widespread use, RPP is not correlated with oxygen consumption (or cardiac ‘effort’) in the Langendorff‐perfused isolated rat heart. This lack of correlation was also evident when perfusions included a range of metabolic substrates, insulin or β‐adrenoceptor stimulation. Langendorff perfusion of hearts isolated from rats and mice has been used extensively for physiological, pharmacological and biochemical studies. The ability to phenotype these hearts reliably is, therefore, essential. One of the commonly used indices of function is rate–pressure product (RPP); a rather ill‐defined index of ‘work’ or, more correctly, ‘effort’. Rate–pressure product, as originally described in dog or human hearts, was shown to be correlated with myocardial oxygen consumption (MV˙O2). Despite its widespread use, the application of this index to rat or mouse hearts (which, unlike the dog or human, have a negative force–frequency relationship) has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between RPP and MV˙O2 in Langendorff‐perfused rat hearts. Paced hearts (300–750 beats min−1) were perfused either with Krebs–Henseleit (KH) buffer (11 mm glucose) or with buffer supplemented with metabolic substrates and insulin. The arteriovenous oxygen consumption (MV˙O2) was recorded. Metabolic status was assessed using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and lactate efflux

  16. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (P<0.0001) and 4% (P=0.001), respectively in HIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; P<0.0001). Insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment) decreased only in HIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance. PMID:27346646

  17. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (P<0.0001) and 4% (P=0.001), respectively in HIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; P<0.0001). Insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment) decreased only in HIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance.

  18. Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Progenitor Cells from Human Adult Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Magda M.; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Karl; Bastos, Carlos A.; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10–12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+/β-3-tubulin+ cells and TH−/β-3-tubulin+ cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH+/PNMT+). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  19. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of progenitor cells from human adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Santana, Magda M; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Klaus; Bastos, Carlos A; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10-12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells and TH(-)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH(+)/PNMT(+)). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  20. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program ... be designed to meet your needs. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Team Cardiac rehab involves a long-term commitment ...

  1. Targeting Socially Isolated Older Adults: A Process Evaluation of the Senior Centre Without Walls Social and Educational Program.

    PubMed

    Newall, Nancy E G; Menec, Verena H

    2015-12-01

    The Seniors Centre Without Walls (SCWOW) program provides free social and educational programming for older adults via telephone. The target population for SCWOW is socially isolated older adults, a hard to reach population. The aim of this process evaluation was to examine whether SCWOW was reaching its target population and to gather participant feedback about program implementation and the perceived satisfaction and impact of the program. Telephone interviews were conducted with 26 participants (92% females; aged 57-85 years). Forty-two percent of the sample was socially isolated and more than half reported being lonely. Participants reported having no difficulty using the telephone system. On average, participants were very satisfied with the program and reported that SCWOW had several positive effects (e.g., connecting to the larger community, affecting mental well-being). Importantly, no barriers to participation were identified. The study suggests that telephone-based programs can successfully reach socially isolated older adults.

  2. Cardiac Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer Exposed to Cardiotoxic Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Study from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Huang, Sujuan; Ness, Kirsten K.; Ehrhardt, Matthew J.; Joshi, Vijaya M.; Plana, Juan Carlos; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Green, Daniel M.; Srivastava, Deokumar; Santucci, Aimee; Krasin, Matthew J.; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of cardiac disease among adult survivors of childhood cancer have generally relied upon self-reported or registry-based data. Objective Systematically assess cardiac outcomes among childhood cancer survivors Design Cross-sectional Setting St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Patients 1,853 adult survivors of childhood cancer, ≥18 years old, and ≥10 years from treatment with cardiotoxic therapy for childhood cancer. Measurements History/physical examination, fasting metabolic and lipid panels, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), 6-minute walk test (6MWT) all collected at baseline evaluation. Results Half (52.3%) of the survivors were male, median age 8.0 years (range: 0-24) at cancer diagnosis, 31.0 years (18-60) at evaluation. Cardiomyopathy was present in 7.4% (newly identified at the time of evaluation in 4.7%), coronary artery disease (CAD) in 3.8% (newly identified in 2.2%), valvular regurgitation/stenosis in 28.0% (newly identified in 24.8%), and conduction/rhythm abnormalities in 4.6% (newly identified in 1.4%). Nearly all (99.7%) were asymptomatic. The prevalences of cardiac conditions increased with age at evaluation, ranging from 3-24% among those 30-39 years to 10-37% among those ≥40 years. On multivariable analysis, anthracycline exposure ≥250 mg/m2 increased the odds of cardiomyopathy (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9) compared to anthracycline unexposed survivors. Radiation to the heart increased the odds of cardiomyopathy (OR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-3.7) compared to radiation unexposed survivors. Radiation >1500 cGy with any anthracycline exposure conferred the greatest odds for valve findings. Limitations 61% participation rate of survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies, which were limited to anthracyclines and cardiac-directed radiation. A comparison group and longitudinal assessments are not available. Conclusions Cardiovascular screening identified considerable subclinical disease among adult survivors of childhood

  3. Trophic effect of human pericardial fluid on adult cardiac myocytes. Differential role of fibroblast growth factor-2 and factors related to ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Corda, S; Mebazaa, A; Gandolfini, M P; Fitting, C; Marotte, F; Peynet, J; Charlemagne, D; Cavaillon, J M; Payen, D; Rappaport, L; Samuel, J L

    1997-11-01

    Pericardial fluid (PF) may contain myocardial growth factors that exert paracrine actions on cardiac myocytes. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of human PF and serum, collected from patients undergoing cardiac surgery, on the growth of cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes and (2) to relate the growth activity of both fluids to the adaptive changes in overloaded human hearts. Both PF and serum increased the rate of protein synthesis, measured by [14C]phenylalanine incorporation in adult rat cardiomyocytes (PF, +71.9 +/- 8.2% [n = 17]; serum, +14.9 +/- 6.5% [n = 13]; both P < .01 versus control medium). The effects of both PF and serum on cardiomyocyte growth correlated positively with the respective left ventricular (LV) mass. However, the magnitude of change with PF was 3-fold greater than with serum (P < .01). These trophic effects of PF were mimicked by exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and inhibited by anti-FGF2 antibodies and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), suggesting a relationship to FGF2. In addition, FGF2 concentration in PF was 20 times greater than in serum. On the other hand, the LV mass-dependent trophic effect, present in both fluids, was independent of FGF2 concentration or other factors, such as angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic factor, and TGF-beta. These data suggest that FGF2 in human PF is a major determining factor in normal myocyte growth, whereas unidentified LV mass-dependent factor(s), present in both PF and serum, participates in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:9351441

  4. Fascination and isolation: a grounded theory exploration of unusual sensory experiences in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard S; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant Messaging software. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory. A number of inter-related categories and focused codes were identified. The categories included heightened senses, sensory stress, the stress avalanche, moderating factors, coping strategies, other people, self-acceptance, fascination, and isolation. A model was constructed as to how these categories and codes interact. How these findings link with previous research into autism spectrum disorders is discussed. Implications for services and future research are also made.

  5. Experimental infection of adult and juvenile coyotes with domestic dog and wild coyote isolates of Hepatozoon americanum (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina).

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jennifer Jane; Kocan, A Alan; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Bahr, Robert J; Ewing, Sidney A

    2005-07-01

    Each of five adult and four juvenile coyotes (Canis latrans) was exposed to an oral dose of 50 Hepatozoon americanum oocysts recovered from Amblyomma maculatum ticks that previously fed on either naturally infected domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) or naturally infected wild coyotes. All coyotes exposed to H. americanum became infected, regardless of isolate source, and all exhibited mild to moderate clinical disease that simulated American canine hepatozoonosis in naturally infected dogs. At 100 days postexposure, parasitemia was greater in juvenile than adult coyotes (0.9% and 0.3%, respectively); radiographic imaging of femurs revealed moderate exostosis in all juveniles and mild to moderate new bone growth in four of five (80%) adult coyotes. Gross postmortem analysis of bone lesions demonstrated variation between age groups of coyotes but not between isolates of H. americanum. Microscopic evaluation of skeletal muscle revealed that parasite-induced lesions were significantly more numerous (t = 5.0, df = 7, P = 0.001) in juvenile than adult coyotes. Results of this study indicate that juvenile and adult coyotes are equally susceptible to experimental infection with H. americanum isolated from domestic dog and wild coyote sources. The age of coyotes at the time of exposure, and possibly the number of H. americanum oocysts ingested, might influence morbidity and mortality, but it appears that both adult and juvenile coyotes could be reservoirs of H. americanum.

  6. Recents patents for isolating, delivering and tracking adult stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2010-06-01

    The field of regenerative medicine offers nowadays the potential to significantly impact a wide spectrum of healthcare issues, from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes, T1D) to cardiovascular disease. In tissue engineering biomaterials, biological factors, regeneration competent cells are used in the process of creating functional tissue. Regarding the type of stem or progenitor cells which represents the best candidate for therapy, embryonic stem cells have been considered the master cells capable of differentiating into every type of cells either in vitro or in vivo, in spite of serious ethical concerns. Nevertheless experimental evidence suggests that adult stem cells and even terminally differentiated somatic cells under appropriate microenvironmental treatments can be reprogrammed and contribute to a much wider spectrum of differentiated progeny than previously anticipated. One of the main goals is to exploit novel technologies aiming to isolate, expand and enrich sources of regeneration competent cells, especially adult somatic stem cells. Researchers are also trying to develop innovative strategies for effectively delivering regenerative cell populations and to implement 'tracking' tools to verify their engraftment and destiny in vivo. Here we review recent patents on the field issued over the past five years.

  7. Clinicopathologic analysis of isolated hematuria in child/adolescent and adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, GuangLei; Zhu, Jun; Song, MingHui; Ma, Lu; Pan, Tao; Yang, Qi; Zhang, WenSheng

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, no in-depth clinicopathologic study of isolated hematuria (IH) is currently available. To address this gap, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of IH as it manifests in child/adolescent and adult patients. The clinical data and pathological types of 543 IH patients who underwent renal pathological examinations from January 2005 to June 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical manifestations differed among the age groups: children/adolescents exhibited the highest percentage of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (41.78%), whereas adults showed the highest percentage of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) (52.39%). In addition, the percentage of IH patients who were classified according to clinical pathology differed from that of patients who were classified according to renal pathological type. Patients with IgAN who were found to have minimal proteinuria had more severe IH. For IH patients, especially those with a small amount of proteinuria, renal biopsy should be performed as early as possible in order to develop a long-term treatment plan and prognosis evaluation. PMID:27003766

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Human Adult Epithelial Stem Cells from the Periodontal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou-Papaefthymiou, M; Papagerakis, P; Papagerakis, S

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel method for the isolation of adult human epithelial stem cells (hEpiSCs) from the epithelial component of the periodontal ligament-the human epithelial cell rests of Malassez (hERM). hEpiSC-rich integrin-α6(+ve) hERM cells derived by fluorometry can be clonally expanded, can grow organoids, and express the markers of pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2), polycomb protein RING1B, and the hEpiSC supermarker LGR5. They maintain the growth profile of their originating hERM in vitro. Subcutaneous cotransplantation with mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp on poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds in nude mice gave rise to perfect heterotopic ossicles in vivo with ultrastructure of dentin, enamel, cementum, and bone. These remarkable fully mineralized ossicles underscore the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk in tissue regeneration using human progenitor stem cells, which may have already committed to lineage despite maintaining hallmarks of pluripotency. In addition, we report the clonal expansion and isolation of human LGR5(+ve) cells from the hERM in xeno-free culture conditions. The genetic profile of LGR5(+ve) cells includes both markers of pluripotency and genes important for secretory epithelial and dental epithelial cell differentiation, giving us a first insight into periodontal ligament-derived hEpiSCs. PMID:26392003

  9. Lifelong exposure to bisphenol a alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression, and DNA methylation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavini B; Raad, Mohamad; Sebag, Igal A; Chalifour, Lorraine E

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenizing endocrine disruptor compound of concern. Our objective was to test whether lifelong BPA would impact cardiac structure/function, calcium homeostasis protein expression, and the DNA methylation of cardiac genes. We delivered 0.5 and 5.0 µg/kg/day BPA lifelong from gestation day 11 or 200 µg/kg/day from gestation day 11 to postnatal day 21 via the drinking water to C57bl/6n mice. BPA 5.0 males and females had increased body weight, body mass index, body surface area, and adiposity. Echocardiography identified concentric remodeling in all BPA-treated males. Systolic and diastolic cardiac functions were essentially similar, but lifelong BPA enhanced male and reduced female sex-specific differences in velocity of circumferential shortening and ascending aorta velocity time integral. Diastolic blood pressure was increased in all BPA females. The calcium homeostasis proteins sarcoendoplasmic reticulum ATPase 2a (SERCA2a), sodium calcium exchanger-1, phospholamban (PLB), phospho-PLB, and calsequestrin 2 are important for contraction and relaxation. Changes in their expression suggest increased calcium mobility in males and reduced calcium mobility in females supporting the cardiac function changes. DNA methyltransferase 3a expression was increased in all BPA males and BPA 0.5 females and reduced in BPA 200 females. Global DNA methylation was increased in BPA 0.5 males and reduced in BPA 0.5 females. BPA induced sex-specific altered DNA methylation in specific CpG pairs in the calsequestrin 2 CpG island. These results suggest that continual exposure to BPA impacts cardiac structure/function, protein expression, and epigenetic DNA methylation marks in males and females.

  10. Simultaneous operation for cardiac disease and gastrointestinal malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Komokata, Teruo; Fukueda, Mikio; Kaieda, Mamoru; Ueno, Takayuki; Iguro, Yoshihumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety of performing simultaneous cardiac surgery and a resection of a gastrointestinal malignancy. METHODS: Among 3664 elective cardiac operations performed in adults at Kagoshima University Hospital from January 1991 to October 2009, this study reviewed the clinical records of the patients who underwent concomitant cardiac surgery and a gastrointestinal resection. Such simultaneous surgeries were performed in 15 patients between January 1991 and October 2009. The cardiac diseases included 8 cases of coronary artery disease and 7 cases with valvular heart disease. Gastrointestinal malignancies included 11 gastric and 4 colon cancers. Immediate postoperative and long-term outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Postoperative complications occurred in 5 patients (33.3%), including strokes (n = 1), respiratory failure requiring re-intubation (n = 1), hemorrhage (n = 2), hyperbilirubinemia (n = 1) and aspiration pneumonia (n = 1). There was 1 hospital death caused by the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome after postoperative surgical bleeding followed aortic valve replacement plus gastrectomy. There was no cardiovascular event in the patients during the follow-up period. The cumulative survival rate for all patients was 69.2% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous procedures are acceptable for the patients who require surgery for both cardiac diseases and gastrointestinal malignancy. In particular, the combination of a standard cardiac operation, such as coronary artery bypass grafting or an isolated valve replacement and simple gastrointestinal resection, such as gastrectomy or colectomy can therefore be safely performed. PMID:25161762

  11. Differential expression of embryonic epicardial progenitor markers and localization of cardiac fibrosis in adult ischemic injury and hypertensive heart disease.

    PubMed

    Braitsch, Caitlin M; Kanisicak, Onur; van Berlo, Jop H; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Yutzey, Katherine E

    2013-12-01

    During embryonic heart development, the transcription factors Tcf21, Wt1, and Tbx18 regulate activation and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells, including fibroblast lineages. Expression of these epicardial progenitor factors and localization of cardiac fibrosis were examined in mouse models of cardiovascular disease and in human diseased hearts. Following ischemic injury in mice, epicardial fibrosis is apparent in the thickened layer of subepicardial cells that express Wt1, Tbx18, and Tcf21. Perivascular fibrosis with predominant expression of Tcf21, but not Wt1 or Tbx18, occurs in mouse models of pressure overload or hypertensive heart disease, but not following ischemic injury. Areas of interstitial fibrosis in ischemic and hypertensive hearts actively express Tcf21, Wt1, and Tbx18. In all areas of fibrosis, cells that express epicardial progenitor factors are distinct from CD45-positive immune cells. In human diseased hearts, differential expression of Tcf21, Wt1, and Tbx18 also is detected with epicardial, perivascular, and interstitial fibrosis, indicating conservation of reactivated developmental mechanisms in cardiac fibrosis in mice and humans. Together, these data provide evidence for distinct fibrogenic mechanisms that include Tcf21, separate from Wt1 and Tbx18, in different fibroblast populations in response to specific types of cardiac injury.

  12. Cardiac rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coronary artery disease - cardiac rehab; Angina - cardiac rehab; Heart failure - cardiac rehab ... have had: Heart attack Coronary heart disease (CHD) Heart failure Angina (chest pain) Heart or heart valve surgery ...

  13. Prevalence and trends of isolated systolic hypertension among untreated adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuefeng; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Wang, Kesheng

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence and long-term trends of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) among untreated adults have not been reported. Data from 24,653 participants aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of untreated ISH were estimated by conducting the independent survey t-test. The prevalence of untreated ISH was 9.4% and decreased from 10.3% in 1999-2004 to 8.5% in 2005-2010 (P = .00248). Old persons, females, and non-Hispanic blacks had higher prevalence of untreated ISH. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 decreased among older (33.6%; 95% CI, 30.9%-36.3% vs. 25.1%; 95% CI, 22.7%-27.5%) and female individuals (8.3%; 95% CI, 7.5-9.2% vs. 11.4%; 95% CI, 10.4-12.3%). The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH declined in 2005-2010 (vs. 1999-2004) for older non-Hispanic whites (24.6% vs. 32.8%; P < .0001) and blacks (27.7% vs. 40.8%; P = .0013), non-Hispanic white females (7.5% vs. 10.8%; P < .0001), older individuals with higher education (21.0% vs. 30.6%; P = .0024), and females with lower education (10.1% vs. 13.1%; P = .006). Untreated ISH is more prevalent in older adults and females. Significant decreases in untreated ISH prevalence over time among these groups suggest that public health measures and/or treatment patterns are trending in the right direction. PMID:25795550

  14. 31P-NMR studies of isolated adult heart cells: effect of myoglobin inactivation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Wittenberg, B A

    1991-10-01

    31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of isolated adult rat heart cells revealed that the cells maintained high-energy phosphates for up to 6 h in polyamide hollow fibers perfused with well-oxygenated nutrient medium. Glucose plus pyruvate superfused heart cells maintained [phosphocreatine]/[ATP] at 1.4 +/- 0.1, internal pH at 7.09 +/- 0.04 (external pH = 7.25), and intracellular free Mg2+ at 0.51 +/- 0.04 mM. In glucose-containing media, hypoxia was accompanied by a reversible decrease in intracellular ATP and phosphocreatine of approximately 50% and 80%, respectively, while the intracellular free Mg2+ was reversibly increased by 40%. However, inhibition of glycolysis by iodoacetate in aerobic pyruvate-containing medium did not significantly alter high-energy phosphate content. Inactivation of intracellular myoglobin with 1-2 mM sodium nitrite, which reduces the steady-state respiratory oxygen consumption rate by 30%, caused a significant (30%) decrease in intracellular phosphocreatine peak, which was reversed upon removal of sodium nitrite. The nitrite-induced decrease in phosphocreatine was also observed in iodoacetate-treated myocytes but not in oligomycin-treated cells. These results indicate that functional myoglobin enhances high-energy phosphate synthesis in well-oxygenated myocytes. PMID:1928397

  15. Relationship between left ventricular mass and coronary artery disease in young adults: a single-center study using cardiac computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Yong; Sun, Joo Sung; Sur, Young Keun; Park, Jin Sun; Kang, Doo Kyoung

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular mass (LVM) as measured by cardiac computed tomography (CT) in young adults ≤40 years of age. We retrospectively enrolled 490 consecutive individuals (383 males; mean age, 35.2 ± 4.4 years) who underwent cardiac CT. CAD was defined by the presence of any plaque detected by coronary CT angiography. Left ventricular (LV) function, including LVM, was automatically measured by a dedicated workstation. LVM and LVM index (LVMi) in patients with CT-detected CAD were compared to those of patients without CT-detected CAD. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and CAD. Fifty-five individuals had CT-detected CAD (11.2 %, 53 males). LVM measured by cardiac CT was 126.9 ± 30.0 g for males and 93.6 ± 20.9 g for females. LVM was higher (117.8 ± 30.8 vs. 133.6 ± 33.1 g, P < 0.001) in patients with CT-detected CAD compared with patients without CT-detected CAD. Obesity, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, LVM and LVMi were predictors of CT-detected CAD. Body mass index (r = 0.237, P < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.281, P < 0.001) were positively correlated with LVM. In the multivariate analysis, LVM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.016] and LVMi (OR = 1.026) remained independent predictors of CAD. LVM and LVMi in patients with CT-detected CAD were higher than that of patients without CT-detected CAD. LVM and LVMi measured by cardiac CT were independent predictors of CAD.

  16. Cerebral Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Monitoring and Neurologic Outcomes in Adult Cardiac Surgery Patients and Neurologic Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Sheinberg, Rosanne; Yee, May Sann; Ono, Masa; Zheng, Yueyging; Hogue, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Near-infrared spectroscopy is used during cardiac surgery to monitor the adequacy of cerebral perfusion. In this systematic review, we evaluated available data for adult patients to determine (1) whether decrements in cerebral oximetry during cardiac surgery are associated with stroke, postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), or delirium and (2) whether interventions aimed at correcting cerebral oximetry decrements improve neurologic outcomes. Methods We searched PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases from inception until January 31, 2012, without restriction on languages. Each article was examined for additional references. A publication was excluded if it did not include original data (e.g., review, commentary) or if it was not published as a full-length article in a peer-reviewed journal (e.g., abstract only). The identified abstracts were screened first, and full texts of eligible papers were reviewed independently by two investigators. For eligible publications, we recorded the number of subjects, type of surgery, and criteria for diagnosis of neurologic endpoints. Results We identified 13 case reports, 27 observational studies, and two prospectively randomized intervention trials that met our inclusion criteria. Case reports and two observational studies contained anecdotal evidence suggesting that regional cerebral O2 saturation (rScO2) monitoring could be used to identify cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) cannula malposition. Six of nine observational studies reported an association between acute rScO2 desaturation and POCD based on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (n=3 studies) or more detailed cognitive testing (n=6 studies). Two retrospective studies reported a relationship between rScO2 desaturation and stroke or type I and II neurologic injury after surgery. The observational studies had many limitations, including small sample size, assessments only during the immediate postoperative period, and failure to perform risk adjustments. Two

  17. Theoretical Fraunhofer light diffraction patterns calculated from three-dimensional sarcomere arrays imaged from isolated cardiac cells at rest.

    PubMed

    Roos, K P; Leung, A F

    1987-08-01

    Sarcomere striation positions have been obtained throughout the volumes of calcium-tolerant resting heart cells by direct computer interfaced high-resolution optical imaging. Each sarcomere position is stored in a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix array from which Fraunhofer light diffraction patterns have been calculated using numerical methods based on Fourier transforms. Diffraction patterns have been calculated from heart cell data arrays oriented normal to a theoretical laser beam. Twelve characteristic features have been identified and described from these diffraction patterns that correlate to diffraction phenomena observed from both cardiac and skeletal muscle. This numerical approach provides the means to directly assess diffraction pattern formulation, the precision of layer line angular separation, layer-line intensity and angular asymmetries, line widths and fine structures in terms of the known diffracting source structures. These results confirm that theoretical calculations can predict real muscle diffraction patterns and their asymmetries.

  18. Effects of an 18 week walking programme on cardiac function in previously sedentary or relatively inactive adults.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-May, K; Bird, S; Owen, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of an 18 week walking programme upon cardiac function. METHODS: 29 sedentary or relatively inactive but otherwise healthy subjects (15 walkers and 14 controls, aged 40-68 years) completed the study. The walkers completed a progressive 18 week walking programme which required an estimated average energy expenditure of 900 kcal week-1 for the total duration of the study and 1161 kcal week-1 during the final six weeks. Walking was carried out at an intensity of 67.8 (SD 4.99)% of maximum oxygen consumption and 73.8(6.99%) of maximum heart rate. Before and after the intervention all subjects underwent an M mode echocardiogram, graded treadmill walking test, and step test for the assessment of aerobic fitness. RESULTS: After 18 weeks the results of the control group showed no change in any of the variables measured while the walkers showed a statistically significant increase in the velocity of relaxation of the longitudinal myocardial fibres of the left ventricle and a decrease in heart rate measured during the step tests, indicating an improvement in aerobic capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Walking promotes improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Moderate forms of exercise may improve cardiac function. Images p50-a PMID:9132212

  19. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration. PMID:26812613

  20. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration.

  1. Fulminant isolated cardiac sarcoidosis with pericardial effusion and acute heart failure: Challenging aspects of diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fluschnik, Nina; Lund, Gunnar; Becher, Peter Moritz; Blankenberg, Stefan; Muellerleile, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This case report illustrates challenging aspects of diagnosis and treatment of isolated sarcoid heart disease (SHD) and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Here, we present a previously healthy 45-year-old man, who was admitted with pericardial effusion and symptoms of acute heart failure. CMR followed by targeted left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) revealed the diagnosis of isolated SHD. The combined use of CMR and EMB was crucial in diagnosing SHD. Furthermore, this case report demonstrates the value of CMR for monitoring response to therapy and lesion healing. PMID:26989672

  2. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI) mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH) mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice. PMID:26881124

  3. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI) mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH) mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice. PMID:26881124

  4. Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N.

    1995-10-01

    Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Effects of Postconditioning, Preconditioning and Perfusion of L-carnitine During Whole Period of Ischemia/ Reperfusion on Cardiac Hemodynamic Functions and Myocardial Infarction Size in Isolated Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Moslem

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present work, the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on postischemic cardiac hemodynamic functions and infarction size were studied in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. Then they were perfused by a drug-free or LC-enriched Krebs–Henseleit (K/H) solution during ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) (Protocol 1), 10 min before ischemia induction (Protocol 2; preconditioning group) or the first 10 min of reperfusion (Protocol 3; postconditioning group). Results: The perfusion of LC in protocol 1 significantly reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (P<0.05), and increased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) (P<0.05), rate pressure product (RPP) (P<0.01) and coronary flow rate (CFR) (P<0.05). The short-term preischemic administration of LC in protocol 2 improved RPP, CFR and decreased the extent of LVEDP elevation. However, protective effects of LC in this protocol were low compared to the whole period perfusion. In protocol 3, LC preserved postischemic cardiac functions not as much as the other protocols. In addition, infarct size significantly decreased by LC in all protocols as opposed to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present work showed that LC produced protective effects against I/R injury. These protective actions were reversed by concomitant use of etomoxir (a CPT-I inhibitor), suggesting that the efficacy of LC could be due to its mitochondrial action, probably related to the raise in glucose oxidation of the reperfused hearts. PMID:24250943

  6. Effects of Postconditioning, Preconditioning and Perfusion of L-carnitine During Whole Period of Ischemia/ Reperfusion on Cardiac Hemodynamic Functions and Myocardial Infarction Size in Isolated Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Moslem

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present work, the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on postischemic cardiac hemodynamic functions and infarction size were studied in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. Then they were perfused by a drug-free or LC-enriched Krebs–Henseleit (K/H) solution during ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) (Protocol 1), 10 min before ischemia induction (Protocol 2; preconditioning group) or the first 10 min of reperfusion (Protocol 3; postconditioning group). Results: The perfusion of LC in protocol 1 significantly reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (P<0.05), and increased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) (P<0.05), rate pressure product (RPP) (P<0.01) and coronary flow rate (CFR) (P<0.05). The short-term preischemic administration of LC in protocol 2 improved RPP, CFR and decreased the extent of LVEDP elevation. However, protective effects of LC in this protocol were low compared to the whole period perfusion. In protocol 3, LC preserved postischemic cardiac functions not as much as the other protocols. In addition, infarct size significantly decreased by LC in all protocols as opposed to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present work showed that LC produced protective effects against I/R injury. These protective actions were reversed by concomitant use of etomoxir (a CPT-I inhibitor), suggesting that the efficacy of LC could be due to its mitochondrial action, probably related to the raise in glucose oxidation of the reperfused hearts. PMID:24250945

  7. Clinical practice guide for the choice of perioperative volume-restoring fluid in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Basora, M; Colomina, M J; Moral, V; Asuero de Lis, M S; Boix, E; Jover, J L; Llau, J V; Rodrigo, M P; Ripollés, J; Calvo Vecino, J M

    2016-01-01

    The present Clinical practice guide responds to the clinical questions about security in the choice of fluid (crystalloid, colloid or hydroxyethyl starch 130) in patients who require volume replacement during perioperative period of non-cardiac surgeries. From the evidence summary, recommendations were made following the GRADE methodology. In this population fluid therapy based on crystalloids is suggested (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). In the events where volume replacement is not reached with crystalloids, the use of synthetic colloids (hydroxyethyl starch 130 or modified fluid gelatin) is suggested instead of 5% albumin (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). The choice and dosage of the colloid should be based in the product characteristics, patient comorbidity and anesthesiologist's experience.

