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Sample records for isolated human penile

  1. Isolated penile torsion in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Egemen; Gundogdu, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We reported on the incidence of isolated penile torsion among our healthy children and our approach to this anomaly. Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, newborn babies with penile torsion were classified according to the angle of torsion. Surgical correction (penile degloving and reattachment for moderate cases and dorsal dartos flap technique in case of resistance) after 6 months was advised to the babies with rotations more than 45°. Results: Among 1000 newborn babies, 200 isolated penile torsions were found, and among these, 43 had torsions more than 45°, and 4 of these had angles greater than 90°. The mean angle of the rotations was found 30.45° (median: 20°). In total, 8 children with 60° torsions were previously circumcised. Surgery was performed on 19 patients, with a mean patient age of 12 ± 2 months. Of these 19, 13 babies were corrected with degloving and reattachment. This technique was not enough on the remaining 6 patients; therefore, derotational dorsal dartos flap was added to correct the torsion. After a mean of 15.6 ± 9.8 months, residual penile rotation, less than 15°, was found only in 2 children. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated penile torsion is 20% in newborns. However, rotation more than 45° angles are seen in 4.3% of male babies. Correction is not necessary in mild degrees, and penile degloving with reattachment is enough in most cases. If the initial correction is insufficient, dorsal dartos flap rotation is easy and effective. Prior circumcision neither disturbs the operative procedure nor affects the outcomes. PMID:26600889

  2. Effects of endopeptidase inhibition on the relaxation response of isolated human penile erectile tissue to vasoactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Rahardjo, H E; Reichelt, K; Sonnenberg, J E; Sohn, M; Kuczyk, M A; Ückert, S

    2016-12-01

    Peptides, such as CNP, CGRP and VIP, are involved in the function of male penile erectile tissue. Tissue levels of said peptides are controlled by the endopeptidase enzymes. Theoretically, the inhibition of the degradation of CNP, CGRP and/or VIP should result in an enhancement in penile smooth muscle relaxation. The effects were investigated of CNP or VIP (0.1 nm-1 μm), without and following pre-exposure of the tissue to a threshold concentration of the endopeptidase inhibitor KC 12615 (10 μm, for 20 min), on the reversion of tension induced by means of electrical field stimulation. Drug effects on the production of cyclic AMP/GMP were also evaluated. Neither KC 12615, CNP and VIP nor the combination of CNP plus KC 12615 or VIP plus KC 12615 increased the response of the tissue to EFS. While no effects were observed of a pre-exposure of the tissue to KC 12615 on the production of cyclic AMP in the presence of VIP, an enhancement was registered in the accumulation of cyclic AMP in the presence of CNP plus KC 12615. Further studies are indicated to investigate whether endopeptidase inhibitors might tend to be more effective in tissues affected by a decreased local production of vasoactive peptides. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: clinical implications for physicians and surgeons.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery.

  4. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: Clinical implications for physicians and surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck’s fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery. PMID:22739749

  5. Hypothesis of human penile anatomy, erection hemodynamics and their clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Geng-Long

    2006-03-01

    To summarize recent advances in human penile anatomy, hemodynamics and their clinical applications. Using dissecting, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy the fibroskeleton structure, penile venous vasculature, the relationship of the architecture between the skeletal and smooth muscles, and erection hemodynamics were studied on human cadaveric penises and clinical patients over a period of 10 years. The tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa is a bi-layered structure with inner circular and outer longitudinal collagen bundles. Although there is no bone in the human glans, a strong equivalent distal ligament acts as a trunk of the glans penis. A guaranteed method of local anesthesia for penile surgeries and a tunical surgery was developed accordingly. On the venous vasculature it is elucidated that a deep dorsal vein, a couple of cavernosal veins and two pairs of para-arterial veins are located between the Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Furthermore, a hemodynamic study suggests that a fully rigid erection may depend upon the drainage veins as well, rather than just the intracavernosal smooth muscle. It is believed that penile venous surgery deserves another look, and that it may be meaningful if thoroughly and carefully performed. Accordingly, a penile venous surgery was developed. Using this new insight into penile anatomy and physiology, exact penile curvature correction, refined penile implants and promising penile venous surgery, as well as a venous patch, for treating Peyronie's deformity might be performed under pure local anesthesia on an outpatient basis.

  6. A penile spine/vibrissa enhancer sequence is missing in modern and extinct humans but is retained in multiple primates with penile spines and sensory vibrissae.

    PubMed

    Reno, Philip L; McLean, Cory Y; Hines, Jasmine E; Capellini, Terence D; Bejerano, Gill; Kingsley, David M

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies show that humans have a large genomic deletion downstream of the Androgen Receptor gene that eliminates an ancestral mammalian regulatory enhancer that drives expression in developing penile spines and sensory vibrissae. Here we use a combination of large-scale sequence analysis and PCR amplification to demonstrate that the penile spine/vibrissa enhancer is missing in all humans surveyed and in the Neandertal and Denisovan genomes, but is present in DNA samples of chimpanzees and bonobos, as well as in multiple other great apes and primates that maintain some form of penile integumentary appendage and facial vibrissae. These results further strengthen the association between the presence of the penile spine/vibrissa enhancer and the presence of penile spines and macro- or micro- vibrissae in non-human primates as well as show that loss of the enhancer is both a distinctive and characteristic feature of the human lineage.

  7. Human penile erection and organic impotence: normal histology and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Conti, G; Virag, R

    1989-01-01

    A very large amount of human material (7 embryos, 12 stillborns, 12 penes of males aged between 2 and 86 years, as well as bioptical material from 80 subjects affected by impotence problems) has been examined so as to study the penis arterial and venous walls, the blood flow regulation mechanisms and the intracavernal trabecular morphology. The amount of muscle tissue and of collagenous connective tissue has been numerically quantified by computer-assisted methods. This study enables the authors to underline three fundamental facts: (a) it confirms the normal penile erection mechanism, and the consequent theory, (b) it confirms that vascular sclerosis is a systemic phenomenon correlated to age, and that the penis is not exempt, and (c) in the case of impotence problems, the same sclerosis phenomenon may appear at an earlier age, and therefore induce pathological impotence.

  8. Devastating penile mycosis leading to penile gangrene.

    PubMed

    Hombalkar, N N; Vaze, Dhananjay; Guha, Poonam; Dhandore, Priya D; Gurav, Prakash D

    2013-09-01

    Infective penile gangrene is a rare but known complication of circumcision. The causes may vary from neutropenia, diabetes mellitus, and human immunodeficiency virus infection to lymphoproliferative malignancy. Penile mycosis leading to penile gangrene is a rare entity. Only 1 case has been reported in an adult. Juvenile diabetes mellitus is a peculiar predisposing factor for mycotic infections. We report a case of mycotic penile gangrene in a diabetic child to highlight its potentially preventable disastrous outcome.

  9. First case report of isolated penile mucormycosis in a liver transplantation recipient.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-chun; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Wu; Owusu-Ansah, K G; Yu, Song-feng; Geng, Lei; Xie, Hai-yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare but potentially lethal complication of liver transplantation. Most reported cases have involved rhinocerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, or disseminated forms. We present herein the case of a 61-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who developed isolated penile mucormycosis after orthotopic liver transplantation. Such a case has not been reported in the literature to date. Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention combined with comprehensive treatment are the key factors for improving the survival rate in patients with mucormycosis.

  10. Brain potentials related to the human penile erection.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, J; Kropp, P; Bosinski, H A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain processes preceding penile responses. Electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials and penile circumference were recorded simultaneously while male subjects were exposed to visual sexual stimuli (VSS). The trials were sorted by the penile response of the subjects (erection, maintenance or detumescence). The corresponding EEG recordings were then subjected to independent component analysis. We found that 200 ms after VSS onset brain potentials differ according to the genital response to follow. Whereas early posterior negativity (EPN) was predominantly related to erection and maintenance, P3-like activity was found to precede detumescence. EPN indicates a more 'emotional' processing state of the brain, whereas P3-like activity related to detumescence indicates a more 'cognitive' processing state. The latter is assumed to reflect activity of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. Further research should evaluate the contribution of P3-related brain activity to psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

  11. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    PubMed

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube.

  12. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization (“opening zipper”) opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion (“closing zipper”) closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal “cords”. Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. PMID:27397682

  13. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in penile cancer cases from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Larissa Alves; Moyses, Natalia; Alves, Gilda; Ornellas, Antônio Augusto; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Oliveira, Ledy do Horto dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Silvia Maria Baeta

    2012-02-01

    Penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease. Although its occurrence is relatively rare worldwide, penile cancer rates can be high in developing countries. A few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in penile carcinoma, which have found HPV present in 30-70% of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of HPV 16 and 18. It has been assumed that cofactors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. The aim of this study was to determine HPV and EBV prevalence in 135 penile malignant lesions from Brazilian men through the use of MY09/11 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV prevalence among the men tested was 60.7%. Of the men who tested positive, 27 presented with HPV 16 (29.7%), five with HPV 18 (5.5%), 21 with HPV 45 (23.1%) and nine with HPV 6 (9.9%). Seven mixed infections were detected (9.2%), while 11 cases remained untyped (13.4%). Regarding EBV positivity, 46.7% of the samples contained EBV DNA with EBV-1 as the most prevalent type (74.6%). More than 23% of the men were co-infected with both HPV and EBV, while 35% presented exclusively with HPV DNA and 20% presented only with EBV DNA. Penile carcinoma aetiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of HPV and EBV infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. Hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis.

  14. Human penile ossification: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Frank, R G; Gerard, P S; Wise, G J

    1989-01-01

    Human penile ossification is a rare event. Only a limited number of cases have appeared in the literature. Several reported cases have been related to local trauma and plastic induration of the penis. We report an additional case with a comprehensive review of case reports in the literature.

  15. Penile Implants

    MedlinePlus

    Penile Implants Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Penile implants are devices placed inside the penis to allow men with erectile dysfunction (ED) to get an erection. Penile implants are typically recommended after other treatments for ED ...

  16. The role of human papillomavirus infection in the pathogenesis of penile squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that penile cancer follows 2 etiologic pathways, 1 related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the other related to other factors including phimosis, chronic inflammation, and lichen sclerosus. HPV DNA is found in 47% to 48% of all penile tumors, and most of these cases correspond to high-risk genotypes, preferentially HPV-16. HPV status is associated with histologic subtype, with higher detection ratios in warty-basaloid carcinomas and lower detection ratios in keratinizing variants (ie, verrucous, papillary, and usual squamous cell carcinomas). It is the cell type, rather than a distinctive architecture, that is more strongly associated with HPV presence. The detection ratio is higher in tumors composed entirely or partially of cells with basaloid features. In addition, a few studies have evaluated the impact of HPV infection on the prognosis of patients with penile cancer. However, results are controversial, and more data are needed to clarify this matter. A proper understanding of the role of HPV in penile carcinogenesis might help in planning intervention strategies such as vaccination against HPV infection.

  17. Genomic profiling of human penile carcinoma predicts worse prognosis and survival.

    PubMed

    Busso-Lopes, Ariane F; Marchi, Fábio A; Kuasne, Hellen; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Trindade-Filho, José Carlos S; de Jesus, Carlos Márcio N; Lopes, Ademar; Guimarães, Gustavo C; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2015-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying penile carcinoma are still poorly understood, and the detection of genetic markers would be of great benefit for these patients. In this study, we assessed the genomic profile aiming at identifying potential prognostic biomarkers in penile carcinoma. Globally, 46 penile carcinoma samples were considered to evaluate DNA copy-number alterations via array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) combined with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping. Specific genes were investigated by using qPCR, FISH, and RT-qPCR. Genomic alterations mapped at 3p and 8p were related to worse prognostic features, including advanced T and clinical stage, recurrence and death from the disease. Losses of 3p21.1-p14.3 and gains of 3q25.31-q29 were associated with reduced cancer-specific and disease-free survival. Genomic alterations detected for chromosome 3 (LAMP3, PPARG, TNFSF10 genes) and 8 (DLC1) were evaluated by qPCR. DLC1 and PPARG losses were associated with poor prognosis characteristics. Losses of DLC1 were an independent risk factor for recurrence on multivariate analysis. The gene-expression analysis showed downexpression of DLC1 and PPARG and overexpression of LAMP3 and TNFSF10 genes. Chromosome Y losses and MYC gene (8q24) gains were confirmed by FISH. HPV infection was detected in 34.8% of the samples, and 19 differential genomic regions were obtained related to viral status. At first time, we described recurrent copy-number alterations and its potential prognostic value in penile carcinomas. We also showed a specific genomic profile according to HPV infection, supporting the hypothesis that penile tumors present distinct etiologies according to virus status. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Determination of human penile electrical resistance and implication on safety for electrosurgery of penis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Vincent F S; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Liu, Shih-Ping; Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Hsieh, Ju-Ton

    2010-08-01

    Electrosurgery has been a surgical application since the late 19th century. Although many urologists take this daily application for granted, the effects of electrical treatment on penile nerves and vessels have not been well documented. To investigate the electrical characteristics of the penis and erectile tissues and to discover the potential hazards of electrosurgery on the penis. Measurement of the electrical characteristics of three human penises in order to create models to analyze the effect of electricity on penile nerves and vessels. Electrical resistivity of the penile shaft, electrical current density, and electric field strength on penile nerves and vessels, proportion of generated heat on the penis and electrical current density of the electrosurgery return electrode. Electrical resistivity (ρ) of the penile shaft is 127.14 Ω · cm at 500 kHz. Electrical current density (J) of the penis shaft is 71.06 mA/cm(2) , nerve (60.23 mA/cm(2) ), vessel (67.93 mA/cm(2) ), and return electrode (2.11 mA/cm(2) ). Electrical field strength (E) of the whole penis shaft is 9.03 volt/cm. The proportion of generated heat on the penis is four times as much as on other body parts of the circuit. Potential and subclinical injury to erectile tissue caused by electrosurgery on the penis cannot be underestimated. The injury mechanism can be attributed to a thermal (electrical current) effect and a nonthermal (mainly electrical field) effect. Ways to avoid the electrosurgical injury are: using less power (W)/electrical field and less time, biopolar electrosurgery confining the injured area, ligation to achieve hemostasis, and new laser technologies. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Calcium dobesilate potentiates endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated relaxation of human penile resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Javier; Cuevas, Pedro; Fernández, Argentina; Gabancho, Sonia; Videla, Sebastián; Tejada, Iñigo Sáenz de

    2003-01-01

    We have evaluated the participation of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated human penile resistance arteries (HPRA) and human corpus cavernosum (HCC) strips. In addition, the effect of the angioprotective agent, calcium dobesilate (DOBE), on the endothelium-dependent relaxation of these tissues was investigated. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) nearly abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) in HCC, while 60% relaxation of HPRA was observed under these conditions. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of HPRA resistant to NOS and COX inhibition was prevented by raising the extracellular concentration of K+ (35 mM) or by blocking Ca2+-activated K+ channels, with apamin (APA; 100 nM) and charybdotoxin (CTX; 100 nM), suggesting the involvement of EDHF in these responses. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was markedly enhanced by DOBE (10 μM) in HPRA but not in HCC. The potentiating effects of DOBE on ACh-induced responses in HPRA, remained after NOS and COX inhibition, were reduced by inhibition of cytochrome P450 oxygenase with miconazole (0.3 mM) and were abolished by high K+ or a combination of APA and CTX. In vivo, DOBE (10 mg kg−1 i.v.) significantly potentiated the erectile responses to cavernosal nerve stimulation in male rats. EDHF plays an important role in the endothelium-dependent relaxation of HPRA but not in HCC. DOBE significantly improves endothelium-dependent relaxation of HPRA mediated by EDHF and potentiates erectile responses in vivo. Thus, EDHF becomes a new therapeutic target for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) and DOBE could be considered a candidate for oral therapy for ED. PMID:12813009

  20. Visualization of Penile Suspensory Ligamentous System Based on Visible Human Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianzhuo; Wu, Yi; Tao, Ling; Yan, Yan; Pang, Jun; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Li, Shirong

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to use a three-dimensional (3D) visualization technology to illustrate and describe the anatomical features of the penile suspensory ligamentous system based on the Visible Human data sets and to explore the suspensory mechanism of the penis for the further improvement of the penis-lengthening surgery. Material/Methods Cross-sectional images retrieved from the first Chinese Visible Human (CVH-1), third Chinese Visible Human (CVH-3), and Visible Human Male (VHM) data sets were used to segment the suspensory ligamentous system and its adjacent structures. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of this system were studied and compared with those from the Visible Human data sets. The 3D models reconstructed from the Visible Human data sets were used to provide morphological features of the penile suspensory ligamentous system and its related structures. Results The fundiform ligament was a superficial, loose, fibro-fatty tissue which originated from Scarpa’s fascia superiorly and continued to the scrotal septum inferiorly. The suspensory ligament and arcuate pubic ligament were dense fibrous connective tissues which started from the pubic symphysis and terminated by attaching to the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa. Furthermore, the arcuate pubic ligament attached to the inferior rami of the pubis laterally. Conclusions The 3D model based on Visible Human data sets can be used to clarify the anatomical features of the suspensory ligamentous system, thereby contributing to the improvement of penis-lengthening surgery. PMID:28530218

  1. Nebivolol dilates human penile arteries and reverses erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats through enhancement of nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Javier; Wright, Harold M; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Begoña; La Fuente, José M; Gupta, Sandeep; Sáenz de Tejada, Iñigo

    2010-08-01

    Traditional beta-blockers have sometimes been associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Nebivolol is a cardioselective β(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist that promotes vasodilation through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. We evaluated the effects of nebivolol on the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway, on erectile function and dysfunction, and in human penile vascular tissues. Erectile response to cavernosal nerve electrical stimulation in control and diabetes-induced ED rats were evaluated, along with serum nitrite/nitrate (NOx) concentration and plasma/tissue cGMP levels. Endothelium-dependent and sildenafil-induced relaxation of isolated human corpus cavernosum (HCC) and human penile resistance arteries (HPRA) were also determined. The effects of nebivolol on erectile function and dysfunction and on NO/cGMP-mediated responses. Treatment with nebivolol significantly potentiated erectile response in control rats, regardless of its effects on blood pressure. Nebivolol increased NOx and plasma cGMP by 3-fold and 2.75-fold, respectively, and significantly augmented the elevation of plasma cGMP produced by sildenafil. Nebivolol enhanced endothelium-dependent and sildenafil-induced relaxations of HCC tissue, and produced endothelium-dependent vasodilation of HPRA. Nebivolol, but not atenolol, significantly improved erectile response in diabetic rats (51.6%, 53.2%, and 87.1% of response at 3 Hz in nondiabetic rats, for vehicle-treated, atenolol-treated, and nebivolol-treated diabetic rats, respectively); after sildenafil administration, ED was completely reversed in nebivolol-treated diabetic rats (69.6% and 112% for diabetic rats treated with sildenafil and nebivolol plus sildenafil, respectively). Accordingly, nebivolol restored systemic NOx levels and cGMP content in penile tissue from these animals. Nebivolol in vivo activated the NO/cGMP pathway, enhanced erectile response and reversed ED in diabetic rats. Moreover, nebivolol in vitro

  2. Human papillomavirus hpv-16 DNA as an epitheliotropic virus that induces hyperproliferation in squamous penile tissue.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Edith L; Mercado, E; Calzada, L

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus HPV-16DNA sequences in 57 penile carcinoma biopsies was examined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with type specific internal probes, employing HPV consensus primers from the L1 region. The cases comprised 39 typical squamous cell carcinoma and 18 specimens with different subtype. PCR products were analyzed and HPV-16DNA was detected in a high percentage of specimens. Thirty-eight biopsies were HPV-16DNA positive. This determination was correlated with cellular differentiation and growth pattern. Our data corroborates that squamous cell carcinoma was invariably associated with HPV-16DNA.

  3. Isolated penile Kaposi's sarcoma in a HIV-positive patient stable on treatment for three years.

    PubMed

    Lebari, Dornubari; Gohil, Jesal; Patnaik, Lipsita; Wasef, Wafaa

    2014-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining condition. Typically, KS affects the skin with or without visceral involvement. The extensive use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased the incidence of KS amongst the HIV-positive population. We report a case of a 40-year-old man with HIV-1 infection with CD4 count of 551 cells/mm(3)and an undetectable viral load who presented with two skin-coloured KS lesions on the prepuce of the penis. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. He had been commenced on ART three years earlier with a nadir CD4 count of 255 cells/mm(3) He had achieved and maintained viral suppression since commencing ART. The patient was initially treated with cryotherapy and 5% imiquimod as the lesions were presumed to be warts. The lack of response to treatment prompted further investigation. We carried out a literature search of published cases of penile KS over the past 10 years. The majority of articles regarding penile KS were published in the pre-ART era and involved patients with AIDS. Over the past 10 years, published cases of penile KS have almost exclusively been in HIV-negative men. We found 10 published cases of penile KS in HIV-negative men and only one other published case of penile KS in a HIV-positive man, who had severe immune suppression with CD4 count below 200 cells/mm(3) This is the first case report to describe a HIV-positive patient stable on ART with a CD4 count above 200 cells/mm(3)and suppressed HIV-1 viral load, to develop two KS lesions on the penis. Clinicians have to remain suspicious of penile lesions and appreciate the crucial role a biopsy with histopathological analysis plays in confirming a diagnosis. In addition, this case illustrates that unusual presentations of KS can still occur in treated HIV-positive patients with sustained immune recovery.

  4. Penile Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey; Tang, Jennifer C.; Monstrey, Stan J.; Mardini, Samir

    2011-01-01

    A variety of surgical options exists for penile reconstruction. The key to success of therapy is holistic management of the patient, with attention to the psychological aspects of treatment. In this article, we review reconstructive modalities for various types of penile defects inclusive of partial and total defects as well as the buried penis, and also describe recent basic science advances, which may promise new options for penile reconstruction. PMID:22851914

  5. Three-dimensional mapping and comparative analysis of the distal human corpus cavernosum and the inflatable penile prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hakky, Tariq S; Ferguson, Daniel; Spiess, Philippe E; Bradley, Paul; Lue, Tom F; Carrion, Rafael E

    2013-01-01

    The intricate anatomy of the corpus cavernosum in both the flaccid and tumescent state has not been fully elucidated. We report our experience using a three-dimensional (3D) scanner to reconstruct cadaveric casts and compare them with 3D images of two prototypes of penile prosthesis. Two different models of the Titan Coloplast inflatable penile prosthesis were analyzed using a 3D scanner. The first was the standard model and the second was a newer model with a rounder silicone tip. Two cadaveric phalluses were harvested using Smooth-Cast 300Q polyurethane molding. The molds were excised and scanned along side the penile prosthesis. 3D scans were completed and analyzed using Leios Mesh software, and GOM Inspect software. The 3D scans demonstrated the mean human corporal radii 2 mm from the distal tip to be 36.51 mm (36.01–37.0 mm), which is an obtuse angle. The standard Titan penile prosthesis spherical radius at the same level was 202.52 mm, while the new silicone tip prosthesis had a radius of 139.33 mm. 3D mapping further demonstrated the trajectory of the cavernosa appeared curvilinear and the distal ends appeared blunt. The use of cadaveric cavernosal molds in combination with the 3D scanner allowed us to accurately image the corpus cavernosum for the first time. Our findings suggest that anatomically accurate corporal tips appear to be relatively blunt and that the new Titan silicone tip penile prosthesis more closely resembles the human corporal tip. PMID:23542138

  6. Three-dimensional mapping and comparative analysis of the distal human corpus cavernosum and the inflatable penile prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hakky, Tariq S; Ferguson, Daniel; Spiess, Philippe E; Bradley, Paul; Lue, Tom F; Carrion, Rafael E

    2013-07-01

    The intricate anatomy of the corpus cavernosum in both the flaccid and tumescent state has not been fully elucidated. We report our experience using a three-dimensional (3D) scanner to reconstruct cadaveric casts and compare them with 3D images of two prototypes of penile prosthesis. Two different models of the Titan Coloplast inflatable penile prosthesis were analyzed using a 3D scanner. The first was the standard model and the second was a newer model with a rounder silicone tip. Two cadaveric phalluses were harvested using Smooth-Cast 300Q polyurethane molding. The molds were excised and scanned along side the penile prosthesis. 3D scans were completed and analyzed using Leios Mesh software, and GOM Inspect software. The 3D scans demonstrated the mean human corporal radii 2 mm from the distal tip to be 36.51 mm (36.01-37.0 mm), which is an obtuse angle. The standard Titan penile prosthesis spherical radius at the same level was 202.52 mm, while the new silicone tip prosthesis had a radius of 139.33 mm. 3D mapping further demonstrated the trajectory of the cavernosa appeared curvilinear and the distal ends appeared blunt. The use of cadaveric cavernosal molds in combination with the 3D scanner allowed us to accurately image the corpus cavernosum for the first time. Our findings suggest that anatomically accurate corporal tips appear to be relatively blunt and that the new Titan silicone tip penile prosthesis more closely resembles the human corporal tip.

  7. Human papillomavirus infection and immunohistochemical p16(INK4a) expression as predictors of outcome in penile squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Stephania M; Chaux, Alcides; Ball, Mark W; Faraj, Sheila F; Munari, Enrico; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Sharma, Rajni; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L; Netto, George J

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 50% of penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. We evaluated the correlation of p16(INK4a) expression and HR-HPV with clinicopathological features and outcome in a cohort of patients with penile SCC. Two tissue microarrays were constructed from 53 invasive penile SCC at our hospital. p16(INK4a) expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (CINtec Kit). High-risk human papillomavirus status was assessed by in situ hybridization (INFORM HPV III family 16 probe B cocktail). High-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 8 cases (15%), and p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 23 cases (44%). Both markers showed a significant association with histologic subtype (P = .017 and P = .01, respectively) and lymphovascular invasion (P = .015 and P = .015, respectively). Regarding outcome analyses, neither HPV infection nor p16(INK4a) overexpression significantly predicted overall survival or cancer-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards regression model. High-risk human papillomavirus positivity and p16(INK4a) overexpression were significantly associated with histologic subtype and presence of lymphovascular invasion. Human papillomavirus status was not predictive of outcome in our cohort.

  8. Uptake of /sup 3/H-choline and synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine by human penile corpus cavernosum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Azadzoi, K.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    The neuroeffectors which relax penile smooth muscle and lead to erection are unknown; physiological studies of human corpus cavernosum, in vitro, have suggested a significant role of cholinergic neurotransmission. To further characterize the importance of cholinergic nerves, biopsies of human corpus cavernosum were obtained at the time of penile prosthesis implantation. Tissues were incubated in /sup 3/H-choline (10/sup -5/M, 80 Ci/mmol) in oxygenated physiological salt solution at 37/sup 0/C, pH 7.4 for 1 hour. Radiolabelled compounds were extracted with perchloric acid (0.4 M) and acetylcholine and choline were separated by HPLC; /sup 14/C-acetylcholine was used as internal standard. /sup 3/H-choline was accumulated by the tissues (20 +/- 1.9 fmol/mg), and /sup 3/H-acetylcholine was synthesized (4.0 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg). In control experiments, heating of the tissue blocked synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine. Inhibition of high affinity choline transport by hemicholinium-3 (10/sup -5/M) diminished tissue accumulation of /sup 3/H-choline and significantly reduced the synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (0.5 +/ 0.2 fmol/mg, p < 0.05). These results provide direct evidence of neuronal accumulation of choline and enzymatic conversion to acetylcholine in human corpus cavernosum. Taken together with the physiological studies, it can be concluded that cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum plays a role in penile erection.

  9. Penile Paraffinoma.

    PubMed

    Manjit, S; Vikramjit, S; Clarence, L C M

    2015-12-01

    Penile augmentation with injection of paraffin is a common practice in South East Asia. Penile paraffinoma occurring due to injection of liquid paraffin to enhance the size of the penis is an uncommon condition. Normally, this procedure is carried out by nonmedical personnel, without the prior knowledge or consultation of any urologist. The occurrence of such a deforming procedure is not commonly known to the medical profession in Malaysia.

  10. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA detected in pulmonary metastases from a penile squamous cell carcinoma: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, Laura; Benevolo, Maria; Visca, Paolo; Venturo, Irene; Filippetti, Massimo; Piro, Francesca Romana; Rollo, Francesca; Vocaturo, Amina

    2013-02-01

    This report describe the case of a patient presenting with pulmonary metastases from a penile cancer, where the presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA both in the primary tumor and in the distant metastases confirmed the spreading of the disease, ruling out a possible primary lung squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, according to the findings, the HPV genotyping test might help in the identification of metastatic disease from anogenital malignancies or other HPV-related cancers.

  11. Diabetes impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation of human penile vascular tissues mediated by NO and EDHF.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Javier; Cuevas, Pedro; Fernández, Argentina; Gabancho, Sonia; Allona, Antonio; Martín-Morales, Antonio; Moncada, Ignacio; Videla, Sebastián; Sáenz de Tejada, Iñigo

    2003-12-26

    Standard treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED) (i.e., PDE5 inhibitors) are less effective in diabetic patients for unknown reasons. Endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) of human corpus cavernosum (HCC) depends on nitric oxide (NO), while in human penile resistance arteries (HPRA) endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and NO participate. Here we show that diabetes significantly reduced EDR induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in HCC and HPRA. Relaxation attributed to EDHF was also impaired in HPRA from diabetic patients. The PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil (10nM), reversed diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction in HCC, but not in HPRA. Calcium dobesilate (DOBE; 10 microM) fully reversed diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction in HPRA by specifically potentiating the EDHF-mediated component of EDR. Impairment by diabetes of NO and EDHF-dependent responses precluded the complete recovery of endothelial function in HPRA by sildenafil. This could explain the poor clinical response to PDE5 inhibitors of diabetic men with ED and suggests that a pharmacological approach that combines enhancement of NO/cGMP and EDHF pathways could be necessary to treat ED in many diabetic men.

  12. DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, Maryou; Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Rajab, Ramzi; Tinwell, Brendan; Corbishley, Cathy; Watkin, Nick; Berney, Dan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents. PMID:26901676

  13. Penile reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Sansalone, Salvatore; Ralph, David J

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years, a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature. This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma, excision of benign and malignant disease, in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique, cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:22426595

  14. Penile prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Bettocchi, Carlo; Palumbo, Fabrizio; Spilotros, Marco; Palazzo, Silvano; Saracino, Gabriele A.; Martino, Pasquale; Battaglia, Michele; Selvaggi, Francesco P.; Ditonno, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation is recognized as a valid option to obtain an artificial erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse in those patients in which a pharmacological approach is contraindicated or ineffective. Penile prostheses are subbject to continuous development and they are achieving ever better mechanical reliability and safety. The devices are divided into two general types: semirigid (malleable and mechanical) and inflatables. The AMS® (American Medical Systems) and Coloplast Ltd® produce the majority of inflatable and semirigid devices. Malleable and mechanical prostheses have the disadvantage that the penis is always erect although it can be orientated in different ways, while the advantages are ease of use and the need for a simpler surgical procedure compared with inflatable prostheses. Three-component prostheses are more sophisticated than semirigid devices. The advantages of these devices are that the prosthesis feels softer than semirigid or two-piece devices when deflated, with a better cosmetic result, and it ensures a more natural erection than others kinds of prosthesis. The disadvantages are the possibility of malfunction and the need for a more complicated surgical technique. Implantation of a penile prosthesis can be performed in a short surgical time under locoregional anaesthesia, and for this reason hospitalization is usually brief and the patient can be discharged 2 days after the operation if complications are not evident. Patient and partner satisfaction reflect the quality and the effectiveness of this treatment. Even though the results are positive in the vast majority of patients, the possibility of several complications makes penile prosthesis implantation a delicate kind of surgery. Complications can happen when the operation is carried out, in the peri-operative and in the postoperative period, and include infections, erosions of the prosthesis and mechanical failure in case of inflatable prosthesis. Penile prostheses

  15. Circumcision related to urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, human immunodeficiency virus infections, and penile and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2013-08-01

    Male circumcision has been carried out as a prophylactic measure against future diseases, as well as a rite of passage due to religious practice and definite medical indication. The present review discusses the benefits of male circumcision on the prevention of urinary tract infections, and the importance of circumcision in congenital urinary system anomalies, such as vesicoureteral reflux. Additionally the present review examines the associations between circumcision and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, and the preventive effect of circumcision on penile cancer and cervical cancer of female partners. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Penile size and penile enlargement surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Dillon, B E; Chama, N B; Honig, S C

    2008-01-01

    Penile size is a considerable concern for men of all ages. Herein, we review the data on penile size and conditions that will result in penile shortening. Penile augmentation procedures are discussed, including indications, procedures and complications of penile lengthening procedures, penile girth enhancement procedures and penile skin reconstruction.

  17. Involvement of large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels in both nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in human penile small arteries.

    PubMed

    Király, István; Pataricza, János; Bajory, Zoltán; Simonsen, Ulf; Varro, András; Papp, Julius Gy; Pajor, Lászlo; Kun, Attila

    2013-07-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels (BKC a ), located on the vascular smooth muscle, play an important role in regulation of vascular tone. In penile corpus cavernosum tissue, opening of BKC a channels leads to relaxation of corporal smooth muscle, which is essential during erection; however, there is little information on the role of BKC a channels located in penile vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of BKC a channels in endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of human intracavernous penile arteries. In human intracavernous arteries obtained in connection with transsexual operations, change in isometric force was recorded in microvascular myographs, and endothelium-dependent [nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type] and endothelium-independent (NO-donor) relaxations were measured in contracted arteries. In penile small arteries contracted with phenylephrine, acetylcholine evoked NO- and EDH-type relaxations, which were sensitive to iberiotoxin (IbTX), a selective blocker of BKC a channels. Iberiotoxin also inhibited relaxations induced by a NO-donor, sodium nitroprusside. NS11021, a selective opener of BKC a channels, evoked pronounced relaxations that were inhibited in the presence of IbTX. NS13558, a BKC a -inactive analogue of NS11021, failed to relax human penile small arteries. Our results show that BKC a channels are involved in both NO- and EDH-type relaxation of intracavernous penile arteries obtained from healthy men. The effect of a selective opener of BKC a channels also suggests that direct activation of the channel may be an advantageous approach for treatment of impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation often associated with erectile dysfunction.

  18. Penile Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  19. 21 CFR 876.5020 - External penile rigidity devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External penile rigidity devices. 876.5020 Section 876.5020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... maintain sufficient penile rigidity for sexual intercourse. External penile rigidity devices include...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5020 - External penile rigidity devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External penile rigidity devices. 876.5020 Section 876.5020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... maintain sufficient penile rigidity for sexual intercourse. External penile rigidity devices include...

  1. Penile enlargement.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Fulvio; Casarico, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    As male genital corrective surgery is becoming increasingly requested by patients, the need to reach a general consensus on indications and techniques is now imperative. This review of published data provides an overview concerning patient selection modalities, benefits/risks and expected outcomes of surgery. Finally, the article focuses on ethical issues caused by the growing aesthetic nature of this surgery. Interest has been sparked by animal studies, the description of innovative techniques for lengthening and girth enhancement techniques, reconstructive phalloplasty and penile implant surgery. Data suggest that better objective surgical outcomes are possible, though in many cases long-term data and patient-rated satisfaction details are lacking. Most importantly, studies show the importance of having a multidisciplinary team in charge of patient selection. Although more long-term data are required before a general consensus can be reached, recent findings point to the absolute need for a thorough psychological assessment of men requesting penile enhancement surgery. Urologists should work in very close collaboration with psychologists or psychosexologists both during the preoperative phase (to verify eligibility for surgery) and afterwards (to provide counselling).

  2. Surgical Excision of Multiple Penile Syringomas With Scrotal Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Elbert E.; Mundinger, Gerhard S.; Zelken, Jonathan A.; Erdag, Gulsun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Penile syringomas are rare lesions usually occurring in isolation. We report the excision and reconstruction of multiple synchronous penile shaft syringomas with local scrotal flaps. Methods: We report a rare case of excision of multiple penile syringomas and reconstruction with scrotal flaps in a 29-year-old man. Results: Penile syringomas were excised and reconstructed with scrotal flaps in a single-stage procedure. Conclusions: In addition to providing wound coverage, this reconstructive option allowed for excellent functional results with regard to shaft alignment and erectile function, and it should be considered in the reconstructive armamentarium for penile shaft lesions. PMID:24966995

  3. Isolation of Human Basophils.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, John T; Bieneman, Anja P

    2016-02-02

    Isolating human basophils from blood has long been hampered by the fact that these granulocytes represent just 1% or less of the circulating leukocyte population. We describe herein laboratory protocols that have been refined over the past ∼25 years that now enable investigators to prepare basophils for use in a variety of assays to assess the in vitro biology of these immune cells, both in IgE -dependent and -independent responses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. A comprehensive characterization of cell cultures and xenografts derived from a human verrucous penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan J; Drigo, Sandra A; Kuasne, Hellen; Villacis, Rolando A R; Marchi, Fabio A; Domingues, Maria A C; Lopes, Ademar; Santos, Tiago G; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to establish and characterize primary cell cultures and xenografts derived from penile carcinoma (PeCa) in order to provide experimental models for cellular processes and efficacy of new treatments. A verrucous squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) was macrodissected, dissociated, and cultivated in KSFM/DF12 medium. Cell cultures were evaluated at passage 5 (P5) using migration and invasion assays and were serially propagated, in vivo, in BALB/c nude mice until passage 3 (X1-X3). Immunophenotypic characterization of cultures and xenografts was performed. Genomic (CytoScan HD, Affymetrix) and transcriptomic profiles (HTA 2.0 platform, Affymetrix) for VSCC, cell cultures, and xenografts were assessed. P5 cells were able to migrate, invade the Matrigel, and produce tumors in immunodeficient mice, demonstrating their malignant potential. The xenografts unexpectedly presented a sarcomatoid-like carcinoma phenotype. Genomic analysis revealed a high similarity between the VSCC and tumor-derived xenograft, confirming its xenograft origin. Interestingly, a subpopulation of P5 cells presented stem cell-related markers (CD44(+)CD24(-) and ALDH1(high)) and sphere-forming capacity, suggesting their potential xenograft origin. Cell cultures and xenografts retained the genomic alterations present in the parental tumor. Compared to VSCC, differentially expressed transcripts detected in all experimental conditions were associated with cellular morphology, movement, and metabolism and organization pathways. Malignant cell cultures and xenografts derived from a verrucous penile carcinoma were established and fully characterized. Nevertheless, xenograft PeCa models must be used with caution, taking into consideration the selection of specific cell populations and anatomical sites for cell/tumor implantation.

  5. Antibody responses following incident anal and penile infection with human papillomavirus in teenage men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huachun; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Grulich, Andrew E; Hocking, Jane S; Garland, Suzanne M; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Cornall, Alyssa M; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y

    2016-08-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal cancer. Few data exist on antibody responses following incident anogenital infection with HPV in teenage MSM. A cohort of 200 MSM aged 16-20 years from Melbourne, Australia were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. At each visit anal and penile swabs were collected for HPV DNA and serum for HPV antibodies for genotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Merck's Multiplex Assays using Luminex). The main outcome, seroconversion, was defined as the detection of HPV antibodies following a negative antibody result for the same HPV type at baseline. The seroincidence rates for HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 were: 19 (95% CI 12-26), 7 (3-12), 4 (1-8) and 6 (3-11) per 100 person-years, respectively. Men who experienced incident anal HPV infections from types 6/11 were significantly more likely to develop serum antibodies to the same HPV type(s) than those who experienced incident anal infections from types 16/18 [73 vs. 18%, odds ratio (OR) = 15, 95% CI: 2-118]. The median time between incident anal HPV infection and seroconversion for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 was: 91, 38, 161 and 182 days, respectively. Antibody responses against HPV types 6/11 were significantly more likely to occur following incident anal compared with incident penile infection with HPV types 6/11 (OR = 6, 95% CI: 2-21). The likelihood of antibody responses following anogenital HPV infections depends on the HPV type and site of infection. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Melanocortinergic control of penile erection

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, H.; Blevins, J.E.; Vanderah, T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors in the forebrain and spinal cord can be activated by endogenous or synthetic ligands to induce penile erection in rats and human subjects. To better understand how melanocortin circuits play a role in sex behavior, we review the contribution of melanocortin receptors and/or neurons in the hypothalamus, hindbrain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves to erectile function. New information regarding neuropeptides that mediate penile erection has extended our understanding of the central control of sex behavior, and melanocortin agonists may provide alternatives to existing treatment for highly prevalent problems including erectile dysfunction. PMID:15992962

  7. Penile enlargement surgery.

    PubMed

    Alter, G J

    1998-06-01

    Aesthetic surgery to improve the appearance of the penis, scrotum, and pubic region has successfully evolved. Penile lengthening is performed by releasing the suspensory ligament of the penis followed by use of penile weights. Girth is increased by wrapping a dermal-fat graft around the penile circumference. The choice of surgery is determined by the patient's anatomy and desires.

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv 7 channels in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum of healthy and metabolic syndrome rats.

    PubMed

    Jepps, T A; Olesen, S P; Greenwood, I A; Dalsgaard, T

    2016-05-01

    KCNQ-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv 7) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In this study we evaluated the influence of Kv 7 channel activation on smooth muscle relaxation in rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum from normal and spontaneously hypertensive, heart failure-prone (SHHF) rats - a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of KCNQ isoforms in penile tissue. Isometric tension was measured in intracavernous arterial rings and corpus cavernosum strips isolated from normal and SHHF rats. Transcripts for KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were detected in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. KCNQ1 was only found in corpus cavernosum. Immunofluorescence signals to Kv 7.4 and Kv 7.5 were found in penile arteries, penile veins and corpus cavernosum. The Kv 7.2-7.5 activators, ML213 and BMS204352, relaxed pre-contracted penile arteries and corpus cavernosum independently of nitric oxide synthase or endothelium-derived hyperpolarization. Relaxations to sildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an nitric oxide donor, were reduced by blocking Kv 7 channels with linopirdine in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. In SHHF rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum, relaxations to ML213 and BMS204352 were attenuated, and the blocking effect of linopirdine on sildenafil-induced and SNP-induced relaxations reduced. KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were down-regulated, and KCNQ1 was up-regulated in corpus cavernosum from SHHF rats. KCNQ1-5 transcripts remained unchanged in penile arteries from SHHF rats. These data suggest that Kv 7 channels play a role in erectile function and contribute to the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, an early indicator of cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 channels in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum of healthy and metabolic syndrome rats

    PubMed Central

    Jepps, T A; Olesen, S P; Greenwood, I A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose KCNQ‐encoded voltage‐dependent potassium channels (Kv7) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In this study we evaluated the influence of Kv7 channel activation on smooth muscle relaxation in rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum from normal and spontaneously hypertensive, heart failure‐prone (SHHF) rats – a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Experimental Approach Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of KCNQ isoforms in penile tissue. Isometric tension was measured in intracavernous arterial rings and corpus cavernosum strips isolated from normal and SHHF rats. Key Results Transcripts for KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were detected in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. KCNQ1 was only found in corpus cavernosum. Immunofluorescence signals to Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 were found in penile arteries, penile veins and corpus cavernosum. The Kv7.2–7.5 activators, ML213 and BMS204352, relaxed pre‐contracted penile arteries and corpus cavernosum independently of nitric oxide synthase or endothelium‐derived hyperpolarization. Relaxations to sildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an nitric oxide donor, were reduced by blocking Kv7 channels with linopirdine in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. In SHHF rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum, relaxations to ML213 and BMS204352 were attenuated, and the blocking effect of linopirdine on sildenafil‐induced and SNP‐induced relaxations reduced. KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were down‐regulated, and KCNQ1 was up‐regulated in corpus cavernosum from SHHF rats. KCNQ1–5 transcripts remained unchanged in penile arteries from SHHF rats. Conclusions and Implications These data suggest that Kv7 channels play a role in erectile function and contribute to the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, an early indicator of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26802314

  10. Advances in the pathology of penile carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of penile cancer varies from country to country, with the highest figures reported for countries in Africa, South America, and Asia and lowest in the United States and Europe. Causes of this variation are not clear, but they are thought to be related to human papillomavirus infection, smoking, lack of circumcision, chronic inflammation, and poor genital hygiene. Most penile tumors are squamous cell carcinomas, and a variegated spectrum of distinct morphologies is currently recognized. Each one of these subtypes has distinctive pathologic and clinical features. About half of penile carcinomas are usual squamous cell carcinomas, and the rest corresponds to verrucous, warty, basaloid, warty-basaloid, papillary, pseudohyperplastic, pseudoglandular, adenosquamous, sarcomatoid, and cuniculatum carcinomas. Previous studies have found a consistent association of tumor cell morphology and human papillomavirus presence in penile carcinomas. Those tumors composed of small- to intermediate-sized, basaloid ("blue") cells are often human papillomavirus positive, whereas human papillomavirus prevalence is lower in tumors showing large, keratinizing, maturing eosinophilic ("pink") cells. Human papillomavirus-related tumors affect younger patients, whereas human papillomavirus-unrelated tumors are seen in older patients with phimosis, lichen sclerosus, or squamous hyperplasia. This morphologic distinctiveness is also observed in penile intraepithelial neoplasia. The specific aim of this review is to provide a detailed discussion on the macroscopic and microscopic features of all major subtypes of penile cancer. We also discuss the role of pathologic features in the prognosis of penile cancer, the characteristics of penile precursor lesions, and the use of immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of invasive and precursor lesions.

  11. A sexually dimorphic peptidergic system in the lower spinal cord controlling penile function in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Oti, T; Takanami, K; Satoh, K; Ueda, Y; Sakamoto, T; Sakamoto, H

    2017-09-12

    Experimental animal study. Although a population of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has an important role in erection and ejaculation in rats, little information exists on this GRP system in primates. To identify the male-specific GRP system in the primate spinal cord, we studied the lumbosacral cord in macaque monkeys as a non-human primate model. University laboratory in Japan. To determine the gene sequence of GRP precursors, the rhesus macaque monkey genomic sequence data were searched, followed by phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, immunocytochemical analysis for GRP was performed in the monkey spinal cord. We have used bioinformatics to identify the ortholog gene for GRP precursor in macaque monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that primate prepro-GRP is separated from that of other mammalian species and clustered to an independent branch as primates. Immunocytochemistry for GRP further demonstrated that male-dominant sexual dimorphism was found in the spinal GRP system in monkeys as in rodents. We have demonstrated in macaque monkeys that the GRP system in the lower spinal cord shows male-specific dimorphism and may have an important role in penile functions not only in rodents but also in primates. Tissues of Nihonzaru (Japanese macaque monkeys) were provided in part by National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) through the National Bio-Resource Project (NBRP) of the MEXT, Japan. This work was supported in part by KAKENHI from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (to KT; 15KK0343, 15J40220 and HS; 15K15202, 15KK0257, 15H05724).Spinal Cord advance online publication, 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.105.

  12. Expression and distribution of the transient receptor potential cationic channel A1 (TRPA1) in the human clitoris-comparison to male penile erectile tissue.

    PubMed

    Ückert, S; Albrecht, K; Bannowsky, A; Sohn, M; Kuczyk, M A; Hedlund, P

    2017-09-01

    The transient receptor potential cationic channel ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a channel protein assumed to act in various human tissues as mechano- and pain sensor and play a role in neurotransmission. The expression of TRPA has already been investigated in the human prostate and urethra, however, only very few studies have addressed the expression and distribution in the male and female genital tract. The present study aimed to investigate by means of immunohistochemistry (double-labeling technique, laser fluorescence microscopy) in the human clitoris and penile erectile tissue the localization of TRPA1 in relation to nNOS, the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In the clitoral tissue, TRPA1 was observed in basal epithelial cells and slender nNOS-positive nerve fibers transversing the subepithelial space. To a certain degree, in the clitoral epithelial cells, TRPA1 was found co-localized with vimentin. In human corpus cavernosum, immunoreactivity for TRPA1 was seen in nerves transversing the cavernous sinusoidal space and running alongside small arteries, these nerves also displayed expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein (VAChT). Varicose nerves containing nNOS or VIP were not immunoreactive for TRPA1. It seems likely that TRPA1 is involved in nitric oxide-mediated afferent sensory transmission in the clitoris while, in penile erectile tissue, a role for TRPA1 in cholinergic signaling might be assumed.

  13. Evolution of penile prosthetic devices.

    PubMed

    Le, Brian; Burnett, Arthur L

    2015-03-01

    Penile implant usage dates to the 16th century yet penile implants to treat erectile dysfunction did not occur until nearly four centuries later. The modern era of penile implants has progressed rapidly over the past 50 years as physicians' knowledge of effective materials for penile prostheses and surgical techniques has improved. Herein, we describe the history of penile prosthetics and the constant quest to improve the technology. Elements of the design from the first inflatable penile prosthesis by Scott and colleagues and the Small-Carrion malleable penile prosthesis are still found in present iterations of these devices. While there have been significant improvements in penile prosthesis design, the promise of an ideal prosthetic device remains elusive. As other erectile dysfunction therapies emerge, penile prostheses will have to continue to demonstrate a competitive advantage. A particular strength of penile prostheses is their efficacy regardless of etiology, thus allowing treatment of even the most refractory cases.

  14. Evolution of penile prosthetic devices

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Penile implant usage dates to the 16th century yet penile implants to treat erectile dysfunction did not occur until nearly four centuries later. The modern era of penile implants has progressed rapidly over the past 50 years as physicians' knowledge of effective materials for penile prostheses and surgical techniques has improved. Herein, we describe the history of penile prosthetics and the constant quest to improve the technology. Elements of the design from the first inflatable penile prosthesis by Scott and colleagues and the Small-Carrion malleable penile prosthesis are still found in present iterations of these devices. While there have been significant improvements in penile prosthesis design, the promise of an ideal prosthetic device remains elusive. As other erectile dysfunction therapies emerge, penile prostheses will have to continue to demonstrate a competitive advantage. A particular strength of penile prostheses is their efficacy regardless of etiology, thus allowing treatment of even the most refractory cases. PMID:25763121

  15. Penile ossification and acquired penile deviation.

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, W K; Schaefer, H E; Westenfelder, M

    1995-01-01

    We report on 3 patients with penile deviation during erection caused by ossification in the corpora cavernosa. In each case hard plaques could be palpated. These indurations were removed through a dorsal longitudinal incision. Histologically, solid bone was demonstrable. Two patients were able to resume normal sexual intercourse, but one became impotent following postoperative cavernitis. Penile ossification is rare in man, and its etiology is unknown. It bears no relationship to the os penis normally present in many other mammals. Diagnosis is best made by palpation and X-ray examination. The treatment of choice for symptomatic ossification is surgical excision.

  16. Distal ligament in human glans: a comparative study of penile architecture.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Geng-Long; Lin, Chung-Wu; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Chen, Shyh-Chyan; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Ling, Pei-Ying; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Wang, Chii-Jye; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the anatomic distal ligament of the human glans penis and associated clinical implications, we compared the structures of the glans penis and corpora cavernosa in dogs, rats, and humans. From May 2001 to March 2003, gross dissection, microscopic examinations, and stains for elastic fibers and collagen subtypes were made in the penises of 11 adult human male cadavers, 7 dogs, and 5 rats. A distal ligament in the human glans penis replaces the os penis that is present in dogs or rats, also termed the baculum, but retains collagen types I and III as common structural and interlocking components, respectively. The intercavernosal septum is complete, and intracavernosal pillars (ICPs) are abundant in dogs, absent in rats, and moderately developed in humans. A tunica with numerous elastic fibers exists to fulfill the requirements of erectile function in humans but not in dogs or rats, since it is essential for establishing tissue strength to serve as a buttress. We may conclude that in dogs and rats, the strong os penis is designed for ready intromission and is associated with a pair of well-developed nonelastic corpora to serve as a buttress for the os penis. These structures are necessary for the rigorous coitus observed in dogs. The less compliant corpus cavernosum is suitable for the flipping action observed in a mating male rat. These specific anatomic designs may provide explanations for the individual requirements for the specific physiologic functions that differ from species to species. Although there is no os in the human glans, a strong equivalent distal ligament is arranged centrally and acts as a supporting trunk for the glans penis. Without this important structure, the glans could be too weak to bear the buckling pressure generated during coitus and too limber to serve as a patent passage for ejaculation, and it could be too difficult to transmit the intracavernosal pressure surge along the entire penis during ejaculation. Given the common

  17. 21 CFR 876.5020 - External penile rigidity devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External penile rigidity devices. 876.5020 Section 876.5020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5020 External penile...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5020 - External penile rigidity devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External penile rigidity devices. 876.5020 Section 876.5020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5020 External penile...

  19. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a...

  20. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a...

  1. Penile Doppler ultrasonography revisited.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Sung Yoon; Lee, Joo Yong

    2017-06-10

    Penile Doppler ultrasonography is a high-performing, noninvasive or minimally-invasive imaging modality that allows the depiction of the normal anatomy and macroscopic pathologic changes in real time. Moreover, functional changes in penile blood flow, as seen in erectile dysfunction (ED), can be analyzed using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS). This review article describes the normal sonographic anatomy of the penis, the sonographic technique for evaluating ED, the normal phases of erection, and the various causes of ED. Additionally, we describe the interpretation of different parameters and findings on penile CDUS for the diagnosis and classification of ED, priapism, and Peyronie disease.

  2. Penile surgery and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Perovic, Sava V; Djordjevic, Miroslav L J; Kekic, Zoran K; Djakovic, Nenad G

    2002-05-01

    This review will highlight recent advances in the field of penile reconstructive surgery in the paediatric and adult population. It is based on the work published during the year 2001. Besides the anatomical and histological studies of the penis, major contributions have been described in congenital and acquired penile anomalies. Also, a few new techniques and modifications of old procedures are described in order to improve the final functional and aesthetic outcome. The techniques for penile enlargement present a trend in the new millennium, but are still at the stage of investigation.

  3. Pearly Penile Papules

    MedlinePlus

    Young Men's Health http://youngmenshealthsite.org/guides/pearly-penile-papules/ ≡ Menu Ask Us Health Guides Quizzes Parents About Us Donate General Health Sexual Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness ...

  4. The retinoblastoma protein/p16 INK4A pathway but not p53 is disrupted by human papillomavirus in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Prowse, David M; Ktori, Elena; Cuzick, Jack; Ambroisine, Laurence; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Kudahetti, Sakunthala; Watkin, Nicholas; Corbishley, Catherine; Berney, Daniel M

    2011-02-01

    The pathogenesis of penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is not well understood. Human papillomavirus (HPV) may be involved in carcinogenesis, but few studies have compared cell-cycle protein expression in HPV positive and negative cancers. The aim was to determine the extent of HPV infection in different histological subtypes of PSCC and its impact on the expression of key cell-cycle proteins: p53, p21, p16(INK4A) and retinoblastoma (RB) protein. One hundred and forty-eight PSCC samples were examined immunohistochemically for RB, p16(INK4A) , p53 and p21 protein expression. One hundred and two cases were typed for HPV by PCR. HPV DNA was detected in 56% of tumours, with HPV16 present in 81%. Basaloid tumours were related strongly to HPV infection (10 of 13), while verrucous were not (three of 13). Fifty-nine per cent (38 of 64) of usual type SCCs had HPV infection. RB protein correlated negatively (P<0.0001) and p16(INK4A) (P<0.0001) and p21 (P=0.0002) correlated positively with HPV infection. p53 did not correlate with HPV infection. HPV infection is present in more than half of penile cancers and it is responsible for RB pathway disruption. However, no link between HPV and p53 immunodetection was found. Only basaloid and half of usual-type PSSCs correlate with HPV infection, confirming possible separate aetiologies for those tumours. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Penile Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to develop penile cancer. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a group of more than 150 related ... papillomas , which are more commonly called warts . Different HPV types cause different types of warts in various ...

  6. Histologic classification of penile intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Elsa F; Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and their corresponding precancerous lesions can be classified in 2 major groups: human papillomavirus (HPV) related and HPV unrelated. In the former (warty and basaloid SCC), there is a predominance of undifferentiated basaloid cells. In the latter (eg, usual, papillary, and verrucous SCC), the predominant cell is larger with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Based on these morphologic features, a new term, "penile intraepithelial neoplasia" (PeIN), was proposed. PeIN was further subclassified into differentiated and undifferentiated, with the latter being subdivided into basaloid, warty, and warty-basaloid subtypes. Macroscopically, PeIN subtypes are indistinguishable. Microscopically, differentiated PeIN is characterized by acanthosis, parakeratosis, enlarged keratinocytes with abundant "pink" cytoplasm (abnormal maturation), and hyperchromatic cells in the basal layer. In basaloid PeIN the epithelium is replaced by a monotonous population of uniform, small, round, and basophilic cells. Warty PeIN is characterized by a spiky surface, prominent atypical parakeratosis, and pleomorphic koilocytosis. Warty-basaloid PeIN show features of both warty and basaloid PeIN. There is a significant association of subtypes of PeIN with specific variants of invasive SCCs. This is a simple and reproducible nomenclature for penile precancerous lesions based on cell type and differentiation. It takes into account the similarities between vulvar and penile pathology and the hypothesis of a bimodal pathway of penile cancer progression.

  7. Strategies for maintaining penile size following penile implant.

    PubMed

    Lee, King Chien Joe; Brock, Gerald B

    2013-03-01

    Loss of penile size is a common complaint that can negatively affect patient satisfaction rates following successful penile prosthetic implant surgery. The aim of this review is to describe the various strategies that have been used to maintain penile length or girth after the insertion of a penile prosthetic implant. An extensive systematic literature review was performed, based on a search of the PUBMED database for articles published between 2002 to 2012. The following key words were used: penile prosthesis, implant, penile length, size, penis, enhancement, enlargement, phalloplasty, girth, lengthening, and augmentation. Only English-language articles that were related to penile prosthetic surgery and penile size were sought. Based on the results of our search, strategies were classified into 3 groups based on the timepoint in relation to the primary penile prosthetic insertion surgery, which included pre-insertion, intraoperative and post-insertion. Strategies to preserve and potentially increase penile size are of great importance to all implanters. Besides traction therapies and surgeries to enhance perceived penile size, refinements in the surgical approach are simple ways to optimize penile length. A direct comparison of treatment outcomes evaluating the various approaches is not currently possible, owing to divergent study techniques. The implanting surgeon can best serve his patient by adopting a combination of different strategies that are individualized and specific to the patient's needs.

  8. Surgical management of complete penile duplication accompanied by multiple anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Irfan; Turk, Erdal; Ucan, A. Basak; Yayla, Derya; Itirli, Gulcin; Ercal, Derya

    2014-01-01

    Diphallus (penile duplication) is very rare and seen once every 5.5 million births. It can be isolated, but is usually accompanied by other congenital anomalies. Previous studies have reported many concurrent anomalies, such as bladder extrophy, cloacal extrophy, duplicated bladder, scrotal abnormalities, hypospadias, separated symphysis pubis, intestinal anomalies and imperforate anus; no penile duplication case accompanied by omphalocele has been reported. We present the surgical management of a patient with multiple anomalies, including complete penile duplication, hypo-gastric omphalocele and extrophic rectal duplication. PMID:25408817

  9. Penile ossification: A reconstructive challenge.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayan, Arthi; Singla, Nirmish; Morey, Allen F

    2017-01-01

    Penile ossification is a rare condition that occurs most commonly in acquired cases of penile deformity. We report the case of a 43-year-old man with Peyronie disease who was incidentally found to have significant ossified tissue in his penile corpora during complex placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP). His clinical course was later complicated by impending distal extrusion of his IPP laterally, necessitating corporoplasty. Penile ossification remains a poorly understood, unusual entity that may pose a reconstructive challenge for urologists. We discuss evaluation and management of this condition, focusing on important considerations for preoperative counseling and intraoperative pearls.

  10. Penile ossification: A reconstructive challenge

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayan, Arthi; Singla, Nirmish; Morey, Allen F.

