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Sample records for isolated rat hepatocytes

  1. Insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Galan, J.; Trankina, M.; Noel, R.; Ward, W. )

    1990-02-26

    This project was designed to determine whether neomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has a significant effect upon the pathways of ligand endocytosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. The pathways studied include receptor-mediated endocytosis and fluid-phase endocytosis. Neomycin causes a dose-dependent acceleration of {sup 125}I-insulin internalization. Since fluid-phase endocytosis can also be a significant factor in {sup 125}I-insulin internalization, lucifer yellow (LY), a marker for fluid-phase endocytosis, was incorporated into an assay similar to the {sup 125}I-insulin internalization procedure. In the presence of 5 mM neomycin, a significant increase in LY uptake was evident at 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml of LY. At 0.8 mg/ml, a decrease in LY uptake was observed. The increased rate of {sup 125}I-insulin internalization in the presence of neomycin was intriguing. Since one action of neomycin is to inhibit phosphoinositidase C, it suggests that the phosphotidylinositol cycle may be involved in ligand internalization by hepatocytes. At low insulin concentrations, receptor-mediated uptake predominates. Fluid-phase uptake can become an important uptake route as insulin concentrations are increased. Since neomycin stimulates fluid-phase endocytosis, it must also be taken into account when measuring ligand internalization.

  2. Mechanisms of the statins cytotoxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Narges; Heidari, Reza; Azarmi, Yadollah; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    Statins are potent drugs, used as lipid-lowering agents in cardiovascular diseases. Hepatotoxicity is one of the serious adverse effects of statins, and the exact mechanism of hepatotoxicity is not yet clear. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the most commonly used statins, that is, atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin toward isolated rat hepatocytes, were evaluated. Markers, such as cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the amount of reduced and oxidized glutathione in the statin-treated hepatocytes, were investigated. It was found that the statins caused cytotoxicity toward rat hepatocytes dose dependently. An elevation in ROS formation, accompanied by a significant amount of lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial depolarization, was observed. Cellular glutathione reservoirs were decreased, and a significant amount of oxidized glutathione was formed. This study suggests that the adverse effect of statins toward hepatocytes is mediated through oxidative stress and the hepatocytes mitochondria play an important role in the statin-induced toxicity.

  3. Toxicity of ethacrynic acid in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Masubuchi, Y; Narimatsu, S; Kobayashi, S; Horie, T

    2002-04-01

    Ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic drug, caused lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation showed a good correlation with the leakage of glutamic-oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) from the hepatocytes. The addition of antioxidants such as N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and promethazine to the isolated rat hepatocyte suspension containing ethacrynic acid prevented the lipid peroxidation and decreased the GOT leakage to some extent. SKF-525A inhibited the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid and decreased the TBARS formation, suggesting that the lipid peroxidation was caused by the oxidative metabolism. The intracellular reduced glutathione markedly decreased in the hepatocyte suspension containing ethacrynic acid and the hepatocellular protein sulfhydryls were decreased, which was negatively correlated with the GOT leakage. Thus the ethacrynic acid-induced hepatotoxicity was found to be related to the lipid peroxidation and the decrease of cellular protein sulfhydryls.

  4. Water and nonelectrolyte permeability of isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Alpini, G.; Garrick, R.A.; Jones, M.J.; Nunes, R.; Tavoloni, N.

    1986-12-01

    We have measured the diffusive permeability coefficients of isolated rat hepatocytes to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, (/sup 14/C)urea, (/sup 14/C)erythritol, (/sup 14/C)mannitol, (/sup 3/H)sucrose, and (/sup 3/H)inulin, employing a technique previously developed for erythrocytes (Redwood et al., J. Gen. Physiol 64:706-729, 1974). Diffusion coefficients for the tracer molecules were measured in packed hepatocytes, supernatant fluid, and intracellular medium (lysed hepatocytes) and were calculated assuming one-dimensional semi-infinite diffusion through a homogeneous medium. By applying the series-parallel pathway model, the following permeability coefficients (10(-5) cm/sec) for the hepatocyte plasma membrane were obtained. /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, 98.6 +/- 18.4; (/sup 14/C)urea, 18.2 +/- 5.3; (/sup 14/C)erythritol, 4.8 +/- 1.6; (/sup 14/C)mannitol, 3.1 +/- 1.4; (/sup 3/H)sucrose, 0; (/sup 3/H)inulin, 0. These results indicate that isolated rat hepatocytes are highly permeable to water and polar nonelectrolytes, when compared with other transporting epithelia. This relatively high cellular permeability is consistent with a model in which nonelectrolyte permeation is via an aqueous pathway of equivalent pore diameter of 8-12 A. The finding that (/sup 14/C)erythritol and (/sup 14/C)mannitol cross the hepatocyte plasma membrane indicates that these molecules enter the bile canaliculus through the transcellular route. Conversely, the failure of (/sup 3/H)sucrose and (/sup 3/H)inulin to permeate the hepatocyte in the isolated condition supports the concept that biliary entry of these large carbohydrates, at least that fraction which cannot be accounted for by a vesicular mechanism, must occur via the transjunctional shunt pathway.

  5. Enzymatic antioxidant defense in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, M; Czeczot, H; Majewska, M; Podsiad, M; Karlik, W; Grono, D; Wiechetek, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of cadmium effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat hepatocytes. The studies were conducted with isolated rat hepatocytes incubated for 1 or 2 hours in a modified (deprived of carbonates with phosphates) Williams' E medium (MWE) in the presence of cadmium chloride (25, 50 and 200 microM). Hepatocytes incubated in the MWE medium without cadmium chloride were used as a control. The application of the modified Williams' E medium allowed for the appearance of cadmium compounds in a soluble form that is indispensable for suitable estimation of its toxic action. There were evaluated markers of the oxidative stress such as: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS)--proportional to the level of lipid peroxidation, concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), selenium--dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). Alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity, the level of TBARS and GSH in isolated rat hepatocytes caused by cadmium in vitro, were shown to depend on the concentration and time of exposure of cells to this metal. The increased level of TBARS and GSH was observed as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of SOD isoenzymes and CAT was increased, whereas GSHPx and GST were decreased. These results indicate that cadmium induces oxidative stress followed by alterations in the cellular antioxidant enzyme system in isolated rat hepatocytes.

  6. Morphology and function of isolated hepatocytes transplanted into rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Mito, M; Ebata, H; Kusano, M; Onishi, T; Saito, T; Sakamoto, S

    1979-12-01

    Hepatocytes isolated by the collagenase digestive method were transplanted into the spleens of syngeneic rats. Morphology and function of the hepatocytes in the spleen were investigated for 12 to 17 months after transplantation. The transplanted hepatocytes proliferated and reconfigured in the spleen without direct perfusion of portal venous blood and with the presence of an intact host liver. Fourteen to 17 months after transplantation, the hepatocytes which had formed a demarcated nodule occupied approximately 40% of the area of the splenic parenchyma without undifferentiation on microscopic examination. However, the weight of the hepatized spleen did not increase beyond the weight of a normal spleen and the weight of the host liver that had normal morphology also did not differ from a normal liver. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrated differentiated cord structure and normal architecture for each heptocyte. Furthermore, the hepatized spleen synthesized albumin and glycogen as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and histochemical studies. Ammonia tolerance and indocyanine green clearance tests revealed functioning hepatocytes in the spleen proper. These results indicate that our experimental model lends itself well to investigations in cell growth mechanism and that hepatocellular transplantation has potential clinical application to compensate for impaired hepatic function.

  7. Molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of chlorpromazine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, Stephanie L; Young, Cheryl; Guzdek, Anna; Zhidkov, Nickholas; O'Brien, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a member of the largest class of first-generation antipsychotic agents, is known to cause hepatotoxicity in the form of cholestasis and hepatocellular necrosis in some patients. The mechanism of CPZ hepatotoxicity is unclear, but is thought to result from reactive metabolite formation. The goal of this research was to assess potential cytotoxic mechanisms of CPZ using the accelerated cytotoxicity mechanism screening (ACMS) technique with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. This study identified CPZ cytotoxicity and inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) to be concentration-dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), including CYP2D1 and 1A2, delayed CPZ cytotoxicity, suggesting a role for CYP activation of CPZ to a toxic metabolite(s) in this model. Metabolism studies also demonstrated glucuronide and glutathione (GSH) requirement for CPZ detoxification in hepatocytes. Inactivating the 2-electron reduction pathway, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), caused a significant increase in hepatocyte susceptibility to CPZ, indicating quinoneimine contribution to CPZ cytotoxicity. Nontoxic concentrations of peroxidase/H(2)O(2) (inflammatory model) increased cytotoxicity in CPZ-treated hepatocytes and caused additional mitochondrial toxicity. Inflammation further depleted GSH and increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels. Results suggest activation of CPZ to reactive metabolites by 2 pathways in hepatocytes: (i) a CYP-catalyzed quinoneimine pathway, and (ii) a peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of CPZ to CPZ radicals.