  8. Clinical practice guide for the choice of perioperative volume-restoring fluid in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Basora, M; Colomina, M J; Moral, V; Asuero de Lis, M S; Boix, E; Jover, J L; Llau, J V; Rodrigo, M P; Ripollés, J; Calvo Vecino, J M

    2016-01-01

    The present Clinical practice guide responds to the clinical questions about security in the choice of fluid (crystalloid, colloid or hydroxyethyl starch 130) in patients who require volume replacement during perioperative period of non-cardiac surgeries. From the evidence summary, recommendations were made following the GRADE methodology. In this population fluid therapy based on crystalloids is suggested (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). In the events where volume replacement is not reached with crystalloids, the use of synthetic colloids (hydroxyethyl starch 130 or modified fluid gelatin) is suggested instead of 5% albumin (weak recommendation, low quality evidence). The choice and dosage of the colloid should be based in the product characteristics, patient comorbidity and anesthesiologist's experience. PMID:26343809

  9. Hyperlactatemia in patients undergoing adult cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass: Causative factors and its effect on surgical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Rakesh; George, Gladdy; Karuppiah, Sathappan; Philip, Madhu Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: To identify the factors causing high lactate levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to assess the association between high blood lactate levels and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective observational study including 370 patients who underwent cardiac surgeries under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on serum lactate levels; those with serum lactate levels greater than or equal to 4 mmol/L considered as hyperlactatemia and those with serum lactate levels less than 4 mmol/L. Blood lactate samples were collected intraoperatively and postoperatively in the ICU. Preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for hyperlactatemia were identified using the highest intraoperative value of lactate. The postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with hyperlactatemia was studied using the overall (intraoperative and postoperative values) peak lactate levels. Preoperative clinical data, perioperative events and postoperative morbidity and mortality were recorded. Results: Intraoperative peak blood lactate levels of 4.0 mmol/L or more were present in 158 patients (42.7%). Females had higher peak intra operative lactate levels (P = 0.011). There was significant correlation between CPB time (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.024; P = 0.003) and aortic cross clamp time (r = 0.02, P = 0.007) with peak intraoperative blood lactate levels. Patients with hyperlactatemia had significantly higher rate of postoperative morbidity like atrial fibrillation (19.9% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.004), prolonged requirement of inotropes (34% vs. 11.8%; P = 0.001), longer stay in the ICU (P = 0.013) and hospital (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Hyperlactatemia had significant association with post-operative morbidity. Detection of hyperlactatemia in the perioperative period should be considered as an indicator of inadequate tissue oxygen delivery and must be aggressively

  10. Fluid absorption in the isolated midgut of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Onken, Horst; Moffett, David F

    2015-07-01

    The transepithelial voltage (Vte) and the volume of isolated posterior midguts of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were monitored. In all experiments, the initial Vte after filling the midgut was lumen negative, but subsequently became lumen positive at a rate of approximately 1 mV min(-1). Simultaneously, the midgut volume decreased, indicating spontaneous fluid absorption. When the midguts were filled and bathed with mosquito saline, the average rate of fluid absorption was 36.5±3.0 nl min(-1) (N=4, ±s.e.m.). In the presence of theophylline (10 mmol l(-1)), Vte reached significantly higher lumen-positive values, but the rate of fluid absorption was not affected (N=6). In the presence of NaCN (5 mmol l(-1)), Vte remained close to 0 mV (N=4) and fluid absorption was reduced (14.4±1.3 nl min(-1), N=3, ±s.e.m.). When midguts were filled with buffered NaCl (154 mmol l(-1) plus 1 mmol l(-1) HEPES) and bathed in mosquito saline with theophylline, fluid absorption was augmented (50.0±5.8 nl min(-1), N=12, ±s.e.m.). Concanamycin A (10 µmol l(-1)), ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)), and acetazolamide (1 mmol l(-1)) affected Vte in different ways, but all reduced fluid absorption by 60-70% of the value before addition of the drugs.

  11. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling; Genge, Christine E; Cua, Michelle; Sheng, Xiaoye; Rayani, Kaveh; Beg, Mirza F; Sarunic, Marinko V; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE) in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2) if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR) appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO) with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA- 18°C; warm acclimated WA- 28°C). Stroke volume (SV) is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 ± 0.15 μL at 18°C vs 1.06 ± 0.14 μl at 28°C; WA 1.10 ± 0.13 μL at 18°C vs 1.12 ± 0.12 μl at 28°C). The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18°C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18°C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E) velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A) ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling. PMID:26730947

  12. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Cua, Michelle; Sheng, Xiaoye; Rayani, Kaveh; Beg, Mirza F.; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Tibbits, Glen F.

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE) in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2) if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR) appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO) with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA– 18°C; warm acclimated WA– 28°C). Stroke volume (SV) is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 ± 0.15 μL at 18°C vs 1.06 ± 0.14 μl at 28°C; WA 1.10 ± 0.13 μL at 18°C vs 1.12 ± 0.12 μl at 28°C). The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18°C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18°C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E) velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A) ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling. PMID:26730947

  13. Depression-Like Behavioral Phenotypes by Social and Social Plus Visual Isolation in the Adult Female Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qinmin; Wang, Tao; Shively, Carol; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Fang, Liang; Zhan, Qunlin; Melgiri, N. D.; Xie, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric mood disorder that affects millions of individuals globally. Our understanding of the biological basis of MDD is poor, and current treatments are ineffective in a significant proportion of cases. This current situation may relate to the dominant rodent animal models of depression, which possess translational limitations due to limited homologies with humans. Therefore, a more homologous primate model of depression is needed to advance investigation into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and to conduct pre-clinical therapeutic trials. Here, we report two convenient methods – social isolation and social plus visual isolation – which can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in the adult female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Both social and social plus visual isolation were shown to be effective in inducing depression-like behavior by significantly reducing socially dominant aggressive conflict behavior, communicative behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. The addition of visual isolation produced more profound behavioral changes than social isolation alone by further reducing parental behavior and sexual behavior. Thus, the degree of behavioral pathology may be manipulated by the degree of isolation. These methods can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in order to assess physiological, behavioral, and social phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. PMID:24023857

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL Genes and Multi-Drug Resistance in Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Adults in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) blaTEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the blaTEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran. PMID:26664394

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL Genes and Multi-Drug Resistance in Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Adults in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) bla TEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the bla TEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran.

  16. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-07-21

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect.

  17. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1–14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg−1 subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  18. The oxytocin system promotes resilience to the effects of neonatal isolation on adult social attachment in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, C E; Arambula, S E; Young, L J

    2015-01-01

    Genes and social experiences interact to create variation in social behavior and vulnerability to develop disorders of the social domain. Socially monogamous prairie voles display remarkable diversity in neuropeptide receptor systems and social behavior. Here, we examine the interaction of early-life adversity and brain oxytocin receptor (OTR) density on adult social attachment in female prairie voles. First, pups were isolated for 3 h per day, or unmanipulated, from postnatal day 1-14. Adult subjects were tested on the partner preference (PP) test to assess social attachment and OTR density in the brain was quantified. Neonatal social isolation impaired female PP formation, without affecting OTR density. Accumbal OTR density was, however, positively correlated with the percent of time spent huddling with the partner in neonatally isolated females. Females with high accumbal OTR binding were resilient to neonatal isolation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that parental nurturing shapes neural systems underlying social relationships by enhancing striatal OTR signaling. Thus, we next determined whether early touch, mimicking parental licking and grooming, stimulates hypothalamic OT neuron activity. Tactile stimulation induced immediate-early gene activity in OT neurons in neonates. Finally, we investigated whether pharmacologically potentiating OT release using a melanocortin 3/4 agonist, melanotan-II (10 mg kg(-1) subcutaneously), would mitigate the social isolation-induced impairments in attachment behavior. Neonatal melanotan-II administration buffered against the effects of early isolation on partner preference formation. Thus, variation in accumbal OTR density and early OT release induced by parental nurturing may moderate susceptibility to early adverse experiences, including neglect. PMID:26196439

  19. Treatment of lone atrial fibrillation: minimally invasive pulmonary vein isolation, partial cardiac denervation and excision of the left atrial appendage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since 1999, my colleagues and I have diligently pursued a minimally invasive surgical, beating-heart, left atrial isolation technique that is offered to patients with lone atrial fibrillation (AF). We began clinical cases in 2003. In 2005, we reported our initial experience with video-assisted bilateral pulmonary vein (PV) isolation and left atrial appendage (LAA) exclusion for the minimally invasive treatment of AF (Wolf technique). From our experience in over 1,000 cases there have been many lessons learned in the evaluation, selection and minimally invasive surgical treatment of patients with lone AF. In our experience we have had zero mortality and no conversions to sternotomy. Recently we reviewed 157 patients who are now 1 to 9 years out from the Wolf technique. The patients’ ages ranged from 15 to 87 years old. The AF-free rate for paroxysmal AF was 92%, for persistent AF 85%, and for long-standing persistent AF 75%. The follow-up included 7-day continuous monitoring. There were no deaths (personal review). The Wolf technique is a safe and effective treatment for selected patients with lone AF. PMID:24516806

  20. Population structure among octocoral adults and recruits identifies scale dependent patterns of population isolation in The Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Lasker, Howard R; Porto-Hannes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of dispersal and connectivity of the Caribbean gorgonian Antillogorgia elisabethae in The Bahamas were assessed in both adults and recently settled recruits from 13 sites using microsatellite loci. Adult populations along the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) exhibited a clear pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) which described 86% of the variance in pairwise genetic distances. Estimates of dispersal based on the IBD model suggested dispersal distances along the LBB on the order of 100 m. Increasing the spatial scale to include sites separated by open ocean generated an apparent IBD signal but the relationship had a greater slope and explained less of the variance. This relationship with distance reflected both stepping stone based IBD and regional differentiation probably created by ocean currents and barriers to dispersal that are correlated with geographic distance. Analysis of recruits from 4 sites on the LBB from up to 6 years did not detect differences between years nor differences with adult populations. The result suggests that neither selection on recruits nor inter-annual variation in dispersal affected adult population structure. Assignment tests of recruits indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Most of the patterning in population structure in the northern Bahamas can be explained by geographic distance and oceanographic connectivity. Recognition of these complex patterns is important in developing management plans for A. elisabethae and in understanding the effects of disturbance to adult populations of A. elisabethae and similar species with limited dispersal. PMID:26157606

  1. Population structure among octocoral adults and recruits identifies scale dependent patterns of population isolation in The Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Hannes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of dispersal and connectivity of the Caribbean gorgonian Antillogorgia elisabethae in The Bahamas were assessed in both adults and recently settled recruits from 13 sites using microsatellite loci. Adult populations along the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) exhibited a clear pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) which described 86% of the variance in pairwise genetic distances. Estimates of dispersal based on the IBD model suggested dispersal distances along the LBB on the order of 100 m. Increasing the spatial scale to include sites separated by open ocean generated an apparent IBD signal but the relationship had a greater slope and explained less of the variance. This relationship with distance reflected both stepping stone based IBD and regional differentiation probably created by ocean currents and barriers to dispersal that are correlated with geographic distance. Analysis of recruits from 4 sites on the LBB from up to 6 years did not detect differences between years nor differences with adult populations. The result suggests that neither selection on recruits nor inter-annual variation in dispersal affected adult population structure. Assignment tests of recruits indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Most of the patterning in population structure in the northern Bahamas can be explained by geographic distance and oceanographic connectivity. Recognition of these complex patterns is important in developing management plans for A. elisabethae and in understanding the effects of disturbance to adult populations of A. elisabethae and similar species with limited dispersal. PMID:26157606

  2. A Method for the Isolation and Culture of Adult Rat Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells to Study Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Janosch P.; Kwok, Jessica C. F.; Vecino, Elena; Martin, Keith R.; Fawcett, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affect the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and lead to the death of the epithelial cells and ultimately blindness. RPE transplantation is currently a major focus of eye research and clinical trials using human stem cell-derived RPE cells are ongoing. However, it remains to be established to which extent the source of RPE cells for transplantation affects their therapeutic efficacy and this needs to be explored in animal models. Autotransplantation of RPE cells has attractions as a therapy, but existing protocols to isolate adult RPE cells from rodents are technically difficult, time-consuming, have a low yield and are not optimized for long-term cell culturing. Here, we report a newly devised protocol which facilitates reliable and simple isolation and culture of RPE cells from adult rats. Incubation of a whole rat eyeball in 20 U/ml papain solution for 50 min yielded 4 × 104 viable RPE cells. These cells were hexagonal and pigmented upon culture. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that the cells expressed RPE cell-specific marker proteins including cytokeratin 18 and RPE65, similar to RPE cells in vivo. Additionally, the cells were able to produce and secrete Bruch’s membrane matrix components similar to in vivo situation. Similarly, the cultured RPE cells adhered to isolated Bruch’s membrane as has previously been reported. Therefore, the protocol described in this article provides an efficient method for the rapid and easy isolation of high quantities of adult rat RPE cells. This provides a reliable platform for studying the therapeutic targets, testing the effects of drugs in a preclinical setup and to perform in vitro and in vivo transplantation experiments to study retinal diseases. PMID:26635529

  3. Cardiac arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  4. [Congenital heart disease in adults: residua, sequelae, and complications of cardiac defects repaired at an early age].

    PubMed

    Oliver Ruiz, José María

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, it is estimated that 85% of the infants born with congenital heart disease (CHD) will survive to adulthood, thanks mainly to surgical or therapeutic procedures performed during infancy or childhood. The clinical profile and disease pattern of adults with CHD is changing. The prevalence of certain adult CHDs, such as tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries or univentricular heart, is rising, but these conditions have practically become new diseases as a result of therapy. Most surviving patients present residua, sequelae, or complications, which can progress during adult life. These disorders can present electrophysiological disturbances, valvular disease, persistent shunts, myocardial dysfunction, pulmonary or systemic vascular disease, problems caused by prosthetic materials, infectious complications, thromboembolic events, or extravascular disorders involving multiple organs or systems. In tetralogy of Fallot, the most striking problems that affect long-term prognosis are pulmonary valve regurgitation, right ventricle dysfunction, and atrial or ventricular arrhythmias. The main problems appearing after physiological atrial repair of transposition of the great arteries are related to right ventricular function, since it is structurally unprepared for systemic circulation, and atrial arrhythmias. Surgical repair of univentricular heart using Fontan techniques should be considered a palliative procedure that does not modify the underlying structural disorder and exposes the postoperative patient to severe complications and problems. The increase in the number of patients with CHD who will reach adulthood in the coming decades makes it necessary to carefully consider the new healthcare demands that are being generated, who should be responsible for them, and how and where solutions can be found.

  5. Walnut ingestion in adults at risk for diabetes: effects on body composition, diet quality, and cardiac risk measures

    PubMed Central

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Ayettey, Rockiy; Petraro, Paul; Treu, Judith A; Katz, David L

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their energy density, walnuts can be included in the diet without adverse effects on weight or body composition. The effect of habitual walnut intake on total calorie intake is not well studied. Effects on overall diet quality have not been reported. Methods Randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design study with 2 treatment arms. The 112 participants were randomly assigned to a diet with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake. Within each treatment arm, participants were further randomized to 1 of the 2 possible sequence permutations to receive a walnut-included diet with 56 g (providing 366 kcal) of walnuts per day and a walnut-excluded diet. Participants were assessed for diet quality, body composition, and cardiac risk measures. Results When compared with a walnut-excluded diet, a walnut-included diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, significantly improved diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (9.14±17.71 vs 0.40±15.13; p=0.02 and 7.02±15.89 vs -5.92±21.84; p=0.001, respectively). Endothelial function, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol improved significantly from baseline in the walnut-included diet. Body mass index, percent body fat, visceral fat, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and blood pressure did not change significantly. Conclusions The inclusion of walnuts in an ad libitum diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake, significantly improved diet quality, endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol, but had no effects on anthropometric measures, blood glucose level, and blood pressure. Trial registration number: NCT02330848 PMID:26688734

  6. The Role of Cardiac Side Population Cells in Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yellamilli, Amritha; van Berlo, Jop H.

    2016-01-01

    The heart has a limited ability to regenerate. It is important to identify therapeutic strategies that enhance cardiac regeneration in order to replace cardiomyocytes lost during the progression of heart failure. Cardiac progenitor cells are interesting targets for new regenerative therapies because they are self-renewing, multipotent cells located in the heart. Cardiac side population cells (cSPCs), the first cardiac progenitor cells identified in the adult heart, have the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. They become activated in response to cardiac injury and transplantation of cSPCs into the injured heart improves cardiac function. In this review, we will discuss the current literature on the progenitor cell properties and therapeutic potential of cSPCs. This body of work demonstrates the great promise cSPCs hold as targets for new regenerative strategies.

  7. The Role of Cardiac Side Population Cells in Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yellamilli, Amritha; van Berlo, Jop H.

    2016-01-01

    The heart has a limited ability to regenerate. It is important to identify therapeutic strategies that enhance cardiac regeneration in order to replace cardiomyocytes lost during the progression of heart failure. Cardiac progenitor cells are interesting targets for new regenerative therapies because they are self-renewing, multipotent cells located in the heart. Cardiac side population cells (cSPCs), the first cardiac progenitor cells identified in the adult heart, have the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. They become activated in response to cardiac injury and transplantation of cSPCs into the injured heart improves cardiac function. In this review, we will discuss the current literature on the progenitor cell properties and therapeutic potential of cSPCs. This body of work demonstrates the great promise cSPCs hold as targets for new regenerative strategies. PMID:27679798

  8. The Role of Cardiac Side Population Cells in Cardiac Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yellamilli, Amritha; van Berlo, Jop H

    2016-01-01

    The heart has a limited ability to regenerate. It is important to identify therapeutic strategies that enhance cardiac regeneration in order to replace cardiomyocytes lost during the progression of heart failure. Cardiac progenitor cells are interesting targets for new regenerative therapies because they are self-renewing, multipotent cells located in the heart. Cardiac side population cells (cSPCs), the first cardiac progenitor cells identified in the adult heart, have the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. They become activated in response to cardiac injury and transplantation of cSPCs into the injured heart improves cardiac function. In this review, we will discuss the current literature on the progenitor cell properties and therapeutic potential of cSPCs. This body of work demonstrates the great promise cSPCs hold as targets for new regenerative strategies.

  9. The Role of Cardiac Side Population Cells in Cardiac Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yellamilli, Amritha; van Berlo, Jop H

    2016-01-01

    The heart has a limited ability to regenerate. It is important to identify therapeutic strategies that enhance cardiac regeneration in order to replace cardiomyocytes lost during the progression of heart failure. Cardiac progenitor cells are interesting targets for new regenerative therapies because they are self-renewing, multipotent cells located in the heart. Cardiac side population cells (cSPCs), the first cardiac progenitor cells identified in the adult heart, have the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. They become activated in response to cardiac injury and transplantation of cSPCs into the injured heart improves cardiac function. In this review, we will discuss the current literature on the progenitor cell properties and therapeutic potential of cSPCs. This body of work demonstrates the great promise cSPCs hold as targets for new regenerative strategies. PMID:27679798

  10. Relation of fragmented QRS complex to right ventricular fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance in adults with repaired tetralogy of fallot.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Seung Woo; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Kang, I-Seok; Lee, Heung Jae; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Huh, June

    2012-01-01

    Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on 12-lead electrocardiography reflects conduction delay caused by myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction. Ventricular fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is reportedly correlated with worse clinical outcomes in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of fQRS is associated with right ventricular (RV) fibrosis or dysfunction in this patient group. In 37 consecutive patients (median age 30 years, median age at repair 6.6 years), the number of leads showing fQRS, defined as the presence of >2 notches on the R/S wave in ≥2 contiguous leads, was counted. RV systolic function, dilatation, and LGE score were measured using LGE CMR. Ventricular LGE was observed mainly at the previous surgical sites: the RV outflow tract (33 of 37), ventricular septal defect patch region (15 of 37), and RV anterior wall (11 of 37). Fragmented QRS was found mostly in the right and mid precordial leads. The fQRS group (n = 20) demonstrated higher RV LGE scores (p <0.001) and lower RV ejection fractions (p = 0.02) and a trend toward larger RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (p = 0.12 and p = 0.06, respectively) compared to the non-fQRS group (n = 17). The number of electrocardiographic leads showing fQRS was positively correlated with RV LGE score (r = 0.75, p <0.001). The presence of fQRS remained independently associated with the presence of supramedian RV LGE score, even after adjusting for relevant parameters. In conclusion, fQRS was closely associated with more extensive RV fibrosis and dysfunction in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

  11. Coagulation Parameter Thresholds Associated with Non-Bleeding in the Eighth Hour of Adult Cardiac Surgical Post-Cardiotomy Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Schears, Gregory J; Nuttall, Gregory A; Oliver, William C; Ereth, Mark H; Dearani, Joseph A

    2016-06-01

    Excessive bleeding and allogeneic transfusion during adult post-cardiotomy venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are potentially harmful and expensive. Balancing the inhibition of clotting and distinguishing surgical from non-surgical bleeding in post-operative period is difficult. The sensitivity of coagulation tests including Thromboelastography(®) (TEG) to predict chest tube drainage in the early hours of ECMO was examined with the use of receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). The results are useful to incorporate in clinical evidence-based algorithms to guide management decisions. In the eighth hour of ECMO, 26 of the 53 adult patients (49%) studied were identified as non-bleeders (less than 2.0 mL/kg/h). All had experienced various types of cardiac surgical procedures. Fifty-two percent were female and the group was 54 ± 19 (mean ± 1 SD) years old. The coagulation parameter threshold with the maximum sensitivity and specificity to predict non-bleeding at 8 hours on ECMO was the kaolin plus heparinase TEG maximum amplitude (KH-TEG MA) at a significant ROC threshold (t) > 50 mm. The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) t < 49 seconds, KH-TEG alpha-angle t > 51°, and the kaolin activated clotting time (ACT) t < 148 seconds were sensitive predictors of non-bleeders. The whole-blood KH-TEG MA was superior to the plasma-based aPTT or International Normalization Ratio (INR) to predict bleeding in the eighth hour of ECMO. Using coagulation laboratory thresholds that predict non-bleeding can begin a process of identifying patients earlier that are likely to bleed. Awareness of these parameter thresholds may improve care through patient protection from unnecessary transfusion and prolonging the life of the ECMO circuit. An algorithm incorporating the ROC thresholds was created to help recognize surgical bleeding to minimize unnecessary transfusions. PMID:27578897

  12. Cardiac Ca(2+) channel-blocking effects of the cyproheptadine derivative AH-1058 in isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Dohmoto, Hideki; Takahara, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Yoshimoto, Ryota

    2003-02-01

    The Ca(2+) channel-blocking efficacy of the cyproheptadine derivative AH-1058 (4-(5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ylidene)-1-[(E)-3-(3-methoxy-2-nitro)phenyl-2-propenyl]piperidine hydrochloride) was quantitatively assessed using isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes. AH-1058 (0.001 - 10 microM) and its mother compound cyproheptadine (1 - 100 microM) reduced the Ca(2+) currents elicited from the holding potential of -80 or -40 mV. The IC(50) values for cyproheptadine at holding potentials of -80 and -40 mV were 42.44 and 7.75 microM, respectively, whereas those for AH-1058 were 4.91 and 0.32 microM, respectively, whose potency was equivalent to those of the typical Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. These results suggest that the introduction of the cinnamil structure to cyproheptadine can generate a potent L-type Ca(2+) channel-blocking compound as potent as verapamil.

  13. Association of interatrial septal abnormalities with cardiac impulse conduction disorders in adult patients: experience from a tertiary center in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Bakalli, Aurora; Pllana, Ejup; Koçinaj, Dardan; Bekteshi, Tefik; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Musliu, Nebih; Gashi, Zaim

    2011-01-01

    Interatrial septal disorders, which include: atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm, are frequent congenital anomalies found in adult patients. Early detection of these anomalies is important to prevent their hemodynamic and/or thromboembolic consequences. The aims of this study were: to assess the association between impulse conduction disorders and anomalies of interatrial septum; to determine the prevalence of different types of interatrial septum abnormalities; to assess anatomic, hemodynamic, and clinical consequences of interatrial septal pathologies. Fifty-three adult patients with impulse conduction disorders and patients without ECG changes but with signs of interatrial septal abnormalities, who were referred to our center for echocardiography, were included in a prospective transesophageal echocardiography study. Interatrial septal anomalies were detected in around 85% of the examined patients. Patent foramen ovale was encountered in 32% of the patients, and in combination with atrial septal aneurysm in an additional 11.3% of cases. Atrial septal aneurysm and atrial septal defect were diagnosed with equal frequency in 20.7% of our study population. Impulse conduction disorders were significantly more suggestive of interatrial septal anomalies than clinical signs and symptoms observed in our patients (84.91% vs 30.19%, P=0.002). Right bundle branch block was the most frequent impulse conduction disorder, found in 41 (77.36%) cases. We conclude that interatrial septal anomalies are highly associated with impulse conduction disorders, particularly with right bundle branch block. Impulse conduction disorders are more indicative of interatrial septal abnormalities in earlier stages than can be understood from the patient’s clinical condition. PMID:21977304

  14. Cardiac Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, Ana; Quijada-Fumero, Alejandro; Laynez-Carnicero, Ana; Breña-Atienza, Joaquín; Poncela-Mireles, Francisco J.; Llanos-Gómez, Juan M.; Cabello-Rodríguez, Ana I.; Ramos-López, María

    2016-01-01

    Secondary or metastatic cardiac tumors are much more common than primary benign or malignant cardiac tumors. Any tumor can cause myocardial or pericardial metastasis, although isolated or combined tumor invasion of the pericardium is more common. Types of neoplasia with the highest rates of cardiac or pericardial involvement are melanoma, lung cancer, and breast and mediastinal carcinomas. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. Initial treatment involves chemotherapy followed by consolidation treatment to reduce the risk of relapse. In high-risk patients, the treatment of choice for consolidation is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Relapse of AML is the most common cause of HSCT failure. Extramedullary relapse is rare. The organs most frequently affected, called “sanctuaries,” are the testes, ovaries, and central nervous system. We present a case with extramedullary relapse in the form of a solid cardiac mass.

  15. Cardiac Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, Ana; Quijada-Fumero, Alejandro; Laynez-Carnicero, Ana; Breña-Atienza, Joaquín; Poncela-Mireles, Francisco J.; Llanos-Gómez, Juan M.; Cabello-Rodríguez, Ana I.; Ramos-López, María

    2016-01-01

    Secondary or metastatic cardiac tumors are much more common than primary benign or malignant cardiac tumors. Any tumor can cause myocardial or pericardial metastasis, although isolated or combined tumor invasion of the pericardium is more common. Types of neoplasia with the highest rates of cardiac or pericardial involvement are melanoma, lung cancer, and breast and mediastinal carcinomas. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. Initial treatment involves chemotherapy followed by consolidation treatment to reduce the risk of relapse. In high-risk patients, the treatment of choice for consolidation is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Relapse of AML is the most common cause of HSCT failure. Extramedullary relapse is rare. The organs most frequently affected, called “sanctuaries,” are the testes, ovaries, and central nervous system. We present a case with extramedullary relapse in the form of a solid cardiac mass. PMID:27642531

  16. Cardiac Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Facenda-Lorenzo, María; Sánchez-Quintana, Ana; Quijada-Fumero, Alejandro; Laynez-Carnicero, Ana; Breña-Atienza, Joaquín; Poncela-Mireles, Francisco J; Llanos-Gómez, Juan M; Cabello-Rodríguez, Ana I; Ramos-López, María

    2016-01-01

    Secondary or metastatic cardiac tumors are much more common than primary benign or malignant cardiac tumors. Any tumor can cause myocardial or pericardial metastasis, although isolated or combined tumor invasion of the pericardium is more common. Types of neoplasia with the highest rates of cardiac or pericardial involvement are melanoma, lung cancer, and breast and mediastinal carcinomas. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. Initial treatment involves chemotherapy followed by consolidation treatment to reduce the risk of relapse. In high-risk patients, the treatment of choice for consolidation is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Relapse of AML is the most common cause of HSCT failure. Extramedullary relapse is rare. The organs most frequently affected, called "sanctuaries," are the testes, ovaries, and central nervous system. We present a case with extramedullary relapse in the form of a solid cardiac mass. PMID:27642531

  17. Cyanide inhibits the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in isolated cardiac pacemaker cells of the cane toad.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yue-kun; Allen, David G

    2005-02-01

    The effects of the metabolic inhibition on the activity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) were studied in single isolated pacemaker cells from the cane toad. Ca2+ influx on NCX (reverse mode) was estimated by measuring the increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to extracellular Na+-free solution. After application of 2 mM sodium cyanide for 3-5 min, the peak [Ca2+]i in Na+-free solution was significantly decreased from 377+/-42 nM to 260+/-46 nM, suggesting inhibition of NCX. To study Ca2+ efflux on NCX (forward mode), we recorded the tail currents on repolarization which were abolished by Ni2+ and by Na+-free solution. Cyanide decreased the amplitude of tail currents by 36+/-3%. To investigate the intrinsic properties of NCX during the metabolic inhibition, we used rapid application of caffeine to trigger sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, which then stimulates NCX current (I(NCX) ). Both the caffeine-induced peak [Ca2+]i and the peak I(NCX) were reduced by cyanide exposure. When I(NCX) was plotted against [Ca2+], the slope of the decay phase was decreased in the presence of CN- to 44+/-8% of control, indicating that for a given [Ca2+]i there was less I(NCX) produced. These results show that cyanide (CN-) inhibits NCX activity at least partly through changes in the intrinsic properties of NCX. The inhibition of NCX probably contributes to the slower firing rate of pacemaker cells in CN-. PMID:15688245

  18. Calcium modulatory properties of 2,6-dibutylbenzylamine (B25) in rat isolated vas deferens, cardiac and smooth muscle preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Pirisino, R.; Banchelli, G.; Ignesti, G.; Mantelli, L.; Matucci, R.; Raimondi, L.; Buffoni, F.