    2017-01-01

    Penile ossification is a rare condition that occurs most commonly in acquired cases of penile deformity. We report the case of a 43-year-old man with Peyronie disease who was incidentally found to have significant ossified tissue in his penile corpora during complex placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP). His clinical course was later complicated by impending distal extrusion of his IPP laterally, necessitating corporoplasty. Penile ossification remains a poorly understood, unusual entity that may pose a reconstructive challenge for urologists. We discuss evaluation and management of this condition, focusing on important considerations for preoperative counseling and intraoperative pearls. PMID:28522935

  11. Prevalence, clearance, and incidence of human papillomavirus type-specific infection at the anal and penile site of HIV-infected men.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Laila; Cañadas, Mari-Paz; Videla, Sebastian; Coll, Josep; Molina-López, Rafael A; Sirera, Guillem; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2013-08-01

    We studied the type-specific infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) at the anal canal and penile site in a cohort of HIV-infected men. Prevalence, clearance, and incidence of specific HPV types in the anal canal and penis were determined in 733 HIV-infected men from the Spanish CAn Ruti HIV+ Men ([CARH•MEN]) cohort (538 men who have sex with men [MSM] and 195 heterosexual men). In both groups, the most prevalent high-risk type was HPV-16 (anal canal [31.6% MSM; 6.8% heterosexual] and penis [4.8% MSM; 6.8% heterosexual]). The most prevalent low-risk type was HPV-6 (anal canal [23.2% MSM; 12.8% heterosexual], penis [8.1% MSM; 8.9% heterosexual]). Anal prevalence was significantly higher in MSM, as was incidence, except for HPV-16, which was similar between male groups (5.9 new cases per 1000 person-months [95% confidence interval, 4.3-7.9] in MSM; 4.4 [95% confidence interval, 2.5-7.2] in heterosexual men; P > 0.05). The anal clearance rate of the different HPV types and retention time of infection were similar in both groups, as well as the HPV infection of the penis. HIV-infected MSM had a high prevalence of HPV infection at the anal canal; however, heterosexual HIV-infected men were also at risk for acquiring and sustaining persistent high-risk HPV types at the anal and penile site and are at risk for developing dysplasia in the future. All HIV-infected men should be recommended for routinely anal HPV screening.

  12. Role of adenosine signaling in penile erection and erectile disorders.

    PubMed

    Phatarpekar, Prasad V; Wen, Jiaming; Xia, Yang

    2010-11-01

    Penile erection is a hemodynamic process, which results from increased flow and retention of blood in the penile organ due to the relaxation of smooth muscle cells. Adenosine, a physiological vasorelaxant, has been shown to be a modulator of penile erection. To summarize the research on the role of adenosine signaling in normal penile erection and erectile disorders. Evidence in the literature on the association between adenosine signaling and normal and abnormal penile erection, i.e., erectile dysfunction (ED) and priapism. The article reviews the literature on the role of endogenous and exogenous adenosine in normal penile erection, as well as in erectile disorders namely, ED and priapism. Adenosine has been shown to relax corpus cavernosum from various species including human in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Neuromodulatory role of adenosine in corpus cavernosum has also been demonstrated. Impaired adenosine signaling through A(2B) receptor causes partial resistance of corpus cavernosum, from men with organic ED, to adenosine-mediated relaxation. Increased level of adenosine has been shown to be a causative factor for priapism. Overall, the research reviewed here suggests a general role of exogenous and endogenous adenosine signaling in normal penile erection. From this perspective, it is not surprising that impaired adenosine signaling is associated with ED, and excessive adenosine signaling is associated with priapism. Adenosine signaling represents a potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic target for the treatment of ED and priapism. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Role of Adenosine Signaling in Penile Erection and Erectile Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Phatarpekar, Prasad V.; Wen, Jiaming; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Penile erection is a hemodynamic process, which results from increased flow and retention of blood in the penile organ due to the relaxation of smooth muscle cells. Adenosine, a physiological vasorelaxant, has been shown to be a modulator of penile erection. Aim To summarize the research on the role of adenosine signaling in normal penile erection and erectile disorders. Main Outcome Measures Evidence in the literature on the association between adenosine signaling and normal and abnormal penile erection, i.e., erectile dysfunction (ED) and priapism. Methods The article reviews the literature on the role of endogenous and exogenous adenosine in normal penile erection, as well as in erectile disorders namely, ED and priapism. Results Adenosine has been shown to relax corpus cavernosum from various species including human in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Neuromodulatory role of adenosine in corpus cavernosum has also been demonstrated. Impaired adenosine signaling through A2B receptor causes partial resistance of corpus cavernosum, from men with organic ED, to adenosine-mediated relaxation. Increased level of adenosine has been shown to be a causative factor for priapism. Conclusion Overall, the research reviewed here suggests a general role of exogenous and endogenous adenosine signaling in normal penile erection. From this perspective, it is not surprising that impaired adenosine signaling is associated with ED, and excessive adenosine signaling is associated with priapism. Adenosine signaling represents a potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic target for the treatment of ED and priapism. PMID:19889148

  14. Penile incerceration—A tight affair

    PubMed Central

    Alkizim, Faraj O.; Kanyata, Daniel; Githaiga, Joseph; Oliech, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    A patient presents with penile ring incarceration after using it for penile enlargement and prolonging tumescence. We present a case study of removal of the penile ring under local anaesthesia in a setting where cutting tools were inadequate. PMID:26519807

  15. Nitric oxide-dependent penile erection in mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, A. L.; Nelson, R. J.; Calvin, D. C.; Liu, J. X.; Demas, G. E.; Klein, S. L.; Kriegsfeld, L. J.; Dawson, V. L.; Dawson, T. M.; Snyder, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator of penile erection, because the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (NOS) is localized to the penile innervation and NOS inhibitors selectively block erections. NO can also be formed by two other NOS isoforms derived from distinct genes, inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). To clarify the source of NO in penile function, we have examined mice with targeted deletion of the nNOS gene (nNOS- mice). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mating behavior, electrophysiologically induced penile erection, isolated erectile tissue isometric tension, and eNOS localization by immunohistochemistry and Western blot were performed on nNOS- mice and wild-type controls. RESULTS: Both intact animal penile erections and isolated erectile tissue function are maintained in nNOS mice, in agreement with demonstrated normal sexual behaviors, but is stereospecifically blocked by the NOS inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). eNOS is abundantly present in endothelium of penile vasculature and sinusoidal endothelium within the corpora cavemosa, with levels that are significantly higher in nNOS- mice than in wild-type controls. CONCLUSIONS: eNOS mediates NO-dependent penile erection in nNOS- animals and normal penile erection. These data clarify the role of nitric oxide in penile erection and may have implications for therapeutic agents with selective effects on NOS isoforms. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 PMID:8784782

  16. Nitric oxide-dependent penile erection in mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Burnett, A L; Nelson, R J; Calvin, D C; Liu, J X; Demas, G E; Klein, S L; Kriegsfeld, L J; Dawson, V L; Dawson, T M; Snyder, S H

    1996-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator of penile erection, because the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (NOS) is localized to the penile innervation and NOS inhibitors selectively block erections. NO can also be formed by two other NOS isoforms derived from distinct genes, inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). To clarify the source of NO in penile function, we have examined mice with targeted deletion of the nNOS gene (nNOS- mice). Mating behavior, electrophysiologically induced penile erection, isolated erectile tissue isometric tension, and eNOS localization by immunohistochemistry and Western blot were performed on nNOS- mice and wild-type controls. Both intact animal penile erections and isolated erectile tissue function are maintained in nNOS mice, in agreement with demonstrated normal sexual behaviors, but is stereospecifically blocked by the NOS inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). eNOS is abundantly present in endothelium of penile vasculature and sinusoidal endothelium within the corpora cavemosa, with levels that are significantly higher in nNOS- mice than in wild-type controls. eNOS mediates NO-dependent penile erection in nNOS- animals and normal penile erection. These data clarify the role of nitric oxide in penile erection and may have implications for therapeutic agents with selective effects on NOS isoforms.

  17. [Anatomy correction of penile epispadias].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-Qun; Pan, Huan-Li; Tang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Mu-Xin; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Xiao-Ji; Hu, Chun-Mei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Ning; Xie, Miao

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the pathological characters and anatomic correction of penile epispadias. The urethra was formed by local urethra plate mucosa flaps. The contracture on dorsum of penis was released by cutting off the superficial suspensory ligament to reposition the penile and urethral sponge. From Jun. 2004 to Dec. 2010, 26 cases with penile epispadias were treated. 18 cases were followed up for 6 months to 5 years. 10 cases were treated successfully with good cosmetic and functional results. Urinary incontinence happened in 8 cases, which healed after tightening operation. The anatomic correction of penile epispadias can recover the normal anatomic structure, resulting good cosmetic and functional results.

  18. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  19. Penile suspensory ligament division for penile augmentation: indications and results.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Ying; Kayes, Oliver; Kell, Phillip D; Christopher, Nim; Minhas, Suks; Ralph, David J

    2006-04-01

    This study assessed the management of patients requesting penile length enhancement by division of the penile suspensory ligament. From September 1998 to January 2005, 42 patients with a variety of etiologies were included; all underwent division of the penile suspensory ligament. The outcome was assessed objectively based on increase in flaccid stretched penile length (SPL) and subjectively using the rates of patient satisfaction. The mean increase in SPL was 1.3+/-0.9 cm (range, -1 to +3 cm), with the addition of a silicone spacer placed between the pubis and penis giving a better outcome (p<0.05). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 35% but lower in the group with penile dysmorphic disorder at 27%. Division of the penile suspensory ligament or other augmentation techniques may increase penile length but usually not to a degree that satisfies the patient. Men with penile dysmorphic disorder often have unrealistic expectations regarding the outcome of surgical intervention and should be encouraged to seek psychological help primarily, with surgery reserved as the last resort.

  20. EAU guidelines on penile curvature.

    PubMed

    Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos; Eardley, Ian; Giuliano, François; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios; Moncada, Ignacio; Salonia, Andrea; Vardi, Yoram; Wespes, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Penile curvature can be congenital or acquired. Acquired curvature is secondary due to La Peyronie (Peyronie's) disease. To provide clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of penile curvature. A systematic literature search on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of penile curvature was performed. Articles with the highest evidence available were selected and formed the basis for assigning levels of evidence and grades of recommendations. The pathogenesis of congenital penile curvature is unknown. Peyronie's disease is a poorly understood connective tissue disorder most commonly attributed to repetitive microvascular injury or trauma during intercourse. Diagnosis is based on medical and sexual histories, which are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Physical examination includes assessment of palpable nodules and penile length. Curvature is best documented by a self-photograph or pharmacologically induced erection. The only treatment option for congenital penile curvature is surgery based on plication techniques. Conservative treatment for Peyronie's disease is associated with poor outcomes. Pharmacotherapy includes oral potassium para-aminobenzoate, intralesional treatment with verapamil, clostridial collagenase or interferon, topical verapamil gel, and iontophoresis with verapamil and dexamethasone. They can be efficacious in some patients, but none of these options carry a grade A recommendation. Steroids, vitamin E, and tamoxifen cannot be recommended. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment and penile traction devices may only be used to treat penile pain and reduce penile deformity, respectively. Surgery is indicated when Peyronie's disease is stable for at least 3 mo. Tunical shortening procedures, especially plication techniques, are the first treatment options. Tunical lengthening procedures are preferred in more severe curvatures or in complex deformities. Penile prosthesis implantation is recommended in patients with erectile dysfunction

  1. Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

    1992-01-01

    Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

  2. Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

    1992-01-01

    Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

  3. An update on penile reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Raheem, Amr Abdel; Ralph, David John

    2011-01-01

    Penile reconstruction still represents a formidable challenge for the urologist. In this review, the most recent advances in penile reconstruction after trauma, excision of benign and malignant disease and in patients with micropenis, aphallia or female to male gender dysphoria are reported. PMID:21540867

  4. Use of Human Hybridoma Technology To Isolate Human Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott A; Crowe, James E

    2015-02-01

    The human hybridoma technique offers an important approach for isolation of human monoclonal antibodies. A diversity of approaches can be used with varying success. Recent technical advances in expanding the starting number of human antigen-specific B cells, improving fusion efficiency, and isolating new myeloma partners and new cell cloning methods have enabled the development of protocols that make the isolation of human monoclonal antibodies from blood samples feasible. Undoubtedly, additional innovations that could improve efficiency are possible.

  5. Use of inflatable penile prostheses AMS CX with momentary squeeze in a patient with Peyronie's disease after removal of two previously implanted penile prostheses.

    PubMed

    Vicini, Patrizio; De Marco, Ferdinando; Antonini, Gabriele; De Berardinis, Ettore; Giovannone, Riccardo; Pecoraro, Stefano; Azzarri, Luigi; Gentile, Vincenzo

    2014-03-28

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a fibrotic wound-healing condition of the tunica albuginea that results in penile deformity, curvature, hinging, narrowing and shortening, penile pain, and in some cases, erectile dysfunction (ED). Surgery remains the gold standard treatment option, ensuring the faster and trustworthy treatment. For those patients who have erectile dysfunction and PD, penile prosthesis placement with straightening procedure is the best method to solve both diseases. The aim of this article is to present the use of hydraulic penile prostheses AMS CX with Momentary Squeeze associated with a complete isolation of the neurovascular bundle in a complex case after removal of two previously implanted prostheses in a man suffering from Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction. A 50 year-old patient underwent two previous prosthetic implants in another hospital. The first implantation was performed using an infrapubic approach followed by placement of a three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis. After six months the prosthesis was removed using an infra-pubic approach and two soft prosthesis Virilis II were implanted during the same surgery. One year after the second operation we implanted a hydraulic penile prosthesis AMS CX with Momentary Squeeze after complete isolation of the neurovascular bundle, fixing the two crural tips at the same level of albuginea of the two corpora cavernosa. Twelve months after surgery the penis was completely straight without penile shortening and the patient was fully satisfied with his sexual life. The procedure enabled a perfect alignment of the cylinders along the longitudinal axis and penile prosthetic symmetry to obtain a good penile rigidity and a perfect penile straightening.

  6. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengh are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, EC; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, JF

    2015-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie’s disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients’ perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (± interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (± 3) and 14.25 (± 2) cm, respectively (P = 0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5 ± 2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P = 0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P = 0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5 ± 1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman’s correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50

  7. Penile compartment syndrome: a possible explanation for penile pain in peyronie disease shown by penile sonography.

    PubMed

    Kisselgoff, David; Lebensart, Pinchas D; Shenfeld, Ofer Z

    2007-05-01

    Our purpose was to describe sonographic findings in patients with Peyronie disease that may explain persistent penile pain in these patients. We propose the term penile compartment syndrome for use in radiology and urology practice to describe this condition. Thirty-five consecutive patients were examined. All these patients had clinically "mature" plaques with Peyronie disease. Penile duplex sonography was performed as part of the patient evaluation before possible corrective surgery. All patients had the classic sonographic finding of plaques in the tunica albuginea. Persistent venous insufficiency was noted in 3 patients (8.6%); we observed arterial insufficiency during dynamic evaluation of blood flow in 2 (5.8%); and in 2 cases, a low peak systolic velocity was accompanied by an abnormal cavernous artery structure. Four patients (11.4%) had extensive circular plaques in the tunica albuginea, limiting expansion of the cavernous body during erection, as shown by a constant cavernous body diameter of the affected side compared with an increasing diameter of the unaffected side during the progressive phases of erection. Patients with a constricting ring of plaques had persistent penile pain during erection as well as after injection during penile duplex sonography. Peyronie disease is caused by replacement of penile tunica albuginea tissue with inelastic scarring. One manifestation of Peyronie disease is painful erection. In patients with persistent erectile pain, we found circumferential inelastic scarring of the tunica albuginea. The findings of penile compartment syndrome on penile sonography may influence the urologist's choice of surgical technique for treating Peyronie disease.

  8. Penile revascularization—contemporary update

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Brian; Bastuba, Martin; Goldstein, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary therapies for erectile dysfunction are generally targeted towards older men and universally engage pharmacological and/or device related treatment options. Penile revascularization, using microvascular arterial bypass surgical techniques, is a non-pharmacological, non-device-related, and reconstructive surgical strategy for men with erectile dysfunction that was first described by Dr Vaclav Michal in 1973. Contemporary penile revascularization attempts to ‘cure' pure arteriogenic erectile dysfunction in young men with arterial occlusive pathology in the distal internal pudendal, common penile or proximal cavernosal artery secondary to focal endothelial injury from blunt pelvic, perineal or penile trauma. A microvascular anastomosis is fashioned between the donor inferior epigastric and recipient dorsal penile artery. Increased perfusion pressure is theoretically communicated to the cavernosal artery via perforating branches from the dorsal artery. This article will review the history, indications and pathophysiology of blunt trauma-induced focal arterial occlusive disease in young men with erectile dysfunction, current surgical techniques utilized and results of surgery. Contemporary use of penile revascularization is a logical and wanted therapeutic option to attempt to reverse erectile dysfunction in young men who have sustained blunt pelvic, perineal or penile trauma. PMID:23241636

  9. A review of penile metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mearini, Luigi; Colella, Renato; Zucchi, Alessandro; Nunzi, Elisabetta; Porrozzi, Carlo; Porena, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Penile cancer as primary disease is relatively rare in developed countries. The penis is a rare site of metastases in spite of its rich vascularization. Approximately 500 cases have been reported in the literature; almost 70% of primary lesions are of pelvic origin (from genitourinary or recto-sigmoid primary tumors). We describe a case of penile metastasis from lung cancer. The rarity of the event prompted us to also explore related reviews and discuss the incidence, physiopathology, diagnosis and therapy of penile secondary cancer. PMID:25992200

  10. In Vivo MR Imaging of Dual MRI Reporter Genes and Deltex-1 Gene-modified Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Closed Penile Fracture.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruomi; Li, Qingling; Yang, Fei; Hu, Xiaojun; Jiao, Ju; Guo, Yu; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yong

    2017-10-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporter genes, including ferritin heavy subunit (Fth) and transferrin receptor (TfR), which provide sufficient MRI contrast for in vivo MRI tracking, and the Deltex-1 (DTX1) gene, which promotes human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation to smooth muscle cells (SMCs), to treat closed penile fracture (CPF). Multi-gene co-expressing hMSCs were generated. The expression of mRNA and proteins was assessed, and the original biological properties of hMSCs were determined and compared. The intracellular uptake of iron was evaluated, and the ability to differentiate into SMCs was detected. Fifty rabbits with CPF were randomly transplanted with PBS, hMSCs, Fth-TfR-hMSCs, DTX1-hMSCs, and Fth-TfR-DTX1-hMSCs. In vivo MRI was performed to detect the distribution and migration of the grafted cells and healing progress of CPF, and the results were correlated with histology. The mRNA and proteins of the multi-gene were highly expressed. The transgenes could not influence the original biological properties of hMSCs. The dual MRI reporter genes increased the iron accumulation capacity, and the DTX1 gene promoted hMSC differentiation into SMCs. The distribution and migration of the dual MRI reporter gene-modified hMSCs, and the healing state of CPF could be obviously detected by MRI and confirmed by histology. The dual MRI reporter genes could provide sufficient MRI contrast, and the distribution and migration of MSCs could be detected in vivo. The DTX1 gene can promote MSC differentiation into SMCs for the treatment of CPF and effectively inhibit granulation tissue formation.

  11. Penile Enhancement Procedures with Simultaneous Penile Prosthesis Placement

    PubMed Central

    Hakky, Tariq S.; Suber, Jessica; Henry, Gerard; Smith, David; Bradley, Paul; Martinez, Daniel; Carrion, Rafael E.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present an overview of various techniques performed concomitantly during penile prosthesis surgery to enhance penile length and girth. We report on the technique of ventral phalloplasty and its outcomes along with augmentation corporoplasty, suprapubic lipectomy, suspensory ligament release, and girth enhancement procedures. For the serious implanter, outcomes can be improved by combining the use of techniques for each scar incision. These adjuvant procedures are a key addition in the armamentarium for the serious implant surgeon. PMID:22811703

  12. What Are the Key Statistics about Penile Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer About Penile Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Penile Cancer? The American Cancer Society estimates ... diagnosed About 360 deaths from penile cancer For statistics related to survival, see Survival Rates for Penile ...

  13. Isolation and Functional Analysis of Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Douglas B.; Long Priel, Debra A.; Chu, Jessica; Zarember, Kol A.

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes the isolation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from blood using dextran sedimentation and Percoll or Ficoll-Paque density gradients. Assays of neutrophil functions including respiratory burst activation, phagocytosis, and microbial killing are also described. PMID:26528633

  14. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuta; Shida, Dai; Nasu, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Warabi, Masahiro; Inoue, Satoru

    2012-10-14

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs, metastases to the penis are a rare event. A 57-year-old male, who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier, demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia. No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile lesion. Total penectomy was performed as a curative resection based on a diagnosis of isolated penile metastasis from rectal cancer. A histopathological examination revealed an increase of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the corpus spongiosum consistent with his primary rectal tumor. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin 20 and negative staining for cytokeratin 7, which strongly supported a diagnosis of penile metastasis from the rectum. The patient is alive more than two years without any recurrence.

  15. Complete penile corporeal septation: evaluation with contrast enhanced US.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Bucci, Stefano; Quaia, Emilio; Coss, Matteo; Liguori, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Complete penile corporeal septation is a rare malformation in which the corpora cavernosa are completely isolated. We describe a new method to reach the diagnosis of this malformation using contrast enhanced US. Two patients with complete penile corporeal septation underwent color Doppler and contrast enhanced US after bilateral cavernosal injection of 10 microg prostaglandin E1. Contrast enhanced US was performed using a contrast specific software (Contrast-Tuned imaging, EsaOte, Genoa, Italy) and a linear transducer designed to evaluate superficial structures. Microbubbles of SonoVue (Bracco, Milan, Italy) were injected in one corpus cavernosum. After cavernosal injection of microbubbles no adverse events were observed. Contrast enhanced US showed unilateral enhancement of the corpus cavernosum in which microbubbles were injected. Cavernosography confirmed unilateral corporeal opacification. Contrast enhanced US can be used effectively to diagnose complete penile corporeal septation.

  16. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa) stimulation improves relaxant capacity of PDE5 inhibitors in human penile arteries and recovers the reduced efficacy of PDE5 inhibition in diabetic erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    González-Corrochano, R; La Fuente, JM; Cuevas, P; Fernández, A; Chen, MX; Sáenz de Tejada, I; Angulo, J

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We have evaluated the influence of calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa) activation on cGMP-mediated relaxation in human penile tissues from non-diabetic and diabetic patients, and on the effects of PDE5 inhibitors on erectile responses in control and diabetic rats. Experimental Approach Cavernosal tissues were collected from organ donors and from patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Relaxations of corpus cavernosum strips (HCC) and penile resistance arteries (HPRA) obtained from these specimens were evaluated. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) increases to cavernosal nerve electrical stimulation were determined in anaesthetized diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Key Results Concentration-dependent vasodilation to the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil, in HPRA was sensitive to endothelium removal, NO/cGMP pathway inhibition and KCa blockade. Accordingly, activation of KCa with NS-8 (10 μM) significantly potentiated sildenafil-induced relaxations in HPRA (EC50 0.49 ± 0.22 vs. 5.21 ± 0.63 μM). In HCC, sildenafil-induced relaxation was unaffected by KCa blockade or activation. Potentiating effects in HPRA were reproduced with an alternative PDE5 inhibitor (tadalafil) and KCa activator (NS1619) and prevented by removing the endothelium. Large-conductance KCa (BK) and intermediate-conductance KCa (IK) contribute to NS-8-induced effects and were immunodetected in human and rat penile arteries. NS-8 potentiated sildenafil-induced enhancement of erectile responses in rats. Activation of KCa recovered the impaired relaxation to sildenafil in diabetic HPRA while sildenafil completely reversed diabetes-induced ED in rats only when combined with KCa activation. Conclusions and Implications Activation of KCa improves vasodilatory capacity of PDE5 inhibitors in diabetic and non-diabetic HPRA, resulting in the recovery of erectile function in diabetic rats. These results suggest a therapeutic potential for KCa activation in diabetic ED. PMID:23441682

  18. Ca2+ -activated K+ channel (KCa) stimulation improves relaxant capacity of PDE5 inhibitors in human penile arteries and recovers the reduced efficacy of PDE5 inhibition in diabetic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    González-Corrochano, R; La Fuente, Jm; Cuevas, P; Fernández, A; Chen, Mx; Sáenz de Tejada, I; Angulo, J

    2013-05-01

    We have evaluated the influence of calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa ) activation on cGMP-mediated relaxation in human penile tissues from non-diabetic and diabetic patients, and on the effects of PDE5 inhibitors on erectile responses in control and diabetic rats. Cavernosal tissues were collected from organ donors and from patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Relaxations of corpus cavernosum strips (HCC) and penile resistance arteries (HPRA) obtained from these specimens were evaluated. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) increases to cavernosal nerve electrical stimulation were determined in anaesthetized diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Concentration-dependent vasodilation to the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil, in HPRA was sensitive to endothelium removal, NO/cGMP pathway inhibition and KCa blockade. Accordingly, activation of KCa with NS-8 (10 μM) significantly potentiated sildenafil-induced relaxations in HPRA (EC50 0.49 ± 0.22 vs. 5.21 ± 0.63 μM). In HCC, sildenafil-induced relaxation was unaffected by KCa blockade or activation. Potentiating effects in HPRA were reproduced with an alternative PDE5 inhibitor (tadalafil) and KCa activator (NS1619) and prevented by removing the endothelium. Large-conductance KCa (BK) and intermediate-conductance KCa (IK) contribute to NS-8-induced effects and were immunodetected in human and rat penile arteries. NS-8 potentiated sildenafil-induced enhancement of erectile responses in rats. Activation of KCa recovered the impaired relaxation to sildenafil in diabetic HPRA while sildenafil completely reversed diabetes-induced ED in rats only when combined with KCa activation. Activation of KCa improves vasodilatory capacity of PDE5 inhibitors in diabetic and non-diabetic HPRA, resulting in the recovery of erectile function in diabetic rats. These results suggest a therapeutic potential for KCa activation in diabetic ED. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. The isolation of human plasma prekallikrein

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, D. J.; Mason, Brenda

    1970-01-01

    1. The isolation of human plasma prekallikrein was achieved by fractionating human plasma on diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE) in the presence of heparin. 2. Heparin was shown to inhibit the activation of prekallikrein during the isolation procedure. 3. The isolated prekallikrein fraction had some kallikrein activity which could be inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) without affecting the ability of prekallikrein to be activated. 4. The prekallikrein obtained was functionally pure in that it had no kallikrein inhibiting or activating activity. It was not physico-chemically pure, the major contaminant being the immunoglobulin IgG. PMID:5445687

  20. Combining routine morphology, p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus infection in penile carcinomas: a tissue microarray study using classifier performance analyses.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L; Haffner, Michael C; Lecksell, Kristen L; Sharma, Rajni; Burnett, Arthur L; Netto, George J

    2014-02-01

    Infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of penile cancer in approximately 50% of the patients. The gold standard for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. However, technical requirements and associated costs preclude the worldwide use of PCR assays on a routine basis. Herein, we evaluated the predictive abilities of tumor morphology, immunohistochemistry for p16(INK4a) expression, and in situ hybridization (ISH) for HR-HPV detection in defining HPV status, as established by PCR. Tissue samples from 48 patients with HPV-positive penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were included in 4 tissue microarrays (TMA). Sensitivities and specificities were as follows: tumor morphology, 70% and 68%; p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry, 65% and 90%; HR-HPV ISH, 47% and 100%. Regarding combinations of the predictors, the best performance was seen when HR-HPV ISH and p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry were combined, regardless of the tumor morphology: sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 64%; area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUC) curve, 0.83. Combinations of tumor morphology with p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry or with HR-HPV ISH performed similarly well. In penile SCC, both p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry and ISH for HR-HPV increase the predictive ability of routine morphology in defining HPV status. These tests can be interpreted differentially, depending on the necessity of a higher sensitivity or a higher specificity. For research/screening studies, we recommend combining tumor morphology, p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry, and HR-HPV ISH. To increase sensitivity, positivity in any of these predictors should be considered as indicative of HPV infection. For routine diagnosis of clinical cases, criteria should be more stringent, and, to achieve the highest specificity in classifying a case as HPV-related, all predictors should be consistently positive. The data generated in

  1. Penile metastases of rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Persec, Z; Persec, J; Sovic, T; Rako, D; Savic, I; Marinic, D K

    2014-02-01

    Penile metastases are very rare and arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers. Penile metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma are less common and only 50 or so cases have been reported. We present a 43-year-old man with penile metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma. Two years before admittance to our department, abdomino-perineal resection of the rectum (Miles operation) was performed for a Dukes B (T3N0M0) rectal adenocarcinoma; the surgical resection margins wee negative. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment were administered. One year after initial management, excision of a local recurrence was performed followed by further chemotherapy. The patient subsequently noticed lesions of the penis measuring up to 1.2 cm in diameter. Biopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography showed normal structure of penis with subcutaneous nodular thickening. Soon thereafter, the entire shaft of the penis becomes indurated and the patient developed urinary obstruction. A suprapubic cystostomy was performed. The patient died within 6 months. Penile metastases arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers, primarily from the bladder and the prostate gland. Metastasis to the penis from a rectal adenocarcinoma occurs much less commonly. Other reported primary origins of penile metastases include malignancies of the lung, nasopharynx and melanoma. The major symptoms are penile nodular mass, malignant priapism, penile pain and tenderness, difficulty in micturition, and urinary retention. Possible routes of metastasis are arterial, retrograde venous spread, retrograde lymphatic spread, but direct tumor infiltration/extension is also possible. Penile metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma usually occur within 2 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. The prognosis is very poor regardless of treatment modality. Treatment is more often palliative than curative. Survival usually varies from 7 months to 2 years. Long-term survival (9 years) has been

  2. Immunohistochemical profile of the penile urethra and differential expression of GATA3 in urothelial versus squamous cell carcinomas of the penile urethra.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Han, Jeong S; Lee, Stephen; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Sharma, Rajni; Burnett, Arthur L; Cubilla, Antonio L; Netto, George J

    2013-12-01

    The penile urethra has a distinctive morphology not yet fully characterized by immunohistochemistry. In addition, both urothelial and squamous cell carcinomas have been reported in the penile urethra, and the distinction between these 2 tumors might be difficult. The purposes of this study are to assess the histology and immunohistochemical profile (CK20, CK7, p63, and GATA3) of the penile urethra and to assess the usefulness of Trans-acting T-cell-specific transcription factor (GATA3) and human papillomavirus detection in distinguishing urothelial versus squamous cell carcinomas. Normal penile urethra was evaluated in 11 total penectomies. The penile urethra was lined by 2 cell layers: a superficial single layer of CK7+, CK20-, and p63- columnar cells and a deep stratified layer of CK7-, CK20-, and p63+ cubical cells. Both layers were GATA3+, supporting urothelial differentiation. In addition, 2 tissue microarrays and 6 surgical specimens of primary tumors of the penile urethra (3 urothelial and 3 squamous cell carcinomas) were evaluated for GATA3 expression. In the tissue microarrays, 22 of 25 upper tract urothelial carcinomas and 0 of 38 penile squamous cell carcinomas were GATA3+. In the surgical specimens, GATA3 was positive in all urothelial carcinomas and negative in all squamous cell carcinomas. Human papillomavirus was detected in 2 of 3 squamous cell carcinomas and in 0 of 3 of the urothelial carcinomas. In conclusion, the penile urethra is covered by epithelial cells that are unique in morphology and immunohistochemical profile. In addition, our study suggests that GATA3 and human papillomavirus detection are useful markers for distinguishing urothelial carcinomas from squamous cell carcinomas of the penile urethra.

  3. Penile Cancer: What Happens After Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... material. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy . After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Penile Cancer? Long-Term Side Effects of Penile Cancer Treatment Seeing a New Doctor ...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of penile cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumit; Rajesh, Arumugam

    2014-05-01

    Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm that, although rare in the developed world, has devastating physical and psychological consequences for the patient. Novel MR imaging techniques such as lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced MR imaging may help identify metastatic lymph node disease. This article reviews the normal penile anatomy and MR imaging techniques and features of primary and metastatic penile cancer. Recent advances in penile cancer imaging are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Penile Mondor's disease.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Mondor's disease is a rare, self-limiting, benign process with acute presentation characterized by subcutaneous bands in several parts of the body. Penile Mondor's disease (PMD) is thrombophlebitis of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis. It is usually considered as thrombophlebitis or phlebitis of subcutaneous vessels. Some findings suggest that it might be of lymphatic origin. The chest, abdominal wall, penis, upper arm, and other parts of the body may also be involved by the disease. Although its physiopathology is not exactly known, transection of the vessel during surgery or any type of trauma such as external compression may trigger its possible development. This disease almost always limits itself. It may be associated with psychological distress and sexual incompatibility. The patients usually feel the superficial vein of the penis like a hard rope and present with complaint of pain around this hardness. Diagnosis is usually easy with physical examination but color Doppler ultrasound examination is important for differential diagnosis. Thus, a close collaboration is required between radiologist and urologist in order to determine the correct diagnosis and appropriate therapies.

  6. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of nanoparticles to monitor human mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into penile cavernosum of rats with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Heon; Lee, Hong Jun; Doo, Seung Hwan; Yang, Won Jae; Choi, Dongho; Kim, Jung Hoon; Won, Jong Ho; Song, Yun Seob

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to examine the treatment of erectile dysfunction by use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-labeled human mesenchymal stem cells (SPION-MSCs) transplanted into the cavernous nerve injured cavernosa of rats as monitored by molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each: group 1, sham operation; group 2, cavernous nerve injury; group 3, SPION-MSC treatment after cavernous nerve injury. Immediately after the cavernous nerve injury in group 3, SPION-MSCs were injected into the cavernous nerve injured cavernosa. Serial T2-weighted MRI was done immediately after injection and at 2 and 4 weeks. Erectile response was assessed by cavernous nerve stimulation at 2 and 4 weeks. Prussian blue staining of SPION-MSCs revealed abundant uptake of SPION in the cytoplasm. After injection of 1×10(6) SPION-MSCs into the cavernosa of rats, T2-weighted MRI showed a clear hypointense signal induced by the injection. The presence of SPION in the corpora cavernosa was confirmed with Prussian blue staining. At 2 and 4 weeks, rats with cavernous nerve injury had significantly lower erectile function than did rats without cavernous nerve injury (p<0.05). The group transplanted with SPION-MSCs showed higher erectile function than did the group without SPION-MSCs (p<0.05). The presence of SPION-MSCs for up to 4 weeks was confirmed by MRI imaging and Prussian blue staining in the corpus cavernosa. Transplanted SPION-MSCs existed for up to 4 weeks in the cavernous nerve injured cavernosa of rats. Erectile dysfunction recovered and could be monitored by MRI.

  8. Use of nanoparticles to monitor human mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into penile cavernosum of rats with erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Heon; Lee, Hong Jun; Doo, Seung Hwan; Yang, Won Jae; Choi, Dongho; Kim, Jung Hoon; Won, Jong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to examine the treatment of erectile dysfunction by use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-labeled human mesenchymal stem cells (SPION-MSCs) transplanted into the cavernous nerve injured cavernosa of rats as monitored by molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each: group 1, sham operation; group 2, cavernous nerve injury; group 3, SPION-MSC treatment after cavernous nerve injury. Immediately after the cavernous nerve injury in group 3, SPION-MSCs were injected into the cavernous nerve injured cavernosa. Serial T2-weighted MRI was done immediately after injection and at 2 and 4 weeks. Erectile response was assessed by cavernous nerve stimulation at 2 and 4 weeks. Results Prussian blue staining of SPION-MSCs revealed abundant uptake of SPION in the cytoplasm. After injection of 1×106 SPION-MSCs into the cavernosa of rats, T2-weighted MRI showed a clear hypointense signal induced by the injection. The presence of SPION in the corpora cavernosa was confirmed with Prussian blue staining. At 2 and 4 weeks, rats with cavernous nerve injury had significantly lower erectile function than did rats without cavernous nerve injury (p<0.05). The group transplanted with SPION-MSCs showed higher erectile function than did the group without SPION-MSCs (p<0.05). The presence of SPION-MSCs for up to 4 weeks was confirmed by MRI imaging and Prussian blue staining in the corpus cavernosa. Conclusions Transplanted SPION-MSCs existed for up to 4 weeks in the cavernous nerve injured cavernosa of rats. Erectile dysfunction recovered and could be monitored by MRI. PMID:25874041

  9. Salvage penile curvature correction surgery.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Lee, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Hsu, Geng-Long

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly believed that coarser suture materials should be used to provide sufficient tenacity in surgery for penile curvature correction. We report our 15-year experience of fine sutures in a second operation in 31 patients who underwent prior curvature correction elsewhere with coarser sutures, resulting in recurrent penile curvature. Suture materials used in prior surgeries in these patients were either 2-0 or 3-0 nylon sutures. In this series, all 31 patients underwent a modified Nesbit procedure at the level of the collagen bundles using finer sutures. Prior to July 1998, 10 men underwent salvage surgery using 4-0 polyglactin sutures. Thereafter, we adapted 6-0 nylon sutures for another 21 patients. We categorized the patients into the polyglactin (n = 10) and nylon (n = 21) groups respectively. Overall, 29 patients were available for follow-up while using the abridged 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scoring system, with 21 patients in the nylon group. We have found cavernosography a practical and reliable method to objectively assess penile morphology in these patients. The penile morphology both subjectively and objectively was excellent in all patients, except for 1 in each group. Erectile function restoration showed a trend of satisfaction in the polyglactin group and based on IIEF-5 was significantly improved in the nylon group (14.2 ± 3.6 vs 21.9 ± 2.1, n = 20, P < .001). These results suggest that in penile tunical surgery, fine sutures such as 6-0 nylon may result in better penile morphology and functional outcomes.

  10. Isolation and Functional Analysis of Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Douglas B; Long Priel, Debra A; Chu, Jessica; Zarember, Kol A

    2015-11-02

    This unit describes the isolation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from blood using dextran sedimentation and Percoll or Ficoll-Paque density gradients. Assays of neutrophil functions including respiratory burst activation, phagocytosis, and microbial killing are also described. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Establishment and characterization of a penile cancer cell line, penl1, with a deleterious TP53 mutation as a paradigm of HPV-negative penile carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zaishang; Deng, Chuangzhong; Wang, Liangjiao; Yu, Xingsu; Liang, Peili; Xie, Qiankun; Chen, Peng; Qin, Zike; Ye, Yunlin; Liu, Zhuowei; Zhou, Fangjian; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Han, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To establish penile cancer (PeCa) cell lines for the study of molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and testing therapeutic reagents. Materials and Methods We successfully established two PeCa cell lines from fresh tumor tissues from 21 cases. One cell line named Penl1 was isolated from a lymph node metastasis (LNM) of penile squamous cell carcinoma (PeSCC), usual type and comprehensively characterized here. Our in-depth characterization analysis of the Penl1 cell line included morphology, tumorigenicity, genetic characteristics, protein expression, biology, and chemosensitivity. Penl1 was authenticated by single tandem repeat (STR) DNA typing. Results Comparative histomorphology, genetic characteristics, and protein expression patterns revealed essential similarities between the cell line and its corresponding LNM. In-depth characterization analysis of Penl1 cell line revealed tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice, negative human papilloma virus (HPV) and mycoplasma infection, TP53 mutations and sensitivity to cisplatin and epirubicin. STR DNA typing did not match any cell lines within three international cell banks. The limitation of this study is that one patient cannot represent the complete heterogeneity of PeCa, especially primary tumor. Conclusions We established and characterized an HPV-negative and moderately differentiated PeCa cell model with a TP53 missense mutation from a PeSCC, usual type patient. A preliminarily study of carcinogenesis and chemosensitivity suggests that this cell model carries a tumor suppressor gene mutation and is sensitive to chemotherapy drugs. PMID:27351128

  12. Establishment and characterization of a penile cancer cell line, penl1, with a deleterious TP53 mutation as a paradigm of HPV-negative penile carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jieping; Yao, Kai; Li, Zaishang; Deng, Chuangzhong; Wang, Liangjiao; Yu, Xingsu; Liang, Peili; Xie, Qiankun; Chen, Peng; Qin, Zike; Ye, Yunlin; Liu, Zhuowei; Zhou, Fangjian; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Han, Hui

    2016-08-09

    To establish penile cancer (PeCa) cell lines for the study of molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and testing therapeutic reagents. We successfully established two PeCa cell lines from fresh tumor tissues from 21 cases. One cell line named Penl1 was isolated from a lymph node metastasis (LNM) of penile squamous cell carcinoma (PeSCC), usual type and comprehensively characterized here. Our in-depth characterization analysis of the Penl1 cell line included morphology, tumorigenicity, genetic characteristics, protein expression, biology, and chemosensitivity. Penl1 was authenticated by single tandem repeat (STR) DNA typing. Comparative histomorphology, genetic characteristics, and protein expression patterns revealed essential similarities between the cell line and its corresponding LNM. In-depth characterization analysis of Penl1 cell line revealed tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice, negative human papilloma virus (HPV) and mycoplasma infection, TP53 mutations and sensitivity to cisplatin and epirubicin. STR DNA typing did not match any cell lines within three international cell banks. The limitation of this study is that one patient cannot represent the complete heterogeneity of PeCa, especially primary tumor. We established and characterized an HPV-negative and moderately differentiated PeCa cell model with a TP53 missense mutation from a PeSCC, usual type patient. A preliminarily study of carcinogenesis and chemosensitivity suggests that this cell model carries a tumor suppressor gene mutation and is sensitive to chemotherapy drugs.

  13. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. Study population The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Main variables Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Descriptive data Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. Conclusion The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes. PMID:27822104

  14. Penile Carcinoma in Northern Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Ramdass, MJ; Naraynsingh, V; Young-Sing, Q; Mooteeram, J; Barrow, S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the current incidence as well as general and ethnic trends of penile carcinoma in northern Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases of penile carcinoma presenting in north and east Trinidad, as well as Tobago over an eight-year period. Results: There were 19 cases from October 2003 to February 2012 with an age range of 42–96 years, mean of 59 years; peak age of presentation was 41–50 years and the number of cases presenting per year varied from one to four, with an average of three new cases yearly. Of 19 cases, 63% (12) originated from Port-of-Spain General Hospital (POSGH), 26% (5) from Sangre Grande (SGH) and 11% (2) from Tobago (TRH). There were 14 (74%) patients of African descent, three mixed and two of East Indian descent. There were four associated inflammatory lesions, five with ulcers, five verrucous lesions and two (10.5%) with human papillomavirus (HPV). One case presented with metastatic disease to the groin with erosion into the common femoral artery resulting in a blow-out of the vessel. The patient had the vessel oversewn and an extra-anatomic bypass done. He later had an above-knee amputation due to graft infection and failure. Conclusion: The incidence of penile carcinoma in north Trinidad and in Tobago is low and has halved in the past two decades. It stands at 0.6 cases per 100 000 males with the peak age group being 41–50 years, and with 95% of cases occurring between 41 and 80 years. There is a statistically significant association with active infection and being Afro-Caribbean. The decreasing incidence may be attributed to better hygiene, a higher rate of circumcision and low HPV rates in our population. PMID:25803395

  15. The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Öztürk, Buket; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The Danish National Penile Cancer Quality database (DaPeCa-data) aims to improve the quality of cancer care and monitor the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of all incident penile cancer cases in Denmark. The aim is to assure referral practice, guideline adherence, and treatment and development of the database in order to enhance research opportunities and increase knowledge and survival outcomes of penile cancer. The DaPeCa-data registers all patients with newly diagnosed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in Denmark since June 2011. Data are systematically registered at the time of diagnosis by a combination of automated data-linkage to the central registries as well as online registration by treating clinicians. The main variables registered relate to disease prognosis and treatment morbidity and include the presence of risk factors (phimosis, lichen sclerosus, and human papillomavirus), date of diagnosis, date of treatment decision, date of beginning of treatment, type of treatment, treating hospital, type and time of complications, date of recurrence, date of death, and cause of death. Registration of these variables correlated to the unique Danish ten-digit civil registration number enables characterization of the cohort, individual patients, and patient groups with respect to age; 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival; recurrence patterns; and morbidity profile related to treatment modality. As of August 2015, more than 200 patients are registered with ∼65 new entries per year. The DaPeCa-data has potential to provide meaningful, timely, and clinically relevant quality data for quality maintenance, development, and research purposes.

  16. [Isolation, culture and identification of human odontoclasts].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Jiao-cui; Chen, Xiao-ying; Yu, Dong-sheng

    2013-06-01

    To isolate, culture and identify odontoclasts in vitro and to establish a method of culturing human odontoclasts. Healthy and retentive deciduous teeth were extracted, and then placed in α-minimum essential medium containing 0.1% collagenase and 0.2% dispase for 1 h.Odontoclasts were obtained and incubated from the absorbing root surfaces of deciduous teeth.Isolated cells were viewed by inverted phase contrast microscope firstly. Then, the isolated odontoclasts were morphologically observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The prepared teeth slices were cocultured with the isolated odontoclasts and scanning electronic microscope(SEM) was used to demonstrate the presence of resorption lacunae. The isolated odontoclasts appeared as multinucleated giant cell with many vacuolus in cytoplasm. TRAP staining demonstrated that the cytoplasm of the odontoclasts was full of claret-red positive particles.Resorption lacunae on teeth slices which cocultured with odontoclasts were seen under SEM. Enzyme digestion is an effective method to isolate odontoclasts from absorbing root surface of deciduous teeth.

  17. Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Priapism.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Ömer Barış; Pazır, Yaşar; Kadıoğlu, Ateş

    2017-09-12

    Priapism is defined as a full or partial erection lasting longer than 4 hours after sexual stimulation and orgasm or unrelated to sexual stimulation. The main goal of priapism management is to resolve the episode immediately to preserve erectile function and penile length. Corporal smooth muscle necrosis is likely to have already occurred, and medically refractory erectile dysfunction is expected in patients with a protracted episode. Penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) in the early or late phase of priapism can restore erectile function. To review the literature on PPI in priapism. A PubMed search of all English-language articles published before 2017 was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement using the following search terms: penile prosthesis implantation, priapism, and corporal fibrosis. All publications reporting on PPI during or after priapism episodes were included for review. Three types of priapism were reviewed for management using PPI. Surgical techniques, outcomes, and patient satisfaction were reported. Early implantation (during the episode) is technically easier and has lower complication rates compared with delayed (electively, after the erectile dysfunction is observed) surgery. Immediate PPI also allows preservation of penile length, which is related to higher satisfaction rates. The paradigm is shifting toward immediate PPI in the management of ischemic priapism. Patients with non-ischemic priapism or recurrent priapism, even without a major ischemic episode, are at high risk for erectile dysfunction and are candidates for PPI. Yücel ÖB, Pazir Y, Kadıoğlu A. Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Priapism. Sex Med Rev 2017;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Melanocortin receptors, melanotropic peptides and penile erection.

    PubMed

    King, Stephen H; Mayorov, Alexander V; Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; Hruby, Victor J; Vanderah, Todd W; Wessells, Hunter

    2007-01-01

    Penile erection is a complex physiologic event resulting from the interactions of the nervous system on a highly specialized vascular organ. Activation of central nervous system melanocortinergic (MC) receptors with either endogenous or synthetic melanotropic ligands may initiate and/or facilitate spontaneous penile erection. While the CNS contains principally the MC3 and MC4 receptor subtypes, there is conflicting data as to which receptor mediates erection. Although the MC4R is emerging as the principle effector of MC induced erection, the role of the MC3R is poorly understood. Manipulation of each receptor subtype with newly synthesized receptor specific agonists and antagonists, as well as knockout mice, has elucidated their individual contributions. Novel data from our laboratories suggests that antagonism of forebrain MC3R may enhance melanocortin-induced erections. Furthermore, melanocortin agents may interact with better-studied systems such as oxytocinergic pathways at the hypothalamic, brainstem or spinal level. Current therapies for erectile dysfunction target end organ vascular tissue. Manipulation of MC receptors may provide an alternative, centrally mediated therapeutic approach for erectile and other sexual dysfunctions. The non-specific "superpotent" MC agonist, PT-141, which is the carboxylate derivative of MT-II, has reached phase II human trials. Through their centrally mediated activity, melanocortin agonists have potential to treat erectile dysfunction as well as possible applications to the unmet medical needs of decreased sexual motivation and loss of libido.

  19. Melanocortin Receptors, Melanotropic Peptides and Penile Erection

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen H.; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Balse-Srinivasan, Preeti; Hruby, Victor J.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Wessells, Hunter

    2009-01-01

    Penile erection is a complex physiologic event resulting from the interactions of the nervous system on a highly specialized vascular organ. Activation of central nervous system melanocortinergic (MC) receptors with either endogenous or synthetic melanotropic ligands may initiate and/or facilitate spontaneous penile erection. While the CNS contains principally the MC3 and MC4 receptor subtypes, there is conflicting data as to which receptor mediates erection. Although the MC4R is emerging as the principle effector of MC induced erection, the role of the MC3R is poorly understood. Manipulation of each receptor subtype with newly synthesized receptor specific agonists and antagonists, as well as knockout mice, has elucidated their individual contributions. Novel data from our laboratories suggests that antagonism of forebrain MC3R may enhance melanocortin-induced erections. Furthermore, melanocortin agents may interact with better-studied systems such as oxytocinergic pathways at the hypothalamic, brainstem or spinal level. Current therapies for erectile dysfunction target end organ vascular tissue. Manipulation of MC receptors may provide an alternative, centrally mediated therapeutic approach for erectile and other sexual dysfunctions. The non-specific “superpotent” MC agonist, PT-141, which is the carboxylate derivative of MT-II, has reached phase II human trials. Through their centrally mediated activity, melanocortin agonists have potential to treat erectile dysfunction as well as possible applications to the unmet medical needs of decreased sexual motivation and loss of libido. PMID:17584130

  20. Proteus species isolated from human eyes.

    PubMed

    Okumoto, M; Smolin, G; Belfort, R; Kim, H B; Siverio, C E

    1976-04-01

    Of 34 species of Proteus isolated from human eyes, 29 (85%) were P. mirabilis and five (15%) were P. morganii. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity studies showed that gentamicin best controlled both P. mirabilis and P. morganii of all the antibiotics tested. In vivo tests on experimental Proteus infections of rabbit coreas, treated with gentamicin and tobramycin, yielded comparable clinical results, but gentamicin was more effective in eliminating the organism from the experimental lesions.

  1. Dysfunctional penile cholinergic nerves in diabetic impotent men

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Impotence in the diabetic man may be secondary to a neuropathic condition of the autonomic penile nerves. The relationship between autonomic neuropathy and impotence in diabetes was studied in human corporeal tissue obtained during implantation of a penile prosthesis in 19 impotent diabetic and 15 nondiabetic patients. The functional status of penile cholinergic nerves was assessed by determining their ability to accumulate tritiated choline (34), and synthesize (34) and release (19) tritiated-acetylcholine after incubation of corporeal tissue with tritiated-choline (34). Tritiated-choline accumulation, and tritiated-acetylcholine synthesis and release were significantly reduced in the corporeal tissue from diabetic patients compared to that from nondiabetic patients (p less than 0.05). The impairment in acetylcholine synthesis worsened with the duration of diabetes (p less than 0.025). No differences in the parameters measured were found between insulin-dependent (11) and noninsulin-dependent (8) diabetic patients. The ability of the cholinergic nerves to synthesize acetylcholine could not be predicted clinically with sensory vibration perception threshold testing. It is concluded that there is a functional penile neuropathic condition of the cholinergic nerves in the corpus cavernosum of diabetic impotent patients that may be responsible for the erectile dysfunction.

  2. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: what the evidence really says.

    PubMed

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David; Sønksen, Jens

    2013-11-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programmes focus on tissue oxygenation. Animal studies support the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) after cavernous nerve damage but results from human studies are contradictory. The largest study to date found no long-term effect of either daily or on-demand PDE5I administration after RP compared with placebo. The effects of prostaglandin and vacuum erection devices are questionable and high-quality studies are lacking. Better documentation for current penile rehabilitation and/or better rehabilitation protocols are needed. One must be careful not to repeat the statement that penile rehabilitation improves erectile function after RP so many times that it becomes a truth even without the proper scientific backing. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  3. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masferrer, Emili; Ferrándiz-Pulido, Carla; Masferrer-Niubò, Magalí; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alfredo; Gil, Inmaculada; Pont, Antoni; Servitje, Octavi; García de Herreros, Antonio; Lloveras, Belen; García-Patos, Vicenç; Pujol, Ramon M; Toll, Agustí; Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a phenomenon in epithelial tumors that involves loss of intercellular adhesion, mesenchymal phenotype acquisition and enhanced migratory potential. While the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process has been extensively linked to metastatic progression of squamous cell carcinoma, studies of the role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma containing high risk human papillomaviruses are scarce. Moreover, to our knowledge epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involvement in human penile squamous cell carcinoma, which can arise through transforming HPV infections or independently of HPV, has not been investigated. We evaluated the presence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers and their relationship to HPV in penile squamous cell carcinoma. We assessed the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition related transcription factors Twist, Zeb1 and Snail by immunohistochemical staining in 64 penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. HPV was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Simultaneous loss of membranous E-cadherin expression and vimentin over expression were noted in 43.5% of penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. HPV was significantly associated with loss of membranous E-cadherin but not with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Recurrence and mortality rates were significantly higher in cases showing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Our findings indicate that in penile squamous cell carcinoma epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is associated with poor prognosis but not with the presence of HPV. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Penile Lengthening, Girth, and Size Preservation at the Time of Penile Prosthesis Insertion.

    PubMed

    Tran, Henry; Goldfarb, Robert; Ackerman, Anika; Valenzuela, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    Penile prosthetic devices are the gold standard treatment of medication-refractory erectile dysfunction. Inflatable penile prosthetic (IPP) devices have been available and used for more than four decades. Oftentimes, medical conditions causing erectile dysfunction also cause penile shortening, causing decreased patient quality of life. To identify and review all available penile lengthening procedures that can be performed at time of IPP insertion. An extensive, systematic literature review was performed using PubMed searching for key terms penile lengthening, inflatable penile prosthesis, penile girth, corporoplasty, glans augmentation, and penile enhancement; all articles with subjective and/or objective penile length outcomes were reviewed. A review of various techniques for penile length and girth preservation and enhancement during penile prosthesis insertion. Several advanced and novel techniques were found for penile length preservation and enhancement at time of IPP insertion, including the sub-coronal IPP insertion technique, and adjuvant maneuvers during insertion, such as the sliding technique, modified sliding technique, multiple slice technique, and circumferential incision and grafting. Other adjuvant techniques that can enhance perception of increased length include ventral phalloplasty, suprapubic lipectomy, and suspensory ligament release. Further enhancement can be obtained using augmentation corporoplasty and glans augmentation with hyaluronic acid and other fillers. The different techniques vary in complexity and could require specialized training and experience. Maximum length gain appears to be limited by the length of the neurovascular bundles. Overall, surgical penile lengthening procedures at time of IPP insertion appear safe and effective for treatment of patients with penile shortening and severe erectile dysfunction. These therapies can significantly improve patient self-esteem and quality of life in properly selected patients. Tran H

  5. Testicular shielding in penile brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Arpita; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Ghadi, Yogesh; Murthy, Vedang; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile cancer, although rare, is one of the common genitourinary cancers in India affecting mostly aged uncircumcised males. For patients presenting with small superficial lesions < 3 cm restricted to glans, surgery, radical external radiation or brachytherapy may be offered, the latter being preferred as it allows organ and function preservation. In patients receiving brachytherapy, testicular morbidity is not commonly addressed. With an aim to minimize and document the doses to testis after adequate shielding during radical interstitial brachytherapy for penile cancers, we undertook this study in 2 patients undergoing brachytherapy and forms the basis of this report. Material and methods Two patients with early stage penile cancer limited to the glans were treated with radical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using interstitial implant. A total of 7-8 tubes were implanted in two planes, parallel to the penile shaft. A total dose of 44-48 Gy (55-60 Gy EQD2 doses with α/β = 10) was delivered in 11-12 fractions of 4 Gy each delivered twice daily. Lead sheets adding to 11 mm (4-5 half value layer) were interposed between the penile shaft and scrotum. The testicular dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each patient, dosimetry was done for 3 fractions and mean calculated. Results The cumulative testicular dose to left and right testis was 31.68 cGy and 42.79 cGy for patient A, and 21.96 cGy and 23.28 cGy for patient B. For the same patients, the mean cumulative dose measured at the posterior aspect of penile shaft was 722.15 cGy and 807.72 cGy, amounting to 16.4% and 16.8% of the prescribed dose. Hence, the application of lead shield 11 mm thick reduced testicular dose from 722-808 cGy to 21.96-42.57 cGy, an “absolute reduction” of 95.99 ± 1.5%. Conclusions With the use of a simple lead shield as described, we were able to effectively reduce testicular dose from “spermicidal” range to “oligospermic” range with possible

  6. Shortened penis post penile prosthesis implantation treated with subcutaneous soft silicone penile implant: case report.

    PubMed

    Shirvanian, V; Lemperle, G; Araujo Pinto, C; Elist, J J

    2014-01-01

    Penile prosthesis surgery for erectile dysfunction has the highest satisfaction rates among all treatment options but is often associated with subjective and objective loss of penile length and girth following surgery. To present a novel technique using a subcutaneous soft silicone implant for reversal of penile shortening and narrowing after prosthesis surgery, with additional gains in overall penile length and girth. Nine patients were treated with the insertion of a subcutaneous soft silicone penile implant. All patients had previously reported a loss in penile length (0.5-2 cm), and seven of nine patients also reported a loss in penile girth (0.5-2.6 cm) after penile prosthesis surgery. During a follow-up period of 4-24 months, penile length and girth measurements showed a mean increase in length of 2.4 cm (±0.75 cm) and a mean increase in girth of 3.4 cm (±0.94 cm). The additional insertion of a subcutaneous soft silicone implant in patients with decreased penile length and girth after penile prosthesis surgery is an effective treatment option that provides reversal of lost penile length and girth.

  7. Human blood glycosaminoglycans: isolation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Anower-E-Khuda, Md Ferdous; Kimata, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharides having disaccharide building blocks consisting of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine, or N-acetylgalactosamine) and a uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose. Glycosaminoglycans have sulfated residues at various positions except for hyaluronan, and those sulfated residues regulate the biological functions of a wide variety of proteins, primarily through high-affinity interactions mediated by specific patterns/densities of sulfation and sugar sequences. Alteration of GAG structure is associated with a number of disease conditions and therefore the analyses of GAG structures and their sulfation patterns are important for the development of disease biomarkers and for treatment options. Extensive structural and quantitative analyses of GAGs from human blood are largely unexplored which may be due to the exhaustive isolation process because of the presence of too much interfering proteins and lipids such as serum albumin. Therefore we established a new GAG isolation method using the least amount (~200 μl) of human blood, consisting of a combination of proteolytic digestion and selective ethanol precipitation of GAGs, digestion of GAGs recovered on the filter cup by direct addition of GAG lyase reaction solution, and subsequent high-pressure liquid chromatography of unsaturated disaccharide products that enable to analyze GAG structures and contents. This isolation method offers an 80 % recovery of GAGs and can be applied to analyze a minute GAG content (≥1 nmol) from the least amount of biological fluids. Hence the method could be useful for the development of disease biomarkers.

  8. 20-year experience with iatrogenic penile injury.

    PubMed

    Amukele, Samuel A; Lee, Gene W; Stock, Jeffrey A; Hanna, Moneer K

    2003-10-01

    We review our experience with the management of iatrogenic penile injuries. Apart from circumcision, serious damage to the penis can occur following hypospadias repair, surgery for priapism or total loss of the penis following surgical repair of bladder exstrophy. A retrospective analysis of patients with iatrogenic penile amputation referred to us between 1980 and 2000 was undertaken. Causes of injury and choice of management were reviewed. Of the 13 cases treated during the 20-year period mechanism of primary injury was circumcision in 4, hypospadias repair in 6, priapism in 1, bladder exstrophy repair in 1 and penile carcinoma in 1. A variety of techniques were used for phallic reconstruction. Penile degloving, division of suspensory ligament and rotational skin flaps achieved penile augmentation and enhancement. Reasonable cosmesis and penile length were achieved in all cases. In indicated cases microsurgical phalloplasty was technically feasible. However long-term followup showed various complications including erosions from the use of a penile stiffener. The ultimate goal of reconstructive surgery is to have a penis with normal function and appearance. The management of penile injury requires a wide variety of surgical techniques that are tailored to the individual patient. Expedient penile reconstruction is successful and therapeutic delay is associated with complications.