  8. Bioactivation of fluorotelomer alcohols in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jonathan W; Chan, Katie; Mabury, Scott A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2009-02-12

    Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs; C(x)F(2x+1)C(2)H(4)OH) are intermediates in the production of specialty surfactants and stain-repellent polymers. The magnitude and pathways of human exposure to FTOHs are not understood, but FTOHs are present in ambient air and house dust, and FTOH-derivatives are used in food-contact applications. Previously, electrophilic FTOH biotransformation products were detected in rat hepatocytes, and liver lesions were found in FTOH exposed rodents. To begin elucidating the mechanism(s) of action, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with FTOHs, or FTOH biotransformation products, and toxicity was followed in the presence or absence of carbonyl scavengers and metabolic enzyme modulators. The LC(50) depended on perfluorinated chain length, with the shortest (4:2 FTOH; x=4) and longest (8:2 FTOH; x=8) FTOHs tested being more toxic than the medium chain length FTOH (6:2 FTOH; x=6); a structure-toxicity relationship that is consistent with that for 2-alkenals. For hepatocytes treated with 8:2 FTOH, cytotoxicity corresponded to depletion of glutathione (GSH), increased protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. Aminobenzotriazole, a P450 inhibitor, diminished cytotoxicity for all FTOHs tested, and decreased protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation for 8:2 FTOH, indicating that a biotransformation product was responsible for FTOH cytotoxicity. Preincubation of hepatocytes with hydralazine or aminoguanidine decreased the cytotoxicity of 8:2 FTOH, suggesting that reactive aldehyde intermediates contributed to the cytotoxicity. A GSH-reactive alpha/beta-unsaturated acid metabolite was also more toxic than the corresponding FTOH, and may have contributed to the observed effects. Overall, these results suggested that FTOH toxicity was related to electrophilic aldehydes or acids through GSH depletion and protein carbonylation. Further research into the nature of protein modification is warranted for these current-use fluorochemicals.

  9. Effects of ethanol on antioxidant capacity in isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sien-Sing; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Chiu, Che-Lin; Shieh, Ming-Jer; Lin, Su-Jiun; Yang, Suh-Ching

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate dose-response and time-course of the effects of ethanol on the cell viability and antioxidant capacity in isolated rat hepatocytes. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male adult Wistar rats and seeded into 100-mm dishes. Hepatocytes were treated with ethanol at concentrations between 0 (C), 10 (E10), 50 (E50), and 100 (E100) mmol/L (dose response) for 12, 24, and 36 h (time course). Then, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, glutathione (GSH) level, and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were measured. RESULTS: Our data revealed that LDH leakage was significantly increased by about 30% in group E100 over those in groups C and E10 at 24 and 36 h, The MDA concentration in groups C, E10 and E50 were significantly lower than that in group E100 at 36 h. Furthermore, the concentration of MDA in group E100 at 36 h was significantly higher by 4.5- and 1.7-fold, respectively, than that at 12 and 24 h. On the other hand, the GSH level in group E100 at 24 and 36 h was significantly decreased, by 32% and 28%, respectively, compared to that at 12 h. The activities of GRD and CAT in group E100 at 36 h were significantly less than those in groups C and E10. However, The GPX and SOD activities showed no significant change in each group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that long-time incubation with higher concentration of ethanol (100 mmol/L) decreased the cell viability by means of reducing GRD and CAT activities and increasing lipid peroxidation. PMID:16437627

  10. Cytotoxicity of ortho-phenylphenol in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y; Moldéus, P; Moore, G A

    1992-01-22

    The effects of ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) and its metabolites, phenyl-hydroquinol (PHQ) and phenyl-benzoquinone (PBQ), on isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated. Addition of OPP (0.5-1.0 mM) to cells caused a dose-dependent cell death accompanied by the depletion of intracellular levels of ATP, glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols. GSH loss correlated with the formation of oxidized GSH. In addition, PHQ and especially PBQ (both at 0.5 mM) resulted in acute cell death with rapid depletion of ATP, GSH and protein thiols, and further low doses of PBQ (10-50 microM) elicited serious impairment of mitochondrial functions related to oxidative phosphorylation and Ca fluxes in isolated liver mitochondria. These results indicate that mitochondria are a target for these compounds and that OPP is itself toxic to hepatocytes even when metabolism is inhibited. The loss of cellular GSH and protein thiols accompanied by the impairment of mitochondrial function may be the main mechanisms of cytotoxicity induced by OPP and its metabolites.

  11. Isolated rat hepatocytes acquire iron from lactoferrin by endocytosis.

    PubMed

    McAbee, D D

    1995-10-15

    The iron-binding protein lactoferrin (Lf) present in blood is metabolized by the liver. Isolated rat hepatocytes vigorously endocytose bovine Lf via recycling Ca2(+)-dependent binding sites, but the uptake of iron from Lf by hepatocytes has not been examined. In this study, isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with radiolabelled bovine Lf (125I-Lf, 59Fe-Lf or 125I-59Fe-Lf) at 37 degrees C, then washed at 4 degrees C in the presence of dextran sulphate with either Ca2+ or EGTA to distinguish between total bound and internal radioactivity respectively. Cells internalized 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe at maximal endocytic rates of 1700 and 480 mol.cell-1.s-1 respectively. When Lf was normalized for 59Fe content, these endocytic rates were equivalent and reflected an uptake potential of at least 3400 mol of iron.cell-1.s-1. Cells prebound with 125I-59Fe-Lf to Ca2+(-)dependent sites at 4 degrees C internalized more than 80% of both 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe approx. 6 min after warming to 37 degrees C at similar rates (125I-Lf: k(in) = 0.276 min-1, 59Fe: k(in) = 0.303 min-1). Within 4 h at 37 degrees C, cells had released 25% or less internalized Lf protein in the form of acid-soluble 125I-by-products but retained all the Lf-delivered 59Fe. Hyperosmotic disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked the uptake of 125I-Lf and Lf-bound 59Fe. Incubation of cells with 125I-59Fe-Lf and a 100 molar excess of diferric transferrin reduced slightly the endocytosis of 125I-Lf protein and 59Fe accumulation. Treatment of cells with the ferric chelator desferrioxamine did not alter uptake of 125I-Lf protein or Lf-bound 59Fe, but the ferrous chelator bathophenanthroline disulphonate slightly elevated endocytosis of 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe. These findings indicate that Lf does not release its bound iron before endocytosis. It was concluded from this study that hepatocytes take up iron from Lf at high rates by a process that requires endocytosis of Lf

  12. Inhibition of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis by glucagon in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tijburg, L B; Houweling, M; Geelen, M J; Van Golde, L M

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of isolated rat hepatocytes to glucagon or chlorophenylthio cyclic AMP led to an inhibition of the incorporation of [1,2-14C]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine. Pulse-chase experiments and measurement of the activities of the enzymes involved in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway provided evidence that the inhibitory effect of glucagon on the synthesis de novo of phosphatidylethanolamine was not caused by a diminished conversion of ethanolamine phosphate into CDP-ethanolamine. The observations suggested that the glucagon-induced inhibition of the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine is probably due to a decreased supply of diacylglycerols, resulting in a decreased formation of phosphatidylethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine and diacylglycerols. PMID:2539092

  13. Effects of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Juice on Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Markova, Tsvetelina; Mitcheva, Mitka; Belcheva, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot fruits are very rich in polyphenols – procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Objective: On rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-stepped collagenase perfusion, we investigated the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in two models of liver toxicity caused by (i) metabolic bioactivation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and (ii) tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Isolated rat hepatocytes are a suitable model for hepatotoxicity studies. We determined the main parameters of the functional and metabolic status of rat hepatocytes: Cell viability (measured by trypan blue exclusion) and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These parameters were used to investigate the protective effects of AMFJ in the two toxicity models. The effects of AMFJ were compared with those of silymarin. The cells were treated either with AMFJ or silymarin at increasing concentrations of 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml which were used for measuring of IC50. Results: In both toxicity models – CCl4 and t-BuOOH, AMFJ showed statistically significant cytoprotective and antioxidant activities. AMFJ prevented the loss of cell viability and GSH depletion, decreased LDH leakage and MDA production. The effects of AMFJ at the concentrations of 5, 10, 30, and 50 μg/ml were similar to those of the same concentrations of silymarin, while the effect of the highest AMFJ concentration of 100 μg/ml was higher than that of the same silymarin concentration. The effects were concentration-dependent and more prominent in the t-BuOOH model, compared to those in the CCl4 model. Conclusion: The cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of AMFJ established in this study might be due to its polyphenolic ingredients, which could influence the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of the experimental hepatotoxic substances (CCl4 and t