    1993-01-01

    1. In rat isolated vas deferens the new compound 2,6-dibutylbenzylamine (B25) evoked a series of repeating rhythmic contractions. Concentration-response curves constructed for this effect were bell-shaped, indicating a biphasic effect for this compound. By contrast, B25 depressed heart contractility without any visible positive inotropic or chronotropic activity. 2. Experiments with tetrodotoxin, reserpine, capsaicin, alpha-adrenoceptor blocking compounds and other agents permit us to exclude a release of neuromediators or a direct stimulation of post-synaptic receptors to account for the rhythmic effect of B25 in the rat vas deferens. 3. In the same tissue, the increase in 45Ca2+ uptake, the voltage-dependency as well as the dependence of the B25-induced rhythmic activity upon the external calcium concentration indicate a direct activation of voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC). 4. Verapamil paradoxically stimulated the rhythmic effect of B25 in the rat vas deferens. La3+ was inactive while nifedipine was a weak inhibitor. By contrast Ni2+ and Mn2+ ions were good inhibitors (IC50 < 10(-4) M), suggesting that a possible opening of T-type VSCC underlies rhythmic effect of B25. 5. In radioligand binding studies competition experiments with [3H]-nitrendipine indicated that only at high concentrations was B25 able to interact with dihydropyridine-sensitive binding sites of heart and vas deferens smooth muscle. 6. B25 (3-30 microM) counteracted the inhibitory effects of omega-conotoxin GVIA in field-stimulated rat vas deferens. PMID:8401916

  19. Isolation of Left Common Carotid Artery with Its Origin Proximal to Patent Ductus Arteriosus Presenting in Adult Age

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anagha R.; Joshi, Saurabh; Kale, Kiran; Jain, Rahul; Bava, Jernail Singh

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies of aortic arch are a common occurrence. Such anomalies of right sided aortic arch with its various branching patterns are of clinical importance. Rarer anomalies include isolation (deficient connection) of either left subclavian artery or left common carotid artery; that is, they do not have their origin from aorta or its major branches. We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with gradual onset pulsatile swelling with bruit in neck on left side and was evaluated by CT brain and neck angiography. CT angiography revealed right sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and isolated left common carotid artery. Very few cases of such an anomaly have been documented in the literature but none in an adult. PMID:27213071

  20. Isolation of sperm vesicles from adult male mayflies and other insects to prepare high molecular weight genomic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Takemon, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Nakashima, Masashi; Tanida, Kazumi; Kishi, Mitsuo; Kato, Mikio

    2006-03-01

    We describe here a simple and efficient protocol for genomic DNA isolation from adult males of insects: e.g., Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Orthoptera and Dictyoptera. To minimize contamination of external DNA source, the sperm vesicles were isolated from male individuals from which high molecular weight genomic DNA was extracted. According to this protocol, the genomic DNA samples obtained were high quality (intact), and abundant enough for genotyping analyses and molecular cloning. The protocol reported here enables us to process a huge number of individuals at a time with escaping from cross-contamination, and thus it is quite useful for conducting genetic studies at least in some species of insects. The large yield of high molecular weight DNA from single individual may be advantageous for non PCR-based experiments. As a case study of the protocol, partial coding sequences of histone H3 and EF-1alpha genes are determined for some insects with PCR-amplified DNA fragments.

  1. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.

  2. Prevalence of coronary artery ectasia in older adults and the relationship with epicardial fat volume by cardiac computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun-Jie; Yang, Xia; Chen, Zhi-Ye; Wang, Qi; He, Bai; Du, Luo-Shan; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2013-01-01

    Objective Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) refers to abnormal dilation of coronary artery segments to 1.5 times of adjacent normal ones. Epicardial fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The relationship between CAE and epicardial fat has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to assess the relationship between CAE and epicardial fat volume (EFV) in older people by dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). Methods We prospectively enrolled 1400 older adults who were scheduled for dual-source CTCA. Under reconstruction protocols, patients with abnormal segments 1.5 times larger than the adjacent segments were accepted as CAE. EFV was measured by semi-automated software. Traditional risk factors in CAE patients, as well as the extent of EFV, were analyzed and compared to non-CAE group. Results A total of 885 male and 515 female older patients were enrolled. CAE was identified by univariable analysis in 131 patients and significantly correlated to hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, prior percutaneous coronary intervention and ascending aorta aneurysm. EFV was shown to be significantly higher in CAE patients than patients without ectasia. In multivariable analyses, EFV (P = 0.018), hypertension (P < 0.001) and hyperlipidemia (P < 0.001) were significantly correlated to CAE. There was a significant negative correlation between EFV and Markis classification. Conclusions CAE can be reliably recognized by dual-source CTCA. Epicardial fat might play a role in etiopathogenesis and progression of CAE, providing a new target for treating ectasia. PMID:23610568

  3. Cardiac effects of the extract and active components of radix stephaniae tetrandrae. II. Myocardial infarct, arrhythmias, coronary arterial flow and heart rate in the isolated perfused rat heart.

    PubMed

    Yu, X C; Wu, S; Wang, G Y; Shan, J; Wong, T M; Chen, C F; Pang, K T

    2001-05-11

    The primary purpose of the present study was to compare the cardioprotective effects of the extract from radix stephaniae tetrandrae (RST) and its individual compounds, tetrandrine (Tet) and fanchinoline (Fan). Secondly, we also compared the cardiac effects of the individual compounds and the RST extract with those of verapamil, a classical Ca2+ channel blocker. The Langendorff isolated perfused rat heart preparation was used. Regional ischaemia and reperfusion was employed to induce myocardial infarct and arrhythmia. Infarct, arrhythmia, heart rate and coronary artery flow were determined in hearts treated with vehicle, RST extract, Tet, Fan, or verapamil. It was found that RST extract, of which only 9% was Tet, and Tet alone produced equally potent ameliorating effects on arrhythmia and infarct induced by ischaemia and reperfusion without further inhibiting ischaemia-reduced heart rate and coronary artery flow. Fan had no effects on arrhythmia and infarct induced by ischaemia and reperfusion; but it induced S-T segment elevation and further reduced heart rate and coronary artery flow during ischaemia. Verapamil also ameliorated the effects of ischaemia and reperfusion on arrhythmia and infarct. It should be noted that 1 microM verapamil, that produced comparable effects on infarct and arrhythmia to the RST extract and Tet, further inhibited heart rate during ischaemia. The results indicate that the RST extract produces equally potent cardioprotective and anti-arrhythmic effects as Tet alone. Both RST extract and Tet may be better choices for the treatment of arrhythmia and infarct induced by myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion than the classical Ca2+ channel blocker, verapamil as they do not further reduce heart rate during ischaemia. PMID:11432452

  4. Effects of α1- or β-adrenoceptor stimulation on work-loop and isometric contractions of isolated rat cardiac trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Layland, Joanne; Kentish, Jonathan C

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effects of α1-or β-adrenoceptor stimulation on the contractility of isolated rat ventricular trabeculae at 24 °C using the work-loop technique, which simulates the cyclical changes in length and force that occur during the cardiac cycle. Some muscles were injected with fura-2 to monitor the intracellular Ca2+ transient. Comparison of twitch records revealed that peak force was greater and was reached earlier in work-loop contractions than in corresponding isometric contractions. This was attributed to the changes in muscle length and velocity during work-loop contractions, since the Ca2+ transients were largely unaffected by the length changes. Stimulation of α1-adrenoceptors (with 100 μm phenylephrine) increased net work, power production, the frequency for maximum work, and the frequency for maximum power production (fopt). The increase in net work was due to the positive inotropic effect of phenylephrine, which was similar at all frequencies investigated (0.33–4.5 Hz). The increase in fopt was attributed to an abbreviation of twitch duration induced by α1-stimulation at higher frequencies (> 1 Hz), even though the twitch became longer at 0.33 Hz. β-Adrenoceptor stimulation (with 5 μm isoprenaline) produced marked increases in net work, power output, the frequency for net work, and fopt. These effects were attributed both to the positive inotropic effect of β-stimulation, which was greater at higher frequencies, and to the reduction in twitch duration. β-Stimulation also abolished the frequency-dependent acceleration of twitch duration. The increase in power output and fopt with α1- as well as β-adrenoceptor stimulation suggested that both receptor types may contribute to the effects of catecholamines, released during stress or exercise, although the greater effects of β-stimulation are likely to predominate. PMID:10747193

  5. Effects of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on cardiac contractility, coronary flow, and oxidative stress markers in the isolated rat heart: the role of different gasotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Zivkovic, Vladimir; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Pechanova, Olga; Srejovic, Ivan; Joksimovic, Jovana; Selakovic, Dragica; Barudzic, Nevena; Djuric, Dragan M

    2013-01-01

    Considering the adverse effects of DL-homocysteine thiolactone hydrochloride (DL-Hcy TLHC) on vascular function and the possible role of oxidative stress in these mechanisms, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of DL-Hcy TLHC alone and in combination with specific inhibitors of important gasotransmitters, such as L-NAME, DL-PAG, and PPR IX, on cardiac contractility, coronary flow, and oxidative stress markers in an isolated rat heart. The hearts were retrogradely perfused according to the Langendorff technique at a 70 cm H2O and administered 10  μM DL-Hcy TLHC alone or in combination with 30  μM L-NAME, 10  μM DL-PAG, or 10  μM PPR IX. The following parameters were measured: dp/dt max, dp/dt min, SLVP, DLVP, MBP, HR, and CF. Oxidative stress markers were measured spectrophotometrically in coronary effluent through TBARS, NO2, O2(-), and H2O2 concentrations. The administration of DL-Hcy TLHC alone decreased dp/dt max, SLVP, and CF but did not change any oxidative stress parameters. DL-Hcy TLHC with L-NAME decreased CF, O2(-), H2O2, and TBARS. The administration of DL-Hcy TLHC with DL-PAG significantly increased dp/dt max but decreased DLVP, CF, and TBARS. Administration of DL-Hcy TLHC with PPR IX caused a decrease in dp/dt max, SLVP, HR, CF, and TBARS.

  6. Mg(2+) differentially regulates two modes of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in isolated cardiac mitochondria: implications for mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration.

    PubMed

    Blomeyer, Christoph A; Bazil, Jason N; Stowe, David F; Dash, Ranjan K; Camara, Amadou K S

    2016-06-01

    The manner in which mitochondria take up and store Ca(2+) remains highly debated. Recent experimental and computational evidence has suggested the presence of at least two modes of Ca(2+) uptake and a complex Ca(2+) sequestration mechanism in mitochondria. But how Mg(2+) regulates these different modes of Ca(2+) uptake as well as mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration is not known. In this study, we investigated two different ways by which mitochondria take up and sequester Ca(2+) by using two different protocols. Isolated guinea pig cardiac mitochondria were exposed to varying concentrations of CaCl2 in the presence or absence of MgCl2. In the first protocol, A, CaCl2 was added to the respiration buffer containing isolated mitochondria, whereas in the second protocol, B, mitochondria were added to the respiration buffer with CaCl2 already present. Protocol A resulted first in a fast transitory uptake followed by a slow gradual uptake. In contrast, protocol B only revealed a slow and gradual Ca(2+) uptake, which was approximately 40 % of the slow uptake rate observed in protocol A. These two types of Ca(2+) uptake modes were differentially modulated by extra-matrix Mg(2+). That is, Mg(2+) markedly inhibited the slow mode of Ca(2+) uptake in both protocols in a concentration-dependent manner, but not the fast mode of uptake exhibited in protocol A. Mg(2+) also inhibited Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) extrusion. The general Ca(2+) binding properties of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) sequestration system were reaffirmed and shown to be independent of the mode of Ca(2+) uptake, i.e. through the fast or slow mode of uptake. In addition, extra-matrix Mg(2+) hindered Ca(2+) sequestration. Our results indicate that mitochondria exhibit different modes of Ca(2+) uptake depending on the nature of exposure to extra-matrix Ca(2+), which are differentially sensitive to Mg(2+). The implications of these findings in cardiomyocytes are discussed.

  7. Identification and localization of caldesmon in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Woo, G C; Walsh, M P; Ikebe, M; Kargacin, G J

    1998-01-01

    Caldesmon has been detected in smooth muscle and in a number of non-muscle cells. It binds both actin and myosin and may act as a regulator of contraction or a structural element in smooth muscle. The presence of caldesmon in striated muscle has not been well established. To address this issue, polyclonal antibodies and a panel of monoclonal antibodies were raised against chicken gizzard smooth muscle caldesmon and used to demonstrate that caldesmon is present in adult cardiac muscle of a variety of mammalian species. Western-blot analysis revealed the presence of caldesmon in ventricular myocytes isolated from rat heart. The epitopes for the individual monoclonal antibodies were mapped to the caldesmon primary structure using chymotryptic and 2-nitro-5-thiocyanatobenzoic acid fragments. Bovine and rat cardiac caldesmons were recognized only by a subset of these monoclonal antibodies, indicating primary sequence differences from the chicken smooth muscle protein. Immunofluorescence labelling of isolated myocytes from rat, rabbit and guinea pig cardiac muscle revealed a striated pattern of fluorescence labelling. Dual labelling of caldesmon and myosin or caldesmon and alpha-actinin demonstrated that caldesmon was present at the centre of the I-band rather than in the A-band, as might have been expected from the myosin binding properties of the smooth muscle protein. These results suggest a structural role for caldesmon in cardiac muscle cells. PMID:9693116

  8. Activation of GPER-1 Estradiol Receptor Downregulates Production of Testosterone in Isolated Rat Leydig Cells and Adult Human Testis

    PubMed Central

    Vaucher, Laurent; Funaro, Michael G.; Mehta, Akanksha; Mielnik, Anna; Bolyakov, Alexander; Prossnitz, Eric R.; Schlegel, Peter N.; Paduch, Darius A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Estradiol (E2) modulates testicular functions including steroidogenesis, but the mechanisms of E2 signaling in human testis are poorly understood. GPER-1 (GPR30), a G protein-coupled membrane receptor, mediates rapid genomic and non-genomic response to estrogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPER-1 expression in the testis, and its role in estradiol dependent regulation of steroidogenesis in isolated rat Leydig cells and human testis. Materials and Methods Isolated Leydig cells (LC) from adult rats and human testicular tissue were used in this study. Expression and localization studies of GPER-1 were performed with qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) -stimulated, isolated LC were incubated with estradiol, G-1 (GPER-1-selective agonist), and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Testosterone production was measured with radioimmunoassay. LC viability after incubation with G-1 was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. Results GPER-1 mRNA is abundantly expressed in rat LC and human testis. Co-localization experiments showed high expression levels of GPER-1 protein in LC. E2-dependent activation of GPER-1 lowers testosterone production in isolated rats LCs and in human testis, with statistically and clinically significant drops in testosterone production by 20–30% as compared to estradiol-naïve LC. The exposure to G-1 does not affect viability of isolated LCs. Conclusions Our results indicate that activation of GPER-1 lowers testosterone levels in the rat and human testis. The expression of GPER-1 in human testis, which lack ERα, makes it an exciting target for developing new agents affecting testosterone production in men. PMID:24736568

  9. Fascination and Isolation: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Unusual Sensory Experiences in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard S.; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant…

  10. The effect of head up tilting on bioreactance cardiac output and stroke volume readings using suprasternal transcutaneous Doppler as a control in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Critchley, Lester A H; Lee, Daniel C W; Khaw, Kim S; Lee, Shara W Y

    2016-10-01

    To compare the performance of a bioreactance cardiac output (CO) monitor (NICOM) and transcutaneous Doppler (USCOM) during head up tilting (HUT). Healthy young adult subjects, age 22 ± 1 years, 7 male and 7 female, were tilted over 3-5 s from supine to 70° HUT, 30° HUT and back to supine. Positions were held for 3 min. Simultaneous readings of NICOM and USCOM were performed 30 s into each new position. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), CO and stroke volume (SV), and thoracic fluid content (TFC) were recorded. Bland-Altman, percentage changes and analysis of variance for repeated measures were used for statistical analysis. Pre-tilt NICOM CO and SV readings (6.1 ± 1.0 L/min and 113 ± 25 ml) were higher than those from USCOM (4.1 ± 0.6 L/min and 77 ± 9 ml) (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman limits of agreement for CO were wide with a percentage error of 38 %. HUT increased MBP and HR (P < 0.001). CO and SV readings decreased with HUT. However, the percentage changes in USCOM and NICOM readings did not concur (P < 0.001). Whereas USCOM provided gravitational effect proportional changes in SV readings of 23 ± 15 % (30° half tilt) and 44 ± 11 % (70° near full tilt), NICOM changes did not being 28 ± 10 and 33 ± 11 %. TFC decreased linearly with HUT. The NICOM does not provide linear changes in SV as predicted by physiology when patients are tilted. Furthermore there is a lack of agreement with USCOM measurements at baseline and during tilting.

  11. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Carl D; Boyce, Mark S; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF) of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays) and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges). Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats) and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection between ranging

  12. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Carl D; Boyce, Mark S; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF) of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays) and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges). Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats) and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection between ranging

  13. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Mark S.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF) of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays) and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges). Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats) and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection between ranging

  14. Adult male mice emit context-specific ultrasonic vocalizations that are modulated by prior isolation or group rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Chabout, Jonathan; Serreau, Pierre; Ey, Elodie; Bellier, Ludovic; Aubin, Thierry; Bourgeron, Thomas; Granon, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions in mice are frequently analysed in genetically modified strains in order to get insight of disorders affecting social interactions such as autism spectrum disorders. Different types of social interactions have been described, mostly between females and pups, and between adult males and females. However, we recently showed that social interactions between adult males could also encompass cognitive and motivational features. During social interactions, rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but it remains unknown if call types are differently used depending of the context and if they are correlated with motivational state. Here, we recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice in various behavioral conditions, such as social interaction, novelty exploration and restraint stress. We introduced a modulator for the motivational state by comparing males maintained in isolation and males maintained in groups before the experiments. Male mice uttered USVs in all social and non-social situations, and even in a stressful restraint context. They nevertheless emitted the most important number of calls with the largest diversity of call types in social interactions, particularly when showing a high motivation for social contact. For mice maintained in social isolation, the number of calls recorded was positively correlated with the duration of social contacts, and most calls were uttered during contacts between the two mice. This correlation was not observed in mice maintained in groups. These results open the way for a deeper understanding and characterization of acoustic signals associated with social interactions. They can also help evaluating the role of motivational states in the emission of acoustic signals.

  15. Identification of Potential New Protein Vaccine Candidates through Pan-Surfomic Analysis of Pneumococcal Clinical Isolates from Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Obando, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J.

    2013-01-01

    Purified polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines are widely used for preventing infections in adults and in children against the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in developing countries. However, these polysaccharide-based vaccines have some important limitations, such as being serotype-dependent, being subjected to losing efficacy because of serotype replacement and high manufacturing complexity and cost. It is expected that protein-based vaccines will overcome these issues by conferring a broad coverage independent of serotype and lowering production costs. In this study, we have applied the “shaving” proteomic approach, consisting of the LC/MS/MS analysis of peptides generated by protease treatment of live cells, to a collection of 16 pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults, representing the most prevalent strains circulating in Spain during the last years. The set of unique proteins identified in all the isolates, called “pan-surfome”, consisted of 254 proteins, which included most of the protective protein antigens reported so far. In search of new candidates with vaccine potential, we identified 32 that were present in at least 50% of the clinical isolates analyzed. We selected four of them (Spr0012, Spr0328, Spr0561 and SP670_2141), whose protection capacity has not yet been tested, for assaying immunogenicity in human sera. All of them induced the production of IgM antibodies in infected patients, thus indicating that they could enter the pipeline for vaccine studies. The pan-surfomic approach shows its utility in the discovery of new proteins that can elicit protection against infectious microorganisms. PMID:23894641

  16. Identification of potential new protein vaccine candidates through pan-surfomic analysis of pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults.

    PubMed

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Jiménez-Munguía, Irene; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Obando, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J

    2013-01-01

    Purified polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines are widely used for preventing infections in adults and in children against the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in developing countries. However, these polysaccharide-based vaccines have some important limitations, such as being serotype-dependent, being subjected to losing efficacy because of serotype replacement and high manufacturing complexity and cost. It is expected that protein-based vaccines will overcome these issues by conferring a broad coverage independent of serotype and lowering production costs. In this study, we have applied the "shaving" proteomic approach, consisting of the LC/MS/MS analysis of peptides generated by protease treatment of live cells, to a collection of 16 pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults, representing the most prevalent strains circulating in Spain during the last years. The set of unique proteins identified in all the isolates, called "pan-surfome", consisted of 254 proteins, which included most of the protective protein antigens reported so far. In search of new candidates with vaccine potential, we identified 32 that were present in at least 50% of the clinical isolates analyzed. We selected four of them (Spr0012, Spr0328, Spr0561 and SP670_2141), whose protection capacity has not yet been tested, for assaying immunogenicity in human sera. All of them induced the production of IgM antibodies in infected patients, thus indicating that they could enter the pipeline for vaccine studies. The pan-surfomic approach shows its utility in the discovery of new proteins that can elicit protection against infectious microorganisms. PMID:23894641

  17. Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Birnie, David; Ha, Andrew C T; Gula, Lorne J; Chakrabarti, Santabhanu; Beanlands, Rob S B; Nery, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest clinically manifest cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis. The principal manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Data indicate that an 20% to 25% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis have asymptomatic (clinically silent) cardiac involvement. An international guideline for the diagnosis and management of CS recommends that patients be screened for cardiac involvement. Most studies suggest a benign prognosis for patients with clinically silent CS. Immunosuppression therapy is advocated for clinically manifest CS. Device therapy, with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, is recommended for some patients.

  18. Isolated noncompaction of the myocardium: multiplane transesophageal echocardiography diagnosis in an adult.

    PubMed

    Maltagliati, A; Pepi, M

    2000-11-01

    We describe a case of isolated noncompaction of the myocardium in a 66-year-old patient. Peculiar anatomic features of this disease were clearly suspected on transthoracic echocardiography and precisely recognized through transesophageal echocardiography. The role of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the detection of this rare disease is described in this report.

  19. Chronic social isolation affects thigmotaxis and whole-brain serotonin levels in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shams, Soaleha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The popularity of the zebrafish has been growing in behavioral brain research. Previously utilized mainly in developmental biology and genetics, the zebrafish has turned out to possess a complex behavioral repertoire. For example, it is a highly social species, and individuals form tight groups, a behavior called shoaling. Social isolation induced changes in brain function and behavior have been demonstrated in a variety of laboratory organisms. However, despite its highly social nature, the zebrafish has rarely been utilized in this research area. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic social isolation (lasting 90 days) on locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in an open tank. We also examine the effect of chronic social isolation on levels of whole-brain serotonin and dopamine and their metabolites. We found that long-term social deprivation surprisingly decreased anxiety-related behavious during open-tank testing but had no effect on locomotor activity. We also found that serotonin levels, decreased significantly in socially isolated fish, but levels of dopamine and metabolites of these neurotransmitters 5HIAA and DOPAC, respectively, remained unchanged. Our results imply that the standard high density housing employed in most zebrafish laboratories may not be the optimal way to keep these fish, and open a new avenue towards the analysis of the biological mechanisms of social behavior and of social deprivation induced changes in brain function using this simple vertebrate model organism.

  20. [Isolated left ventricular muscular diverticulum in an adult. Value of non-invasive examinations].

    PubMed

    Holeman, A; Bellorini, M; Lefevre, T; Lévy, M; Loiret, J; Huerta, F; Thébault, B; Funck, F

    1997-10-01

    The authors report a case of ventriculum in a 45 year old women investigated for chest pain. This was a congenital muscular left ventricular diverticulum confirmed by a complete imaging series including echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, angio-scintigraphy and conventional angiography. This diverticulum was unusual due to the fact that there was no associated congenital disease and that it was discovered in an adult. The authors review the literature and discuss the value of non-invasive imaging procedures.

  1. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement

  2. Clinical Significance and Characterization of Streptococcus tigurinus Isolates in an Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Lori; Clarridge, J E

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a newly described member of the Streptococcus mitis group. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing viridans group streptococci (VGS) by phenotype, analysis of 16S rRNA sequences is necessary for the accurate identification of most species. Through a laboratory policy of analyzing all clinically significant isolates from the VGS group by16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 14 S. tigurinus isolates from 11 patients. The Vitek 2 system most commonly gave an excellent rating to an incorrect identification (e.g., Streptococcus mitis), as did matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (e.g., Streptococcus oralis). S. tigurinus strains were recovered from numerous body sites, including the blood, peritoneal fluid, bone, synovial fluid, a perianal abscess, and an arm wound. Retrospective chart review indicated that most isolates were clinically significant, with bacteremia (n = 5), soft tissue infections (n = 3) osteomyelitis (n = 2), infected joint prosthesis (n = 2), and peritonitis (n = 2) being the most common, thus expanding the spectrum of disease associated with S. tigurinus.

  3. Cardiac metastases

    PubMed Central

    Bussani, R; De‐Giorgio, F; Abbate, A; Silvestri, F

    2007-01-01

    Tumours metastatic to the heart (cardiac metastases) are among the least known and highly debated issues in oncology, and few systematic studies are devoted to this topic. Although primary cardiac tumours are extremely uncommon (various postmortem studies report rates between 0.001% and 0.28%), secondary tumours are not, and at least in theory, the heart can be metastasised by any malignant neoplasm able to spread to distant sites. In general, cardiac metastases are considered to be rare; however, when sought for, the incidence seems to be not as low as expected, ranging from 2.3% and 18.3%. Although no malignant tumours are known that diffuse preferentially to the heart, some do involve the heart more often than others—for example, melanoma and mediastinal primary tumours. This paper attempts to review the pathophysiology of cardiac metastatic disease, epidemiology and clinical presentation of cardiac metastases, and pathological characterisation of the lesions. PMID:17098886

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  5. Autonomous isolation, long-term culture and differentiation potential of adult salivary gland-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyunjung; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Joo Hee; Yeon, Soo-In; Jeong, Jaemin; Kwon, Heechung

    2014-09-01

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells belong to the endodermal lineage and may serve as good candidates to replace their dysfunctional counterparts. The objective of this study was to isolate large numbers of salivary gland tissue-derived stem cells (SGSCs) from adult rats in order to develop a clinically applicable method that does not involve sorting or stem cell induction by duct ligation. We analysed SGSCs isolated from normal rat salivary glands to determine whether they retained the major characteristics of stem cells, self-renewal and multipotency, especially with respect to the various endodermal cell types. SGSCs expressed high levels of integrin α6β1 and c-kit, which are surface markers of SGSCs. In particular, the integrin α6β1(+) /c-kit(+) salivary gland cells maintained the morphology, proliferation activity and multipotency of stem cells for up to 92 passages in 12 months. Furthermore, we analysed the capacity of SGSCs to differentiate into endoderm lineage cell types, such as acinar-like and insulin-secreting cells. When cultured on growth factor reduced matrigel, the morphology of progenitor cells changed to acinar-like structures and these cells expressed the acinar cell-specific marker, α-amylase, and tight junction markers. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data showed increased expression of pancreatic cell markers, including insulin, Pdx1, pan polypeptide and neurogenin-3, when these cells formed pancreatic clusters in the presence of activin A, exendin-4 and retinoic acid. These data demonstrate that adult salivary stem/progenitor cells may serve as a potential source for cell therapy in salivary gland hypofunction and diabetes.