  9. [Hydrogen sulfide and penile erection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Yong; Jiang, Rui

    2012-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third type of active endogenous gaseous signal molecule following nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In mammalians, H2S is mainly synthesized by two proteases, cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE). H2S plays an essential function of physiological regulation in vivo, and promotes penile erection by acting on the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to relax the vascular smooth muscle as well as by the synergistic effect with testosterone and NO to relax the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). At present, the selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor is mainly used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), but some ED patients fail to respond. Therefore, further studies on the mechanism of H2S regulating penile erection may provide a new way for the management of erectile dysfunction.

  10. Penetration of aflatoxins through isolated human epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.T.; Kemppainen, B.W.; Norred, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) could penetrate through isolated human epidermis (stratum corneum plus viable epidermis). ( UC)AFB1 (7.5-9.3 micrograms) was applied to the stratum corneum of epidermal disks mounted in Teflon diffusion cells. ( UC)AFB1 penetrated chemically unaltered through the isolated epidermis. Chloroform-extractable radioactivity accounted for 82.5 +/- 3.7% of the total penetrating radioactivity in the receptor fluid of the diffusion cells. The rate of penetration was very slow when experiments were conducted under nonoccluded conditions, but was approximately 40 times greater under conditions of occlusion. Penetration after 46 h was less than 0.05% and 3.41% of the applied dose under nonoccluded and occluded conditions, respectively. Total recovery expressed as a percentage of the applied radioactivity was 98.6 +/- 6.4%.

  11. Simultaneous penile lengthening and penile prosthesis implantation in patients with Peyronie's disease, refractory erectile dysfunction, and severe penile shortening.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Garaffa, Giulio; Djinovic, Rados; Egydio, Paulo; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Miano, Roberto; Loreto, Carla; Ralph, David J

    2012-01-01

    Due to loss of length, patients who had penile prosthesis implantation for Peyronie's disease (PD) show a statistically significant reduction in their levels of satisfaction when compared with the general implant population. The aim of this study is to report our experience of penile lengthening with circumferential graft during penile prosthesis implantation in patients with PD and severe penile shortening. Between March 2006 and February 2008, 23 patients with PD, refractory erectile dysfunction, and severe penile shortening underwent penile lengthening with circumferential graft and concomitant implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis. Surgical outcome and complications have been recorded during postoperative follow-up. Patients' satisfaction has been assessed 6 months postoperatively with the administration of the modified Erectile Dysfunction Index of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire. After an average follow-up of 22 months (range 6-36), 20 patients attended all the postoperative follow-up visits and returned the EDITS questionnaire. An average length gain of 2.8 cm (range 2.2-4.5) was recorded, and all patients were able to cycle the device and engage in penetrative sexual intercourse. Patient recorded complications included diminished glans sensitivity in four (20%) and persistent dorsal curvature of less than 15° in three (15%). Overall, 18 patients (90%) were satisfied with the cosmetic and functional result of surgery. Penile lengthening with circumferential graft during penile prosthesis implantation in patients with PD represents a safe and reproducible technique that yields higher satisfaction rates than penile prosthesis implantation alone in patients with severe penile shortening. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Neurophysiological basis of penile erection.

    PubMed

    Priviero, Fernanda B M; Leite, Romulo; Webb, R Clinton; Teixeira, Cleber E

    2007-06-01

    Penile erection involves a complex interaction between the central nervous system and local factors. It is a neurovascular event modulated by psychological and hormonal factors. The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as an intercellular messenger or neurotransmitter paved the way for identifying important mechanisms underlying physiological and pathophysiological events in the penis, in addition to providing the knowledge for the development of new therapeutics based on a novel concept of molecule and cell interaction. Despite the fact that sinusoidal endothelial cells also produce and release NO in response to chemical and possibly physical stimuli, roles of neurogenic NO in penile erection appear to be more attractive and convincing, since the pharmacological neuromodulation represents an essential step to attaining penile erection. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is caused by a variety of pathogenic factors, particularly impaired formation and action of NO. Hence, a thorough knowledge of the physiology of erection is essential for future pharmacological innovations in the field of male ED, particularly targeting NO or intracellular cyclic GMP, which represent the most promising therapeutic approach to treat patients with ED.

  13. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-30

    with a materials preventing evaporation of volatile components that were of a particular for identification of the target compounds. The...stress. 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 n o rm a liz e d i n te n s it ie s 15.46 19.17 16.52 16.64 15.17 15.62 Gas Chromatography retention time in...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0341 TITLE: Identification and Isolation of Human

  14. Isolation and Differentiation of Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rios, Francisco J; Touyz, Rhian M; Montezano, Augusto C

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage subtypes display protective or pathogenic activities in vascular lesions. They recognize and engulf modified lipids, accumulate in the arterial intima, contributing to the atherosclerosis development. In the heart, vascular tissues and perivascular adipose tissues, there is increasing evidence that macrophages play a role in endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation and remodeling. In this chapter we describe protocols to isolate human monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cell and how to differentiate them into macrophages by using growth factors (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF or colony-stimulating factor-M-CSF) or by different cell culture medium concentration. We also describe how to indentify different macrophage activation phenotypes.

  15. Isolation and generation of human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Nair, Smita; Archer, Gerald E; Tedder, Thomas F

    2012-11-01

    Dendritic cells are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells (APC), which may be isolated or generated from human blood mononuclear cells. Although mature blood dendritic cells normally represent ∼0.2% of human blood mononuclear cells, their frequency can be greatly increased using the cell enrichment methods described in this unit. More highly purified dendritic cell preparations can be obtained from these populations by sorting of fluorescence-labeled cells. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be generated from monocytes by culture with the appropriate cytokines, as described here. In addition, a negative selection approach is provided that may be employed to generate cell preparations that have been depleted of dendritic cells to be used for comparison in functional studies.

  16. Improved human mesenchymal stem cell isolation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tzu-Min; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Lin, Hui-Ping; Chou, Pei-Wen; Chen, Julia Yi-Ru; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen; Chuang, Hong-Meng; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Chen, Yen-Chung; Yen, Ssu-Yin; Huang, Mao-Hsuan; Liang, Bing-Chiang; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2014-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are currently available for a range of applications and benefits and have become a good material for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and disease therapy. Before ex vivo expansion, isolation and characterization of primary hMSCs from peripheral tissues are key steps for obtaining adequate materials for clinical application. The proportion of peripheral stem cells is very low in surrounding tissues and organs; thus the recovery ratio will be a limiting factor. In this review, we summarized current common methods used to isolate peripheral stem cells, as well as the new insights revealed to improve the quantity of stem cells and their stemness. These strategies offer alternative ways to acquire hMSCs in a convenient and/or effective manner, which is important for clinical treatments. Improved isolation and mass amplification of the hMSCs while ensuring their stemness and quantity will be an important step for clinical use. Enlarged suitable hMSCs are more clinically applicable for therapeutic transplants and may help people live longer and better.

  17. Penile prosthesis implantation: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Simmons, M; Montague, D K

    2008-01-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation is the oldest effective treatment for erectile dysfunction. This review examines the past, present and future of penile prosthesis implantation. Advances in prosthetic design and implantation techniques have resulted today in devices that produce nearly normal flaccid and erect states, and have remarkable freedom from mechanical failure. The future of prosthetic design holds promises for even more improvements.

  18. [Penile dimensions in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Belousov, I I; Kogan, M I; Ibishev, H S; Vorobyev, S V; Khripun, I A; Gusova, Z R

    2015-12-01

    The current literature provides a wide range of publications on the anthropometry of the penis specifying the relationship between penile dimensions and sex hormones, weight, height and erectile function. But most of the studies involved healthy volunteers or young patients with erectile dysfunction. Our study was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes. Penile measurements obtained in the present study were compared those of the average Russian man. The patients were divided into groups with preserved and impaired erectile function. Erectile function was also studied relative to the variability of penile dimensions. The effect of DM duration on erectile function was defined. Comparative analysis revealed the relationship between penile anatomical dimensions and erectile function. We studied the effect of type 2 diabetes on the anatomical dimensions and elasticity of the penis, established the relationship between penile dimensions and elasticity of the penis. The correlation between the severity of erectile dysfunction and serum testosterone levels on one side, and penile dimensions on the other was found. The effect of penile dimensions on erectile function in DM patients was also examined. Determining penile dimensions and their variability due to various pathological conditions or processes, may eventually lead to better result of ED management.

  19. First isolation of Borrelia lusitaniae from a human patient.

    PubMed

    Collares-Pereira, M; Couceiro, S; Franca, I; Kurtenbach, K; Schäfer, S M; Vitorino, L; Gonçalves, L; Baptista, S; Vieira, M L; Cunha, C

    2004-03-01

    The first human isolate of Borrelia lusitaniae recovered from a Portuguese patient with suspected Lyme borreliosis is described. This isolate, from a chronic skin lesion, is also the first human isolate of Borrelia in Portugal. Different phenotypic and molecular methods are used to characterize it.

  20. First Isolation of Borrelia lusitaniae from a Human Patient

    PubMed Central

    Collares-Pereira, M.; Couceiro, S.; Franca, I.; Kurtenbach, K.; Schäfer, S. M.; Vitorino, L.; Gonçalves, L.; Baptista, S.; Vieira, M. L.; Cunha, C.

    2004-01-01

    The first human isolate of Borrelia lusitaniae recovered from a Portuguese patient with suspected Lyme borreliosis is described. This isolate, from a chronic skin lesion, is also the first human isolate of Borrelia in Portugal. Different phenotypic and molecular methods are used to characterize it. PMID:15004107

  1. [Penile augmentation using acellular dermal matrix].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-ming; Cui, Yong-yan; Pan, Shu-juan; Liang, Wei-qiang; Chen, Xiao-xuan

    2004-11-01

    Penile enhancement was performed using acellular dermal matrix. Multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix were placed underneath the penile skin to enlarge its girth. Since March 2002, penile augmentation has been performed on 12 cases using acellular dermal matrix. Postoperatively all the patients had a 1.3-3.1 cm (2.6 cm in average) increase in penile girth in a flaccid state. The penis had normal appearance and feeling without contour deformities. All patients gained sexual ability 3 months after the operation. One had a delayed wound healing due to tight dressing, which was repaired with a scrotal skin flap. Penile enlargement by implantation of multiple layers of acellular dermal matrix was a safe and effective operation. This method can be performed in an outpatient ambulatory setting. The advantages of the acellular dermal matrix over the autogenous dermal fat grafts are elimination of donor site injury and scar and significant shortening of operation time.

  2. The status of penile enhancement procedures.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Yoram; Gruenwald, Ilan

    2009-11-01

    Most men who request surgical penile enhancement have a normal-sized and fully functional penis but visualize their penises as small (psychological dysmorphism). This fact by itself leads to controversy regarding the true indications for penile enhancement procedures in men without micropenis. One of the typical aspects of penile enhancement is the lack of true methodological evaluation of the more commonly performed procedures. Even recently, only few solid scientific studies are available which can shed some light on results and outcome of these controversial procedures. Although some additional data has emerged during the past year, there is still no consensus in regard to indications and surgical techniques used for penile augmentation or penile girth enhancement. There is further need for more studies to provide a better overview of the value and worthiness of these procedures.

  3. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1–2 h daily for 6–24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  4. Acid soluble platelet aggregating material isolated from human umbilical cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-12-27

    An acid soluble, pepsin sensitive platelet aggregating material is isolated from human umbilical cord tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation is disclosed and its use to control bleeding is described. 2 figs.

  5. Pharmacological and functional characterization of novel EP and DP receptor agonists: DP1 receptor mediates penile erection in multiple species.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Nadia; Kim, Noel N; Araldi, Gian Luca; Traish, Abdulmaged M; Palmer, Stephen S

    2008-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of prostaglandin E(1) as an efficacious treatment for male erectile dysfunction for more than two decades, research on prostanoid function in penile physiology has been limited. To characterize the pharmacological and physiological activity of novel subtype-selective EP and DP receptor agonists. Radioligand binding and second messenger assays were used to define receptor subtype specificity of the EP and DP agonists. Functional activity was further characterized using isolated human and rabbit penile cavernosal tissue in organ baths. In vivo activity was assessed in rabbits and rats by measuring changes in cavernous pressure after intracavernosal injection of receptor agonists. Receptor binding and signal transduction, smooth muscle contractile activity, erectile function. In organ bath preparations of human cavernosal tissue contracted with phenylephrine, EP2- and EP4-selective agonists exhibited variable potency in causing relaxation. One of the compounds caused mild contraction, and none of the compounds was as effective as PGE(1) (EC(50) = 0.23 microM). There was no consistent correlation between the pharmacological profile (receptor binding and second messenger assays) of the EP agonists and their effect on cavernosal tissue tone. In contrast, the DP1-selective agonist AS702224 (EC(50) =29 nM) was more effective in relaxing human cavernosal tissue than either PGE(1), PGD(2) (EC(50) = 58 nM), or the DP agonist BW245C (EC(50) =59 nM). In rabbit cavernosal tissue, PGE(1) and PGD(2) caused only contraction, while AS702224 and BW245C caused relaxation. Intracavernosal administration of AS702224 and BW245C also caused penile tumescence in rabbits and rats. For each compound, the erectile response improved with increasing dose and was significantly higher than vehicle alone. These data suggest that AS702224 is a potent DP1-selective agonist that causes penile erection. The DP1 receptor mediates relaxation in human cavernosal tissue, and

  6. A Contemporary Review of HPV and Penile Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelly L; Culkin, Daniel J

    2016-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a widespread sexually transmitted infection. In both men and women, HPV infection can result in a spectrum of genitourinary manifestations ranging from genital warts to cancer. Cervical cancer is nearly always associated with high-risk HPV infection. For men, penile cancer can develop following or independently of HPV infection. Basaloid and warty subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinoma are most frequently associated with HPV infection. Further research into the molecular alterations caused by HPV infection may provide prognostic markers and future treatment targets. Until an effective treatment for HPV infection is developed, prevention will remain the focus of disease control. For women, vaccination is increasingly utilized to prevent HPV infection and subsequent cervical cancer development. New recommendations for routine male vaccination may further reduce cancers for both men and women.

  7. Implantation of AMS 700 LGX penile prosthesis preserves penile length without the need for penile lengthening procedures

    PubMed Central

    Augusto Negro, Carlo Luigi; Paradiso, Matteo; Rocca, Alessandro; Bardari, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) is a well-established definitive solution for erectile dysfunction when conservative treatments fail. Penile implants may shorten the penis. The AMS 700 LGX IPP is in common use but reports on its mechanical reliability, medium-term postsurgical patient satisfaction, and mean penile length preservation are lacking. We investigate the mean penile length, mechanical reliability, and patient satisfaction at 6 and 12 months after implantation of the AMS 700 LGX. This prospective study consecutively enrolled men undergoing first-time IPP implant surgery from February 2009 to April 2012. Stretched flaccid penile length, penile length at 50% and 100% of stiffness (P50 and P100) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) scores, were measured at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Of 45 patients who underwent AMS 700 LGX implantation (median age 61 years) and completed 6 months’ follow-up, 36 (80%) completed the study. A significant difference in stretched flaccid penile length was seen between 6 and 12 months (P = 0.033). P100 was also significantly increased at 6 and 12 months, with a mean 10% increase (1.3 ± 0.4 cm) from baseline to 12 months. Differences in mean IIEF scores at 6 and 12 months were significant for the desired domain (P = 0.0001) and for overall satisfaction (P = 0.002); however, mean EDITS scores at 6 and 12 months were not significantly improved. AMS 700 LGX is a powerful tool for preserving penile length in men undergoing penile prosthesis implantation. PMID:26112480

  8. Implantation of AMS 700 LGX penile prosthesis preserves penile length without the need for penile lengthening procedures.

    PubMed

    Negro, Carlo Luigi Augusto; Paradiso, Matteo; Rocca, Alessandro; Bardari, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) is a well-established definitive solution for erectile dysfunction when conservative treatments fail. Penile implants may shorten the penis. The AMS 700 LGX IPP is in common use but reports on its mechanical reliability, medium-term postsurgical patient satisfaction, and mean penile length preservation are lacking. We investigate the mean penile length, mechanical reliability, and patient satisfaction at 6 and 12 months after implantation of the AMS 700 LGX. This prospective study consecutively enrolled men undergoing first-time IPP implant surgery from February 2009 to April 2012. Stretched flaccid penile length, penile length at 50% and 100% of stiffness (P50 and P100) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) scores, were measured at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Of 45 patients who underwent AMS 700 LGX implantation (median age 61 years) and completed 6 months' follow-up, 36 (80%) completed the study. A significant difference in stretched flaccid penile length was seen between 6 and 12 months (P = 0.033). P100 was also significantly increased at 6 and 12 months, with a mean 10% increase (1.3 ± 0.4 cm) from baseline to 12 months. Differences in mean IIEF scores at 6 and 12 months were significant for the desired domain (P = 0.0001) and for overall satisfaction (P = 0.002); however, mean EDITS scores at 6 and 12 months were not significantly improved. AMS 700 LGX is a powerful tool for preserving penile length in men undergoing penile prosthesis implantation.

  9. Lymphatic Dissemination of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus after Penile Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Min; Dutra, Joseph; Fritts, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is primarily transmitted by heterosexual contact, and approximately equal numbers of men and women worldwide are infected with the virus. Understanding the biology of HIV acquisition and dissemination in men exposed to the virus by insertive penile intercourse is likely to help with the rational design of vaccines that can limit or prevent HIV transmission. To characterize the target cells and dissemination pathways involved in establishing systemic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, we necropsied male rhesus macaques at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after penile SIV inoculation and quantified the levels of unspliced SIV RNA and spliced SIV RNA in tissue lysates and the number of SIV RNA-positive cells in tissue sections. We found that penile (glans, foreskin, coronal sulcus) T cells and, to a lesser extent, macrophages and dendritic cells are primary targets of infection and that SIV rapidly reaches the regional lymph nodes. At 7 days after inoculation, SIV had disseminated to the blood, systemic lymph nodes, and mucosal lymphoid tissues. Further, at 7 days postinoculation (p.i.), spliced SIV RNA levels were the highest in the genital lymph nodes, indicating that this is the site where the infection is initially amplified. By 14 days p.i., spliced SIV RNA levels were high in all tissues, but they were the highest in the gastrointestinal tract, indicating that the primary site of virus replication had shifted from the genital lymph nodes to the gut. The stepwise pattern of virus replication and dissemination described here suggests that vaccine-elicited immune responses in the genital lymph nodes could help prevent infection after penile SIV challenge. IMPORTANCE To be the most effective, vaccines should produce antiviral immune responses in the anatomic sites of virus replication. Thus, understanding the path taken by HIV from the mucosal surfaces, which are the site of virus exposure, to the deeper tissues where

  10. Hypoxic relaxation of penile arteries: involvement of endothelial nitric oxide and modulation by reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Pawel M.; Bagi, Zsolt; Ahmad, Mansoor; Wolin, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Although obesity-related cardiovascular disease and hypoxia are associated with erectile dysfunction, little is known about the direct effects of hypoxia on penile arteries. In the present study, the effects of acute hypoxia (Po2 = ∼10 Torr, 20 min) were investigated in isolated penile arteries to determine the influence of endothelium removal, nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX), NADPH oxidase, changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a high-fat diet. Hypoxia-relaxed penile arteries contracted with phenylephrine by ∼50%. Relaxation to hypoxia and acetylcholine was reduced by endothelium removal and by inhibition of NOS (Nω-nitro-l-arginine) and COX (indomethacin) but was enhanced by Tempol and by NADPH oxidase inhibition with apocynin and gp91ds-tat. Basal superoxide levels detected by lucigenin chemiluminescence were reduced by Tempol and gp91ds-tat and were enhanced by NOS blockade. Hypoxic relaxant responses were enhanced by catalase and ebselen. Exogenous peroxide evoked relaxations of penile arteries, which were partially inhibited by endothelium removal and by the inhibition of COX and extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but enhanced by p38 MAPK blockade. The NO-dependent component of relaxation to hypoxia was impaired in penile arteries from high-fat diet-fed, obese rats associated with increased superoxide production. Thus hypoxic relaxation of penile arteries is partially mediated by endothelial NO in a manner that is normally attenuated by endogenous ROS production. Obesity further increases superoxide production and impairs the influence of NO. Therefore, cardiovascular disease involving decreased NO bioavailability and/or enhanced ROS generation may contribute to erectile dysfunction through impairing the relaxation of penile arteries to hypoxia. PMID:20581086

  11. Current Treatment Options for Penile Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Gregory S; Garraway, Isla; Reznichek, Richard; Rajfer, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of “penile fracture” describes the traumatic rupture of the tunica albuginea of an erect penis. Penile fractures typically occur when the engorged penile corpora are forced to buckle and literally “pop” under the pressure of a blunt sexual trauma. Patients typically describe immediate detumescence, severe pain, and swelling as a result of the injury. Prompt surgical exploration and corporal repair is the most efficacious therapy. Although a majority of cases can be diagnosed from the history and physical examination alone, radiographic studies, including retrograde urethrography and corporal cavernosography can aid in the diagnosis of unusual cases. PMID:16985591

  12. [Isolation of human cytomegalovirus in primary cytomegalic infection].

    PubMed

    Karazhas, N V; Khaustov, V I

    1994-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus was isolated from a patient with generalized cytomegaloviral infection. The strain was identified using tissue culture method, electron microscopy, and serologic tests. The virus was repeatedly passed in diploid human fibroblast cells and recorded as Vesna human cytomegalovirus strain.

  13. Compulsive masturbation and chronic penile lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Galì, Alessandro; Marino, Silvia; Bramanti, Placido

    2012-06-01

    Chronic penile lymphedema arises from the abnormal retention of lymphatic fluid in the subcutaneous tissues and may be secondary to local and systemic medical conditions such as sexually transmitted diseases, filariasis, malignancy, local radiotherapy, and surgery. This case report aims to consider compulsive masturbation as a possible cause of chronic penile edema. A 40-year-old man was referred to our institute for behavioral disturbance, including compulsive masturbation. Neuropsychiatric evaluation showed moderate mental retardation, mild dysarthria and limb incoordination, anxiety, depressed mood, and impulse dyscontrol. Brain MRI pointed out diffuse white matter lesions. Urogenital examination revealed an uncircumcised penis with non-tender edema of the shaft and prepuce with areas of lichenification. Since the most common local and systemic causes of edema were excluded, chronic penile edema due to compulsive masturbation was diagnosed and the compulsive behavior treated with an antidepressant and low-dose neuroleptics. Compulsive masturbation should be taken into account when counselling patients with penile edema.

  14. Penile paraffinoma and ulcers of penis.

    PubMed

    Bobik, O; Bobik, O

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a case of 33 year old Caucasian married man with an irregular 6 cm penile mass associated with multiple penile ulcers. He reluctantly admitted that 10 years ago he had multiple mineral oil (Vaseline) self injections into the penis, for penile enlargement purposes. The patient had a surgical intervention 10 years ago, but he has recurrent ulcers on his penis. We have administered an intravenous antibiotic therapy combined with local therapy. The term paraffinoma describes a distinct histopathological finding that results from the injection of foreign oily substances into the skin. Although such procedure may be considered rare, they are still performed in some countries. The major point we want emphasis is following: a lot of people seek penile augmentations, it is necessary to remind physicians and the public that nonscientific and inadequate procedure such as Vaseline may lead to debilitating and destructive consequences (Tab. 1, Ref. 12).

  15. Penile deviation--our therapeutic concept.

    PubMed

    Lenk, S; Schönberger, B

    1994-01-01

    Penile deviations can be congenital or acquired, e.g. Peyronie's disease, and--depending on the degree of curvature--can impede cohabitation or make it completely impossible. 53 patients (17 congenital, 36 acquired) with penile curvature were examined as to anamnesis, clinical state, autophotography or artificial erection with the help of vasoactive drugs or a vacuum device. A pharmacocavernosography was performed in patients with erectile problems. In cases of congenital deviation, surgical correction was carried out according to the Nesbit procedure, and in 2 patients with hypoplastic urethra after penile straightening a urethroplasty was performed. Twenty-eight patients with Peyronie's disease were treated with superoxide dismutase. Seven of them had to be operated on, and in 8 patients with severe deviation surgical therapy was primary. In conclusion, the management of penile deviation should be differentiated depending on the cause and degree of deviation as well as discomfort and erectile potency.

  16. A review of penile elongation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Penile elongation surgery is less commonly performed in the public sector, but involves a collaborative approach between urology and plastic surgery. Congenital and acquired micropenis are the classic surgical indications for penile elongation surgery. The goal of intervention in these patients is to restore a functional penis size in order to allow normal standing micturition, enable satisfying sexual intercourse and improve patient quality of life. Many men seeking elongation actually have normal length penises, but perceive themselves to be small, a psychologic condition termed ‘penile dysmorphophobia’. This paper will review the anatomy and embryology of congenital micropenis and discuss both conservative and surgical management options for men seeking penile elongation therapy. PMID:28217452

  17. Urolithiasis with penile erection: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Xing, Yue

    2012-06-01

    Urinary stones are rarely seen in the urethra and are usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or infection. We describe a unique case of giant impacted stones in a 20-year-old man with unreal penile erection.

  18. MR imaging of nonmalignant penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Alexander P S; Illing, Rowland O; Minhas, Suks; Minhas, Suks; Allen, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is potentially useful in the assessment of many benign penile diseases. When T1- and T2-weighted sequences are used, MR imaging can clearly delineate the tunica albuginea and can be used to diagnose penile fracture and Peyronie disease; in both conditions, MR imaging may help refine the surgical approach. It is also useful in cases of priapism; in these cases, intravenously administered contrast material can help assess the viability of the corpora cavernosa and the presence of penile fibrosis. In the assessment of a penile prosthesis, MR imaging provides excellent anatomic information and is the investigation of choice. In the evaluation of erectile dysfunction, MR imaging has limited value, and for urethral stricture, it has not yet proved adequately superior to other modalities to justify its routine use. Copyright RSNA, 2008.

  19. Symptomatic intracranial metastasis in penile carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Moiyadi, Aliasgar V.; Tongaonkar, Hemant B.; Bakshi, Ganesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Distant metastases in penile cancers are rare, especially metachronous symptomatic intracranial metastasis. A middle-aged patient presented to us with an intracranial mass 2 years after being treated for penile cancer. Given the rarity of metastasis and the diagnostic dilemma along with the need for relief of neurological symptoms, it was excised and found to be a metastatic deposit. We discuss the case and review the relevant literature. PMID:21369397

  20. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  1. The pericyte as a cellular regulator of penile erection and a novel therapeutic target for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guo Nan; Das, Nando Dulal; Choi, Min Ji; Song, Kang-Moon; Kwon, Mi-Hye; Ock, Jiyeon; Limanjaya, Anita; Ghatak, Kalyan; Kim, Woo Jean; Hyun, Jae Seog; Koh, Gou Young; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2015-06-05

    Pericytes are known to play critical roles in vascular development and homeostasis. However, the distribution of cavernous pericytes and their roles in penile erection is unclear. Herein we report that the pericytes are abundantly distributed in microvessels of the subtunical area and dorsal nerve bundle of mice, followed by dorsal vein and cavernous sinusoids. We further confirmed the presence of pericytes in human corpus cavernosum tissue and successfully isolated pericytes from mouse penis. Cavernous pericyte contents from diabetic mice and tube formation of cultured pericytes in high glucose condition were greatly reduced compared with those in normal conditions. Suppression of pericyte function with anti-PDGFR-β blocking antibody deteriorated erectile function and tube formation in vivo and in vitro diabetic condition. In contrast, enhanced pericyte function with HGF protein restored cavernous pericyte content in diabetic mice, and significantly decreased cavernous permeability in diabetic mice and in pericytes-endothelial cell co-culture system, which induced significant recovery of erectile function. Overall, these findings showed the presence and distribution of pericytes in the penis of normal or pathologic condition and documented their role in the regulation of cavernous permeability and penile erection, which ultimately explore novel therapeutics of erectile dysfunction targeting pericyte function.

  2. The pericyte as a cellular regulator of penile erection and a novel therapeutic target for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guo Nan; Das, Nando Dulal; Choi, Min Ji; Song, Kang-Moon; Kwon, Mi-Hye; Ock, Jiyeon; Limanjaya, Anita; Ghatak, Kalyan; Kim, Woo Jean; Hyun, Jae Seog; Koh, Gou Young; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are known to play critical roles in vascular development and homeostasis. However, the distribution of cavernous pericytes and their roles in penile erection is unclear. Herein we report that the pericytes are abundantly distributed in microvessels of the subtunical area and dorsal nerve bundle of mice, followed by dorsal vein and cavernous sinusoids. We further confirmed the presence of pericytes in human corpus cavernosum tissue and successfully isolated pericytes from mouse penis. Cavernous pericyte contents from diabetic mice and tube formation of cultured pericytes in high glucose condition were greatly reduced compared with those in normal conditions. Suppression of pericyte function with anti-PDGFR-β blocking antibody deteriorated erectile function and tube formation in vivo and in vitro diabetic condition. In contrast, enhanced pericyte function with HGF protein restored cavernous pericyte content in diabetic mice, and significantly decreased cavernous permeability in diabetic mice and in pericytes-endothelial cell co-culture system, which induced significant recovery of erectile function. Overall, these findings showed the presence and distribution of pericytes in the penis of normal or pathologic condition and documented their role in the regulation of cavernous permeability and penile erection, which ultimately explore novel therapeutics of erectile dysfunction targeting pericyte function. PMID:26044953

  3. Long-term results of combined tunica albuginea plication and penile prosthesis implantation for severe penile curvature and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cormio, Luigi; Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Mancini, Vito; Liuzzi, Giuseppe; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation is the recommended treatment in patients with penile curvature and severe erectile dysfunction (ED) not responding to pharmacotherapy. Most patients with mild-to-moderate curvature can expect cylinder insertion to correct both ED and penile curvature. In patients with severe curvature and in those with persistent curvature after corporeal dilation and prosthesis placement, intraoperative penile "modelling" over the inflated prosthesis has been introduced as an effective treatment. We report for the first time the long-term results of a patient treated with combined penile plication and placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis.

  4. Axial penile rigidity: determinants and relation to hemodynamic parameters.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, I; Udelson, D

    1998-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction may be defined in terms of axial penile rigidity, the physical property that enables the erection to be utilized as a penetration tool during sexual activity. Erectile dysfunction occurs when inadequate axial penile rigidity results in buckling of the penile column when subjected to axial compressive loading situations during vaginal intromission. New multi-disciplinary engineering studies of penile hemodynamic and structural dynamic relationships are reviewed concerning the determinants of axial penile rigidity. Axial penile rigidity develops as a continuum during the increases in intracavernosal pressure and volume changes from the flaccid state and is influenced by intracavernosal pressure, penile tissue mechanical properties and penile geometry. Two penile tissue mechanical properties are especially relevant; cavernosal maximum volume at relatively low intracavernosal pressure, and tunical distensibility, the relative volume of the fully erect to completely flaccid pendulous penis. Two penile geometric properties are critical; the penile aspect ratio, defined as the diameter to length ratio of the pendulous penis, and the magnitude of the flaccid penile diameter. Clinically measured values of axial buckling forces in patients undergoing dynamic pharmacocavernosometry strongly correlated to theoretic-based analytic derived magnitudes of axial penile rigidity based on these above pressure, tissue and geometric determinants. Since axial penile rigidity is not exclusively dependent upon intracavernosal pressure, patients with normal erectile hemodynamics may be erroneously labelled as having psychogenic dysfunction where their true pathophysiology may be related to abnormal penile tissue properties and/or penile geometric factors. Similarly, some patients may claim sufficient rigidity for penetration, but have abnormal hemodynamic erectile function studies. They may have uniquely advantageous tissue mechanical and/or geometric properties. More

  5. Penile manipulation: The most common etiology of penile fracture at our tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Jawaid; Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Singh, Rajendra Sinam

    2016-01-01

    Penile fracture is the disruption of the tunica albuginea with rupture of the corpus cavernosum secondary to blunt trauma to the erect penis. It is an unusual condition, usually underreported. According to the published literature, vigorous vaginal intercourse with women on top position is the most common etiology across the globe including India with Middle Eastern countries being the exception. A total of seven patients of penile fracture presented in emergency in the last 6 months. The etiology was penile manipulation at the time of sexual excitement in six out of seven patients of penile fracture, which was contrary to the literature published except in Middle Eastern countries. All the patients were managed by emergency exploration and repair. Thus, the incidence and etiologies of penile fracture vary according to geographic region, sexual behavior, marital status, and culture.

  6. Penile epidermal inclusion cyst: a late complication of penile girth enhancement surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol; Park, Sung Woo; Jern, Tae Kyung; Choi, Kyung-Un

    2008-09-01

    Epidermal inclusion cysts are benign lesions that can develop in any part of the body. However, the finding of an epidermal inclusion cyst in the penis is rare. The aim of this article was to present the management of a case of a penile epidermal inclusion cyst that occurred because of late complications of a penile girth enhancement surgery. A 52-year-old man presented with a painless, slowly growing mass in the penis, which was first noted after a penile girth enhancement surgery 20 years ago. A cystic mobile mass about 2 cm in depth was found surrounding the coronal sulcus. Excision of the mass was performed for diagnosis and treatment. There was no communication with the urethra. The pathological diagnosis was an epidermal inclusion cyst of the penis. A penile epidermal inclusion cyst in adult men is rare. It can develop after an inadequate procedure for penile girth enhancement, and should be treated by complete resection.

  7. Axial penile rigidity influences patient and partner satisfaction after penile prosthesis implantation.

    PubMed

    Al Ansari, Abdulla; Talib, Raidh A; Canguven, Onder; Shamsodini, Ahmad

    2013-09-26

    Penile prosthesis implantation is one of the treatment choices that is kept for patients who were not satisfied with other treatments. Although penile prosthesis satisfaction rates are higher, there are some dissatisfied patients. The patients’ reasons are mostly shortness and softness of implanted prosthesis. It was previously demonstrated that penile axial rigidity of more than 500 grams is enough for successful vaginal intromission. To our knowledge, there is no study comparing axial rigidity of penile prosthesis and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine whether axial rigidity of penile prosthesis had impact on patient and partner satisfaction. We enrolled one hundred patients who were implanted penile prosthesis before to evaluate their penile axial rigidity. We used Rigidometry (by using the digital inflection rigidometer) to assess the minimal axial pressure to bend the implanted penis. We demonstrated that mean axial pressure to bend the implanted penis was 984.8 ± 268.7 grams. Overall satisfaction score with the penile prosthesis implant was 4.55 and 4.49 (out of 5) in patients and partners, respectively. In total, seven men were unsatisfied with their implant and reported a mean satisfaction score of 0.6 ± 0.48 (out of 5). All prostheses types showed good and more than 500 grams axial rigidity. The patients with Ambicor type, which were buckled at about 710.5 grams, showed worse satisfaction rates in comparison to other prostheses in two patients. Digital inflection rigidometer results of other penile prosthesis types in unsatisfied patient were 842.0, 872.0, 887.0 and 920 g. in CX700, Titan, Genesis and Titan OTR, respectively. We demonstrated that dissatisfaction rate was highest in Ambicor prosthesis implanted patients. Additionally, patients with 3-piece penile prosthesis were more satisfied than 2-piece or malleable ones, interestingly, although some cases had lower axial rigidity results.

  8. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates from retail chicken meat compared with human clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M; Sandt, Carol H; Localio, A Russell; Tewari, Deepanker; Rankin, Shelley C; Whichard, Jean M; Altekruse, Sean F; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Folster, Jason P; Russo, Anthony; Chiller, Tom M; Reynolds, Stanley M; McDermott, Patrick F

    2010-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in chicken meat and correlate with isolates from ill humans. We isolated Salmonella from raw chicken purchased from a randomly selected sample of retail outlets in central Pennsylvania during 2006-2007. Salmonella isolates from meat were compared, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to isolates in the PulseNet database of Salmonella recovered from humans. Of 378 chicken meat samples, 84 (22%) contained Salmonella. Twenty-six (31%) of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to > or = 3 antimicrobials and 18 (21%) were resistant to ceftiofur. All ceftiofur-resistant isolates exhibited reduced susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration >2 microg/mL) to ceftriaxone and carried a bla(CMY) gene, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. Among the 28 Salmonella serovar Typhimurium isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to > or = 3 antimicrobials and 12 (42.9%) were resistant to ceftiofur. One ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella serovar Typhimurium poultry isolate exhibited a rare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern indistinguishable from a human isolate in PulseNet; both isolates carried the bla(CMY-2) gene. These data demonstrate the presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in poultry meat, including bla(CMY) plasmid-mediated genes that confer resistance to both ceftiofur, used in poultry, and ceftriaxone, used for treating salmonellosis in humans. This study illustrates the potential for molecular subtyping databases to identify related Salmonella isolates from meat and ill humans, and suggests that chicken could be a source for multidrug-resistant salmonellosis in humans.

  9. Microvascular temporalis fascia transfer for penile girth enhancement.

    PubMed

    Küçükçelebi, A; Ertaş, N M; Aydin, A; Eroğlu, A; Ozmen, E; Velidedeoğlu, H

    2001-07-01

    The authors report a 44-year-old man with inadequate penile girth that caused psychological problems. Using microvascular temporalis fascia transfer, they achieved satisfactory penile girth enhancement based on reliable vascularity in a single stage.

  10. 21 CFR 876.3350 - Penile inflatable implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penile inflatable implant. 876.3350 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3350 Penile inflatable implant. (a) Identification. A penile inflatable implant is a device that consists of two inflatable cylinders...

  11. 21 CFR 876.3350 - Penile inflatable implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penile inflatable implant. 876.3350 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3350 Penile inflatable implant. (a) Identification. A penile inflatable implant is a device that consists of two inflatable cylinders...

  12. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in the...

  13. 21 CFR 876.3350 - Penile inflatable implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penile inflatable implant. 876.3350 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3350 Penile inflatable implant. (a) Identification. A penile inflatable implant is a device that consists of two inflatable cylinders...

  14. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in the...

  15. 21 CFR 876.3630 - Penile rigidity implant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penile rigidity implant. 876.3630 Section 876.3630...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3630 Penile rigidity implant. (a) Identification. A penile rigidity implant is a device that consists of a pair of semi-rigid rods implanted in the...

  16. Penile rehabilitation after pelvic cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed.

  17. Epigenetic mechanisms in penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuasne, Hellen; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; de Syllos Cólus, Ilce Mara

    2013-05-23

    Penile carcinoma (PeCa) represents an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. Despite its unpredictable behavior and aggressive treatment, there have only been a few reports regarding its molecular data, especially epigenetic mechanisms. The functional diversity in different cell types is acquired by chromatin modifications, which are established by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that the dysregulation in these processes can result in the development of several diseases, including cancer. Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. There are a few reports on the epigenetic alterations in PeCa, and most of these studies have only focused on alterations in specific genes in a limited number of cases. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the epigenetic alterations in PeCa and the promising results in this field. The identification of epigenetically altered genes in PeCa is an important step in understanding the mechanisms involved in this unexplored disease.

  18. Cadaveric dura mater graft for correction of penile curvature in Peyronie disease.

    PubMed

    Fallon, B

    1990-02-01

    The use of autologous human dura mater as a graft material in 7 cases of Peyronie disease is described. In 3 cases, preoperative erectile ability was thought to be inadequate, and a penile prosthesis was simultaneously inserted. No complications occurred related to the graft material although 1 patient has inadequate erections postoperatively and another appears to have recurrent Peyronie disease.

  19. Penile strangulation: report of a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Morentin, Benito; Biritxinaga, Begoña; Crespo, Lourdes

    2011-12-01

    Penile strangulation or entrapment is an unusual entity that requires urgent treatment due to its potential complications. Several cases have been reported in the medical literature, some of them describing serious injuries such as necrosis, gangrene, and amputation of the penis. However, as far as we know, no fatal cases have been described before. We present the death of an adult male secondary to the complications due to penile strangulation with a plastic bottle neck. The time of incarceration was unknown, but according to a witness it could be about 10 to 14 days. The findings of autopsy were penile strangulation, necrosis of the penis, acute pyelonephritis, and bronchopneumonia. The subject's refusal to ask for medical help was the cause of this atypical evolution.

  20. First isolation of Streptococcus downei from human dental plaques.

    PubMed

    Yoo, So Young; Kim, Kwan-Joong; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Min, Byung-Moo; Choe, Son-Jin; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2005-08-15

    In this study, we isolated four bacterial strains grown on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar. The strains had similar biochemical characteristics to biotypes I or II of mutans streptococci. The four isolates were identified as Streptococcus downei by 16S rDNA and dextranase gene (dex) sequencing as well as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting dex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation and identification of S. downei from dental plaque in humans. The results suggest that S. downei can inhabit the human oral cavity.

  1. First isolation of Desulfovibrio from the human vaginal flora.

    PubMed

    Ichiishi, Suguru; Tanaka, Kaori; Nakao, Kenichi; Izumi, Koji; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2010-06-01

    Four Desulfovibrio species, including 2 subtypes of 1 species, namely, Desulfovibrio piger, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans MB subtype and Essex 6 subtype, Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris, have been isolated from the human oral and intestinal flora, but not previously from the vaginal flora. They are opportunistic pathogens and have been considered as possible environmental and etiologic agents involved in ulcerative colitis and chronic periodontitis. We isolated Desulfovibrio intestinalis from vaginal specimens of four Japanese women; a species which has not been previously isolated from humans. The vaginal isolates were highly resistant to cefoxitin, piperacillin, and piperacillin-tazobactam but were susceptible to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Our findings suggested that vaginal Desulfovibrio species may be involved in gynecological or obstetric pathology, and provides additional information of the medical relevance on human Desulfovibrio species.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Thy 1 homologue from human thymus.

    PubMed

    Bonewald, L F; Goust, J M; Sade, R M; Wang, A C

    1985-01-01

    A 40 000 M.W. glycoprotein was isolated from human thymus. This molecule binds lentil lectin, reacts with an antiserum made against the p25 antigen (the human Thy 1 homologue) and possesses almost identical amino acid composition as the p25 antigen and its 40 000 M.W. dimer.

  3. Isolation of inflammatory cells from human tumours.

    PubMed

    Polak, Marta E

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory cells are present in many tumours, and understanding their function is of increasing importance, particularly to studies of tumour immunology. The tumour-infiltrating leukocytes encompass a variety of cell types, e.g. T lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and mast cells. Choice of the isolation method greatly depends on the tumour type and the leukocyte subset of interest, but the protocol usually includes tissue disaggregation and cell enrichment. We recommend density centrifugation for initial enrichment, followed by specific magnetic bead negative or positive panning with leukocyte and tumour cell selective antibodies.

  4. Heterogeneity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) contractile and relaxing receptors in horse penile small arteries.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Dolores; Arcos, Luis Rivera de Los; Martínez, Pilar; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo

    2004-12-01

    The distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunorective nerves and the receptors involved in the effects of NPY upon electrical field stimulation (EFS)- and noradrenaline (NA)-elicited contractions were investigated in horse penile small arteries. NPY-immunoreactive nerves were widely distributed in the erectile tissues with a particularly high density around penile intracavernous small arteries. In small arteries isolated from the proximal part of the corpora cavernosa, NPY (30 nM) produced a variable modest enhancement of the contractions elicited by both EFS and NA. At the same concentration, the NPY Y(1) receptor agonist, [Leu(31), Pro(34)]NPY, markedly potentiated responses to EFS and NA, whereas the NPY Y(2) receptor agonist, NPY(13-36), enhanced exogenous NA-induced contractions. In arteries precontracted with NA, NPY, peptide YY (PYY), [Leu(31), Pro(34)]NPY and the NPY Y(2) receptor agonists, N-acetyl[Leu(28,31)]NPY (24-36) and NPY(13-36), elicited concentration-dependent contractile responses. Human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) evoked a biphasic response consisting of a relaxation followed by contraction. NPY(3-36), the compound 1229U91 (Ile-Glu-Pro-Dapa-Tyr-Arg-Leu-Arg-Tyr-NH2, cyclic(2,4')diamide) and eventually NPY(13-36) relaxed penile small arteries. The selective NPY Y(1) receptor antagonist BIBP3226 ((R)-N(2)-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]D-arginineamide) (0.3 microM) shifted to the right the concentration-response curves to both NPY and [Leu(31), Pro(34)]NPY and inhibited the contractions induced by the highest concentrations of hPP but not the relaxations observed at lower doses. In the presence of the selective NPY Y(2) receptor antagonist BIIE0246 ((S)-N2-[[1-[2-[4-[(R,S)-5,11-dihydro-6(6h)-oxodibenz[b,e]azepin-11-y1]-1-piperazinyl]-2-oxoethyl]cyclo-pentyl-N-[2-[1,2-dihydro-3,5 (4H)-dioxo-1,2-diphenyl-3H-1,2, 4-triazol-4-yl]ethyl]-argininamide) (0.3 microM), the Y(2) receptor agonists NPY(13-36) and N-acetyl[Leu(28,31)]NPY (24

  5. Isolation of human apolipoprotein E by chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Weisweiler, P; Schwandt, P

    1982-09-01

    Human prolipoprotein E is implicated in the transport of serum cholesterol and the binding of lipoproteins to cell receptors. Further investigations on this apolipoprotein would be facilitated by improved purification methods. We prepared human apo E by the combination of high performance gel filtration and chromatofocusing from serum very low density lipoproteins. Chromatofocusing was performed with a pH gradient from 7 to 4. Apo E contained all isoforms, but was homogeneous in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in double immunodiffusion against a monospecific antiserum. The reported purification method allows a rapid and simple preparation of large amounts of apo E.

  6. Penile intracavernosal pillars: lessons from anatomy and potential implications for penile prosthesis placement.

    PubMed

    Pagano, M J; Weinberg, A C; Deibert, C M; Hernandez, K; Alukal, J; Zhao, L; Wilson, S K; Egydio, P H; Valenzuela, R J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to anatomically describe the relationship of penile intracavernosal pillars to penile surgery, specifically corporal dilation during penile prosthesis placement. Corpora cavernosa from four embalmed male cadavers were dissected and subjected to probe dilation. Corpora were cross-sectioned and examined for the gross presence and location of pillars and dilated spaces. Infrapubic penile prosthesis insertion was performed on one fresh-frozen cadaveric male pelvis, followed by cross-sectioning. A single patient had intracavernosal pillars examined intraoperatively during Peyronie's plaque excision and penile prosthesis insertion. Intracavernosal pillars were identified in all cadavers and one surgical patient, passing obliquely from the dorsolateral tunica albuginea across the sinusoidal space to the ventral intercorporal septum. This delineated each corpus into two potential compartments for dilation: dorsomedial and ventrolateral. Dorsal dilation seated instruments and prosthetics satisfactorily in the dorsal mid glans and provided additional tissue coverage over weak ventral areas of the tunica albuginea, while ventrolateral dilation appeared to result in ventral seating and susceptibility to perforation. Intracavernosal pillars are an important anatomic consideration during penile prosthesis placement. Dorsal dilation appears to result in improved distal seating of cylinder tips, which may be protective against tip malposition, perforation or subsequent erosion.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, FANGYIN; XU, YIPENG; WANG, HUA; CHEN, BO; WANG, ZONGPING; ZHAO, YANG; ZHU, SHAOXING; CHEN, GUIPING

    2015-01-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare disease that, at present, has not been well characterized. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this carcinoma remain poorly understood, particularly in the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to discuss the methods of diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma in the Chinese population. The clinical and pathological data of 10 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma were analyzed alongside a literature review. All the tumors were exophytic papillary lesions, ranging between 0.4 and 4 cm in diameter and all 10 patients underwent partial penectomy with tumor-negative surgical margins. None of the 10 patients underwent ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. All patients were regularly followed up for 0.7–9 years, which revealed that no patients developed recurrence, and only one case resulted in mortality due to unassociated causes. It was found that penile verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated disease with low malignant potential and locally aggressive features, which seldom metastasizes to regional lymph nodes or distant regions. However, misdiagnosis may occur due to an incorrect biopsy. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by surgery, even without any adjuvant therapy, but patients should be carefully followed up. PMID:25789024

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangyin; Xu, Yipeng; Wang, Hua; Chen, B O; Wang, Zongping; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Shaoxing; Chen, Guiping

    2015-04-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare disease that, at present, has not been well characterized. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this carcinoma remain poorly understood, particularly in the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to discuss the methods of diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma in the Chinese population. The clinical and pathological data of 10 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma were analyzed alongside a literature review. All the tumors were exophytic papillary lesions, ranging between 0.4 and 4 cm in diameter and all 10 patients underwent partial penectomy with tumor-negative surgical margins. None of the 10 patients underwent ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. All patients were regularly followed up for 0.7-9 years, which revealed that no patients developed recurrence, and only one case resulted in mortality due to unassociated causes. It was found that penile verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated disease with low malignant potential and locally aggressive features, which seldom metastasizes to regional lymph nodes or distant regions. However, misdiagnosis may occur due to an incorrect biopsy. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by surgery, even without any adjuvant therapy, but patients should be carefully followed up.

  9. Primary penile cancer organ sparing treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kuligowski, Marcin; Kuczkiewicz, Olga; Moskal, Katarzyna; Wolski, Jan Karol; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Wysock, James S.; Pęczkowski, Piotr; Protzel, Chris; Demkow, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgical treatment of penile cancer is usually associated with mutilation; alterations in self-esteem and body image; affecting sexual and urinary functions; and declined health-related quality of life. Recently, organ sparing treatment has appeared and led to limiting these complications. Material and methods An extensive review of the literature concerning penile-preserving strategies was conducted. The focus was put on indications, general principles of management, surgical options and reconstructive techniques, the most common complications, as well as functional and oncological outcomes. Results Analyzed methods, e.g.: topical chemotherapy, laser ablation therapy, radiotherapy, Moh’s microscopic surgery, circumcision, wide local excision, glans resurfacing and glansectomy are indicated in low-stage tumors (Tis, Ta-T2). After glansectomy, reconstruction is also possible. Conclusions Organ sparing techniques may achieve good anatomical, functional, and psychological outcomes without compromising local cancer control, which depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Penile sparing strategies are acceptable treatment approaches in selected patients with low-stage penile cancer after establishing disease-risk and should be considered in this population. PMID:28127454

  10. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  11. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 14 from a human source.

    PubMed Central

    Pastoris, M. C.; Berchicci, C.; Pallonari, G.

    1992-01-01

    A strain of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 14 was isolated during a retrospective study, after death from the sputum of a patient who had had acute leukaemia and pneumonia. This is the third strain of that serogroup to be isolated from a human source. This event emphasises the importance of performing culture as well as serological tests, so as to detect cases of legionellosis caused by strains which rarely cause fatal clinical illness. PMID:1517467

  12. Distinct replicative and cytopathic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Fenyö, E M; Morfeldt-Månson, L; Chiodi, F; Lind, B; von Gegerfelt, A; Albert, J; Olausson, E; Asjö, B

    1988-01-01

    According to their capacity to replicate in vitro, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates can be divided into two major groups, rapid/high and slow/low. Rapid/high viruses can easily be transmitted to a variety of cell lines of T-lymphoid (CEM, H9, and Jurkat) and monocytoid (U937) origin. In contrast, slow/low viruses replicate transiently, if at all, in these cell lines. Except for a few isolates, the great majority of slow/low viruses replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat-tatIII cells constitutively expressing the tatIII gene of HIV-1. The viruses able to replicate efficiently cause syncytium formation and are regularly isolated from immunodeficient patients. Poorly replicating HIV isolates, often obtained from individuals with no or mild disease, show syncytium formation and single-cell killing simultaneously or, with some isolates, cell killing only. Images PMID:2459416

  13. A Case Report of Penile Infection Caused by Fluconazole- and Terbinafine-Resistant Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongxuan; Hu, Yanqing; Lu, Yan; Huang, Shiyun; Liu, Kangxing; Han, Xue; Mao, Zuhao; Wu, Zhong; Zhou, Xianyi

    2017-04-01

    Candida albicans is the most common pathogen that causes balanoposthitis. It often causes recurrence of symptoms probably due to its antifungal resistance. A significant number of balanitis Candida albicans isolates are resistant to azole and terbinafine antifungal agents in vitro. However, balanoposthitis caused by fluconazole- and terbinafine-resistant Candida albicans has rarely been reported. Here, we describe a case of a recurrent penile infection caused by fluconazole- and terbinafine-resistant Candida albicans, as well as the treatments administered to this patient. The isolate from the patient was tested for drug susceptibility in vitro. It was sensitive to itraconazole, voriconazole, clotrimazole and amphotericin B, but not to terbinafine and fluconazole. Thus, oral itraconazole was administrated to this patient with resistant Candida albicans penile infection. The symptoms were improved, and mycological examination result was negative. Follow-up treatment of this patient for 3 months showed no recurrence.

  14. Human Adaptation to Isolated and Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sybil

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted over seven months in a winter Antarctic isolated and confined environment (ICE). Physiological and psychological data was collected several times a week. Information was collected on a monthly basis on behavior and the use of physical facilities. Adaptation and information indicated that there was a significant decrease in epinephrine and norepinephrine during the middle trimester of the winter. No vital changes were found for blood pressure. Self reports of hostility and anxiety show a linear increase. There were no significant changes in depression during ICE. The physiological and psychological data do not move in a synchronous fashion over time. The data also suggest that both ambient qualities of an ICE and discrete social environmental events, such as the arrival of the summer crew, have an impact on the outcome measures used. It may be most appropiate to develop a model for ICE's that incorporates not only global chronic stressors common to all ICE's but also the role of discrete environmental effects which can minimize or enhance the influence of more chronic stressors. Behavioral adjustment information highlight the importance of developing schedules which balance work and recreational activities.

  15. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans in Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Blanco, María Alejandra; Iborra, Asunción; Vargas, Antonio; Nsie, Eugenia; Mbá, Luciano; Fuentes, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium species from Equatorial Guinea. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify 35 cryptosporidiosis cases among 185 patients. PCR-RFLP successfully identified 34 Cryptosporidium species from these 35 cases, comprising C. parvum (52.9%), C. hominis (44.1%) and C. meleagridis (2.9%); over 90% of the species were isolated from HIV-positive patients. This is the first report of the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species isolated from humans in Equatorial Guinea and shows that zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission is present in this country.

  16. Molecular Characterization of First Human Bartonella Strain Isolated in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ciervo, Alessandra; Petrucca, Andrea; Ciarrocchi, Simonetta; Pinto, Antonella; Bonazzi, Lucio; Fabio, Anna; Farnetti, Enrico; Chomel, Bruno B.; Ciceroni, Lorenzo

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a Bartonella strain (BA-1) isolated from a blood culture of an Italian, human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with bacillary angiomatosis. We analyzed the isolate using molecular biology methods such as whole-cell fatty acid analysis, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, type-specific 16S rRNA PCRs, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and arbitrarily primed PCR. The BA-1 isolate turned out to be a Bartonella quintana strain, similar but not identical to B. quintana Oklahoma, which was used as a control strain. PMID:11724882

  17. Blastocystis phylogeny among various isolates from humans to insects.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Koyama, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Erika; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Blastocystis is a common unicellular eukaryotic parasite found not only in humans, but also in various kinds of animal species worldwide. Since Blastocystis isolates are morphologically indistinguishable, many molecular biological approaches have been applied to classify these isolates. The complete or partial sequences of the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) are mainly used for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses among Blastocystis isolates. However, various lengths of the partial SSU rDNA sequence have been used for phylogenetic inference among genetically different isolates. Based on the complete SSU rDNA sequences, consensus terminology of nine subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis sp. that were supported by phylogenetically monophyletic nine clades was proposed in 2007. Thereafter, eight additional kinds of STs comprising non-human mammalian Blastocystis isolates have been reported based on the phylogeny of SSU rDNA sequences, while STs 11 and 12 were only proposed on the base of partial sequences. Although many sequence data from mammalian and avian Blastocystis are registered in GenBank, only limited data on SSU rDNA are available for poikilotherm-derived Blastocystis isolates. Therefore, the phylogenetic positions of the reptilian/amphibian Blastocystis clades are unstable. The phylogenetic inference of various STs comprising mammalian and/or avian Blastocystis isolates was verified herein based on comparisons between partial and complete SSU rDNA sequences, and the phylogenetic positions of reptilian and amphibian Blastocystis isolates were also investigated using 14 new Blastocystis isolates from reptiles with all known isolates from other reptilians, amphibians, and insects registered in GenBank. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Dopamine-oxytocin interactions in penile erection.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, T A; Allard, J; Wayman, C; Douglas, A J

    2009-12-03

    Dopamine and oxytocin have established roles in the central regulation of penile erection in rats; however, the neural circuitries involved in a specific erectile context and the interaction between dopamine and oxytocin mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus may serve as candidate sites because they contain oxytocin cells, receive dopaminergic inputs and have been implicated in mediating masculine sexual behavior. Double immunofluorescence revealed that substantial numbers of oxytocin cells in the MPOA, SON and PVN possess dopamine D(2), D(3) and D(4) receptors. In anaesthetized rats, using intracavernous pressure as a physiological indicator of erection, blockade of lumbosacral oxytocin receptors (UK, 427843) reduced erectile responses to a nonselective dopamine agonist (apomorphine), suggesting that dopamine recruits a paraventriculospinal oxytocin pathway. In conscious males in the absence of a female, penile erection elicited by a D(2)/D(3) (Quinelorane) but not D(4) (PD168077) agonist was associated with activation of medial parvocellular PVN oxytocin cells. In another experiment where males were given full access to a receptive female, a D(4) (L-745870) but not D(2) or D(3) antagonist (L-741626; nafadotride) inhibited penile erection (intromission), and this was correlated with SON magnocellular oxytocin neuron activation. Together, the data suggest dopamine's effects on hypothalamic oxytocin cells during penile erection are context-specific. Dopamine may act via different parvocellular and magnocellular oxytocin subpopulations to elicit erectile responses, depending upon whether intromission is performed. This study demonstrates the potential existence of interaction between central dopamine and oxytocin pathways during penile erection, with the SON and PVN serving as integrative sites.

  19. The Evolution and Utility of the Small-Carrion Prosthesis, Its Impact, and Progression to the Modern-Day Malleable Penile Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Daniel R; Terlecki, Ryan; Brant, William O

    2015-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction has plagued humanity for millennia. For years, treatment had been in the hands of mental health professionals. It was not until the 1970s that urologists created a modality that was marketable, reproducible, and consistently successful at treating impotence, the Small-Carrion Penile Prosthesis. We present the evolution of the malleable/semi-rigid penile prosthesis, concentrating our efforts reviewing and critiquing the pivotal article published by Drs. Michael P. Small, Hernan M. Carrion, and Julian A. Gordon. We then discuss its continued advancement, current-day utilization, and the future of the malleable prosthesis. From the early 1900s, surgeons have been toying with the idea of creating a penile implant. These initial attempts utilized rib cartilage, and eventually synthetic materials, including acrylic, silicone, and polyethylene. In 1975, Drs. Carrion and Small presented their initial experience of 31 patients utilizing their silicone implant. In their manuscript titled, "The Small-Carrion Penile Prosthesis: New Implant for the Management of Impotence," they discuss their technique, perioperative management of complications, and results. The malleable penile prosthesis continued to evolve throughout the years to the current day Genesis and Spectra. Although the current market is dominated by the inflatable penile prosthesis, there are specific situations where the malleable is ideally utilized. The pivotal article by Drs. Carrion and Small helped pave the way for the "New Era" of penile prosthetics and still remains one of the most impactful contributions to the management of erectile dysfunction. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Prevalence of anal, oral, penile and urethral Human Papillomavirus in HIV infected and HIV uninfected men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Ucciferri, Claudio; Tamburro, Manuela; Falasca, Katia; Sammarco, Michela Lucia; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Vecchiet, Jacopo

    2017-09-14

    Aims of the study were to evaluate Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and type-specific prevalence in four anatomical sites in HIV infected men who have sex with men (MSM) compared with HIV uninfected MSM. Participants were recruited among the attendees of Infectious Diseases Clinics in Central Italy. A trained medical practitioner collected by interview sociodemographic data and information on medical history, sexual behavior and drug use. Swabs from anal canal, oral cavity, urethral mucosa and coronal sulcus were tested for HPV DNA and genotyping. Ninety MSM were enrolled, 45 subjects within each group. Overall, 48.9% MSM were HPV positive and prevalence was higher in HIV infected men (60% vs 37.8%, P = 0.035). HPV at multiple anatomic sites occurred in 59.1% MSM, with 34.1% and 22.7% at two and three sites respectively. Prevalence of anal, coronal sulcus, oral and urethral HPV was 96.3%, 37%, 21.6% and 18.5% in HIV infected MSM, and 70.6%, 70.6%, 29.4% and 23.5% among HIV uninfected. A similar proportion of HIV infected and uninfected MSM (59.2% and 58.8%) carried at least one high-risk genotype. Prevalence of types covered by nonavalent vaccine was 77.8% in HIV infected compared with 82.3% in HIV uninfected MSM. HPV 58 and 16 were mostly detected in HIV positive (43.7% and 31.2%) and negative MSM (50% and 40%). HPV detection rate underlined the high vulnerability of MSM to acquire multisite infections, characterized by various genotype combinations. Since nonavalent vaccine could have prevented 80% of HPV infections, study findings support the implementation of vaccination programs among MSM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic and epidemiological relationships among Campylobacter isolates from humans.