  14. Homologous beta-adrenergic desensitization in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Michel, B

    1987-01-01

    Hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats have a marked beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Preincubation of these hepatocytes with isoprenaline induced a time-dependent and concentration-dependent desensitization of the beta-adrenergic responsiveness without altering that to glucagon (homologous desensitization). The desensitization was evidenced both in the cyclic AMP accumulation and in the stimulation of ureagenesis induced by the beta-adrenergic agonists. Under the same conditions, preincubation with glucagon induced no desensitization. Propranolol was also unable to induce desensitization, but blocked that induced by isoprenaline. Pertussis-toxin treatment did not alter the homologous beta-adrenergic desensitization induced by isoprenaline. PMID:2825633

  15. Cadmium-2-acetylaminofluorene interaction in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, P; Marion, M; Denizeau, F

    1992-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential, highly toxic heavy metal and a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Evidence exists that Cd can affect parameters which are of great importance in the response towards xenobiotics. However, there is a lack of information about the mechanisms that take place at the cellular and molecular levels upon dual exposure to Cd and other toxins. The purpose of the present work was therefore to examine the biochemical interactions between Cd and a well-known genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) in isolated rat hepatocytes. The cells were incubated for 10 hr with a sub-cytotoxic concentration (0.22 microM) of 109Cd. This was followed by a 10 hr exposure to 1 microM [3H]AAF. Cellular distribution of Cd and 3H was determined. Sephadex G-75 elution profiles of the cytosol showed that Cd was almost entirely associated with the intermediate molecular weight (IMW) fractions containing metallothionein (MT) ( > 80%), and with high molecular weight proteins. In parallel, the highest proportion of 3H was found in the low molecular weight components. Further analysis of IMW fractions by DEAE A-25 anion-exchange chromatography revealed that, in addition to Cd, there was some 3H which coeluted along with MT-I and MT-II isoforms, but preferentially with MT-I. Moreover, Cd pretreatment caused a 1.6-fold increase in MT level, as measured by the silver-saturation assay. Under these conditions, there was a 17% lower binding of 3H to the DNA. This reduced binding was neither accompanied by diminished AAF uptake nor by inhibition of cytochrome P-450 activity. Taken together, these results suggest that Cd exposure has a protective effect against the genotoxicity of AAF. MT, whose synthesis is induced, could play a role in the Cd-AAF interaction through scavenging of reactive metabolites.

  16. Stimulatory effect of the intestinal peptide PHI on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Felíu, J E; Marco, J

    1983-01-01

    The newly isolated peptide PHI provoked a dose-dependent stimulation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes; at 1 microM-PHI, both processes were increased 1.6-fold as compared with basal values. These PHI-mediated effects were accompanied by the activation of glycogen phosphorylase and the inactivation of pyruvate kinase. PHI (1 microM) also caused a 2-fold increase in hepatocyte cyclic AMP. PMID:6312969

  17. Growth hormone acutely increases glucose output by hepatocytes isolated from hypophysectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Blake, W L; Clarke, S D

    1989-08-01

    A series of experiments using isolated rat hepatocytes was carried out to establish rat liver cells in suspension as a physiological model for examining GH responses, and to determine whether acute recombinant bovine GH (rbGH) treatment of rat liver cells increased glucose output and/or suppressed fatty acid synthesis from lactate. Rat liver cells were isolated by collagenase perfusion and incubated in short-term (less than 60 min) suspension. The amount of insulin, glucagon or vasopressin required to elicit a half-maximal response was within the physiological range of the circulating hormone. When hepatocytes from normal rats were acutely (less than 60 min) treated with 0, 0.1, 10, 100 or 1000 nmol rbGH/l, rates of hepatocyte glucose output and fatty acid synthesis were unaltered. In addition, acute rbGH treatment (1000 nmol/l) did not alter hepatocyte responsiveness to insulin or vasopressin. However, acute rbGH treatment of hepatocytes isolated from hypophysectomized rats significantly (P less than 0.05) increased the rate of glucose output twofold and moderately (P less than 0.10) enhanced fatty acid synthesis. The accelerated rate of glucose production was not accompanied by an increase in the amount of glycogen phosphorylase-a. The observations with liver cells from hypophysectomized rats are not consistent with a GH receptor-transducing mechanism which is like that for glucagon (adenylate cyclase-linked) or insulin (tyrosine kinase-linked).

  18. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats

    SciTech Connect

    Finan, A.; Cleary, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either (1-/sup 14/C) glucose or (6-/sup 14/C) glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO/sub 2/ production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats.

  19. Hepatocytes isolated from preneoplastic rat livers are resistant to ethacrynic acid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Parody, Juan Pablo; Alvarez, María de Luján; Quiroga, Ariel; Ronco, María Teresa; Francés, Daniel; Carnovale, Cristina; Carrillo, María Cristina

    2007-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics, such as several cytostatic drugs, through conjugation with glutathione (GSH). Pi class GST (GST P) liver expression is associated with preneoplastic and neoplastic development and contributes with the drug-resistance phenotype. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is an inhibitor of rat and human GSTs. In addition, causes lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the role of the GST/GSH system in isolated hepatocytes from preneoplastic rat livers (IP) in the presence of EA and determine the cytotoxicity of the drug. Our results showed a resistance to the toxic effects of EA since viability and cellular integrity values were significantly higher than control. Initial levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in IP hepatocytes were significantly higher than control and the presence of EA did not change TBARS levels. A diminution in intracellular total GSH was observed by treating with EA isolated hepatocytes from both groups. However, the initial total GSH levels were higher in IP hepatocytes than in control. Immunoblotting analysis showed the presence of GST P in IP animals only. Although alpha and mu class isoenzymes levels were decreased in IP hepatocytes, total GST activity was 1.5-fold higher than in control. In addition, multidrug-resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) showed fivefold decreased levels in IP hepatocytes. In conclusion, increased total GSH, decreased Mrp2 levels and the presence of GST P could be critical factors involved in the resistance of IP hepatocytes to the toxicity of EA.

  20. Glucose production and storage in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Olivieri, M.C.; Dragland-Meserve, C.J.; Parker Botelho, L.H.

    1987-05-01

    The rates of glucose production and storage were compared in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus insulin-resistant diabetic rats. A single low-dose (40 mg/kg) IV injection of streptozotocin to 250 g rats resulted in a Type II diabetic animal model which was hyperglycemic with normal insulin levels. Addition of 8 mM /sup 14/C-lactate and 2 mM pyruvate to hepatocytes resulted in a linear increase in total glucose production (/sup 14/C-glucose and unlabeled glucose) and incorporation into glycogen measured over 120 min. The rate of gluconeogenesis was estimated from the production of /sup 14/C-glucose and the rate of glycogenolysis was estimated from the production of unlabeled glucose in cells incubated in the presence or absence of /sup 14/C-labelled substrate. There was not significant difference in total glucose production in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus diabetic rats, however, the contribution from gluconeogenesis versus glycogenolysis was significantly different. Following a 1 h incubation of cells from normal rats, 42% of the total glucose production was due to gluconeogenesis and 58% was due to glycogenolysis. In cells from diabetic rats, 83% of total glucose production was from gluconeogenesis and 17% from glycogenolysis. Also, incubation with /sup 14/C-lactate/pyruvate resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in /sup 14/C-glucose incorporation into glycogen in hepatocytes isolated from normal rats compared to diabetic rats. These data suggest that alterations occur in the rate-limiting enzymes responsible for glucose production and storage in hepatocytes isolated from a rat model of insulin-resistant Type II diabetes.

  1. Interaction of propionate and carnitine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Brass, E.P.; Beyerinck, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    Propionate (P) and its metabolic products P-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA can disrupt normal hepatic metabolism. Carnitine (Cn) has been shown to partially restore cellular function in the presence of P. This effect of Cn may result from removal of propionyl groups as propionylcarnitine (P-Cn). The present study examined the kinetics of P-Cn formation in rat hepatocytes, and the consequence of P-Cn formation on P and Cn metabolism. /sup 14/C-P was converted to CO/sub 2/, glucose and P-Cn in the hepatocyte system. Increasing concentrations of Cn up to 10.0 mM increased P-Cn formation from P without affecting CO/sub 2/ or glucose formation. Thus, 10.0 mM Cn increased total P metabolism by 40%. Metabolism of P was associated with a decrease in Cn concentration and an increase in short chain acylcarnitines (SCCn). In the absence of added Cn, 60 min incubation with P decreased Cn from 6.8 to 2.5 ..mu..M with a corresponding increase in SCCn. This effect of P to deplete free Cn was not seen to the same degree with butyrate in place of P. Similar increases in the formation of SCCn in the presence of P at the expense of free Cn were seen when the incubation Cn concentration was increased to 50 ..mu..M or 150 ..mu..M. HPLC methodologies to study specific acylcarnitines demonstrated the accumulation of large amounts of P-Cn in the incubations containing P, accounting for the depletion of free Cn.