  6. Isolated Jejunal Perforation Following Bicycle Handlebar Injury in Adults: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Neofytou, Kyriakos; Michailidou, Maria; Petrou, Athanasios; Loizou, Sakis; Andreou, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    The small intestine is the third in frequency intraperitoneal organ which is injured after blunt trauma of the abdomen. In most of the cases, this type of injuries is accompanied by other injuries, which make it more difficult to diagnose. Failure of diagnosis and delay in treating these injuries significantly increase the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the handlebar of the bike are common in children. Such injuries can cause injury to both solid and hollow abdominal viscera. Unlike children, adults' abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the bike's handlebar are extremely rare. A 25-year-old man was admitted to our department due to progressively abdominal pain after an accident with the handlebar of his bike. The subsequent CT scan after per os administration of contrast medium revealed the presence of free intraperitoneal contrast. It is a rare case of jejunal perforation after flipping the handlebar of the bicycle which was treated by partial removal of the injured part of jejunum and end-to-end anastomosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time we describe such an injury with this mechanism to an adult. PMID:23984116

  7. Metabolic impact of adult-onset, isolated, growth hormone deficiency (AOiGHD) due to destruction of pituitary somatotropes.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Lin, Qing; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Subbaiah, Papasani V; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Vankelecom, Hugo; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2011-01-19

    Growth hormone (GH) inhibits fat accumulation and promotes protein accretion, therefore the fall in GH observed with weight gain and normal aging may contribute to metabolic dysfunction. To directly test this hypothesis a novel mouse model of adult onset-isolated GH deficiency (AOiGHD) was generated by cross breeding rat GH promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice (Cre) with inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mice (iDTR) and treating adult Cre(+/-),iDTR(+/-) offspring with DT to selectively destroy the somatotrope population of the anterior pituitary gland, leading to a reduction in circulating GH and IGF-I levels. DT-treated Cre(-/-),iDTR(+/-) mice were used as GH-intact controls. AOiGHD improved whole body insulin sensitivity in both low-fat and high-fat fed mice. Consistent with improved insulin sensitivity, indirect calorimetry revealed AOiGHD mice preferentially utilized carbohydrates for energy metabolism, as compared to GH-intact controls. In high-fat, but not low-fat fed AOiGHD mice, fat mass increased, hepatic lipids decreased and glucose clearance and insulin output were impaired. These results suggest the age-related decline in GH helps to preserve systemic insulin sensitivity, and in the context of moderate caloric intake, prevents the deterioration in metabolic function. However, in the context of excess caloric intake, low GH leads to impaired insulin output, and thereby could contribute to the development of diabetes.

  8. Comparative Molecular Characteristics of Community-Associated and Healthcare-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates From Adult Patients in Northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jen; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Chen, Chih-Jung; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitals, and increases rapidly in the community, named as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). We conducted a prospective/retrospective study to understand the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular characteristics of MRSA infections in adult patients in Taiwan.From March to June, 2012, all clinical MRSA isolates were prospectively collected from adult patients in a tertiary hospital in northern Taiwan. Selective isolates were further characterized. We reviewed the detailed medical record of each case retrospectively.A total of 857 clinical isolates were collected from 555 patients. A total of 749 isolates from 453 patients were classified as healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA and 108 isolates from 102 patients as CA-MRSA by the epidemiologic criteria. Compared to HA-MRSA, CA-MRSA isolates were significantly more frequently identified from pus (78% vs 28%, P < 0.001) and less frequently from sputum (4.6% vs 43.8%, P < 0.001) and blood (3.7% vs 15%, P = 0.002). CA-MRSA isolates were more susceptible to all antibiotics tested. A total of 102 CA-MRSA and 101 HA-MRSA isolates were characterized, showing significantly different molecular characteristics between CA and HA isolates (P < 0.001). The clone of sequence type (ST) 59/t437 complex, with 2 pulsotypes, accounted for 70% of CA isolates. Three major clones were identified from HA-MRSA isolates, namely clonal complex (CC) 59 (32.7%), CC239 (29.7%), and CC5 (24.8%). Among HA isolates, a significant difference was also seen between community-onset and hospital-onset MRSA isolates in terms of the source of specimens, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and molecular characteristics.CA-MRSA isolates from adults in northern Taiwan were genetically significantly different from HA isolates. The community clones, CC59, spread into hospitals.

  9. Cardiac amyloidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way electrical signals move through the heart (conduction system). This can lead to abnormal heartbeats ( arrhythmias ) ... due to medicine) Sick sinus syndrome Symptomatic cardiac conduction system disease (arrhythmias related to abnormal conduction of ...

  10. Cardiac Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Cardiac Sarcoidosis? Sarcoidosis is a poorly understood disease that commonly affects the lungs. It can also involve the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, eyes, skin, bones, salivary glands and heart. ...

  11. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery. PMID:26722591

  12. Genetic manipulation of periostin expression reveals a role in cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Oka, Toru; Xu, Jian; Kaiser, Robert A; Melendez, Jaime; Hambleton, Michael; Sargent, Michelle A; Lorts, Angela; Brunskill, Eric W; Dorn, Gerald W; Conway, Simon J; Aronow, Bruce J; Robbins, Jeffrey; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2007-08-01

    The cardiac extracellular matrix is a dynamic structural support network that is both influenced by, and a regulator of, pathological remodeling and hypertrophic growth. In response to pathologic insults, the adult heart reexpresses the secreted extracellular matrix protein periostin (Pn). Here we show that Pn is critically involved in regulating the cardiac hypertrophic response, interstitial fibrosis, and ventricular remodeling following long-term pressure overload stimulation and myocardial infarction. Mice lacking the gene encoding Pn (Postn) were more prone to ventricular rupture in the first 10 days after a myocardial infarction, but surviving mice showed less fibrosis and better ventricular performance. Pn(-/-) mice also showed less fibrosis and hypertrophy following long-term pressure overload, suggesting an intimate relationship between Pn and the regulation of cardiac remodeling. In contrast, inducible overexpression of Pn in the heart protected mice from rupture following myocardial infarction and induced spontaneous hypertrophy with aging. With respect to a mechanism underlying these alterations, Pn(-/-) hearts showed an altered molecular program in fibroblast function. Indeed, fibroblasts isolated from Pn(-/-) hearts were less effective in adherence to cardiac myocytes and were characterized by a dramatic alteration in global gene expression (7% of all genes). These are the first genetic data detailing the function of Pn in the adult heart as a regulator of cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. PMID:17569887

  13. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity.

  14. Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Two Distinct Classes of Erythroblastic Island Isolated from Adult Mammalian Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jia Hao; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Fraser, Stuart T

    2016-04-01

    Erythroblastic islands are multicellular clusters in which a central macrophage supports the development and maturation of red blood cell (erythroid) progenitors. These clusters play crucial roles in the pathogenesis observed in animal models of hematological disorders. The precise structure and function of erythroblastic islands is poorly understood. Here, we have combined scanning electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling of surface proteins to develop a better understanding of the ultrastructure of these multicellular clusters. The erythroid-specific surface antigen Ter-119 and the transferrin receptor CD71 exhibited distinct patterns of protein sorting during erythroid cell maturation as detected by immuno-gold labeling. During electron microscopy analysis we observed two distinct classes of erythroblastic islands. The islands varied in size and morphology, and the number and type of erythroid cells interacting with the central macrophage. Assessment of femoral marrow isolated from a cavid rodent species (guinea pig, Cavis porcellus) and a marsupial carnivore species (fat-tailed dunnarts, Sminthopsis crassicaudata) showed that while the morphology of the central macrophage varied, two different types of erythroblastic islands were consistently identifiable. Our findings suggest that these two classes of erythroblastic islands are conserved in mammalian evolution and may play distinct roles in red blood cell production. PMID:26898901

  15. Cardiac Regeneration and Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Mignone, John; MacLellan, W Robb

    2015-10-01

    After decades of believing the heart loses the ability to regenerate soon after birth, numerous studies are now reporting that the adult heart may indeed be capable of regeneration, although the magnitude of new cardiac myocyte formation varies greatly. While this debate has energized the field of cardiac regeneration and led to a dramatic increase in our understanding of cardiac growth and repair, it has left much confusion in the field as to the prospects of regenerating the heart. Studies applying modern techniques of genetic lineage tracing and carbon-14 dating have begun to establish limits on the amount of endogenous regeneration after cardiac injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms of this regeneration remained unclear. These same studies have also revealed an astonishing capacity for cardiac repair early in life that is largely lost with adult differentiation and maturation. Regardless, this renewed focus on cardiac regeneration as a therapeutic goal holds great promise as a novel strategy to address the leading cause of death in the developed world.

  16. Cardiac Regeneration and Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Mignone, John; MacLellan, W. Robb

    2015-01-01

    After decades of believing the heart loses the ability to regenerate soon after birth, numerous studies are now reporting that the adult heart may indeed be capable of regeneration, although the magnitude of new cardiac myocyte formation varies greatly. While this debate has energized the field of cardiac regeneration and led to a dramatic increase in our understanding of cardiac growth and repair, it has left much confusion in the field as to the prospects of regenerating the heart. Studies applying modern techniques of genetic lineage tracing and carbon-14 dating have begun to establish limits on the amount of endogenous regeneration after cardiac injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms of this regeneration remained unclear. These same studies have also revealed an astonishing capacity for cardiac repair early in life that is largely lost with adult differentiation and maturation. Regardless, this renewed focus on cardiac regeneration as a therapeutic goal holds great promise as a novel strategy to address the leading cause of death in the developed world. PMID:26269526

  17. Cardiac Dimensions in Elite Young Track Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Gerald D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study compared young sprint and distance runners for changes in cardiac dimensions with increased age or increased body surface area. Results, which run counter to generalizations stated for adult athletes, are detailed. (Author/MT)

  18. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sonication-killed Bifidobacterium longum isolated from healthy adult Koreans in high cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hea Soon; Park, Shin Young; Lee, Do Kyung; Kim, Sun Ae; An, Hyang Mi; Kim, Jung Rae; Kim, Mi Jin; Cha, Min Gyeong; Lee, Si Won; Kim, Kyung Joo; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2010-09-01

    We have previously reported that live Bifidobacterium longum SPM1207, a strain isolated from healthy adult Koreans, significantly reduced serum cholesterol in broth and rat. We here examined the effect of oral administration of sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 on serum cholesterol in rats in order to investigate whether this killed strain could be utilized as a potent probiotics for human and animals. Dietary treatments consisted of 3 treatment groups of 24 rats each randomly assigned to either normal diet, high cholesterol diet and saline (HCS), or high cholesterol diet and sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 (HCKB) for 3 weeks. Although HDL-cholesterol levels in the serum were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between HCKB rats and HCS rats, total and LDL-cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (p < 0.05) less increased in HCKB (total: 177.71 mg/dL, LDL-: 60.50 mg/dL) rats when compared to HCS (total: 237.17 mg/dL, LDL-: 71.50 mg/dL) rats. AI was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HCKB (4.95 mg/dL) rats when compared to HCS (9.22 mg/dL) rats. Body weight increase and relative liver weight were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HCKB rats when compared to HCS rats. Over the time, high cholesterol diet caused dry feces accompanied by decreased fecal water content (66.00 to 61.94%) but sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 administration increased fecal water content (71.58 to 74.25%). The results in the current study provide evidence that the sonication-killed cells of B. logum SPM1207 isolated from healthy adult Koreans have a greater potential to be used as a cholesterol-lowering agent. Furthermore, the current study suggest that this killed specific strain may play role in part in blocking the body weight increase and relieving or eliminating constipation.

  19. Fetal cardiac anomalies and genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pajkrt, Eva; Weisz, Boaz; Firth, Helen V; Chitty, Lyn S

    2004-12-30

    Cardiac anomalies may occur in isolation or can be part of a genetic syndrome. In this article, we describe some of the genetic syndromes commonly associated with cardiac anomalies where there are other sonographic features that may aid accurate prenatal diagnosis.

  20. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes for cardiac regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ji-Dong; Srivastava, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts play critical roles in maintaining normal cardiac function and in cardiac remodeling during pathological conditions such as myocardial infarction (MI). Adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) have little to no regenerative capacity; damaged CMs in the heart after MI are replaced by cardiac fibroblasts that become activated and transform into myofibroblasts, which preserves the structural integrity. Unfortunately, this process typically causes fibrosis and reduces cardiac function. Directly reprogramming adult cardiac fibroblasts into induced CM-like cells (iCMs) holds great promise for restoring heart function. Direct cardiac reprogramming also provides a new research model to investigate which transcription factors and microRNAs control the molecular network that guides cardiac cell fate. We review the approaches and characterization of in vitro and in vivo reprogrammed iCMs from different laboratories, and outline the future directions needed to translate this new approach into a practical therapy for damaged hearts.

  1. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury

    PubMed Central

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-KitTgD814Y receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-KitTgD814Y mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit+ cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-KitTgD814Y mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit+CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45−c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-KitTgD814Y mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  2. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury.

    PubMed

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-Kit(TgD814Y) receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-Kit(TgD814Y) mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit(+) cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-Kit(TgD814Y) mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit(+)CD31(+) endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45(-)c-Kit(+) cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-Kit(TgD814Y) mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  3. Strategies for blood conservation in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery accounts for the majority of blood transfusions in a hospital. Blood transfusion has been associated with complications and major adverse events after cardiac surgery. Compared to adults it is more difficult to avoid blood transfusion in children after cardiac surgery. This article takes into account the challenges and emphasizes on the various strategies that could be implemented, to conserve blood during pediatric cardiac surgery. PMID:27716703

  4. [Cardiac amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Caroline; Angermann, Christiane E; Knop, Stefan; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan

    2008-03-15

    Amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders, which are characterized by an extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Typically affected are the heart, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. More than half of the patients die due to cardiac involvement. Clinical signs of cardiac amyloidosis are edema of the lower limbs, hepatomegaly, ascites and elevated jugular vein pressure, frequently in combination with dyspnea. There can also be chest pain, probably due to microvessel disease. Dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system or arrhythmias may cause low blood pressure, dizziness, or recurrent syncope. The AL amyloidosis caused by the deposition of immunoglobulin light chains is the most common form. It can be performed by monoclonal gammopathy. The desirable treatment therapy consists of high-dose melphalan therapy twice followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Due to the high peritransplantation mortality, selection of appropriate patients is mandatory. The ATTR amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the amyloidogenic form of transthyretin, a plasmaprotein that is synthesized in the liver. Therefore, liver transplantation is the only curative therapy. The symptomatic treatment of cardiac amyloidosis is based on the current guidelines for chronic heart failure according to the patient's New York Heart Association (NYHA) state. Further types of amyloidosis with possible cardiac involvement comprise the senile systemic amyloidosis caused by the wild-type transthyretin, secondary amyloidosis after chronic systemic inflammation, and the beta(2)-microglobulin amyloidosis after long-term dialysis treatment. PMID:18344065

  5. CARDIAC-LIKE OSCILLATION IN LIVER STEM CELLS INDUCE THEIR ACQUISITION OF CARDIAC PHENOTYPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined in a cardiac microenvironment the plasticity of a liver stem cell line (WB F344) generated from a cloned, single, non-parenchymal epithelial cell from a normal adult male rat. Our previous studies suggested that WB F344 cells acquire a cardiac phenotype in the absenc...

  6. [Stem cells and cardiac regeneration].

    PubMed

    Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Lorenti, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by virtue of their functional attributes: absence of tissue specific differentitated markers, capable of proliferation, able to self-maintain the population, able to produce a large number of differentiated, functional progeny, able to regenerate the tissue after injury. Cell therapy is an alternative for the treatment of several diseases, like cardiac diseases (cell cardiomyoplasty). A variety of stem cells could be used for cardiac repair: from cardiac and extracardiac sources. Each cell type has its own profile of advantages, limitations, and practicability issues in specific clinical settings. Differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to cardiomyocyte-like cells have been observed under different culture conditions. The presence of resident cardiac stem cell population capable of differentiation into cardiomyocyte or vascular lineage suggests that these cells could be used for cardiac tissue repair, and represent a great promise for clinical application. Stem cells mobilization by cytokines may also offer a strategy for cardiac regeneration. The use of stem cells (embryonic and adult) may hold the key to replacing cells lost in many devastating diseases. This potential benefit is a major focus for stem cell research.

  7. Cardiac mechanics: Physiological, clinical, and mathematical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirsky, I. (Editor); Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1974-01-01

    Recent studies concerning the basic physiological and biochemical principles underlying cardiac muscle contraction, methods for the assessment of cardiac function in the clinical situation, and mathematical approaches to cardiac mechanics are presented. Some of the topics covered include: cardiac ultrastructure and function in the normal and failing heart, myocardial energetics, clinical applications of angiocardiography, use of echocardiography for evaluating cardiac performance, systolic time intervals in the noninvasive assessment of left ventricular performance in man, evaluation of passive elastic stiffness for the left ventricle and isolated heart muscle, a conceptual model of myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock, application of Huxley's sliding-filament theory to the mechanics of normal and hypertrophied cardiac muscle, and a rheological modeling of the intact left ventricle. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  8. LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF MALARIA EPIDEMIOLOGY IN AN ISOLATED VILLAGE IN WESTERN THAILAND: I. STUDY SITE AND ADULT ANOPHELINE BIONOMICS.

    PubMed

    Zollner, Gabriela; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Kankaew, Prasan; Robert, Leon L; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Sithiprasasna, Ratana; Coleman, Russell E

    2016-05-01

    This is the first in a series of papers describing the epidemiology of malaria in an isolated village in western Thailand. The study site was the village of Kong Mong Tha, located in Sangkhla Buri District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. In this paper we present an overview of the study site and results from our adult anopheline mosquito surveillance conducted over 56 consecutive months from June 1999 until January 2004. The collection site, indoor/outdoor location, parity, biting activity and Plasmodiumfalciparum (Pf) and P. vivax (Pv) infection rates were used to calculate seasonal entomological inoculation rates for the predominant four Anopheles species. A total of 21,566 anophelines representing 28 distinct species and 2 groups that were not identified to species were collected using human bait, with almost 95% of the collection consisting of Anopheles minimus, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni and An. barbirostris/campestris. Mosquitoes generally peaked during the wet season, were collected throughout the night, and were collected most often outside (ca. 75%) versus inside (ca. 25%) of houses. Approximately 50% of collected mosquitoes were parous. Overall Plasmodium infection rates were 0.27%, with a total of 16 and 42 pools of Pf- and Pv-positive mosquitoes, respectively. Annual EIRs were 2.3 times higher for Pv than for Pf, resulting in approximately 5.5 and 2.6 infective bites per person per year, respectively. The results suggest An. minimus and An. maculatus are the primary and secondary vectors of Pf and Pv transmission in Kong Mong Tha, while An. sawadwongporni and An. barbirostris/campestris also appear to play a role based on the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in the head/thorax of the specimens tested. PMID:27405117

  9. Isolated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with dextroversion discovered incidentally in a patient with cocaine-induced acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Anumeha; Bose, Rahul; Yoon, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Complex cardiac congenital anomalies can occasionally be found in adult patients who have no knowledge of their condition. Here we present the case of a 27-year-old man with cocaine-induced acute myocardial infarction in whom an isolated congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with dextroversion was discovered incidentally. PMID:27034558

  10. Characterization of apela, a novel endogenous ligand of apelin receptor, in the adult heart.

    PubMed

    Perjés, Ábel; Kilpiö, Teemu; Ulvila, Johanna; Magga, Johanna; Alakoski, Tarja; Szabó, Zoltán; Vainio, Laura; Halmetoja, Eveliina; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Petäjä-Repo, Ulla; Szokodi, István; Kerkelä, Risto

    2016-01-01

    The G protein-coupled apelin receptor regulates important processes of the cardiovascular homeostasis, including cardiac development, cardiac contractility, and vascular tone. Most recently, a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the apelin receptor was identified in zebrafish, and it was named apela/elabela/toddler. The peptide was originally considered as an exclusively embryonic regulator, and so far its function in the adult organism remains elusive. We show here that apela is predominantly expressed in the non-cardiomyocyte fraction in the adult rodent heart. We also provide evidence that apela binds to apelin receptors in the heart. Using isolated adult rat hearts, we demonstrate, that just like the fellow receptor agonist apelin, apela increases cardiac contractility and induces coronary vasodilation already in the nanomolar level. The inotropic effect, as revealed by Western blot analysis, is accompanied by a significant increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 activation markedly attenuates the apela-induced inotropy. Analysis of samples from infarcted mouse hearts showed that expression of both apela and apelin receptor is induced in failing mouse hearts and correlate with left ventricular ejection fraction. Hence, we conclude that apela is present in the adult heart, is upregulated in post-infarction cardiac remodeling, and increases cardiac contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner.

  11. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS, PARATHION, METHYL PARATHION AND THEIR OXONS ON CARDIAC MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR BINDING IN NEONATAL AND ADULT RATS. (R825811)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus insecticides elicit toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to these toxicants. A number of studies reported that some organophosphorus agents also bind directly to muscarinic receptors, in particular...

  12. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  13. UCP3 Regulates Single-Channel Activity of the Cardiac mCa1.

    PubMed

    Motloch, Lukas J; Gebing, Tina; Reda, Sara; Schwaiger, Astrid; Wolny, Martin; Hoppe, Uta C

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake (mCa(2+) uptake) is thought to be mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). UCP2 and UCP3 belong to a superfamily of mitochondrial ion transporters. Both proteins are expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the heart. Recently, UCP2 was reported to modulate the function of the cardiac MCU related channel mCa1. However, the possible role of UCP3 in modulating cardiac mCa(2+) uptake via the MCU remains inconclusive. To understand the role of UCP3, we analyzed cardiac mCa1 single-channel activity in mitoplast-attached single-channel recordings from isolated murine cardiac mitoplasts, from adult wild-type controls (WT), and from UCP3 knockout mice (UCP3(-/-)). Single-channel registrations in UCP3(-/-) confirmed a murine voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel, i.e., mCa1, which was inhibited by Ru360. Compared to WT, mCa1 in UCP3(-/-) revealed similar single-channel characteristics. However, in UCP3(-/-) the channel exhibited decreased single-channel activity, which was insensitive to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inhibition. Our results suggest that beyond UCP2, UCP3 also exhibits regulatory effects on cardiac mCa1/MCU function. Furthermore, we speculate that UCP3 might modulate previously described inhibitory effects of ATP on mCa1/MCU activity as well.

  14. Molecular cloning of rat cardiac troponin I and analysis of troponin I isoform expression in developing rat heart.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A M; Jones, L; Sims, H F; Strauss, A W

    1991-01-22

    We have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding rat cardiac troponin I. The predicted amino acid sequence was highly identical with previously reported chemically derived amino acid sequences for rabbit and bovine cardiac troponin I. Clones for slow skeletal muscle troponin I were also obtained from neonatal rat cardiac ventricle by the polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequences of these clones were determined to be more than 99% identical with a previously reported rat slow skeletal troponin I cDNA [Koppe et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 14327-14333]. The troponin I clones hybridized to RNA from the appropriate muscle from adult animals. However, RNA from fetal and neonatal rat heart also hybridized with the slow skeletal troponin I cDNA, demonstrating its expression in fetal and neonatal rat heart. Slow skeletal troponin I steady-state mRNA levels decreased with increasing age, but cardiac troponin I mRNA levels increased through fetal and early neonatal cardiac development. Thus, during fetal and neonatal development, slow skeletal and cardiac troponin I isoforms are coexpressed in the rat heart and regulated in opposite directions. The degree of primary sequence differences in these isoforms, especially at phosphorylation sites, may result in important functional differences in the neonatal myocardium.

  15. No evidence for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Ca2+ release in isolated fibers of adult mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Bert; Del Piccolo, Paola; Rodriguez, Laura; Hernandez Gonzalez, Victor-Hugo; Agatea, Lisa; Solagna, Francesca; Mammano, Fabio; Pozzan, Tullio; Schiaffino, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    The presence and role of functional inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors (IP(3)Rs) in adult skeletal muscle are controversial. The current consensus is that, in adult striated muscle, the relative amount of IP(3)Rs is too low and the kinetics of Ca(2+) release from IP(3)R is too slow compared with ryanodine receptors to contribute to the Ca(2+) transient during excitation-contraction coupling. However, it has been suggested that IP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release may be involved in signaling cascades leading to regulation of muscle gene expression. We have reinvestigated IP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release in isolated flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from adult mice. Although Ca(2+) transients were readily induced in cultured C2C12 muscle cells by (a) UTP stimulation, (b) direct injection of IP(3), or (c) photolysis of membrane-permeant caged IP(3), no statistically significant change in calcium signal was detected in adult FDB fibers. We conclude that the IP(3)-IP(3)R system does not appear to affect global calcium levels in adult mouse skeletal muscle.

  16. Sleep Disturbance and Longitudinal Risk of Inflammation: Moderating Influences of Social Integration and Social Isolation in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Both sleep disturbance and social isolation increase the risk for morbidity and mortality. Systemic inflammation is suspected as a potential mechanism of these associations. However, the complex relationships between sleep disturbance, social isolation, and inflammation have not been examined in a population-based longitudinal study. This study examined the longitudinal association between sleep disturbance and systemic inflammation, and the moderating effects of social isolation on this association. The CARDIA study is a population-based longitudinal study conducted in four US cities. Sleep disturbance – i.e., insomnia complaints and short sleep duration – was assessed in 2962 African-American and white adults at baseline (2000-2001, ages 33-45 years). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured at baseline and follow-up (2005-2006). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and subjective and objective social isolation (i.e., feelings of social isolation and social network size) were measured at follow-up. Sleep disturbance was a significant predictor of inflammation five years later after full adjustment for covariates (adjusted betas: 0.048, P=0.012 for CRP; 0.047, P=0.017 for IL-6). Further adjustment for baseline CRP revealed that sleep disturbance also impacted the longitudinal change in CRP levels over five years (adjusted beta: 0.044, P=0.013). Subjective social isolation was a significant moderator of this association between sleep disturbance and CRP (adjusted beta 0.131, P=0.002). Sleep disturbance was associated with heightened systemic inflammation in a general population over a five-year follow-up, and this association was significantly stronger in those who reported feelings of social isolation. Clinical interventions targeting sleep disturbances may be a potential avenue for reducing inflammation, particularly in individuals who feel socially isolated. PMID:25733101

  17. Sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of inflammation: Moderating influences of social integration and social isolation in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lauderdale, Diane S; Irwin, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Both sleep disturbance and social isolation increase the risk for morbidity and mortality. Systemic inflammation is suspected as a potential mechanism of these associations. However, the complex relationships between sleep disturbance, social isolation, and inflammation have not been examined in a population-based longitudinal study. This study examined the longitudinal association between sleep disturbance and systemic inflammation, and the moderating effects of social isolation on this association. The CARDIA study is a population-based longitudinal study conducted in four US cities. Sleep disturbance - i.e., insomnia complaints and short sleep duration - was assessed in 2962 African-American and White adults at baseline (2000-2001, ages 33-45years). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured at baseline and follow-up (2005-2006). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and subjective and objective social isolation (i.e., feelings of social isolation and social network size) were measured at follow-up. Sleep disturbance was a significant predictor of inflammation five years later after full adjustment for covariates (adjusted betas: 0.048, P=0.012 for CRP; 0.047, P=0.017 for IL-6). Further adjustment for baseline CRP revealed that sleep disturbance also impacted the longitudinal change in CRP levels over five years (adjusted beta: 0.044, P=0.013). Subjective social isolation was a significant moderator of this association between sleep disturbance and CRP (adjusted beta 0.131, P=0.002). Sleep disturbance was associated with heightened systemic inflammation in a general population over a five-year follow-up, and this association was significantly stronger in those who reported feelings of social isolation. Clinical interventions targeting sleep disturbances may be a potential avenue for reducing inflammation, particularly in individuals who feel socially isolated.

  18. Disassembly of myofibrils in adult cardiomyocytes during dedifferentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Shao, Yonghong; Wang, Zhonghai; Yang, Huaxiao; Runyan, Raymond B.; Borg, Thomas K.; Gao, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Using hybrid TPEF-SHG imaging and immunocytological techniques, we studied dedifferentiation of adult cardiomyocytes. First, the myofibrils shrank to shorten the sarcomere length. At the cell ends, the striated pattern of myosin filaments began to dissociate; at the center of the cell, the striated pattern of alpha-actinin first faded away and reappeared near the cell membrane during dedifferentiation. The results suggest that when freshly isolated adult cardiomyocytes are used to model cardiac muscle, the end-to-end connection may be important to maintain their striated myofibrillar structure and rod-shape morphology.