    PubMed

    Höök, Helena; Ekegren, Maj-Britt; Ericsson, Henrik; Vågsholm, Ivar; Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise

    2004-01-01

    84 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Swedish patients with domestic infection were characterized with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the subtype information considered in relation to epidemiological data. Based on pattern combinations from restriction cleavage with SmaI and SalI, 52 different PFGE types were identified. Types with an average pattern similarity of at least 82% and 63% were assembled in groups and clusters, respectively. The 2 largest clusters included 71% of the isolates. The distribution in time varied between different groups and clusters, where some were isolated sporadically during the whole period and others appeared more concentrated in time. Types in 1 cluster were significantly more often isolated in summer than other types in the study. Isolates from children showed lower pattern similarity to other isolates than isolates from adults. Sets of type and time related cases, possibly representing small outbreaks, were identified when indistinguishable PFGE patterns were found in isolates from temporally related cases. Our results indicate that although a large number of genotypes may be found among C. jejuni strains infecting humans, a large proportion of these may be genetically related, and that different genotypes may appear during different seasons and infect individuals of different ages.

  2. [Human social activity under conditions of relative social isolation].

    PubMed

    Prokhvatilov, A Iu

    1992-01-01

    The differences in using a "social isolation" concept in the psychological literature are presented. The term of "relative social isolation" is clarified. A relationship between human adaptation to the relative social isolation environments and the development of his social qualities and social activities is presented. The "social context", dictating motivation attitudes of a man to the isolation situation, emotional experiences, self-appraisal of activity is of crucial importance for evaluating the real environments of relative social isolations. Social activity of a personality is studied as the relations of a man with the conditions of his activity. The results of studying the dynamics of the psychic state of a man during individual and group isolation are compared. It is concluded that social activity of man and his functional state are interrelated. The particular manifestations and direction of the changes in the social activity of the subject depend on the duration of isolation and are determined first of all by social significance and meaningful and balanced work for a person as well as by the amount and frequency of direct and mediated social contacts under specific conditions of relative social isolation.

  3. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Human Intestinal Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Dallin; Enda, Michael; Bond, Tanner; Moghaddam, Seyyed Pouya Hadipour; Conarton, Josh; Scaife, Courtney; Volckmann, Eric; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-11-02

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown transepithelial transport across intestinal epithelial barrier in rats and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 models innately lack mucous barriers, and rat isolated intestinal tissue has been shown to overestimate human permeability. This study is the first report of transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated human intestinal epithelium. It was observed that FITC labeled G4-NH2 and G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimers at 1 mM concentration do not have a statistically higher permeability compared to free FITC controls in isolated human jejunum and colonic tissues. Mannitol permeability was increased at 10 mM concentrations of G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 dendrimers. Significant histological changes in human colonic and jejunal tissues were observed at G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 concentrations of 10 mM implying that dose limiting toxicity may occur at similar concentrations in vivo. The permeability through human isolated intestinal tissue in this study was compared to previous rat and Caco-2 permeability data. This study implicates that PAMAM dendrimer oral drug delivery may be feasible, but it may be limited to highly potent drugs.

  4. Isolation & characterization of Brucella melitensis isolated from patients suspected for human brucellosis in India.

    PubMed

    Barua, Anita; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Mangalgi, Smita; Prakash, Archana; Tiwari, Sapana; Arora, Sonia; Sathyaseelan, Kannusamy

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is endemic in the southern part of India. A combination of biochemical, serological and molecular methods is required for identification and biotyping of Brucella. The present study describes the isolation and biochemical, molecular characterization of Brucella melitensis from patients suspected for human brucellosis. The blood samples were collected from febrile patients suspected to have brucellosis. A total of 18 isolates were obtained from 102 blood samples subjected to culture. The characterization of these 18 isolates was done by growth on Brucella specific medium, biochemical reactions, CO2 requirement, H2S production, agglutination with A and M mono-specific antiserum, dye sensitivity to basic fuchsin and thionin. Further, molecular characterization of the isolates was done by amplification of B. melitensis species specific IS 711 repetitive DNA fragment and 16S (rRNA) sequence analysis. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of omp2 locus and IS711 gene was also done for molecular characterization. All 102 suspected samples were subjected to bacteria isolation and of these, 18 isolates could be recovered on blood culture. The biochemical, PCR and PCR-RFLP and 16s rRNA sequencing revealed that all isolates were of B. melitensis and matched exactly with reference strain B. melitensis 16M. The present study showed an overall isolation rate of 17.64 per cent for B. melitensis. There is a need to establish facilities for isolation and characterization of Brucella species for effective clinical management of the disease among patients as well as surveillance and control of infection in domestic animals. Further studies are needed from different geographical areas of the country with different level of endemicity to plan and execute control strategies against human brucellosis.

  5. Isolation & characterization of Brucella melitensis isolated from patients suspected for human brucellosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Anita; Kumar, Ashu; Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Mangalgi, Smita; Prakash, Archana; Tiwari, Sapana; Arora, Sonia; Sathyaseelan, Kannusamy

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Brucellosis is endemic in the southern part of India. A combination of biochemical, serological and molecular methods is required for identification and biotyping of Brucella. The present study describes the isolation and biochemical, molecular characterization of Brucella melitensis from patients suspected for human brucellosis. Methods: The blood samples were collected from febrile patients suspected to have brucellosis. A total of 18 isolates were obtained from 102 blood samples subjected to culture. The characterization of these 18 isolates was done by growth on Brucella specific medium, biochemical reactions, CO2 requirement, H2S production, agglutination with A and M mono-specific antiserum, dye sensitivity to basic fuchsin and thionin. Further, molecular characterization of the isolates was done by amplification of B. melitensis species specific IS711 repetitive DNA fragment and 16S (rRNA) sequence analysis. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of omp2 locus and IS711 gene was also done for molecular characterization. Results: All 102 suspected samples were subjected to bacteria isolation and of these, 18 isolates could be recovered on blood culture. The biochemical, PCR and PCR-RFLP and 16s rRNA sequencing revealed that all isolates were of B. melitensis and matched exactly with reference strain B. melitensis 16M. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study showed an overall isolation rate of 17.64 per cent for B. melitensis. There is a need to establish facilities for isolation and characterization of Brucella species for effective clinical management of the disease among patients as well as surveillance and control of infection in domestic animals. Further studies are needed from different geographical areas of the country with different level of endemicity to plan and execute control strategies against human brucellosis. PMID:27488010

  6. Microneurovascular reimplantation in a case of total penile amputation

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Yogesh C.; Vyas, Kinnari A.; Srivastava, Rajat K.; Panse, Nikhil S.

    2008-01-01

    Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common aetiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis, which was successfully reattached by using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed. PMID:19753266

  7. Activation of dopamine D4 receptors by ABT-724 induces penile erection in rats

    PubMed Central

    Brioni, Jorge D.; Moreland, Robert B.; Cowart, Marlon; Hsieh, Gin C.; Stewart, Andrew O.; Hedlund, Petter; Donnelly-Roberts, Diana L.; Nakane, Masaki; Lynch, James J.; Kolasa, Teodozyi; Polakowski, James S.; Osinski, Mark A.; Marsh, Kennan; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Sullivan, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Apomorphine, a nonselective dopamine receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection and is effective in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction. The specific dopamine receptor subtype(s) responsible for its erectogenic effect is not known. Here we report that the dopamine D4 receptor plays a role in the regulation of penile function. ABT-724 is a selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist that activates human dopamine D4 receptors with an EC50 of 12.4 nM and 61% efficacy, with no effect on dopamine D1, D2, D3, or D5 receptors. ABT-724 dose-dependently facilitates penile erection when given s.c. to conscious rats, an effect that is blocked by haloperidol and clozapine but not by domperidone. A proerectile effect is observed after intracerebroventricular but not intrathecal administration, suggesting a supraspinal site of action. s.c. injections of ABT-724 increase intracavernosal pressure in awake freely moving rats. In the presence of sildenafil, a potentiation of the proerectile effect of ABT-724 is observed in conscious rats. The ability of ABT-724 to facilitate penile erection together with the favorable side-effect profile indicates that ABT-724 could be useful for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:15087502

  8. Penile vascular surgery for treating erectile dysfunction: Current role and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Molodysky, Eugen; Liu, Shi-Ping; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Hsu, Geng-Long

    2013-01-01

    Penile vascular surgery for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) is still regarded cautiously. Thus we reviewed relevant publications from the last decade, summarising evidence-based reports consistent with the pessimistic consensus and, by contrast, the optimistically viable options for vascular reconstruction for ED published after 2003. Recent studies support a revised model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat. Additional studies show a more sophisticated venous drainage system than previously understood, and most significantly, that the emissary veins can be easily occluded by the shearing action elicited by the inner and outer layers of the tunica albuginea. Pascal’s law has been shown to be a significant, if not the major, factor in erectile mechanics, with recent haemodynamic studies on fresh and defrosted human cadavers showing rigid erections despite the lack of endothelial activity. Reports on revascularisation surgery support its utility in treating arterial trauma in young males, and with localised arterial occlusive disease in the older man. Penile venous stripping surgery has been shown to be beneficial in correcting veno-occlusive dysfunction, with outstanding results. The traditional complications of irreversible penile numbness and deformity have been virtually eliminated, with the venous ligation technique superseding venous cautery. Penile vascular reconstructive surgery is viable if, and only if, the surgical handling is appropriate using a sound method. It should be a promising option in the near future. PMID:26558090

  9. Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) increases penile erection in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Maria Martha; Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Lago, João Henrique Ghilardi; Giovani, Tatiana Marisis; Massoco, Cristina de Oliveira

    2011-10-11

    Nepeta cataria (NC), catnip, induces pleasure in cats and humans. Because sexual behavior is involved in pleasure, the effect of NC on sexual behavior and penile erection was evaluated in male rats that were acutely fed chow enriched with 10% NC leaves. Further, yawning was monitored because we previously demonstrated that NC modifies dopaminergic-related behaviors and that sexual behavior is closely linked with the dopaminergic system. The general activity and the motor coordination were examined to investigate the possible motor and emotional interferences of the sexual performance. Male rats of the NC group received for a 4h period the chow enriched with 10% NC leaves while the control groups received regular chow. Fifteen min after the end of the 4h period of NC feeding the sexual behavior, apomorphine-induced penile erection and motor coordination were observed; the general activity in the open field was assessed 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after treatment. NC treatment increased male rat's penile erection. A slightly facilitation on male rat sexual behavior and a decreased in general activity of NC treated rats were observed. No effects on motor coordination and yawning episodes were detected by the NC treatment. It was suggested that NC increases penile erection and slightly improves male rat sexual behavior by an action on dopaminergic systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Antimicrobial resistance of coliform isolates from expressed human milk].

    PubMed

    Novak, F R; Almeida, J A; Asensi, M D; Moraes, B A; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, D

    2001-01-01

    The dispersion of potentially pathogenic, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms via expressed human milk can be considered a risk factor. The aim of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of coliform isolates from expressed human milk and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. The sampling scheme followed a totally randomized design, using 837 samples of expressed human milk. Of these, 71 (8.48%) were identified as contaminated with total coliforms, although in none of the samples did the population exceed 1.0x10(3) MPN/ml. Most of the microorganisms isolated (91.6%) belonged to only two species, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which when subjected to antibiograms, revealed that several strains showed prior resistance to some of the antimicrobials tested. Coliforms may grow in expressed human milk if it is improperly stored, depleting protection factors and reducing the milk's nutritional value.

  11. Warty-basaloid carcinoma: clinicopathological features of a distinctive penile neoplasm. Report of 45 cases.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Tamboli, Pheroze; Ayala, Alberto; Soares, Fernando; Rodríguez, Ingrid; Barreto, José; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2010-06-01

    Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, but there are several subtypes with different clinicopathologic, viral, and outcome features. We are presenting 45 cases of a distinctive morphological variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma composed of mixed features of warty and basaloid carcinomas. This tumor was earlier recognized in a recent viral study and showed a high association with human papillomavirus infection. However, clinicopathologic features are not well known. In this multi-institutional study, patients' mean age was 62 years. Most tumors (64%) invaded multiple anatomical compartments, including glans, coronal sulcus, and, especially, inner foreskin mucosa. Tumor size ranged from 2 to 12 cm (mean 5.5 cm). Three morphological patterns were recognized: (1) the most common, observed in two-thirds of the cases was that of a typical condylomatous tumor on surface and basaloid features in deep infiltrative nests; (2) in 15% of the cases, there were non-papillomatous invasive carcinoma nests with mixed basaloid and warty features; and (3) unusually, predominantly papillomatous. Invasion of penile erectile tissues was frequent, either corpus spongiosum or cavernosum (47% each). Tumors limited to lamina propria were rare. Most tumors were of high grade (89%). Vascular and perineural invasion were found in about one-half and one-quarter of cases, respectively. Associated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was identified in 19 cases and mostly showed basaloid, warty-basaloid, or warty features. Inguinal nodal metastases were found in 11/21 patients with groin dissections. Invasion of corpora cavernosa, high histological grade, and presence of vascular/perineural invasion were more prevalent in metastatic cases. In 21 patients followed, the cancer-specific mortality rate was 33% with a mean survival time of 2.8 years. Warty-basaloid carcinomas are morphologically distinctive human papillomavirus-related penile neoplasms that, such as basaloid carcinomas, are

  12. Direct Isolation and Characterization of Human Nephron Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Da Sacco, Stefano; Thornton, Matthew E; Petrosyan, Astgik; Lavarreda-Pearce, Maria; Sedrakyan, Sargis; Grubbs, Brendan H; De Filippo, Roger E; Perin, Laura

    2016-09-09

    : Mature nephrons originate from a small population of uninduced nephrogenic progenitor cells (NPs) within the cap mesenchyme. These cells are characterized by the coexpression of SIX2 and CITED1. Many studies on mouse models as well as on human pluripotent stem cells have advanced our knowledge of NPs, but very little is known about this population in humans, since it is exhausted before birth and strategies for its direct isolation are still limited. Here we report an efficient protocol for direct isolation of human NPs without genetic manipulation or stepwise induction procedures. With the use of RNA-labeling probes, we isolated SIX2(+)CITED1(+) cells from human fetal kidney for the first time. We confirmed their nephrogenic state by gene profiling and evaluated their nephrogenic capabilities in giving rise to mature renal cells. We also evaluated the ability to culture these cells without complete loss of SIX2 and CITED1 expression over time. In addition to defining the gene profile of human NPs, this in vitro system facilitates studies of human renal development and provides a novel tool for renal regeneration and bioengineering purposes.

  13. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  14. DIFFERENTIATING HUMAN FROM ANIMAL ISOLATES OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed 9s Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate ...

  15. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H; Pasnik, David J; Bohnsack, John F

    2009-05-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  16. Nitric oxide: a physiologic mediator of penile erection.

    PubMed

    Burnett, A L; Lowenstein, C J; Bredt, D S; Chang, T S; Snyder, S H

    1992-07-17

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a cytotoxic agent of macrophages, a messenger molecule of neurons, and a vasodilator produced by endothelial cells. NO synthase, the synthetic enzyme for NO, was localized to rat penile neurons innervating the corpora cavernosa and to neuronal plexuses in the adventitial layer of penile arteries. Small doses of NO synthase inhibitors abolished electrophysiologically induced penile erections. These results establish NO as a physiologic mediator of erectile function.

  17. Human penile ossification. A case report.

    PubMed

    Høeg, O M

    1986-01-01

    A 53-year-old man had suffered from plastic induration of the penis (Peyronie's disease) for 4 years. The firm plaque surgically removed from the proximal dorsal part of the penis showed bone formation at histologic examination.

  18. The effect of vacuum devices on penile hemodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, P.G.; Haden, H.T.; Mulligan, T.; Zasler, N.D. )

    1990-01-01

    External vacuum devices are being used increasingly for the management of erectile dysfunction. There is limited information regarding the effect of vacuum devices on penile blood flow and potential for ischemic penile injury. The penile xenon washout rate was measured before and after application of 2 vacuum systems in 15 subjects. Compared to flaccid state measurements the xenon washout rate did not change significantly with the Synergist Erection System but it was significantly reduced with the Osbon ErecAid System. However, the degree and duration of decrease in penile blood flow that may result in ischemic changes are unknown.

  19. Intracavernosal metaraminol for treatment of intraoperative penile erection.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S. K.; Hong, C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Four patients developed penile erection when regional anaesthesia was induced with spinal block. In another patient, penile erection developed during fentanyl-induced general anaesthesia. Injection of metaraminol into corpus cavernosum successfully achieved detumescence in all these patients. The dose of metaraminol ranged from 10 to 25 micrograms, much less than that required for the treatment of vasodilator-induced priapism. Intracavernosal injection of metaraminol is a simple, effective and safe method for immediate relief of intraoperative penile erection. It is most useful when urogenital operation would be delayed by penile tumescence. PMID:2099422

  20. Congenital primary penile teratoma in a child.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Nagao, Koichi; Tai, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Yumi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Iuchi, Ami; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Nakajima, Koichi

    2014-06-01

    Teratomas rarely present as a pediatric congenital primary penile mass. We describe a 14-month-old boy with a blister-like mass on his distal left penis. The subcutaneous mass measured 1.5 cm (length)×1.0 cm (width)×1.2 cm (height) on ultrasonography. There were clear margins between these structures and the lesion. At the age of 5 years, he received an extirpation surgery. Histologic analysis revealed that it was a mature teratoma. In our view, surgical resection should be the treatment of choice for a pediatric penile mass with the alertness of teratomas because of the possibility of malignant alteration and invasion of adjacent structures till unresectable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Current penile-rehabilitation strategies: Clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2013-09-01

    We review the current strategies used for penile rehabilitation (PR) after a radical prostatectomy, where PR is defined as the attempt to restore spontaneous erectile function so that the patient can generate erections with no need for erectile aids. We searched PubMed for relevant reports, using the keywords 'radical prostatectomy', 'penile rehabilitation', 'phosphodiesterase inhibitors', 'vacuum erection device', 'injection therapy', 'urethral suppository', and 'erectile dysfunction'. In all, 155 articles were identified and reviewed, and had a level of evidence ranging from 1b-4. The use of PR strategies should be based on the patient's goals after a thorough explanation of realistic expectations, and the risks and consequences of the various treatment options. While a multitude of studies suggest a benefit with PR strategies, there are no established, proven regimens. Further research is needed to establish the optimal approaches to PR.

  2. Current penile-rehabilitation strategies: Clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Robert L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    We review the current strategies used for penile rehabilitation (PR) after a radical prostatectomy, where PR is defined as the attempt to restore spontaneous erectile function so that the patient can generate erections with no need for erectile aids. We searched PubMed for relevant reports, using the keywords ‘radical prostatectomy’, ‘penile rehabilitation’, ‘phosphodiesterase inhibitors’, ‘vacuum erection device’, ‘injection therapy’, ‘urethral suppository’, and ‘erectile dysfunction’. In all, 155 articles were identified and reviewed, and had a level of evidence ranging from 1b-4. The use of PR strategies should be based on the patient’s goals after a thorough explanation of realistic expectations, and the risks and consequences of the various treatment options. While a multitude of studies suggest a benefit with PR strategies, there are no established, proven regimens. Further research is needed to establish the optimal approaches to PR. PMID:26558087

  3. First Report of Clostridium lavalense Isolated in Human Blood Cultures.

    PubMed

    Garceau, Richard; Bourque, Christine; Thibault, Louise; Côté, Jean-Charles; Longtin, Jean; Domingo, Marc-Christian

    2016-01-01

    An 88-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with worsening malaise, fever, and weakness. Anaerobic blood culture bottles revealed the presence of an anaerobic, Gram-positive sporulated bacillus. Empirical antibiotherapy with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated. The patient defervesced after four days and was switched to oral amoxicillin on his 6th day of antibiotic therapy and later discharged from the hospital. Four months later, he had recovered. The bacterium was initially identified as Clostridium butyricum using anaerobic manual identification panel. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed the bacterium to be Clostridium lavalense, a recently described species with no previously published case of isolation in human diagnostic samples so far. This is the first report of Clostridium lavalense isolation from human blood cultures. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the role of Clostridium lavalense in human disease and its virulence factors.

  4. First Report of Clostridium lavalense Isolated in Human Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Christine; Thibault, Louise; Côté, Jean-Charles; Domingo, Marc-Christian

    2016-01-01

    An 88-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with worsening malaise, fever, and weakness. Anaerobic blood culture bottles revealed the presence of an anaerobic, Gram-positive sporulated bacillus. Empirical antibiotherapy with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated. The patient defervesced after four days and was switched to oral amoxicillin on his 6th day of antibiotic therapy and later discharged from the hospital. Four months later, he had recovered. The bacterium was initially identified as Clostridium butyricum using anaerobic manual identification panel. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed the bacterium to be Clostridium lavalense, a recently described species with no previously published case of isolation in human diagnostic samples so far. This is the first report of Clostridium lavalense isolation from human blood cultures. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the role of Clostridium lavalense in human disease and its virulence factors. PMID:27478446

  5. Penile enlargement: from medication to surgery.

    PubMed

    Nugteren, Helena M; Balkema, G T; Pascal, A L; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M; van Driel, M F

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient selection, outcome evaluation, and techniques applied. In our view, sexological counseling and detailed explanation of risks and complications are mandatory before any operative intervention.

  6. Clinicopathological features and histogenesis of penile cysts.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Cecilia; Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2015-05-01

    Cysts arising in the penis are uncommon and can be found anywhere from the urethral meatus to the root of the penis involving glans, foreskin, or shaft. Median raphe cysts account for the majority of penile cystic lesions reported in the literature. As their name suggests, they arise on the ventral midline of the penis that extends from the urethral meatus to the scrotum and perineum. Proposed hypotheses for their origin as well as their diverse morphology are discussed.

  7. Penile Calciphylaxis in End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Lullo, Luca; Otranto, Giovanni; Floccari, Fulvio; Malaguti, Moreno; Santoboni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Calciphylaxis, better described as “Calcific uremic arteriolopathy” (CUA), involves about 1–4% of hemodialysis patients all around the world with high mortality rates. We describe a rare clinical case of CUA in peritoneal dialysis patient associated with urological disease. Penile calciphylaxis represents rare clinical complication, and an early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are requested. Pathogenesis is still unclear, and therapeutic approaches need more long-term clinical trials to test their efficacy and safety. PMID:23841013

  8. Penile calciphylaxis in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Vincenzo; Di Lullo, Luca; Gorini, Antonio; Otranto, Giovanni; Floccari, Fulvio; Malaguti, Moreno; Santoboni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Calciphylaxis, better described as "Calcific uremic arteriolopathy" (CUA), involves about 1-4% of hemodialysis patients all around the world with high mortality rates. We describe a rare clinical case of CUA in peritoneal dialysis patient associated with urological disease. Penile calciphylaxis represents rare clinical complication, and an early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are requested. Pathogenesis is still unclear, and therapeutic approaches need more long-term clinical trials to test their efficacy and safety.

  9. Histological Correlates of Penile Sexual Sensation: Does Circumcision Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Guy; Krieger, John N; Morris, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The question of whether removal of sensory receptors in the prepuce by circumcision affects sensitivity and/or sexual pleasure is often debated. Aims To examine histological correlates relevant to penile sensitivity and sexual pleasure. Methods Systematic review of the scientific literature on penile structures that might affect sensitivity and sexual sensation. Articles were included if they contained original data on human male penile histology or anatomy. Individual articles, including reference lists, were evaluated. They were then considered in relation to physiological data from articles retrieved by a previous systematic review. Results We retrieved 41 publications on penile structure. Considered in the light of 12 reporting physiological measurements, our evaluation finds that sexual response is unlikely to involve Meissner’s corpuscles, whose density in the prepuce diminishes at the time of life when male sexual activity is increasing. Free nerve endings also show no correlation with sexual response. Because tactile sensitivity of the glans decreases with sexual arousal, it is unrelated to sexual sensation. Thermal sensitivity seems part of the reward mechanism of intercourse. Vibrational sensitivity is not related to circumcision status. Observations that penile sexual sensation is higher post circumcision are consistent with greater access of genital corpuscles to sexual stimuli after removal of the prepuce. This is based on the distribution of these corpuscles (which are located in the glans) and, in uncircumcised men, the position of the retracted prepuce during intercourse, rather than any change in the number of genital corpuscles. The scientific literature suggests that any sexual effect of circumcised men may depend solely on exposure of the glans and not on the absence of the prepuce. Conclusion Based on histological findings and correlates of sexual function, loss of the prepuce by circumcision would appear to have no adverse

  10. Histological Correlates of Penile Sexual Sensation: Does Circumcision Make a Difference?

    PubMed

    Cox, Guy; Krieger, John N; Morris, Brian J

    2015-06-01

    The question of whether removal of sensory receptors in the prepuce by circumcision affects sensitivity and/or sexual pleasure is often debated. To examine histological correlates relevant to penile sensitivity and sexual pleasure. Systematic review of the scientific literature on penile structures that might affect sensitivity and sexual sensation. Articles were included if they contained original data on human male penile histology or anatomy. Individual articles, including reference lists, were evaluated. They were then considered in relation to physiological data from articles retrieved by a previous systematic review. We retrieved 41 publications on penile structure. Considered in the light of 12 reporting physiological measurements, our evaluation finds that sexual response is unlikely to involve Meissner's corpuscles, whose density in the prepuce diminishes at the time of life when male sexual activity is increasing. Free nerve endings also show no correlation with sexual response. Because tactile sensitivity of the glans decreases with sexual arousal, it is unrelated to sexual sensation. Thermal sensitivity seems part of the reward mechanism of intercourse. Vibrational sensitivity is not related to circumcision status. Observations that penile sexual sensation is higher post circumcision are consistent with greater access of genital corpuscles to sexual stimuli after removal of the prepuce. This is based on the distribution of these corpuscles (which are located in the glans) and, in uncircumcised men, the position of the retracted prepuce during intercourse, rather than any change in the number of genital corpuscles. The scientific literature suggests that any sexual effect of circumcised men may depend solely on exposure of the glans and not on the absence of the prepuce. Based on histological findings and correlates of sexual function, loss of the prepuce by circumcision would appear to have no adverse effect on sexual pleasure. Our evaluation supports

  11. Isolation of cancer stem cells from human prostate cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Samuel J; Quinn, S Aidan; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Bonal, Dennis M; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Firpo-Betancourt, Adolfo; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2014-03-14

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been considerably revisited over the last two decades. During this time CSCs have been identified and directly isolated from human tissues and serially propagated in immunodeficient mice, typically through antibody labeling of subpopulations of cells and fractionation by flow cytometry. However, the unique clinical features of prostate cancer have considerably limited the study of prostate CSCs from fresh human tumor samples. We recently reported the isolation of prostate CSCs directly from human tissues by virtue of their HLA class I (HLAI)-negative phenotype. Prostate cancer cells are harvested from surgical specimens and mechanically dissociated. A cell suspension is generated and labeled with fluorescently conjugated HLAI and stromal antibodies. Subpopulations of HLAI-negative cells are finally isolated using a flow cytometer. The principal limitation of this protocol is the frequently microscopic and multifocal nature of primary cancer in prostatectomy specimens. Nonetheless, isolated live prostate CSCs are suitable for molecular characterization and functional validation by transplantation in immunodeficient mice.

  12. Isolation and localization of DNA segments from specific human chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gusella, James F.; Keys, Cheryl; Varsanyi-Breiner, Aviva; Kao, Fa-Ten; Jones, Carol; Puck, Theodore T.; Housman, David

    1980-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques have been combined with somatic cell genetic methods to identify, isolate, and amplify fragments of human DNA localized at specific regions of human chromosome 11 selected as a model system. A library of genomic DNA segments has been constructed, in λ Charon 4A bacteriophage, from the DNA of a somatic cell hybrid carrying a portion of human chromosome 11 on a Chinese hamster ovary cell background. Using a nucleic acid hybridization technique that distinguishes human and Chinese hamster interspersed, repetitive DNA, we have been able to distinguish recombinant phages carrying DNA segments of human origin from recombinant phages carrying DNA segments of Chinese hamster origin. We have isolated 50 human DNA segments thus far and have characterized 5 in detail. For each DNA segment characterized, a subsegment that carries no repetitive human DNA sequences has been identified. These segments have been used as hybridization probes in experiments that localize the DNA fragment on the chromosome. In each case an unequivocal chromosomal localization has been obtained with reference to a panel of hybrid cell clones each of which carries a deletion of a portion of the short arm of chromosome 11. At least one DNA segment has been identified which maps to each of the four regions on the short arm defined by the panel of hybrid cell clones used. The approaches described here appear to be general. They can be extended to produce a fine structure map of human chromosome 11 and other human chromosomes. This approach promises implications for human genetics generally, for the human genetic diseases, and possibly for understanding of gene regulation in normal and abnormal differentiation. Images PMID:6930670

  13. Idiopathic mucosal penile squamous papillomas in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cornegliani, Luisa; Vercelli, Antonella; Abramo, Francesca

    2007-12-01

    A new papillomatous clinical entity is described affecting the penile mucosa of dogs. The animals, 11 male dogs of different breeds, ageing from 6 to 13 years, were presented for genital mass and occasional haematuria. Surgical incision of the prepuce skin of the anaesthetized dogs showed the presence of single pedunculated, soft, pink-red, cauliflower-like masses arising from the penile mucosa, with diameter ranging from 2 to 8 cm. In all cases, histopathological examination of the excised masses showed normal epithelial differentiation with digitiform expansion of all the layers and elongated rete ridges slanted towards the periphery of the lesion. Evidence of ballooning degeneration or basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies was not found. Both immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction techniques failed to reveal papillomavirus. According to the histological World Health Organization classification of papillomatous lesions and due to the lack of evidence of a viral origin the masses were identified as idiopathic mucosal penile squamous papillomas. Urinary problems resolved after surgical excision, haematuria was therefore considered secondary to ulceration of the papillated masses.

  14. Anaerococcus nagyae sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Veloo, A C M; de Vries, E D; Jean-Pierre, H; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new Anaerococcus species isolated from human clinical specimens. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of three strains showed <98% similarity with its closest relative Anaerococcus octavius. Phylogenetically the isolated strains form a cluster and can be differentiated from other species of the genus Anaerococcus based on its phenotypic characteristics and its MALDI-TOF MS profile. We propose the name Anaerococcus nagyae, with A. nagyae DSM101193 (accession number KU043522) as the type strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis malfunction due to penile fibrolipoma secondary to augmentative phalloplasty: A case report.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Gabriele; Vicini, Patrizio; De Berardinis, Ettore; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Gentile, Vincenzo; Perito, Paul

    2016-01-14

    Fibrolipomas are an infrequent type of lipomas. We describe a case of a man suffering from subcutaneous penile fibrolipoma, who twelve months earlier has been submitted to augmentative phalloplasty due to aesthetic dysmorphophobia. The same patient three years earlier has been submitted to three-component hydraulic penile prostheses implantation due to erectile dysfunction. After six months from removing of the mass, the penile elongation and penile enlargement were stable, the prostheses were correctly functioning and the patient was satisfied with his sexual intercourse and life. The diagnostics and surgical characteristics of this case are reported.

  16. [Isolation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus from human individuals].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M C; Ambrosio, A M; Riera, L; Levis, S; Sottosanti, J; Sabattini, M

    2001-01-01

    The activity of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMv) in Argentina has been previously reported on the basis of serological evidence in rodents and humans and the isolation of only one strain of LCMv from a Mus domesticus captured in the province of Córdoba. The aim of this paper was to register patients with serological diagnosis of LCM, to isolate and to identify human strains of LCMv in Argentina. During the last 19 years, 15 cases were diagnosed as LCM by immunoflourescent indirect assay (IFI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) but when neutralizing assay (NT) was incorporated, eight cases were classified as confirmed, three as probable and four as negative. The geographic distribution of the cases included three provinces: Córdoba, Buenos Aires and Santa Fe. Viral isolation was attempted in five patients classified as confirmed and only two resulted positive (P5226 and P8573). They were identified as LCMv by IFI and NT. The coexistence of LCMv with other arenaviruses, such as Junin and Oliveros viruses, in the same area, raises the probability of interactions between them, which could modify the virulence and/or pathogenicity for humans associated to genomic changes. Future studies of antigenic, genomic and virulence variability of different Argentine strains of LCMv, as well as the systematic search for human infection, will contribute to define the importance of this viral agent in our country and to implement control measures.

  17. Selective medium for isolation of Clostridium butyricum from human feces.

    PubMed Central

    Popoff, M R

    1984-01-01

    A selective medium, Clostridium butyricum isolation medium (BIM), is described for the isolation of C. butyricum from human feces. The BIM is a synthetic minimal medium and contains trimethoprim (16 micrograms/ml), D-cycloserine (10 micrograms/ml), and polymyxin B sulfate (20 micrograms/ml) as selective inhibitory agents. Qualitative tests indicated that C. butyricum and other butyric acid-producing clostridia grew on BIM, Clostridium sphenoides and Bacillus cereus produced small colonies, and other clostridia and other obligate anaerobic or facultatively anerobic bacteria were inhibited. Quantitative recovery of C. butyricum from cultures or seeded fecal samples was comparable with BIM and with complex medium, but the quantitative recovery of the other butyric acid-producing clostridia tested (C. beijerinckii, C. acetobutylicum) was lower with BIM than with complex medium. The BIM should aid the rapid isolation of C. butyricum from fecal samples and should be useful for bacteriological investigation of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:6490827

  18. Isolation of Actinomyces bacteriophage from human dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Tylenda, C A; Calvert, C; Kolenbrander, P E; Tylenda, A

    1985-07-01

    Human dental plaque samples were screened for the presence of bacteriophage for Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus sanguis. None of the 336 samples yielded phage for S. sanguis, but 10 contained virulent actinomyces phage. A high host cell specificity was observed in that one phage isolate infected only A. viscosus T14V, eight phage isolates infected only A. viscosus MG-1, and one infected both strains. None was capable of productively infecting various other actinomyces strains that represented the six actinomyces coaggregation groups. Because phage-containing samples occurred randomly in this survey, no correlation between the individual collecting the samples, dental clinic, or type of patient and the presence of phage in the sample was noted. Examination of one of the samples that yielded phage for the presence of a natural host strain for that particular phage resulted in the isolation of two strains which were identified as A. viscosus serotype II and Actinomyces naeslundii serotype I. This is the first report of an A. naeslundii host strain and actinomyces bacteriophage of human dental plaque origin. The finding of both phage and host strains in the same dental plaque sample along with the observation of high host cell specificity by these phage provide indicators that support an active role for actinomyces bacteriophage in oral microbial ecology. The use of these freshly isolated phage as probes to study actinomyces coaggregation properties is discussed.

  19. Isolation of human liver angiotensin-converting enzyme by chromatofocusing.

    PubMed

    Sakharov IYu; Danilov, S M; Sukhova, N V

    1987-10-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1) has been isolated from human liver by chromatofocusing. The isolation procedure permitted us to obtain a 9000-fold purified enzyme with a 22% yield. Specific activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme was 10 units/mg of protein. The molecular mass of enzyme determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions was 150,000. The isoelectric point (4.2-4.3) was also determined by chromatofocusing. The Km values of the enzyme for hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-histidyl-L-leucine are 5000 and 125 microM, respectively. The human liver angiotensin-converting enzyme is inhibited by bradykinin-potentiating factor SQ 20881 (IC50 = 18 nM).

  20. Hypermutable bacteria isolated from humans--a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lucinda M C; Henderson-Begg, Stephanie K

    2006-09-01

    Hypermutable bacteria of several species have been described among isolates recovered from humans over the last decade. Interpretation of the literature in this area is complicated by diversity in the determination and definition of hypermutability, and this review outlines the different methods used. Inactivation of the mismatch repair gene mutS is often implicated in the mutator phenotype; the reported effect of mutS inactivation on mutation frequency varies widely between species, from under 10-fold to nearly 1,000-fold, but also varies among different reports on the same species. Particularly high proportions of mutators have been reported among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other species in the cystic fibrosis lung, epidemic serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis, and Helicobacter pylori. Aspects of the biology of these infections that could be relevant to hypermutability are discussed, and some future directions that may increase our understanding of mutators among bacteria isolated from humans are considered.

  1. Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Natsuko; Okamoto, Masaaki

    2010-03-01

    Two anaerobic, pigmented, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped strains isolated from the human oral cavity, OMA31(T) and OMA130, were characterized by determining their phenotypic and biochemical features, cellular fatty acid profiles and phylogenetic positions based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the new isolates belonged to a single species of the genus Prevotella. The two isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and were most closely related to Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611(T) with 96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity; the next most closely related strains to the isolates were Prevotella pallens AHN 10371(T) (96.1 %) and Prevotella falsenii JCM 15124(T) (95.3 %). Phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of the isolates were the same as those of P. intermedia JCM 12248(T), P. falsenii JCM 15124(T) and Prevotella nigrescens JCM 12250(T). The isolates could be differentiated from P. pallens JCM 11140( T) by mannose fermentation and alpha-fucosidase activity. Conventional biochemical tests were unable to differentiate the new isolates from P. intermedia, P. falsenii and P. nigrescens. However, hsp60 gene sequence analysis suggested that strain OMA31(T) was not a representative of P. intermedia, P. pallens, P. falsenii or P. nigrescens. Based on these data, a novel species of the genus Prevotella, Prevotella aurantiaca sp. nov., is proposed, with OMA31(T) (=JCM 15754(T)=CCUG 57723(T)) as the type strain.

  2. Identification of vancomycin-resistant lactic bacteria isolated from humans.

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, T; Lejeune, V; Janssens, M; Wauters, G

    1993-01-01

    By using cell morphology, arginine dihydrolase, and gas production in de Man, Sharp, Rogosa broth, 122 isolates of vancomycin-resistant lactic bacteria from humans were assigned to five profiles, allowing us to distinguish Pediococcus, homofermentative and heterofermentative Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc species. The absence of L-(+)-lactic acid, as detected spectrophotometrically, was confirmatory for Leuconostoc species. API 50 CHL panels were useful for the identification of Lactobacillus species. PMID:8408575

  3. A method for whole protein isolation from human cranial bone.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Sarah M; Mayampurath, Anoop; Rogers, M Rose; Wolfgeher, Donald J; Fisher, Sean M; Volchenboum, Samuel L; He, Tong-Chuan; Reid, Russell R

    2016-12-15

    The presence of the dense hydroxyapatite matrix within human bone limits the applicability of conventional protocols for protein extraction. This has hindered the complete and accurate characterization of the human bone proteome thus far, leaving many bone-related disorders poorly understood. We sought to refine an existing method of protein extraction from mouse bone to extract whole proteins of varying molecular weights from human cranial bone. Whole protein was extracted from human cranial suture by mechanically processing samples using a method that limits protein degradation by minimizing heat introduction to proteins. The presence of whole protein was confirmed by western blotting. Mass spectrometry was used to sequence peptides and identify isolated proteins. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003215. Extracted proteins were characterized as both intra- and extracellular and had molecular weights ranging from 9.4 to 629 kDa. High correlation scores among suture protein spectral counts support the reproducibility of the method. Ontology analytics revealed proteins of myriad functions including mediators of metabolic processes and cell organelles. These results demonstrate a reproducible method for isolation of whole protein from human cranial bone, representing a large range of molecular weights, origins and functions.

  4. Isolation and Quantification of Glycosaminoglycans from Human Hair Shaft

    PubMed Central

    Bonovas, Stefanos; Sitaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. Objective The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. Methods Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9). GAGs in hair samples, received from the parietal and the occipital areas, were isolated with 4 M guanidine HCl and measured by the uronic acid-carbazole reaction assay. Results GAGs concentration was significantly higher in the occipital area than in the parietal area, in all study groups. GAG levels from both areas were significantly higher in children than in adults. GAG levels were not associated with gender, hair color or type. Conclusion We report the presence of GAGs in the human free hair shaft and the correlation of hair GAG levels with the scalp area and participants' age. PMID:27746630

  5. Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Acute and Chronic Priapism.

    PubMed

    Garaffa, Giulio; Ralph, David J

    2013-07-01

    To review the current literature regarding penile prosthesis implantation in acute and chronic priapism. A nonstructured Pubmed base search using the terms ischemic priapism, penile prosthesis, and refractory erectile dysfunction has been carried out. Surgical outcome and patient satisfaction following penile prosthesis implantation are reported. Implantation of a penile prosthesis in acute and chronic ischemic priapism is associated with increased complication rates, when compared with virgin implants. Implantation in acute priapism allows the painful priapic episode to settle and to preserve penile length, while implantation in chronic priapism is technically much more challenging and often requires the use of downsized shorter cylinders. Implantation of a penile prosthesis in acute refractory ischemic priapism should be the solution of choice, as the dilatation is easier and allows the preservation of penile length, which is one of the main factors influencing postoperative patient's satisfaction in prosthetic surgery. Garaffa G and Ralph D. Penile prosthesis implantation in acute and chronic priapism. Sex Med Rev 2013;1:76-82. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cylinder problems with AMS 700 inflatable penile prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Fein, R L

    1988-04-01

    Six cases of cylinder problems encountered in 1986 with the AMS 700 Silastic inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) were studied in detail. The problems included 1 case of significant penile bending, the development of a cylinder tear, and several cylinder aneurysms. Possible causes of the problems are explored, along with possibilities for prevention of future problems.

  7. Isolation and characterization of the human Gs alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kozasa, T; Itoh, H; Tsukamoto, T; Kaziro, Y

    1988-01-01

    The gene for Gs alpha (the alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs) was isolated from human genomic libraries using rat Gs alpha cDNA as a probe. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the human gene with that of the rat cDNA revealed that the human Gs alpha gene spans approximately equal to 20 kilobases and is composed of 13 exons and 12 introns. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that the human haploid genome contains a single Gs alpha gene. Previous reports indicated the presence of multiple species of Gs alpha cDNA. The structure of the human Gs alpha gene suggests that four types of Gs alpha mRNAs may be generated from a single Gs alpha gene by alternate use of exon 3 and/or of two 3' splice sites of intron 3, where an unusual splice junction sequence (TG) instead of the consensus (AG) is used. S1 nuclease mapping analysis of human Gs alpha mRNA identified multiple transcriptional initiation sites. The promoter region of the human Gs alpha gene has extremely high G + C content (85%). It contains 4 "GC" boxes, but no typical "TATA" or "CAAT" box sequence. In the 5' flanking region, there are several blocks of sequences that are similar to the sequences of the 5' flanking region of the human c-Ki-ras2 gene. Images PMID:3127824

  8. Penile inversion through a penoscrotal incision for the treatment of penile urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, James M; Zhumkhawala, Ali A; Chan, Kevin G.; Lau, Clayton S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article describes a novel technique for the repair of penile urethral strictures and establishes the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of this innovative surgical approach. Materials and Methods Patients with urethral strictures underwent a one-sided anterior dorsal oral mucosal graft urethroplasty through a penoscrotal inversion technique. The clinical outcome was considered a failure when any instrumentation was needed postoperatively, including dilatation. Results Five patients underwent the novel procedure. The patients' mean age was 58 years. The cause of stricture was instrumentation in 2 cases (40%), lichen sclerosis in 1 case (20%), and failed hypospadias repair in 2 cases (40%). The mean stricture length was 3 cm. The overall mean (range) follow-up was 6 months (range, 3–9 months). Of the 5 patients, 4 (80%) had a successful outcome and 1 (20%) had a failed outcome. The failure was successfully treated by use of a meatotomy. Conclusions The penile inversion technique through a penoscrotal incision is a viable option for the management of penile urethral strictures with several advantages to other techniques: namely, no penile skin incision, a single-stage operation, and supine positioning. PMID:26981596

  9. Management of Peyronie disease by implantation of inflatable penile prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Knoll, L D; Furlow, W L; Benson, R C

    1990-11-01

    Sixty-seven patients with advanced Peyronie disease were treated by implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP). Twenty-eight of the 67 patients had documented total erectile failure. The remaining 39 patients had significant penile curvature causing "mechanical impotence" due to inability to achieve adequate vaginal penetration and chose implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis (in some cases, combined with a straightening procedure) rather than one of the standard penile straightening procedures. Currently, 63 of the 67 patients have functioning prosthetic devices; in 3 other patients the device was removed because of infection, and 1 patient was dissatisfied and had the device removed. For impotent patients with severe Peyronie disease for whom other medical or surgical treatment is neither desirable nor suitable, we recommend implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis combined with a possible straightening procedure.

  10. Three-piece Inflatable Penile Prosthesis: Surgical Techniques and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Al-Enezi, Ahmad; Al-Khadhari, Sulaiman; Al-Shaiji, Tariq F.

    2011-01-01

    Penile prosthesis surgery plays a vital role in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). As far as outcome is concerned, it is one of the most rewarding procedures for both patients and surgeons. We describe our surgical technique for implantation of the three-piece inflatable penile prosthesis and point out the major surgical pitfalls accompanying this procedure and their specific management. The psychological outcome of penile prosthesis surgery is also discussed. Different surgical approaches are available when performing the procedure. A number of procedure-related problems can be encountered and a thorough knowledge of these is of paramount importance. Penile prosthesis surgery has a favorable psychological outcome. Surgery for implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis is a rewarding procedure, with a high yield of patient satisfaction. Urologists should have thorough understanding of the surgical pitfalls peculiar to this procedure and their management. PMID:22413049

  11. Penile enlargement with methacrylate injection: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Andrade, Enrico Martins de; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Claro, Joaquim Francisco Almeida; Cury, Jose; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Penis size is a great concern for men in many cultures. Despite the great variety of methods for penile augmentation, none has gained unanimous acceptance among experts in the field. However, in this era of minimally invasive procedure, injection therapy for penile augmentation has become more popular. Here we report a case of methacrylate injection in the penis that evolved with penile deformity and sexual dysfunction. This work also reviews the investigation and management of this pathological condition. CASE REPORT A 36-year-old male sought medical care with a complaint of penile deformity and sexual dysfunction after methacrylate injection. The treatment administered was surgical removal. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were reached after two months. CONCLUSIONS There is a need for better structured scientific research to evaluate the outcomes and complication rates from all penile augmentation procedures.

  12. Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures.

    PubMed

    Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Erenoglu, Cagil Meric; Lineaweaver, William C; Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet; Ozek, Cuneyt

    2016-06-01

    We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should be determined according to the patient and the defect, where a transgender patient will receive a total allograft and a male patient with a proximal penile defect will receive a partial shaft allograft. We designed an algorithm for different levels of penile defect and described the technique for harvest of partial and total penile transplants.

  13. Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Algaba, Ferran; Ayala, Gustavo; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2010-08-01

    Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the epithelium covering glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin. Several histologic subtypes have been described, each with distinctive clinicopathologic and outcome features. The most common subtype is the usual SCC, representing one half to two thirds of penile carcinomas. Penile verruciform tumors encompass verrucous, warty (condylomatous), and papillary, not otherwise specified, carcinomas. As a group, verruciform tumors are low grade, with low metastatic and mortality rates. In contrast, basaloid and sarcomatoid carcinomas are among the most aggressive penile tumors. Other SCC variants, such as carcinoma cuniculatum and pseudohyperplastic, adenosquamous and acantholytic carcinomas, are rare. The most relevant clinicopathologic and outcome features are outlined for each of these SCC subtypes, and an algorithm that might aid the pathologist in the histologic classification is presented. In addition, recommendations for handling penile cancer specimens, frozen section specimens, and pathology reports are provided.

  14. Penile constriction injury: An experience of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Ajit Somaji; Patil, Sunil Raghunath; Kumar, Vikash; Kasat, Gaurav Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Penile injury due to constriction by a foreign object is a rare known complication, commonly seen in pediatric age group. We report four cases of penile constriction injury in adults due to various foreign objects and different indications. Between October 2014 and March 2016, four patients (mean age 42.5 years) presented with penile constriction injury with duration at presentation ranging from 18 h to 2 months. One patient had complete transection of the corpus and penile urethra. Three patients were managed successfully with daily dressings followed by split-skin grafting in one patient. One patient required delayed primary suturing after the resolution of local edema. The outcome was satisfactory in all patients with retained erectile function. Early medical attention and management is the key to success in penile constriction injury cases and to avoid complications and morbidity. Prompt removal can be challenging in cases of metal foreign bodies. PMID:28058007

  15. Therapeutic strategies for patients with micropenis or penile dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kayes, Oliver; Shabbir, Majid; Ralph, David; Minhas, Suks

    2012-09-01

    Micropenis in adults is defined as a stretched length of <7.5 cm. Many aetiologies exist, including congenital and endocrinological causes as well as pathological conditions, such as penile lichen sclerosus, trauma and genital cancer. The resulting reduction in functional penile length can lead to considerable psychosexual morbidity. Furthermore, the subset of patients with micropenis who also suffer from penile dysmorphic disorder require careful and intensive psychological counselling. Corrective surgery for micropenis can be performed in patients with realistic expectations. Total phalloplasty using radial-artery-based forearm skin flaps can offer restoration of normal penile length in selected patients. More-conservative surgical techniques to improve length or girth are limited by minimal enhancement but associated with a significantly lower rate of complications and comorbidity compared to total phalloplasty. Emerging tissue engineering techniques might represent a suitable alternative to penile replacement surgery in the future.

  16. Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates.

    PubMed

    Tarradas, C; Luque, I; de Andrés, D; Abdel-Aziz Shahein, Y E; Pons, P; González, F; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis in humans are reported here. A butcher and an abattoir worker were referred to a health centre in Castellón (Spain) with fever and symptoms of meningitis. After adequate treatment, a slight hipoacusia persisted as sequelae in both cases. Colonies of S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ were isolated from cerebroespinal fluid. Epidemiological studies showed that both workers had in common the handling of pork meat of slaughtered healthy pigs from three closed farms. A study of the tonsils from apparently healthy, slaughtered pigs was carried out. A total of 234 tonsillar samples were obtained and 81 strains of S. suis were isolated from them. Serotype 2 appeared to be the most frequent (50.6%), and the analysis for phenotype showed a high percentage of tonsillar strains with the phenotype MRP+EF+ (35.9%). The humans and 28 tonsillar swine strains showed a similar profile (S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+). A total of 26 of the swine isolates were analysed by ribotyping using EcoRI. The human strains showed the same six-band hybridization pattern that shared five bands with the pattern most frequently shown by most of the tonsillar N. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ strains, differing only in the lightest, faintest band which was slightly less anodical in human (> or = 1.8 kb) than in swine (approximately 1.8 kb). From these results, both groups of strains, humans and porcine, showed differences; how can these differences in the pattern of ribotyping be explained if they should have the same origin? Is it possible that they have undergone an adaptation to the new host or perhaps the modification is due to other unknown causes? Further studies in this area are required in order to answer these questions.

  17. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis Organisms Isolated from Human Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, Edna S.; Amit, Zunika; Chandra, Jyotsna; Baughman, Robert P.; Contini, Carlo; Lundgren, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia (P. carinii pneumonia, or PCP) in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. Rat-derived P. carinii carinii organisms have distinct sterols which are not synthesized by mammals and not found in other microbes infecting mammalian lungs. The dominant sterol present in the organism is cholesterol (which is believed to be scavenged from the host), but other sterols in P. carinii carinii have an alkyl group at C-24 of the sterol side chain (C28 and C29 24-alkylsterols) and a double bond at C-7 of the nucleus. Recently, pneumocysterol (C32), which is essentially lanosterol with a C-24 ethylidene group, was detected in lipids extracted from a formalin-fixed human P. carinii-infected lung, and its structures were elucidated by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human infections, it is important to determine whether the 24-alkylsterols of organisms found in rats are also present in organisms in humans. In the present study, sterol analyses of P. carinii hominis organisms isolated from cryopreserved human P. carinii-infected lungs and from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were performed. Several of the same distinct sterols (e.g., fungisterol and methylcholest-7-ene-3β-ol) previously identified in P. carinii carinii were also present in organisms isolated from human specimens. Pneumocysterol was detected in only some of the samples. PMID:10548595

  18. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Penile Cancer Revealed by Next-Generation Small RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xiansheng; Kong, Rui; Xu, Lingfan; Gao, Jingjing; Zou, Duohong; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-01-01

    Penile cancer (PeCa) is a relatively rare tumor entity but possesses higher morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. To date, the concrete pathogenic signaling pathways and core machineries involved in tumorigenesis and progression of PeCa remain to be elucidated. Several studies suggested miRNAs, which modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, were frequently mis-regulated and aberrantly expressed in human cancers. However, the miRNA profile in human PeCa has not been reported before. In this present study, the miRNA profile was obtained from 10 fresh penile cancerous tissues and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues via next-generation sequencing. As a result, a total of 751 and 806 annotated miRNAs were identified in normal and cancerous penile tissues, respectively. Among which, 56 miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between paired tissues were identified. Subsequently, several annotated miRNAs were selected randomly and validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the previous publications regarding to the altered miRNAs expression in various cancers and especially genitourinary (prostate, bladder, kidney, testis) cancers, the most majority of deregulated miRNAs showed the similar expression pattern in penile cancer. Moreover, the bioinformatics analyses suggested that the putative target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs between cancerous and matched normal penile tissues were tightly associated with cell junction, proliferation, growth as well as genomic instability and so on, by modulating Wnt, MAPK, p53, PI3K-Akt, Notch and TGF-β signaling pathways, which were all well-established to participate in cancer initiation and progression. Our work presents a global view of the differentially expressed miRNAs and potentially regulatory networks of their target genes for clarifying the pathogenic transformation of normal penis to PeCa, which research resource also provides new insights

  19. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Penile Cancer Revealed by Next-Generation Small RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wei, Pengfei; Shen, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanwei; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xiansheng; Kong, Rui; Xu, Lingfan; Gao, Jingjing; Zou, Duohong; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-01-01

    Penile cancer (PeCa) is a relatively rare tumor entity but possesses higher morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. To date, the concrete pathogenic signaling pathways and core machineries involved in tumorigenesis and progression of PeCa remain to be elucidated. Several studies suggested miRNAs, which modulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level, were frequently mis-regulated and aberrantly expressed in human cancers. However, the miRNA profile in human PeCa has not been reported before. In this present study, the miRNA profile was obtained from 10 fresh penile cancerous tissues and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues via next-generation sequencing. As a result, a total of 751 and 806 annotated miRNAs were identified in normal and cancerous penile tissues, respectively. Among which, 56 miRNAs with significantly different expression levels between paired tissues were identified. Subsequently, several annotated miRNAs were selected randomly and validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the previous publications regarding to the altered miRNAs expression in various cancers and especially genitourinary (prostate, bladder, kidney, testis) cancers, the most majority of deregulated miRNAs showed the similar expression pattern in penile cancer. Moreover, the bioinformatics analyses suggested that the putative target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs between cancerous and matched normal penile tissues were tightly associated with cell junction, proliferation, growth as well as genomic instability and so on, by modulating Wnt, MAPK, p53, PI3K-Akt, Notch and TGF-β signaling pathways, which were all well-established to participate in cancer initiation and progression. Our work presents a global view of the differentially expressed miRNAs and potentially regulatory networks of their target genes for clarifying the pathogenic transformation of normal penis to PeCa, which research resource also provides new insights

  20. Evaluation of Potential Probiotics Isolated from Human Milk and Colostrum.

    PubMed

    Damaceno, Quésia S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Nicoli, Jacques R; Paula, Raquel L; Assis, Gabriela B; Figueiredo, Henrique C; Azevedo, Vasco; Martins, Flaviano S

    2017-04-03

    Several studies have demonstrated a diversity of bacterial species in human milk, even in aseptically collected samples. The present study evaluated potential probiotic bacteria isolated from human milk and associated maternal variables. Milk samples were collected from 47 healthy women and cultured on selective and universal agar media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacterial isolates were counted and identified by Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry and then tested for probiotic properties. Total bacteria in human milk ranged from 1.5 to 4.0 log10 CFU/mL. The higher bacterial counts were found in colostrum (mean = 3.9 log10 CFU/mL, 95% CI 3.14-4.22, p = 0.00001). The most abundant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 76). The potential probiotic candidates were Lactobacillus gasseri (n = 4), Bifidobacterium breve (n = 1), and Streptococcus salivarius (n = 4). Despite the small sample size, L. gasseri was isolated only in breast milk from mothers classified into a normal weight range and after a vaginally delivered partum. No potential probiotics showed antagonism against pathogens, but all of them agglutinated different pathogens. Nine bacterial isolates belonging to the species L. gasseri, B. breve, and S. salivarius were selected as potential probiotics. The present study confirms the presence in breast milk of a bacterial microbiota that could be the source of potential probiotic candidates to be used in the formula of simulated maternal milk.

  1. A catalog of magnetic resonance imaging compatibility of penile prostheses.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Gregory; Smith, Ryan P; Costabile, Raymond A

    2012-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction has been successfully treated with penile prosthesis implantation for over 50 years. Ferromagnetic implants or devices may create a potentially hazardous or painful situation during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A modern catalog of the MRI compatibility of penile prostheses is not available. Evaluate the safety profile of implanted, penile prostheses during MRI. Review available in vitro safety data and reported patient complications experienced during MRI with a penile prosthesis in place. A search of PubMed™ for articles documenting a penile prosthesis present during MRI was performed. Radiology texts and product information from manufacturers' producing a penile prosthesis were reviewed. Direct discussion with product manufacturers was also performed to obtain additional safety and compatibility information. Nine clinical articles noted the presence of a penile prosthesis at the time of magnetic resonance imaging. No articles documented a complication from MRI of a man with a penile prosthesis. A single patient with an unnamed malleable prosthesis was noted to have twisting of the device during MRI which did not result in discomfort or malfunction of the device. In vitro studies support the safety of most prostheses during MRI. The available data suggests there is little risk for most patients with a penile prosthesis who undergo MRI. Notable exceptions include Dacomed's Omniphase and Duraphase device and the MRI-conditional Spectra device manufactured by AMS. Current manufacturers of penile implants provide wallet cards and medical letters to support safety when undergoing an MRI. Prior prosthesis implantation should not preclude patients from having an MRI. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Chloride transport in functionally active phagosomes isolated from Human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Martha L.; Painter, Richard G.; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Guoshun

    2012-01-01

    Chloride anion is critical for hypochlorous acid (HOCl) production and microbial killing in neutrophil phagosomes. However, the molecular mechanism by which this anion is transported to the organelle is poorly understood. In this report, membrane-enclosed and functionally active phagosomes were isolated from human neutrophils by using opsonized paramagnetic latex microspheres and a rapid magnetic separation method. The phagosomes recovered were highly enriched for specific protein markers associated with this organelle such as lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and NADPH oxidase. When FITC–dextran was included in the phagocytosis medium, the majority of the isolated phagosomes retained the fluorescent label after isolation, indicative of intact membrane structure. Flow cytometric measurement of acridine orange, a fluorescent pH indicator, in the purified phagosomes demonstrated that the organelle in its isolated state was capable of transporting protons to the phagosomal lumen via the vacuolar-type ATPase proton pump (V-ATPase). When NADPH was supplied, the isolated phagosomes constitutively oxidized dihydrorhodamine 123, indicating their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. The preparations also showed a robust production of HOCl within the phagosomal lumen when assayed with the HOCl-specific fluorescent probe R19-S by flow cytometry. MPO-mediated iodination of the proteins covalently conjugated to the phagocytosed beads was quantitatively measured. Phagosomal uptake of iodide and protein iodination were significantly blocked by chloride channel inhibitors, including CFTRinh-172 and NPPB. Further experiments determined that the V-ATPase-driving proton flux into the isolated phagosomes required chloride cotransport, and the cAMP-activated CFTR chloride channel was a major contributor to the chloride transport. Taken together, the data suggest that the phagosomal preparation described herein retains ion transport

  3. Receptors mediating contraction of isolated human vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Canevari, A; Pacifico, P; Cugurra, F; Giglio, C; Nadalini, V F

    1986-09-01

    A large body of evidences has suggested the role of adrenergic, opioidergic and other peptidergic receptors in the mediation of animal vas deferens motility. Different animal species showed different neurochemical patterns, so it is to be expected that human vas deferens has its own specific response to several substances, in relation to its peculiar function. In this study we report on the effects of monoaminergic (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, isoproterenol, cholinomimetic drugs) and opioidergic (morphine, buprenorphin, beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin and dynorphin) agonists on isolated human vas deferens motility. Norepinephrine and dopamine provoked complex patterns of motility while opioids did not affect the field electroinduced contractions. The implications of this finding are discussed in relation to human vas deferens function.