  2. Sodium-independent, bicuculline-sensitive (/sup 3/H)GABA binding to isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Minuk, G.Y.; Bear, C.E.; Sarjeant, E.J.

    1987-05-01

    To determine whether hepatocytes possess specific receptor sites for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a potent amino acid neurotransmitter, (/sup 3/H)GABA, was added to sodium-free suspensions of Percoll-purified hepatocytes derived from collagenase-perfused rat livers under various experimental conditions and in the presence or absence of specific GABA receptor agonists (muscimol) and antagonists (bicuculline). The effects of GABA, muscimol, and bicuculline on hepatocyte resting membrane potentials were also determined. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA to hepatocytes was a consistent finding. GABA-hepatocyte interactions were reversible and temperature dependent. Muscimol and bicuculline inhibited binding in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 30 nM and 50 microM, respectively), whereas strychnine (1.0-100 microM), a nonspecific central nervous system stimulant, had no appreciable effect. Both GABA and muscimol (100 microM) caused significant hyperpolarization of hepatocyte resting membrane potential (delta PD 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 22.2 +/- 16.2 mV, respectively, means +/- SD, P less than 0.0005). Bicuculline (100 microM) inhibited the effect of muscimol (P less than 0.05). The results of this study suggest that specific GABA receptor sites exist on the surface of isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of such sites raises the possibility that, in addition to adrenergic and cholinergic innervation, hepatic function may be influenced by GABA-ergic neurotransmitter mechanisms.

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of polyphenolic compounds from Cynara scolymus against CCl4 toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Adzet, T; Camarasa, J; Laguna, J C

    1987-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes of some polyphenolic compounds, such as cynarin, isochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, and two organic acids, caffeic and quinic, from Cynara scolymus, is tested. Only cynarine and, to a lesser extent, caffeic acid showed cytoprotective action. The possible relationship between the molecular structure and the protective effect found is discussed.

  4. Protective effect of metallothionein on cadmium toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Din, W S; Frazier, J M

    1985-01-01

    An isolated rat hepatocyte preparation was used to study the cellular toxicity of cadmium and the protective effects of metallothionein on cadmium-induced toxicity. Exposure of primary suspension cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes to Cd2+ (0-35.7 microM) for 15 min resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the synthesis of cellular proteins during a subsequent 6 h incubation. Such inhibition could not be correlated with cellular lethality or gross membrane damage. Pre-induction of metallothionein in hepatocytes by zinc treatment in vivo of donor rats protected hepatocytes in vitro from cadmium-induced inhibition of protein synthesis. The protective effects in zinc-pre-induced hepatocytes are not due to alterations in the level of total cellular cadmium, but could be accounted for by the redistribution of intracellular cadmium in the presence of high levels of zinc-metallothionein. The data suggest that metallothionein exerts its protective effect by a kinetic detoxification mechanism, i.e. a decrease in reactive intracellular cadmium. PMID:4052053

  5. Inhibition of oxidative metabolism by propionic acid and its reversal by carnitine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Brass, E P; Fennessey, P V; Miller, L V

    1986-01-01

    The present study was designed to study the interaction of propionic acid and carnitine on oxidative metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes. Propionic acid (10 mM) inhibited hepatocyte oxidation of [1-14C]-pyruvate (10 mM) by 60%. This inhibition was not the result of substrate competition, as butyric acid had minimal effects on pyruvate oxidation. Carnitine had a small inhibitory effect on pyruvate oxidation in the hepatocyte system (210 +/- 19 and 184 +/- 18 nmol of pyruvate/60 min per mg of protein in the absence and presence of 10 mM-carnitine respectively; means +/- S.E.M., n = 10). However, in the presence of propionic acid (10 mM), carnitine (10 mM) increased the rate of pyruvate oxidation by 19%. Under conditions where carnitine partially reversed the inhibitory effect of propionic acid on pyruvate oxidation, formation of propionylcarnitine was documented by using fast-atom-bombardment mass spectroscopy. Propionic acid also inhibited oxidation of [1-14C]palmitic acid (0.8 mM) by hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. The degree of inhibition caused by propionic acid was decreased in the presence of 10 mM-carnitine (41% inhibition in the absence of carnitine, 22% inhibition in the presence of carnitine). Propionic acid did not inhibit [1-14C]palmitic acid oxidation by hepatocytes isolated from 48 h-starved rats. These results demonstrate that propionic acid interferes with oxidative metabolism in intact hepatocytes. Carnitine partially reverses the inhibition of pyruvate and palmitic acid oxidation by propionic acid, and this reversal is associated with increased propionylcarnitine formation. The present study provides a metabolic basis for the efficacy of carnitine in patients with abnormal organic acid accumulation, and the observation that such patients appear to have increased carnitine requirements ('carnitine insufficiency'). PMID:3790065

  6. Cytotoxic effects of postharvest fungicides, ortho-phenylphenol, thiabendazole and imazalil, on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y; Moore, G A

    1995-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), imazalil (IMZ) and thiabendazole (TBZ) on isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated. Addition of IMZ and OPP to hepatocyte suspensions at a concentration of 0.75 mM resulted in acute cell death, accompanied by depletion of intracellular levels of glutathione and protein thiols. Both compounds rapidly depleted cellular ATP which consistently preceded the cell death. In addition, the cell death caused by IMZ was accompanied by the accumulation of intracellular malondialdehyde, indicating initiation of lipid peroxidation. During a 3-hr incubation period, TBZ did not affect these parameters. In mitochondria isolated from rat liver, IMZ and OPP impaired respiration related to oxidative phosphorylation. Based on these results, the order of toxic potency is IMZ > OPP > TBZ.

  7. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on isolated rat hepatocytes. Inhibition of protein and lipoprotein secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Gravela, E; Albano, E; Dianzani, M U; Poli, G; Slater, T F

    1979-01-01

    The effects of carbon tetrachloride on protein and lipoprotein secretion, and on lipid peroxidation, have been investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes. It was found that although the free-radical scavenger promethazine completely suppressed the increased peroxidation produced by carbon tetrachloride, it had no effect on the inhibitory action of carbon tetrachloride on lipoprotein secretion. In consequence, the latter effect of carbon tetrachloride does not appear to be mediated through a peroxidative stage. PMID:444227

  8. Prevention of cyanide-induced cytotoxicity by nutrients in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Niknahad, H; Khan, S; Sood, C; O'Brien, P J

    1994-10-01

    The effects of various glycolytic substrates and keto acid metabolites on the cytotoxic effects of cyanide have been studied with isolated rat hepatocytes. The sequence of cytotoxic events with 2 mM cyanide was an immediate inhibition of respiration followed by ATP depletion. Disruption of the plasma membrane occurred when 85-90% of ATP levels had been depleted. Fructose, dihydroxyacetone, glyceraldehyde, pyruvate, and alpha-ketoglutarate prevented cyanide-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Hepatocyte respiration was also restored by all except fructose. Fructose, unlike the others, also did not prevent cytotoxicity if added 30-60 min after cyanide. Fluoride, an inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme enolase, prevented protection by fructose but not dihydroxyacetone or glyceraldehyde, suggesting that dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde are cytoprotective by trapping cyanide, thereby restoring cytochrome oxidase activity and cellular ATP levels. Fructose, on the other hand, may be cytoprotective by supplying ATP through glycolysis. Hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats were five- to sevenfold more susceptible to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, all glycogenic and gluconeogenic amino acids and carbohydrates were cytoprotective against cyanide toxicity toward fasted hepatocytes, suggesting that cellular energy stores determine their resistance to cyanide.

  9. Multiple requirements for glycogen synthesis by hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, K S; Lardy, H A

    1985-11-25

    Glycogen synthesis from various combinations of substrates by hepatocytes isolated from rats fasted 24 h was studied. As reported by Katz et al. (Katz, J., Golden, S., and Wals, P. A. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 73, 3433-3437), appreciable rates of glycogen synthesis occurred only in the presence of gluconeogenic precursors and one of several amino acids, which includes L-glutamine. L-Leucine had negligible effects on glycogen synthesis from 20 mM dihydroxyacetone and/or 15 mM glucose when L-glutamine was not added to the medium. In the presence of 10 mM L-glutamine, L-leucine greatly increased glycogen synthesis from these substrates. alpha-Ketoisocaproate was ineffective, as was oleate. NH4Cl depressed glycogen synthesis from 10 mM glucose plus 20 mM dihydroxyacetone in the absence of added L-glutamine and enhanced that in its presence, but these effects were weak compared to those of L-leucine. The amino acid analogues L-norvaline and L-norleucine exerted effects that were similar to those exerted by L-leucine. Under all conditions studied, cycloheximide and puromycin inhibited net glycogen synthesis. Cycloheximide did not stimulate gluconeogenesis from dihydroxyacetone, or phosphorylase in hepatocytes from starved rats, or glycogenolysis in hepatocytes from fed rats. Puromycin, however, stimulated glycogenolysis in hepatocytes from fed rats. Glycogen synthesis from 20 mM dihydroxyacetone proceeds with a pronounced initial lag phase that can be shortened by incubation of cells with glutamine plus leucine before addition of dihydroxyacetone. Concurrent measurements of glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase, and gluconeogenesis under different conditions reveal that in addition to protein synthesis, activation of glycogen synthase, which must occur to allow glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes, requires a second component which can be satisfied by addition of dihydroxyacetone or fructose to the cells.