  19. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hydrocarbon expression in response to different host plants

    PubMed Central

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cassia C

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never exposed to laboratory food and showed significant reductions in average CHC amounts consistent with CHCs of wild-caught flies. Overall, total hydrocarbon amounts increased from eclosion to 14–18 days, well past age at sexual maturity, and then declined in older flies. Most flies did not survive past 4 weeks. Baja California and mainland populations showed significantly different age-specific CHC profiles where Baja adults showed far less age-specific changes in CHC expression. Adults from populations reared on the host cactus typically used in nature expressed more CHCs than on the alternate host. MANCOVA with age as the covariate for the first six CHC principal components showed extensive differences in CHC composition due to age, population, cactus, sex, and age × population, age × sex, and age × cactus interactions. Thus, understanding variation in CHC composition as adult D. mojavensis age requires information about population and host plant differences, with potential influences on patterns of mate choice, sexual selection, and sexual isolation, and ultimately how these pheromones are expressed in natural populations. Studies of drosophilid aging in the wild are badly needed. PMID:25360246

  20. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePlus

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  1. Adolescent social isolation enhances the plasmalemmal density of NMDA NR1 subunits in dendritic spines of principal neurons in the basolateral amygdala of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gan, J O; Bowline, E; Lourenco, F S; Pickel, V M

    2014-01-31

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation manifested by abnormalities in adult behaviors that require emotional processing. The affected brain regions may include the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in principal neurons plays a role in conditioned emotional responses. This plasticity is dependent on NMDA receptor trafficking denoted by intracellular mobilization of the obligatory NR1 NMDA subunit. We tested the hypothesis that the psychosocial stress of adolescent social isolation (ASI) produces a lasting change in NMDA receptor distribution in principal neurons in the BLA of adults that express maladaptive emotional responses to sensory cues. For this, we used behavioral testing and dual electron microscopic immunolabeling of NR1 and calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a protein predominantly expressed in principal neurons of the BLA in adult C57Bl/6 mice housed in isolation or in social groups from post-weaning day 22 until adulthood (∼3 months of age). The isolates showed persistent deficits in sensorimotor gating evidenced by altered prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle and hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment. Immunogold-silver labeling for NR1 alone or together with CaMKII was seen in many somatodendritic profiles in the BLA of all mice irrespective of rearing conditions. However, isolates compared with group-reared mice had a significantly lower cytoplasmic (4.72 ± 0.517 vs 6.31 ± 0.517) and higher plasmalemmal (0.397 ± 0.0779 vs 0.216 ± 0.026) density of NR1 immunogold particles in CaMKII-containing dendritic spines. There was no rearing-dependent difference in the size or number of these spines or those of other dendritic profiles within the neuropil, which also failed to show an impact of ASI on NR1 immunogold labeling. These results provide the first evidence that ASI enhances the surface trafficking of NMDA receptors

  2. Adolescent social isolation enhances the plasmalemmal density of NMDA NR1 subunits in dendritic spines of principal neurons in the basolateral amygdala of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Jerylin O.; Bowline, Everett; Lourenco, Frederico S.; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation manifested by abnormalities in adult behaviors that require emotional processing. The affected brain regions may include the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in principal neurons plays a role in conditioned emotional responses. This plasticity is dependent on NMDA receptor trafficking denoted by intracellular mobilization of the obligatory NR1 NMDA subunit. We tested the hypothesis that the psychosocial stress of adolescent social isolation (ASI) produces a lasting change in NMDA receptor distribution in principal neurons in the BLA of adults that express maladaptive emotional responses to sensory cues. For this, we used behavioral testing and dual electron microscopic immunolabeling of NR1 and CaMKII, a protein predominantly expressed in principal neurons of the BLA in adult C57Bl/6 mice housed in isolation or in social groups from post-weaning day 22 until adulthood (~3 months of age). The isolates showed persistent deficits in sensorimotor gating evidenced by altered prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle and hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment. Immunogold-silver labeling for NR1 alone or together with CaMKII was seen in many somatodendritic profiles in the BLA of all mice irrespective of rearing conditions. However, isolates compared with group-reared mice had a significantly lower cytoplasmic (4.72±0.517 vs 6.31 ± 0.517) and higher plasmalemmal (0.397±0.0779 vs 0.216±0.026) density of NR1 immunogold particles in CaMKII-containing dendritic spines. There were no rearing-dependent difference is the size or number of these spines or those of other dendritic profiles within the neuropil, which also failed to show an impact of ASI on NR1 immunogold labeling. These results provide the first evidence that ASI enhances the surface trafficking of NMDA receptors in dendritic spines of principal neurons in the BLA of

  3. Isolated and combined effects of aerobic and strength exercise on post-exercise blood pressure and cardiac vagal reactivation in normotensive men.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberto José; Simão, Roberto; Saccomani, Milene Granja; Casonatto, Juliano; Alexander, Jeffrey L; Rhea, Matthew; Polito, Marcos Doederlein

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and cardiac vagal reactivation (VR) after an aerobic training session (ATS), a strength training session (STS), and a combined aerobic and strength training session (ASTS) in normotensive men. Eleven healthy men (age 26.8 ± 2.9 years, body mass index 24.3 ± 1.6 kg·m) with at least 6 months of strength and aerobic training experience performed an STS, an ATS, and an ASTS in a counterbalanced crossover design. Blood pressure and HR were measured at rest and at 15-minute intervals post-training for 1 hour. Vagal reactivation was measured during the first minute immediately post-exercise. After STS and ASTS, systolic BP (SBP) and mean arterial BP (MAP) remained significantly lower than at rest at all time intervals (p < 0.05). After ATS, SBP was significantly lower than at rest at 30 minutes and beyond (p < 0.01); however, no significant differences were observed for MAP. Post-training HR remained high after STS and ASTS at all intervals (p < 0.01). However, after ATS, the HR remained high only at the 15-minute post-exercise interval (p < 0.01). Vagal reactivation was significantly less pronounced after the first 30 seconds post-exercise (p < 0.01) in ASTS (531.3 ± 329.6 seconds) than in ATS (220.7 ± 88.5 seconds) and in STS (317.6 ± 158.5 seconds). The delta of the HR decrease at 60 seconds post-exercise was greater (p < 0.00) in ATS (33.4 ± 12.7 b·min) than in STS (14.1 ± 7.2 b·min) and in ASTS (11.4 ± 7.1 b·min). In conclusion, post-exercise BP reduction was independent of the type of exercise; however, HR remained significantly greater after combination of strength and aerobic exercise, implying a reduction in cardiac VR after this type of training. Therefore, strength and conditioning professionals may prescribe aerobic, strength, or a combination of aerobic and strength exercise to assist individuals concerned with BP control, thus allowing for variety in training while

  4. Functional consequences of caspase activation in cardiac myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Communal, Catherine; Sumandea, Marius; de Tombe, Pieter; Narula, Jagat; Solaro, R. John; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2002-04-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is present in many cardiac disease states, including heart failure and ischemic heart disease. Apoptosis is associated with the activation of caspases that mediate the cleavage of vital and structural proteins. However, the functional contribution of apoptosis to these conditions is not known. Furthermore, in cardiac myocytes, apoptosis may not be complete, allowing the cells to persist for a prolonged period within the myocardium. Therefore, we examined whether caspase-3 cleaved cardiac myofibrillar proteins and, if so, whether it affects contractile function. The effects of caspase-3 were studied in vitro on individual components of the cardiac myofilament including -actin, -actinin, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain 1/2, tropomyosin, cardiac troponins (T, I, C), and the trimeric troponin complex. Exposure of the myofibrillar protein (listed above) to caspase-3 for 4 h resulted in the cleavage of -actin and -actinin, but not myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain 1/2, and tropomyosin, into three fragments (30, 20, and 15 kDa) and one major fragment (45 kDa), respectively. When cTnT, cTnI, and cTnC were incubated individually with caspase-3, there was no detectable cleavage. However, when the recombinant troponin complex was exposed to caspase-3, cTnT was cleaved, resulting in fragments of 25 kDa. Furthermore, rat cardiac myofilaments exposed to caspase-3 exhibited similar patterns of myofibrillar protein cleavage. Treatment with the caspase inhibitor DEVD-CHO or z-VAD-fmk abolished the cleavage. Myofilaments, isolated from adult rat ventricular myocytes after induction of apoptotic pathway by using -adrenergic stimulation, displayed a similar pattern of actin and TnT cleavage. Exposure of skinned fiber to caspase-3 decreased maximal Ca2+-activated force and myofibrillar ATPase activity. Our results indicate that caspase-3 cleaved myofibrillar proteins, resulting in an impaired force/Ca2+ relationship and myofibrillar ATPase activity

  5. Developmental origin and lineage plasticity of endogenous cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Santini, Maria Paola; Forte, Elvira; Harvey, Richard P; Kovacic, Jason C

    2016-04-15

    Over the past two decades, several populations of cardiac stem cells have been described in the adult mammalian heart. For the most part, however, their lineage origins and in vivo functions remain largely unexplored. This Review summarizes what is known about different populations of embryonic and adult cardiac stem cells, including KIT(+), PDGFRα(+), ISL1(+)and SCA1(+)cells, side population cells, cardiospheres and epicardial cells. We discuss their developmental origins and defining characteristics, and consider their possible contribution to heart organogenesis and regeneration. We also summarize the origin and plasticity of cardiac fibroblasts and circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and consider what role these cells have in contributing to cardiac repair. PMID:27095490

  6. Developmental origin and lineage plasticity of endogenous cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Santini, Maria Paola; Forte, Elvira; Harvey, Richard P; Kovacic, Jason C

    2016-04-15

    Over the past two decades, several populations of cardiac stem cells have been described in the adult mammalian heart. For the most part, however, their lineage origins and in vivo functions remain largely unexplored. This Review summarizes what is known about different populations of embryonic and adult cardiac stem cells, including KIT(+), PDGFRα(+), ISL1(+)and SCA1(+)cells, side population cells, cardiospheres and epicardial cells. We discuss their developmental origins and defining characteristics, and consider their possible contribution to heart organogenesis and regeneration. We also summarize the origin and plasticity of cardiac fibroblasts and circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and consider what role these cells have in contributing to cardiac repair.

  7. Rotenone exerts similar stimulatory effects on H2O2 production by isolated brain mitochondria from young-adult and old rats.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Luiz G B; Figueira, Tiago R; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Castilho, Roger F

    2015-03-01

    Chronic and systemic treatment of rodents with rotenone, a classical inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, results in neurochemical, behavioral, and neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether brain mitochondria from old rats (24 months old) would be more susceptible to rotenone-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and increased generation of H2O2 than mitochondria from young-adult rats (3-4 months old). Isolated brain mitochondria were incubated in the presence of different rotenone concentrations (5, 10, and 100nM), and oxygen consumption and H2O2 production were measured during respiratory states 3 (ADP-stimulated respiration) and 4 (resting respiration). Respiratory state 3 and citrate synthase activity were significantly lower in mitochondria from old rats. Mitochondria from young-adult and old rats showed similar sensitivity to rotenone-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption. Similarly, H2O2 production rates by both types of mitochondria were dose-dependently stimulated to the same extent by increasing concentrations of rotenone. We conclude that rotenone exerts similar effects on oxygen consumption and H2O2 production by isolated brain mitochondria from young-adult and old rats. Therefore, aging does not increase the mitochondrial H2O2 generation in response to complex I inhibition.

  8. Isolation of small SSEA-4-positive putative stem cells from the ovarian surface epithelium of adult human ovaries by two different methods.

    PubMed

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Skutella, Thomas; Hren, Matjaz; Gruden, Kristina; Cvjeticanin, Branko; Vogler, Andrej; Sinkovec, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    The adult ovarian surface epithelium has already been proposed as a source of stem cells and germinal cells in the literature, therefore it has been termed the "germinal epithelium". At present more studies have confirmed the presence of stem cells expressing markers of pluripotency in adult mammalian ovaries, including humans. The aim of this study was to isolate a population of stem cells, based on the expression of pluripotency-related stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) from adult human ovarian surface epithelium by two different methods: magnetic-activated cell sorting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Both methods made it possible to isolate a similar, relatively homogenous population of small, SSEA-4-positive cells with diameters of up to 4  μm from the suspension of cells retrieved by brushing of the ovarian cortex biopsies in reproductive-age and postmenopausal women and in women with premature ovarian failure. The immunocytochemistry and genetic analyses revealed that these small cells--putative stem cells--expressed some primordial germ cell and pluripotency-related markers and might be related to the in vitro development of oocyte-like cells expressing some oocyte-specific transcription factors in the presence of donated follicular fluid with substances important for oocyte growth and development. The stemness of these cells needs to be further researched.

  9. Isolation of Radial Glia-Like Neural Stem Cells from Fetal and Adult Mouse Forebrain via Selective Adhesion to a Novel Adhesive Peptide-Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Markó, Károly; Kőhidi, Tímea; Hádinger, Nóra; Jelitai, Márta; Mező, Gábor; Madarász, Emília

    2011-01-01

    Preferential adhesion of neural stem cells to surfaces covered with a novel synthetic adhesive polypeptide (AK-cyclo[RGDfC]) provided a unique, rapid procedure for isolating radial glia-like cells from both fetal and adult rodent brain. Radial glia-like (RGl) neural stem/progenitor cells grew readily on the peptide-covered surfaces under serum-free culture conditions in the presence of EGF as the only growth factor supplement. Proliferating cells derived either from fetal (E 14.5) forebrain or from different regions of the adult brain maintained several radial glia-specific features including nestin, RC2 immunoreactivity and Pax6, Sox2, Blbp, Glast gene expression. Proliferating RGl cells were obtained also from non-neurogenic zones including the parenchyma of the adult cerebral cortex and dorsal midbrain. Continuous proliferation allowed isolating one-cell derived clones of radial glia-like cells. All clones generated neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes under appropriate inducing conditions. Electrophysiological characterization indicated that passive conductance with large delayed rectifying potassium current might be a uniform feature of non-induced radial glia-like cells. Upon induction, all clones gave rise to GABAergic neurons. Significant differences were found, however, among the clones in the generation of glutamatergic and cathecolamine-synthesizing neurons and in the production of oligodendrocytes. PMID:22163310

  10. The impact of adolescent social isolation on dopamine D2 and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the adult rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Megan L.; Mackie, Kenneth; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent experiences of social deprivation result in profound and enduring perturbations in adult behavior, including impaired sensorimotor gating. The behavioral deficits induced by adolescent social isolation in rats can be ameliorated by antipsychotic drugs blocking dopamine D2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or by chronic administration of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist. The patterning and abundance of D2 receptors in the PFC evolves concurrently with CB1 receptors through the period of adolescence. This evidence suggests that mature expression and/or surface distribution of D2 and CB1 receptors may be influenced by the adolescent social environment. We tested this hypothesis using electron microscopic immunolabeling to compare the distribution of CB1 and D2 receptors in the PFC of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were isolated or socially reared throughout the adolescent transition period. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle was assessed as a measure of sensorimotor gating. Social isolation reduced PPI and selectively decreased dendritic D2 immunogold labeling in the PFC. However, the decrease was only evident in dendrites that were not contacted by axon terminals containing CB1. There was no apparent change in the expression of CB1 or D2 receptors in presynaptic terminals. The D2 deficit therefore may be tempered by local CB1-mediated retrograde signaling. This suggests a biological mechanism whereby the adolescent social environment can persistently influence cortical dopaminergic activity and resultant behavior. PMID:23333674

  11. Characterization of Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Recovered from Adult Patients with Underlying Chronic Lung Disease Reveals Genotypic and Phenotypic Traits Associated with Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, Junkal; Viadas, Cristina; Calatayud, Laura; Mell, Joshua Chang; Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Euba, Begoña; Llobet, Enrique; Gil, Carmen; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Redfield, Rosemary J.; Liñares, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen causing infection in adults suffering obstructive lung diseases. Existing evidence associates chronic infection by NTHi to the progression of the chronic respiratory disease, but specific features of NTHi associated with persistence have not been comprehensively addressed. To provide clues about adaptive strategies adopted by NTHi during persistent infection, we compared sequential persistent isolates with newly acquired isolates in sputa from six patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified three patients with consecutive persistent strains and three with new strains. Phenotypic characterisation included infection of respiratory epithelial cells, bacterial self-aggregation, biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Persistent isolates differed from new strains in showing low epithelial adhesion and inability to form biofilms when grown under continuous-flow culture conditions in microfermenters. Self-aggregation clustered the strains by patient, not by persistence. Increasing resistance to AMPs was observed for each series of persistent isolates; this was not associated with lipooligosaccharide decoration with phosphorylcholine or with lipid A acylation. Variation was further analyzed for the series of three persistent isolates recovered from patient 1. These isolates displayed comparable growth rate, natural transformation frequency and murine pulmonary infection. Genome sequencing of these three isolates revealed sequential acquisition of single-nucleotide variants in the AMP permease sapC, the heme acquisition systems hgpB, hgpC, hup and hxuC, the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase kdkA, the long-chain fatty acid transporter ompP1, and the phosphoribosylamine glycine ligase purD. Collectively, we frame a range of pathogenic traits and a repertoire of genetic variants in the context of

  12. Untreated Isolated Sytolic Hypertension among Middle-Aged and Old Adults in the United States: Trends in the Prevalence by Demographic Factors During 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuefeng; Hoang, Van Minh; Liu, Yali; Brown, Rachel L W

    2015-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) predominates hemodynamic hypertension subtypes and becomes a significant factor for cardiovascular and renal outcomes in middle-aged and old adults. The prevalence and changes of untreated ISH have not been fully investigated in this population. A total of 12,097 participants aged ≥40 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. The overall prevalence of untreated ISH was 15.2%. The prevalence decreased significantly from 16.8% in 1999-2004 to 13.5% in 2005-2010. Females, non-Hispanic blacks, and adults with low education had higher prevalence of untreated ISH than males, non-Hispanic whites, and adults with high education, respectively. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 reduced in old adults (28.0% versus 37.7%), females (14.3% versus 19.5%), and non-Hispanic whites (12.7% versus 16.2%). The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH decreased in 2005-2010 in non-Hispanic white females (12.8% versus 18.6%) and females who did not attend college (16.9% versus 21.8%). Untreated ISH is more prevalent in old and female subjects, and significant improvements in these groups suggest that public health measures or changes are in the right direction. PMID:26464870

  13. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  14. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses. PMID:27668588

  15. Interventional cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Pihkala, J; Nykanen, D; Freedom, R M; Benson, L N

    1999-04-01

    Over the past decade, transcatheter interventions have become increasingly important in the treatment of patients with congenital heart lesions. These procedures may be broadly grouped as dilations (e.g., septostomy, valvuloplasty, angioplasty, and endovascular stenting) or as closures (e.g., vascular embolization and device closure of defects). Balloon valvuloplasty has become the treatment of choice for patients in all age groups with simple valvar pulmonic stenosis and, although not curative, seems at least comparable to surgery for congenital aortic stenosis in newborns to young adults. Balloon angioplasty is successfully applied to a wide range of aortic, pulmonary artery, and venous stenoses. Stents are useful in dilating lesions of which the intrinsic elasticity results in vessel recoil after balloon dilation alone. Catheter-delivered coils are used to embolize a wide range of arterial, venous, and prosthetic vascular connections. Although some devices remain investigational, they have been successfully used for closure of many arterial ducts and atrial and ventricular septal defects. In the therapy for patients with complex CHD, best results may be achieved by combining cardiac surgery with interventional catheterization. The cooperation among interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons was highlighted in a report of an algorithm to manage patients with tetralogy of Fallot or pulmonary atresia with diminutive pulmonary arteries, involving balloon dilation, coil embolization of collaterals, and intraoperative stent placement. In this setting, well-planned catheterization procedures have an important role in reducing the overall number of procedures that patients may require over a lifetime, with improved outcomes.

  16. Cardiac-Specific YAP Activation Improves Cardiac Function and Survival in an Experimental Murine MI Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiqiang; von Gise, Alexander; Zhou, Pingzhu; Gu, Fei; Ma, Qing; Jiang, Jiangming; Yau, Allan L.; Buck, Jessica N.; Gouin, Katryna A.; van Gorp, Pim R. R.; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Jinghai; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Wang, Da-zhi; Pu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), the terminal effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, is crucial for regulating embryonic cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation. Objective We hypothesized that YAP activation after myocardial infarction would preserve cardiac function and improve survival. Methods and Results We used a cardiac-specific, inducible expression system to activate YAP in adult mouse heart. Activation of YAP in adult heart promoted CM proliferation and did not deleteriously affect heart function. Furthermore, YAP activation after myocardial infarction (MI) preserved heart function and reduced infarct size. Using adeno-associated virus subtype 9 (AAV9) as a delivery vector, we expressed human YAP in the adult murine myocardium immediately after MI. We found that AAV9:hYAP significantly improved cardiac function and mouse survival. AAV9:hYAP did not exert its salutary effects by reducing CM apoptosis. Rather, AAV9:hYAP stimulated adult CM proliferation. Gene expression profiling indicated that AAV9:hYAP stimulated expression of cell cycle genes and promoted a less mature cardiac gene expression signature. Conclusions Cardiac specific YAP activation after MI mitigated myocardial injury, improved cardiac function, and enhanced survival. These findings suggest that therapeutic activation of YAP or its downstream targets, potentially through AAV-mediated gene therapy, may be a strategy to improve outcome after MI. PMID:24833660

  17. Cardiac muscle regeneration: lessons from development

    PubMed Central

    Mercola, Mark; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Schneider, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The adult human heart is an ideal target for regenerative intervention since it does not functionally restore itself after injury yet has a modest regenerative capacity that could be enhanced by innovative therapies. Adult cardiac cells with regenerative potential share gene expression signatures with early fetal progenitors that give rise to multiple cardiac cell types, suggesting that the evolutionarily conserved regulatory networks that drive embryonic heart development might also control aspects of regeneration. Here we discuss commonalities of development and regeneration, and the application of the rich developmental biology heritage to achieve therapeutic regeneration of the human heart. PMID:21325131

  18. Phenotypic Characterization of Clonal and Nonclonal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Lungs of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Tingpej, Pholawat; Smith, Lucas; Rose, Barbara; Zhu, Hua; Conibear, Tim; Al Nassafi, Khaled; Manos, Jim; Elkins, Mark; Bye, Peter; Willcox, Mark; Bell, Scott; Wainwright, Claire; Harbour, Colin

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones is a threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients globally. Characterization of clonal P. aeruginosa strains is critical for an understanding of its clinical impact and developing strategies to meet this problem. Two clonal strains (AES-1 and AES-2) are circulating within CF centers in eastern Australia. In this study, phenotypic characteristics of 43 (14 AES-1, 5 AES-2, and 24 nonclonal) P. aeruginosa isolates were compared to gain insight into the properties of clonal strains. All 43 isolates produced bands of the predicted size in PCRs for vfr, rhlI, rhlR, lasA, lasB, aprA, rhlAB, and exoS genes; 42 were positive for lasI and lasR, and none had exoU. Thirty-seven (86%) isolates were positive in total protease assays; on zymography, 24 (56%) produced elastase/staphylolysin and 22 (51%) produced alkaline protease. Clonal isolates were more likely than nonclonal isolates to be positive for total proteases (P = 0.02), to show elastase and alkaline protease activity by zymography (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively), and to show elastase activity by the elastin-Congo red assay (P = 0.04). There were no other associations with genotype. Overall, increasing patient age was associated with decreasing elastase activity (P = 0.03). Thirty-two (74%) isolates had at least one N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) by thin-layer chromatography. rhl-associated AHL detection was associated with the production and level of total protease and elastase activity (all P < 0.01). Thirty-three (77%) isolates were positive for ExoS by Western blot analysis, 35 (81%) produced rhamnolipids, and 34 (79%) showed chitinase activity. Findings suggest that protease activity during chronic infection may contribute to the transmissibility or virulence of these clonal strains. PMID:17392437

  19. At physiologic albumin/oleate concentrations oleate uptake by isolated hepatocytes, cardiac myocytes, and adipocytes is a saturable function of the unbound oleate concentration. Uptake kinetics are consistent with the conventional theory.

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, D; Robinson, R B; Kiang, C L; Berk, P D

    1989-01-01

    To reexamine the role of albumin in cellular uptake of long chain fatty acids, we measured [3H]oleate uptake by isolated hepatocytes, adipocytes, and cardiac myocytes from incubations containing oleate/albumin complexes at molar ratios from 0.01:1 to 2:1. For each ratio the uptake was studied over a wide range of albumin concentrations. In all three cell types and at any given oleate/albumin ratio, the uptake appeared saturable with increasing concentrations of oleate:albumin complexes despite the fact that the unbound oleate concentration for each molar ratio is essentially constant. However, the "Km" but not the "Vmax" of these pseudosaturation curves was influenced by substrate availability. At low albumin concentrations, uptake velocities did not correlate with unbound oleate concentrations. However, observed and expected uptake velocities coincided at albumin concentrations approaching physiologic levels and were a saturable function of the oleate/albumin ratios and the consequent unbound oleate concentrations employed. Hence, under the experimental conditions employed in this study using a variety of suspended cell types, oleate uptake kinetics were consistent with the conventional theory at physiologic concentrations of albumin. PMID:2794064

  20. A Novel Biopsy Method for Isolating Neural Stem Cells from the Subventricular Zone of the Adult Rat Brain for Autologous Transplantation in CNS Injuries.

    PubMed

    Aligholi, Hadi; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Gorji, Ali; Azari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Despite all attempts the problem of regeneration in damaged central nervous system (CNS) has remained challenging due to its cellular complexity and highly organized and sophisticated connections. In this regard, stem cell therapy might serve as a viable therapeutic approach aiming either to support the damaged tissue and hence to reduce the subsequent neurological dysfunctions and impairments or to replace the lost cells and re-establish damaged circuitries. Adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) are one of the outstanding cell sources that can be isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. These cells can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Implanting autologous NS/PCs will greatly benefit the patients by avoiding immune rejection after implantation, better survival, and integration with the host tissue. Developing safe and efficient methods in small animal models will provide us with the opportunity to optimize procedures required to achieve successful human autologous NS/PC transplantation in near future. In this chapter, a highly controlled and safe biopsy method for harvesting stem cell containing tissue from the SVZ of adult rat brain is introduced. Then, isolation and expansion of NS/PCs from harvested specimen as well as the techniques to verify proliferation and differentiation capacity of the resulting NS/PCs are discussed. Finally, a method for assessing the biopsy lesion volume in the brain is described. This safe biopsy method in rat provides a unique tool to study autologous NS/PC transplantation in different CNS injury models. PMID:27604747

  1. Sevoflurane-induced arrhythmia in healthy adult.

    PubMed

    Santos, João; Santos, Vera; Gago, Paula; Cortez-Dias, Nuno

    2016-11-01

    Inhalatory anesthetic agents are frequently used for anesthesia maintenance. Sevoflurane is considered one of the safest regarding its cardiac effects. We report a case of a cardiac arrhythmia induced by sevoflurane in an otherwise healthy adult and discuss sevoflurane's cardiac effects. PMID:27687440

  2. Imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Erthal, Fernanda; Juneau, Daniel; Lim, Siok P; Dwivedi, Girish; Nery, Pablo B; Birnie, David; Beanlands, Rob S

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease. Cardiac involvement is described in up to 50% of the cases. The disease spectrum is wide and cardiac manifestations ranges from being asymptomatic to heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis can be challenging due to its non-specific nature and the focal involvement of the heart. In this review, we discuss the utility of a stepwise approach with multimodality cardiac imaging in the diagnosis and management of CS. PMID:27225318

  3. [Cardiac output monitoring by impedance cardiography in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Seki, S; Mizuguchi, A; Tsuchida, H; Watanabe, H; Namiki, A

    1990-04-01

    The cardiac output monitoring by impedance cardiography, NCCOM3, was evaluated in adult patients (n = 12) who were subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting. Values of cardiac output measured by impedance cardiography were compared to those by the thermodilution method. Changes of base impedance level used as an index of thoracic fluid volume were also investigated before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Correlation coefficient (r) of the values obtained by thermodilution with impedance cardiography was 0.79 and the mean difference was 1.29 +/- 16.9 (SD)% during induction of anesthesia. During the operation, r was 0.83 and the mean difference was -14.6 +/- 18.7%. The measurement by impedance cardiography could be carried out through the operation except when electro-cautery was used. Base impedance level before CPB was significantly lower as compared with that after CPB. There was a negative correlation between the base impedance level and central venous pressure (CVP). No patients showed any signs suggesting lung edema and all the values of CVP, pulmonary artery pressure and blood gas analysis were within normal ranges. From the result of this study, it was concluded that cardiac output monitoring by impedance cardiography was useful in cardiac surgery, but further detailed examinations will be necessary on the relationship between the numerical values of base impedance and the clinical state of the patients. PMID:2362347

  4. Impaired visual memory in rats reared in isolation is reversed by D-cycloserine in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Strømme Johannesen, Tone; Myhrer, Trond

    2002-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that environmental factors can influence cholinergic and glutamatergic activity in the developing brain, and that the variations in neurochemistry are accompanied by behavioral changes in later life. Rats reared in isolated, social, or enriched environments were tested with a visual discrimination task in adulthood. The results show that saline-treated rats reared in isolation exhibited impaired retention of the discrimination task compared to rats raised in social or enriched environments. However, systemic administration of the NMDA receptor agonist, D-cycloserine (3 mg/kg), restored normal memory function in cognitively impoverished rats. Acquisition of the task was not affected by the rearing conditions. D-Cycloserine is considered to be an efficient cognitive enhancer probably able to compensate for assumed loss of NMDA receptors during isolated rearing. PMID:11864642

  5. CARDIAC MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Joachim R.; Johnson, Edward A.

    1968-01-01

    With light and electron microscopy a comparison has been made of the morphology of ventricular (V) and Purkinje (P) fibers of the hearts of guinea pig, rabbit, cat, dog, goat, and sheep. The criteria, previously established for the rabbit heart, that V fibers are distinguished from P fibers by the respective presence and absence of transverse tubules is shown to be true for all animals studied. No evidence was found of a permanent connection between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the extracellular space. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of V fibers formed couplings with the sarcolemma of a transverse tubule (interior coupling) and with the peripheral sarcolemma (peripheral coupling), whereas in P fibers the SR formed only peripheral couplings. The forms of the couplings were identical. The significance, with respect to excitation-contraction coupling, of the difference in the form of the couplings in cardiac versus skeletal muscle is discussed together with the electrophysiological implications of the differing geometries of bundles of P fibers from different animals. PMID:5645545

  6. [About a case of a recurrent glandular cardiac myxoma in a child].