  4. Isolation and characterization of the human MRE11 homologue

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, J.H.J.; Walsh, M.E.; DiMare, C.

    1995-09-01

    Mutation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD52 epistasis group gene, MRE11, blocks meiotic recombination, confers profound sensitivity to double-strand break damage, and has a hyperrecombinational phenotype in mitotic cells. We isolated a highly conserved human MRE11 homologue using a two-hybrid screen for DNA ligase I-interacting proteins. Human MRE11 shares approximately 50% identity with its yeast counterpart over the N-terminal half of the protein. MRE11 is expressed at the highest levels in proliferating tissues, but is also observed in other tissues. The MRE11 locus maps to human chromosome 11q21 in a region frequently associated with cancer-related chromosomal abnormalities. A MRE11-related locus was found on chromosome 7q11.2-q11.3. 60 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia isolates from human in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, B; Ashrafmansori, A; Hatam, G R; Motazedian, M H; Asgari, Q; Mohammadpour, I

    2012-09-01

    Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human faeces in South of Iran were analyzed with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, based on the detection of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Among 205 faecal samples from microscopically diagnosed giardiasis patients, the gdh gene was amplified from 172 cases with a semi nested PCR assay and typed by RFLP analysis. Of the 172 positive samples, 128 (74.41%) were typed as assemblage AII, 30 (17.44%) assemblage BIII, 6 (3.49%) assemblage BIV and in 8 (4.66%) isolates, mixed assemblages AII and BIV were detected. Clinical features were available for 52 successfully typed cases and the possible correlation of Giardia assemblages and clinical symptoms was evaluated. Both assemblages caused similar illness, but assemblage AII was significantly more frequently associated with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Since these isolates, A and B, are of human origin, anthroponotic transmission of Giardia can be suggested for the route of infection in this region.

  6. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, D.J. . E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2006-12-15

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension-all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure (1 {mu}M-1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 {mu}M), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension.

  7. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, D.J.; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Wiechmann, R.J.; Sayre, L.M.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension—all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H2O2 exposure (1 μM–1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 μM), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H2O2, benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca2+-free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague–Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension. PMID:17095030

  8. Effect of Penile Traction and Vacuum Erectile Device for Peyronie's Disease in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haocheng; Liu, Chunhui; Wang, Run

    2017-09-08

    VED for the treatment of PD. This study explored the mechanism and benefits of TD and VED therapies for the treatment of PD. The rat model might not represent the human condition. Penile traction therapy with the TD or VED is beneficial to decrease penile curvature in animal models of PD. The underlying mechanism could be related to antiapoptosis, antifibrosis, and smooth muscle preservation. Lin H, Liu C, Wang R. Effect of Penile Traction and Vacuum Erectile Device for Peyronie's Disease in an Animal Model. J Sex Med 2017;XX:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovative approaches for complex penile urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jordan; Tausch, Timothy J.; Simhan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Urethral strictures are a common urologic disease that arises from varied etiologies. These strictures range in severity from simple, short lesions to complex, long defects. Likewise, the management approach varies based on the complexity of the lesion. We reviewed the literature of urethral stricture disease and its management. In particular we have focused on complex strictures of the male penile urethra. Often these cases cannot be managed with traditional reconstructive techniques and require newer approaches. Furthermore tissue engineered graft materials provide a possible tissue source for future reconstructive endeavors. PMID:26816766

  10. [Methods for evaluation of penile erection hardness].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-Ming; Zhou, Su; Zhang, Kai

    2010-07-01

    Penile erection hardness is one of the key factors for successful sexual intercourse, as well as an important index in the diagnosis and treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). This article gives an overview on the component and impact factors of erection hardness, summarizes some commonly used evaluation methods, including those for objective indexes, such as Rigiscan, axial buckling test and color Doppler ultrasonography, and those for subjective indexes of ED patients, such as IIEF, the Erectile Function Domain of IIEF (IIEF-EF), and Erection Hardness Score (EHS), and discusses the characteristics of these methods.

  11. Penile nodules in the penal system.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jack; Horowitz, David

    2012-05-01

    The insertion of inert spherical objects under the skin of the penile shaft with the intent of enhancing the sexual experience of one's partner has been reported mostly among Southeast Asian men. This practice is gaining popularity among the Hispanic jail population and prison inmates in southern California. We present a case series of 4 inmate patients with genital modifications (artificial penis nodules [APNs]), including one patient with vitiligo that was induced by his APN. Additionally, we review the literature pertaining to this practice and the relevant clinical implications.

  12. Factors associated with penile amputation in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, G A; Tiller, C M

    1998-01-01

    This report describes factors associated with the act of penile amputation by three female partners in southern Thailand. While gender-specific roles and paternalistic behaviors are normative in Thai society, specific precipitating factors for the three amputations included: (1) an immediate financial crisis that adversely affected one of the children in the family; (2) ingestion of drugs or alcohol by the husband immediately before the event; (3) public humiliation of the wife in the presence of a mia noi (secondary wife) or concubine within the week that preceded the incident. Understanding women's cultural preservation in Thailand may promote culturally sensitive and meaningful nursing care.

  13. Penile brachytherapy: Results for 49 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, Juanita M. . E-mail: juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Jezioranski, John; Grimard, Laval; Esche, Bernd; Pond, G.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To report results for 49 men with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis treated with primary penile interstitial brachytherapy at one of two institutions: the Ottawa Regional Cancer Center, Ottawa, and the Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods and Materials: From September 1989 to September 2003, 49 men (mean age, 58 years; range, 22-93 years) had brachytherapy for penile SCC. Fifty-one percent of tumors were T1, 33% T2, and 8% T3; 4% were in situ and 4% Tx. Grade was well differentiated in 31%, moderate in 45%, and poor in 2%; grade was unspecified for 20%. One tumor was verrucous. All tumors in Toronto had pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (n = 23), whereas those in Ottawa had either Iridium wire (n 22) or seeds (n = 4). Four patients had a single plane implant with a plastic tube technique, and all others had a volume implant with predrilled acrylic templates and two or three parallel planes of needles (median, six needles). Mean needle spacing was 13.5 mm (range, 10-18 mm), mean dose rate was 65 cGy/h (range, 33-160 cGy/h), and mean duration was 98.8 h (range, 36-188 h). Dose rates for PDR brachytherapy were 50-61.2 cGy/h, with no correction in total dose, which was 60 Gy in all cases. Results: Median follow-up was 33.4 months (range, 4-140 months). At 5 years, actuarial overall survival was 78.3% and cause-specific survival 90.0%. Four men died of penile cancer, and 6 died of other causes with no evidence of recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate for never having experienced any type of failure at 5 years was 64.4% and for local failure was 85.3%. All 5 patients with local failure were successfully salvaged by surgery; 2 other men required penectomy for necrosis. The soft tissue necrosis rate was 16% and the urethral stenosis rate 12%. Of 8 men with regional failure, 5 were salvaged by lymph node dissection with or without external radiation. All 4 men with distant failure died of disease. Of 49 men, 42 had an intact

  14. Central control of penile erection: role of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2005-05-01

    sexual behaviour and penile physiology, which has largely increased in the last years our knowledge of peripheral and central mechanisms controlling erectile function (drugs that induce penile erection in male rats usually do so also in man), the above results may have great significance in terms of a human perspective for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  15. Genomic Characterization of Human and Environmental Polioviruses Isolated in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Divizia, Maurizio; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Ersilia; Donia, Domenica; Ruscio, Vito; Equestre, Michele; Leno, Luljeta; Panà, Augusto; Degener, Anna Marta

    1999-01-01

    Between April and December 1996, a serious outbreak of poliomyelitis occurred in Albania; almost 140 subjects were involved, and the episode presented an unusually high mortality rate (12%). During the outbreak, water samples from the Lana River in Tirana, Albania, and stool samples from two cases of paralytic poliomyelitis were collected and analyzed for the presence of polioviruses. Six polioviruses were isolated from the environmental and human samples, according to standard methods. All the samples were characterized by partial genomic sequencing of 330 bases across the 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR) (nucleotide positions 200 to 530) and of 300 bases across the VP1 region (nucleotide positions 2474 to 2774). Comparison of these sequences with those present in data banks permitted the identification of environmental isolates Lana A and Lana B as, respectively, a Sabin-like type 2 poliovirus and an intertypic recombinant poliovirus (Sabin-like type 2/wild type 1), both bearing a G instead of an A at nucleotide position 481. The two other environmental polioviruses were similar to the isolates from the paralytic cases. They were characterized by a peculiar 5′-UTR and by a VP1 region showing 98% homology with the Albanian epidemic type 1 isolates reported by other authors. This study confirms the environmental circulation in Albania of recombinant poliovirus strains, likely sustained by a massive vaccination effort and by the presence in the environment of a type 1 poliovirus, as isolated from the Lana River in Tirana about 2 months before the first case of symptomatic acute flaccid paralysis was reported in this town. PMID:10427045

  16. Obesity is associated with increased risk of invasive penile cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kerri T; McDowell, Bradley D; Button, Anna; Smith, Brian J; Lynch, Charles F; Gupta, Amit

    2016-07-13

    To validate the association between obesity and penile cancer at a population level, we conducted a matched case-control study linking the Iowa Department of Motor Vehicles Drivers' License Database (DLD) with cancer surveillance data collected by the State Health Registry of Iowa (SHRI). All men diagnosed with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma from 1985 to 2010 were identified by SHRI. Two hundred sixty-six cancer cases and 816 cancer-free male controls, selected from the Iowa DLD, were matched within 5-year age and calendar year strata. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight from the DLD. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between BMI and the risk of developing invasive penile cancer. Obesity was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing penile cancer. For every five-unit increase in BMI the risk of invasive penile cancer increased by 53 % (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.29-1.81, p < 0.0001). We previously reported an association between obesity and higher risk of invasive penile cancer and advanced cancer stage at diagnosis in a hospital-based retrospective study. This population-based study confirms an association between obesity and invasive penile cancer.

  17. Penile prosthesis surgery in the management of erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Fam, Mina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We reviewed retrospectively the use of penile prostheses, including the indications and complications of penile prosthesis surgery. Methods We identified publications and the reported advances in penile prosthesis surgery between 1987 and 2012 in Pub-Med, and published information from American Medical Systems, Inc. (Minnetonka, MN, USA) and Coloplast Corporation (Humlebaek, Denmark), using the keywords ‘penile prosthesis’, ‘erectile dysfunction’, ‘mechanical reliability’, ‘complications’ and ‘infection’. Results We describe the novel indications for the use of penile prostheses, the significant advances in implant designs with improved mechanical reliability, the changing landscape of device infection, and the current management of complications. Sixty-eight publications with a grade A, B and C level of evidence are cited. Conclusion The clinical indications to implant a penile prosthesis have expanded beyond organic erectile dysfunction. With the many different devices currently available, the choice of which device to implant can be tailored based on an individual’s unique medical conditions, manual dexterity and expectations, and surgeon preference. There must be a conscious effort to prevent device infection, in the light of the development of increasingly virulent organisms. Penile prosthesis surgery is an integral part of the treatment of erectile dysfunction when non-surgical options fail or are contraindicated. PMID:26558089

  18. Penile Inflammatory Skin Disorders and the Preventive Role of Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J.; Krieger, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Penile inflammatory skin conditions such as balanitis and posthitis are common, especially in uncircumcised males, and feature prominently in medical consultations. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cohrane databases using keywords “balanitis,” “posthitis,” “balanoposthitis,” “lichen sclerosus,” “penile inflammation,” and “inflammation penis,” along with “circumcision,” “circumcised,” and “uncircumcised.” Balanitis is the most common inflammatory disease of the penis. The accumulation of yeasts and other microorganisms under the foreskin contributes to inflammation of the surrounding penile tissue. The clinical presentation of inflammatory penile conditions includes itching, tenderness, and pain. Penile inflammation is responsible for significant morbidity, including acquired phimosis, balanoposthitis, and lichen sclerosus. Medical treatment can be challenging and a cost burden to the health system. Reducing prevalence is therefore important. While topical antifungal creams can be used, usually accompanied by advice on hygiene, the definitive treatment is circumcision. Data from meta-analyses showed that circumcised males have a 68% lower prevalence of balanitis than uncircumcised males and that balanitis is accompanied by a 3.8-fold increase in risk of penile cancer. Because of the high prevalence and morbidity of penile inflammation, especially in immunocompromised and diabetic patients, circumcision should be more widely adopted globally and is best performed early in infancy. PMID:28567234

  19. A new surgical method for penile girth enhancement.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoge; Tao, Ling; Cao, Chuan; Shi, Haishan; Li, Le; Chen, Liang; Li, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new surgical model of penile girth enhancement in dog, with minimal damage, fewer complications, and high success rate, to enable the experimental investigation of penile implants. We obtained materials for penile girth enhancement by processing the pericardium and blood vessel wall collected from pigs. Incisions were made at the penile bulb for the implantation of the materials, and facilitate observation and data collection, based on the anatomical features of dog's penis. We measured the girth of the flaccid penis before and after the operation, and erectile function at 1-month postoperation. In addition to evaluation of recovery from the incision and local pathological changes, ultrasonic examination was performed to monitor the long-term changes associated with implantation. The mean girth of the flaccid penis significantly increased from 7.37±0.40 cm before the operation, to 8.70±0.56 cm postoperation. Dogs resumed normal mating at 1 month after the operation, without any significant change in the mating time. Ultrasonic examination clearly illustrated the implants, and helped in the measurement of the distance between the materials and the baculum. Chinese Rural dog is a promising animal model for penile girth enhancement surgery. The findings demonstrated that surgical implantation into penile bulb was associated with less damage, faster postoperative recovery, and higher success. For the first time, ultrasonic examination provided objective data on the surgical outcomes of penile girth enhancement.

  20. A new surgical method for penile girth enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoge; Tao, Ling; Cao, Chuan; Shi, Haishan; Li, Le; Chen, Liang; Li, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We developed a new surgical model of penile girth enhancement in dog, with minimal damage, fewer complications, and high success rate, to enable the experimental investigation of penile implants. Methods: We obtained materials for penile girth enhancement by processing the pericardium and blood vessel wall collected from pigs. Incisions were made at the penile bulb for the implantation of the materials, and facilitate observation and data collection, based on the anatomical features of dog’s penis. We measured the girth of the flaccid penis before and after the operation, and erectile function at 1-month postoperation. In addition to evaluation of recovery from the incision and local pathological changes, ultrasonic examination was performed to monitor the long-term changes associated with implantation. Results: The mean girth of the flaccid penis significantly increased from 7.37±0.40 cm before the operation, to 8.70±0.56 cm postoperation. Dogs resumed normal mating at 1 month after the operation, without any significant change in the mating time. Ultrasonic examination clearly illustrated the implants, and helped in the measurement of the distance between the materials and the baculum. Conclusion: Chinese Rural dog is a promising animal model for penile girth enhancement surgery. The findings demonstrated that surgical implantation into penile bulb was associated with less damage, faster postoperative recovery, and higher success. For the first time, ultrasonic examination provided objective data on the surgical outcomes of penile girth enhancement. PMID:26379868

  1. Effect of penile-extender device in increasing penile size in men with shortened penis: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Nikoobakht, Mohammadreza; Shahnazari, Alireza; Rezaeidanesh, Maedeh; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Pourmand, Gholamreza

    2011-11-01

    It has been suggested that the application of penile-extender devices increases penile length and circumference. However, there are a few scientific studies in this field. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a penile-extender (Golden Erect(®) , Ronas Tajhiz Teb, Tehran, Iran) in increasing penile size. This prospective study was performed on subjects complaining about "short penis" who were presented to our clinic between September 15, 2008 and December 15, 2008. After measuring the penile length in flaccid and stretched forms and penile circumference, patients were instructed to wear Golden Erect(®) , 4-6 hours per day during the first 2 weeks and then 9 hours per day until the end of the third month. The subjects were also trained how to increase the force of the device during determined intervals. The patients were visited at the end of the first and third months, and penile length and circumference were measured and compared with baseline. The primary end point of the study was changes in flaccid and stretched penile lengths compared with the baseline size during the 3 months follow-up. Twenty-three cases with a mean age of 26.5 ± 8.1 years entered the study. The mean flaccid penile length increased from 8.8 ± 1.2 cm to 10.1 ± 1.2 cm and 10.5 ± 1.2 cm, respectively, in the first and third months of follow-up, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean stretched penile length also significantly increased from 11.5 ± 1.0 cm to, respectively, 12.4 ± 1.3 cm and 13.2 ± 1.4 cm during the first and second follow-up (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found regarding proximal penile girth. However, it was not the same regarding the circumference of the glans penis (9.3 ± 0.86 cm vs. 8.8 ± 0.66 cm, P < 0.05). Our findings supported the efficacy of the device in increasing penile length. Our result also suggested the possibility of glans penis girth enhancement using penile extender. Performing more studies is recommended.

  2. Isolation of the pericellular matrix of human fibroblast cultures

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The pericellular matrix of human fibroblast cultures was isolated, using sequential extraction with sodium deoxycholate and hypotonic buffer in the presence of protease inhibitor. The matrix attached to the growth substratum had a "sackcloth-like" structure as seen by phase contrast, immunofluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy, and it had a vaguely filamentous ultrastructure similar to that seen in intact cell layers. The matrix consisted of hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate as the major glycosaminoglycan components and fibronectin and procollagen as major polypeptides as shown by metabolic labeling, gel electrophoresis, immunofluorescence, and collagenase digestion. This pericellular matrix can be regarded as an in vitro equivalent of the loose connective tissue matrix. PMID:383722

  3. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma of the penile foreskin.

    PubMed

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Nebhnani, Deepa; Wadhwa, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma, considered to herald the onset of a blast crisis in the setting of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm/dysplasia, typically presents during the course of the disorder. Cutaneous involvement is uncommon and lesions on genital skin are seldom seen. We present a case of a well-differentiated myeloid sarcoma in the penile foreskin in an apparently healthy 29-year-old male presenting with phimosis. The unusual composition of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, and characteristic sparing of dermal blood vessels, nerves and smooth muscle fibres led to the correct diagnosis. Absence of commonly observed changes in the circumcision skin like those of balanitis xerotica was also helpful. Detailed hematological work up revealed a previously undiagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The patient also had simultaneous priapism, another rare presentation of chronic myeloid leukemia. One year hence, the patient is in hematological remission with no evidence of extramedullary disease. Although priapism has been described as a rare presenting symptom in chronic myeloid leukemia, the present case is unique as this is the first time a cutaneous myeloid sarcoma has been documented in the penile foreskin.

  4. [Penile enhancement surgery: widening and lengthening lipopenisculpture].

    PubMed

    Abecassis, M; Berreby, S; Boccara, D

    2010-04-01

    The male genitalia cosmetic surgery matches an ever growing need. The aim of this study is to describe our penile lengthening and widening procedures, the benefits and complications that could result from it. We perform these procedures since 1992 and treated close to 2000 patients. Thanks to our expertise and after succeeding in standardizing our techniques, we achieved a retrospective survey on 103 patients operated between 2004 and 2006. We describe here the two processes of our operating technique and we analyse the results obtained 1 month, 3 months and 1 year after the surgery. In most cases, combining a penis adipose tissue grafting, a suspensory ligament section and an adequate skin plasty is proven to be necessary in order to obtain both lengthening and widening increases. One year later, the increase is about 2.7 cm in length, corresponding to 28%, and 2.6 cm in circumference, corresponding to 27%. The complications (cutaneous necrosis, haematoma, lymphoedema, disharmonies), whenever they may exist, are most of the time spontaneously resolutive. Combining a penile fat tissue grafting with a suspensory ligament section allows us to answer to most of patients' expectations. However, several liposculpturing sessions might be necessary in order to get satisfactory results. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Penile urethral reconstruction: concepts and concerns.

    PubMed

    Barbagli, Guido; Palminteri, Enzo; Bracka, Aivar; Caparrós Sariol, Joan

    2003-06-01

    Reconstruction of the penile urethra is a challenging exercise, and for many surgeons an ungratifying experience. The past three decades have seen us move from predominantly 2-staged surgery, through foreskin grafts, and then single stage flap reconstructions, and now in the 3rd millennium, for some situations 2-stage repair has again become the favoured option. Satisfying short-term solutions have sometimes resulted in poor long-term outcomes when reviewed 10 years later. Clearly there are still problems to be resolved, hence the need for continuing evolution in our surgical management. Lessons have been learned from the treatment of Lichen Sclerosus, from strictures following hypospadias repair, and strictures associated with severe spongiofibrosis. Management of these problems has traditionally been associated with not only a high incidence of restricture and fistula formation, but also with poor cosmetic results, something that men today find increasingly difficult to accept. Several considerations are fundamental to achieving the best functional and aesthetic results. These include the presence or absence of Lichen Sclerosus, the extent of urethral disease and its grade (i.e. mucosal disease or with accompanying spongiofibrosis); furthermore the use of non-genital grafts for urethral reconstruction when the local penile tissues are deficient or unhealthy. In arriving at our present strategy, a collaborative approach that integrates established urological practice with the different perspectives of a plastic surgeon (A.B.) has proved constructive and beneficial.

  6. Penile Implants among Prisoners—A Cause for Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Butler, Tony; Richters, Juliet; Malacova, Eva; Wand, Handan; Smith, Anthony M. A.; Grant, Luke; Richards, Alun; Donovan, Basil

    2013-01-01

    Background We report the prevalence of penile implants among prisoners and determine the independent predictors for having penile implants. Questions on penile implants were included in the Sexual Health and Attitudes of Australian Prisoners (SHAAP) survey following concerns raised by prison health staff that increasing numbers of prisoners reported having penile implants while in prison. Methods Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) of a random sample of prisoners was carried out in 41 prisons in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). Men were asked, “Have you ever inserted or implanted an object under the skin of your penis?” If they responded Yes: “Have you ever done so while you were in prison?” Univariate logistic regression and logistic regression were used to determine the factors associated with penile implants. Results A total of 2,018 male prisoners were surveyed, aged between 18 and 65 years, and 118 (5.8%) reported that they had inserted or implanted an object under the skin of their penis. Of these men, 87 (73%) had this done while they were in prison. In the multivariate analysis, a younger age, birth in an Asian country, and prior incarceration were all significantly associated with penile implants (p<0.001). Men with penile implants were also more likely to report being paid for sex (p<0.001), to have had body piercings (p<0.001) or tattoos in prison (p<0.001), and to have taken non-prescription drugs while in prison (p<0.05). Conclusions Penile implants appear to be fairly common among prisoners and are associated with risky sexual and drug use practices. As most of these penile implants are inserted in prison, these men are at risk of blood borne viruses and wound infection. Harm reduction and infection control strategies need to be developed to address this potential risk. PMID:23326383

  7. Genetics of human isolated hereditary hair loss disorders.

    PubMed

    Basit, S; Khan, S; Ahmad, W

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary hair loss in human is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. It is characterized by sparse to complete absence of hair on the scalp and other parts of the body. In few cases tightly curled twisted wooly hair (WH) on the scalp has been reported as well. The hair loss disorders, including both syndromic and non-syndromic (isolated) forms, segregate either in autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern. To date, seven autosomal dominant and equal numbers of autosomal recessive isolated forms of hair loss disorders have been characterized. Genes responsible for causing most of these disorders have been identified. In this review, we have provided an update on clinical and genetic aspects of isolated hereditary hair loss disorders manifesting with hypotrichosis and/or WHs. Because most of the recessive genes have been mapped using consanguineous families of Pakistani origin, therefore emphasis is given to mutations identified in these families. OMIM nomenclature has been followed to indicate different forms of hair loss disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bacillus subtilis isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hong, Huynh A; Khaneja, Reena; Tam, Nguyen M K; Cazzato, Alessia; Tan, Sisareuth; Urdaci, Maria; Brisson, Alain; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Barnes, Ian; Cutting, Simon M

    2009-03-01

    As part of an ongoing study to determine the true habitat of Bacillus species, we report here the isolation and characterisation of Bacillus subtilis from the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Strains were obtained from ileum biopsies as well as from faecal samples and their biotypes defined. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that most isolates of B. subtilis were highly conserved, in contrast to RAPD-PCR fingerprinting that showed greater diversity with 23 distinct RAPD types. The majority of B. subtilis strains examined possessed features that could be advantageous to survival within the GIT. This included the ability to form biofilms, to sporulate anaerobically and secretion of antimicrobials. At least one isolate was shown to form spores that carried an exosporium, a loosely attached outer layer to the mature endospore, this being the first report of B. subtilis spores carrying an exosporium. This study reinforces a growing view that B. subtilis and probably other species have adapted to life within the GIT and should be considered gut commensals rather than solely soil microorganisms.

  9. Local Excision for the Treatment of Penile Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dong In; Choi, Sang Kyu; Kim, Soon Heum; Kim, Cheol Keun; Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong Sup

    2017-07-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is known for its favorable biologic behavior and lack of metastatic potential. For preservation of function, treatment has been focused on partial penectomy. Despite partial penectomy for preservation of minimal functional and aesthetic aspects, patients have experienced psychosexual problems. A 73-year-old man had a cauliflower-like verrucous carcinoma on the penile glans and coronary sulcus diagnosed by using excisional biopsy. He underwent degloving excision to save the penile shaft and glans penis. Surgical margin was 3 mm. He had been tumor-free at the 2-year follow-up. For maximum preservation of the functional and aesthetic aspects, we recommend degloving excision.

  10. Erectile dysfunction: the role of penile Doppler ultrasound in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Halls, James; Bydawell, Gareth; Patel, Uday

    2009-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and debilitating condition with physical, psychological, and pharmacological aetiologies. The physical causes can be divided into problems with arterial inflow, structural penile abnormalities, or problems with the venous occlusion mechanism. Penile Doppler sonography is a specialized technique requiring a thorough knowledge of the topic in order to aid diagnosis and direct subsequent treatment. This technique is indicated in those patients with erectile dysfunction who do not respond to oral pharmacological agents (e.g., PDE-5 inhibitors). This pictorial essay will visit the anatomy and physiology of penile erection, the technique for performing the procedure, and review the imaging features for specific causes of ED.

  11. Erectile properties of the Rho-kinase inhibitor SAR407899 in diabetic animals and human isolated corpora cavernosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background RhoA-Rho kinase complex contributes to keep the cavernosus smooth muscle contracted and its inhibition is considered a potential strategy for the therapy of erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods We compared the effects of SAR407899, the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil for their ability to relax corpus cavernosum strips contracted with phenylephrine in healthy and diabetic animals. Strips were obtained from WKY, spontaneous hypertensive (SHR), control CD, and diabetic CD rats, humans, control and diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin or alloxan injection. In vivo penile erection (length) induced by drugs was measured in conscious rabbits. Results SAR407899 dose-dependently relaxed the pre-contracted corpora cavernosa in all species, with similar potency and efficacy in healthy vs diabetic rats, WKY vs SHR rats, healthy vs diabetic rabbits (IC50 range from 0.05 to 0.29 μM, Emax range 89 to 97%). In the presence of the NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, the SAR407899 response did not decrease in any of the species or experimental conditions. The effect was confirmed in human strips where sildenafil was significantly less potent and effective, with IC50 respectively 0.13 and 0.51 μM; Emax 92 and 43%. Unlike SAR407899, the potency and efficacy of sildenafil and Y27632 were significantly reduced by diabetes and L-NAME. In vivo, SAR407899 dose-dependently induced rabbit penile erection, with greater potency and longer duration of action than sildenafil. Sildenafil, but not SAR407899, was less effective in alloxan-induced diabetes. Conclusion The induction of penile erection by SAR407899, unlike that by sildenafil, is largely independent of e-NO activity. This suggests its use in erectile dysfunction for diabetic and hypertensive patients where e-NO activity is impaired. PMID:22444253

  12. Isolation, Culture, and Imaging of Human Fetal Pancreatic Cell Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Ana D.; Kayali, Ayse G.; Hayek, Alberto; King, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    For almost 30 years, scientists have demonstrated that human fetal ICCs transplanted under the kidney capsule of nude mice matured into functioning endocrine cells, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating human C-peptide following glucose stimulation1-9. However in vitro, genesis of insulin producing cells from human fetal ICCs is low10; results reminiscent of recent experiments performed with human embryonic stem cells (hESC), a renewable source of cells that hold great promise as a potential therapeutic treatment for type 1 diabetes. Like ICCs, transplantation of partially differentiated hESC generate glucose responsive, insulin producing cells, but in vitro genesis of insulin producing cells from hESC is much less robust11-17. A complete understanding of the factors that influence the growth and differentiation of endocrine precursor cells will likely require data generated from both ICCs and hESC. While a number of protocols exist to generate insulin producing cells from hESC in vitro11-22, far fewer exist for ICCs10,23,24. Part of that discrepancy likely comes from the difficulty of working with human fetal pancreas. Towards that end, we have continued to build upon existing methods to isolate fetal islets from human pancreases with gestational ages ranging from 12 to 23 weeks, grow the cells as a monolayer or in suspension, and image for cell proliferation, pancreatic markers and human hormones including glucagon and C-peptide. ICCs generated by the protocol described below result in C-peptide release after transplantation under the kidney capsule of nude mice that are similar to C-peptide levels obtained by transplantation of fresh tissue6. Although the examples presented here focus upon the pancreatic endoderm proliferation and β cell genesis, the protocol can be employed to study other aspects of pancreatic development, including exocrine, ductal, and other hormone producing cells. PMID:24895054

  13. Isolation, culture, and imaging of human fetal pancreatic cell clusters.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ana D; Kayali, Ayse G; Hayek, Alberto; King, Charles C

    2014-05-18

    For almost 30 years, scientists have demonstrated that human fetal ICCs transplanted under the kidney capsule of nude mice matured into functioning endocrine cells, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating human C-peptide following glucose stimulation(1-9). However in vitro, genesis of insulin producing cells from human fetal ICCs is low(10); results reminiscent of recent experiments performed with human embryonic stem cells (hESC), a renewable source of cells that hold great promise as a potential therapeutic treatment for type 1 diabetes. Like ICCs, transplantation of partially differentiated hESC generate glucose responsive, insulin producing cells, but in vitro genesis of insulin producing cells from hESC is much less robust(11-17). A complete understanding of the factors that influence the growth and differentiation of endocrine precursor cells will likely require data generated from both ICCs and hESC. While a number of protocols exist to generate insulin producing cells from hESC in vitro(11-22), far fewer exist for ICCs(10,23,24). Part of that discrepancy likely comes from the difficulty of working with human fetal pancreas. Towards that end, we have continued to build upon existing methods to isolate fetal islets from human pancreases with gestational ages ranging from 12 to 23 weeks, grow the cells as a monolayer or in suspension, and image for cell proliferation, pancreatic markers and human hormones including glucagon and C-peptide. ICCs generated by the protocol described below result in C-peptide release after transplantation under the kidney capsule of nude mice that are similar to C-peptide levels obtained by transplantation of fresh tissue(6). Although the examples presented here focus upon the pancreatic endoderm proliferation and β cell genesis, the protocol can be employed to study other aspects of pancreatic development, including exocrine, ductal, and other hormone producing cells.

  14. Postnatal penile growth concurrent with mini-puberty predicts later sex-typed play behavior: Evidence for neurobehavioral effects of the postnatal androgen surge in typically developing boys.

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Thankamony, Ajay; Hines, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    The masculinizing effects of prenatal androgens on human neurobehavioral development are well established. Also, the early postnatal surge of androgens in male infants, or mini-puberty, has been well documented and is known to influence physiological development, including penile growth. However, neurobehavioral effects of androgen exposure during mini-puberty are largely unknown. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate possible neurobehavioral consequences of mini-puberty by relating penile growth in the early postnatal period to subsequent behavior. Using multiple linear regression, we demonstrated that penile growth between birth and three months postnatal, concurrent with mini-puberty, significantly predicted increased masculine/decreased feminine behavior assessed using the Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI) in 81 healthy boys at 3 to 4years of age. When we controlled for other potential influences on masculine/feminine behavior and/or penile growth, including variance in androgen exposure prenatally and body growth postnally, the predictive value of penile growth in the early postnatal period persisted. More specifically, prenatal androgen exposure, reflected in the measurement of anogenital distance (AGD), and early postnatal androgen exposure, reflected in penile growth from birth to 3months, were significant predictors of increased masculine/decreased feminine behavior, with each accounting for unique variance. Our findings suggest that independent associations of PSAI with AGD at birth and with penile growth during mini-puberty reflect prenatal and early postnatal androgen exposures respectively. Thus, we provide a novel and readily available approach for assessing effects of early androgen exposures, as well as novel evidence that early postnatal aes human neurobehavioral development.

  15. Neuron enriched nuclear proteome isolated from human brain.

    PubMed

    Dammer, Eric B; Duong, Duc M; Diner, Ian; Gearing, Marla; Feng, Yue; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Seyfried, Nicholas T

    2013-07-05

    The brain consists of diverse cell types including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. The isolation of nuclei from these distinct cell populations provides an opportunity to identify cell-type-specific nuclear proteins, histone modifications, and regulation networks that are altered with normal brain aging or neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we used a method by which intact neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei were purified from human post-mortem brain employing a modification of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) termed fluorescence activated nuclei sorting (FANS). An antibody against NeuN, a neuron specific splicing factor, was used to isolate neuronal nuclei. Utilizing mass spectrometry (MS) based label-free quantitative proteomics, we identified 1755 proteins from sorted NeuN-positive and negative nuclear extracts. Approximately 20% of these proteins were significantly enriched or depleted in neuronal versus non-neuronal populations. Immunoblots of primary cultured rat neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte extracts confirmed that distinct members of the major nucleocytoplasmic structural linkage complex (LINC), nesprin-1 and nesprin-3, were differentially enriched in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. These comparative proteomic data sets also reveal a number of transcription and splicing factors that are selectively enriched in a cell-type-specific manner in human brain.

  16. Human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates demonstrate ability to recover infectivity following penicillin treatment whereas animal isolates do not.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anu; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have recently been demonstrated to have substantially different capacities to enter and recover from IFN-γ-induced persistence, depending on whether they are from human or animal host sources. Here, we examined the ability of two human and two animal strains to enter and be rescued from penicillin-induced persistence. The ability to form inclusions after the addition of penicillin was much reduced in the two animal isolates (koala LPCoLN, bandicoot B21) compared to the two human isolates (respiratory AR39 and heart A03). The penicillin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectious progeny for all isolates, with the human strains failing to produce infectious progeny at lower doses of penicillin than the animal strains. The most remarkable finding however was the contrasting ability of the isolates to recover infectious progeny production after rescue by removal of the penicillin (at 72 h) and continued culture. The animal isolates both showed virtually no recovery from the penicillin treatment conditions. In contrast, the human isolates showed a significant ability to recovery infectivity, with the heart isolate (A03) showing the most marked recovery. Combined, these data further support the hypothesis that the ability to establish and recover from persistence appears to be enhanced in human C. pneumoniae strains compared to animal strains.

  17. Human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells isolation and osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Alkhalil, Moustafa; Smajilagić, Amer; Redžić, Amira

    2015-02-01

    This study was focused on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human dental pulp (DPSC). The study was performed in the Department for Oral and Cranio-Maxillo- Facial Surgey Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar and Weill Cornell Medical Colleague Doha, Qatar, in period 2010-2011. Dental pulp was extracted from premolars and third molars of 19 healthy patients. The pulp was digested in a solution of 3 mg/mL collagenase type I and 4 mg/mL dispase for 1 hour at 37C. After filtration, cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM Low Glucoses) with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 2mM L-glutamine and antibiotics (100 U/mL penicillin, 100 ug/mL streptomycin) at 37 °C under 5% CO2. Cultures were treated with osteoinductive medium for differentiation MSC in to the osteoblast cell line. Staining with Alizarin red were used for the detection of the osteoblast production and calcification new formed tissue. On the total of three out of 19 patients it was possible to isolate DPMSCs after 2 to 3 weeks: in one patient it was not possible to expand MSCs because of infection, and in other two patients positive Alizarin red staining reaction showed osteogenic differentiation capability and strong mineralization in vitro. The main advantage of using DPSC is absence of morbidity. MSCs could be isolated noninvasively from teeth, routinely extracted in the clinic and discarded as medical waste. Standardization of clinical and laboratory protocols for DPMSCs isolation and team work coordination could lead to significantly improved result.

  18. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Smith, Derek J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Paris, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation), in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera. Conclusions/Significance Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes. PMID:27248711

  19. Isolation of biologically-active exosomes from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Muller, Laurent; Hong, Chang-Sook; Stolz, Donna B; Watkins, Simon C; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of exosomes present in human plasma on immune cells have not been examined in detail. Immunological studies with plasma-derived exosomes require their isolation by procedures involving ultracentrifugation. These procedures were largely developed using supernatants of cultured cells. To test biologic activities of plasma-derived exosomes, methods are necessary that ensure adequate recovery of exosome fractions free of contaminating larger vesicles, cell fragments and protein/nucleic acid aggregates. Here, an optimized method for exosome isolation from human plasma/serum specimens of normal controls (NC) or cancer patients and its advantages and pitfalls are described. To remove undesirable plasma-contaminating components, ultrafiltration of differentially-centrifuged plasma/serum followed by size-exclusion chromatography prior to ultracentrifugation facilitated the removal of contaminants. Plasma or serum was equally acceptable as a source of exosomes based on the recovered protein levels (in μg protein/mL plasma) and TEM image quality. Centrifugation on sucrose density gradients led to large exosome losses. Fresh plasma was the best source of morphologically-intact exosomes, while the use of frozen/thawed plasma decreased exosome purity but not their biologic activity. Treatments of frozen plasma with DNAse, RNAse or hyaluronidase did not improve exosome purity and are not recommended. Cancer patients' plasma consistently yielded more isolated exosomes than did NCs' plasma. Cancer patients' exosomes also mediated higher immune suppression as evidenced by decreased CD69 expression on responder CD4+ T effector cells. Thus, the described procedure yields biologically-active, morphologically-intact exosomes that have reasonably good purity without large protein losses and can be used for immunological, biomarker and other studies.

  20. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    PubMed

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  1. Phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced penile erection.

    PubMed

    Musicki, Biljana; Palese, Michael A; Crone, Julie K; Burnett, Arthur L

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced penile erection is mediated by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through its phosphorylation. We assessed the role of constitutively activated eNOS in VEGF-induced penile erection using wild-type (WT) and eNOS-knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice with and without vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. Adult WT and eNOS(-/-) mice were subjected to sham operation or bilateral castration to induce vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. At the time of surgery, animals were injected intracavernosally with a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing human VEGF145 (10(9) particle units) or with empty virus (Ad.Null). After 7 days, erectile function was assessed in response to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation. Total and phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) as well as total and phosphorylated eNOS were quantitatively assessed in mice penes using Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In intact WT mice, VEGF145 significantly increased erectile responses, and in WT mice after castration, it completely recovered penile erection. However, VEGF145 failed to increase erectile responses in intact eNOS(-/-) mice and only partially recovered erectile function in castrated eNOS(-/-) mice. In addition, VEGF145 significantly increased phosphorylation of eNOS at Serine 1177 by approximately 2-fold in penes of both intact and castrated WT mice. The data provide a molecular explanation for VEGF stimulatory effect on penile erection, which involves phosphorylated eNOS (Serine 1177) mediation.

  2. Penile straightening maneuvers employed during penile prosthesis surgery: technical options and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Segal, R L; Cabrini, M R; Bivalacqua, T J; Burnett, A L

    2014-01-01

    Straightening maneuvers (SM), including manual penile modeling, tunical relaxing incisions and corporal reconstruction using grafting techniques, are occasionally required during inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) implantation to ensure functional penile straightness. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of men undergoing SM employed during IPP implantation compared with those wherein these maneuvers were not required. A retrospective review of 391 patients undergoing IPP implantation at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2000 to December 2011 was performed. Patients in whom some SM was employed (SM, n=93, 23.9% of the overall cohort) were compared with those for whom SM was not required (IPP group, n=298). Seven patients were excluded from final analysis (6 patients with IPPs inserted in neophalli (SM group), and 1 patient with incomplete data (IPP group). Patients in whom a SM was used were younger (55.4 vs 62.3 years), more likely to have Peyronie's disease, and less likely to have prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy or to have previously used erectile aids (all P<0.05). Mean operating room time in the SM group was longer (173.8 vs 152.9 min, P=0.003). Within the SM group, modeling was performed in 40 (43%), tunical relaxing incisions in 37 (39.8%) and tunical reconstruction in 16 (17.2%) (most commonly using allograft dermis or pericardium, or synthetic gore-tex grafts). There were no significant differences in terms of device infection (P=0.15), mechanical failure (P=0.23) or erosion (P=0.96). Although limited in size, this cohort study suggests that IPP implantation in men with penile deformity requiring complex reconstruction to achieve straightening may be done proficiently and without increased adverse outcome risk.

  3. Similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans and captive wild animals in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony M; Ismail, Husna; Henton, Maryke M; Keddy, Karen H

    2014-12-15

    Salmonella is well recognized as an aetiological agent of gastrointestinal and diarrhoeal disease. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the commonest serotypes associated with foodborne illness. In South Africa, we compared Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans with gastroenteritis and strains isolated from captive wild animals, between June 2011 and July 2012. Bacteria were phenotypically characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Genotypic relatedness of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. a diversity of 27 PFGE patterns amongst 196 human non-invasive isolates was shown; two PFGE patterns predominated and accounted for 74% of all human isolates. Human isolates showed a 12% prevalence rate for nalidixic acid resistance. Animal isolates from 5 different sources were investigated. With the exception of an isolate from a ground hornbill, all animal isolates (jaguar, crocodile, lion and poultry) showed PFGE pattern matches to a human isolate. Animal isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of nalidixic acid resistance in isolates from the lion and poultry source. Our data showed similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans and captive wild animals, suggesting a probable common source for strains from humans and animals.

  4. A pilot study of penile hemodynamics in men with penile curvatures.

    PubMed

    Zaazaa, A A; Fathy, I; Ayman, O; Hassanin, A; Ghanem, H

    2017-03-01

    Penile curvature (PC) is bothersome to the patient. PC is either congenital or acquired. In most of the circulatory system, blood flows in a laminar profile with minimal energy expenditure. When a fluid passes in a curved tube, the laminar profile is disturbed and changed into a turbulent flow. It increases the energy expenditure and reduces the flow. Turbulent flow may have a role in the development of an atherosclerotic plaque and in localizing its site. The aim of this research was to study penile hemodynamics before and after correction of PC. This prospective study included 20 participants, with PC more than 30°. For each participant, preoperative color duplex doppler ultrasonography (CDDU), correction of the curvature using 16 dot plication technique and post-operative CDDU were done. Furhtermore, arterial systolic velocity was estimated distal to the site of curvature/correction every 5 min for 25 min. The degree of curvature ranged from 30° to 90° with a mean of 55±18.98. Comparative study between the preoperative and post-operative data proved a significantly higher postoperative peak systolic velocity distal to the site of correction, whereas CDDU data had insignificant differences. We concluded that correction of PC is associated with improvement of penile arterial blood flow distal to the site of correction.

  5. Penile Traumatic Neuroma: A Late Complication of Penile Dorsal Neurotomy to Treat Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Tae Nam; Baek, Seung Ryong; Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Kyung-Un; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic neuroma is a reactive process caused by the regeneration of an injured nerve that usually forms a nodular proliferation of small nerve bundles. Penile traumatic neuroma is rare; only a few cases related to circumcision have been reported. To report on a case of traumatic neuroma in the penis after selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN) to treat premature ejaculation. The penile traumatic neuroma was successfully removed by excision and confirmed by histopathology. A 55-year-old man who had had several painless, slow-growing nodules on his penis for 2 years presented to our hospital. He had no history of genital trauma, urinary tract infection, or penile surgery, except SDN to treat premature ejaculation. The nodules were excised and the final diagnosis was traumatic neuroma. No recurrence has been detected during 1 year of follow-up. The main complications of SDN are recurrence of premature ejaculation, pain or paresthesia on the glans penis, and erectile dysfunction. However, no traumatic neuroma has been reported as a complication. We report that a traumatic neuroma can occur after SDN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    d'Ersu, J.; Aubin, G. G.; Mercier, P.; Nicollet, P.; Bémer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. PMID:26511738

  7. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Shape of the isolated ex-vivo human crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Raksha; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Borja, David; Amelinckx, Adriana; Smith, Jared; Jain, Rakhi; Augusteyn, Robert; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop an age-dependent mathematical model of the isolated ex-vivo human crystalline lens shape to serve as basis for use in computational modeling. Methods Profiles of whole isolated human lenses (n=27) aged 6 to 82, were measured from shadow-photogrammetric images. Two methods were used to analyze the lenses. In the Two-Curves Method (TCM) the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lens were fit to 10th-order even polynomials and in the One-Curve Method (OCM) the contour of one half-meridional section of the lens was fit to 10th-order polynomials. The age-dependence of the polynomial coefficients was assessed. The analysis was used to produce an age-dependent polynomial model of the whole lens shape. Results The root mean squared errors for the fits ranged from 11 to 70 μm for the OCM, 9 to 27 μm for the posterior surface of the TCM and 8 to 134 μm for the anterior surface of the TCM. The coefficients of the OCM did not display a significant trend with age. The 2nd, 6th and 10th-order coefficients of the anterior surface of the TCM decreased with age while the 8th-order coefficient increased. For the posterior surface of the TCM, the 8th-order coefficient significantly decreased with age and the 10th-order coefficient increased. The age-dependent equations of both the models provide a reliable model from age 20 to 60. The OCM model can be used for lenses older than 60 as well. Conclusion The shape of the whole human crystalline lens can be accurately modeled with 10th-order polynomial functions. These models can serve to improve computational modeling, such as finite element (FE) modeling of crystalline lenses. PMID:18950656

  9. The controversy surrounding penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Clavell-Hernández, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) techniques have been refined in the last few decades. Despite nerve-sparing surgery, erectile dysfunction (ED) still seems to be affecting more than half of patients undergoing RP. Penile rehabilitation consists of understanding the mechanisms that affect erectile function (EF) and utilizing pharmacologic agents, devices or interventions to promote male sexual function before and after any insult to the penile erectile physiologic axis. There currently is a limited amount of clinical trials that assess treatments with the goal of recovering post-prostatectomy EF. The goal of this article is to assess a contemporary series of trials that study penile rehabilitation. Although the current evidence lacks to prove its irrefutable effectiveness, advancements in research and technology forecast a promising future in penile rehabilitation management. PMID:28217445

  10. Clinical neuroanatomy and neurotransmitter-mediated regulation of penile erection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Junyang; Jo, Hyun Woo; Kwon, Hyunseob; Jeong, Na Young

    2014-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has an adverse impact on men's quality of life. Penile erection, which is regulated by nerves that are innervated into the erectile tissue, can be affected by functional or anatomical trauma of the perineal region, including specific structures of the penis, causing ED. Penile erection is neurologically controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the neurogenic structure of the erectile tissue and the types of neurotransmitters involved in the penile erection process. Here, we highlight the basic clinical anatomy and erectile function of the penis. Understanding the clinical connotation of the relationship between penile erectile structure and function may provide fresh insights for identifying the main mechanisms involved in ED and help develop surgical techniques for the treatment of ED.

  11. Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neurotransmitter-Mediated Regulation of Penile Erection

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun Woo; Kwon, Hyunseob

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has an adverse impact on men's quality of life. Penile erection, which is regulated by nerves that are innervated into the erectile tissue, can be affected by functional or anatomical trauma of the perineal region, including specific structures of the penis, causing ED. Penile erection is neurologically controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the neurogenic structure of the erectile tissue and the types of neurotransmitters involved in the penile erection process. Here, we highlight the basic clinical anatomy and erectile function of the penis. Understanding the clinical connotation of the relationship between penile erectile structure and function may provide fresh insights for identifying the main mechanisms involved in ED and help develop surgical techniques for the treatment of ED. PMID:24987557

  12. AMS 700 inflatable penile prosthesis with InhibiZone.

    PubMed

    McKim, Stephen E; Carson, Culley C

    2010-05-01

    Inflatable penile prostheses are the definitive therapy for erectile dysfunction refractory to medical therapy. For years mechanical malfunction was the most common cause of device failure, but recent advances in design have largely eliminated this, and now infection is the most significant problem with these implants. Antibiotic-coated medical devices, such as central venous and bladder catheters, have proven effective in reducing bacterial colonization and biofilm formation, leading to decreased rates of infection. In 2001, American Medical Systems (AMS) released its AMS 700 series penile prosthesis impregnated with a proprietary combination of the antibiotics rifampin and minocycline, called InhibiZone. Multiple studies have found that this device significantly reduces infection rates in men receiving penile prostheses. In July 2009, the US FDA approved the AMS 700 with InhibiZone as the only inflatable penile prosthesis with clinical evidence showing significant reduction in the rate of revision surgery due to infection.

  13. Penile angiography in impotence: local experience.

    PubMed

    Khoo, T K

    1993-09-01

    Vasculogenic causes of impotence and especially venous leakage are now considered to be significantly worthwhile to be evaluated in the light of new developments and changes in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The investigations of cavernosography and penile arteriography are gaining importance. In 32 months, from August 1990 to March 1993, 126 cavernosograms and 11 bilateral internal pudendal arteriograms have been performed on patients from Toa Payoh Hospital. Smooth muscle relaxants are helpful in both procedures. Nearly three-quarters of the cavernosograms showed deep venous leakage. The use of arteriograms is still very restricted. The many variations of the arterial supply to the penis pose problems in the interpretation of the arteriograms and hence, recognition of the numerous variations besides the knowledge of the normal basic vascular anatomy is of paramount importance.

  14. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    PubMed

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells.

  15. Genome Sequences of Three Brucella canis Strains Isolated from Humans and a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marcus Vinicius Canário; Govil Batra, Dhwani; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas Scott; Frace, Michael; Xia, Fangfang; Azevedo, Vasco; Tiller, Rebekah; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucella canis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that preferentially infects members of the Canidae family. Here, we report the genome sequencing of two Brucella canis strains isolated from humans and one isolated from a dog host. PMID:28232424

  16. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Aileen I.; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi; Fu, Jen-Fen; Chang, Chih-Chun; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Wen-Hung; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63.3/24.2/12.5% versus 12.5/42.4/42.4%, P < 0.001) and less frequent pulpitis (no/yes: 95.3/4.7% versus 51.5/48.5%, P < 0.001). In a multivariate regression model, it was confirmed that the absence of dental caries (OR = 4.741, 95% CI = 1.564–14.371, P = 0.006) and pulpitis (OR = 9.111, 95% CI = 2.921–28.420, P < 0.001) was significant determinants of the successful procurement of MSCs. MSCs derived from pulps with pulpitis expressed longer colony doubling time than pulps without pulpitis. Furthermore, there were higher expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin- (IL-) 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, P < 0.01, and innate immune response [toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR8, P < 0.05; TLR2, TLR3, and TLR6, P < 0.01] in the inflamed than noninflamed pulps. Therefore, a carious deciduous tooth or tooth with pulpitis was relatively unsuitable for MSC processing and isolation. PMID:28377925

  17. Isolation of Leukocytes from the Human Maternal-fetal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Plazyo, Olesya; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S.; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes in the reproductive tissues and at the maternal-fetal interface (decidua basalis and decidua parietalis). This interface is the anatomical site of contact between maternal and fetal tissues; therefore, it is an immunological site of action during pregnancy. Infiltrating leukocytes at the maternal-fetal interface play a central role in implantation, pregnancy maintenance, and timing of delivery. Therefore, phenotypic and functional characterizations of these leukocytes will provide insight into the mechanisms that lead to pregnancy disorders. Several protocols have been described in order to isolate infiltrating leukocytes from the decidua basalis and decidua parietalis; however, the lack of consistency in the reagents, enzymes, and times of incubation makes it difficult to compare these results. Described herein is a novel approach that combines the use of gentle mechanical and enzymatic dissociation techniques to preserve the viability and integrity of extracellular and intracellular markers in leukocytes isolated from the human tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. Aside from immunophenotyping, cell culture, and cell sorting, the future applications of this protocol are numerous and varied. Following this protocol, the isolated leukocytes can be used to determine DNA methylation, expression of target genes, in vitro leukocyte functionality (i.e., phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, T-cell proliferation, and plasticity, etc.), and the production of reactive oxygen species at the maternal-fetal interface. Additionally, using the described protocol, this laboratory has been able to describe new and rare leukocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:26067211

  18. The inner prepuce flap for penile scald burns.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sam M; Roughton, Michelle C; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2014-01-01

    Preputial skin has similar color, texture, and composition to the skin of the penile shaft. The inner preputial skin may be transferred as a flap based upon Dartos fascia to resurface full-thickness burns of the penile shaft, providing a gliding and stretchable surface cover unique to the penis. The advantages of using the inner prepuce skin to resurface full-thickness burns of the penile shaft will be elucidated and the technique will be described. A retrospective chart review was performed of three patients whose penile shaft was resurfaced with inner prepuce flaps after tangential excision of their full-thickness scald burns. Patient 1 was a 9-year-old boy who sustained an 8% TBSA scald burn resulting in a full-thickness burn to the dorsum of his penis. Patient 2 was a 3-year-old boy who sustained a 60% TBSA immersion scald burn as a victim of child abuse, resulting in a circumferential penile burn. Patient 3 was an 8- year-old boy who sustained a 3% TBSA grease burn to the dorsum of his penis. The inner surface of the prepuce of the patients was intact. They were treated with an inner preputial flap. Full-thickness scald burns to the penis are unusual and challenging for the patient, family, and burn surgeon. It is advantageous that inner preputial skin is commonly spared. This specialized thin skin is ideal for resurfacing the penile shaft and should be used when available.

  19. Penile rehabilitation following prostate cancer treatment: review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Clavell-Hernandez, Jonathan; Wang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are highly effective in improving prostate cancer survival. However, both have a detrimental effect on erectile function (EF). Penile rehabilitation consists of understanding the mechanisms that cause erectile dysfunction (ED) and utilizing pharmacologic agents, devices or interventions to promote male sexual function. For the past decade, many researchers have pursued to define effective treatment modalities to improve ED after prostate cancer treatment. Despite the understanding of the mechanisms and well-established rationale for postprostate treatment penile rehabilitation, there is still no consensus regarding effective rehabilitation programs. This article reviews a contemporary series of trials that assess penile rehabilitation and explore treatment modalities that might play a role in the future. Published data and trials related to penile rehabilitation after RP and RT were reviewed and presented. Although recent trials have shown that most therapies are well-tolerated and aid in some degree on EF recovery, we currently do not have tangible evidence to recommend an irrefutable penile rehabilitation algorithm. However, advancements in research and technology will ultimately create and refine management options for penile rehabilitation.

  20. Penile rehabilitation following prostate cancer treatment: review of current literature

    PubMed Central

    Clavell-Hernandez, Jonathan; Wang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are highly effective in improving prostate cancer survival. However, both have a detrimental effect on erectile function (EF). Penile rehabilitation consists of understanding the mechanisms that cause erectile dysfunction (ED) and utilizing pharmacologic agents, devices or interventions to promote male sexual function. For the past decade, many researchers have pursued to define effective treatment modalities to improve ED after prostate cancer treatment. Despite the understanding of the mechanisms and well-established rationale for postprostate treatment penile rehabilitation, there is still no consensus regarding effective rehabilitation programs. This article reviews a contemporary series of trials that assess penile rehabilitation and explore treatment modalities that might play a role in the future. Published data and trials related to penile rehabilitation after RP and RT were reviewed and presented. Although recent trials have shown that most therapies are well-tolerated and aid in some degree on EF recovery, we currently do not have tangible evidence to recommend an irrefutable penile rehabilitation algorithm. However, advancements in research and technology will ultimately create and refine management options for penile rehabilitation. PMID:25851656

  1. Penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, M E; Almohsen, A E-R M; El Shahid, A R; Abd Al-Sameaa, M T; Mostafa, T

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22-40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12-19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7-3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths.

  2. CSN1 Somatic Mutations in Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feber, Andrew; de Winter, Patricia; Shah, Kunal; Arya, Manit; Saqib, Muhammad; Nigam, Raj; Malone, Peter R.; Tan, Wei Shen; Rodney, Simon; Freeman, Alex; Jameson, Charles; Wilson, Gareth A.; Powles, Tom; Beck, Stephan; Fenton, Tim; Sharp, Tyson V.; Muneer, Asif; Kelly, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Other than an association with HPV infection, little is known about the genetic alterations determining the development of penile cancer. Although penile cancer is rare in the developed world, it presents a significant burden in developing countries. Here, we report the findings of whole-exome sequencing (WES) to determine the somatic mutational landscape of penile cancer. WES was performed on penile cancer and matched germline DNA from 27 patients undergoing surgical resection. Targeted resequencing of candidate genes was performed in an independent 70 patient cohort. Mutation data were also integrated with DNA methylation and copy-number information from the same patients. We identified an HPV-associated APOBEC mutation signature and an NpCpG signature in HPV-negative disease. We also identified recurrent mutations in the novel penile cancer tumor suppressor genes CSN1(GPS1) and FAT1. Expression of CSN1 mutants in cells resulted in colocalization with AGO2 in cytoplasmic P-bodies, ultimately leading to the loss of miRNA-mediated gene silencing, which may contribute to disease etiology. Our findings represent the first comprehensive analysis of somatic alterations in penile cancer, highlighting the complex landscape of alterations in this malignancy. PMID:27325650

  3. Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov., isolated from the human throat.

    PubMed

    Huch, Melanie; De Bruyne, Katrien; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard; Snauwaert, Isabel; Franz, Charles M A P; Vandamme, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The novel, Gram-stain-positive, ovoid, lactic acid bacterial isolates LMG 27205, LMG 27206, LMG 27207(T) and MRI-F 18 were obtained from throat samples of healthy humans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that these isolates belong to the genus Streptococcus, specifically the Streptococcus mitis group, with Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus mitis as the nearest neighbours (99.45 and 98.56 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the respective type strains). Genotypic fingerprinting by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA-DNA hybridizations, comparative sequence analysis of pheS, rpoA and atpA and physiological and biochemical tests revealed that these bacteria formed a taxon well separated from its nearest neighbours and other species of the genus Streptococcus with validly published names and, therefore, represent a novel species, for which the name Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 27207(T) ( = DSM 26920(T)) as the type strain.

  4. Trichophyton onychocola sp. nov. isolated from human nail.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Cmokova, Adela; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mikula, Peter; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-04-01

    A previously undescribed Trichophyton species was isolated from the nail of a 33-year-old man with a history of probable distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (without confirmation by mycological examination). The infection occurred for the first time five years earlier (in 2006) and affected the right great toenail, with complete clinical remission after treatment with ciclopirox olamine. This undescribed species was isolated during probable relapse in 2011, but its etiological significance was not confirmed, that is, direct microscopy was negative and additional clinical samples were not collected. The species is probably geophilic based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] rDNA) and is most closely related to the anamorphic T. thuringiense, homothallic Arthroderma ciferrii (anamorph T. georgiae), and heterothallic A. melis. The new species is characterized by yellowish colonies, red reverse on several media, positive urease test, negative hair-perforation test, absence of growth at 34°C, absence of macroconidia, formation of one-celled clavate microconidia, and spiral hyphae. The species grows well on sterilized human hairs placed on agar medium without any additional nutrients and forms gymnothecium-like structures covered by peridial hyphae. The combination of unique micro- and macromorphological features and physiological and sequence data from four unlinked loci (ITS, benA, RPB2, and act1 gene) justified the proposal of a new species T. onychocola sp. nov.