  10. Relationship between metabolism and cytotoxicity of ortho-phenylphenol in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y; Tayama, S; Moore, G A; Moldéus, P

    1992-04-01

    The relationship between the metabolism and the cytotoxicity of ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) was investigated using isolated rat hepatocytes. Addition of OPP (0.5-1.0 mM) to the hepatocytes caused a dose-dependent toxicity; 1.0 mM OPP caused acute cell death. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with SKF-525A (50 microM, a non-toxic level) enhanced the cytotoxicity of OPP (0.5-1.0 mM). This was accompanied by inhibition of OPP metabolism. Conversely, OPP at low concentrations (0.5 or 0.75 mM) was converted sequentially to phenyl-hydroquinol (PHQ) and then to glutathione (GSH) conjugate in the cells. The concentrations of both metabolites, especially PHQ-GSH conjugate, were very low in hepatocytes exposed to 1.0 mM OPP alone as well as with SKF-525A. The cytotoxicity induced by 0.5 mM OPP was enhanced by the addition of diethylmaleate (1.25 mM) which continuously depletes cellular GSH. In contrast, additions to hepatocytes of 5 mM of dithiothreitol, cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine or ascorbic acid significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity induced by 0.5 mM PHQ; GSH, protein thiols and ATP losses were also prevented. Further, these compounds depressed the rate of PHQ loss in hepatocyte suspensions. These results indicate that the acute cytotoxicity caused by the high dose (1.0 mM) of OPP is associated with direct action by the parent compound; at low doses (0.5-0.75 mM) of OPP, the prolonged depletion of GSH in hepatocytes enhances the cytotoxicity induced by PHQ.

  11. [Permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte plasma membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide].

    PubMed

    Kuleshova, L G; Gordienko, E A; Kovalenko, I F

    2014-01-01

    We have studied permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different hypertonicity of a cryoprotective medium. The permeability coefficient of hepatocyte membranes κ1 for DMSO molecules was shown to be the differential function of osmotic pressure between a cell and an extracellular medium. Ten-fold augmentation of DMSO concentration in the cryoprotective medium causes the decrease of permeability coefficients κ1 probably associated with the increased viscosity in membrane-adjacent liquid layers as well as partial limitations appeared as a result of change in cell membrane shape after hepatocyte dehydration. We have found out that in aqueous solutions of NaCl (2246 mOsm/l) and DMSO (2250 mOsm/l) the filtration coefficient L(p) in the presence of a penetrating cryoprotectant (L(pDMSO) = (4.45 ± 0.04) x 10(-14) m3/Ns) is 3 orders lower compared to the case with electrolyte (L(pNaCl) = (2.25 ± 0.25) x 10(-11) m3/Ns). This phenomenon is stipulated by the cross impact of flows of a cryoprotectant and water at the stage of cell dehydration. Pronounced lipophilicity of DMSO, geometric parameters of its molecule as well as the presence of large aqueous pores in rat hepatocyte membranes allow of suggesting the availability of two ways of penetrating this cryoprotectant into the cells by non-specific diffusion through membrane lipid areas and hydrophilic channels.

  12. Metabolism of isometamidium in hepatocytes isolated from control and inducer-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Boibessot, I; Tettey, J N A; Skellern, G G; Watson, D G; Grant, M H

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the metabolism and mechanism of action of the trypanocide, isometamidium (ISM), the major drug used for prophylaxis of trypanosomiasis. We have investigated its metabolism and distribution in isolated rat hepatocytes using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Two putative metabolites were formed, which were proposed to be a mono-acetyl derivative and an oxidized metabolite (SII). This is the first demonstration of the hepatic metabolism of ISM, as previous in vivo studies were hampered by dose-limiting toxicity and insensitive analytical methods. The intrinsic fluorescence of the drug enabled its intracellular uptake to be followed by CLSM. It is taken up rapidly into the nucleolus, nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum within 5 min, and retained in the nucleus for at least 24 h. Persistent binding of ISM to cellular macromolecules may contribute to its prophylactic effect in vivo. Pretreatment of rats with 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbitone (PB) or the widely used pyrethroid pesticide, deltamethrin, resulted in an increase in metabolism of ISM to the proposed SII after 1 h incubation with hepatocytes. 3-methylcholanthrene was the most potent inducer, causing a maximal 19.5-fold induction of SII formation after exposure of hepatocytes to ISM for 1 h compared with formation by control hepatocytes. In comparison, at the 1 h timepoint deltamethrin pre-treatment caused a 10.2-fold induction, and PB only 8.2 fold.

  13. Activation of phospholipase A/sub 2/ by carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Glende, E.A. Jr.; Pushpendran, C.K.

    1986-03-05

    Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid or /sup 14/C-ethanolamine for 1 hour in order to label cellular lipids. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis indicated that of the /sup 3/H-arachidonate incorporated into lipid nearly 50% was found in phosphatidylcholine and 15% in phosphatidylethanolamine. /sup 14/C-Ethanolamine was incorporated mainly into phosphatidylethanolamine. Hepatocytes labeled as such were exposed to carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) for periods up to 4 hours. Phospholipase A/sub 2/ of these preparations was determined by measuring either the release of /sup 4/H-arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids prelabeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonic acid or measuring the formation of /sup 14/C-lysophosphatidylethanolamine from cellular lipids prelabeled with /sup 14/C-ethanolamine. Through the use of hexane-partition extraction and thin-layer chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte lipid extracts it was found that CCl, stimulated phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity in a dose- an time-dependent manner. Carbon tetrachloride at concentrations of 0.23 to 1.3 mM produced a 1.4- to 5.3-fold increase in phospholipase activity which was initiated within 30 to 60 minutes of incubation at 37/sup 0/. A role for phospholipase activation as a secondary mechanism of CCl/sub 4/-induced hepatocyte injury is proposed.

  14. Protective effects of Sesamum indicum extract against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Shahraki, Jafar; Tafreshian, Saman; Salimi, Ahmad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium toxicity is a challenging problem to human and animal health with no entirely understanding cytotoxic mechanisms. Previous studies in vanadium toxicity showed involvement of oxidative stress in isolated liver hepatocytes and mitochondria via increasing of ROS formation, release of cytochrome c and ATP depletion after incubation with different concentrations (25-200 µM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Sesamum indicum seed extract (100-300 μg/mL) against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that quite similar to Alpha-tocopherol (100 µM), different concentrations of extract (100-300 μg/mL) protected the isolated hepatocyte against all oxidative stress/cytotoxicity markers induced by vanadium in including cell lysis, ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and lysosomal membrane damage. Besides, vanadium induced mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic interaction and vanadium reductive activation mediated by glutathione in vanadium toxicity was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by Sesamum indicum extracts. These findings suggested a hepato-protective role for extracts against liver injury resulted from vanadium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 979-985, 2016.

  15. Cytoprotective effects of taurine against toxicity induced by isoniazid and hydrazine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    Isoniazid is one of the most commonly used drugs to treat tuberculosis. Its administration is associated with a high incidence of hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to establish the protective effects of taurine against cytotoxicity induced by isoniazid and its suspected toxic metabolite hydrazine in isolated rat hepatocytes by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial depolarisation, reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidised glutathione (GSSG). Isoniazid caused no significant ROS formation in normal hepatocytes, but in glutathione-depleted cells it was considerable. Hydrazine caused ROS formation and lipid peroxidation in both intact and glutathione-depleted cells. Both isoniazid and hydrazine caused mitochondrial membrane depolarisation. Hydrazine lowered cellular GSH reserve and increased GSSG. Taurine (200 μmol L(-1)) and N-acetylcysteine (200 μmol L(-1)) effectively countered the toxic effects of isoniazid and/or hydrazine by decreasing ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial damage. Taurine prevented depletion of GSH and lowered GSSG levels in hydrazine-treated cells. This study suggests that the protective effects of taurine against isoniazid and its intermediary metabolite hydrazine cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes could be attributed to antioxidative action.