    PubMed

    Meurgey, Alexandra; Henaine, Roland; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Chalabreysse, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare and mainly benign. The majority of these are myxomas (40%). Myxoma are generally sporadic tumors which occur most commonly in adult females between 30 and 40 years, and are seldom found in the paediatric population (5%). Seven percent are associated with igenetic diseases. We report the case of an eight-year-old boy presenting a recurrent glandular cardiac myxoma. In 2011, he presented a deterioration of the general state. An echocardiography highlighted a left atrial mass on the interatrial septum, with a pedicular insertion. On the microscope, it consisted of a proliferation of stellate cells isolated or clustered in rudimentary vessels in a myxoid stroma presenting haemorrhage changes. These cells expressed CD34 and calretinine. Glandular elements without atypia were clustered within the myxomatous proliferation. They expressed cytokeratin (CK) 7. Surgical resection was macroscopically complete. In 2014, the boy had a sudden neurological deficit during a football match. An echocardiography revealed a recurrence at the same location. The lesion was excised and addressed in several fragments. Classical myxoma was associated with glands without atypia. This last component expressed CKAE1/AE3 and CK7. Ki67 index of proliferation was low. The surgical reintervention was macroscopically complete. The final diagnosis was glandular cardiac myxoma. A genetic survey was conducted, showing the presence of Carney complex. This is the first description in the litterature of a recurrent glandular cardiac myxoma occuring in a child. PMID:27234518

  7. Mesodermal iPSC–derived progenitor cells functionally regenerate cardiac and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocelli, Mattia; Swinnen, Melissa; Giacomazzi, Giorgia; Camps, Jordi; Barthélemy, Ines; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Caluwé, Ellen; Grosemans, Hanne; Thorrez, Lieven; Pelizzo, Gloria; Muijtjens, Manja; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Blot, Stephane; Janssens, Stefan; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as muscular dystrophies (MDs) that affect both cardiac and skeletal muscles would benefit from therapeutic strategies that enable regeneration of both of these striated muscle types. Protocols have been developed to promote induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate toward cardiac or skeletal muscle; however, there are currently no strategies to simultaneously target both muscle types. Tissues exhibit specific epigenetic alterations; therefore, source-related lineage biases have the potential to improve iPSC-driven multilineage differentiation. Here, we determined that differential myogenic propensity influences the commitment of isogenic iPSCs and a specifically isolated pool of mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitors (MiPs) toward the striated muscle lineages. Differential myogenic propensity did not influence pluripotency, but did selectively enhance chimerism of MiP-derived tissue in both fetal and adult skeletal muscle. When injected into dystrophic mice, MiPs engrafted and repaired both skeletal and cardiac muscle, reducing functional defects. Similarly, engraftment into dystrophic mice of canine MiPs from dystrophic dogs that had undergone TALEN-mediated correction of the MD-associated mutation also resulted in functional striatal muscle regeneration. Moreover, human MiPs exhibited the same capacity for the dual differentiation observed in murine and canine MiPs. The findings of this study suggest that MiPs should be further explored for combined therapy of cardiac and skeletal muscles. PMID:26571398

  8. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene

    PubMed Central

    Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

  9. Rapid emergence of resistance to linezolid and mutator phenotypes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from an adult cystic fibrosis patient.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Asmaa; Chapron, Jeanne; Touak, Gerald; Longo, Magalie; Hubert, Dominique; Collobert, Gislène; Dusser, Daniel; Poyart, Claire; Morand, Philippe C

    2013-10-01

    Linezolid has emerged as an important therapeutic option for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with cystic fibrosis. We report the rapid emergence, upon treatment with linezolid, of linezolid-resistant S. aureus clinical isolates through the accumulation of resistance-associated 23S rRNA mutations, together with acquisition of an altered mutator phenotype.

  10. In Vitro Colony Assays for Characterizing Tri-potent Progenitor Cells Isolated from the Adult Murine Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Jacob R; LeBon, Jeanne M; Luo, Angela; Quijano, Janine C; Wedeken, Lena; Jou, Kevin; Riggs, Arthur D; Tirrell, David A; Ku, H Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Stem and progenitor cells from the adult pancreas could be a potential source of therapeutic beta-like cells for treating patients with type 1 diabetes. However, it is still unknown whether stem and progenitor cells exist in the adult pancreas. Research strategies using cre-lox lineage-tracing in adult mice have yielded results that either support or refute the idea that beta cells can be generated from the ducts, the presumed location where adult pancreatic progenitors may reside. These in vivo cre-lox lineage-tracing methods, however, cannot answer the questions of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation-two criteria necessary to define a stem cell. To begin addressing this technical gap, we devised 3-dimensional colony assays for pancreatic progenitors. Soon after our initial publication, other laboratories independently developed a similar, but not identical, method called the organoid assay. Compared to the organoid assay, our method employs methylcellulose, which forms viscous solutions that allow the inclusion of extracellular matrix proteins at low concentrations. The methylcellulose-containing assays permit easier detection and analyses of progenitor cells at the single-cell level, which are critical when progenitors constitute a small sub-population, as is the case for many adult organ stem cells. Together, results from several laboratories demonstrate in vitro self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation of pancreatic progenitor-like cells from mice. The current protocols describe two methylcellulose-based colony assays to characterize mouse pancreatic progenitors; one contains a commercial preparation of murine extracellular matrix proteins and the other an artificial extracellular matrix protein known as a laminin hydrogel. The techniques shown here are 1) dissociation of the pancreas and sorting of CD133(+)Sox9/EGFP(+) ductal cells from adult mice, 2) single cell manipulation of the sorted cells, 3) single colony analyses using microfluidic q

  11. Non-coding RNAs in cardiac regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanli; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Developing new therapeutic strategies which could enhance cardiomyocyte regenerative capacity is of significant clinical importance. Though promising, methods to promote cardiac regeneration have had limited success due to the weak regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian heart. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are functional RNA molecules without a protein coding function that have been reported to engage in cardiac regeneration and repair. In light of current regenerative strategies, the regulatory effects of ncRNAs can be categorized as follows: cardiac proliferation, cardiac differentiation, cardiac survival and cardiac reprogramming. miR-590, miR-199a, miR-17-92 cluster, miR302-367 cluster and miR-222 have been reported to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation while miR-1 and miR-133 suppress that. miR-499 and miR-1 promote the differentiation of cardiac progenitors into cardiomyocyte while miR-133 and H19 inhibit that. miR-21, miR-24, miR-221, miR-199a and miR-155 improve cardiac survival while miR-34a, miR-1 and miR-320 exhibit opposite effects. miR-1, miR-133, miR-208 and miR-499 are capable of reprogramming fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cells and miR-284, miR-302, miR-93, miR-106b and lncRNA-ST8SIA3 are able to enhace cardiac reprogramming. Exploring non-coding RNA-based methods to enhance cardiac regeneration would be instrumental for devising new effective therapies against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26462179

  12. Alteration of cardiac progenitor cell potency in GRMD dogs.

    PubMed

    Cassano, M; Berardi, E; Crippa, S; Toelen, J; Barthelemy, I; Micheletti, R; Chuah, M; Vandendriessche, T; Debyser, Z; Blot, S; Sampaolesi, M

    2012-01-01

    Among the animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog is considered the best model in terms of size and pathological onset of the disease. As in human patients presenting with DMD or Becker muscular dystrophies (BMD), the GRMD is related to a spontaneous X-linked mutation of dystrophin and is characterized by myocardial lesions. In this respect, GRMD is a useful model to explore cardiac pathogenesis and for the development of therapeutic protocols. To investigate whether cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) isolated from healthy and GRMD dogs may differentiate into myocardial cell types and to test the feasibility of cell therapy for cardiomyopathies in a preclinical model of DMD, CPCs were isolated from cardiac biopsies of healthy and GRMD dogs. Gene profile analysis revealed an active cardiac transcription network in both healthy and GRMD CPCs. However, GRMD CPCs showed impaired self-renewal and cardiac differentiation. Population doubling and telomerase analyses highlighted earlier senescence and proliferation impairment in progenitors isolated from GRMD cardiac biopsies. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that only wt CPCs showed efficient although not terminal cardiac differentiation, consistent with the upregulation of cardiac-specific proteins and microRNAs. Thus, the pathological condition adversely influences the cardiomyogenic differentiation potential of cardiac progenitors. Using PiggyBac transposon technology we marked CPCs for nuclear dsRed expression, providing a stable nonviral gene marking method for in vivo tracing of CPCs. Xenotransplantation experiments in neonatal immunodeficient mice revealed a valuable contribution of CPCs to cardiomyogenesis with homing differences between wt and dystrophic progenitors. These results suggest that cardiac degeneration in dystrophinopathies may account for the progressive exhaustion of local cardiac progenitors and shed light on cardiac stemness in

  13. A role for matrix stiffness in the regulation of cardiac side population cell function.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yiling; Bayomy, Ahmad F; Gomez, Marcus V; Bauer, Michael; Du, Ping; Yang, Yanfei; Zhang, Xin; Liao, Ronglih

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of the local microenvironment may have important influence on the fate and function of adult tissue progenitor cells, altering the regenerative process. This is particularly critical following a myocardial infarction, in which the normal, compliant myocardial tissue is replaced with fibrotic, stiff scar tissue. In this study, we examined the effects of matrix stiffness on adult cardiac side population (CSP) progenitor cell behavior. Ovine and murine CSP cells were isolated and cultured on polydimethylsiloxane substrates, replicating the elastic moduli of normal and fibrotic myocardium. Proliferation capacity and cell cycling were increased in CSP cells cultured on the stiff substrate with an associated reduction in cardiomyogeneic differentiation and accelerated cell ageing. In addition, culture on stiff substrate stimulated upregulation of extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins gene expression in CSP cells. Collectively, we demonstrate that microenvironment properties, including matrix stiffness, play a critical role in regulating progenitor cell functions of endogenous resident CSP cells. Understanding the effects of the tissue microenvironment on resident cardiac progenitor cells is a critical step toward achieving functional cardiac regeneration.

  14. A role for matrix stiffness in the regulation of cardiac side population cell function

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yiling; Bayomy, Ahmad F.; Gomez, Marcus V.; Bauer, Michael; Du, Ping; Yang, Yanfei; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the local microenvironment may have important influence on the fate and function of adult tissue progenitor cells, altering the regenerative process. This is particularly critical following a myocardial infarction, in which the normal, compliant myocardial tissue is replaced with fibrotic, stiff scar tissue. In this study, we examined the effects of matrix stiffness on adult cardiac side population (CSP) progenitor cell behavior. Ovine and murine CSP cells were isolated and cultured on polydimethylsiloxane substrates, replicating the elastic moduli of normal and fibrotic myocardium. Proliferation capacity and cell cycling were increased in CSP cells cultured on the stiff substrate with an associated reduction in cardiomyogeneic differentiation and accelerated cell ageing. In addition, culture on stiff substrate stimulated upregulation of extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins gene expression in CSP cells. Collectively, we demonstrate that microenvironment properties, including matrix stiffness, play a critical role in regulating progenitor cell functions of endogenous resident CSP cells. Understanding the effects of the tissue microenvironment on resident cardiac progenitor cells is a critical step toward achieving functional cardiac regeneration. PMID:25724498

  15. Seasonal variation and homes: understanding the social experiences of older adults.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research on the importance of seasons in the lives of older adults. Previous research has highlighted seasonal fluctuations in physical functioning--including limb strength, range of motion, and cardiac death--the spread of influenza in seasonal migration patterns. In addition, older adults experience isolation for various reasons, such as decline of physical and cognitive ability, lack of transportation, and lack of opportunities for social interaction. There has been much attention paid to the social isolation of older adults, yet little analysis about how the isolation changes throughout the year. Based on findings from an ethnographic study of older adults (n = 81), their family members (n = 49), and supportive professionals (n = 46) as they embark on relocation from their homes, this study analyzes the processes of moving for older adults. It examines the seasonal fluctuations of social isolation because of the effect of the environment on the social experiences of older adults. Isolation occurs because of the difficulty inclement weather causes on social interactions and mobility. The article concludes with discussion of the ways that research and practice can be designed and implemented to account for seasonal variation.

  16. Cardiac sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Dubrey, S W; Sharma, R; Underwood, R; Mittal, T

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is one of the most serious and unpredictable aspects of this disease state. Heart involvement frequently presents with arrhythmias or conduction disease, although myocardial infiltration resulting in congestive heart failure may also occur. The prognosis in cardiac sarcoidosis is highly variable, which relates to the heterogeneous nature of heart involvement and marked differences between racial groups. Electrocardiography and echocardiography often provide the first clue to the diagnosis, but advanced imaging studies using positron emission tomography and MRI, in combination with nuclear isotope perfusion scanning are now essential to the diagnosis and management of this condition. The identification of clinically occult cardiac sarcoidosis and the management of isolated and/or asymptomatic heart involvement remain both challenging and contentious. Corticosteroids remain the first treatment choice with the later substitution of immunosuppressive and steroid-sparing therapies. Heart transplantation is an unusual outcome, but when performed, the results are comparable or better than heart transplantation for other disease states. We review the epidemiology, developments in diagnostic techniques and the management of cardiac sarcoidosis.

  17. Facing warm temperatures during migration: cardiac mRNA responses of two adult Oncorhynchus nerka populations to warming and swimming challenges.

    PubMed

    Anttila, K; Eliason, E J; Kaukinen, K H; Miller, K M; Farrell, A P

    2014-05-01

    The main findings of the current study were that exposing adult sockeye salmon Onchorhynchus nerka to a warm temperature that they regularly encounter during their river migration induced a heat shock response at an mRNA level, and this response was exacerbated with forced swimming. Similar to the heat shock response, increased immune defence-related responses were also observed after warm temperature treatment and with a swimming challenge in two different populations (Chilko and Nechako), but with some important differences. Microarray analyses revealed that 347 genes were differentially expressed between the cold (12-13° C) and warm (18-19° C) treated fish, with stress response (GO:0006950) and response to fungus (GO:0009620) elevated with warm treatment, while expression for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (GO:0006119) and electron transport chain (GO:0022900) elevated for cold-treated fish. Analysis of single genes with real-time quantitative PCR revealed that temperature had the most significant effect on mRNA expression levels, with swimming and population having secondary influences. Warm temperature treatment for the Chilko population induced expression of heat shock protein (hsp) 90α, hsp90β and hsp30 as well as interferon-inducible protein. The Nechako population, which is known to have a narrower thermal tolerance window than the Chilko population, showed even more pronounced stress responses to the warm treatment and there was significant interaction between population and temperature treatment for hsp90β expression. Moreover, significant interactions were noted between temperature treatment and swimming challenge for hsp90α and hsp30, and while swimming challenge alone increased expression of these hsps, the expression levels were significantly elevated in warm-treated fish swum to exhaustion. In conclusion, it seems that adult O. nerka currently encounter conditions that induce several cellular defence mechanisms during their once

  18. microRNA and Cardiac Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Pisano, Federica; Bariani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Heart diseases are a very common health problem in developed as well as developing countries. In particular, ischemic heart disease and heart failure represent a plague for the patients and for the society. Loss of cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction or dysfunctioning tissue in nonischemic cardiomyopathies may result in cardiac failure. Despite great advancements in the treatment of these diseases, there is a substantial unmet need for novel therapies, ideally addressing repair and regeneration of the damaged or lost myocardium. Along this line, cardiac cell based therapies have gained substantial attention. Three main approaches are currently under investigation: stem cell therapy with either embryonic or adult stem cells; generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells; stimulation of endogenous regeneration trough direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes, activation of resident cardiac stem cells or induction of native resident cardiomyocytes to reenter the cell cycle. All these strategies need to be optimized since their efficiency is low.It has recently become clear that cardiac signaling and transcriptional pathways are intimately intertwined with microRNA molecules which act as modulators of cardiac development, function, and disease. Moreover, miRNA also regulates stem cell differentiation. Here we describe how miRNA may circumvent hurdles that hamper the field of cardiac regeneration and stem cell therapy, and how miRNA may result as the most suitable solution for the damaged heart.

  19. Cardiac Rehabilitation: Improving Function and Reducing Risk.

    PubMed

    Servey, Jessica T; Stephens, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive multidisciplinary program individually tailored to the needs of patients with cardiovascular disease. The overall goals focus on improving daily function and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiac rehabilitation includes interventions aimed at lowering blood pressure and improving lipid and diabetes mellitus control, with tobacco cessation, behavioral counseling, and graded physical activity. The physical activity component typically involves 36 sessions over 12 weeks, during which patients participate in supervised exercise under cardiac monitoring. There are also intensive programs that include up to 72 sessions lasting up to 18 weeks, although these programs are not widely available. Additional components of cardiac rehabilitation include counseling on nutrition, screening for and managing depression, and assuring up-to-date immunizations. Cardiac rehabilitation is covered by Medicare and recommended for patients following myocardial infarction, bypass surgery, and stent placement, and for patients with heart failure, stable angina, and several other conditions. Despite proven benefits in mortality rates, depression, functional capacity, and medication adherence, rates of referral for cardiac rehabilitation are suboptimal. Groups less likely to be referred are older adults, women, patients who do not speak English, and persons living in areas where cardiac rehabilitation is not locally available. Additionally, primary care physicians refer patients less often than cardiologists and cardiothoracic surgeons. PMID:27386722

  20. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Captured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kassiri, Hamid; Zarrin, Majid; Veys-Behbahani, Rahele; Faramarzi, Sama; Kasiri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Musca domestica L., 1758 is capable of transferring a number of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify medically important filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult M. domestica collected from two wards of three hospital environments in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The common house flies were caught by a sterile net. These insects were washed in a solution of 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min and twice in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The flies were individually crushed with sterile swabs in sterile test tubes. Then 2 ml of sterile normal saline (0.85%) was added to each tube, and the tube was centrifuged for 5 min. The supernatant was then discarded, and the remaining sediment was inoculated with a sterile swab in the Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. Isolation and identification of fungi were made by standard mycological methods. In this research, totally 190 M. domestica from hospital environments were captured. In total, 28 fungal species were isolated. The main fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (67.4%), Penicillium sp. (11.6%), Mucorales sp. (11%), Candida spp. (10.5%), and Rhodotorula sp. (8.4%). Among the house flies caught at the hospitals, about 80% were found to carry one or more medically important species of fungi. This study has established that common house flies carry pathogenic fungi in the hospital environments of Ahvaz. The control of M. domestica in hospitals is essential in order to control the nosocomial fungal infections in patients.

  1. Cardiac regeneration: epicardial mediated repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hearts of lower vertebrates such as fish and salamanders display scarless regeneration following injury, although this feature is lost in adult mammals. The remarkable capacity of the neonatal mammalian heart to regenerate suggests that the underlying machinery required for the regenerative process is evolutionarily retained. Recent studies highlight the epicardial covering of the heart as an important source of the signalling factors required for the repair process. The developing epicardium is also a major source of cardiac fibroblasts, smooth muscle, endothelial cells and stem cells. Here, we examine animal models that are capable of scarless regeneration, the role of the epicardium as a source of cells, signalling mechanisms implicated in the regenerative process and how these mechanisms influence cardiomyocyte proliferation. We also discuss recent advances in cardiac stem cell research and potential therapeutic targets arising from these studies. PMID:26702046

  2. Harnessing the secretome of cardiac stem cells as therapy for ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Khanabdali, Ramin; Rosdah, Ayeshah A; Dusting, Gregory J; Lim, Shiang Y

    2016-08-01

    Adult stem cells continue to promise opportunities to repair damaged cardiac tissue. However, precisely how adult stem cells accomplish cardiac repair, especially after ischemic damage, remains controversial. It has been postulated that the clinical benefit of adult stem cells for cardiovascular disease results from the release of cytokines and growth factors by the transplanted cells. Studies in animal models of myocardial infarction have reported that such paracrine factors released from transplanted adult stem cells contribute to improved cardiac function by several processes. These include promoting neovascularization of damaged tissue, reducing inflammation, reducing fibrosis and scar formation, as well as protecting cardiomyocytes from apoptosis. In addition, these factors might also stimulate endogenous repair by activating cardiac stem cells. Interestingly, stem cells discovered to be resident in the heart appear to be functionally superior to extra-cardiac adult stem cells when transplanted for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this review, we discuss the therapeutic potential of cardiac stem cells and how the proteins secreted from these cells might be harnessed to promote repair and regeneration of damaged cardiac tissue. We also highlight how recent controversies about the efficacy of adult stem cells in clinical trials of ischemic heart disease have not dampened enthusiasm for the application of cardiac stem cells and their paracrine factors for cardiac repair: the latter have proved superior to the mesenchymal stem cells used in most clinical trials in the past, some of which appear to have been conducted with sub-optimal rigor.

  3. Longitudinal systolic ventricular interaction in pediatric and young adult patients with TOF: a cardiac magnetic resonance and M-mode echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Koestenberger, Martin; Ravekes, William; Nagel, Bert; Avian, Alexander; Heinzl, Bernd; Fritsch, Peter; Sorantin, Erich; Cvirn, Gerhard; Rehak, Thomas; Gamillscheg, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate longitudinal systolic left ventricular (LV)-right ventricular (RV) interaction using M-mode compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 146 pediatric and adults with operated tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We determined biventricular measures of longitudinal M-mode echocardiography [i.e., tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE); the mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE)] compared to longitudinal function parameters using MRI. M-mode data were compared to established normal z-score values. We found a good correlation between MAPSE and LVEF values (r = 0.788; p < 0.001). Correlations between MRI derived MAPSE and M-mode guided MAPSE (r = 0.879, p < 0.001), and between MRI derived TAPSE and M-mode guided TAPSE were significant (r = 0.780, p < 0.001). While the LVEF was normal in patients with a normal RVEF, the LVEF was decreased in patients with significantly reduced RVEF. Patients with a significantly dilated RV (RVEDVi > 150 ml/m(2)) showed a significantly reduced mean MAPSE of 1.30 ± 0.26 cm. LV longitudinal function decreases below -2 SD of normal MAPSE z-score values after a mean of 22 postoperative years. Our data confirm progressive adverse RV-LV interaction in the long-term follow-up of TOF. We show that simple M-mode measurement of the longitudinal LV function (i.e. MAPSE) is a sufficient surrogate for estimation of LVEF. Therefore determination of the MAPSE is a helpful additional tool for LV systolic function assessment late after TOF repair.

  4. Isolated deafness following recovery from neurologic injury and adult respiratory distress syndrome. A sequela of intercurrent aminoglycoside and diuretic use.

    PubMed

    Lynn, A M; Redding, G J; Morray, J P; Tyler, D C

    1985-05-01

    We report two children who survived neurologic injury (near-drowning and Reye's syndrome) and adult respiratory distress syndrome and who required prolonged ventilatory support. Follow-up examination in both children showed steady neurologic recovery, but five months following discharge from their acute illness, profound hearing loss was diagnosed in both children. A review of the literature is reported and the hypothesis that combined aminoglycoside antibiotic and loop diuretic therapy caused the hearing loss is presented. Recommendation is made for audiologic assessment within six months of recovery from critical illness of pediatric patients in whom therapy has included loop diuretic and aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy.

  5. Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Anatomical Assessment of Isolated Parachute Mitral Valve in an Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    López-Pardo, Francisco; Urbano-Moral, Jose Angel; González-Calle, Antonio; Laviana-Martinez, Fernando; Esteve-Ruiz, Iris; Lagos-Degrande, Oscar; López-Haldon, Jose E

    2015-11-01

    Parachute mitral valve (PMV) is a rare congenital anomaly of the mitral valve apparatus usually evidenced in infants and young children. Adult presentation is extremely rare and is generally mild in terms of mitral stenosis. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department due to progressive dyspnea, with NYHA functional class IV symptoms on presentation. The echocardiographic examination identified a PMV with moderate mitral stenosis and a secondary smaller subvalvular mitral orifice. The report shows the usefulness of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the detection and quantification of this rare anomaly. PMID:26096823

  6. Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Anatomical Assessment of Isolated Parachute Mitral Valve in an Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    López-Pardo, Francisco; Urbano-Moral, Jose Angel; González-Calle, Antonio; Laviana-Martinez, Fernando; Esteve-Ruiz, Iris; Lagos-Degrande, Oscar; López-Haldon, Jose E

    2015-11-01

    Parachute mitral valve (PMV) is a rare congenital anomaly of the mitral valve apparatus usually evidenced in infants and young children. Adult presentation is extremely rare and is generally mild in terms of mitral stenosis. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department due to progressive dyspnea, with NYHA functional class IV symptoms on presentation. The echocardiographic examination identified a PMV with moderate mitral stenosis and a secondary smaller subvalvular mitral orifice. The report shows the usefulness of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the detection and quantification of this rare anomaly.

  7. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  8. Effects of calcium binding and the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy A8V mutation on the dynamic equilibrium between closed and open conformations of the regulatory N-domain of isolated cardiac troponin C.

    PubMed

    Cordina, Nicole M; Liew, Chu K; Gell, David A; Fajer, Piotr G; Mackay, Joel P; Brown, Louise J

    2013-03-19

    Troponin C (TnC) is the calcium-binding subunit of the troponin complex responsible for initiating striated muscle contraction in response to calcium influx. In the skeletal TnC isoform, calcium binding induces a structural change in the regulatory N-domain of TnC that involves a transition from a closed to open structural state and accompanying exposure of a large hydrophobic patch for troponin I (TnI) to subsequently bind. However, little is understood about how calcium primes the N-domain of the cardiac isoform (cTnC) for interaction with the TnI subunit as the open conformation of the regulatory domain of cTnC has been observed only in the presence of bound TnI. Here we use paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) to characterize the closed to open transition of isolated cTnC in solution, a process that cannot be observed by traditional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Our PRE data from four spin-labeled monocysteine constructs of isolated cTnC reveal that calcium binding triggers movement of the N-domain helices toward an open state. Fitting of the PRE data to a closed to open transition model reveals the presence of a small population of cTnC molecules in the absence of calcium that possess an open conformation, the level of which increases substantially upon Ca(2+) binding. These data support a model in which calcium binding creates a dynamic equilibrium between the closed and open structural states to prime cTnC for interaction with its target peptide. We also used PRE data to assess the structural effects of a familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy point mutation located within the N-domain of cTnC (A8V). The PRE data show that the Ca(2+) switch mechanism is perturbed by the A8V mutation, resulting in a more open N-domain conformation in both the apo and holo states.

  9. [Preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac surgery. Joint recommendations of German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, German Society of Surgery and German Society of Internal Medicine].

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of the patient's medical history and a physical examination are the cornerstones of risk assessment prior to elective surgery and may help to optimize the patient's preoperative medical condition and to guide perioperative management. Whether the performance of additional technical tests (e.g. blood chemistry, ECG, spirometry, chest-x-ray) can contribute to a reduction of perioperative risk is often not very well known or controversial. Similarly, there is considerable uncertainty among anesthesiologists, internists and surgeons with respect to the perioperative management of the patient's long-term medication. Therefore, the German Scientific Societies of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), Internal Medicine (DGIM) and Surgery (DGCH) have joined to elaborate and publish recommendations on the preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac and non-lung resection surgery. In the first part the general principles of preoperative evaluation are described (part A). The current concepts for extended evaluation of patients with known or suspected major cardiovascular disease are presented in part B. Finally, the perioperative management of patients' long-term medication is discussed (part C). The concepts proposed in these interdisciplinary recommendations endorsed by the DGAI, DGIM and DGCH provide a common basis for a structured preoperative risk assessment and management. These recommendations aim to ensure that surgical patients undergo a rational preoperative assessment and at the same time to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially dangerous testing. The joint recommendations reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge as well as expert opinions because scientific-based evidence is not always available. These recommendations will be subject to regular re-evaluation and updating when new validated evidence becomes available.