  5. Human embryonic stem cells: isolation, maintenance, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Turksen, Kursad; Troy, Tammy-Claire

    2006-01-01

    The isolation of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells having the capacity to differentiate in vitro to numerous cell types generated much excitement and promise in the field of regenerative medicine. However, along with great enthusiasm came hot controversy for stem cell research and researchers alike because available hES cell lines were isolated from "excess" embryos from in vitro fertilization clinics. Despite ethical and political debates, the methods and protocols to study diverse lineages are developing. Furthermore, strategies using specific growth factor combinations, cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix induction systems are being explored for directed differentiation along a desired lineage. However, there is a great need to characterize the mechanisms that control self-renewal and differentiation and a necessity to improve methodologies and develop new purification protocols for the potential future clinical application of hES cells. After the scientific and political obstacles are overcome, it is anticipated that the hES cell field will make a tremendous difference in conditions, such as burn traumas and diabetic foot ulcers, as well a number of degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and myocardial infarction. In this introductory chapter, we will summarize and review recent progress in the field of hES cell differentiation protocols and discuss some of the current issues surrounding hES cell research.

  6. Isolation and characterization of human defensin cDNA clones

    SciTech Connect

    Daher, K.A.; Lehrer, R.I.; Ganz, T.; Kronenberg, M. )

    1988-10-01

    Four clones that encode defensins, a group of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils, were isolated from an HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cDNA library. Analysis of these clones indicated that the defensins are made as precursor proteins, which must be cleaved to yield the mature peptides. Defensin mRNA was detected in normal bone marrow cells, but not in normal peripheral blood leukocytes. Defensin transcripts were also found in the peripheral leukocytes of some leukemia patients and in some lung and intestine tissues. Defensin mRNA content was augmented by treatment of HL-60 cells with dimethyl sulfoxide. These results define important aspects of the mechanism of synthesis and the tissue-specific expression of a major group of neutrophil granule proteins.

  7. Novel Human Reovirus Isolated from Children with Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Louise A.; Barin, Francis; Barthez, Marie Anne; Bonnaud, Bertrand; Roingeard, Philippe; Goudeau, Alain; Castelnau, Pierre; Vernet, Guy; Komurian-Pradel, Florence

    2011-01-01

    For many encephalitis cases, the cause remains unidentified. After 2 children (from the same family) received a diagnosis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (Tours, France), we attempted to identify the etiologic agent. Because clinical samples from the 2 patients were negative for all pathogens tested, urine and throat swab specimens were added to epithelial cells, and virus isolates detected were characterized by molecular analysis and electron microscopy. We identified a novel reovirus strain (serotype 2), MRV2Tou05, which seems to be closely related to porcine and human strains. A specific antibody response directed against this new reovirus strain was observed in convalescent-phase serum specimens from the patients, whereas no response was observed in 38 serum specimens from 38 healthy adults. This novel reovirus is a new etiologic agent of encephalitis. PMID:21801621

  8. [Isolation and physico-chemical characteristics of human cancerocerebral antigen].

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, P G; Borisenko, S A; Tatarinov, Iu S

    1984-01-01

    During gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 human cancerocerebral antigen (CCA) was eluted as two protein fractions with molecular mass of 135,000 and 270.000 daltons. Only one band of protein with molecular mass of about 15,000 daltons was noted after electrophoresis in 10% polyacrylamide gel containing SDS. As characteristic properties of CCA were recognized an electrophoretic polymorphism and a distinct trend to polymerization and isomeria. The antigen was not stained with dyes designed for staining base proteins, lipo-,glyco- and ferroproteins; CCA was thermostable (5 min at 80 degrees), it was inactivated by trypsin and protease but was resistant to pronase, hexokinase, alpha-amylase and beta-glucuronidase. A procedure was developed for isolation of CCA from brain, including fractionation with ammonium sulfate, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50. The procedure enabled to obtain the CCA preparations suitable for radioimmunological, immunobiological assays and amino acid analyses.

  9. PIXE analysis of human spermatozoa isolated from seminal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Uda, M.

    1990-04-01

    PIXE has been applied to the multielemental and microanalysis of human spermatozoa. This is the first attempt to determine the chemical compositions of the motile spermatozoa free from contaminations of seminal plasma without loss of component elements during washing. The spermatozoa were isolated from semen by letting them swim into a kind of physiological saline, Tyrode's solution. Relative concentrations of P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn and Br in motile spermatozoa were determined by the use of the chlorine K X-ray peak intensity for evaluating the amount of Tyrode's solution contained in the sample targets. The concentrations of calcium and iron in spermatozoa were considerably higher than in seminal plasma. The concentrations of P, K, Zn and Br in spermatozoa were not so different from those in seminal plasma.

  10. Isolation and characterization of DNA probes for human chromosome 21.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P C

    1990-01-01

    A coordinated effort to map and sequence the human genome has recently become a national priority. Chromosome 21, the smallest human chromosome accounting for less than 2% of the human genome, is an attractive model system for developing and evaluating genome mapping technology. Several strategies are currently being explored including the development of chromosome 21 libraries from somatic cell hybrids as reported here, the cloning of chromosome 21 in yeast artificial chromosomes (McCormick et al., 1989b), and the construction of chromosome 21 libraries using chromosome flow-sorting techniques (Fuscoe et al., 1989). This report describes the approaches used to identify DNA probes that are useful for mapping chromosome 21. Probes were successfully isolated from both phage and cosmid libraries made from two somatic cell hybrids that contain human chromosome 21 as the only human chromosome. The 15 cosmid clones from the WA17 library, reduced to cloned DNA sequences of an average size of 3 kb, total 525 kb of DNA which is approximately 1% of chromosome 21. From these clones, a set of polymorphic DNA markers that span the length of the long arm of chromosome 21 has been generated. All of the probes thus far analyzed from the WA17 libraries have been mapped to chromosome 21 both by physical and genetic mapping methods. It is therefore likely that the WA17 hybrid cell line contains human chromosome 21 as the only human component, in agreement with cytogenetic observation. The 153E7b cosmid libraries will provide an alternative source of cloned chromosome 21 DNA. Library screening techniques can be employed to obtain cloned DNA sequences from the same genetic loci of the two different chromosome 21s. Comparative analysis will allow direct estimation of DNA sequence variation for different regions of chromosome 21. Mapped DNA probes make possible the molecular analysis of chromosome 21 at a level of resolution not achievable by classical cytogenetic techniques (Graw et al

  11. Relaxant effects of antidepressants on human isolated mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Vila, José Ma; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Lluch, Paloma; Pallardó, Federico; Flor, Blas; Lluch, Salvador

    1999-01-01

    Aims The therapeutic action of tricyclic agents may be accompanied by unwanted effects on the cardiovascular system. The evidence for the effects on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle comes from animal studies. Whether these studies can be extrapolated to human vessels remains to be determined. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline on the contractile responses of human isolated mesenteric arteries to electrical field stimulation, noradrenaline and potassium chloride. Methods Arterial segments (lumen diameter 0.8–1.2 mm) were obtained from portions of the human omentum during the course of 41 abdominal operations (22 men and 19 women), and rings 3 mm long were mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. In some artery rings the endothelium was removed mechanically. Results In precontracted artery rings amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline (3×10−7–10−4 m) produced concentration-dependent relaxation that was independent of the presence or absence of vascular endothelium. Incubation with indomethacin (3×10−6 m) reduced the pD2 values thus indicating the participation of dilating prostanoid substances in this response. Amitriptyline and nortriptyline inhibited both the neurogenic-and noradrenaline-induced contractions. In contrast, only the highest concentration of sertraline reduced the adrenergic responses. Amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline inhibited contractions elicited by KCl and produced rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve to CaCl2 following incubation in calcium-free solution. Conclusions These results indicate that amitriptyline and nortriptyline could act as adrenoceptor antagonists and direct inhibitors of smooth muscle contraction of human mesenteric arteries, whereas sertraline might principally exert its action only as direct inhibitor of smooth muscle contraction. This relaxant mechanism involves an interference

  12. High patient satisfaction of inflatable penile prosthesis insertion with synchronous penile plication for erectile dysfunction and Peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Paul H; Scott, J Francis; Morey, Allen F

    2014-06-01

    Twenty to thirty percent of patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) have erectile dysfunction (ED) refractory to medical therapy and may benefit from a combined procedure addressing both conditions. The aim of this study was to show the efficacy of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) insertion and synchronous penile plication for correcting penile curvature and ED in patients with PD. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent IPP insertion with synchronous penile plication at our tertiary care center between 2010 and 2013. All patients received an intraoperative saline intracorporal injection to induce an artificial erection. After the tunica albuginea was exposed via a standard transverse scrotal incision over the proximal penile shaft, the incision was retracted distally and/or laterally as needed for plication suture placement. Plication sutures were placed in parallel opposite the angle of greatest curvature. The incision was returned proximally to the standard penoscrotal junction for IPP insertion. Demographic and surgical data were collected from the patients' medical records. Patient satisfaction was assessed postoperatively using a nonvalidated questionnaire. The focus of this study was surgical outcomes, both technical and patient-reported satisfaction. Eighteen patients with a mean age of 63 years underwent IPP insertion with synchronous penile plication. Patients presented with dorsal (n = 11), lateral (n = 2), and biplanar curvature (n = 5). Mean preoperative curvature was 39 degrees (range 30-60) and was corrected on average to <5 degrees (range <5-12) using a median of four plication sutures (range 3-6). Among 15 patients completing a postoperative satisfaction survey at a mean of 11 months, all reported improvement in their overall condition and penile curvature; one with biplanar deformity reported minor residual curvature. None reported continued pain or required suture release. IPP insertion with synchronous

  13. A critical analysis of penile enhancement procedures for patients with normal penile size: surgical techniques, success, and complications.

    PubMed

    Vardi, Yoram; Har-Shai, Yaron; Harshai, Yaron; Gil, Tamir; Gruenwald, Ilan

    2008-11-01

    Most men who request surgical penile enhancement have a normal-sized and fully functional penis but visualize their penises as small (psychological dysmorphism). The aim of this review is to describe the various reported techniques and to provide the available scientific data on the success and complication rates of penile enhancement procedures. We performed an extensive systematic review based on a search of the MEDLINE database for articles published between 1965 and 2008. The following key words were used: penis, enhancement, enlargement, phalloplasty, reconstruction, girth, lengthening, and augmentation. Only English-language articles that were related to penile surgery and dysmorphobia were sought. We excluded articles in which fewer than five cases were described and articles in which the type of surgical treatment and the outcome were not clear. Of the 176 papers found, 34 were selected and critically analyzed. We found only a small number of well-designed and comprehensive studies, and most of the published articles reported data that were obtained from small cohorts of patients. The more recently published studies presented better methodologies and descriptions of the surgical techniques than did the older publications. In general, penile enhancement surgery can cause a 1-2-cm increase in penile length and a 2.5-cm augmentation of penile girth. Unwanted outcomes and complications, namely penile deformity, paradoxical penile shortening, disagreeable scarring, granuloma formation, migration of injected material, and sexual dysfunction were reported frequently in these studies. Disappointing short- and long-term patient satisfaction rates following these procedures were also reported in most studies. To date, the use of cosmetic surgery to enlarge the penis remains highly controversial. There is a lack of any standardization of all described procedures. Indications and outcome measures are poorly defined, and the reported complications are unacceptably high

  14. Rhodococcus equi human clinical isolates enter and survive within human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Vivas, J; Pilares-Ortega, L; Remuzgo-Martínez, S; Padilla, D; Gutiérrez-Díaz, J L; Navas-Méndez, J

    2011-05-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an emerging opportunistic human pathogen associated with immunosuppressed people, especially those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This pathogen resides primarily within lung macrophages of infected patients, which may explain in part its ability to escape normal pulmonary defense mechanisms. Despite numerous studies as a pulmonary pathogen in foals, where a plasmid seems to play an important role in virulence, information on the pathogenesis of this pathogen in humans is still scarce. In this study, fluorescence microscopy and vancomycin protection assays were used to investigate the ability of R. equi human isolates to adhere to and to invade the human alveolar epithelial cell line A549. Our findings indicate that some R. equi clinical strains are capable of adhering, entering and surviving within the alveolar cell line, which may contribute to the pathogen persistence in lung tissues. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation & molecular characterization of human parainfluenza virus in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Indumathi, C.P.; Gunanasekaran, P.; Kaveri, K.; Arunagiri, Kavita; Mohana, S.; Sheriff, A. Khaleefathullah; SureshBabu, B.V.; Padmapriya, P.; Senthilraja, R.; Fathima, Gracy

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) accounts for a significant proportion of lower respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults. This study was done to detect the presence of different subtypes of HPIV from patients having influenza like illness (ILI). Methods: Throat and nasal swabs from 232 patients with ILI who were negative for influenza viruses were tested by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(mRT-PCR) for the detection of human parainfluenza virus. All samples were inoculated in rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK2) cell line. Results: Of the 232 samples, 26(11.2%) were positive by mRT-PCR and nine (34.6%) showed cytopathic effect with syncytium formation for HPIV and all were HPIV-3 serotype, other serotypes like 1,2,4 were negative. The HPIV-3 strains (HN gene) were sequenced and analysed. Two novel mutations were identified at amino acid residues 295 and 297. Interpretation & conclusions: The mRT-PCR assay offers a rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnostic method for detection of HPIV which enables early detection and control. In our study there was a predominance of HPIV among 1-5 yr age group and the school going age group was less affected. Further studies need to be done to characterize HPIV isolated from different parts of the country. PMID:26658594

  16. Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Foods and Humans Form Distinct but Overlapping Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Michael J.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Fortes, Esther D.; Dogan, Belgin; Cai, Steven; Chen, Yuhuan; Scott, Virginia N.; Gombas, David E.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A total of 502 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food and 492 from humans were subtyped by EcoRI ribotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the virulence gene hly. Isolates were further classified into genetic lineages based on subtyping results. Food isolates were obtained through a survey of selected ready-to-eat food products in Maryland and California in 2000 and 2001. Human isolates comprised 42 isolates from invasive listeriosis cases reported in Maryland and California during 2000 and 2001 as well as an additional 450 isolates from cases that had occurred throughout the United States, predominantly from 1997 to 2001. Assignment of isolates to lineages and to the majority of L. monocytogenes subtypes was significantly associated with the isolate source (food or human), although most subtypes and lineages included both human and food isolates. Some subtypes were also significantly associated with isolation from specific food types. Tissue culture plaque assay characterization of the 42 human isolates from Maryland and California and of 91 representative food isolates revealed significantly higher average infectivity and cell-to-cell spread for the human isolates, further supporting the hypothesis that food and human isolates form distinct populations. Combined analysis of subtype and cytopathogenicity data showed that strains classified into specific ribotypes previously linked to multiple human listeriosis outbreaks, as well as those classified into lineage I, are more common among human cases and generate larger plaques than other subtypes, suggesting that these subtypes may represent particularly virulent clonal groups. These data will provide a framework for prediction of the public health risk associated with specific L. monocytogenes subtypes. PMID:15466521

  17. Effects of human relaxin on isolated rat and human myometrium and uteroplacental arteries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L K; Svane, D; Uldbjerg, N; Forman, A

    1991-11-01

    We investigated the effects of synthetic human relaxin (hRLX-2) on isolated rat and human myometrium and on uteroplacental arteries from term pregnant women. The preparations were mounted in organ baths and isometric tension was recorded. In isolated myometrium from nonpregnant rats, hRLX-2 (10(-10)-10(-7) mol/L) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of contractile activity induced by vasopressin (10(-8) mol/L). In isolated human myometrium from the fundus or isthmus, hRLX-2 (10(-10)-10(-7) mol/L) did not influence spontaneous activity or contractions induced by oxytocin (10(-9) mol/L) and prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha (10(-5) mol/L). Nor did it influence the tension induced in small intramyometrial arteries by U46619 (10(-7) mol/L), noradrenaline (10(-5) mol/L), and endothelin (10(-9) mol/L); or the tension induced in fetal stem villus arteries by U46619 (10(-7) mol/L), endothelin (10(-9) mol/L), and PGF2 alpha (10(-5) mol/L). The inhibitory effects of hRLX-2 in preparations of rat myometrium were not influenced by the presence of human myometrium in the organ bath or by pre-incubation of hRLX-2 with human myometrium. These results suggest that direct inhibitory effects of relaxin may be of minor importance for the regulation of myometrial activity and uteroplacental circulation in term human pregnancy.

  18. Comparison of phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Elie K; Hajj, Zahi G; Hamadeh, Shadi; Shaib, Houssam A; Farran, Mohamad T; Araj, George; Faroon, Obaid; Barbour, Kamil E; Jirjis, Faris; Azhar, Esam; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis. The bacterial examination of 50 livers of individual broilers, marketed by four major outlets, revealed a high recovery of P. mirabilis (66%), and a low recovery frequency of Salmonella spp. (4%), Serratia odorifera (2%), Citrobacter brakii (2%), and Providencia stuartii (2%). The phenotypic biochemical characterization of the recovered 33 chicken isolates of P. mirabilis were compared to 30 human isolates (23 urinary and six respiratory isolates). The comparison revealed significant differences in the presence of gelatinase enzyme (100% presence in chicken isolates versus 91.3 and 83.3% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The H2S production occurred in 100% of chicken isolates versus 95.6 and 66.7% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P<0.05). The other 17 biochemical characteristics did not differ significantly among the three groups of isolates (P>0.05). Two virulence genes, the mrpA and FliL, were having a typical 100% presence in randomly selected isolates of P. mirabilis recovered from chicken livers (N = 10) versus isolates recovered from urinary (N = 5) and respiratory specimens of humans (N = 5) (P>0.05). The average percentage similarity of mrpA gene nucleotide sequence of poultry isolates to human urinary and respiratory isolates was 93.2 and 97.5-%, respectively. The high similarity in phenotypic characteristics, associated with typical frequency of presence of two virulence genes, and high similarity in sequences of mrpA gene among poultry versus human P. mirabilis isolates justifies future investigations targeting the evaluation of adaptable pathogenicity of avian Proteus mirabilis isolates to mammalian hosts. PMID:23182140

  19. Comparison of phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Hajj, Zahi G; Hamadeh, Shadi; Shaib, Houssam A; Farran, Mohamad T; Araj, George; Faroon, Obaid; Barbour, Kamil E; Jirjis, Faris; Azhar, Esam; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Steve

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis. The bacterial examination of 50 livers of individual broilers, marketed by four major outlets, revealed a high recovery of P. mirabilis (66%), and a low recovery frequency of Salmonella spp. (4%), Serratia odorifera (2%), Citrobacter brakii (2%), and Providencia stuartii (2%). The phenotypic biochemical characterization of the recovered 33 chicken isolates of P. mirabilis were compared to 30 human isolates (23 urinary and six respiratory isolates). The comparison revealed significant differences in the presence of gelatinase enzyme (100% presence in chicken isolates versus 91.3 and 83.3% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P,0.05). The H(2)S production occurred in 100% of chicken isolates versus 95.6 and 66.7% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P,0.05). The other 17 biochemical characteristics did not differ significantly among the three groups of isolates (P.0.05). Two virulence genes, the mrpA and FliL, were having a typical 100% presence in randomly selected isolates of P. mirabilis recovered from chicken livers (N510) versus isolates recovered from urinary (N55) and respiratory specimens of humans (N55) (P.0.05). The average percentage similarity of mrpA gene nucleotide sequence of poultry isolates to human urinary and respiratory isolates was 93.2 and 97.5-%, respectively. The high similarity in phenotypic characteristics, associated with typical frequency of presence of two virulence genes, and high similarity in sequences of mrpA gene among poultry versus human P. mirabilis isolates justifies future investigations targeting the evaluation of adaptable pathogenicity of avian Proteus mirabilis isolates to mammalian hosts.

  20. Effects of donor-, pancreas-, and isolation-related variables on human islet isolation outcome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hilling, Denise E; Bouwman, Eelco; Terpstra, Onno T; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been reported to influence islet isolation outcome, but their importance varies between studies and are hampered by the small sample sizes in most studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to assess the impact of donor-, pancreas-, and isolation-related variables on successful human islet isolation outcome. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched electronically in April 2009. All studies reporting on donor-, pancreas-, and isolation-related factors relating to prepurification and postpurification islet isolation yield and proportion of successful islet isolations were selected. Seventy-four retrospective studies had sufficient data and were included in the analyses. Higher pre- and postpurification islet yields and a higher proportion of successful islet isolations were obtained when pancreata were preserved with the two-layer method rather than University of Wisconsin solution in donors with shorter cold ischemia times (CITs) [1 h longer CIT resulted in an average decline of prepurification and postpurification yields and proportion of successful isolations of 59 islet equivalents (IEQs)/g, 54 IEQs/g, and 21%, respectively]. Higher prepurification yields and higher percentage of successful islet isolations were found in younger donors with higher body mass index. Lower yields were found in donation after brain death donors compared to donation after cardiac death donors. Higher postpurification yields were found for isolation with Serva collagenase. This review identified donor-, pancreas-, and isolation-related factors that influence islet isolation yield. Standardized reports of these factors in all future studies may improve the power and identify additional factors and thereby contribute to improving islet isolation yield.

  1. SNP genotyping of animal and human derived isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wynne, James W; Beller, Christie; Boyd, Victoria; Francis, Barry; Gwoźdź, Jacek; Carajias, Marios; Heine, Hans G; Wagner, Josef; Kirkwood, Carl D; Michalski, Wojtek P

    2014-08-27

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the aetiological agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects ruminants worldwide. While the ability of MAP to cause disease in animals is clear, the role of this bacterium in human inflammatory bowel diseases remains unresolved. Previous whole genome sequencing of MAP isolates derived from human and three animal hosts showed that human isolates were genetically similar and showed a close phylogenetic relationship to one bovine isolate. In contrast, other animal derived isolates were more genetically diverse. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of this human strain across 52 wild-type MAP isolates, collected predominantly from Australia. A Luminex based SNP genotyping approach was utilised to genotype SNPs that had previously been shown to be specific to the human, bovine or ovine isolate types. Fourteen SNPs were initially evaluated across a reference panel of isolates with known genotypes. A subset of seven SNPs was chosen for analysis within the wild-type collection. Of the seven SNPs, three were found to be unique to paediatric human isolates. No wild-type isolates contain these SNP alleles. Interestingly, and in contrast to the paediatric isolates, three additional adult human isolates (derived from adult Crohn's disease patients) also did not contain these SNP alleles. Furthermore we identified two SNPs, which demonstrate extensive polymorphism within the animal-derived MAP isolates. One of which appears unique to ovine and a single camel isolate. From this study we suggest the existence of genetic heterogeneity between human derived MAP isolates, some of which are highly similar to those derived from bovine hosts, but others of which are more divergent.

  2. New multilocus genotypes of Giardia lamblia human isolates.

    PubMed

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-10-01

    Giardia lamblia is considered a species complex, whose members show little differences in their morphology, but have remarkable genetic variability. The aim of this study was to identify inter- and intra-assemblage genetic variation in G. lamblia among patients in Rio de Janeiro. The parasitological study was performed on faeces, and DNA was extracted from the samples which tested positive for G. lamblia. The genetic assemblages and subtypes were determined via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase gene loci. Fourteen assemblage A samples were successfully genotyped at the three MLST loci (bg/tpi/gdh). Two previously identified multilocus genotypes were found (AII-1 and AII-4), and two novel multilocus genotypes are proposed (AII-8, profile A2/A2/A4; AII-9, profile A3/A2/A2). Sequence analysis showed that assemblage B isolates have a higher nucleotide variation than those from assemblage A. Novel assemblage B sequences are described and most (66.7%) have heterogeneous nucleotides, which prevent the definition of multilocus genotypes. This is the first time that MLST has been used to characterise G. lamblia isolates in human clinical samples from Rio de Janeiro. In addition, MLST has enabled the detection of novel subtypes in both assemblages and the description of two novel multilocus genotypes in assemblage A. This study provides new insights into the genetic diversity of assemblage A and shows that MLST should be used to characterise G. lamblia both in Brazil and globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical power of the isolated human crystalline lens.

    PubMed

    Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Ziebarth, Noel; Rosen, Alexandre M; Jain, Rakhi; Amelinckx, Adriana; Arrieta, Esdras; Augusteyn, Robert C; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-06-01

    To characterize the age dependence of isolated human crystalline lens power and quantify the contributions of the lens surfaces and refractive index gradient. Experiments were performed on 100 eyes of 73 donors (average 2.8 +/- 1.6 days postmortem) with an age range of 6 to 94 years. Lens power was measured with a modified commercial lensmeter or with an optical system based on the Scheiner principle. The radius of curvature and asphericity of the isolated lens surfaces were measured by shadow photography. For each lens, the contributions of the surfaces and the refractive index gradient to the measured lens power were calculated by using optical ray-tracing software. The age dependency of these refractive powers was assessed. The total refractive power and surface refractive power both showed a biphasic age dependency. The total power decreased at a rate of -0.41 D/y between ages 6 and 58.1, and increased at a rate of 0.33D/y between ages 58.1 and 82. The surface contribution decreased at a rate of -0.13 D/y between ages 6 and 55.2 and increased at a rate of 0.04 D/y between ages 55.2 and 94. The relative contribution of the surfaces increased by 0.17% per year. The equivalent refractive index also showed a biphasic age dependency with a decrease at a rate of -3.9 x 10(-4) per year from ages 6 to 60.4 followed by a plateau. The lens power decreases with age, due mainly to a decrease in the contribution of the gradient. The use of a constant equivalent refractive index value to calculate lens power with the lens maker formula will underestimate the power of young lenses and overestimate the power of older lenses.

  4. Optical power of the isolated human crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Ziebarth, Noel; Rosen, Alexandre M.; Jain, Rakhi; Amelinckx, Adriana; Arrieta, Esdras; Augusteyn, Robert C.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the age-dependence of isolated human crystalline lens power and quantify the contributions of the lens surfaces and refractive index gradient. Methods Experiments were performed on a total of 100 eyes from 73 donors (average post-mortem: 2.8±1.6 days) with an age range of 6 to 94 years. Lens power was measured with a modified commercial lensmeter or with an optical system based on the Scheiner principle. The radius of curvature and asphericity of the isolated lens surfaces were measured by shadowphotography. For each lens the contributions of the surfaces and the refractive index gradient to the measured lens power were calculated using an optical ray tracing software. The age dependency of these refractive powers was assessed. Results The total refractive power and surface refractive power both showed a biphasic age dependency. The total power decreased at a rate of −0.41D/year between age 6 and 58.1, and increased at a rate of 0.33D/year between age 58.1 and 82. The surface contribution decreased at a rate of −0.13D/year between age 6 and 55.2, and increased at a rate of 0.04D/year between age 55.2 and 94. The relative contribution of the surfaces increased by 0.17%/year. The equivalent refractive index also showed a biphasic age dependency with a decrease at a rate of −3.9×10−4/year from age 6 to 60.4 followed by a plateau. Conclusions The lens power decreases with age due mainly to a decrease in the contribution of the gradient. The use of a constant equivalent refractive index value to calculate lens power using the lens maker formula will underestimate the power of young lenses and overestimate the power of older lenses. PMID:18316704

  5. Penile agenesis and congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: an association or a random coexistence?

    PubMed

    Yagmurlu, Aydin; Vargun, Rahsan; Gollu, Gulnur; Gokcora, I Haluk

    2004-01-01

    A neonate with penile agenesis and congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is presented. The patterns of associated anomalies with penile agenesis, and those of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis are discussed.

  6. Isolations of salmonellas from humans and foods in the Manchester area: 1981-1985.

    PubMed Central

    Barrell, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Isolations of salmonellas from humans and food products are recorded for the period 1981-5 and an attempt has been made to investigate the relationship between serotypes isolated from humans and those from meat products. The predominant serotypes isolated from humans were Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis and S. virchow. S. typhimurium was commonly isolated from a range of meat products. S. derby was one of the most common serotypes isolated from tripe and sausages but was relatively uncommon in humans. Salmonellas were found in less than or equal to 0.5% of most cooked meat products apart from tripe and udder (3.2%) and pet foods (12.4%). Isolations from raw meats ranged from 3% for pork to 28% for poultry. Incidents of salmonella infection in humans in Manchester increased between 1981 and 1984 but decreased during 1985. PMID:3595746

  7. Penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy followed by chemotherapy in a dog with penile hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bolfer, Luiz; Schmit, Joanna M; McNeill, Amy L; Ragetly, Chantal A; Bennett, R Avery; McMichael, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old castrated male standard poodle weighing 25 kg was presented with a 5 day history of hematuria, dysuria, and the presence of a 2.5 cm, firm swelling within the prepuce. Abdominal radiographs revealed a soft-tissue mass on the distal prepuce and lysis of the cranial margin of the os penis. The patient was sedated and an ulcerated hemorrhagic mass was identified at the tip of the penis. The mass was diagnosed as hemangiosarcoma via incisional biopsy. A penile amputation with scrotal urethrostomy was performed followed by chemotherapy with doxorubicin.

  8. [Serotypes of Salmonella in the Republic of Argentina isolated from human and non-human sources, 1979-1981].

    PubMed

    Eiguer, T; Butta, N; Picandet, A M

    1983-01-01

    A total of 49 serotypes were isolated in Argentina during the triennium 1979-1981, from 3,665 Salmonella strains isolated from different sources: human, animal, food and water. The degree of correlation among every one of them was analyzed in order to establish their influence in the cycles of transmission and human infection. S. typhimurium prevailed in human materials, being also isolated from water and animal, although in a smaller degree. Something similar occurred with S. oranienburg. It was observed that S. typhi retained its usual feature of endemic disease. Other serotypes of Salmonella were also found, particularly: S. paratyphi, S. panama, S. derby, S. agona, S. bredeney, S. newport, S. anatum and S. montevideo. From 3,665 Salmonella strains studied, 73.73% were isolated from human sources and the other 26.27% from non human sources, 5.40% corresponding to animal isolations, 15.39% from water and 5.48% from food.

  9. Penile ossification: A traumatic event or evolutionary throwback? Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ibrahim Edhem; Barazani, Yagil; Tareen, Basir

    2013-01-01

    Penile ossification is very rare, with only a handful of histologically confirmed reported cases. The most common condition leading to penile ossification is Peyronie's disease. Other conditions, such as gout, end-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism and local trauma, have also been associated with penile ossification. We report a unique case of near-complete penile ossification of the corporal bodies with histologic confirmation on pathologic review. Our report summarizes the literature regarding this rare entity.

  10. Penile ossification: A traumatic event or evolutionary throwback? Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ibrahim Edhem; Barazani, Yagil; Tareen, Basir

    2013-01-01

    Penile ossification is very rare, with only a handful of histologically confirmed reported cases. The most common condition leading to penile ossification is Peyronie’s disease. Other conditions, such as gout, end-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism and local trauma, have also been associated with penile ossification. We report a unique case of near-complete penile ossification of the corporal bodies with histologic confirmation on pathologic review. Our report summarizes the literature regarding this rare entity. PMID:23671498

  11. Characterization of a West Nile Virus Isolate from a Human on the Gulf Coast of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Granwehr, Bruno P.; Li, Li; Davis, Charles T.; Beasley, David W. C.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic characterization of a human cerebrospinal fluid West Nile virus isolate from Beaumont, Texas, revealed several nucleotide changes and amino acid substitutions that differentiated it from all other North American strains isolated to date, suggesting that isolates from the Texas Gulf Coast may form a unique genetic group among North American strains. PMID:15528747

  12. Epidemiological relationships of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Young; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Wei, Bai; Jang, Hyung-Kwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kang, Min-Su

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Of all isolates tested, over 94% contained seven virulence associated genes (flaA, cadF, racR, dnaJ, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC). All isolates were classified into 39 types by PFGE clustering with 90% similarity. Some chicken isolates were incorporated into some PFGE types of human isolates. MLST analysis for the 39 human isolates and 38 chicken isolates resulted in 14 and 23 sequence types (STs), respectively, of which 10 STs were new. STs overlapped in both chicken and human isolates included ST-21, ST-48, ST-50, ST-51, and ST-354, of which ST-21 was the predominant ST in both human and chicken isolates. Through combined analysis of PFGE types and STs, three chicken isolates were clonally related to the three human isolates associated with food poisoning (VII-ST-48, XXII-ST-354, and XXVIII-ST-51). They were derived from geographically same or distinct districts. Remarkably, clonal spread of food poisoning pathogens between animals and humans was confirmed by population genetic analysis. Consequently, contamination of campylobacters with quinolone resistance and potential virulence genes in poultry production and consumption may increase the risk of infections in humans.

  13. Antimicrobial drug resistance and molecular characterization of Salmonella isolated from domestic animals, humans, and meat products.

    PubMed

    Oloya, J; Doetkott, D; Khaitsa, M L

    2009-04-01

    1) To characterize and determine genotypic relatedness of Salmonella serovars commonly isolated from domestic animals and humans in North Dakota, and 2) to assess their role in transferring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to humans. A total of 434 Salmonella isolates obtained from 1) feces of apparently healthy feedlot, range, and dairy cattle in North Dakota; 2) clinical samples from sick or dead animals submitted to North Dakota State University-Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (2000-2005); 3) previous meat product surveillance studies in North Dakota; and 4) 179 samples from human patients in North Dakota (2000-2005) by the North Dakota Department of Health were studied. The isolates were initially serotyped and later genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate their relatedness. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems panel was used to compare AMR profiles of animal and human isolates to assess a possible role of domestic animals in transfer of AMR to humans. Salmonella Typhimurium was the predominant serotype in both humans (13.4%) and domestic animals (34.3%), followed by Newport in animals (2.6%) and human (3.9%). Salmonella Arizona (0.7%), Salmonella Give (0.9%), and Salmonella Muenster (3.5%) were isolated from sick or dead animals. PFGE results confirmed occurrence of similar Salmonella genotypes in both domestic animals and humans. AMR profiles showed that most animal strains were multidrug resistant. A single human isolate had PFGE and multidrug resistance profiles similar to a major cattle genotype, suggesting a possible AMR transmission from cattle to humans. CONCLUSION AND APPLICATION: Similar Salmonella genotypes were infecting domestic animals and humans in North Dakota. The AMR levels were higher in domestic animal isolates than in humans, implying that the occurrence of AMR in animal isolates may not translate directly into AMR in human isolates in North Dakota. This is helpful in determining future

  14. Isolation and biochemical characterization of mutacin VSM43 isolated from human oral Streptococcus mutans VSM43.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Samia; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz

    2003-07-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. Streptococcus mutans VSM43 isolated from human clinical oral cavity was screened for the production of mutacin. It can inhibit the growth of other mutans streptococci, many other gram-positives and some gram-negative bacteria. Average size of the inhibitory zone ranged between 12-20mm. The inhibitory activity could not be related to organic acids, bacteriophages and hydrogen peroxide. Mutacin VSM43 was protease sensitive, remained active within a pH range of 2-8, and lost activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 30 min. Mutacin VSM43 was dialyzable through dialysis membrane (pore size 12,000 Da). A titre of 1280 arbitrary/activity units per ml (AU/mL) was shown against Staphylococcus aureus AB211. Lacuna frequency percentage (LF%) against Streptococcus mutans VSMD and Staphylococcus aureus AB211 was 37% and 49% respectively. We are convinced mutacin VSM43 may be a parallel candidate for use against dental caries.

  15. Human attribute concepts: relative ubiquity across twelve mutually isolated languages.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Bel-Bahar, Tarik S

    2014-07-01

    It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes.

  16. Isolation of multipotent cells from human term placenta.

    PubMed

    Yen, B Linju; Huang, Hsing-I; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Jui, Hsiang-Yiang; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Yao, Ming; Shun, Chia-Tung; Yen, Men-Luh; Lee, Meng-Chou; Chen, Yao-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Current sources of stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells (ASCs). However, concerns exist with either source: ESCs, with their significant ethical considerations, tumorigenicity, and paucity of cell lines; and ASCs, which are possibly more limited in potential. Thus, the search continues for an ethically conducive, easily accessible, and high-yielding source of stem cells. We have isolated a population of multipotent cells from the human term placenta, a temporary organ with fetal contributions that is discarded postpartum. These placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMCs) exhibit many markers common to mesenchymal stem cells--including CD105/endoglin/SH-2, SH-3, and SH-4--and they lack hematopoietic-, endothelial-, and trophoblastic-specific cell markers. In addition, PDMCs exhibit ESC surface markers of SSEA-4, TRA-1-61, and TRA-1-80. Adipogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic differentiation were achieved after culturing under the appropriate conditions. PDMCs could provide an ethically uncontroversial and easily accessible source of multipotent cells for future experimental and clinical applications.

  17. Ruminococcus faecis sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial strain Eg2(T), an anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile, and non-spore-forming coccus, was isolated from human faeces. The optimal temperature for its growth was 37°C. Oxidase activity was negative, but catalase activity was positive. The strain was able to hydrolyze esculin and to produce acids from the fermentation of several substrates, including glucose. Lactic and acetic acids were the main products of glucose fermentation. The major fatty acids present in this strain were C(16:0), C(14:0), and C(18:1) cis11 DMA. The G+C content was 43.4 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain Eg2(T) was closely related to species of the genus Ruminococcus (96.3% similarity to R. torques and 96.2% similarity to R. lactaris), and its taxonomic position was placed within the Clostridium cluster XIVa. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic, and phylogenetic evidence, we propose that this novel strain be assigned to the genus Ruminococcus and be named Ruminococcus faecis sp. nov. The type strain is Eg2(T) (=KCTC 5757(T) =JCM 15917(T)).

  18. Ruminococcus luti sp. nov., isolated from a human faecal sample.

    PubMed

    Simmering, Rainer; Taras, David; Schwiertz, Andreas; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Gruhl, Bärbel; Lawson, Paul A; Collins, Matrhew D; Blaut, Michael

    2002-08-01

    A strain of an unidentified strictly anoxic, gram-postive, non-motile Ruminococcus-like bacterium was isolated from a human faecal sample. The organism used carbohydrates as fermentable substrates, produced acetate, succinate, and hydrogen as the major products of glucose metabolism, and possessed a G + C content of 43.3 mol%. The morphological and biochemical characteristics of the organism were consistent with its assignment to the genus Ruminococcus but it did not correspond to any recognized species of this genus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed the unidentified bacterium represents a previously unrecognised sub-line within the Clostridium coccoides rRNA group of organisms. The nearest relative of the unknown bacterium corresponded to Ruminococcus obeum but a 16S rRNA sequence divergence value of >3% demonstrated it represents a different species. Based on the presented findings a new species, Ruminococcus luti, is described. The type strain of Ruminococcus luti is BInIX(T) (DSM 14534T, CCUG 45635T).

  19. Blautia faecis sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Soo; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2013-02-01

    A strictly anoxic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile Blautia-like bacterium, designated strain M25(T), was isolated from a human faecal sample. Strain M25(T) was negative for both catalase and oxidase activity, utilized carbohydrates as fermentable substrates, produced lactate and acetate as the major end products of glucose fermentation in PYG medium, and had a DNA G+C content of 41.6 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain M25(T) was closely related to Ruminococcus obeum ATCC 29174(T) (96.40 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Blautia glucerasea HFTH-1(T) (96.17 %) within the family Lachnospiraceae. Straight-chain saturated and monounsaturated cellular fatty acids were also detected, the majority being C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0) and C(16 : 0) dimethyl acetal acids. Based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics presented in this study, strain M25(T) represents a novel species within the genus Blautia for which the name Blautia faecis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M25(T) ( = KCTC 5980(T) = JCM 17205(T)).

  20. Effects of changes in osmolarity on isolated human airways.

    PubMed

    Jongejan, R C; De Jongste, J C; Raatgeep, R C; Bonta, I L; Kerrebijn, K F

    1990-04-01

    The effects of hypo- and hyperosmolarity on the function of isolated human airways were studied. Changes in osmolarity induced an increasing bronchoconstriction that was proportional to the magnitude of the change in osmolarity. Hypertonicity-induced airway narrowing resulted when buffer was made hypertonic with sodium chloride or mannitol but not with urea. The airways showed no tachyphylaxis to repetitive exposure to hypo- and hypertonic buffer of 200 and 600 mosM, respectively. The bronchoconstriction was not secondary to stimulation of H1 or leukotriene C4/D4 receptors or the release of prostaglandins in the preparation. The bronchoconstriction in hypotonic buffer was totally dependent on extracellular calcium, whereas in hypertonic buffer the bronchoconstriction seemed partially dependent on intracellular calcium release. Isoprenaline prevented the bronchoconstriction in hyper- or hypotonic buffer of 450 and 250 mosM but not in buffer of 600 and 150 mosM. It is concluded that hypo- and hypertonic buffers lead to bronchoconstriction via different mechanisms, which relate to influx of extracellular calcium in hyposmolar buffer and probably to release of calcium from intracellular stores in hypertonic buffer. In strongly hypertonic buffer, part of the bronchoconstriction may be due to osmotic shrinkage. The relevance of our data for the mechanism of bronchoconstriction after inhalation of hypo- or hypertonic saline depends on whether changes in osmolarity around the airway smooth muscle occur in asthmatics but not in normal subjects, and this has not yet been established.

  1. OCT 3-D surface topography of isolated human crystalline lenses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengchan; Birkenfeld, Judith; de Castro, Alberto; Ortiz, Sergio; Marcos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative 3-D Optical Coherence Tomography was used to measure surface topography of 36 isolated human lenses, and to evaluate the relationship between anterior and posterior lens surface shape and their changes with age. All lens surfaces were fitted to 6th order Zernike polynomials. Astigmatism was the predominant surface aberration in anterior and posterior lens surfaces (accounting for ~55% and ~63% of the variance respectively), followed by spherical terms, coma, trefoil and tetrafoil. The amount of anterior and posterior surface astigmatism did not vary significantly with age. The relative angle between anterior and posterior surface astigmatism axes was on average 36.5 deg, tended to decrease with age, and was >45 deg in 36.1% lenses. The anterior surface RMS spherical term, RMS coma and 3rd order RMS decreased significantly with age. In general, there was a statistically significant correlation between the 3rd and 4th order terms of the anterior and posterior surfaces. Understanding the coordination of anterior and posterior lens surface geometries and their topographical changes with age sheds light into the role of the lens in the optical properties of the eye and the lens aging mechanism. PMID:25360371

  2. Human seminal alpha inhibins: isolation, characterization, and structure.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C H; Hammonds, R G; Ramasharma, K; Chung, D

    1985-01-01

    Two additional peptides with inhibin-like activity have been isolated from human seminal plasma. One consists of 52 amino acids and the other, 92 amino acids. They are designated alpha-inhibin-52 and alpha-inhibin-92. Sequence analyses show that the NH2-terminal 31 amino acids of alpha-inhibin-52 are identical to the structure of the inhibin-like peptide previously reported [ILP-(1-31), now designated alpha-inhibin-31], and the COOH-terminal 52 amino acids of alpha-inhibin-92 are identical to the structure of alpha-inhibin-52. The amino acid sequence of alpha-inhibin-92 is: (sequence in text) Bioassay data in mouse pituitaries in vitro show that alpha-inhibin-52 is 3.4 times more active and alpha-inhibin-92 is greater than 40 times more active than alpha-inhibin-31 in suppressing follitropin-release. Radioimmunoassay data indicate that alpha-inhibin-52 and alpha-inhibin-92 have only 60% immunoreactivity. PMID:3889920

  3. Human endothelial progenitor cells isolated from COPD patients are dysfunctional.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoran; Xie, Canmao

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More than 44% of these patients present with generalized atherosclerosis at autopsy. It is accepted that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in the repair of dysfunctional endothelium and thus protects against atherosclerosis. However, whether COPD affects the repairing capacity of EPCs is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether and how EPCs are involved in the vascular repair process in patients with COPD. In our study, EPCs from 25 COPD and 16 control patients were isolated by Ficoll density-gradient centrifugation and identified using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Transwell Migratory Assay was performed to determine the number of EPC colony-forming units and the adherent capacity late-EPCs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Following arterial damage in NOD/SCID mice, the number of EPCs incorporated at the injured vascular site was determined using a fluorescence microscope. We found that the number of EPC clusters and cell migration, as well as the expression of CXCR4, was significantly decreased in patients with COPD. Additionally, the number of late-EPCs adherent to HUVEC tubules was significantly reduced, and fewer VEGFR2(+)-staining cells were incorporated into the injured site in COPD patients. Our study demonstrates that EPC capacity of repair was affected in COPD patients, which may contribute to altered vascular endothelium in this patient population.

  4. Paenibacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Dominique; Gomard, Maïté; Hamon, Sylviane; Bonne, Isabelle; Fernandez, José-Carlos; Wheeler, Richard; Malosse, Christian; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Boneca, Ivo Gomperts; Bizet, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    A spore-forming, rod-shaped Gram-strain-positive bacterium, strain 656.84T, was isolated from human faeces in 1984. It contained anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acid, meso-diaminopimelic acid was found in the cell wall peptidoglycan, the polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and aminophospholipids as the major components, and the predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The DNA G+C content was 52.9 mol%. The results of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies placed strain 656.84T within the genus Paenibacillus. Its closest phylogenetic relatives were Paenibacillus barengoltzii and Paenibacillus timonensis. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 656.84T and Paenibacillus timonensis CIP 108005T and Paenibacillus barengoltzii CIP 109354T were 17.3 % and 36.8 %, respectively, indicating that strain 656.84T represents a distinct species. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic results, strain 656.84T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus faecis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 656.84T ( = DSM 23593T = CIP 101062T).

  5. The epidermal growth factor receptor is frequently overexpressed in penile squamous cell carcinomas: a tissue microarray and digital image analysis study of 112 cases.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Munari, Enrico; Katz, Betina; Sharma, Rajni; Lecksell, Kristen; Cubilla, Antonio L; Burnett, Arthur L; Netto, George J

    2013-12-01

    Disseminated penile cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy. However, response rates are far from acceptable. Recently, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies have shown to be clinically useful in penile carcinomas. Nevertheless, only a few cases of penile carcinomas have been evaluated for EGFR expression. In this study, we assessed the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR in 112 patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. We built 4 tissue microarrays and evaluated EGFR expression using a monoclonal mouse anti-EGFR antibody. For digital image analysis, we used the open-source software ImageJ version 1.47 (NIH, Bethesda, MD) along with the immunomembrane plug-in. Membranous EGFR expression was evaluated, taking into account staining completeness (0-10 points) and staining intensity (0-10 points) for a combined score (0-20 points). We classified the cases as follows: negative EGFR expression, 0 to 3 points; low EGFR expression, 4 to 8 points; and high EGFR expression, 9 to 20 points. The distribution of EGFR immunohistochemical expression was as follows: 13 cases (12%) were EGFR negative, 49 cases (44%) had low EGFR expression, and 50 cases (44%) had high EGFR expression. EGFR expression was not associated with histologic subtype (P = .47), histologic grade (P = .77), or human papillomavirus status (P = .14). In conclusion, immunohistochemical EGFR expression appears to be a common feature of penile carcinomas, independently of histologic subtype, histologic grade, and human papillomavirus presence. Whether or not EGFR expression is associated with EGFR gene mutation or if it can be used to predict response to therapy in patients with disseminated penile cancer should be evaluated in future studies.

  6. Glans Necrosis Following Penile Prosthesis Implantation: Prevention and Treatment Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Steven K; Mora-Estaves, Cesar; Egydio, Paulo; Ralph, David; Habous, Mohamad; Love, Christopher; Shamsodini, Ahmad; Valenzuela, Robert; Yafi, Faysal A

    2017-09-01

    To examine possible etiology and treatment outcomes in 21 patients with glans necrosis following penile prosthesis implantation. Glans necrosis typically presented with a dusky glans on the first postoperative day following prosthesis implantation. The blood supply to the glans penis consists of the dorsal arteries and the terminal branches of the spongiosal arteries. Using the cohort in our study, we compiled preoperative comorbidities and adjunctive surgical maneuvers that might compromise glans vascularity, leading to glans necrosis. Preoperative risk factors were arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (90%), diabetes mellitus (81%), smoking (81%), previous prosthesis explantation (57%), and previous radiation therapy (48%). The most prevalent intraoperative and postoperative factor was subcoronal incision for reasons as simple as coincident circumcision or as complex as for penile degloving (86%). Other factors detected were penile wrapping with an occlusive elastic bandage (62%), use of a sliding technique for penile lengthening (33%), and coincident distal urethral injury repair (29%). Seventeen patients (81%) managed expectantly with preservation of implanted prosthesis sustained significant glandular loss. Four patients managed with immediate prosthesis removal healed without sequelae. Patients with preoperative risk factors undergoing penile prosthesis implantation should avoid high-risk adjunctive surgical maneuvers. Upon development of signs of glans necrosis postoperatively, in the setting of these high-risk factors, immediate implant removal may prevent subsequent glans necrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A new repair technique for penile paraffinoma: bilateral scrotal flaps.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J H; Shin, H J; Woo, S H; Seul, J H

    1996-10-01

    Although worldwide incidence is not well known, foreign-body injection is often attempted in order to increase the circumference of the penile shaft. Paraffin, Vaseline, and other materials are injected into the penile skin by the patient himself or by untrained persons who practice medicine fraudulently. Complications usually follow, such as penile deformity, skin necrosis, limited erectile function, and the inability to have intercourse. Definitive treatment of these patients includes the complete removal of skin and subcutaneous tissue infiltrated by the foreign material. Sometimes, complete removal of the foreign material may not be possible and may leave permanent foreign-body granuloma on the corpus cavernosum and/or corpus spongiosum. The remaining foreign material does not permit skin-graft coverage, which is a simple and effective method of resurfacing. In such cases, we tried a new technique comprised of bilateral scrotal flaps to provide for reliable and stable coverage. The scrotal skin, which has high elasticity, seems to be a good material for penile coverage, despite its hairy nature. In our experience, exclusively with Korean males, the scrotal hair has a low density and does not seem to cause serious problems, but patients with hirsute scrotal may be contraindicated. Since 1993, 17 patients with penile paraffinoma have been treated using the bilateral scrotal flap method. All 34 flaps survived completely and the reconstructed penis had immediate postoperative tactile sensibility. The results were successful and without any major complications.

  8. Clinicopathological features of carcinoma of the distal penile urethra.

    PubMed

    Corbishley, Catherine M; Rajab, Ramzi M; Watkin, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Distal urethral carcinomas are very rare and are similar in their pathology and behaviour to tumours of the glans penis and foreskin. Similarly they are associated with penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) of both differentiated and undifferentiated types. Current management is mainly surgical, but increasingly involves specialist penile-preserving techniques. Handling and dissection of the specimens is broadly the same as other primary penile tumours. The prognosis of distal urethral lesions is believed to be worse than penile tumours and better than prostatic urethral tumours, but the evidence is sparse. The staging system for urethral tumours does not distinguish between proximal and distal, apart from prostatic urethra, and has led to much confusion in the literature. Although the subtypes of tumours seen in the distal urethra are the same as those on the glans and foreskin, there is an increased proportion of basaloid squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma whereas the majority of tumours seen in the proximal and prostatic urethra are of urothelial origin. In future, distal urethral tumours should be separately designated with site-specific staging/TNM and reporting system and pathologically classified in the same way as penile and foreskin tumours. Ultimately, this will improve the quality of data and produce evidence to inform management.

  9. Management of penile tumours during the Byzantine period.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Marios; de Bree, Eelco; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Manios, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    While conventional treatment of penile cancer consists of total penile amputation and bilateral lymphadenectomy, recently a more conservative strategy comprising penile-preserving surgery and selective lymphadenectomy has been applied in order to preserve the penis and to minimize unnecessary inguinal lymphadenectomy. A thorough literature survey was performed to see what was already known of the surgical treatment of penile tumours in ancient times. In the Byzantine period, surgery appeared to have been highly developed, as one may conclude from the surgical material included mainly in the works of Oribasius of Pergamus and Paul of Aegina. Being aware of cancer, they described in their medical encyclopaedias malignant and benign tumours of the prepuce and glans penis, as well as their surgical and non-surgical management. After local excision of malignant tumours, they strongly recommended burning to prevent relapse, whereas they discouraged simultaneous removal of external and internal preputial lesions, because of the risk of perforation of the prepuce. These surprisingly detailed descriptions prove that Byzantine surgery had reached a higher level than commonly supposed. Penile-preserving treatment, which has recently become the therapeutic strategy of choice, was already accomplished in ancient times by using adjuvant thermal or chemical burning after local tumour excision.

  10. Penile Fracture: Our Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Rajkumar Singha; Kundu, Anup Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile fracture is rare, but it is a urological emergency that always requires immediate attention. Moreover, penile fracture has been reported more frequently in recent years. It may have devastating physical, functional, and psychological consequences if not properly managed in time. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was to highlight the causes, clinical presentation, and outcomes of cases of penile fracture. This was a prospective observational study extending from November 2012 to November 2014. Each patient underwent a thorough clinical evaluation and received proper treatment. Results Twenty patients with penile fracture, aged 19 to 56 years (mean, 28 years) were evaluated in this study. Vaginal intercourse was the most common mechanism of injury. Most of the patients (95%) were diagnosed clinically with a proper history and clinical examination. Nineteen patients were treated surgically. The patients underwent six months of follow-up, and were evaluated with local examinations, questionnaires, and colour Doppler ultrasonography as necessary. Conclusions Although penile fracture is an under-reported urological emergency, its incidence is increasing. It is usually diagnosed based on a clinical examination, but ultrasonography can be very helpful in diagnosis. Especially in cases where treatment is delayed, surgery is preferable to conservative management, because it is associated with better outcomes and fewer long-term complications. PMID:26331126

  11. The spasmogenic effects of vanadate in human isolated bronchus.

    PubMed

    Cortijo, J; Villagrasa, V; Martí-Cabrera, M; Villar, V; Moreau, J; Advenier, C; Morcillo, E J; Small, R C

    1997-08-01

    1. Inhalation of vanadium compounds, particularly vanadate, is a cause of occupational bronchial asthma. We have now studied the action of vanadate on human isolated bronchus. Vanadate (0.1 microM-3 mM) produced concentration-dependent, well-sustained contraction. Its -logEC50 was 3.74 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- s.e.mean) and its maximal effect was equivalent to 97.5 +/- 4.2% of the response to acetylcholine (ACh, 1 mM). 2. Vanadate (200 microM)-induced contraction of human bronchus was epithelium-independent and was not inhibited by indomethacin (2.8 microM), zileuton (10 microM), a mixture of atropine, mepyramine and phentolamine (each at 1 microM), or by mast cell degranulation with compound 48/80. 3. Vanadate (200 microM)-induced contraction was unaltered by tissue exposure to verapamil or nifedipine (each 1 microM) or to a Ca2+-free, EGTA (0.1 mM)-containing physiological salt solution (PSS). However, tissue incubation with ryanodine (10 microM) in Ca2+-free, EGTA (0.1 mM)-containing PSS reduced vanadate-induced contraction. A series of vanadate challenges was made in tissues exposed to Ca2+-free EGTA (0.1 mM)-containing PSS with the object of depleting intracellular Ca2+ stores. In such tissues cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 10 microM) prevented Ca2+-induced recovery of vanadate-induced contraction. 4. Tissue incubation in K+-rich (80 mM) PSS, K+-free PSS, or PSS containing ouabain (10 microM) did not alter vanadate (200 microM)-induced contraction. Ouabain (10 microM) abolished the K+-induced relaxation of human bronchus bathed in K+-free PSS. This action was not shared by vanadate (200 microM). The tissue content of Na+ was increased and the tissue content of K+ was decreased by ouabain (10 microM). In contrast, vanadate (200 microM) did not alter the tissue content of these ions. Tissue incubation in a Na+-deficient (25 mM) PSS or in PSS containing amiloride (0.1 mM) markedly inhibited the spasmogenic effect of vanadate (200 microM). 5. Vanadate (200 micro

  12. Serological and pathogenic characterization of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from two human cases of endocarditis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Amano, Kennichiro; Akimoto, Shinnich; Yamamoto, Kinya; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru; Kishida, Naoki; Takahashi, Toshio

    2011-10-01

    We characterized the serological and pathogenic properties of two Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from human cases of infective endocarditis in Japan. One isolate was recovered from a fisherman, and was identified as serovar 3, which is known to be prevalent among fish isolates. This strain exhibited high virulence in mice but was avirulent in swine. Another was untypable, and avirulent in both mice and swine. Our results suggest that various serological and athogenical types of E. rhusiopathiae can induce human endocarditis. This is the first report to characterize the pathogenicity of E. rhusiopathiae isolates from human endocarditis.

  13. [Biosynthesis and isolation of a recombinant protein for producing genetically-engineered human proinsulin].

    PubMed

    Ivankin, A N; Mitaleva, S I; Nekliudov, A D

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of the recombinant protein from a genetically engineered Escherichia coli 1854 producer for further chemical enzymatic transformation into human insulin through proinsulin was studied. Under optimal conditions, the recombinant protein formation was more than 35% of the total cell proteins. Structures of the polypeptides obtained and purified chromatographically were confirmed by amino acid analysis. Human proinsulin was derived from the recombinant protein isolated.

  14. Genome Sequence of Parascardovia denticolens IPLA 20019, Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Bottacini, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco; Margolles, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the draft genome of Parascardovia denticolens IPLA 20019, isolated from human milk. This species, usually isolated from caries lesions, is taxonomically related to the genus Bifidobacterium. The genetic information of IPLA 20019 enhances our understanding of the adaptation of this P. denticolens strain from human breast milk. PMID:22887674

  15. Complete genome sequence of Brucella canis BCB018, a strain isolated from a human patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Ke, Yuehua; Zhen, Qing; Yuan, Xitong; Xu, Jie; Qiu, Yefeng; Wang, Zhoujia; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Huang, Liuyu; Chen, Zeliang

    2012-12-01

    Brucella canis is considered a rare cause of human brucellosis because of difficulties in presumptive diagnosis and underestimation of the incidence. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a Brucella canis isolate, BCB018, isolated from a human patient, providing precious resources for comparative genomics analysis of Brucella field strains.

  16. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  17. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects and the Penile Bulb

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Mack; Nam, Jiho; Gagliardi, Giovanna; El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph O.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-03-01

    The dose, volume, and clinical outcome data for penile bulb are reviewed for patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Most, but not all, studies find an association between impotence and dosimetric parameters (e.g., threshold doses) and clinical factors (e.g., age, comorbid diseases). According to the data available, it is prudent to keep the mean dose to 95% of the penile bulb volume to <50 Gy. It may also be prudent to limit the D70 and D90 to 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively, but coverage of the planning target volume should not be compromised. It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques.

  18. Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from human and animal samples in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bendary, M M; Solyman, S M; Azab, M M; Mahmoud, N F; Hanora, A M

    2016-02-29

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has been one of the most problematic pathogens. Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major concern for both human and animal. Antibiotic resistance genes dissemination might be possible between human and animal bacteria. The aim of this study is to show phenotypic and genotypic diversity of human and animal MRSA isolates. Antibiogram typing and biofilm production were used as a primary phenotypic typing tool for the characterization of (40) animal and (38) human MRSA isolates. Genetic typing based on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and virulence gene profiles were done. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of the animal isolates showed little evidence of widespread of resistance, although this was seen in many human isolates. The biofilm production was detected in higher percentage among animal isolates. Based on the genetic typing and multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index, the majority of animal isolates clustered into lineages that were not found in human isolates. Animal and human MRSA isolates showed diversity in antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiles may be due to host adaptation or chances for contamination between the two hosts were not present in our study.