  16. Venlafaxine-Induced Cytotoxicity Towards Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Involves Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial/Lysosomal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Elham; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Eftekhari, Aziz; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine–induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Collagenase-perfused rat hepatocytes were treated with venlafaxine and other agents. Cell damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal damage, glutathione (GSH) level were analyzed. Moreover, rat liver mitochondria were isolated through differential centrifugation to assess respiratory chain functionality. Results: Our results demonstrated that venlafaxine could induce ROS formation followed by lipid peroxidation, cellular GSH content depletion, elevated GSSG level, loss of lysosmal membrane integrity, MMP collapse and finally cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. N-acetyl cysteine, taurine and quercetine significantly decreased the aforementioned venlafaxine-induced cellular events. Also, radical scavenger (butylatedhydroxytoluene and α-tocopherol), CYP2E1 inhibitor (4-methylpyrazole), lysosomotropic agents (methylamine and chloroquine), ATP generators (L-gluthamine and fructose) and mitochondrial pore sealing agents (trifluoperazine and L-carnitine) considerably reduced cytotoxicity, ROS generation and lysosomal leakage following venlafaxine treatment. Mitochondrion dysfunction was concomitant with the blockade of the electron transfer complexes II and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory system. Conclusion: Therefore, our data indicate that venlafaxine induces oxidative stress towards hepatocytes and our findings provide evidence to propose that mitochondria and lysosomes are of the primary targets in venlafaxine-mediated cell damage. PMID:28101459

  17. Comparative cytotoxicity between butylated hydroxytoluene and its methylcarbamate derivative, terbucarb, on isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Y.; Yaguchi, K.; Suzuki, T. )

    1994-08-01

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; BHT) is widely used as phenolic antioxidant in processed foods, cosmetics and petroleum products. It is well known that high doses of BHT cause acute hepatic damage accompanied by centrilobular necrosis in rats. The hepatic damage is associated with prolonged depletion of glutathione (GSH). Terbucarb (2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-tolyl-methylcarbamate), which has a methylcarbamate group substituted for the phenol group on BHT, was developed as an insecticide and is also presently used as a herbicide on turfgrass. Despite the metabolic and toxicological details known about BHT in vivo and in vitro, no extensive studies have been reported on the metabolism and toxicity of Terbucarb. The isolated hepatocyte system provides a very useful system for the study of the temporal sequences leading to cell damage caused by chemicals and drugs. Here, using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, we report on the comparative toxic effects of BHT and its methylcarbamate derivative, Terbucarb. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Protective effect of NAC against malathion-induced oxidative stress in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Saeedi Kouzehkonani, Nazli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Induction of oxidative stress by Organophosphate compounds (OPs) has been previously reported. In the present work, the mechanism of protective effects of N-acetylcysteine as a glutathion (GSH) prodrug against malathion–induced cell toxicity was investigated. In this work, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were used to determine the effect of NAC on malathion-induced cytotoxicity, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods: Rat hepatocytes were isolated using collagenase perfusion and then cell viability, mitchondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ROS formation were determined using trypan blue exclusion, Rhodamine 123 fluorescence and fluorogenic probe, 2', 7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), respectively. Results: Despite the protective effect of NAC on malathion-induced cell toxicity and MMP dysfunction, its efficacy against ROS formation was not adequate to completely protect the cells. Conclusion: Cytotoxic effects of malathion regardless of its cholinergic feature, is started with gradual free radical production but, the main factor that causes cell death, is mitochondrial dysfunction, so that reduction of ROS formation alone is not sufficient for cell survival, and the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity through different mechanisms is the most ameliorative factor specially at high levels of cell damage, as NAC seemed to protect cells with various fashions apart from ROS scavenging in concentrations higher than malathion’s LC50. PMID:24312774

  19. The role of mitochondria and biotransformation in abamectin-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Marcos A; de Medeiros, Hyllana C D; Guelfi, Marieli; Trinca, Vitor; Pereira, Flávia T V; Mingatto, Fábio E

    2013-03-01

    Abamectin (ABA), which belongs to the family of avermectins, is used as a parasiticide; however, ABA poisoning can impair liver function. In a previous study using isolated rat liver mitochondria, we observed that ABA inhibited the activity of adenine nucleotide translocator and FoF1-ATPase. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of ABA toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes and to evaluate whether this effect is dependent on its metabolism. The toxicity of ABA was assessed by monitoring oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular ATP concentration, cell viability, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, release of cytochrome c, caspase 3 activity and necrotic cell death. ABA reduces cellular respiration in cells energized with glutamate and malate or succinate. The hepatocytes that were previously incubated with proadifen, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, are more sensitive to the compound as observed by a rapid decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential accompanied by reductions in ATP concentration and cell viability and a disruption of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis followed by necrosis. Our results indicate that ABA biotransformation reduces its toxicity, and its toxic action is related to the inhibition of mitochondrial activity, which leads to decreased synthesis of ATP followed by cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulating role of endogenous reduced glutathione in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cell injury in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1997-01-01

    The role of endogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced cell injury was examined in isolated rat hepatocytes. When liver cell injury was estimated from release of transaminases from hepatocytes into the incubation medium, cell injury in hepatocytes (2 x 10(6) cells/ml) incubated in Hanks' balanced salt solution (pH 7.2) containing 1.0 mM TBHP at 37 degrees C was potentiated with enhanced lipid peroxidation by prior depletion of intracellular GSH which was induced by diethylmaleate, a GSH depletor. GSH-depleted hepatocytes were incubated with gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-ECOEt), which is known to be converted to GSH via glutathione synthetase after its hydrolysis by esterase, at concentrations of 1.0 to 10 mM in order to replenish intracellular GSH. Although TBHP-induced cell injury and lipid peroxidation were enhanced in GSH-depleted hepatocytes, these enhancements were prevented with the consumption of intracellular GSH in GSH-depleted hepatocytes pretreated with 5.0 mM gamma-ECOEt. These preventive effects were observed at any time point during the TBHP treatment over a 60 min period and depended on the concentration of gamma-ECOEt used. But, no preventive effect was found in GSH-depleted hepatocytes pretreated with 5.0 mM GSH. No prevention of the potentiation of TBHP-induced cell injury found in GSH-depleted hepatocytes occurred in GSH-depleted hepatocytes pretreated with both 5.0 mM gamma-ECOEt and 250 microM bis-(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate, a nonspecific esterase inhibitor. gamma-ECOEt treatment caused an increase in intracellular GSH content in GSH-depleted hepatocytes, while treatments of both gamma-ECOEt and the esterase inhibitor caused no increase in intracellular GSH content in the cells. These results indicate that endogenous GSH modulates TBHP-induced cell injury and lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. The present results suggest that endogenous GSH should play a critical role in TBHP

  1. Effect of. cap alpha. -ketobutyrate on the metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Brass, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Alpha-ketobutyrate (..cap alpha..KB), an intermediate in the catabolism of threonine and methionine, is decarboxylated to propionyl-CoA. The authors have reported that propionate (PROP) inhibits oxidative metabolism in rate hepatocytes. Based on these observations, the present study examined the effects of ..cap alpha..KB on pyruvate and palmitate metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Similar to PROP, ..cap alpha..KB (10mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation and this inhibition was diminished when 10mM carnitine (CN) was added (35 +/- 6% inhibition without CN, 22 +/- 8% with CN). ..cap alpha..KB inhibited the conversion of 3-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to glucose and CO/sub 2/. Inhibition of pyruvate metabolism by ..cap alpha..KB was concentration-dependent. At equal concentrations, ..cap alpha..KB inhibited pyruvate metabolism to a greater extent than PROP. Addition of CN partially reversed the effects of PROP on pyruvate metabolism, but not those of ..cap alpha..KB despite the generation of propionylcarnitine when ..cap alpha..KB and CN were included in the incubation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of ..cap alpha..KB can impair normal hepatocyte metabolism. While some of the effects of ..cap alpha..KB can be explained on the basis of propionyl-CoA formation, ..cap alpha..KB has effects on pyruvate metabolism not explainable by this mechanism.

  2. Effect of curcumin analog on gamma-radiation-induced cellular changes in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Rajasekaran, K N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2008-10-22

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin analog, on gamma-radiation-induced toxicity in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The DNA damage was analysed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). An increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase in gamma-radiation dose at 1-4 Gy in cultured rat hepatocytes. The levels of lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) were increased significantly, whereas the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4Gy gamma-irradiation. Pretreatment with different concentrations of curcumin analog (1.38, 6.91 and 13.82 microM) shows a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. Pretreatment with curcumin analog prevents the loss of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants like GSH upon gamma-irradiation. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 6.91 microM of curcumin analog pretreatment. Thus, our result shows that pretreatment with curcumin analog protects the hepatocytes against gamma-radiation-induced cellular damage.