  10. Membrane domains of intestinal epithelial cells: distribution of Na+,K+- ATPase and the membrane skeleton in adult rat intestine during fetal development and after epithelial isolation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The organization of the basolateral membrane domain of highly polarized intestinal absorptive cells was studied in adult rat intestinal mucosa, during development of polarity in fetal intestine, and in isolated epithelial sheets. Semi-thin frozen sections of these tissues were stained with a monoclonal antibody (mAb 4C4) directed against Na+,K+- ATPase, and with other reagents to visualize distributions of the membrane skeleton (fodrin), an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (uvomorulin), an apical membrane enzyme (aminopeptidase), and filamentous actin. In intact adult epithelium, Na+,K+-ATPase, membrane- associated fodrin, and uvomorulin were concentrated in the lateral, but not basal, subdomain. In the stratified epithelium of fetal intestine, both fodrin and uvomorulin were localized in areas of cell-cell contact at 16 and 17 d gestation, a stage when Na+,K+-ATPase was not yet expressed. These molecules were excluded from apical domains and from cell surfaces in contact with basal lamina. When Na+,K+-ATPase appeared at 18-19 d, it was codistributed with fodrin. Detachment of epithelial sheets from adult intestinal mucosa did not disrupt intercellular junctions or lateral cell contacts, but cytoplasmic blebs appeared at basal cell surfaces, and a diffuse pool of fodrin and actin accumulated in them. At the same time, Na+,K+-ATPase moved into the basal membrane subdomain, and extensive endocytosis of basolateral membrane, including Na+,K+-ATPase, occurred. Endocytosis of uvomorulin was not detected and no fodrin was associated with endocytic vesicles. Uvomorulin, along with some membrane-associated fodrin and some Na+,K+-ATPase, remained in the lateral membrane as long as intercellular contacts were maintained. Thus, in this polarized epithelium, interaction of lateral cell-cell adhesion molecules as well as basal cell-substrate interactions are required for maintaining the stability of the lateral membrane skeleton and the position of resident membrane proteins

  11. Odor-enriched environment rescues long-term social memory, but does not improve olfaction in social isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Isabela D; Monteiro, Brisa M M; Cornélio, Guilherme O S; Fonseca, Cristina S; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2012-03-17

    Prolonged permanence of animals under social isolation (SI) arouses a variety of psychological symptoms like aggression, stress, anxiety and depression. However, short-term SI is commonly used to evaluate social memory. Interestingly, the social memory cannot be accessed with delays higher than 30min in SI mice. Our hypothesis is that SI with intermediate duration, like one week (1w), impairs the long-term storage of new social information (S-LTM), without affecting anxiety or other types of memories, because the SI compromises the olfactory function of the animal. Our results demonstrated that SI impaired S-LTM, without affecting other kinds of memory or anxiety. In addition, the SI increased the latency in the buried-food finding task, but did not affect the habituation or the discrimination of odors. Next, we postulated that if continuous input to the olfactory system is fundamental for the maintenance of the olfactory function and social memory persistence, isolated mice under odor-enriched environment (OEE) should behave like group-housed (GH) animals. In fact, the OEE prevented the S-LTM deficit imposed by the SI. However, OEE did not restore the SI mice olfaction to the GH mice level. Our results suggest that SI modulates olfaction and social memory persistence, probably, by independent mechanisms. We also showed for the first time that OEE rescued S-LTM in SI mice through a mechanism not necessarily involved with olfaction.

  12. Role of NRSF/REST in the regulation of cardiac gene expression and function.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the cardiac gene program affect both cardiac structure and function, and play a key role in the progression of pathological cardiac remodeling and heart failure. For instance, reactivation of fetal cardiac genes in adults is a consistent feature of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Investigation of the transcriptional regulation of cardiac genes revealed a transcriptional repressor, neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), also called repressor element-1 silencing factor (REST), to be an important regulator of multiple fetal cardiac genes. Inhibition of NRSF in the heart leads to cardiac dysfunction and sudden arrhythmic death accompanied by re-expression of various fetal genes, including those encoding fetal ion channels, such as the HCN channels and T-type Ca(2+) channels. These findings shed light on the crucial regulatory function of NRSF in the heart and its importance for maintaining normal cardiac integrity. PMID:24126098

  13. Cardiac ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552

  14. TRPM2 Channels Protect against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Barbara A.; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Merali, Salim; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Rajan, Sudarsan; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Gao, Erhe; Barrero, Carlos A.; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Song, Jianliang; Gu, Tongda; Hirschler-Laszkiewicz, Iwona; Koch, Walter J.; Feldman, Arthur M.; Madesh, Muniswamy; Cheung, Joseph Y.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac TRPM2 channels were activated by intracellular adenosine diphosphate-ribose and blocked by flufenamic acid. In adult cardiac myocytes the ratio of GCa to GNa of TRPM2 channels was 0.56 ± 0.02. To explore the cellular mechanisms by which TRPM2 channels protect against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, we analyzed proteomes from WT and TRPM2 KO hearts subjected to I/R. The canonical pathways that exhibited the largest difference between WT-I/R and KO-I/R hearts were mitochondrial dysfunction and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Complexes I, III, and IV were down-regulated, whereas complexes II and V were up-regulated in KO-I/R compared with WT-I/R hearts. Western blots confirmed reduced expression of the Complex I subunit and other mitochondria-associated proteins in KO-I/R hearts. Bioenergetic analyses revealed that KO myocytes had a lower mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, ATP levels, and O2 consumption but higher mitochondrial superoxide levels. Additionally, mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) currents were lower in KO myocytes, indicating reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was likely due to both lower ψm and MCU activity. Similar to isolated myocytes, O2 consumption and ATP levels were also reduced in KO hearts. Under a simulated I/R model, aberrant mitochondrial bioenergetics was exacerbated in KO myocytes. Reactive oxygen species levels were also significantly higher in KO-I/R compared with WT-I/R heart slices, consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in KO-I/R hearts. We conclude that TRPM2 channels protect the heart from I/R injury by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction and reducing reactive oxygen species levels. PMID:24492610

  15. Cardiac gated ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.W. III; Hoffman, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

  16. Cardiac gated ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, C. William, III; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1995-05-01

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. We evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50msec scan aperture. Multislice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. We observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a nonfailing model of the heart.

  17. Activation of cardiac progenitor cells through paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Chiaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Yamahara, Kenichi; Hagino, Ikuo; Mori, Hidezo; Sawa, Yoshiki; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Nagaya, Noritoshi

    2008-09-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation has been proved to be promising strategy to treat the failing heart. The effect of MSC transplantation is thought to be mediated mainly in a paracrine manner. Recent reports have suggested that cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) reside in the heart. In this study, we investigated whether MSC had paracrine effects on CPC in vitro. CPC were isolated from the neonatal rat heart using an explant method. MSC were isolated from the adult rat bone marrow. MSC-derived conditioned medium promoted proliferation of CPC and inhibited apoptosis of CPC induced by hypoxia and serum starvation. Chemotaxis chamber assay demonstrated that MSC-derived conditioned medium enhanced migration of CPC. Furthermore, MSC-derived conditioned medium upregulated expression of cardiomyocyte-related genes in CPC such as {beta}-myosin heavy chain ({beta}-MHC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In conclusion, MSC-derived conditioned medium had protective effects on CPC and enhanced their migration and differentiation.

  18. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Natalia D.; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V.

    2016-01-01

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables. PMID:27549422

  19. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Natalia D; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V

    2016-08-23

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables.

  20. Mild hypothermia during global cardiac ischemia opens a window of opportunity to develop heart donation after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Mathieu; Dornbierer, Monika; Clément, David; Gahl, Brigitta; Dick, Florian; Carrel, Thierry P; Tevaearai, Hendrik T; Longnus, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    Although heart donation after cardiac death (DCD) could greatly improve graft availability, concerns regarding warm ischemic damage typically preclude transplantation. Improving tolerance to warm ischemia may thus open a window of opportunity for DCD hearts. We investigated the hypothesis that, compared with normothermia, mild hypothermia (32° C) initiated after ischemic onset improves cardiac functional recovery upon reperfusion. Isolated, working hearts from adult, male Wistar rats underwent global, no-flow ischemia, and reperfusion (n = 28). After ischemic onset, temperature was maintained at either 37° C for 20 or 30 min or reduced to 32° C for 40, 50, or 60 min. Recovery was measured after 60-min reperfusion. Following normothermic ischemia, recovery of rate-pressure product (RPP; per cent of preischemic value) was almost complete after 20-min ischemia (97 ± 9%), whereas no recovery was detectable after 30-min ischemia. After mildly hypothermic ischemia (32° C), RPP also recovered well after 40 min (86 ± 4%). Markers of metabolism and necrosis were similar in 37° C/20 min and 32° C/40 min groups. Simple reduction in cardiac temperature by a few degrees after the onset of global ischemia dramatically prolongs the interval during which the heart remains resistant to functional deterioration. Preservation of hemodynamic function is associated with improved metabolic recovery and reduced necrosis. The application of mild hypothermia may be a simple first step towards development of clinical protocols for DCD heart recovery.

  1. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Phenotypic Screening: A Transforming Growth Factor-β Type 1 Receptor Kinase Inhibitor Induces Efficient Cardiac Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Drowley, Lauren; Koonce, Chad; Peel, Samantha; Jonebring, Anna; Plowright, Alleyn T; Kattman, Steven J; Andersson, Henrik; Anson, Blake; Swanson, Bradley J; Wang, Qing-Dong; Brolen, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies. To understand and exploit cardiac ontogeny for drug discovery efforts, we developed an in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CPC model system using a highly enriched population of KDR(pos)/CKIT(neg)/NKX2.5(pos) CPCs. Using this model system, these CPCs were capable of generating highly enriched cultures of cardiomyocytes under directed differentiation conditions. In order to facilitate the identification of pathways and targets involved in proliferation and differentiation of resident CPCs, we developed phenotypic screening assays. Screening paradigms for therapeutic applications require a robust, scalable, and consistent methodology. In the present study, we have demonstrated the suitability of these cells for medium to high-throughput screens to assess both proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Using this CPC model system and a small directed compound set, we identified activin-like kinase 5 (transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase) inhibitors as novel and potent inducers of human CPC differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Significance: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with no treatment available that can result in functional repair. This study demonstrates how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to identify and isolate cell populations of interest that can translate to the adult human heart. Two separate examples of phenotypic

  2. Cardiac imaging: does radiation matter?

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Knuuti, Juhani

    2012-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular imaging has generated considerable discussion. Radiation should not be considered in isolation, but rather in the context of a careful examination of the benefits, risks, and costs of cardiovascular imaging. Such consideration requires an understanding of some fundamental aspects of the biology, physics, epidemiology, and terminology germane to radiation, as well as principles of radiological protection. This paper offers a concise, contemporary perspective on these areas by addressing pertinent questions relating to radiation and its application to cardiac imaging. PMID:21828062

  3. Tripartite motif 32 prevents pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jia; Ji, Yanxiao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Pixiao; Deng, Keqiong; Jiang, Xi; Ma, Genshan

    2016-01-01

    TRIM32 (tripartite motif 32) is widely accepted to be an E3 ligase that interacts with and eventually ubiquitylates multiple substrates. TRIM32 mutants have been associated with LGMD-2H (limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H). However, whether TRIM32 is involved in cardiac hypertrophy induced by biomechanical stresses and neurohumoral mediators remains unclear. We generated mice and isolated NRCMs (neonatal rat cardiomyocytes) that overexpressed or were deficient in TRIM32 to investigate the effect of TRIM32 on AB (aortic banding) or AngII (angiotensin II)-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography and both pathological and molecular analyses were used to determine the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent fibrosis. Our results showed that overexpression of TRIM32 in the heart significantly alleviated the hypertrophic response induced by pressure overload, whereas TRIM32 deficiency dramatically aggravated pathological cardiac remodelling. Similar results were also found in cultured NRCMs incubated with AngII. Mechanistically, the present study suggests that TRIM32 exerts cardioprotective action by interruption of Akt- but not MAPK (mitogen-dependent protein kinase)-dependent signalling pathways. Additionally, inactivation of Akt by LY294002 offset the exacerbated hypertrophic response induced by AB in TRIM32-deficient mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that TRIM32 plays a protective role in AB-induced pathological cardiac remodelling by blocking Akt-dependent signalling. Therefore TRIM32 could be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:26884348

  4. Prevalence, Patterns, and Clinical Predictors of Left Ventricular Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Prior to Pulmonary Vein Antral Isolation for Atrial Fibrillation: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nance, John W; Khurram, Irfan M; Nazarian, Saman; DeWire, Jane; Calkins, Hugh; Zimmerman, Stefan L

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasingly used to evaluate patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) before pulmonary vein antral isolation (PVAI). The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and pattern of left ventricular (LV) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in patients undergoing CMR before PVAI and compare the clinical and demographic differences of patients with and without LV LGE. Clinical and demographic data on 62 patients (mean age 61 ± 7.9, 69% male) undergoing CMR before PVAI for AF were collected. Two observers, masked to clinical histories, independently recorded the prevalence, extent (number of myocardial segments), and pattern (subendocardial, midmyocardial, or subepicardial) of LV LGE in each patient. Clinical and demographic predictors of LV LGE were determined using logistic regression. Twenty-three patients (37%) demonstrated LV LGE affecting a mean of 3.0 ± 2.1 myocardial segments. There was no difference in LV ejection fraction between patients with and without LGE, and most (65%) patients with LGE had normal wall motion. Only age (P = 0.04) and a history of congestive heart failure (P = .03) were statistically significant independent predictors of LGE. The most common LGE pattern was midmyocardial, seen in 17 of 23 (74%) patients. Only 4 of 23 (17%) patients had LGE in an "expected" pattern based on clinical history. Of the remaining 19 patients, 4 had known congestive heart failure, 5 nonischemic cardiomyopathy, 4 known coronary artery disease, and 2 prior aortic valve replacement. Six of 23 (26%) patients had no known coronary artery, valvular, or myocardial disease. There is a high prevalence of unexpected LV scar in patients undergoing CMR before PVAI for AF, with most patients demonstrating a nonischemic pattern of LV LGE and no wall motion abnormalities (ie, subclinical disease). The high prevalence of unexpected LGE in these patients may argue for CMR as the modality of choice for imaging

  5. Stem cells in cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death among people in industrialized nations. Although the heart has some ability to regenerate after infarction, myocardial restoration is inadequate. Consequently, investigators are currently exploring the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), skeletal myoblasts and adult bone marrow stem cells to limit infarct size. hESCs are pluripotent cells that can regenerate myocardium in infarcted hearts, attenuate heart remodeling and contribute to left ventricle (LV) systolic force development. Since hESCs can form heart teratomas, investigators are differentiating hESCs toward cardiac progenitor cells prior to transplantation into hearts. Large quantities of hESCs cardiac progenitor cells, however, must be generated, immune rejection must be prevented and grafts must survive over the long term to significantly improve myocardial performance. Transplanted autologous skeletal myoblasts can survive in infarcted myocardium in small numbers, proliferate, differentiate into skeletal myofibers and increase the LV ejection fraction. These cells, however, do not form electromechanical connections with host cardiomyocytes. Consequently, electrical re-entry can occur and cause cardiac arrhythmias. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. In several meta-analyses, patients with coronary disease who received autologous bone marrow cells by intracoronary injection show significant 3.7% (range: 1.9-5.4%) increases in LV ejection fraction, decreases in LV end-systolic volume of -4.8 ml (range: -1.4 to -8.2 ml) and reductions in infarct size of 5.5% (-1.9 to -9.1%), without experiencing arrhythmias. Bone marrow cells appear to release biologically active factors that limit myocardial damage. Unfortunately, bone marrow cells from patients with chronic diseases propagate poorly and can die prematurely. Substantial challenges must be addressed and resolved to advance the use of stem cells

  6. Cardiac Innervation and Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem and higher centers) which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes-hours) and long term (days-years). This important neurovisceral /autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extra-cardiac neural remodeling have also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provides a rational mechanistic basis for development of neuraxial therapies for preventing SCD and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  7. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Mantovani, Cristina; Raimondo, Stefania; Haneef, Maryam S.; Geuna, Stefano; Terenghi, Giorgio; Shawcross, Susan G.; Wiberg, Mikael

    2012-10-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker{sup Registered-Sign} staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  8. Generation of cardiac pacemaker cells by programming and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Husse, Britta; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael

    2016-07-01

    A number of diseases are caused by faulty function of the cardiac pacemaker and described as "sick sinus syndrome". The medical treatment of sick sinus syndrome with electrical pacemaker implants in the diseased heart includes risks. These problems may be overcome via "biological pacemaker" derived from different adult cardiac cells or pluripotent stem cells. The generation of cardiac pacemaker cells requires the understanding of the pacing automaticity. Two characteristic phenomena the "membrane-clock" and the "Ca(2+)-clock" are responsible for the modulation of the pacemaker activity. Processes in the "membrane-clock" generating the spontaneous pacemaker firing are based on the voltage-sensitive membrane ion channel activity starting with slow diastolic depolarization and discharging in the action potential. The influence of the intracellular Ca(2+) modulating the pacemaker activity is characterized by the "Ca(2+)-clock". The generation of pacemaker cells started with the reprogramming of adult cardiac cells by targeted induction of one pacemaker function like HCN1-4 overexpression and enclosed in an activation of single pacemaker specific transcription factors. Reprogramming of adult cardiac cells with the transcription factor Tbx18 created cardiac cells with characteristic features of cardiac pacemaker cells. Another key transcription factor is Tbx3 specifically expressed in the cardiac conduction system including the sinoatrial node and sufficient for the induction of the cardiac pacemaker gene program. For a successful cell therapeutic practice, the generated cells should have all regulating mechanisms of cardiac pacemaker cells. Otherwise, the generated pacemaker cells serve only as investigating model for the fundamental research or as drug testing model for new antiarrhythmics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  9. Glucose metabolism and cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Tian, Rong

    2011-01-01

    The most notable change in the metabolic profile of hypertrophied hearts is an increased reliance on glucose with an overall reduced oxidative metabolism, i.e. a reappearance of the foetal metabolic pattern. In animal models, this change is attributed to the down-regulation of the transcriptional cascades promoting gene expression for fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in adult hearts. Impaired myocardial energetics in cardiac hypertrophy also triggers AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to increased glucose uptake and glycolysis. Aside from increased reliance on glucose as an energy source, changes in other glucose metabolism pathways, e.g. the pentose phosphate pathway, the glucosamine biosynthesis pathway, and anaplerosis, are also noted in the hypertrophied hearts. Studies using transgenic mouse models and pharmacological compounds to mimic or counter the switch of substrate preference in cardiac hypertrophy have demonstrated that increased glucose metabolism in adult heart is not harmful and can be beneficial when it provides sufficient fuel for oxidative metabolism. However, improvement in the oxidative capacity and efficiency rather than the selection of the substrate is likely the ultimate goal for metabolic therapies. PMID:21502371

  10. Social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  11. Current diagnosis and management of cardiac myxomas.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonia; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Stephenson, Christopher R; Klarich, Kyle W

    2015-04-01

    Cardiac myxoma is the most common cardiac neoplasm. In the majority of cases, it is isolated (non-syndromic) and located in the left atrium. In up to 10% cases, it is seen in syndromic association with the Carney complex where it is encountered in younger patients, with atypical and multiple locations, such as the right atrium or ventricles, and carries a high risk of recurrence. Imaging is pivotal in the diagnosis, management guidance and surveillance. Surgical excision is the established definitive treatment. Further research should address management strategies in incidentally discovered small myxomas in asymptomatic patients and the role of genetic testing and screening in syndromic myxomas. PMID:25797902

  12. Cardiac Involvement in Sarcoidosis: Evolving Concepts in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Joseph P.; Hwang, Jennifer; Bradfield, Jason; Fishbein, Michael; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Tung, Roderick

    2014-01-01

    Clinically evident sarcoidosis involving the heart has been noted in at least 2 to 7% of patients with sarcoidosis, but occult involvement is much higher (> 20%). Cardiac sarcoidosis is often not recognized antemortem, as sudden death may be the presenting feature. Cardiac involvement may occur at any point during the course of sarcoidosis and may occur in the absence of pulmonary or systemic involvement. Sarcoidosis can involve any part of the heart, with protean manifestations. Prognosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is related to extent and site(s) of involvement. Most deaths due to cardiac sarcoidosis are due to arrhythmias or conduction defects, but granulomatous infiltration of the myocardium may be lethal. The definitive diagnosis of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis is difficult. The yield of endomyocardial biopsies is low; treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis is often warranted even in the absence of histologic proof. Radionuclide scans are integral to the diagnosis. Currently, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans are the key imaging modalities to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis. The prognosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is variable, but mortality rates of untreated cardiac sarcoidosis are high. Although randomized therapeutic trials have not been done, corticosteroids (alone or combined with additional immunosuppressive medications) remain the mainstay of treatment. Because of the potential for sudden cardiac death, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in any patient with cardiac sarcoidosis and serious ventricular arrhythmias or heart block, and should be considered for cardiomyopathy. Cardiac transplantation is a viable option for patients with end-stage cardiac sarcoidosis refractory to medical therapy. PMID:25007089

  13. Kruppel-like factor 4 is critical for transcriptional control of cardiac mitochondrial homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xudong; Zhang, Rongli; Lu, Yuan; Prosdocimo, Domenick A.; Sangwung, Panjamaporn; Zhang, Lilei; Zhou, Guangjin; Anand, Puneet; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C.; Fujioka, Hisashi; Ye, Fang; Rosca, Mariana G.; Hoppel, Charles L.; Schulze, P. Christian; Abel, E. Dale; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial homeostasis is critical for tissue health, and mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to numerous diseases, including heart failure. Here, we have shown that the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) governs mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolic function, dynamics, and autophagic clearance. Adult mice with cardiac-specific Klf4 deficiency developed cardiac dysfunction with aging or in response to pressure overload that was characterized by reduced myocardial ATP levels, elevated ROS, and marked alterations in mitochondrial shape, size, ultrastructure, and alignment. Evaluation of mitochondria isolated from KLF4-deficient hearts revealed a reduced respiration rate that is likely due to defects in electron transport chain complex I. Further, cardiac-specific, embryonic Klf4 deletion resulted in postnatal premature mortality, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, and altered mitochondrial maturation. We determined that KLF4 binds to, cooperates with, and is requisite for optimal function of the estrogen-related receptor/PPARγ coactivator 1 (ERR/PGC-1) transcriptional regulatory module on metabolic and mitochondrial targets. Finally, we found that KLF4 regulates autophagy flux through transcriptional regulation of a broad array of autophagy genes in cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these findings identify KLF4 as a nodal transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:26241060

  14. Kruppel-like Factor 15 Is a Critical Regulator of Cardiac Lipid Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Prosdocimo, Domenick A.; Anand, Priti; Liao, Xudong; Zhu, Han; Shelkay, Shamanthika; Artero-Calderon, Pedro; Zhang, Lilei; Kirsh, Jacob; Moore, D'Vesharronne; Rosca, Mariana G.; Vazquez, Edwin; Kerner, Janos; Akat, Kemal M.; Williams, Zev; Zhao, Jihe; Fujioka, Hisashi; Tuschl, Thomas; Bai, Xiaodong; Schulze, P. Christian; Hoppel, Charles L.; Jain, Mukesh K.; Haldar, Saptarsi M.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian heart, the body's largest energy consumer, has evolved robust mechanisms to tightly couple fuel supply with energy demand across a wide range of physiologic and pathophysiologic states, yet, when compared with other organs, relatively little is known about the molecular machinery that directly governs metabolic plasticity in the heart. Although previous studies have defined Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) as a transcriptional repressor of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy, a direct role for the KLF family in cardiac metabolism has not been previously established. We show in human heart samples that KLF15 is induced after birth and reduced in heart failure, a myocardial expression pattern that parallels reliance on lipid oxidation. Isolated working heart studies and unbiased transcriptomic profiling in Klf15-deficient hearts demonstrate that KLF15 is an essential regulator of lipid flux and metabolic homeostasis in the adult myocardium. An important mechanism by which KLF15 regulates its direct transcriptional targets is via interaction with p300 and recruitment of this critical co-activator to promoters. This study establishes KLF15 as a key regulator of myocardial lipid utilization and is the first to implicate the KLF transcription factor family in cardiac metabolism. PMID:24407292

  15. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Yulia; Chan, Jacqueline; Iskandir, Marina; Gulkarov, Iosif; Tortolani, Anthony; Brener, Sorin J.; Sacchi, Terrence J.; Heitner, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery. Methods From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female) were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered <35% and <45%, respectively. Elective primary procedures include CABG (56%) and valve (44%). Thirty-day outcomes were perioperative complications, length of stay, cardiac re-hospitalizations and early mortaility; long-term (> 30 days) outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months. Findings Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25%) and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50%) (p<0.001). Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30%) and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59%) (p<0.001). Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05). Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03). Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization. Conclusion Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures. PMID:26197273

  16. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  17. A Pre-clinical Animal Model of Trypanosoma brucei Infection Demonstrating Cardiac Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Charlotte S; Rossor, Charlotte L; Morrison, Linda R; Morrison, Liam J; Loughrey, Christopher M

    2015-05-01

    African trypanosomiasis (AT), caused by Trypanosoma brucei species, results in both neurological and cardiac dysfunction and can be fatal if untreated. Research on the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease has centred to date on the characteristic neurological symptoms, whereas cardiac dysfunction (e.g. ventricular arrhythmias) in AT remains largely unstudied. Animal models of AT demonstrating cardiac dysfunction similar to that described in field cases of AT are critically required to transform our understanding of AT-induced cardiac pathophysiology and identify future treatment strategies. We have previously shown that T. brucei can interact with heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) to induce ventricular arrhythmias in ex vivo adult rat hearts. However, it is unknown whether the arrhythmias observed ex vivo are also present during in vivo infection in experimental animal models. Here we show for the first time the characterisation of ventricular arrhythmias in vivo in two animal models of AT infection using electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring. The first model utilised a commonly used monomorphic laboratory strain, Trypanosoma brucei brucei Lister 427, whilst the second model used a pleomorphic laboratory strain, T. b. brucei TREU 927, which demonstrates a similar chronic infection profile to clinical cases. The frequency of ventricular arrhythmias and heart rate (HR) was significantly increased at the endpoint of infection in the TREU 927 infection model, but not in the Lister 427 infection model. At the end of infection, hearts from both models were isolated and Langendorff perfused ex vivo with increasing concentrations of the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO). Interestingly, the increased frequency of arrhythmias observed in vivo in the TREU 927 infection model was lost upon isolation of the heart ex vivo, but re-emerged with the addition of ISO. Our results demonstrate that TREU 927 infection modifies the substrate of the myocardium in such a way

  18. Comparative research on the topography of middle and small cardiac veins in humans and other primates.

    PubMed

    Duda, Barbara; Grzybiak, Marek; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Many researchers have been interested in cardiac veins, which at present play a very important clinical role in invasive cardiology. In this study the occurrence of middle and small cardiac veins and the topography of their outlet portions were examined. The material consisted of 150 adult human hearts of both sexes of 18 to 85 years of age and 50 adult hearts of representatives of various primates. In the material examined a middle cardiac vein was always observed, whereas the presence of a small cardiac vein was less consistent The outlet portions of the main veins of the heart were characterised by significant variability.