  19. Propionibacterium namnetense sp. nov., isolated from a human bone infection.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Bémer, Pascale; Kambarev, Stanimir; Patel, Nisha B; Lemenand, Olivier; Caillon, Jocelyne; Lawson, Paul A; Corvec, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on two Gram-positive-staining, anaerobic, pleomorphic, rod-shaped strains isolated from human bone and tissue samples. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the strains belong to a novel species within the genus Propionibacterium, most closely related to Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes and Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum with similarity values of 98.4 % and 98.1 %, respectively. In addition, protein-coding genes for rpoB, recA and gyrB clearly separated the novel organism from all species and subspecies of the genus Propionibacterium. However, a DNA-DNA hybridization analysis between the novel organism and the type strain P. acnes ATCC 6919T revealed a value of only 61.1 %. Furthermore, whole genome analysis using the program OrthoANI gave a value of 88.5 %, which is significantly below the cut-off value of 95 % for species delineation. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 59.7 mol%. When taken collectively, phenotypic, molecular genetic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic information demonstrate that the organism represents a distinct, albeit close relative of P. acnes On the basis of the results presented, the organism represents a novel member of the genus Propionibacterium for which the name Propionibacterium namnetense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NTS 31307302T (=DSM 29427T=CCUG 66358T).

  20. Advances in Surgical Reconstructive Techniques in the Management of Penile, Urethral, and Scrotal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bickell, Michael; Beilan, Jonathan; Wallen, Jared; Wiegand, Lucas; Carrion, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    This article reviews the most up-to-date surgical treatment options for the reconstructive management of patients with penile, urethral, and scrotal cancer. Each organ system is examined individually. Techniques and discussion for penile cancer reconstruction include Mohs surgery, glans resurfacing, partial and total glansectomy, and phalloplasty. Included in the penile cancer reconstruction section is the use of penile prosthesis in phalloplasty patients after penectomy, tissue engineering in phallic regeneration, and penile transplantation. Reconstruction following treatment of primary urethral carcinoma and current techniques for scrotal cancer reconstruction using split-thickness skin grafts and flaps are described.

  1. Possible function of the frenulum of prepuce in penile erection.

    PubMed

    Song, B; Cai, Z-M

    2012-02-01

    Fremulum of prepuce was the ruffle of foreskin while there was little about the function of fremulum. This study discusses the possible function of the frenulum of prepuce in penile erection. Twelve patients had premature ejaculation (PE) whose frenula were short. Two patients suffered unsatisfied intercourse whose frenula were damaged and departed 12 or 6 months earlier. We prolonged the short frenulum and reconstructed the ruptured frenulum. All patients reported satisfied sexual intercourse after 3-6 months. It is concluded that the frenulum is important in penile erection. PE might be treated by lengthening the frenulum.

  2. Femoral Metastasis from Penile Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Braumann, Laura; Tsagozis, Panagiotis; Wedin, Rikard; Brosjö, Otte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Penile cancer rarely gives symptomatic skeletal metastases. Methods. We present 2 patients with squamous carcinoma of the penis who were surgically treated for metastases in the femur. Results. Both patients had pathological fractures and were operated on. In one case, the skeletal metastasis preceded any lymphatic spread of the disease, suggesting early haematogenous dissemination. Conclusions. Endoprosthetic reconstruction resulted in pain relief and restored the ambulatory capacity. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility for symptomatic bone metastases with a risk for pathological fracture in patients with penile cancer.

  3. Penile Implant: Review of a "No-Touch" Technique.

    PubMed

    Eid, J Francois

    2016-07-01

    Over 25% of the more than 725,000 cases of nosocomial infection in the United States are related to an implantable device. Despite the standard typical strategies available, infection rates for breast implants, cerebrospinal shunts, and penile implants remain unacceptably high. This paper will review use of a "no-touch" technique in varied surgical procedures from orthopedic fracture repair, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, and breast reconstruction/augmentation to penile prosthesis implantation. One of our aims was to investigate whether the "no-touch" concept was unique to the field of penile implants and if similar results were obtained in other subspecialties. The other was to examine whether the low infection rate initially obtained with the "no-touch" technique was maintained for a larger number of penile implant procedures. The literature was reviewed for the use of the "no-touch" technique in procedures as varied as orthopedic fracture repair, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, breast reconstruction/augmentation, and penile prosthesis implantation. In addition, a single surgeon's experience with 3342 penile implant surgeries with and without the use of the "no-touch" technique was reviewed. Penile implant infection rate was examined for 3342 consecutive cases between January 2002 and December 2014. Infection of standard technique was compared with rate of infection with antibiotic impregnated devices and starting in 2006 with the addition of the "no-touch" enhancement. Literature review revealed that the "no-touch" technique decreased postoperative cerebral shunt infection from 9.1% to 2.9%. Breast implant reconstruction surgical site infection decreased from 19% to none with the "no-touch" technique. Penile implant infection rate fell from 5.3% in 2002 to 1.99% with the use of antibiotic impregnated devices and to 0.44% with the addition of the "no-touch" technique. Use of a "no-touch" technique involving a mechanical barrier makes a difference in

  4. Eruption of blood: Arteriovenous malformation of the penile urethra

    PubMed Central

    White, Joshua T.; Baverstock, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    While arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a common congenital or post-traumatic abnormality, male genital AVMs are rare and have been described in the scrotum or penis in pediatric patients.1,2 We describe a 34-year-old male presenting with recurrent spontaneous penile urethral bleeding found to have an AVM of the penile urethra. While angiography has traditionally been helpful, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can aid in the diagnosis and characterization of these lesions.3 Each case of male genital AVM provides a unique challenge to manage depending on the presenting complaint, as there are no guidelines to direct treatment.4 PMID:28163810

  5. Clostridium difficile genotypes other than ribotype 078 that are prevalent among human, animal and environmental isolates.

    PubMed

    Janezic, Sandra; Ocepek, Matjaz; Zidaric, Valerija; Rupnik, Maja

    2012-03-27

    Characterising the overlap of C. difficile genotypes in different reservoirs can improve our understanding of possible transmission routes of this pathogen. Most of the studies have focused on a comparison of the PCR ribotype 078 isolated from humans and animals. Here we describe for the first time a comparison of C. difficile genotypes isolated during longer time intervals from different sources including humans, animals and the non-hospital environment. Altogether 786 isolates from time interval 2008-2010 were grouped into 90 PCR ribotypes and eleven of them were shared among all host types and the environment. Ribotypes that were most common in humans were also present in water and different animals (014/020, 002, 029). Interestingly, non-toxigenic isolates were very common in the environment (30.8%) in comparison to humans (6.5%) and animals (7.7%). A high degree of similarity was observed for human and animal isolates with PFGE. In human isolates resistance to erithromycin, clindamycin and moxifloxacin was detected, while all animal isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Our results show that many other types in addition to PCR Ribotype 078 are shared between humans and animals and that the most prevalent genotypes in humans have the ability to survive also in the environment and several animal hosts. The genetic relatedness observed with PFGE suggests that transmission of given genotype from one reservoir to the other is likely to occur.

  6. Bacteriological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from humans and bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Hata, E; Katsuda, K; Kobayashi, H; Nishimori, K; Uchida, I; Higashide, M; Ishikawa, E; Sasaki, T; Eguchi, M

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the epidemiological association and bacteriological characteristics of human and animal Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that pulsotypes (PT) of isolates from bulk milk differed from PT from human isolates, suggesting that there is no epidemiological association between isolates from these 2 sources. The absence of a common PT could result from the lack of contact between the sources. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus from human secretions and S. aureus from bulk milk in Japan consisted of 1 and 2 dominant clusters, respectively, whereas methicillin-susceptible S. aureus from humans consisted of assorted clusters. Isolates belonging to the dominant clusters showed the coagulase serotype, the capsule serotype, detection of exotoxin genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Isolates from bulk milk did not show the penicillin-binding protein 2a gene, and 252 of 275 isolates belonging to the 2 dominant clusters of bulk milk were susceptible to ampicillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, oxacillin, and vancomycin. Moreover, the LukM/LukF'-PV leukotoxin gene was detected in 233 of 275 isolates belonging to the dominant clusters in bulk milk isolates. These results support the hypothesis that a number of factors play a role in the adaptation of S. aureus isolates to specific hosts.

  7. Use of penile extender device in the treatment of penile curvature as a result of Peyronie's disease. Results of a phase II prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gontero, Paolo; Di Marco, Massimiliano; Giubilei, Gianluca; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Pappagallo, Giovanni; Tizzani, Alessandro; Mondaini, Nicola

    2009-02-01

    Pilot experiences have suggested that tension forces exerted by a penile extender may reduce penile curvature as a result of Peyronie's disease. To test this hypothesis in a Phase II study using a commonly marketed brand of penile extender. Peyronie's disease patients with a curvature not exceeding 50 degrees with mild or no erectile dysfunction (ED) were eligible. Fifteen patients were required to test the efficacy of the device assuming an effect size of >0.8, consistent with an "important" reduction in penile curvature. Changes in penile length over baseline and erectile function (EF) domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) constituted secondary end points. Patients were counselled on the use of the penile extender for at least 5 hours per day for 6 months. Photographic pictures of the erect penis and measurements were carried out at baseline, at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months (end of study). The IIEF-EF domain scores were administered at baseline and at the end of study. Treatment satisfaction was assessed at end of study using a nonvalidated institutional 5-item questionnaire. Penile curvature decreased from an average of 31 degrees to 27 degrees at 6 months without reaching the effect size (P = 0.056). Mean stretched and flaccid penile length increased by 1.3 and 0.83 cm, respectively at 6 months. Results were maintained at 12 months. Overall treatment results were subjectively scored as acceptable in spite of curvature improvements, which varied from "no change" to "mild improvement." In our study, the use of a penile extender device provided only minimal improvements in penile curvature but a reasonable level of patient satisfaction, probably attributable to increased penile length. The selection of patients with a stabilized disease, a penile curvature not exceeding 50 degrees, and no severe ED may have led to outcomes underestimating the potential efficacy of the treatment.

  8. Pharmacological studies of human erectile tissue: characteristics of spontaneous contractions and alterations in alpha-adrenoceptor responsiveness with age and disease in isolated tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Christ, G. J.; Maayani, S.; Valcic, M.; Melman, A.

    1990-01-01

    1. The pathophysiology of impotence related to vascular smooth muscle dysfunction in the male corpus cavernosum was studied on human isolated erectile tissue (HET). Studies were conducted on 140 sections of HET obtained from 38 male patients undergoing surgery for implantation of penile prostheses to correct underlying erectile dysfunction. 2. Spontaneous myotonic oscillations were characteristic of greater than 90% of all HET preparations at 37 degrees C. These spontaneous oscillations were markedly attenuated by indomethacin, BW755C, nifedipine, removal of extracellular Ca2+, or lower temperatures (less than or equal to 32 degrees C), but were not sensitive to inhibition by atropine, phentolamine or tetrodotoxin. Our data suggest that the oscillations may, at least in part, result from the generation and/or release of a stable cyclo-oxygenase product and a consequent increase in transmembrane Ca2+ influx. 3. The phenylephrine-induced contractions in HET may be reliably assayed up to 24 h after surgical removal, without significant alterations in the EC50, maximum response (Emax) or slope index of the steady-state concentration-response curve to phenylephrine. 4. The competitive and surmountable nature of the antagonism of phenylephrine-induced contractions by prazosin and yohimbine allowed calculation of antagonist dissociation constants. The calculated pKb values for prazosin and yohimbine, respectively, were 9.47 +/- 0.49 and 5.54 +/- 0.22. The rank order of agonist potency in HET was: noradrenaline = phenylephrine much greater than clonidine. These data indicate the presence of a population of membrane receptors that are predominantly of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1701678

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Turicibacter sanguinis PC909, Isolated from Human Feces ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cuív, Páraic Ó; Klaassens, Eline S.; Durkin, A. Scott; Harkins, Derek M.; Foster, Les; McCorrison, Jamison; Torralba, Manolito; Nelson, Karen E.; Morrison, Mark

    2011-01-01

    While the microbiota resident in the human gut is now known to provide a range of functions relevant to host health, many of the microbial members of the community have not yet been cultured or are represented by a limited number of isolates. We describe here the draft genome sequence of Turicibacter sanguinis PC909, isolated from a pooled healthy human fecal sample as part of the Australian Human Gut Microbiome Project. PMID:21183674

  10. Mechanical reliability of AMS hydraulic penile prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C

    1995-12-01

    The mechanical reliability of AMS hydraulic penile prostheses implanted in 203 patients from April 1985 to June 1995 were evaluated. AMS Hydroflex prosthesis showed the highest incidence of mechanical failure (18.8%; 6/32 patients) during a mean follow-up period of 94.5 (64-117) months. Mean functioning time of the prostheses until malfunction was 50 (0-100) months. Bilateral fractures at junction of rear reservior and inflation chamber were found in 3 patients. AMS Dynaflex had a failure rate of 2.4% (2/85 patients) for an average of 35.3 (1-59) months. One patient showed complete fracture of silicone ball covering the proximal end of rear reservior onto which rear tip extenders are snapped. Regarding 3-piece inflatable prosthesis, AMS 700, AMS 700CX and AMS Ultrex had failure rates of 11.1% (1/9 patients), 10.5% (2/19 patients) and 4.0% (1/25 patients) during a mean follow-up period of 116.4 (103-125), 79.0 (60-94) and 44.4 (22-57) months, respectively. The verified causes of the mechanical failures were a tiny rupture of the cylinder in one case of AMS 700, an incomplete fracture of input tube in one case of AMS 700CX and a pump malfunction in one case of Ultrex. However, none of 33 cases of AMS 700CXM showed mechanical failure for an average of 21.3 (2-43) months. Therefore, AMS 700CXM and Ultrex seem to be very reliable, and the reliability of AMS Dynaflex was much higher than that of AMS Hydroflex. However, the long-term reliability of these devices needs more time to be determined.

  11. Mechanical reliability of AMS hydraulic penile prostheses.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical reliability of AMS hydraulic penile prostheses implanted in 203 patients from April 1985 to June 1995 were evaluated. AMS Hydroflex prosthesis showed the highest incidence of mechanical failure (18.8%; 6/32 patients) during a mean follow-up period of 94.5 (64-117) months. Mean functioning time of the prostheses until malfunction was 50 (0-100) months. Bilateral fractures at junction of rear reservior and inflation chamber were found in 3 patients. AMS Dynaflex had a failure rate of 2.4% (2/85 patients) for an average of 35.3 (1-59) months. One patient showed complete fracture of silicone ball covering the proximal end of rear reservior onto which rear tip extenders are snapped. Regarding 3-piece inflatable prosthesis, AMS 700, AMS 700CX and AMS Ultrex had failure rates of 11.1% (1/9 patients), 10.5% (2/19 patients) and 4.0% (1/25 patients) during a mean follow-up period of 116.4 (103-125), 79.0 (60-94) and 44.4 (22-57) months, respectively. The verified causes of the mechanical failures were a tiny rupture of the cylinder in one case of AMS 700, an incomplete fracture of input tube in one case of AMS 700CX and a pump malfunction in one case of Ultrex. However, none of 33 cases of AMS 700CXM showed mechanical failure for an average of 21.3 (2-43) months. Therefore, AMS 700CXM and Ultrex seem to be very reliable, and the reliability of AMS Dynaflex was much higher than that of AMS Hydroflex. However, the long-term reliability of these devices needs more time to be determined. PMID:8924226

  12. Penile representations in ancient Greek art.

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2013-12-01

    The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

  13. Long-term trends in incidence and survival of penile cancer in France.

    PubMed

    Daubisse-Marliac, Laetitia; Colonna, Marc; Trétarre, Brigitte; Defossez, Gautier; Molinié, Florence; Jéhannin-Ligier, Karine; Marrer, Emilie; Grosclaude, Pascale

    2017-09-09

    Penile cancer is rare, and few population-based studies have described changes in time trend. This study aims to determine whether there has been an evolution in incidence and survival of penile cancer over time in France. Rates of age world-standardized incidence (ASRW) and net survival (NS) between 1989 and 2011 were calculated using data from 16 French cancer registries. Time trend incidence and survival analysis were confined to the eight registries operating throughout the full period. Log-linear Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) in incidence rates. The incidence rate for the most recent period was also calculated from all 16 cancer registries operating during 2009-2011. Human papillomavirus (HPV) exposure was deduced from the morphological code. NS was estimated using the Pohar-Perme estimator of the net cumulative rate. No significant change in incidence was observed between 1989 and 2011 (AAPC: 0.08%; 95%CI: -1.01%; +1.17%). The incidence increased with age. The ASRW in 16 registries operating in 2009-2011 was 0.59 per 100,000 (95%CI: 0.50-0.68). The proportion of cases potentially linked to HPV was nearly 11% and did not change significantly over time. NS decreased with age but did not change over time (around 65% at 5 years). Penile cancer remains rare in France, but survival is still low - probably because of delays in diagnosis and limited improvements in care. International clinical trials are needed to develop care recommendations based on an adequate level of evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fibrotic Protein Expression Profiles in Penile Tissue of Patients With Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Cabrini, Marcelo R.; Sezen, Sena F.; Lagoda, Gwen; Segal, Robert L.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Andreoni, Cassio; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) and related signaling pathway proteins in a large cohort of human penile tissue (HPT) samples. Methods HPT was collected from patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) for erectile dysfunction (ED) and divided into 2 groups: post-radical prostatectomy ED (RP-ED; n=57) or organic ED (O-ED; n=30). HPT from patients undergoing partial penectomy without ED was used as controls (CON; n=6). Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the protein expressions of TGFβ1, thrombospondin 1 (TSP1; an activator of TGFβ1), fibronectin (FN; an extracellular matrix glycoprotein induced by TGFβ1) and a family of transcriptional factors activated by TGFβ1 [Smad2, phospho-Smad2-serine-465/467 (pSmad2), Smad3, phospho-Smad3-serine-423/425 (pSmad3)]. Results Expressions of TGFβ1 and TSP1 were significantly higher in both RP-ED (p<0.05) and O-ED (p<0.05) groups compared to that of the CON group, and were not different between either ED groups. Expressions of Smad2, pSmad2, Smad3, pSmad3 and FN were similar among all groups. Within the RP-ED group, a subgroup analysis showed that time from RP to PPI was related to increased expression of pSmad2 (p<0.05) and previous history of intracavernosal injection was related to increased expression of TGFβ1 (p<0.05) . Conclusion Our results demonstrate that TSP1 and TGFβ1-dependent fibrotic changes occur in penile tissue in patients with ED regardless of etiology. The unchanged expression of the Smad transcriptional factors may be reconciled by a Smad-independent downstream signaling pathway transmitting TGFβ1 signals. PMID:24075003

  15. Benign mast cell hyperplasia and atypical mast cell infiltrates in penile lichen planus in adult men.

    PubMed

    Regauer, Sigrid; Beham-Schmid, Christine

    2014-08-01

    Introduction. Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic cytokine-mediated disease of possible auto-immune etiology. 25% of men have anogenital manifestations. Erosive penile LP causes a scarring phimosis of the foreskin in uncircumcised men. Mast cells as potent immune modulators have been implicated in a number of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, but have not been investigated in LP. Material and Methods. Formalin-fixed tissues of 117 circumcision specimens of adult men affected by LP were evaluated for the extent of mast cell and lymphocyte infiltrates, characterized immunohistochemically with antibodies to CD 3, 4, 8, 20, 21, 25, 30, 117c and human mast cell tryptase. Specimens with dense mast cell infiltrates were analyzed for point mutations of the c-kit gene (D816V). Results. Unaffected skin and modified mucosa of foreskins contained ⟨5 mast cells/mm². The inflammatory infiltrate of LP-lesions displayed ⟨15 mast cells/mm² in 33/117 foreskins, 16-40 mast cells/mm² in 22/117 and ⟩40 mast cells/mm² (average 70, range 40-100) in 62/117 foreskins. Lesional mast cells of 29/117 (24%) foreskins showed aberrant CD25-expression and/or spindled morphology, with 11/29 men having erosive LP, 13/29 a lymphocytic vasculitis and 1/28 a systemic mastocytosis. Neither CD30-expression nor c-kit mutations were identified. Atypical mast cell infiltrates in LP correlated with high disease activity, erosive LP and presence of lymphocytic vasculitis Conclusions. Increased mast cells in penile LP, mostly representing a benign hyperplasia/activation syndrome, suggests them as targets for innovative therapy options for symptomatic LP-patients not responding to corticosteroid therapy. Presently, the biological implications of atypical mast cell infiltrates in penile LP are unknown.

  16. AB023. Penile rehabilitation with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in men after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Post-radical prostatectomy (RP) erectile dysfunction (ED) remains a challenge for the urologist. Despite the improvements in surgical technique, ED occurs between 20% and 90% in patients treated with bilateral nerve-sparing RP. Patient factors, cancer selection, type of surgery, surgical techniques, and surgeon factors represent the key significant contributors to erectile function recovery. The aim of a penile rehabilitation program is to preserve the functional smooth-muscle content of the corpus cavernosum during the neuropraxia period. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are commonly used in rehabilitation programs. In animal models, such an approach could promote erectile function recovery, improve smooth muscle-to-collagen penile ration, reduce penile apoptotic index, preserve penile endothelial function and promote neuroprotection during nerve damage. Despite the strong basic science support from animal studies, discordant results have been reached in humans. The previous randomized trials comparing chronic versus on-demand PDE-5 inhibitors use after RP may be affected by improper patients’ selection in that only men at low risk of postoperative ED were included. These patients would recover erectile function regardless of the type of PDE5 inhibitor administration because of their excellent baseline profile. Prospective, randomized trials have shown a significant benefit of daily PDE5-I administration as compared with placebo in terms of postoperative EF recovery. Patients with intermediate risk of ED after surgery are the best candidates for daily treatment with PDE5 inhibitor after bilateral nerve-sparing RP. The maximal effect of penile rehabilitation may be found in those men with a certain (but not high) degree of systemic and erectile impairment preoperatively. In conclusion, penile rehabilitation could achieve faster and better natural erectile function after RP and should be started as early as possible. Chronic use of PDE5-I may confer the

  17. Characterization of Clostridium difficile isolates from human fecal samples and retail meat from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Jyotika B; Very, Katherine J; Williams, Jen L; Hegarty, John P; Stewart, David B; Lumadue, Jeanne; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2014-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and characterize C. difficile isolates from human stool and retail grocery meat samples. Human stool samples (n=317) were obtained from a clinical laboratory and meat samples (n=303) were collected from 8 retail grocery stores from October 2011 through September 2012 from Centre County of Pennsylvania and were examined for C. difficile. C. difficile was isolated from 16.7% of stool samples (n=317) and 6.9%, 11.5%, 14.5%, and 7.8% of beef (n=72), pork (n=78), turkey (n=76), and chicken (n=77) samples, respectively. Six different toxin gene profiles were detected in all human and meat isolates of C. difficile based on the presence or absence of toxin genes tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA and cdtB. Interestingly, 75.6% of the human C. difficile isolates lacked any deletion in the tcdC gene (139-bp), whereas a 39-bp deletion was observed in 61.3% of the C. difficile strains isolated from meat samples. C. difficile from meat samples were more susceptible to clindamycin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and metronidazole than C. difficile isolates from human samples. Twenty-five different ribotypes were identified in human and meat C. difficile isolates. In conclusion, significant genotypic and phenotypic differences were observed between human and meat isolates of C. difficile; however, a few C. difficile isolates from meat-in particular ribotypes 078, PA01, PA05, PA16, and PA22 with unique profiles (toxin gene, tcdC gene size and antimicrobial resistance profiles)-were similar to human C. difficile isolates.

  18. The spasmogenic effects of vanadate in human isolated bronchus

    PubMed Central

    Cortijo, Julio; Villagrasa, Victoria; Martí-Cabrera, Miguel; Villar, Vicente; Moreau, Joelle; Advenier, Charles; Morcillo, Esteban J; Small, Roger C

    1997-01-01

    Inhalation of vanadium compounds, particularly vanadate, is a cause of occupational bronchial asthma. We have now studied the action of vanadate on human isolated bronchus. Vanadate (0.1 μM–3 mM) produced concentration-dependent, well-sustained contraction. Its −logEC50 was 3.74±0.05 (mean±s.e.mean) and its maximal effect was equivalent to 97.5±4.2% of the response to acetylcholine (ACh, 1 mM).Vanadate (200 μM)-induced contraction of human bronchus was epithelium-independent and was not inhibited by indomethacin (2.8 μM), zileuton (10 μM), a mixture of atropine, mepyramine and phentolamine (each at 1 μM), or by mast cell degranulation with compound 48/80.Vanadate (200 μM)-induced contraction was unaltered by tissue exposure to verapamil or nifedipine (each 1 μM) or to a Ca2+-free, EGTA (0.1 mM)-containing physiological salt solution (PSS). However, tissue incubation with ryanodine (10 μM) in Ca2+-free, EGTA (0.1 mM)-containing PSS reduced vanadate-induced contraction. A series of vanadate challenges was made in tissues exposed to Ca2+-free EGTA (0.1 mM)-containing PSS with the object of depleting intracellular Ca2+ stores. In such tissues cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 10 μM) prevented Ca2+-induced recovery of vanadate-induced contraction.Tissue incubation in K+-rich (80 mM) PSS, K+-free PSS, or PSS containing ouabain (10 μM) did not alter vanadate (200 μM)-induced contraction. Ouabain (10 μM) abolished the K+-induced relaxation of human bronchus bathed in K+-free PSS. This action was not shared by vanadate (200 μM). The tissue content of Na+ was increased and the tissue content of K+ was decreased by ouabain (10 μM). In contrast, vanadate (200 μM) did not alter the tissue content of these ions. Tissue incubation in a Na+-deficient (25 mM) PSS or in PSS containing amiloride (0.1 mM) markedly inhibited the spasmogenic effect of vanadate (200 μM).Vanadate (200 μM)-induced contractions were markedly

  19. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 12 isolated from human and environmental sources.

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, W L; Wilkinson, H W; Benson, R F; Brenner, D J

    1987-01-01

    A Legionella-like organism (strain 570-CO-H [= ATCC 43290]) isolated from the lung tissue of a patient with pneumonia was shown by growth, as well as physiological, serological, and genetic characteristics, to belong to a new Legionella pneumophila serogroup, serogroup 12. Two additional strains were detected with antiserum specific for strain 570-CO-H. These strains were isolated from environmental sources. PMID:3571461

  20. Pantoea intestinalis sp. nov., isolated from the human gut.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Nimonkar, Yogesh; Vaishampayan, Ankita; Mishra, Mrinal; Kumbhare, Shreyas; Josef, Neetha; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2015-10-01

    A novel bacterial strain, 29Y89BT, was isolated from a faecal sample of a healthy human subject. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. Strain 29Y89BT formed cream-coloured colonies 2 mm in diameter on trypticase soy agar and showed optimum growth at 35 °C. Strain 29Y89BT showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pantoea gaviniae A18/07T (98.4 %) followed by Pantoea calida 1400/07T (97.2 %). Multi-locus sequence analysis using atpD (ATP synthase β subunit), gyrB (DNA gyrase), infB (initiation translation factor 2) and rpoB (RNA polymerase β subunit) genes also supported the result of 16S rRNA gene sequence based phylogeny. Strain 29Y89BT showed 62 and 40.7 % DNA-DNA relatedness with P. calida DSM 22759T and P. gaviniae DSM 22758T. Strain 29Y89BT contained C17  : 0 cyclo, C19  : 0 cyclo ω8c, C16 : 0, C14 : 0 and C12 : 0 as predominant fatty acids. In addition, strain 29Y89BT showed physiological and phenotypic differences from its closest relatives P. gaviniae DSM 22758T and P. calida DSM 22759T. The polar lipid profile mainly comprised phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 59.1 mol%. Thus, based on the findings of the current study, strain 29Y89BT showed clear delineations from its closest relatives P. gaviniae DSM 22758T and P. calida DSM 22759T, and is thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pantoea, for which the name Pantoea intestinalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 29Y89BT ( = DSM 28113T = MCC 2554T).

  1. Potassium currents in acutely isolated human hippocampal dentate granule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, H; Clusmann, H; Kral, T; Schramm, J; Heinemann, U; Elger, C E

    1997-01-01

    1. Properties of voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents were investigated in thirty-four dentate granule cells acutely isolated from the resected hippocampus of eleven patients with therapy-refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2. When intracellular Ca2+ was strongly buffered with 11.5 mM EGTA-1 mM Ca2+ in the recording pipette, K+ currents (IK) with a slow activation and biexponential time-dependent decay could be elicited, which showed a threshold for activation around -30 mV. 3. A contribution of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents became apparent with intracellular solution containing 1 mM BAPTA-0.1 mM Ca2+. Superfusion of low-Ca2+ extracellular solution blocked 43% of outward currents in this recording configuration. Outward current components could also be blocked by substituting 5 mM Ba2+ for extracellular Ca2+ (78%), or by application of 100 microM Cd2+ (25%). 4. The Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents could be pharmacologically subdivided into two components. One component was sensitive to 500 microM tetraethylammmonium (TEA; 41%) and 10 nM charybdotoxin (CTX; 47.2%). The blocking effects of 10 nM CTX and 500 microM TEA were not additive, suggesting that both agents block the same conductance. A second, smaller outward current component was blocked by 50 nM apamin (13%). 5. A transient A-type K+ current could be observed in six neurones and showed a fast monoexponential time-dependent inactivation with a steady-state voltage dependence that was distinct from that of IK. The A-type current was blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) but not by TEA or low-Ca2+ solution. 6. We conclude that outward currents in human hippocampal dentate granule cells can be separated into at least four types by their kinetic and pharmacological properties. These include at least one voltage-dependent current similar to those observed in mammalian hippocampal neurones, and two Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents that most probably correspond to SK- and BK-type currents. A classical A-type current

  2. Identification and characterization of Yersinia intermedia isolated from human feces.

    PubMed Central

    Punsalang, A; Edinger, R; Nolte, F S

    1987-01-01

    Since May 1983, our laboratory has, upon request, cultured stools for Yersinia spp. by using direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar and a 3-week cold enrichment procedure. We isolated bacteria identified as Y. intermedia from six adult patients. All isolates were recovered only by the cold enrichment procedure and misidentified as Y. enterocolitica by the API 20E system (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.). Final identification was made on the basis of results obtained with conventional tube biochemical tests. The isolates were tested for the following characteristics associated with virulence in Y. enterocolitica: lack of pyrazinamidase activity, autoagglutinability, presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton plasmid, production of heat-stable enterotoxin, and mouse lethality. All isolates tested had pyrazinamidase activity, and none were autoagglutinable. However, one isolate possessed a 40-megadalton plasmid. None produced enterotoxin or were lethal for mice. Review of the medical histories of the patients revealed that four of the six had diarrhea; however, none had disease typical of that caused by Y. enterocolitica. Our data confirmed the limited pathogenic potential of Y. intermedia and suggested that its isolation was without clinical significance in our patients. Conventional biochemical tests were required for reliable identification of Y. intermedia. PMID:3584421

  3. Prevalence of virulence genes in strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human, bovine and broiler.

    PubMed

    González-Hein, Gisela; Huaracán, Bernardo; García, Patricia; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates of different origins (bovine, broiler meat, human) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of 4 genes cdtB, cst-II, ggt, and virB11, previously linked to virulence such as adherence, invasion, colonization, molecular mimicry, and cytotoxin production. In addition, the isolates were screened for the presence of the global gene regulator csrA linked to oxidative stress responses, biofilms formation, and cell adhesion. All the C. jejuni isolates were positive for cdtB gene. The csrA gene was detected in 100% and 92% of C. jejuni isolates from human and animal origin and the virB11 gene was detected in 7.3% and 3.6% isolates from chicken and human respectively. All isolates from bovine were negative for the virB11 gene. The isolates showed a wide variation for the presence of the remaining genes. Of the C. jejuni recovered from human 83.6%, and 32.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. Out of the isolates from chicken 40% and 5.5% isolates revealed the presence of cst-II, and ggt, respectively. Finally of the C. jejuni isolates from bovine, 97.7% and 22.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. We conclude that the genes of this study circulate among humans and animals. These results led us to hypothesize that the isolates associated with enteritis (cdtB positives) are not selected by environmental or host-specific factors. On the other hand, the high frequencies of csrA gene in C. jejuni show that this gene is important for the survival of C. jejuni in animals and humans.

  4. Prevalence of virulence genes in strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human, bovine and broiler

    PubMed Central

    González-Hein, Gisela; Huaracán, Bernardo; García, Patricia; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates of different origins (bovine, broiler meat, human) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of 4 genes cdtB, cst-II, ggt, and virB11, previously linked to virulence such as adherence, invasion, colonization, molecular mimicry, and cytotoxin production. In addition, the isolates were screened for the presence of the global gene regulator csrA linked to oxidative stress responses, biofilms formation, and cell adhesion. All the C. jejuni isolates were positive for cdtB gene. The csrA gene was detected in 100% and 92% of C. jejuni isolates from human and animal origin and the virB11 gene was detected in 7.3% and 3.6% isolates from chicken and human respectively. All isolates from bovine were negative for the virB11 gene. The isolates showed a wide variation for the presence of the remaining genes. Of the C. jejuni recovered from human 83.6%, and 32.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. Out of the isolates from chicken 40% and 5.5% isolates revealed the presence of cst-II, and ggt, respectively. Finally of the C. jejuni isolates from bovine, 97.7% and 22.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. We conclude that the genes of this study circulate among humans and animals. These results led us to hypothesize that the isolates associated with enteritis (cdtB positives) are not selected by environmental or host-specific factors. On the other hand, the high frequencies of csrA gene in C. jejuni show that this gene is important for the survival of C. jejuni in animals and humans. PMID:24688515

  5. Molecular Characterization of Various Trichomonad Species Isolated from Humans and Related Mammals in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kamaruddin, Mudyawati; Rahman, Md. Moshiur; Arayama, Shunsuke; Hidayati, Anggi P.N.; Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji B.S.; Yoshikawa, Hisao; Kawahara, Ei

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonad species inhabit a variety of vertebrate hosts; however, their potential zoonotic transmission has not been clearly addressed, especially with regard to human infection. Twenty-one strains of trichomonads isolated from humans (5 isolates), pigs (6 isolates), rodents (6 isolates), a water buffalo (1 isolate), a cow (1 isolate), a goat (1 isolate), and a dog (1 isolate) were collected in Indonesia and molecularly characterized. The DNA sequences of the partial 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or 5.8S rRNA gene locus with its flanking regions (internal transcribed spacer region, ITS1 and ITS2) were identified in various trichomonads; Simplicimonas sp., Hexamastix mitis, and Hypotrichomonas sp. from rodents, and Tetratrichomonas sp. and Trichomonas sp. from pigs. All of these species were not detected in humans, whereas Pentatrichomonas hominis was identified in humans, pigs, the dog, the water buffalo, the cow, and the goat. Even when using the high-resolution gene locus of the ITS regions, all P. hominis strains were genetically identical; thus zoonotic transmission between humans and these closely related mammals may be occurring in the area investigated. The detection of Simplicimonas sp. in rodents (Rattus exulans) and P. hominis in water buffalo in this study revealed newly recognized host adaptations and suggested the existence of remaining unrevealed ranges of hosts in the trichomonad species. PMID:25352694

  6. Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis to obtain molecular fingerprints in human and cattle isolates from Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Azuara, Sarai Estrella; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Perea-Jacobo, Ricardo; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Perera-Ortiz, Alejandro; López-Valencia, Gilberto; Bravo, Doris M; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Miranda-Guzmán, Daniela; Flores-López, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael; de la Cruz, Fabiola Lafarga; Stuber, Tod P

    2017-10-01

    To determine genetic diversity by comparing the whole genome sequences of cattle and human Mycobacterium bovis isolates from Baja California. A whole genome sequencing strategy was used to obtain the molecular fingerprints of 172 isolates of M. bovis obtained from Baja California, Mexico; 155 isolates were from cattle and 17 isolates were from humans. Spoligotypes were characterized in silico and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences between the isolates were evaluated. A total of 12 M. bovis spoligotype patterns were identified in cattle and humans. Two predominant spoligotypes patterns were seen in both cattle and humans: SB0145 and SB1040. The SB0145 spoligotype represented 59% of cattle isolates (n=91) and 65% of human isolates (n=11), while the SB1040 spoligotype represented 30% of cattle isolates (n=47) and 30% of human isolates (n=5). When evaluating SNP differences, the human isolates were intimately intertwined with the cattle isolates. All isolates from humans had spoligotype patterns that matched those observed in the cattle isolates, and all human isolates shared common ancestors with cattle in Baja California based on SNP analysis. This suggests that most human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in Baja California is derived from M. bovis circulating in Baja California cattle. These results reinforce the importance of bovine tuberculosis surveillance and control in this region. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi clinical isolates induce human innate immune responses that are not dependent on genotype.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lauren M K; Herkes, Eduard A; Krupna-Gaylord, Michelle A; Oei, Anneke; van der Poll, Tom; Wormser, Gary P; Schwartz, Ira; Petzke, Mary M; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2015-10-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi can be categorized based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis into ribosomal spacer type (RST) 1, 2 and 3. A correlation between RST type and invasiveness of Borrelia isolates has been demonstrated in clinical studies and experimental models, and RST 1 isolates are more likely to cause disseminated disease than RST 3 isolates. We hypothesized that this could partially be due to increased susceptibility of RST 3 isolates to killing by the innate immune system early in infection. Thus, we investigated the interaction of five RST 1 and five RST 3 isolates with various components of the human innate immune system in vitro. RST 3 isolates induced significantly greater upregulation of activation markers in monocyte-derived dendritic cells compared to RST 1 isolates at a low multiplicity of infection. However, RST 1 isolates stimulated greater interleukin-6 production. At a high multiplicity of infection no differences in dendritic cell activation or cytokine production were observed. In addition, we observed no differences in the ability of RST 1 and RST 3 isolates to activate monocytes or neutrophils and all strains were phagocytosed at a comparable rate. Finally, all isolates tested were equally resistant to complement-mediated killing, as determined by dark-field microscopy and a growth inhibition assay. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the RST 1 and 3 isolates showed no distinction in their susceptibility to the various components of the human immune system studied here, suggesting that other factors are responsible for their differential invasiveness.

  8. Supra and infralevator neurovascular pathways to the penile corpora cavernosa

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, G.; DROUPY, S.; QUILLARD, J.; PARADIS, V.; GIULIANO, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of both penile innervation and vascularisation. Eighty-five male cadavers were examined through gross and microscopic anatomical analysis. The pelvic nerve plexus had both parasympathetic and sympathetic roots. It was distributed to the external urethral sphincter giving rise to cavernous nerves which anastomosed in 70% of the cases with the pudendal nerve in the penile root. Accessory pudendal arteries were present in the pelvis in 70% of the cases, anastomosing in 70% of the cases with the cavernous arteries that originated from the pudendal arteries. Transalbugineal anastomoses were always seen between the cavernous artery and the spongiosal arterial network. There were 2 venous pathways, 1 in the pelvis and 1 in the perineum with a common origin from the deep dorsal penile vein. It is concluded that there are 2 neurovascular pathways destined for the penis that are topographically distinct. One is located in the pelvis and the other in the perineum. We were unable to determine the functional balance between these 2 anastomosing pathways but experimental data have shown that they are both involved in penile erection. These 2 neurovascular pathways, above and below the levator ani, together with their anastomoses, form a neurovascular loop around the levator ani. PMID:10634698

  9. Penile Strangulation by self-Placement of Metallic Nut.

    PubMed

    Kyei, M Y; Asante, E K; Mensah, J E; Klufio, G O; Paintsil, A; Gepi-Atee, S; Morton, B; Ampadu, K; Toboh, B

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old male who presented with a 12-hour history of a strangulating 2cm wide by 0.8 cm thick metallic nut on the penile shaft at the peno-scrotal junction. Unlike instances where these metallic objects are placed to enhance sexual stimulation this nut was rather placed to prevent intercourse. A Bosch electric circular grinder was successfully used for removal but a thermal burn to the penile tissues was sustained in the process as the hardness of the nut required a high energy to cut and its thickness did not allow for effective cooling during the process of removal. This resulted in a circumferential denudation of penile skin, a urethro-cutaneous fistula at the peno-scrotal junction and a mid-bulbar urethral stricture. The penile wound was subsequently covered with a split skin graft with a delayed closure of the urethrocutaneous fistula and a buccal mucosa patch urethroplasty for the mid bulbar stricture. Despite the degree of thermal burns sustained the patient has maintained good erectile function with grade four rigidity. The tunica albuginea and the underlying corpora cavernosa have shown a significant degree of resilience to thermal burns compared to the corpora spongiosum where the thermal burns led to a urethrocutaneous fistula.

  10. Penile erosions associated with foscarnet therapy in a child.

    PubMed

    Hick, Ryan W; Prose, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Foscarnet-induced genital erosions have been reported in patients treated for HIV-related herpesvirus infections in adults. We report the case of a boy with penile erosions associated with foscarnet therapy in the setting of umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT).

  11. Priapism secondary to penile metastasis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Laura; López, Alfonso; Gillis, Ann

    2002-01-01

    A 4-year-old, male Newfoundland cross was presented for lethargy, anorexia, and dysuria. The main clinical finding was an enlarged and painful prostate gland. While the dog was hospitalized, priapism developed. Following euthanasia, microscopic examination revealed that a carcinoma involving both bladder and prostate gland had widely metastasized to the penile vasculature. PMID:12125187

  12. Surgical Treatment for 11 Cases of Penile Verrucous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chuanyu, Sun; Ke, Xu; Jie, Zheng; Guowei, Xia; Zujun, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is a rare, well-differentiated and low-grade tumor. The surgeons are deficiently aware about the biological behavior and the clinicopathological characteristic of this disease, which raises difficulties during the treatment. In our present study, the clinical and pathological data of 11 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma, aged between 49 to 85 years was retrospectively analyzed. The tumors exhibited exophytic, papillary, caulifower-like or verrucose lesions of great dimensions measuring between 2 to 10 cm on the penises. The tumors were located at glans in 6 cases, invaded the coronoid sulcus in 4 cases and invaded the shaft of the penis in 1 case. Eight cases underwent partial penectomy, while the other 3 were treated with local excision. The diagnosis of penile verrucous carcinoma was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the specimens with the negative surgical margins in all the cases. Within the period of 12 to 60 months of follow-up, all the patients were disease-free with no case of recurrence and metastasis. The novel knowledge and experience of the treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma will be a useful clinical guide for surgeons in the future. PMID:22346275

  13. [Penile prosthesis for the treatment of erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Atienza Merino, G

    2006-02-01

    The erectile dysfunction is a pathology that, with different degrees of intensity, affects nearly the 20% of the spanish adult men. The treatment is usually performed in stages, reserving the penile prosthesis for when other previous treatments have failed. The aim of this work is to evaluate, according to the state of present knowledge, the effectiveness and security of the penile prosthesis for the treatment of the erectile dysfunction. With this purpose 52 articles were selected, observing a 5 years prosthesis survival of 78-91% and a 3-8% of surgical complications. Mechanical failures and infection percentages were smaller in the semi-rigid prosthesis that in the inflatable ones, with high levels of postoperative satisfaction in patients as well as in their couples, even greater than in other treatments available at the present time. The penile prosthesis implantation must be reserved for the organic erectile dysfunction when previous treatments have failed, evaluating the risk-benefit relation and informing the patient of the results that are hoped to be obtained and of the possible complications that can arise. In view of the great concern of our society with the erectile function and the availability of effective drugs, an increase in the demand of penile prosthesis implantation is predictable in those patients highly motivated, but refractory to the less invasive treatments.

  14. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia--a veiled lesion in genitourinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jaleel, H.; Narouz, N.; Wade, A. A.; Allan, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is a clinically well known condition. However, its diagnosis is often difficult. We present four cases of PIN, seen in our department. Various histological patterns ranging from PIN I to PIN III were noted in these cases. 




 PMID:10754953

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ewnetu, Desalegne; Mihret, Adane

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the isolation and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from chickens and humans in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, were analyzed. Two hundred and ten human and 220 chicken samples were analyzed between October 2007 and April 2008. Seventeen human and 160 chicken Campylobacter species were isolated. The overall prevalence of thermophilic campylobacters was 8% and 72.7% in humans and chickens, respectively. In humans, 94.1% of the isolates were C. jejuni and 5.9% were C. coli. C. jejuni was a predominant species of thermophilic campylobacters in all categories of patients. In chicken, 92.5% of thermophilic campylobacters isolated were C. jejuni and 7.5% were C. coli. Among the 16 isolates of C. jejuni in humans, 18.8%, 12.5%, 12.5%, 18.8%, 25%, and 22.2% were resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively, whereas among the 148 C. jejuni isolates from chicken, 17.5%, 14.9%, 12.2%, and 13.5% were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Among the 12 isolates of C. coli in chicken, 16.6%, 8.3%, and 16.6% were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline, respectively. The overall level of resistance was not significantly different in C. jejuni and C. coli isolates of both humans and poultry. The detection of resistant isolates for commonly used antimicrobials may cause a threat to humans and chickens by limiting therapeutic options.

  16. Comparison of genetic profiles of Campylobacter strains isolated from poultry, pig and Campylobacter human infections in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Kempf, I; Rivoal, K; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2009-02-01

    Five hundred eighty-two Campylobacter isolates (177 from humans, 319 from poultry and 86 from pig) collected in Brittany, France, in 2003 and 2004 were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The number of human cases increased during the hot season, particularly for C. jejuni. Twelve genetic groups out of 27 contained human isolates collected over the two years. These groups had 21.3 and 17.0% of the isolates obtained in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In four cases, isolates from 2003 have the same Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile as isolates from 2004. Six PFGE profiles common to poultry and human isolates were identified. Poultry isolates were found in 47 clusters containing human isolates. Caeca from farms and slaughterhouses accounted for 66% of these isolates, with chicken legs obtained from supermarkets accounting for the other 34%. Pig isolates never clustered with poultry and human isolates. In conclusion, the analysis of the genetic profiles of Campylobacter resulting from human cases showed that there were few identical or genetically close isolates between the human cases declared in 2003 and those declared in 2004. This highlighted a great genetic diversity in the isolates and indicated that it should be difficult to bind the human infections with groups of Campylobacter isolates presenting particular genetic profiles. The Campylobacter isolates obtained from the two animal production systems had different genotypes, and isolates from pigs differed genetically from isolates obtained from humans. We found that 44.6% of human Campylobacter isolates were genetically related to genotypes found in poultry and a part of these campylobacteriosis are due to contact with poultry. This is not particularly surprising in Brittany, a farming area with many animal-rearing farms and slaughterhouses. This work highlights the implication of the poultry in the French human cases and that handling of poultry is also an important risk for Campylobacter

  17. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and human beings

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, Antonnette A.

    1974-01-01

    Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from routine samples of foods and from human beings was investigated. Twenty-one to 26% of 112 strains isolated from raw meat, sausages and poultry and 32-36% of 183 strains isolated from cooked foods, e.g. meat, chicken and frozen seafoods, produced enterotoxins A, B, C, D or E. Staph. aureus isolated from raw meat and chicken less frequently produced enterotoxins A, B, C or E and more frequently enterotoxin D, than those from cooked meat and seafoods. Of the 113 strains isolated from cheese and raw milk 6-11% produced enterotoxin and most of these produced enterotoxin D. Only a few strains isolated from foods produced enterotoxin E. Results of enterotoxin tests on Staph. aureus from human beings resembled those on strains from cooked foods. PMID:4278965

  18. Prediction model for penile prosthesis implantation for erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert L; Camper, Stephen B; Ma, Larry; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-10-01

    Penile prosthesis surgery is indicated based on undesirability, contraindication or ineffectiveness of non-surgical options for erectile dysfunction. This definitive treatment is often delayed after initial diagnosis. Our objective was to develop a prediction tool based on a patient's clinical history to determine likelihood of ultimately receiving a penile prosthesis. This retrospective analysis used claims data from Commercial and Medicare supplemental databases. Inclusion criteria were 18 years of age with 1 year of continuous enrollment at the first diagnosis of erectile dysfunction. Patients' demographics, co-morbidities and erectile dysfunction therapy were derived based on enrollment, medical and prescription histories. The Cox proportional hazards model with stepwise selection was used to identify and quantify (using relative risk) factors associated with a future penile prosthesis implant. Co-morbidities and therapies present prior to the index erectile dysfunction diagnosis were analyzed as fixed covariates. Approximately 1% of the dataset's population (N = 310,303 Commercial, N = 74,315 Medicare, respectively) underwent penile prosthesis implantation during the study period (3928 patients in the overall population: 2405 patients [0.78%] in the Commercial and 1523 patients [2.05%] in the Medicare population). Factors with the greatest predictive strength of penile prosthesis implantation included prostate cancer diagnosis (relative risk: 3.93, 2.29; 95% CI, 3.57-4.34, 2.03-2.6), diabetes mellitus (2.31, 1.23; 2.12-2.52, 1.1-1.37) and previous treatment with first-line therapy (1.39, 1.33; 1.28-1.5, 1.2-1.47) (all P < 0.01). The presence and extent of specific medical history factors at the time of erectile dysfunction diagnosis predict an individual's future likelihood of penile prosthesis. Calculating the likelihood of penile prosthesis implantation based on the weight of these factors may assist clinicians with the definition of a care plan

  19. Staphylococcus aureus host specificity: comparative genomics of human versus animal isolates by multi-strain microarray.

    PubMed

    Sung, Julia M-L; Lloyd, David H; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2008-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogen of several mammalian species, particularly humans and cattle. We aimed to (i) identify S. aureus genes associated with host specificity, (ii) determine the relatedness of human and animal isolates, and (iii) identify whether human and animal isolates typically exchanged mobile genetic elements encoding virulence and resistance genes. Using a well-validated seven-strain S. aureus microarray, we compared 56 UK S. aureus isolates that caused infection in cows, horses, goats, sheep and a camel with 161 human S. aureus isolates from healthy carriers and community acquired infections in the UK. We had previously shown that human isolates are clustered into ten dominant and a few minor lineages, each with unique combinations of surface proteins predicted to bind to human proteins. We found that the animal-associated S. aureus clustered into ten lineages, with 61 % assigned to four lineages, ST151, ST771, ST130 and ST873, that were unique to animals. The majority of bovine mastitis was caused by isolates of lineage ST151, ST771 and ST97, but a few human lineages also caused mastitis. S. aureus isolated from horses were more likely to cluster into human-associated lineages, with 54 % of horse-associated S. aureus assigned to the human clusters CC1, CC8 and CC22; along with the presence of some multi-drug resistant strains, this suggests a human origin. This is the most comprehensive genetic comparison of human versus animal S. aureus isolates conducted, and because we used a whole-genome approach we could estimate the key genes with the greatest variability that are associated with host specificity. Several genes conserved in all human isolates were variable or missing in one or more animal lineages, including the well-characterized lineage specific genes fnbA, fnbB and coa. Interestingly, genes carried on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as chp, scn and sak were less common in animal S. aureus isolates, and bap was not

  20. First full genome sequence of a human enterovirus a120, isolated in madagascar.

    PubMed

    Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-19

    We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined. Copyright © 2014 Razafindratsimandresy et al.

  1. First Full Genome Sequence of a Human Enterovirus A120, Isolated in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Joffret, Marie-Line; Delpeyroux, Francis; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined. PMID:24948760

  2. Isolation of Corynebacterium ureicelerivorans from normally sterile sites in humans.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Natal, M I; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Valdezate, S; Rodríguez-Pollán, R H; Lapeña, S; Cachón, F; Soriano, F

    2009-06-01

    Fifteen Corynebacterium ureicelerivorans isolates were recovered in pure culture from six patients during a five-year period. Five patients had bacteremia and the other was an infection of ascitic fluid. The API Coryne numerical profile obtained corresponds to the profile for C. bovis, while Biolog GP2 identified four out of the six isolates as C. jeikeium. The organisms were molecular identified by 16S rDNA and rpoB. The present report also includes information on new phenotypic tests and, for the first time, antimicrobial susceptibility data of C. ureicelerivorans and their rpoB sequences. All macrolide-resistant isolates presented a constitutive MLS phenotype. This organism must be differentiated from other slow-growing, lipophilic, and urea-splitting corynebacteria.

  3. Intravenous dexmedetomidine for treatment of intraoperative penile erection.

    PubMed

    Guler, Gulen; Sofikerim, Mustafa; Ugur, Fatih; Aksu, Recep; Boyaci, Adem

    2012-04-01

    Intraoperative penile erections following the initiation of either regional or general anaesthesia is rare; however, when it occurs in patients undergoing urologic procedures it may delay, or even cancel the planned surgery. The aetiology is unclear. Various treatments proposed for producing detumescence are not always effective. Use of intracavernous alpha-adrenergic agonists is an efficient and rapid but short-lasting treatment. Furthermore, repeated intracavernous injections of vasoactive drugs may be harmful. Dexmedetomidine is a potent, selective α(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist. In our study, we evaluated the effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative penile erection. Penile erection developed during an endoscopic procedure in 12 more than 7,800 patients. Anaesthesia used was general in 3 patients, epidural in 1 patient and spinal in 8 patients. The erection rigidity was evaluated by the operating urologist. Dexmedetomidine was diluted in normal saline to a concentration of 4 μg/ml. In all of the cases, 0.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine was injected intravenously. The incidence of intraoperative penile erection was 0.34% for general anaesthesia, 0.11% spinal anaesthesia and 1.72% epidural anaesthesia at our institution. Detumescence was achieved in 9 patients during the first 5 min and in one patient at the 9th minute after a single intravenous dexmedetomidine (83%). There was no detumescence in two patients after 15 min (17%). This study demonstrated that 0.5 μg/kg intravenous injection of dexmedetomidine is a simple, effective and safe method for immediate relief of intraoperative penile erection with high success rate.

  4. Penile Microbiota and Female Partner Bacterial Vaginosis in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Hungate, Bruce A.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Ravel, Jacques; Prodger, Jessica L.; Serwadda, David; Kigozi, Godfrey; Galiwango, Ronald M.; Nalugoda, Fred; Keim, Paul; Wawer, Maria J.; Price, Lance B.; Gray, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal bacterial imbalance associated with risk for HIV and poor gynecologic and obstetric outcomes. Male circumcision reduces BV-associated bacteria on the penis and decreases BV in female partners, but the link between penile microbiota and female partner BV is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that having a female partner with BV increases BV-associated bacteria in uncircumcised men. We characterized penile microbiota composition and density (i.e., the quantity of bacteria per swab) by broad-coverage 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 165 uncircumcised men from Rakai, Uganda. Associations between penile community state types (CSTs) and female partner’s Nugent score were assessed. We found seven distinct penile CSTs of increasing density (CST1 to 7). CST1 to 3 and CST4 to 7 were the two major CST groups. CST4 to 7 had higher prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria, such as Mobiluncus and Dialister, than CST1 to 3. Men with CST4 to 7 were significantly more likely to have a female partner with a high Nugent score (P = 0.03). Men with two or more extramarital partners were significantly more likely to have CST4 to 7 than men with only marital partners (CST4 to 7 prevalence ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 2.92). Female partner Nugent BV is significantly associated with penile microbiota. Our data support the exchange of BV-associated bacteria through intercourse, which may explain BV recurrence and persistence. PMID:26081632

  5. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Melatonin on the Isolation of Human Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Solanas, Estela; Sostres, Carlos; Serrablo, Alejandro; García-Gil, Agustín; García, Joaquín J; Aranguren, Francisco J; Jiménez, Pilar; Hughes, Robin D; Serrano, María T

    2015-01-01

    The availability of fully functional human hepatocytes is critical for progress in human hepatocyte transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers and in vitro liver systems. However, the cell isolation process impairs the hepatocyte status and determines the number of viable cells that can be obtained. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and melatonin in the human hepatocyte isolation protocol. Human hepatocytes were isolated from liver pieces resected from 10 patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. Each piece was dissected into 2 equally sized pieces and randomized, in 5 of 10 isolations, to perfusion with 1% DMSO-containing perfusion buffer or buffer also containing 5 mM melatonin using the 2-step collagenase perfusion technique (experiment 1), and in the other 5 isolations to standard perfusion or perfusion including 1% DMSO (experiment 2). Tissues perfused with DMSO yielded 70.6% more viable hepatocytes per gram of tissue (p = 0.076), with a 26.1% greater albumin production (p < 0.05) than those perfused with control buffer. Melatonin did not significantly affect (p > 0.05) any of the studied parameters, but cell viability, dehydrogenase activity, albumin production, urea secretion, and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity were slightly higher in cells isolated with melatonin-containing perfusion buffer compared to those isolated with DMSO. In conclusion, addition of 1% DMSO to the hepatocyte isolation protocol could improve the availability and functionality of hepatocytes for transplantation, but further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved.

  6. Draft Genome of Debaryomyces fabryi CBS 789T, Isolated from a Human Interdigital Mycotic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The yeast genus Debaryomyces comprises species isolated from various natural habitats, man-made environments, and clinical materials. Here, the draft genome of D. fabryi CBS 789T, isolated from a human interdigital mycotic lesion, is presented. PMID:26847909

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium breve CECT 7263, a Strain Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Esther; Villar-Tajadura, M. Antonia; Marín, María; Fontecha, Javier; Requena, Teresa; Arroyo, Rebeca; Fernández, Leónides

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is an actinobacterium frequently isolated from colonic microbiota of breastfeeding babies. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of a B. breve strain isolated from human milk, B. breve CECT 7263. The genome sequence will provide new insights into the biology of this potential probiotic organism and will allow the characterization of genes related to beneficial properties. PMID:22740680

  8. Isolation of Tannin-Degrading Lactobacilli from Humans and Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Ro; Kuroiso, Keiko; Goto, Satoshi; Shimizu, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Lactobacilli with tannase activity were isolated from human feces and fermented foods. A PCR-based taxonomic assay revealed that the isolates belong to Lactobacillus plantarum, L. paraplantarum, and L. pentosus. Additional studies on a range of Lactobacillus species from established culture collections confirmed that this enzymatic activity is a phenotypic property common to these three species. PMID:10877812

  9. Genome Sequences of Three Brucella canis Strains Isolated from Humans and a Dog.

    PubMed

    Viana, Marcus Vinicius Canário; Wattam, Alice Rebecca; Govil Batra, Dhwani; Boisvert, Sébastien; Brettin, Thomas Scott; Frace, Michael; Xia, Fangfang; Azevedo, Vasco; Tiller, Rebekah; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2017-02-23

    Brucella canis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that preferentially infects members of the Canidae family. Here, we report the genome sequencing of two Brucella canis strains isolated from humans and one isolated from a dog host. Copyright © 2017 Viana et al.

  10. Human isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden during half a century (1958-2010).

    PubMed

    Lopez-Valladares, G; Tham, W; Parihar, V Singh; Helmersson, S; Andersson, B; Ivarsson, S; Johansson, C; Ringberg, H; Tjernberg, I; Henriques-Normark, B; Danielsson-Tham, M-L

    2014-11-01

    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n = 932) isolated in Sweden during 1958-2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested.

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinomas: a tissue microarray study of 112 cases.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Cubilla, Antonio L; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J

    2015-05-01

    ARID1A, a member of the chromatin remodeling genes family, has been suggested as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gynecologic malignancies. However, its role in penile cancer has yet to be determined. This study assesses the immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its association with pathologic features, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and previously reported mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers in the same cohort. Four tissue microarrays were constructed from 112 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded penile SCC from Paraguay. Each tumor was sampled 3 to 12 times. ARID1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal rabbit anti-ARID1A (BAF250A) antibody. An H score was calculated in each spot as the sum of expression intensity (0-3+) by extent (0%-100%). Median H score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was observed in all cases, ranging from 3% to 100% of tumor cells (median, 95%). In 96 cases (86%), ARID1A expression was observed in 90% or more tumor cells. HPV DNA was detected in 20 (38%) of 52 analyzed samples. There was a significant trend of association between ARID1A and histologic grade. ARID1A expression was not associated with histologic subtype (P = .61) or HPV status (P = .18). ARID1A expression decreased with decreasing levels of PTEN expression (P = .01). ARID1A was expressed in penile SCC, in most cases at high levels. A significant trend of association was found between histologic grade and ARID1A expression, with lower ARID1A expression, lower histologic grades, and decreased PTEN expression.