  3. Specificity of an Na+ -dependent taurocholate transport site in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hardison, W G; Bellentani, S; Heasley, V; Shellhamer, D

    1984-05-01

    The structural specificity of the taurocholate uptake mechanism was studied by determining the ability of 100 microM structural analogues of taurocholate to inhibit the uptake of 5 microM [14C]-taurocholate into freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Taurocholate was a more potent inhibitor than cholate. The fewer the number of hydroxyl groups, the more potent the inhibitors. Neither hydroxyl group orientation (alpha or beta) nor esterification with formic acid strongly influenced inhibitory potency. Replacement of hydroxyl groups with keto groups, however, diminished inhibitory potency. These facts suggested that distortion of the sterol backbone may be an important factor in diminishing inhibitory potency. Charge on the nonsteroid moiety affected potency. Both neutral and negatively charged compounds inhibited more strongly than positively charged compounds. As important as charge, however, was length of the nonsteroidal moiety. Inhibitory potency increased progressively as length beyond C-17 increased up to 11 A. Inhibitory potency was reduced again, however, with an extremely long end group of 18 A. The inhibitors do not act as cytotoxins since cellular oxygen consumption was not diminished by any of them. Furthermore, inhibition was specific for the taurocholate uptake mechanism. The three most potent inhibitory compounds inhibited L-alanine uptake little or not at all. The kinetics of inhibition, determined for three selected compounds, were consistent with competitive inhibition. The structural specificity of the rat hepatocyte sodium-dependent taurocholate uptake site is similar to that of the guinea pig ileum uptake site.

  4. Inhibition of glycolysis by 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, M F; Bontemps, F; Van den Berghe, G

    1992-01-01

    5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAriboside; Z-riboside), the nucleotide corresponding to AICAribotide (AICAR or ZMP), an intermediate of the 'de novo' pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, has been shown to inhibit gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes [Vincent, Marangos, Gruber & Van den Berghe (1991) Diabetes 40, 1259-1266]. We now report that glycosis is also inhibited and even more sensitive to AICAriboside in these cells. In hepatocyte suspensions from fasted rats, production of lactate from 15 mM-glucose was half-maximally inhibited by 25-50 microM-AICAriboside. AICAriboside influenced two regulatory steps of glycolysis: (1) it decreased the release of 3H2O from [2-3H]glucose and the concentrations of both glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, indicating that it diminished the phosphorylation of glucose by glucokinase; (2) it decreased the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), the main physiological stimulator of liver 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. Further studies showed that AICAriboside induced an inactivation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, the enzyme that produces Fru-2,6-P2, without affecting the concentration of cyclic AMP. Similarly to the inhibiton of gluconeogenesis by AICAriboside, the inhibition of glycolysis became apparent after an approx. 10 min latency and persisted when the cells were washed after addition of AICAriboside, strongly suggesting that the effects were also exerted by the Z-nucleotides, which accumulate after addition of AICAriboside to hepatocytes. An increased uptake of lactate was evident when 50-200 microM-AICAriboside was added 15 min after addition of glucose. This can be explained by the higher sensitivity of glycolysis, as compared with gluconeogenesis, to inhibition by AICAriboside, and reveals the simultaneous operation of both processes. PMID:1531010

  5. Isolated Rat Hepatocyte Couplets: A Primary Secretory Unit for Electrophysiologic Studies of Bile Secretory Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, J.; Gautam, A.; Boyer, J. L.

    1984-10-01

    Hepatocyte couplets were isolated by collagenase perfusion from rat liver. Between adjacent cells, the bile canaliculus forma a closed space into which secretion occurs. As in intact liver, Mg2+-ATPase is localized at the canalicular lumen, the organic anion fluorescein is excreted, and secretion is modified by osmotic gradients. By passing a microelectrode through one cell into the canalicular vacuole, a transepithelial potential profile was obtained. In 27 cell couplets the steady-state intracellular (-26.3 ± 5.3 mV) and intracanalicular (-5.9 ± 3.3 mV) potentials were recorded at 37 degrees C with reference to the external medium. Input resistances were determined within the cell (86 ± 23 MΩ ) and in the bile canalicular lumen (32 ± 17 MΩ ) by passing current pulses through the microelectrode. These data define electrical driving forces for ion transport across the sinusoidal, canalicular, and paracellular barriers and indicate ion permeation across a leaky paracellular junctional pathway. These findings indicate that the isolated hepatocyte couplet is an effective model for electrophysiologic studies of bile secretory function.

  6. In vitro study of lovastatin interactions with amiodarone and with carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, AZ; Mitcheva, MK; Kondeva-Burdina, MS; Descatoire, VA

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interactions at a metabolic level between lovastatin, amiodarone and carbon tetrachloride in isolated rat hepatocytes. METHODS: For cell isolation two-step collagenase liver perfusion was performed. Lovastatin was administered alone in increasing concentrations (1 μmol/L, 3 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L) and in combination with CCl4 (86 μmol/L). The cells were also pretreated with 14 μmol/L amiodarone and then the other two compounds were added. RESULTS: Lovastatin promoted concentration-dependent significant toxicity estimated by decrease in cell viability and GSH level by 45% and 84%, respectively. LDH-activity increased by 114% and TBARS content by 90%. CCl4 induced the expected severe damage on the examined parameters. CCl4 induced toxicity was attenuated after lovastatin pretreatment, which was expressed in less increased values of LDH activity and TBARS levels, as well as in less decreased cell viability and GSH concentrations. However, the pretreatment of hepatocytes with amiodarone abolished the protective effect of lovastatin. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the observed cytopro-tective effect was due to interactions between lovastatin, CCl4 and amiodarone at a metabolic level. PMID:17465501

  7. Some biochemical observations on gluconeogenesis from propionate in hepatocytes isolated from normal and biotin-deficients rats.

    PubMed

    Djabal, A; Mangeot, M; Cherruau, B; Lemonnier, A

    1985-01-01

    Propionate and pyruvate added to isolated normal and biotin-deficient adult rat hepatocytes increase the production of glucose. This production decreases about 30% on biotin deficiency. Malonate inhibits gluconeogenesis from propionate showing the metabolic transformation of propionyl-CoA via the Krebs cycle. Neither glucagon nor dibutyryl-cyclic AMP significantly stimulate gluconeogenesis.

  8. Efficient amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes by Syzygium cumini Skeels extract.

    PubMed

    Veigas, Jyothi M; Shrivasthava, Richa; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2008-09-01

    Syzygium cumini, Indian black plum or Java plum, is a rich source for anthocyanins (230 mg/100g DW) showing high antioxidant activity in vitro. In the following study it is further demonstrated that S. cumini peel extract rich in anthocyanins (SCA) offers considerable protection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced damage in rat hepatocytes. SCA itself being non-toxic to primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 ppm, was found to suppress CCl(4)-induced LDH leakage by 54% at 50ppm, thereby improving the cell viability by 39%. The SCA significantly reversed the CCl(4) induced changes in cellular glutathione (GSH) level, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Exposure of hepatocytes to SCA after CCl(4) treatment was found to elevate GSH and GPx activities by 2-folds, whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were not significantly affected. The fruit pulp extract (SPE) was less effective in offering protection to rat hepatocytes, particularly in terms of total GSH content and a consequent increase in lipid peroxidation although the higher GPx activity suggests the probable involvement of GSH as a substrate for GPx. These observations suggest that the fruit peel extract of S. cumini, is largely responsible for the reversal of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rat hepatocytes. Both peel and pulp extract appear to offer protection to rat hepatocytes through GPx along with other biological pathways independent of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

  9. Cytoprotective Effects of Melatonin Against Amitriptyline-Induced Toxicity in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Taziki, Shohreh; Sattari, Mohammad Reza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Amitriptyline, one of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants, caused rare but severe hepatotoxicity in patients who received it continuously. Previous findings showed that the intermediate metabolites of amitriptyline produced by CYP450 are involved in hepatic injury. Melatonin is an antiaging and antioxidant hormone synthesized from pineal gland. The aim of present study was to evaluate the protective role of melatonin in an in vitro model of isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Markers such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and hepatocytes glutathione content were evaluated every 60 minutes for 180 minutes. Results: Present results indicated that administration of 1mM of melatonin effectively reduced the cell death, ROS formation and lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and reduced cellular glutathione content caused by amitriptyline. Conclusion: Our results indicated that melatonin is an effective antioxidant in preventing amitriptyline-induced hepatotoxicity. We recommend further in vivo animal and clinical trial studies on the hepatoprotective effects of melatonin in patients receiving amitriptyline. PMID:26504754

  10. Metabolism of symmetrical N-nitroso-di-n-alkylamines in isolated hepatocytes from control and EtOH treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, L.D.; Hollenberg, P.F.