  19. Oxytocin protects against negative behavioral and autonomic consequences of long-term social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.; Trahanas, Diane M.; Zimmerman, Robert R.; Porges, Stephen W.; Carter, C. Sue

    2009-01-01

    Summary Positive social interactions and social support may protect against various forms of mental and physical illness, although the mechanisms for these effects are not well identified. The socially monogamous prairie vole, which – like humans – forms social bonds and displays high levels of parasympathetic activity, has provided a useful model for investigating neurobiological systems that mediate the consequences of sociality. In the present study, adult female prairie voles were exposed to social isolation or continued pairing with a female sibling (control conditions) for 4 weeks. During weeks 3 and 4 of this period, animals were administered oxytocin (20µg/50µl, SC) or saline vehicle (50µl, SC) daily for a total of 14 days. In Experiment 1 autonomic parameters were recorded during and following isolation or pairing. Isolation (vs. pairing) significantly increased basal heart rate (HR) and reduced HR variability and vagal regulation of the heart; these changes in isolated animals were prevented with oxytocin administration. In Experiment 2 behaviors relevant to depression [sucrose intake and swimming in the forced swim test (FST)] were measured as a function of isolation. Isolation reduced sucrose intake and increased immobility in the FST; these behaviors also were prevented by oxytocin. Administration of oxytocin did not significantly alter cardiac, autonomic or behavioral responses of paired animals. These findings support the hypothesis that oxytocinergic mechanisms can protect against behavioral and cardiac dysfunction in response to chronic social stressors, and can provide insight into social influences on behavior and autonomic function in humans. PMID:19553027

  20. Profile of cardiac disease in Cameroon and impact on health care services

    PubMed Central

    Butera, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have emerged as a major public health problem and impose an escalating burden on the health care system in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to investigate the preparedness of health care services for patients presenting with CVD in general and specifically, in St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong, cardiac centre. Patients and methods Between November 2009 and November 2011, a population of 8,389 adults and 706 children consulted the referral cardiac centre of St. Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital. The patients’ age ranges between 5 days and 103 years old, with a mean of 48.7±18 years. Female represented 54.2% of the total population. Results Hypertension was diagnosed in 41.5% of patients. Isolated systolic hypertension was rarely found (4.2%) and 45.2% of patients were classified as class II according to the JNC7. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 29.6%. Forty-four percent of patients were in class III and 7% in class IV heart failure (NYHA). Arrhythmia was seen in 12.2% cases, with atrial fibrillation in 35.2%, followed by ventricular ectopic beats in 20.3%. Stable angina was diagnosed in 1.5%, and acute myocardial infarction 0.9%. In children, the prevalence of congenital heart disease was (4.3%). The disease the most detected was isolated ventricular septal defect, followed by tetralogy of Fallot. Post rheumatic valvulopathies were the main cause of heart failure in teenagers and young adults. Valve replacement with a mechanical valve was performed in 110 patients, valvuloplasty in eight patients, and surgical correction of congenital heart diseases in 105 cases. Conclusions Our data, collected in a rural area, shows the high prevalence of hypertension in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Congestive heart failure mainly due to post rheumatic valvulopathies is common amongst children and young adults. PMID:24400207

  1. Critical Illness Hyperglycemia in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulate, Kalia P; Raj, Shekhar; Rotta, Alexandre T

    2012-01-01

    Critical illness hyperglycemia (CIH) is common in pediatric and adult intensive care units (ICUs). Children undergoing surgical repair or palliation of congenital cardiac defects are particularly at risk for CIH and its occurrence has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in this population. Strict glycemic control through the use of intensive insulin therapy (IIT) has been shown to improve outcomes in some adult and pediatric studies, yet these findings have sparked controversy. The practice of strict glycemic control has been slow in extending to pediatric ICUs because of the documented increase in the incidence of hypoglycemia in patients treated with IIT. Protocol driven approaches with more liberal glycemic targets have been successfully validated in general and cardiac critical care pediatric patients with low rates of hypoglycemia. It is unknown whether a therapeutic benefit is obtained by keeping patients in this more liberal glycemic control target. Definitive randomized controlled trials of IIT utilizing these targets in critically ill children are ongoing. PMID:22401320

  2. Pre-transplantation specification of stem cells to cardiac lineage for regeneration of cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Maritza; Finan, Amanda; Penn, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a lead cause of mortality in the Western world. Treatment of acute MI is focused on restoration of antegrade flow which inhibits further tissue loss, but does not restore function to damaged tissue. Chronic therapy for injured myocardial tissue involves medical therapy that attempts to minimize pathologic remodeling of the heart. End stage therapy for chronic heart failure (CHF) involves inotropic therapy to increase surviving cardiac myocyte function or mechanical augmentation of cardiac performance. Not until the point of heart transplantation, a limited resource at best, does therapy focus on the fundamental problem of needing to replace injured tissue with new contractile tissue. In this setting, the potential for stem cell therapy has garnered significant interest for its potential to regenerate or create new contractile cardiac tissue. While to date adult stem cell therapy in clinical trials has suggested potential benefit, there is waning belief that the approaches used to date lead to regeneration of cardiac tissue. As the literature has better defined the pathways involved in cardiac differentiation, preclinical studies have suggested that stem cell pretreatment to direct stem cell differentiation prior to stem cell transplantation may be a more efficacious strategy for inducing cardiac regeneration. Here we review the available literature on pre-transplantation conditioning of stem cells in an attempt to better understand stem cell behavior and their readiness in cell-based therapy for myocardial regeneration.

  3. Measurement of cardiac troponins.

    PubMed

    Collinson, P O; Boa, F G; Gaze, D C

    2001-09-01

    The cardiac troponins form part of the regulatory mechanism for muscle contraction. Specific cardiac isoforms of cardiac troponin T and cardiac troponin I exist and commercially available immunoassay systems have been developed for their measurement. A large number of clinical and analytical studies have been performed and the measurement of cardiac troponins is now considered the 'gold standard' biochemical test for diagnosis of myocardial damage. There have been advances in understanding the development and structure of troponins and their degradation following myocardial cell necrosis. This has contributed to the understanding of the problems with current assays. Greater clinical use has also highlighted areas of analytical and clinical confusion. The assays are reviewed based on manufacturers' information, current published material as well as the authors' in-house experience.

  4. Functional cardiac tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe methodologies for successful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the cardiovascular cell lineages as they pertain to the field of cardiac tissue engineering. The emphasis will be placed on comparing the functional maturation in engineered cardiac tissues and developing heart and on methods to quantify cardiac electrical and mechanical function at different spatial scales. PMID:22397609

  5. Cardiac Hegemony of Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Sailay; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac senescence and age-related disease development have gained general attention and recognition in the past decades due to increased accessibility and quality of health care. The advancement in global civilization is complementary to concerns regarding population aging and development of chronic degenerative diseases. Cardiac degeneration has been rigorously studied. The molecular mechanisms of cardiac senescence are on multiple cellular levels and hold a multilayer complexity level, thereby hampering development of unambiguous treatment protocols. In particular, the synergistic exchange of the senescence phenotype through a senescence secretome between myocytes and stem cells appears complicated and is of great future therapeutic value. The current review article will highlight hallmarks of senescence, cardiac myocyte and stem cell senescence, and the mutual exchange of senescent secretome. Future cardiac cell therapy approaches require a comprehensive understanding of myocardial senescence to improve therapeutic efficiency as well as efficacy. PMID:24349878

  6. Functions of Myosin Light Chain-2 (MYL2) In Cardiac Muscle and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Farah; Lyon, Robert C.; Chen, Ju

    2015-01-01

    Myosin light chain-2 (MYL2, also called MLC-2) is an ∼19 kDa sarcomeric protein that belongs to the EF-hand calcium binding protein superfamily and exists as three major isoforms encoded by three distinct genes in mammalian striated muscle. Each of the three different MLC-2 genes (MLC-2f; fast twitch skeletal isoform, MLC-2v; cardiac ventricular and slow twitch skeletal isoform, MLC-2a; cardiac atrial isoform) has a distinct developmental expression pattern in mammals. Genetic loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrated an essential role for cardiac isoforms of MLC-2, MLC-2v and MLC-2a, in cardiac contractile function during early embryogenesis. In the adult heart, MLC-2v function is regulated by phosphorylation, which displays a specific expression pattern (high in epicardium and low in endocardium) across the heart. These data along with new data from computational models, genetic mouse models, and human studies have revealed a direct role for MLC-2v phosphorylation in cross-bridge cycling kinetics, calcium-dependent cardiac muscle contraction, cardiac torsion, cardiac function and various cardiac diseases. This review focuses on the regulatory functions of MLC-2 in the embryonic and adult heart, with an emphasis on phosphorylation-driven actions of MLC-2v in adult cardiac muscle, which provide new insights into mechanisms regulating myosin cycling kinetics and human cardiac diseases. PMID:26074085

  7. Rifampicin and sodium fusidate reduces the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolation in adults with cystic fibrosis and chronic MRSA infection.

    PubMed

    Garske, L A; Kidd, T J; Gan, R; Bunting, J P; Franks, C A; Coulter, C; Masel, P J; Bell, S C

    2004-03-01

    Nosocomial transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently results in chronic respiratory tract carriage. This is an increasing problem, adds to the burden of glycopeptide antibiotic use in hospitals, and represents a relative contraindication to lung transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine whether it is possible to eradicate MRSA with prolonged oral combination antibiotics, and whether this treatment is associated with improved clinical status. Adult CF patients (six male, one female) with chronic MRSA infection were treated for six months with rifampicin and sodium fusidate. Outcome data were examined for six months before treatment, on treatment and after treatment. The patients had a mean age of 29.3 (standard deviation=6.3) years and FEV(1) of 36.1% (standard deviation=12.7) predicted. The mean duration of MRSA isolation was 31 months. MRSA isolates identified in these patients was of the same lineage as the known endemic strain at the hospital when assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Five of the seven had no evidence of MRSA during and for at least six months after rifampicin and sodium fusidate. The proportion of sputum samples positive for MRSA was lower during the six months of treatment (0.13) and after treatment (0.19) compared with before treatment (0.85) (P<0.0001). There was a reduction in the number of days of intravenous antibiotics per six months with 20.3+/-17.6 on treatment compared with 50.7 before treatment and 33.0 after treatment (P=0.02). There was no change in lung function. Gastrointestinal side effects occurred in three, but led to therapy cessation in only one patient. Despite the use of antibiotics with anti-staphylococcal activity for treatment of respiratory exacerbation, MRSA infection persists. MRSA can be eradicated from the sputum of patients with CF and chronic MRSA carriage by using rifampicin and sodium fusidate for six months. This

  8. Coronary artery problems and disease in adults with congenital heart disease: how to evaluate, how to prevent, how to treat.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, S; Stuart, A G

    2014-10-01

    There are a wide variety of coronary artery anomalies and disease in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). In fact, the increasing burden of acquired coronary artery disease (CAD) has to be considered in addition to congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries, isolated or associated to other congenital diseases. This is largely a consequence of the increasing number of patients reaching older age. Due to complex underlying cardiac anatomy, previous surgery and comorbidities, treatment can be challenging. Individualized and multidisciplinary management involving congenital heart cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, coronary interventionists and imaging specialists is essential. This review gives an overview of coronary artery involvement in adults with CHD, summarizes the current literature and focuses on prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The potential role of cardiovascular risk factors for CAD is also discussed.

  9. ECLS in Pediatric Cardiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Nardo, Matteo; MacLaren, Graeme; Marano, Marco; Cecchetti, Corrado; Bernaschi, Paola; Amodeo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is an important device in the management of children with severe refractory cardiac and or pulmonary failure. Actually, two forms of ECLS are available for neonates and children: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and use of a ventricular assist device (VAD). Both these techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. The intra-aortic balloon pump is another ECLS device that has been successfully used in larger children, adolescents, and adults, but has found limited applicability in smaller children. In this review, we will present the “state of art” of ECMO in neonate and children with heart failure. ECMO is commonly used in a variety of settings to provide support to critically ill patients with cardiac disease. However, a strict selection of patients and timing of intervention should be performed to avoid the increase in mortality and morbidity of these patients. Therefore, every attempt should be done to start ECLS “urgently” rather than “emergently,” before the presence of dysfunction of end organs or circulatory collapse. Even though exciting progress is being made in the development of VADs for long-term mechanical support in children, ECMO remains the mainstay of mechanical circulatory support in children with complex anatomy, particularly those needing rapid resuscitation and those with a functionally univentricular circulation. With the increase in familiarity with ECMO, new indications have been added, such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). The literature supporting ECPR is increasing in children. Reasonable survival rates have been achieved after initiation of support during active compressions of the chest following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Contraindications to ECLS have reduced in the last 5 years and many centers support patients with functionally univentricular circulations. Improved results have been recently achieved in this complex subset of patients. PMID

  10. Translational research of adult stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Gen

    2015-11-26

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to chronic coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Its prevalence is increasing despite advances in medical and device therapies. Cell based therapies generating new cardiomyocytes and vessels have emerged as a promising treatment to reverse functional deterioration and prevent the progression to CHF. Functional efficacy of progenitor cells isolated from the bone marrow and the heart have been evaluated in preclinical large animal models. Furthermore, several clinical trials using autologous and allogeneic stem cells and progenitor cells have demonstrated their safety in humans yet their clinical relevance is inconclusive. This review will discuss the clinical therapeutic applications of three specific adult stem cells that have shown particularly promising regenerative effects in preclinical studies, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell, heart derived cardiosphere-derived cell and cardiac stem cell. We will also discuss future therapeutic approaches.

  11. Short-term prognostic value of perioperative coronary sinus-derived-serum cardiac troponin-I, creatine kinase-MB, lactate, pyruvate, and lactate-pyruvate ratio in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Ujjwal Kumar; Sheil, Avneesh; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Narang, Rajiv; Gharde, Parag; Malik, Vishwas; Kalaivani, Mani; Chaudhury, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the release pattern of different cardiac metabolites and biomarkers directly from the coronary sinus (CS) and to establish the diagnostic discrimination limits of each marker protein and metabolites to evaluate perioperative myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients undergoing first mitral and/or aortic valve replacements with/without coronary artery bypass grafting and Bentall procedure under CPB and blood cardioplegic arrest were studied. All cardiac metabolites and biomarkers were measured in serial CS-derived blood samples at pre-CPB, immediate post aortic declamping, 10 minutes post-CPB and 12 hrs post-CPB. Results: Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of cardiac biomarkers indicated lactate-pyruvate ratio as the superior diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal “cut-off” value >10.8 immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85-0.98). Lactate was the second best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal “cut-off” value >2mmol/l at immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.96). Cardiac troponin-I was the third best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal “cut-off” value >2.1ng/ml at immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80-0.95). Creatine kinase-MB was the fourth best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal “cut-off” value >58 log units/ml prior to decanulation (AUC, 0.85; 95% CI: 0.78-0.94). Conclusions: Measurable cardiac damage exists in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardioplegic arrest. The degree of myocardial injury is more in patients with poor ventricular function and those requiring longer aortic clamp time. CS-derived lactate-pyruvate ratio, lactate, cTn-I served as superior diagnostic discriminators of peri-operative myocardial damage. PMID:27397448

  12. Query cardiac pain.

    PubMed

    Todd, J W

    1983-08-01

    Query cardiac pain is a common problem, and immense efforts are made to solve it. No test can prove that a patient has not had a cardiac infarct, though in the recent past eminent authorities wrongly stated that a normal ECG supplied this proof. This history is by far the most important means of interpreting recurrent pain. Coronary arteriography is only useful in diagnosis when the pain is certainly due to myocardial ischaemia but it is uncertain whether this is caused by coronary artery disease or some other cardiac lesion. In practice, much pain is not diagnosed. This need be no cause for concern, and patients who in fact have had a small cardiac infarct gain rather than lose if wrongly reassured of its non-existence. The history of cardiology is a depressing catalogue of error. Bogus cardiac diseases have been diagnosed on an enormous scale, mainly because attention has been concentrated on the cardiac manifestations, while the patient was ignored. Much "excluding" is fatuous. Because treatment was derived from theory, treatment for patients who had had cardiac infarcts was disastrous. The great error at present is to overvalue technology.

  13. Cell contact as an independent factor modulating cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and survival in long-term primary culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. A.; Decker, M. L.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Janes, D. M.; Decker, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes maintained in cell culture develop hypertrophy both in response to mechanical loading as well as to receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms. However, it has been shown that the hypertrophic response to these stimuli may be modulated through effects of intercellular contact achieved by maintaining cells at different plating densities. In this study, we show that the myocyte plating density affects not only the hypertrophic response and features of the differentiated phenotype of isolated adult myocytes, but also plays a significant role influencing myocyte survival in vitro. The native rod-shaped phenotype of freshly isolated adult myocytes persists in an environment which minimizes myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum. However, these conditions are not optimal for long-term maintenance of cultured adult cardiac myocytes. Conditions which promote myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum, on the other hand, also promote the re-establishment of new intercellular contacts between myocytes. These contacts appear to play a significant role in the development of spontaneous activity, which enhances the redevelopment of highly differentiated contractile, junctional, and sarcoplasmic reticulum structures in the cultured adult cardiomyocyte. Although it has previously been shown that adult cardiac myocytes are typically quiescent in culture, the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists stimulates beating and myocyte hypertrophy, and thereby serves to increase the level of intercellular contact as well. However, in densely-plated cultures with intrinsically high levels of intercellular contact, spontaneous contractile activity develops without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists. In this study, we compare the function, morphology, and natural history of adult feline cardiomyocytes which have been maintained in cultures with different levels of intercellular contact, with and without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists

  14. Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Guyette, Francis X; Reynolds, Joshua C; Frisch, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac arrest is a dynamic disease that tests the multitasking and leadership abilities of emergency physicians. Providers must simultaneously manage the logistics of resuscitation while searching for the cause of cardiac arrest. The astute clinician will also realize that he or she is orchestrating only one portion of a larger series of events, each of which directly affects patient outcomes. Resuscitation science is rapidly evolving, and emergency providers must be familiar with the latest evidence and controversies surrounding resuscitative techniques. This article reviews evidence, discusses controversies, and offers strategies to provide quality cardiac arrest resuscitation.

  15. [Cardiac Rehabilitation 2015].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Andreas

    2015-11-25

    The goals of cardiac rehabilitation are (re-)conditioning and secondary prevention in patients with heart disease or an elevated cardiovascular risk profile. Rehabilitation is based on motivation through education, on adapted physical activity, instruction of relaxation techniques, psychological support and optimized medication. It is performed preferably in groups either in outpatient or inpatient settings. The Swiss working group on cardiac rehabilitation provides a network of institutions with regular quality auditing. Positive effects of rehabilitation programs on mortality and morbidity have been established by numerous studies. Although a majority of patients after cardiac surgery are being referred to rehabilitation, these services are notoriously underused after catheter procedures. PMID:26602848

  16. Cardiac expression of ms1/STARS, a novel gene involved in cardiac development and disease, is regulated by GATA4.

    PubMed

    Ounzain, Samir; Kobayashi, Satoru; Peterson, Richard E; He, Aibin; Motterle, Anna; Samani, Nilesh J; Menick, Donald R; Pu, William T; Liang, Qiangrong; Chong, Nelson W

    2012-05-01

    Ms1/STARS is a novel muscle-specific actin-binding protein that specifically modulates the myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-serum response factor (SRF) regulatory axis within striated muscle. This ms1/STARS-dependent regulatory axis is of central importance within the cardiac gene regulatory network and has been implicated in cardiac development and postnatal cardiac function/homeostasis. The dysregulation of ms1/STARS is associated with and causative of pathological cardiac phenotypes, including cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. In order to gain an understanding of the mechanisms governing ms1/STARS expression in the heart, we have coupled a comparative genomic in silico analysis with reporter, gain-of-function, and loss-of-function approaches. Through this integrated analysis, we have identified three evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs), α, SINA, and DINA, that act as cis-regulatory modules and confer differential cardiac cell-specific activity. Two of these ECRs, α and DINA, displayed distinct regulatory sensitivity to the core cardiac transcription factor GATA4. Overall, our results demonstrate that within embryonic, neonatal, and adult hearts, GATA4 represses ms1/STARS expression with the pathologically associated depletion of GATA4 (type 1/type 2 diabetic models), resulting in ms1/STARS upregulation. This GATA4-dependent repression of ms1/STARS expression has major implications for MRTF-SRF signaling in the context of cardiac development and disease.

  17. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) metabolism and cardiac arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, D.M.; Man, R.Y.K.; Arthur, G.; Choy, P.C.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of LPC in the production of cardiac arrhythmias in isolated mammalian hearts has been well-documented. Cardiac arrhythmias are initiated by the accumulation of the lysolipid in the cardiac membrane. When isolated rat hearts were perfused in 10 ..mu..M LPC for 10 min, severe arrhythmias were observed in all experiments. In isolated guinea pig hearts that were perfused under identical conditions, the development of severe arrhythmias was never observed, and mild arrhythmias were produced in less than 50% of the hearts used. When the hearts of both species were perfused with (/sup 14/C-palmitate)-LPC, the labellings found in the microsomal fractions (expressed in mg protein) were similar. However, a higher amount of labelled LPC (2-fold) was found in rat heart microsomes, whereas a higher amount of labelled fatty acid was located in the guinea pig heart microsomes. Determination of lysophospholipase activities in these microsomal fractions revealed that the specific activity of the enzyme was much higher in the guinea pig heart than the rat heart. The authors conclude that the differential effect of LPC-induced arrhythmias between the rat and guinea pig heart may be a direct result of the lysophospholipase activities in these hearts. The ability to catabolize LPC more rapidly in the guinea pig heart may decrease the accumulation of LPC in the membrane, and hence, reduce the production of arrhythmias.

  18. Integrate and boost: bioscaffolds nurture the cardiac regenerative paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bartunek, Jozef; Vanderheyden, Marc; Behfar, Atta

    2015-09-23

    The traditional cardiac regenerative paradigm using non-modified adult stem cells with various routes of delivery into the myocardial target has thus far yielded unconvincing clinical outcomes. Besides factors related to heterogeneity in trial methodology, inter-patient variability and the rare incidence of adult stem cells with intrinsic repair potency underscore the importance of further optimization and standardization of regenerative platforms. Cardiac tissue engineering seizing upon the advances of cellular, molecular, and biomaterial development is shaping the next generation of the regenerative paradigm and thereby fostering disruptive curative treatments in heart failure.

  19. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha is essential for maximal and efficient cardiac mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lehman, John J; Boudina, Sihem; Banke, Natasha Hausler; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Han, Xianlin; Young, Deanna M; Leone, Teresa C; Gross, Richard W; Lewandowski, E Douglas; Abel, E Dale; Kelly, Daniel P

    2008-07-01

    High-capacity mitochondrial ATP production is essential for normal function of the adult heart, and evidence is emerging that mitochondrial derangements occur in common myocardial diseases. Previous overexpression studies have shown that the inducible transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha is capable of activating postnatal cardiac myocyte mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we generated mice deficient in PGC-1alpha (PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice), which survive with modestly blunted postnatal cardiac growth. To determine if PGC-1alpha is essential for normal cardiac energy metabolic capacity, mitochondrial function experiments were performed on saponin-permeabilized myocardial fibers from PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice. These experiments demonstrated reduced maximal (state 3) palmitoyl-l-carnitine respiration and increased maximal (state 3) pyruvate respiration in PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice compared with PGC-1alpha(+/+) controls. ATP synthesis rates obtained during maximal (state 3) respiration in permeabilized myocardial fibers were reduced for PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice, whereas ATP produced per oxygen consumed (ATP/O), a measure of metabolic efficiency, was decreased by 58% for PGC-1alpha(-/-) fibers. Ex vivo isolated working heart experiments demonstrated that PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice exhibited lower cardiac power, reduced palmitate oxidation, and increased reliance on glucose oxidation, with the latter likely a compensatory response. (13)C NMR revealed that hearts from PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice exhibited a limited capacity to recruit triglyceride as a source for lipid oxidation during beta-adrenergic challenge. Consistent with reduced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative enzyme gene expression, the total triglyceride content was greater in hearts of PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice relative to PGC-1alpha(+/+) following a fast. Overall, these results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is essential for the maintenance of maximal, efficient cardiac

  20. Neurologic complications of cardiac tumors.

    PubMed

    Roeltgen, David; Kidwell, Chelsea S

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are an uncommon cause for neurologic disease, but if undiagnosed can be associated with devastating neurologic consequences. Primary cardiac tumors, both benign and neoplastic, and metastatic tumors occur. Primary cardiac tumors are more likely to be associated with neurologic embolic complications. Metastatic cardiac tumors are more likely to be associated with valvular distraction, arrhythmia, diminished cardiac output and indirect neurological dysfunction. Primary and metastatic cardiac tumors may result in cerebral metastatic disease. Atrial myxoma, a benign primary cardiac tumor, is the most common cardiac tumor associated with neurologic disease, and most commonly causes cerebral embolization and stroke. The use of thrombolytic therapy for these strokes is controversial. Additionally, delayed manifestations, including aneurysm formation and intracranial hemorrhage, are possible. Aneurysm formation has been described as occurring after removal of the primary tumor. The availability of noninvasive cardiac imaging has significantly helped decrease the neurologic morbidity of cardiac tumors and has led to frequent successful intervention. PMID:24365298

  1. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Luk, Adriana; Rao, Vivek; Butany, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis. PMID:24447924

  2. ERK1/2 regulate the balance between eccentric and concentric cardiac growth

    PubMed Central

    Kehat, Izhak; Davis, Jennifer; Tiburcy, Malte; Accornero, Federica; Saba-El-Leil, Marc K.; Maillet, Marjorie; York, Allen J.; Lorenz, John N.; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Meloche, Sylvain; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale An increase in cardiac afterload typically produces concentric hypertrophy characterized by an increase in cardiomyocyte width, while volume overload or exercise results in eccentric growth characterized by cellular elongation and addition of sarcomeres in series. The signaling pathways that control eccentric versus concentric heart growth are not well understood. Objective To determine the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in regulating the cardiac hypertrophic response. Methods and results Here we used mice lacking all ERK1/2 protein in the heart (Erk1−/− Erk2fl/fl-Cre) and mice expressing activated Mek1 in the heart to induce ERK1/2 signaling, as well as mechanistic experiments in cultured myocytes to assess cellular growth characteristics associated with this signaling pathway. While genetic deletion of all ERK1/2 from the mouse heart did not block the cardiac hypertrophic response per se, meaning that the heart still increased in weight with both aging and pathologic stress stimulation, it did dramatically alter how the heart grew. For example, adult myocytes from hearts of Erk1−/− Erk2fl/fl-Cre mice showed preferential eccentric growth (lengthening) while myocytes from Mek1 transgenic hearts showed concentric growth (width increase). Isolated adult myocytes acutely inhibited for ERK1/2 signaling by adenoviral gene transfer showed spontaneous lengthening while infection with an activated Mek1 adenovirus promoted constitutive ERK1/2 signaling and increased myocyte thickness. A similar effect was observed in engineered heart tissue under cyclical stretching, where ERK1/2 inhibition led to preferential lengthening. Conclusions Taken together these data demonstrate that the ERK1/2 signaling pathway uniquely regulates the balance between eccentric and concentric growth of the heart. Summary We studied mice lacking all ERK1/2 protein in the heart and mice expressing activated Mek1 in the heart to evaluate the role of the ERK 1

  3. Surgical site infections in cardiac surgery: microbiology.

    PubMed

    Söderquist, Bo

    2007-09-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common bacteria isolated from infections following cardiac surgery. CoNS display various virulence factors, such as toxins, adhesive proteins and biofilm production. The Staphylococcus epidermidis surface (Ses) protein I and the ica operon encoding the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) are discussed in more detail. Although several of these virulence factors are prevalent among CoNS isolates causing sternal wound infections, they do not represent a prerequisite for causing an infection and that emphasizes that host factors may be as important.

  4. Living cardiac tissue slices: an organotypic pseudo two-dimensional model for cardiac biophysics research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ken; Terrar, Derek; Gavaghan, David J; Mu-U-Min, Razik; Kohl, Peter; Bollensdorff, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Living cardiac tissue slices, a pseudo two-dimensional (2D) preparation, have received less attention than isolated single cells, cell cultures, or Langendorff-perfused hearts in cardiac biophysics research. This is, in part, due to difficulties associated with sectioning cardiac tissue to obtain live slices. With moderate complexity, native cell-types, and well-preserved cell-cell electrical and mechanical interconnections, cardiac tissue slices have several advantages for studying cardiac electrophysiology. The trans-membrane potential (Vm) has, thus far, mainly been explored using multi-electrode arrays. Here, we combine tissue slices with optical mapping to monitor Vm and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). This combination opens up the possibility of studying the effects of experimental interventions upon action potential (AP) and calcium transient (CaT) dynamics in 2D, and with relatively high spatio-temporal resolution. As an intervention, we conducted proof-of-principle application of stretch. Mechanical stimulation of cardiac preparations is well-established for membrane patches, single cells and whole heart preparations. For cardiac tissue slices, it is possible to apply stretch perpendicular or parallel to the dominant orientation of cells, while keeping the preparation in a constant focal plane for fluorescent imaging of in-slice functional dynamics. Slice-to-slice comparison furthermore allows one to assess transmural differences in ventricular tissue responses to mechanical challenges. We developed and tested application of axial stretch to cardiac tissue slices, using a manually-controlled stretching device, and recorded Vm and [Ca(2+)]i by optical mapping before, during, and after application of stretch. Living cardiac tissue slices, exposed to axial stretch, show an initial shortening in both AP and CaT duration upon stretch application, followed in most cases by a gradual prolongation of AP and CaT duration during stretch maintained

  5. Acute exercise modifies titin phosphorylation and increases cardiac myofilament stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Anna E.; Kreiner, Matthias; Kötter, Sebastian; Lassak, Philipp; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank; Krüger, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Titin-based myofilament stiffness is largely modulated by phosphorylation of its elastic I-band regions N2-Bus (decreases passive stiffness, PT) and PEVK (increases PT). Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute exercise changes titin phosphorylation and modifies myofilament stiffness. Adult rats were exercised on a treadmill for 15 min, untrained animals served as controls. Titin phosphorylation was determined by Western blot analysis using phosphospecific antibodies to Ser4099 and Ser4010 in the N2-Bus region (PKG and PKA-dependent. respectively), and to Ser11878 and Ser 12022 in the PEVK region (PKCα and CaMKIIδ-dependent, respectively). Passive tension was determined by step-wise stretching of isolated skinned cardiomyocytes to sarcomere length (SL) ranging from 1.9 to 2.4 μm and showed a significantly increased PT from exercised samples, compared to control