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinomas: a tissue microarray study of 112 cases☆

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Sheila F.; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Cubilla, Antonio L.; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary ARID1A, a member of the chromatin remodeling genes family, has been suggested as a novel tumor suppressor gene in gynecologic malignancies. However, its role in penile cancer has yet to be determined. This study assesses the immunohistochemical expression of ARID1A in penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its association with pathologic features, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and previously reported mammalian target of rapamycin pathway markers in the same cohort. Four tissue microarrays were constructed from 112 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded penile SCC from Paraguay. Each tumor was sampled 3 to 12 times. ARID1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal rabbit anti-ARID1A (BAF250A) antibody. An H score was calculated in each spot as the sum of expression intensity (0-3+) by extent (0%-100%). Median H score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was observed in all cases, ranging from 3% to 100% of tumor cells (median, 95%). In 96 cases (86%), ARID1A expression was observed in 90% or more tumor cells. HPV DNA was detected in 20 (38%) of 52 analyzed samples. There was a significant trend of association between ARID1A and histologic grade. ARID1A expression was not associated with histologic subtype (P = .61) or HPV status (P = .18). ARID1A expression decreased with decreasing levels of PTEN expression (P = .01). ARID1A was expressed in penile SCC, in most cases at high levels. A significant trend of association was found between histologic grade and ARID1A expression, with lower ARID1A expression, lower histologic grades, and decreased PTEN expression. PMID:25776029

  13. Penile prosthesis implant: scientific advances and technological innovations over the last four decades.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Despite introduction of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and intracavernosal vasoactive agents, penile prosthesis implant remains a relevant and desired option with sales of penile prostheses continue to stay high, as many men became refractory to medical therapy and/or seeking a more effective and permanent therapy. There are two types of penile prosthesis implants: inflatable and non-inflatable types, and the inflatable penile implants can be subdivided into single-, two- and three-piece devices. Non-inflatable penile prosthesis (non-IPP) may be referred to as semi-rigid rod or malleable prosthesis. IPP is considered a superior option to malleable prosthesis as it produces penile rigidity and flaccidity that closely replicates a normal penile erectile function. Since the introduction of IPP by Scott in 1973, surgical landscape for penile prosthesis implantation has changed dramatically. Advances in prosthesis design, device technologies and surgical techniques have made penile prosthesis implant a more natural, durable and reliable device. The following article reviews the scientific advances and technological innovation in modern penile prosthesis implants over the last four decades.

  14. Penile prosthesis implant: scientific advances and technological innovations over the last four decades

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Despite introduction of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and intracavernosal vasoactive agents, penile prosthesis implant remains a relevant and desired option with sales of penile prostheses continue to stay high, as many men became refractory to medical therapy and/or seeking a more effective and permanent therapy. There are two types of penile prosthesis implants: inflatable and non-inflatable types, and the inflatable penile implants can be subdivided into single-, two- and three-piece devices. Non-inflatable penile prosthesis (non-IPP) may be referred to as semi-rigid rod or malleable prosthesis. IPP is considered a superior option to malleable prosthesis as it produces penile rigidity and flaccidity that closely replicates a normal penile erectile function. Since the introduction of IPP by Scott in 1973, surgical landscape for penile prosthesis implantation has changed dramatically. Advances in prosthesis design, device technologies and surgical techniques have made penile prosthesis implant a more natural, durable and reliable device. The following article reviews the scientific advances and technological innovation in modern penile prosthesis implants over the last four decades. PMID:28217449

  15. Simple, safe, and satisfactory secondary penile enhancement after near-total oncologic amputation.

    PubMed

    Hage, J Joris

    2009-06-01

    After oncologic penile amputation, the penile stump may prove of insufficient length, causing poor personal hygiene and scrotal excoriation and an inability to void while standing. In these cases, penile enhancement by uncovering its subcutaneous parts may offer a simple and satisfactory solution.From August 2003 to August 2007, penile enhancement was performed in 6 patients with a mean age of 63 years (range, 51-69 years) and only 1 cm (range, 0-1.5 cm) of remaining penile length when standing up.The skin on the penile stump was used to recreate a neoglans. The subcutaneously covered penile shaft was dissected deep to Buck's fascia up into the deep suspensory ligament. Ventrally, the bulbospongeous muscle was laid bare over 1 to 2 cm. After resection of pubic subcutaneous fat, the pubic and scrotal skin edges were anchored to the suspensory ligament, bulbospongious fascia, and tunica albuginea. The resulting bare surface of the penile shaft was covered by a skin graft.Partial neoglandular skin slough was observed in 2 patients and could be treated conservatively in both. Penile lymphedema was observed in the 1 patient whom had previously undergone radiotherapy. This was treated by secondary subcutaneous resection and skin tightening. At a mean follow-up of 2.5 years (range, 1-5 years), the cosmetic appearance was acceptable in all patients and their penile length ranged from 7.5 to 9 cm. All were able to void while standing without soiling themselves.

  16. An unusual delayed complication of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation.

    PubMed

    De Siati, Mario; Selvaggio, Oscar; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Liuzzi, Giuseppe; Massenio, Paolo; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Cormio, Luigi

    2013-12-01

    Penile self-injection of various oils is still carried out among Eastern Europe people for penile girth augmentation despite the potential destructive complications of this practice are well known. Penile reactions to such foreign bodies include scarring, abscess formation, ulceration, and even Fournier's gangrene; voiding problems due to mineral oil self-injection have been reported only once. To our knowledge, we describe the first case of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation presenting with acute urinary retention. A 27-year-old Romanian man presented with severe penile pain and acute urinary retention five years after having practiced repeated penile self-injections of paraffin for penile girth augmentation. The penile shaft was massively enlarged, fibrotic and phymotic; urethral catheterization failed due to severe stricture of the proximal pendulum urethra. The patients refused placement of a suprapubic catheter and underwent immediate penile surgical exploration. The scarred tissue between dartos and Buck's fascia and a fibrotic ring occluding the urethra were removed and the penile skin reconstructed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of paraffinoma. The patient resumed normal voiding immediately after catheter removal on second postoperative day; he was very pleased with cosmetic, sexual and voiding results at six weeks, six months and 1 year follow-up. The present report describes a novel complication of penile self-injection for penile girth augmentation. Because of the increasing number of patients seeking penile augmentation, physicians dealing with sexual medicine should pay more attention to such request to prevent the use of non medical treatments that can turn into medical disasters.

  17. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = −0.191 mm per 1 µg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = −0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = −0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = −0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract. PMID:24349678

  18. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = -0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = -0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = -0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = -0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract.

  19. Environmental Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates from Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Adam; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Govan, John R.; Waine, David J.; LiPuma, John J.; Chiarini, Luigi; Dalmastri, Claudia; Henry, Deborah A.; Speert, David P.; Honeybourne, David; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), found in many environments, are associated with clinical infections. Examining diverse species and strains from different environments with multilocus sequence typing, we identified >20% of 381 clinical isolates as indistinguishable from those in the environment. This finding links the natural environment with the emergence of many Bcc infections. PMID:17552100

  20. The isolation of Phoma eupyrena from a human lesion.

    PubMed

    Bakerspigel, A; Lowe, D; Rostas, A

    1981-06-01

    A strain of the soil-borne fungus Phoma eupyrena was isolated from the skin of an 18-month-old boy who had a crusting, erythematous, perioral eruption of one month's duration. Treatment with clotrimazole, 15% zinc oxide paste, and dimethicone resulted in eradication of the fungus and in complete healing of the lesions in eight weeks.

  1. Isolation of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from Human Thoracoabdominal Pus

    PubMed Central

    Loubinoux, Julien; Jaulhac, Benoit; Piemont, Yves; Monteil, Henri; Le Faou, Alain E.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in septic processes, we searched for these bacteria by culture in 100 consecutive abdominal and pleural pus specimens. Twelve isolates were obtained from abdominal samples and were identified by a multiplex PCR as Desulfovibrio piger (formerly Desulfomonas pigra) (seven strains), Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis (four strains), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (one strain). PMID:12624073

  2. Isolation and analysis of discreet human prostate cellular populations

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Douglas W.; Aaron, LaTayia; Henry, Gervaise; Franco, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of lineage tracing in transgenic mouse models has revealed an abundance of subcellular phenotypes responsible for maintaining prostate homeostasis. The ability to use fresh human tissues to examine the hypotheses generated by these mouse experiments has been greatly enhanced by technical advances in tissue processing, flow cytometry and cell culture. We describe in detail the optimization of protocols for each of these areas to facilitate research on solving human prostate diseases through the analysis of human tissue. PMID:26546040

  3. Isolation and Propagation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 in Human Xenografts Implanted in the Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bonnez, William; DaRin, Carrie; Borkhuis, Christine; de Mesy Jensen, Karen; Reichman, Richard C.; Rose, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    We report the isolation and propagation of human papillomavirus type 16, the main agent of cervical cancer, using human foreskin fragments implanted in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The infection produced viral particles, and with each passage of the virus it caused lesions identical to intraepithelial neoplasia, the precursor to carcinoma. PMID:9573300

  4. Antibiotic resistance pattern among the Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Tiwari, Suresh C; Singh, Himanshu

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to study the antibiotic resistance pattern among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat. A total of 37 Salmonella strains isolated from clinical cases (human and animal) and meat during 2008-2009 belonging to 12 serovars were screened for their antimicrobial resistance pattern using 25 antimicrobial agents falling under 12 different antibiotic classes. All the Salmonella isolates tested showed multiple drug resistance varying from 5.40% to 100% with 16 of the 25 antibiotics tested. None of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and metronidazole. Resistance was also observed against clindamycin (94.59%), ampicillin (86.49%), co-trimoxazole (48.65%), colistin (45.94%), nalidixic acid (35.10%), amoxyclave (18.90%), cephalexin, meropenem, tobramycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, amoxicillin (8.10% each), sparfloxacin and streptomycin (5.40% each). Isolates from clinical cases of animals were resistant to as many as 16 antibiotics, whereas isolates from human clinical cases and meat were resistant to 9 and 14 antibiotics, respectively. Overall, 19 resistotypes were recorded. Analysis of multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) indicated that clinical isolates from animals had higher MARI (0.25) as compared to isolates from food (0.22) and human (0.21). Among the different serotypes studied for antibiogram, Paratyhi B isolates, showed resistance to three to 13 antibiotics, whereas Typhimurium strains were resistant to four to seven antibiotics. Widespread multidrug resistance among the isolates from human, animal and meat was observed. Some of the uncommon serotypes exhibited higher resistance rate. Considerable changes in the resistance pattern were also noted. An interesting finding was the reemergence of sensitivity to some of the old antibiotics (chloromphenicol, tetracycline).

  5. Lipooligosaccharide locus classes and putative virulence genes among chicken and human Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Nilsson, Anna; Rautelin, Hilpi; Olsson Engvall, Eva

    2016-11-21

    Campylobacter cause morbidity and considerable economic loss due to hospitalization and post infectious sequelae such as reactive arthritis, Guillain Barré- and Miller Fischer syndromes. Such sequelae have been linked to C. jejuni harboring sialic acid structures in their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) layer of the cell wall. Poultry is an important source of human Campylobacter infections but little is known about the prevalence of sialylated C. jejuni isolates and the extent of transmission of such isolates to humans. Genotypes of C. jejuni isolates from enteritis patients were compared with those of broiler chicken with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to study the patterns of LOS biosynthesis genes and other virulence associated genes and to what extent these occur among Campylobacter genotypes found both in humans and chickens. Chicken and human isolates generally had similar distributions of the putative virulence genes and LOS locus classes studied. However, there were significant differences regarding LOS locus class of PFGE types that were overlapping between chicken and human isolates and those that were distinct to each source. The study highlights the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens and suggests possible patterns of transmission between the two species.

  6. A rare case of metachronous penile and urethral metastases from a rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Christodoulidou, Michelle; Sahdev, Varun; Muneer, Asif; Nigam, Raj

    2015-11-05

    Metastatic lesions in the penis are uncommon in patients with prostate or bladder cancer but penile metastatic lesions from rectal tumours are rare with only 65 cases reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 70-year-old man who developed metastatic lesions within his corpus cavernosum 2 years after being diagnosed and treated for a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum and a year after a wedge resection of an isolated lung metastasis. He proceeded with total penectomy and intraoperatively two skip lesions were also found within the wall of his urethra; histological analysis proved that these were also metastatic lesions. A perineal urethrostomy was formed with the remaining macroscopically healthy urethra. He made a good recovery from his operation and continued his treatment under the oncology team.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157 from broiler and human samples.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Recep; Ongor, Hasan; Cetinkaya, Burhan

    2012-04-01

    There is a lack of information about the role of poultry, specifically chicken, in transmission of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 and subsequent human illnesses. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the presence of E. coli O157 and its virulence genes in various samples collected from broiler chickens and humans in Eastern Turkey by culture, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic relationship between broiler and human isolates was also examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the PCR analysis of sorbitol-negative isolates, E. coli O157 was identified in 0.1% (1/1000) and 0.4% (4/1000) of the liver and cecum samples of broiler chickens, respectively. On the other hand, none of the carcass samples were determined to be positive for E. coli O157. Overall, the results indicated that 12% (3/25) of the flocks were positive for E. coli O157. The differences between the flocks in terms of the positivity were determined to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Ten (2.7%) of 367 human stool samples were also positive for E. coli O157 in the PCR examination. None of the broiler and human E. coli O157 isolates possessed H7, shigatoxins 1-2, or enterohemolysin genes, whereas all the broiler isolates and one of the human isolates were positive for intimin gene. In the PFGE analysis, a total of eight different profiles (four from broiler and four from human isolates) were observed. However, there were no genetic relationships between broiler and human E. coli O157 isolates. It can be concluded that more detailed studies are needed in poultry to better understand the role of these species in the epidemiology of E. coli 0157 infections in humans.

  8. Genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from poultry and humans in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Abay, Secil; Kayman, Tuba; Otlu, Baris; Hizlisoy, Harun; Aydin, Fuat; Ertas, Nurhan

    2014-05-16

    In this study, the investigation of clonal relations between human and poultry Campylobacter jejuni isolates and the determination of susceptibilities of isolates to various antibiotics were aimed. A total of 200 C. jejuni isolates concurrently obtained from 100 chicken carcasses and 100 humans were genotyped by the Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and automated Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR (Rep-PCR, DiversiLab system) methods and were tested for their susceptibility to six antibiotics with disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ciprofloxacin (CI), enrofloxacin (EF) and erythromycin (EM) were evaluated by E-test. By using PFGE 174 of (87.0%) the isolates were able to be typed. The clonally related strains were placed in 35 different clusters and 115 different genotypes were obtained. All of the two hundred isolates could be typed by using Rep-PCR and were divided into 133 different genotypes. One hundred and fourteen clonally related isolates (57.0%) were included in 47 clusters. In disk diffusion test, while the susceptibility rates of AMC and S to human and chicken derived C. jejuni isolates were 84.0%-96.0% and 96.0%-98.0%, respectively, all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin. The resistance rates of human isolates to AMP, NA and TE were detected as 44.0%, 84.0% and 38.0% of the resistances of chicken isolates to these antibiotics were 34.0%, 95.0% and 56.0%, respectively. The MIC values of human and chicken isolates to CI, EF and EM were detected as 81.0-93.0%, 85.0-88.0% and 6.0-7.0%, respectively. The clonal proximity rates were detected between human and poultry origin C. jejuni isolates. The discriminatory power of PFGE and Rep-PCR was similar, with Simpson's diversity indexes of 0.993 and 0.995, respectively. Concordance of the two methods as determined by Adjusted Rand coefficient was 0.198 which showed the low congruence between Rep-PCR and PFGE. High rates of quinolone resistance were detected in

  9. Nisin-Producing Lactococcus lactis Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.

    2004-01-01

    Characterization by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ribotyping, and green fluorescent protein-based nisin bioassay revealed that 6 of 20 human milk samples contained nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis bacteria. This suggests that the history of humans consuming nisin is older than the tradition of consuming fermented milk products. PMID:15294850

  10. Identification of two isolates of Trichinella recovered from humans in France.

    PubMed

    Dick, T A; deVos, T; Dupouy-Camet, J

    1990-02-01

    Two Trichinella isolates from humans in France were characterized using reproductive capacity indices and a combination of molecular methods. The isolate TRLL hybridized with the pig type-specific probe pPra and had pig type restriction profiles and rDNA patterns. It was therefore identified as a domestic or pig type isolate. The isolate CTRD-85 had similarities and differences in restriction profiles and rDNA patterns with both AF1 and Trichinella nelsoni and was identified as a sylvatic type. Pattern comparisons also show that T. nelsoni is similar to variants of the North American sylvatic type.

  11. Human and tick spotted fever group Rickettsia isolates from Israel: a genotypic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Manor, E; Ighbarieh, J; Sarov, B; Kassis, I; Regnery, R

    1992-01-01

    The genomes of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in different geographical areas of Israel (two from ticks and four from humans, obtained over a span of 20 years) were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The human isolates were obtained from patients suffering from rickettsial disease of different degrees of severity. The PCR products obtained with five pairs of oligonucleotide primers (two primer sets derived from the 190-kDa polypeptide gene and three from the 120-kDa polypeptide gene) and cleaved with restriction endonucleases were used to study the Israeli isolates and reference Rickettsia conorii isolates. Subtle differences between the PCR-RFLP patterns of Israeli isolates and the two R. conorii reference strains (Moroccan and no. 7) were seen when the PCR products derived from the 190-kDa gene-derived primer sets were digested. All of the Israeli isolates were identical by RFLP analysis using all of the primer sets. This study showed that the Israeli spotted fever group isolates (from both ticks and humans) were genetically homogeneous by the criteria used in this study, despite the time and location differences in their original isolation, and different as a group from R. conorii. Images PMID:1356998

  12. Comparison of epidemiologically linked Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human and poultry sources.

    PubMed

    Lajhar, S A; Jennison, A V; Patel, B; Duffy, L L

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for most foodborne bacterial infections worldwide including Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of typing methods in the characterization of C. jejuni isolated from clinical diarrhoeal samples (n = 20) and chicken meat (n = 26) in order to identify the source of infection and rank isolates based on their relative risk to humans. Sequencing of the flaA short variable region demonstrated that 86% of clinical isolates had genotypes that were also found in chicken meat. A polymerase chain reaction binary typing system identified 27 different codes based on the presence or absence of genes that have been reported to be associated with various aspects of C. jejuni pathogenicity, indicating that not all isolates may be of equal risk to human health. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of the C. jejuni isolates was classified into six classes (A, B, C, E, F, H) with 10·4% remaining unclassified. The majority (72·7%) of clinical isolates possessed sialylated LOS classes. Sialylated LOS classes were also detected in chicken isolates (80·7%). Antimicrobial tests indicated a low level of resistance, with no phenotypic resistance found to most antibiotics tested. A combination of typing approaches was useful to assign isolates to a source of infection and assess their risk to humans.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus sciuri Strains Isolated from Humans

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Isabel; Sanches, Ilda Santos; Sá-Leão, Raquel; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2000-01-01

    We previously characterized over 100 Staphylococcus sciuri isolates, mainly of animal origin, and found that they all carried a genetic element (S. sciuri mecA) closely related to the mecA gene of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. We also found a few isolates that carried a second copy of the gene, identical to MRSA mecA. In this work, we analyzed a collection of 28 S. sciuri strains isolated from both healthy and hospitalized individuals. This was a relatively heterogeneous group, as inferred from the different sources, places, and dates of isolation and as confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. All strains carried the S. sciuri mecA copy, sustaining our previous proposal that this element belongs to the genetic background of S. sciuri. Moreover, 46% of the strains also carried the MRSA mecA copy. Only these strains showed significant levels of resistance to beta-lactams. Strikingly, the majority of the strains carrying the additional MRSA mecA copy were obtained from healthy individuals in an antibiotic-free environment. Most of the 28 strains were resistant to penicillin, intermediately resistant to clindamycin, and susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Resistance to these last three antibiotics was found in some strains only. The findings reported in this work confirmed the role of S. sciuri in the evolution of the mechanism of resistance to methicillin in staphylococci and suggested that this species (like the pathogenic staphylococci) may accumulate resistance markers for several classes of antibiotics. PMID:10699009

  14. Genomic diversity of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from food and human sources

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, A.; Jamshidi, A.; Razmyar, J.; Rad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a serious pathogen which causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. Spores can survive cooking processes and play an important role in the possible onset of disease. In this study, RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were used to examine the genetic diversity of 49 isolates of C. perfringens type A from three different sources. The results of RAPD-PCR revealed the most genetic diversity among poultry isolates, while human isolates showed the least genetic diversity. Cluster analysis obtained from RAPD-PCR and based on the genetic distances split the 49 strains into five distinct major clusters (A, B, C, D, and E). Cluster A and C were composed of isolates from poultry meat, cluster B was composed of isolates from human stool, cluster D was composed of isolates from minced meat, poultry meat and human stool and cluster E was composed of isolates from minced meat. Further characterization of these strains by using (GTG) 5 fingerprint repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis did not show further differentiation between various types of strains. In conclusion, RAPD-PCR method seems to be very promising for contamination source tracking in the field of food hygiene. PMID:27822244

  15. Characteristics and biotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolated from humans.

    PubMed Central

    Oberhofer, T R

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-two isolates of Pasteurella (48 strains of Pasteurella multocida and 4 strains of atypical Pasteurella) were identified by conventional and commercial test systems. All strains fermented glucose, sucrose, and fructose in purple broth base (Difco Laboratories) with bromocresol purple as indicator, although the atypical Pasteurella produced fermentation reactions that were barely perceptible. Eleven different biotypes were identified by fermentation reactions in maltose, mannitol, xylose, sorbitol, and trehalose media. There was a correlation of biotypes to cat bites, with 61% of cat bite isolates falling into biotype A and B. A correlation of biotype and dog bite isolates was not seen. The choice of medium used for fermentation tests was critical as evidenced by the inability of the organisms to grow in a second commercially purchased preparation of purple broth base. The reliability of commercial test systems in identifying Pasteurella was 81% for Oxi/Ferm (Roche Diagnostics, Div. Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc., Nutley, N.J.), 68% for API (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.), and 11% for Minitek (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, MD.). PMID:7240390

  16. Genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches and human urine.

    PubMed

    Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    Molecular-epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches captured in hospitals and from patient urine was performed, employing randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to investigate the usefulness of RAPD analysis. Four specific bands at positions of 993, 875, 521, and 402 bp were commonly detected using primer 272 in 16 of 45 cockroach-derived strains (35.6%), but not in 21 urine-derived strains. On analysis using primer 208, 4 specific bands at positions of 1,235, 1,138, 1,068, and 303 bp were commonly detected in 15 of the 45 cockroach-derived (33.3%) and 10 of the 21 patient urine-derived (47.6%) strains, in a total of 25 of 66 strains (37.8%). On cluster analysis, 12 (48.5%) and 16 (66.7%) clusters were grouped based on a homology of 89% or greater, using primer 272 and primer 208, respectively, showing that primer 208 was suitable for the confirmation of diversity. Seven patterns were clustered based on 100% homology using either primer, and 6 of these consisted of only cockroach-derived strains. In the individual groups with 100% homology, all strains in the group were isolated at an identical site during the same period. P. aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches showed diverse genotypes suggesting several sources of contamination, indicating the necessity for investigating infection control targeting cockroaches inhabiting hospitals.

  17. Isolation, cultivation and identification of human lung adenocarcinoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, DE-GENG; JIANG, AI-GUI; LU, HUI-YU; ZHANG, LI-XIN; GAO, XIAO-YAN

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that lung cancer is a stem cell disease. However, ideal cell surface markers for isolating stem cells in lung cancer are yet to be identified. In the present study, a cell population with a cluster of differentiation (CD)133+ phenotype was successfully isolated from a single cell suspension of lung adenocarcinoma tissue using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) and enriched in a serum-free culture. In comparison to CD133− cells, the CD133+ cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for self-renewal and differentiation, and a greater potential for in vivo tumor formation, in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. Tumors could be induced in NOD/SCID mice by the transplantation of 102 stem-like cells per mouse. The results of the present study demonstrated that CD133 may serve as a specific cell surface marker for lung adenocarcinoma stem cells, and that MACS combined with serum-free culture is an effective method for isolating and enriching lung cancer stem cells. PMID:25435932

  18. Tolerability and efficacy of newly developed penile injection of cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture on penile enhancement: 6 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yang, D Y; Lee, W K; Kim, S C

    2013-05-01

    Cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture (Lipen-10) is newly developed tissue filler. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tolerability and efficacy of Lipen-10 on penile enhancement. Twenty adult males were included in this study. Lipen-10 was injected into the subcutaneous tissue of the penile shaft. The penile girth and length were measured in the flaccid state, before and 1, 3 and 6 months after the injection. The circumference increased by 3.7±1.2 cm (50.8%, P<0.0001) at penile base, 4.2±0.9 cm (59.0%, P<0.001) at mid-shaft, and 3.8±1.0 cm (53.2%, P<0.0001) at distal shaft and the length increased by 2.3±1.4 cm (63.2%, P<0.001). There was, however, no significant difference between 3 and 6 months post-treatment in girth and length (P-values: 0.796, 0.498, 0.600 and 0.084 for penile base, mid- and distal-shaft and length, respectively). The complications were only one mild asymmetry of penile shape and one 5-mm-sized nodule in the injected site. There were no clinically significant adverse events in all subjects. Penile injection of Lipen-10 led to a significant increase in penile size, showed a good durability and was well-tolerated, without serious adverse events. These results suggest that penile injection of Lipen-10 may be a new effective method for penile enhancement.

  19. Case Report: Delayed presentation of penile epidermoid cyst following reconstruction for Peyronie’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Harrison, Luriel I.; Farhi, Jacques; Costabile, Raymond A.; Smith, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Penile masses are a concerning finding for both patient and clinician upon initial presentation. There is a wide differential for penile masses from the benign (fibrous plaques, cysts, ulcerative lesions, benign penile pearly papules, etc.) to more concerning malignant lesions. A proper history and physical is the first step to determining the etiology of the mass and any future clinical interventions. In this paper, we review a case of a 73-year-old male who is found to have an enlarging mass during work-up for possible placement of inflatable penile prosthesis. Fortunately, the mass was determined to be a benign epidermoid cyst presenting thirty years after reconstruction for Peyronie’s disease using dermal penile skin graft. With this unique presentation we review the scant literature on penile mass formation following Peyronie’s repair. PMID:26835001

  20. A comparative study of strains of salmonella isolated from irrigation waters, vegetables and human infections.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Villanova Ruiz, B.; Cueto Espinar, A.; Bolaños Carmona, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 181 samples of irrigation water from the farmlands of Granada were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. At the same time 849 samples of the crops from these farmlands and of vegetables sold in city market-places were studied. Sampling was done regularly over the period of study which ran from March 1981 to February 1983. Isolates from these sources were compared with 93 salmonellas isolated from human pathological material at various hospitals of the city of Granada from 1979-80, and again from 1981-3. The most commonly isolated serotypes of human origin were S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis. In irrigation waters and in crops, S. typhimurium, S. kapemba, S. london and S. blockley were found to be the most common. The results indicate a close relationship between the isolates from the irrigation waters and those from the vegetables, but their relationship to prevalent human infections is less clear. PMID:3595745

  1. Brucella isolated in humans and animals in Latin America from 1968 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lucero, N E; Ayala, S M; Escobar, G I; Jacob, N R

    2008-04-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of 1933 Brucella strains isolated from humans and animals in Latin American countries between 1968 and 1991 and in Argentina between 1994 and 2006. During the first period 50% of strains were from humans, mainly from Argentina, Mexico and Peru but, while B. suis was the main cause of infection in Argentina, B. melitensis was responsible for most infections in the other countries. In Argentina in the later years, B. melitensis and B. suis were observed more frequently than in the first period while isolation of B. abortus decreased. Of 145 B. melitensis human isolates, eight gave susceptibility patterns to dyes and penicillin and two were B. melitensis biovar 3, which has never been reported in animals. Forty-six percent of B. suis isolated were resistant to dyes which is an atypical feature in this species.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy cows and humans on a farm differ in coagulase genotype.

    PubMed

    Schlegelová, J; Dendis, M; Benedík, J; Babák, V; Rysánek, D

    2003-04-29

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of animal and human infections. The aim of the present study was to test diversity of the populations of S. aureus colonising cattle and humans sharing an infected environment. Eighty-six S. aureus isolates obtained from dairy cows, from people coming into contact with dairy cows on the farm and the other farm personnel were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the coagulase gene. Molecular analyses identified ten polymorphism types with prevalent presentation of type II in isolates from cow's milk and type IV in isolates from people coming into contact with dairy cows on the farm (the cattlemen) and the other farm personnel. Seven further genotypes were identified among the isolates from the cattlemen. The results indicate that the strains dominating in human population did not equate to the causative agents of bovine mastitis.

  3. ERIC-PCR Genotyping of Some Campylobacter jejuni Isolates of Chicken and Human Origin in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Heba A; El Hofy, Fatma I; Ammar, Ahmed M; Abd El Tawab, Ashraf A; Hefny, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    The public health importance of the genus Campylobacter is attributed to several species causing diarrhea in consumers. Poultry and their meat are considered the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis. In this study, 287 samples from chicken (131 cloacal swabs, 39 chicken skin, 78 chicken meat, and 39 cecal parts) obtained from retail outlets as well as 246 stool swabs from gastroenteritis patients were examined. A representative number of the biochemically identified Campylobacter jejuni isolates were identified by real-time PCR, confirming the identification of the isolates as C. jejuni. Genotyping of the examined isolates (n = 31) by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) revealed a high discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR (D = 0.948), dividing C. jejuni isolates of chicken and human origins into 18 profiles and four clusters. The 18 profiles obtained indicated the heterogeneity of C. jejuni. Dendrogram analysis showed that four clusters were generated; all human isolates fell into clusters I and III. These observations further support the existence of a genetic relationship between human and poultry isolates examined in the present study. In conclusion, the results obtained support the speculation that poultry and poultry meat have an important role as sources of infection in the acquisition of Campylobacter infection in humans.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens and humans

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Tricia D; McLaughlin, Wayne; Brown, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial usage is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in both veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens and compare these data with isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Jamaica. Results Eighty-two E. coli strains isolated from faecal samples of broiler chickens and urine and wound specimens of hospitalized patients were analyzed by agar disc diffusion to determine their susceptibility patterns to 11 antimicrobial agents. Tetracycline resistance determinants were investigated by plasmid profiling, transformations, and amplification of plasmid-borne resistance genes. Tetracycline resistance occurred at a frequency of 82.4% in avian isolates compared to 43.8% in human isolates. In addition, among avian isolates there was a trend towards higher resistance frequencies to kanamycin and nalidixic acid (p < 0.05), while a greater percentage of human isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (p < 0.05). Multiple drug resistance was found in isolates from both sources and was usually associated with tetracycline resistance. Tetracycline-resistant isolates from both avian and human sources contained one or several plasmids, which were transmissible by transformation of chemically-competent E. coli. Tetracycline resistance was mediated by efflux genes tetB and/or tetD. Conclusion The present study highlights the prevalence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among healthy broiler chickens in Jamaica, possibly associated with expression of tetracycline resistance. While there did not appear to be a common source for multiple drug resistance in the strains from avian or human origin, the genes encoding resistance are similar. These results suggest that genes are disseminated in the

  5. MLVA16 Typing of Portuguese Human and Animal Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Chambel, Lélia; Tenreiro, Tania; Cardoso, Regina; Flor, Lídia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Pacheco, Teresa; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno; Le Flèche, Philippe; Vergnaud, Gilles; Tenreiro, Rogério; de Sá, Maria Inácia Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological relationship of isolates from different Portuguese geographical regions and to assess the diversity among isolates, the MLVA16Orsay assay (panels 1, 2A and 2B) was performed with a collection of 126 Brucella melitensis (46 human and 80 animal isolates) and 157 B. abortus field isolates, seven vaccine strains and the representative reference strains of each species. The MLVA16Orsay showed a similar high discriminatory power (HGDI 0.972 and 0.902) for both species but panel 1 and 2A markers displayed higher diversity (HGDI 0.693) in B. abortus compared to B. melitensis isolates (HGDI 0.342). The B. melitensis population belong to the “Americas” (17%) and “East Mediterranean” (83%) groups. No isolate belonged to the “West Mediterranean” group. Eighty-five percent of the human isolates (39 in 46) fit in the “East-Mediterranean” group where a single lineage known as MLVA11 genotype 116 is responsible for the vast majority of Brucella infections in humans. B. abortus isolates formed a consistent group with bv1 and bv3 isolates in different clusters. Four MLVA11 genotypes were observed for the first time in isolates from S. Jorge and Terceira islands from Azores. From the collection of isolates analysed in this study we conclude that MLVA16Orsay provided a clear view of Brucella spp. population, confirming epidemiological linkage in outbreak investigations. In particular, it suggests recent and ongoing colonisation of Portugal with one B. melitensis lineage usually associated with East Mediterranean countries. PMID:22905141

  6. Long Chain N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Enterobacter sp. Isolated from Human Tongue Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Chan, Xin-Yue; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    We report the isolation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-producing Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surfaces of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent supernatants extract from Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 activated the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4), suggesting production of long chain AHLs by these isolates. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis of these extracts confirmed that Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 produced a long chain N-acyl homoserine lactone, namely N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of Enterobacter sp., strain T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and N-acyl homoserine lactones production by this bacterium. PMID:23202161

  7. Virulence of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from humans and smoked salmon, peeled shrimp, and their processing environments.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsdóttir, Sigrún; Roche, Sylvie M; Kristinsson, Karl G; Kristjánsson, Már

    2006-09-01

    The virulence of 82 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human cases and cold-smoked salmon, cooked peeled shrimp, and their production environments was assessed using the plaque-forming assay and a subcutaneous inoculation test in mice. These isolates were previously typed using serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The isolates from food-production environments were collected in several surveys over the period of 5 years. Sixty-eight (99.8%) of 69 isolates tested from food and food-processing environments were considered virulent while only one was avirulent. All clinical isolates (13) were highly virulent. The isolates were from raw materials, final products, and the production environment. This stresses the importance of hygiene in the processing environment as well as among personnel to avoid contamination of the final product.

  8. The Isolation and Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    following significant findings/observations: i) 3D culture of human prostate cancer cells with magnetic nanoparticles is not optimal for tumor initiation...include: magnetic nanoparticles and using a stable (non-transformed) human prostate fibroblast cell line as a feeder layer. The former uses inert magnetic... nanoparticles (3D Biosciences, Inc.) that passively diffuse into live cells that then allow 3D growth in an applied magnetic field1. Such a

  9. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-03-23

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Do adult men with untreated ventral penile curvature have adverse outcomes?

    PubMed

    Menon, Vani; Breyer, Benjamin; Copp, Hillary L; Baskin, Laurence; Disandro, Michael; Schlomer, Bruce J

    2016-02-01

    Congenital ventral penile curvature without hypospadias is often treated surgically in childhood. The history of untreated ventral curvature is unknown. This study's aim was to examine the association of untreated ventral penile curvature with various sexual and psychosexual outcomes. An electronic survey was advertised to men older than 18 years on Facebook. Men with possible ventral penile curvature identified themselves by choosing sketches that most closely represented their anatomy. Outcomes assessed included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men, difficulty of intercourse because of curvature, International Prostate Symptom Score, Penile Perception Score, psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. Among participants, 81 out of 684 men (11.8%) reported untreated ventral penile curvature. Participants with self-reported curvature noted more difficulty with intercourse because of curvature (4.5 vs 4.9, p < 0.001), more unhealthy mental days (8.6 vs 6.2, p = 0.02), and increased dissatisfaction with penile self-perception compared with men without reported curvature (8.6 vs 9.5, p < 0.001). Men with possible untreated ventral curvature reported worse penile perception scores, more mentally unhealthy days, and increased difficulty with intercourse secondary to curvature compared with men without curvature. A limitation to this study is selection bias; responses collected were self-reported from survey volunteers. Additionally, the question identifying ventral penile curvature is not validated but performed well in pretesting. Most questions were from validated surveys, but some were modeled after validated surveys and/or contained high face validity types of questions. Men with possible untreated ventral penile curvature reported more dissatisfaction with penile appearance, increased difficulty with intercourse, and more unhealthy mental days. Given high success rates, low complications, and improved outcomes after

  11. Favorable patient reported outcomes after penile plication for wide array of peyronie disease abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Steven J; Morey, Allen F; Adibi, Mehrad; Bagrodia, Aditya

    2013-03-01

    We present patient reported outcomes from our 5-year experience using penile plication to correct a wide variety of Peyronie disease malformations. We reviewed the records of all men who underwent penile plication for Peyronie disease, as performed by one of us (AFM). All patients were treated with tunical plication without penile degloving via a 2 cm longitudinal penile incision regardless of curvature severity or erectile function. A concomitant inflatable penile prosthesis was placed in men with refractory erectile dysfunction. A questionnaire was administered to assess the patient perception of postoperative penile curvature, length, rigidity and adequacy for intercourse. Of 154 treated patients 78 (51%) and 65 (42%) had simple (less than 60 degrees) and complex (biplanar curvature, or curvature 60 degrees or greater) malformation, respectively, while 11 (7%) underwent plication plus inflatable penile prosthesis placement. A total of 132 patients responded to the questionnaire a mean 14 months after surgery. Overall, 96% of patients reported curvature improvement after penile plication, 93% reported erection adequate for sexual intercourse and 95% considered that the overall condition improved after surgery. Despite a significant difference in the number of plication sutures (mean 10 vs 7) and curvature angle correction (mean 57 vs 30 degrees, each p <0.005), self-reported outcomes of complex cases were equivalent to those of simple cases. While 84% of patients had no measureable decrease in stretched penile length, 103 of 154 (78%) reported a perceived penile length reduction after surgery. Penile plication without degloving is effective for correcting a wide variety of Peyronie disease malformations. It can be safely combined with inflatable penile prosthesis placement. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term follow-up of penile curvature correction utilizing autologous albugineal crural graft.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, Carlos Teodósio; Graziottin, Túlio Meyer; Ribeiro, Eduardo; Averbeck, Márcio Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Peyronie 's disease is an acquired connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea with fibrosis and inflammation. The disease produces palpable plaques, penile curvature and pain during erections. Usually it results in impairment of the quality of life. Our objective is to review the long-term results of the albugineal grafting harvested from the penile crura for the treatment of severe penile curvature. Thirty-three patients with Peyronie 's disease were submitted to a grafting with tunica albuginea from the penile crura for the correction of penile curvature. The results were evaluated after 6 months of the procedure. Variables studied were overall satisfaction with the procedure, correction of the penile curvature, erectile capacity, penile shortening and the presence of surgical complications. Mean follow-up after surgery was 41 months. Complete correction of the curvature was achieved in 30 patients (90%). The mean preoperative curvature was 91.8 degrees and median plaque length was 2 cm (ranged from 1 to 5 cm). Three patients (9%) experienced recurrence of the penile curvature and required a new procedure. In 30 men (90%) the procedure fulfilled their expectations and in 31 patients (93.9%) their opinions were that sexual partners were satisfied with the penile correction. Penile shortening or augmentation was referred in 6 (18.1%) and 1 (3%) patient, respectively. Our series demonstrated that grafting the albugineal defect after incision of the tunica albuginea with tunica from the crus for the correction of penile curvature is safe and results in satisfactory straight erections during along-term follow-up.

  13. Do adult men with untreated ventral penile curvature have adverse outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Vani; Breyer, Benjamin; Copp, Hillary L.; Baskin, Laurence; Disandro, Michael; Schlomer, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Congenital ventral penile curvature without hypospadias is often treated surgically in childhood. The history of untreated ventral curvature is unknown. Objective This study’s aim was to examine the association of untreated ventral penile curvature with various sexual and psychosexual outcomes. Study design An electronic survey was advertised to men older than 18 years on Facebook. Men with possible ventral penile curvature identified themselves by choosing sketches that most closely represented their anatomy. Outcomes assessed included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men, difficulty of intercourse because of curvature, International Prostate Symptom Score, Penile Perception Score, psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. Results Among participants, 81 out of 684 men (11.8%) reported untreated ventral penile curvature. Participants with self-reported curvature noted more difficulty with intercourse because of curvature (4.5 vs 4.9, p < 0.001), more unhealthy mental days (8.6 vs 6.2, p = 0.02), and increased dissatisfaction with penile self-perception compared with men without reported curvature (8.6 vs 9.5, p < 0.001). Discussion Men with possible untreated ventral curvature reported worse penile perception scores, more mentally unhealthy days, and increased difficulty with intercourse secondary to curvature compared with men without curvature. A limitation to this study is selection bias; responses collected were self-reported from survey volunteers. Additionally, the question identifying ventral penile curvature is not validated but performed well in pretesting. Most questions were from validated surveys, but some were modeled after validated surveys and/or contained high face validity types of questions. Conclusion Men with possible untreated ventral penile curvature reported more dissatisfaction with penile appearance, increased difficulty with intercourse, and more unhealthy mental

  14. Comparative genotypic and pathogenic examination of Campylobacter concisus isolates from diarrheic and non-diarrheic humans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter concisus is an emerging enteric pathogen, yet it is commonly isolated from feces and the oral cavities of healthy individuals. This genetically complex species is comprised of several distinct genomospecies which may vary in pathogenic potential. Results We compared pathogenic and genotypic properties of C. concisus fecal isolates from diarrheic and healthy humans residing in the same geographic region. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles delineated two main clusters. Isolates assigned to AFLP cluster 1 belonged to genomospecies A (based on genomospecies-specific differences in the 23S rRNA gene) and were predominantly isolated from healthy individuals. This cluster also contained a reference oral strain. Isolates assigned to this cluster induced greater expression of epithelial IL-8 mRNA and more frequently contained genes coding for the zonnula occludins toxin and the S-layer RTX. Furthermore, isolates from healthy individuals induced greater apoptotic DNA fragmentation and increased metabolic activity than those from diarrheic individuals, and isolates assigned to genomospecies A (of which the majority were from healthy individuals) exhibited higher haemolytic activity compared to genomospecies B isolates. In contrast, AFLP cluster 2 was predominated by isolates belonging to genomospecies B and those from diarrheic individuals. Isolates from this cluster displayed greater mean epithelial invasion and translocation than cluster 1 isolates. Conclusion Two main genetically distinct clusters (i.e., genomospecies) were identified among C. concisus fecal isolates from healthy and diarrheic individuals. Strains within these clusters differed with respect to clinical presentation and pathogenic properties, supporting the hypothesis that pathogenic potential varies between genomospecies. ALFP cluster 2 isolates were predominantly from diarrheic patients, and exhibited higher levels of epithelial invasion and

  15. Dermabacter vaginalis sp. nov., isolated from human vaginal fluid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong-Ho; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-04-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, AD1-86T, was isolated from the vaginal fluid of a Korean female and was characterized by a polyphasic approach. The strain was a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative short rod. Colonies were creamy white, of low convexity and 1-2 mm in diameter after growth on DSM 92 agar plates at 37 °C for 2 days. The most closely related strains were Dermabacter hominis DSM 7083T and Helcobacillus massiliensis 6401990T (98.3 and 96.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The isolate grew optimally at 37 °C and pH 7 in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the cell-wall hydrolysates contained ribose, galactose and glucose. The DNA G+C content was 62.6 mol% and the mean DNA-DNA relatedness value of the isolate to D. hominis DSM 7083T was 31.1±3.0% (reciprocal: 48.2±5.3%). The major cellular fatty acids (>10%) were anteiso-C17:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0, and the menaquinones were MK-9, MK-8 and MK-7. The polar lipid profile of strain AD1-86T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two aminolipids and a glycolipid. Data from this polyphasic study indicate that strain AD1-86T represents a novel species of the genus Dermabacter, for which the name Dermabacter vaginalis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is AD1-86T (=KCTC 39585T=DSM 100050T).

  16. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus salivarius PS4, a strain isolated from human milk.

    PubMed

    Martín, Virginia; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a commensal species commonly found in the human oropharyngeal tract. Some strains of this species have been developed for use as oral probiotics, while others have been associated with a variety of opportunistic human infections. Here, we report the complete sequence of strain PS4, which was isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Herpotrichiellaceae sp. UM 238 Isolated from Human Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kee Peng; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Tan, Ruixin; Soo-Hoo, Tuck Soon; Na, Shiang Ling; Hassan, Hamimah; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Herpotrichiellaceae spp. are known to be opportunistic human pathogens. Here, we report the ~28.46-Mb draft genome of Herpotrichiellaceae sp. UM 238, isolated from human skin scraping. The UM 238 genome was found to contain many classes of protective genes that are responsible for fungal adaptation under adverse environmental conditions.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Ochroconis constricta UM 578, Isolated from Human Skin Scraping.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-04-17

    Ochroconis constricta is a soilborne dematiaceous fungus that has never been reported to be associated with human infection. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of strain UM 578, isolated from human skin scraping. The genomic information revealed will contribute to a better understanding of this species.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium ulcerans Strain 04-3911, Isolated from Humans

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marcus V. C.; Benevides, Leandro J.; Mariano, Diego C. B.; Veras, Adooney A. O.; Sá, Pablo H. C.; Rocha, Flávia S.; Vilas Boas, Priscilla C. B.; Soares, Siomar C.; Barbosa, Maria S.; Guiso, Nicole; Badell, Edgar; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Azevedo, Vasco; Ramos, Rommel T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium ulcerans is a pathogenic bacterium infecting wild and domesticated animals; some infection cases in humans have increased throughout the world. The current study describes the draft genome of strain 04-3911, isolated from humans. The draft genome has 2,492,680 bp, 2,143 coding sequences, 12 rRNA genes, and 50 tRNA genes. PMID:27034486

  20. Pseudomonas mendocina, an environmental bacterium isolated from a patient with human infective endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Aragone, M R; Maurizi, D M; Clara, L O; Navarro Estrada, J L; Ascione, A

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina has been isolated from soil and water samples. Although it has been recovered from some human clinical samples, its pathogenic role has not yet been documented. We report the first known case of endocarditis in humans due to P. mendocina. PMID:1624580

  1. Genome Sequence of the Human Abscess Isolate Streptococcus intermedius BA1.

    PubMed

    Planet, Paul J; Rampersaud, Ryan; Hymes, Saul R; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis A; Narechania, Apurva; Daugherty, Sean C; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Desalle, Robert; Ravel, Jacques; Ratner, Adam J

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a human pathogen with a propensity for abscess formation. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of S. intermedius strain BA1, an isolate from a human epidural abscess. This sequence provides insight into the biology of S. intermedius and will aid investigations of pathogenicity.

  2. Genome Sequence of the Human Abscess Isolate Streptococcus intermedius BA1

    PubMed Central

    Planet, Paul J.; Rampersaud, Ryan; Hymes, Saul R.; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis A.; Narechania, Apurva; Daugherty, Sean C.; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; DeSalle, Robert; Ravel, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a human pathogen with a propensity for abscess formation. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of S. intermedius strain BA1, an isolate from a human epidural abscess. This sequence provides insight into the biology of S. intermedius and will aid investigations of pathogenicity. PMID:23405291

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius PS4, a Strain Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Virginia; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Jiménez, Esther; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Fernández, Leónides

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a commensal species commonly found in the human oropharyngeal tract. Some strains of this species have been developed for use as oral probiotics, while others have been associated with a variety of opportunistic human infections. Here, we report the complete sequence of strain PS4, which was isolated from breast milk of a healthy woman. PMID:22843595

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacteroides vulgatus PC510, a Strain Isolated from Human Feces ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cuív, Páraic Ó; Klaassens, Eline S.; Durkin, A. Scott; Harkins, Derek M.; Foster, Les; McCorrison, Jamison; Torralba, Manolito; Nelson, Karen E.; Morrison, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although Bacteroides vulgatus is one of the most prevalent microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract, little is known about the genetic potential of this species. Here, we describe the annotated draft genome sequence of B. vulgatus PC510 isolated from human feces. PMID:21622758

  5. Characterization and complete genome sequence of human coronavirus NL63 isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Heyuan; Cui, Lijin; Xie, Zhengde; Lu, Roujian; Zhao, Li; Tan, Wenjie

    2012-09-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first discovered in Amsterdam in 2004 and was identified as a new human respiratory coronavirus. We here report the first complete genome sequence of HCoV-NL63 strain CBJ 037 isolated in 2008 from a patient with bronchitis in Beijing, China.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from seafood and humans in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abdollahzadeh, Esmail; Ojagh, Seyed Mahdi; Hosseini, Hedayat; Ghaemi, Ezzat Allah; Irajian, Gholamreza; Naghizadeh Heidarlo, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    Fourteen Listeria monocytogenes isolates previously collected from seafood (n = 7) and human patients (n = 7) were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibility against eight common antimicrobials (ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime). A high resistance level to ampicillin, cefotaxime (100%), and pencillin (57% in seafood isolates and 71.4% in clinical isolates) was observed in this study. However, all of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Simultaneous resistance was identified in 4 clinical isolates (57.1%). Genotypic characterization of fish isolates (isolated from three fish species) was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A high diversity among fish isolates was observed. PFGE analyses distinguished the 4 isolates into 4 reproducible pulsotypes. There was no correlation between the antibiograms with pulsotypes. In conclusion, the resistance of seafood isolates to the antibiotics commonly used to treat listeriosis could be a potential health hazard for consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation, growth, and characterization of human renal epithelial cells using traditional and 3D methods.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; McGrath, Helen E; Van Sciver, Robert E; Wang, Dora Bigler; Felder, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    The kidney is a highly heterogeneous organ that is responsible for fluid and electrolyte balance. Much interest is focused on determining the function of specific renal epithelial cells in humans, which can only be accomplished through the isolation and growth of nephron segment-specific epithelial cells. However, human renal epithelial cells are notoriously difficult to maintain in culture. This chapter describes the isolation, growth, immortalization, and characterization of the human renal proximal tubule cell. In addition, we describe new paradigms in 3D cell culture which allow the cells to maintain more in vivo-like morphology and function.

  8. Penile prosthesis implantation in the era of medical treatment for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Montague, Drogo K

    2011-05-01

    Penile prosthesis implantation, the oldest of the modern treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED), still plays an important role despite the advent of less invasive alternatives. For some men with ED, penile prosthesis implantation is the only effective or acceptable treatment. Penile prosthesis implantation remains a viable option in the contemporary management of ED as evidenced by annual penile prosthesis implantation cases in the United States rising from 17,540 in 2000 to 22,420 in 2009. Improvements in prosthesis design and implantation techniques have resulted in significant increases in device survival and patient satisfaction.

  9. Some proposals regarding the organization of the central nervous system control of penile erection.

    PubMed

    McKenna, K E

    2000-07-01

    Recent research on the central nervous control of penile erection is discussed. A framework for this control is based upon principles put forward by Frank Beach regarding the neuroendocrine regulation of male copulatory behavior. The current discussion is focused primarily on a subset, penile erection. The spinal cord contains all the necessary components for the production of penile erection. This requires a multisegmental coordination among penile vasodilator and vasoconstrictor autonomic neurons, pudendal motoneurons responsible for penile rigidity and autonomic neurons which control extra-penile blood flow. Genital sensory stimulation can activate this spinal network. The spinal cord is also under excitatory and inhibitory control from supraspinal sites. Penile erection can be driven by supraspinal input alone and supraspinal control can inhibit the erectile effects of genital stimulation.An important aspect of the CNS control of penile erection is that there are extensive interconnections between most of the brain sites identified to date. Most of the pathways are characterized by reciprocal connections. A large number of the CNS sites also receive genital sensory information. Thus, descending control may itself be modulated by ascending sensory pathways which relay information from the genitalia. This raises the possibility that penile erection may involve a positive feedback system. Receptors for gonadal hormones have been identified throughout the neuraxis. However, strong evidence for the control of male sexual function by gonadal hormones has been identified only for forebrain sites. The functional role of brainstem and spinal gonadal hormone receptors has not yet been clarified.

  10. CRISPR Diversity in E. coli Isolates from Australian Animals, Humans and Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Sheludchenko, Maxim S.; Huygens, Flavia; Stratton, Helen; Hargreaves, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Seventy four SNP genotypes and 54 E. coli genomes from kangaroo, Tasmanian devil, reptile, cattle, dog, horse, duck, bird, fish, rodent, human and environmental water sources were screened for the presence of the CRISPR 2.1 loci flanked by cas2 and iap genes. CRISPR 2.1 regions were found in 49% of the strains analysed. The majority of human E. coli isolates lacked the CRISPR 2.1 locus. We described 76 CRISPR 2.1 positive isolates originating from Australian animals and humans, which contained a total of 764 spacer sequences. CRISPR arrays demonstrated a long history of phage attacks especially in isolates from birds (up to 40 spacers). The most prevalent spacer (1.6%) was an ancient spacer found mainly in human, horse, duck, rodent, reptile and environmental water sources. The sequence of this spacer matched the intestinal P7 phage and the pO111 plasmid of E. coli. PMID:25946192

  11. CRISPR Diversity in E. coli Isolates from Australian Animals, Humans and Environmental Waters.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim S; Huygens, Flavia; Stratton, Helen; Hargreaves, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Seventy four SNP genotypes and 54 E. coli genomes from kangaroo, Tasmanian devil, reptile, cattle, dog, horse, duck, bird, fish, rodent, human and environmental water sources were screened for the presence of the CRISPR 2.1 loci flanked by cas2 and iap genes. CRISPR 2.1 regions were found in 49% of the strains analysed. The majority of human E. coli isolates lacked the CRISPR 2.1 locus. We described 76 CRISPR 2.1 positive isolates originating from Australian animals and humans, which contained a total of 764 spacer sequences. CRISPR arrays demonstrated a long history of phage attacks especially in isolates from birds (up to 40 spacers). The most prevalent spacer (1.6%) was an ancient spacer found mainly in human, horse, duck, rodent, reptile and environmental water sources. The sequence of this spacer matched the intestinal P7 phage and the pO111 plasmid of E. coli.

  12. Isolation of primitive human hematopoietic progenitors on the basis of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Robert W.; Trujillo, Aliana P.; Springer, James B.; Shah, Lisa; Colvin, O. Michael; Ludeman, Susan M.; Smith, Clay

    1999-01-01

    Because hematopoietic stem cells are rich in aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, we developed a fluorescent substrate for ALDH, termed BODIPY aminoacetaldehyde (BAAA), and tested its potential for isolating primitive human hematopoietic cells. A population of cells with low orthogonal light scattering and bright fluorescence intensity (SSCloALDHbr cells) could be readily fractionated from human umbilical cord blood cells costained with BAAA and the multidrug-resistance inhibitor verapamil. The SSCloALDHbr population was depleted of lineage-committed cells, 40–90% pure for CD34+CD38lo/− cells, and enriched 50- to 100-fold for primitive hematopoietic progenitors detected in short- and long-term culture analyses. Together, these observations indicate that fractionating human hematopoietic stem cells on the basis of ALDH activity using BAAA is an effective method for isolating primitive human hematopoietic progenitors. This technique may be useful for isolating stem cells from other tissues as well. PMID:10430905

  13. Implication of Mitochondrial Cytoprotection in Human Islet Isolation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Mendoza-Elias, Joshua E.; Qi, Meirigeng; Harvat, Tricia A.; Ahn, Sang Joon; Lee, Dongyoung; Gutierrez, Diana; Jeon, Hyojin; Paushter, Daniel; Oberholzer, José

    2012-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, success rates in achieving both short- and long-term insulin independence are not consistent, due in part to inconsistent islet quality and quantity caused by the complex nature and multistep process of islet isolation and transplantation. Since the introduction of the Edmonton Protocol in 2000, more attention has been placed on preserving mitochondrial function as increasing evidences suggest that impaired mitochondrial integrity can adversely affect clinical outcomes. Some recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve islet cytoprotection by maintaining mitochondrial function and subsequently to improve islet transplantation outcomes. However, the benefits of mitoprotection in many cases are controversial and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This article summarizes the recent progress associated with mitochondrial cytoprotection in each step of the islet isolation and transplantation process, as well as islet potency and viability assays based on the measurement of mitochondrial integrity. In addition, we briefly discuss immunosuppression side effects on islet graft function and how transplant site selection affects islet engraftment and clinical outcomes. PMID:22611495

  14. Translational neuropharmacology: the use of human isolated gastrointestinal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, GJ; Broad, J; Kung, V; Knowles, CH

    2013-01-01

    Translational sciences increasingly emphasize the measurement of functions in native human tissues. However, such studies must confront variations in patient age, gender, genetic background and disease. Here, these are discussed with reference to neuromuscular and neurosecretory functions of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Tissues are obtained after informed consent, in collaboration with surgeons (surgical techniques help minimize variables) and pathologists. Given the difficulties of directly recording from human myenteric neurones (embedded between muscle layers), enteric motor nerve functions are studied by measuring muscle contractions/relaxations evoked by electrical stimulation of intrinsic nerves; responses are regionally dependent, often involving cholinergic and nitrergic phenotypes. Enteric sensory functions can be studied by evoking the peristaltic reflex, involving enteric sensory and motor nerves, but this has rarely been achieved. As submucosal neurones are more accessible (after removing the mucosa), direct neuronal recordings are possible. Neurosecretory functions are studied by measuring changes in short-circuit current across the mucosa. For all experiments, basic questions must be addressed. Because tissues are from patients, what are the controls and the influence of disease? How long does it take before function fully recovers? What is the impact of age- and gender-related differences? What is the optimal sample size? Addressing these and other questions minimizes variability and raises the scientific credibility of human tissue research. Such studies also reduce animal use. Further, the many differences between animal and human GI functions also means that human tissue research must question the ethical validity of using strains of animals with unproved translational significance. Linked Article BJP published a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology in 2011. To view the articles in this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10

  15. Role of Ultraosonography in Grading of Penile Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavan, B.C.; Sanjay, S.C.; Krishnappa, N.; Sahadev, Ramaiah; V., Satish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Penile fracture is an uncommon and less reported condition. Early diagnosis with corrective measures is the order of the day. Aim: To perform ultrasonography of penis and to understand its role in making correct diagnosis of fractures. To know how it will help surgeon in its management and in adopting a grading system. Materials and Methods: Emergency evaluation of 15 cases of penile fractures by ultrasonography before surgery. Entire penis was scanned all along its length and circumference. Tunica albugenia was seen as white covering of both corpora cavernosa and break in its continuity is seen as wedge shape defect. Hematoma on either sides of tunica was well appreciated. Results: After ultrasonography all patients underwent emergency surgery, the defect in corpora was well appreciated. Repair of tunica albugenia was done which confirmed our findings. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is the modality of choice for quick diagnosis, and no other radiological workup is required before surgery. PMID:26023616

  16. Pellet-free isolation of human and bovine milk extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Blans, Kristine; Hansen, Maria S.; Sørensen, Laila V.; Hvam, Michael L.; Howard, Kenneth A.; Möller, Arne; Wiking, Lars; Larsen, Lotte B.; Rasmussen, Jan T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties. Furthermore, gentle isolation procedures are important for reducing the risk of generating vesicle artefacts, particularly when EV subpopulations are investigated. In this study, we present two isolation approaches accomplished in three steps based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) resulting in effective and reproducible EV isolation from raw milk. The approaches do not require any EV pelleting and can be applied to both human and bovine milk. We show that SEC effectively separates phospholipid membrane vesicles from the primary casein and whey protein components in two differently obtained casein reduced milk fractions, with one of the fractions obtained without the use of ultracentrifugation. Milk EV isolates were enriched in lactadherin, CD9, CD63 and CD81 compared to minimal levels of the EV-marker proteins in other relevant milk fractions such as milk fat globules. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and electron microscopy reveals the presence of heterogeneous sized vesicle structures in milk EV isolates. Lipid analysis by thin layer chromatography shows that EV isolates are devoid of triacylglycerides and presents a phospholipid profile differing from milk fat globules surrounded by epithelial cell plasma membrane. Moreover, the milk EV fractions are enriched in RNA with distinct and diverging profiles from milk fat globules. Collectively, our data supports that successful milk EV isolation can be accomplished in few steps without the use of ultracentrifugation, as the presented isolation approaches based on SEC effectively isolates EV in both human and bovine milk. PMID:28386391

  17. Contribution of Avian Salmonella enterica Isolates to Human Salmonellosis Cases in Constantine (Algeria)

    PubMed Central

    Elgroud, Rachid; Granier, Sophie A.; Marault, Muriel; Kerouanton, Annaëlle; Lezzar, Abdesslem; Bouzitouna-Bentchouala, Chafia; Brisabois, Anne; Millemann, Yves

    2015-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation was carried out on one hundred Salmonella isolates from broiler farms, slaughterhou