    1986-05-01

    N-nitrosodialkylamines are known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals giving rise to hepatocellular carcinomas and a variety of other neoplasms in different organs of the body. The liver is the main target organ for tumor production in the rat; however, the biological effects of the C/sub 1/ (N-nitrosodimethylamine) through C/sub 4/ (N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine) series of symmetrical N-nitrosodialkylamines are dependent on the route of administration, the absolute dose, and the dosing regimen. For those reasons the authors have chosen to study the metabolism of N-nitrosodialkylamines in isolated rat hepatocytes. These studies were designed to compare the metabolism of the N-nitrosodialkylamines in hepatocytes isolated from control and EtOH-treated rates. For instance, after incubation of /sup 14/C-diethylnitrosamine (15 ..mu..M) with hepatocytes from control animals for 3 hours, 9% of the dose was metabolized to CO/sub 2/, 2% was found associated with the acid precipitable fraction and no radioactivity was associated with the DNA. In contrast to these results, however, in similar studies using hepatocytes isolated from EtOH-treated rats, 25% of the dose was metabolized to CO/sub 2/, 2.9% was incorporated into the acid precipitable fraction and 0.8% was associated with the DNA. These data demonstrate that EtOH treatment of rats results in increased hepatocellular metabolism of diethyl nitrosamine including the generation of DNA alkylating intermediates.

  11. The metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by hepatocytes isolated from rats following the in vivo administration of some xenobiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, S.A.; Neal, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes, an intact cellular system capable of performing phase I and phase II metabolism, have been used to investigate metabolism of aflatoxin B1. These cells were found to metabolise (/sup 14/C)aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxins M1 and Q1, and to radiolabelled polar material, presumably conjugates, as analysed by h.p.l.c., t.l.c. and radioactive determination. In vivo administration of the mixed function oxidase inducers, phenobarbitone and 3-methylcholanthrene, resulted in enhanced hepatocyte phase I (microsomal) metabolism of aflatoxin B1. In contrast to metabolism of AFB1 by in vitro subcellular systems increased production of polar material (conjugated metabolites) derived from (/sup 14/C)aflatoxin B1 was also detected in hepatocytes isolated from these pretreated animals. Formation of aflatoxin Q1 by isolated hepatocytes appeared to be mediated by cytochrome P450-linked enzymes whereas cytochrome P448-linked enzymes were apparently involved in aflatoxin M1 production. Chronic feeding of aflatoxin B1 to rats enhanced hepatocyte production of conjugated material only and did not elevate cellular cytochrome P450 levels, thus suggesting that aflatoxin B1 is not an inducer of its own primary metabolism.

  12. The biosynthesis of ascorbate protects isolated rat hepatocytes from cumene hydroperoxide-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tom S; Shangari, Nandita; Wilson, John X; Chan, Helen; Butterworth, Roger F; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-04-01

    Most animals synthesize ascorbate. It is an essential enzymatic cofactor for the synthesis of a variety of biological molecules and also a powerful antioxidant. There is, however, little direct evidence supporting an antioxidant role for endogenously produced ascorbate. Recently, we demonstrated that incubation of rat hepatocytes with 1-bromoheptane or phorone simultaneously depleted glutathione (GSH) and triggered rapid ascorbate synthesis. The present study investigates the hypothesis that endogenous ascorbate synthesis can confer protection against oxidative stress. Rat and guinea pig hepatocytes were depleted of GSH with 1-bromoheptane and subsequently treated with the oxidative stressor cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in the presence or absence of the ascorbate synthesis inhibitor sorbinil. In rat hepatocytes, ascorbate content increased linearly (from 15.1 to 35.8 nmol/10(6) cells) over a 105-min incubation. Prior depletion of GSH increased CHP-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and cell death in rat and guinea pig hepatocytes. Inhibiting ascorbate synthesis, however, further elevated ROS production (2-fold), lipid peroxidation (1.5-fold), and cell death (2-fold) in rat hepatocytes only. This is the first time that endogenous ascorbate synthesis has been shown to decrease cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress. Protection by endogenously produced ascorbate may therefore need to be addressed when extrapolating data to humans from experiments using rodents capable of synthesizing ascorbate.

  13. Hepatic uptake of epirubicin by isolated rat hepatocytes and its biliary excretion after intravenous infusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Hwan; Park, Seong Hyeok; Jeong, Sung Woo; Park, Chun-Woong; Han, Kun; Chung, Youn Bok

    2014-12-01

    Anthracycline anticancer agents are widely used in the cancer chemotherapy for hepatocelluar carcinoma. However, accurate kinetic analyses of the hepatocellular uptake and efflux of the drugs have not been reported. We, therefore, investigated the hepatobiliary transport of epirubicin, an anthracycline derived antibiotic, after intravenous (i.v.) infusion in rats. The hepatic uptake mechanisms of epirubicin were also investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes. To analyze epirubicin levels in the biological samples, we used an HPLC-based method which has been validated for a kinetic study by suitable criteria. The uptake process of epirubicin by the hepatocytes revealed one saturable component, with a Km of 99.1 μg/mL and Vmax of 3.70 μg/min/10(6) cells. The initial uptake velocity of epirubicin was significantly inhibited in a temperature-dependent manner. The velocity was also reduced in the presence of metabolic inhibitors such as rotenone or carbonylcyanide-p-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone. Substrates for organic anion transporters such as bromosulfophthalein and taurocholate significantly inhibited the initial uptake velocity of epirubicin. We also attempted to determine the hepatobiliary transport of epirubicin after i.v. infusion in vivo. At steady-state after i.v. infusion of epirubicin (10-160 μg/min/kg), the drug was extensively accumulated in the liver, followed by excretion into bile. Furthermore, the CLbile,plasma and CLbile,liver decreased with a corresponding increase in the Css,plasma and Css,liver. In conclusion, present studies using isolated rat hepatocytes and in vivo i.v. infusion demonstrate that epirubicin is likely to be taken up into liver cells via organic anion transporting polypeptides, and that its biliary excretion might be mediated via specific transporters.

  14. Uncoupling effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in isolated rat hepatocytes:effect on glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Piquet, M A; Fontaine, E; Sibille, B; Filippi, C; Keriel, C; Leverve, X M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a 4-week deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in isolated rat hepatocytes have been investigated for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid, dihydroxyacetone (DHA) or glycerol metabolism. Oxygen uptake was significantly increased (by 20%) with or without fatty acid addition (octanoate or oleate) in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls. The effect persisted after oligomycin addition but not after that of potassium cyanide, leading to the conclusion that, in these intact cells, the mitochondria were uncoupled. The PUFA-deficient group exhibited a significant decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio, whereas the mitochondrial ratio was not affected. PUFA deficiency led to a 16% decrease in DHA metabolism owing to a 34% decrease in glycerol kinase activity; the significant decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio was accompanied by an increase in the fractional glycolytic flux. In contrast, glycerol metabolism was significantly enhanced in the PUFA-deficient group. The role of the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step in this stimulation was evidenced in hepatocytes perifused with glycerol and octanoate in the presence of increased concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (Dnp): uncoupling with Dnp led to an enhancement of glycerol metabolism, as found in PUFA deficiency, although it was more pronounced than in controls. The matrix/cytosol gradients for redox potential and ATP/ADP ratio were lower in cells from PUFA-deficient rats, suggesting a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in accordance with the uncoupling effect. Moreover, a doubling of the mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls led us to conclude that the activation of glycerol metabolism is the consequence of two mitochondrial effects: uncoupling and an increase in glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8760348

  15. Contribution of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed various diets

    SciTech Connect

    Kaloyianni, M.; Freedland, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The contribution under various nutritional regimens of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis was estimated by measuring the glucose formation from 14C-labeled substrates. Isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated for 60 min in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4 containing lactate, pyruvate and all the amino acids at concentrations similar to their physiological levels found in rat plasma, with one precursor labeled in each flask. In all conditions, lactate was the major glucose precursor, providing over 60% of the glucose formed. Glutamine and alanine were the major amino acid precursors of glucose, contributing 9.8% and 10.6% of the glucose formed, respectively, in hepatocytes isolated from starved rats. Serine, glycine and threonine also contributed to gluconeogenesis in the starved liver cells at 2.6, 2.1 and 3.8%, respectively, of the glucose formed. The rate of glucose formation from the isolated hepatocytes of the starved rats and those fed either high protein or high fat was higher than that from rats fed a nonpurified diet.

  16. Effect of growth hormone on protein phosphorylation in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, K.; Lipson, K.E.; Marino, M.W.; Donner, D.B.

    1987-02-10

    Hepatocytes from male rats were incubated with (/sup 32/P)P/sub i/ for 40 min at 37/sup 0/C, thereby equilibrating the cellular ATP pool with /sup 32/P. Subsequent exposure to bovine growth hormone for 10 additional min did not change the specific activity of cellular (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or chromatofocusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to fractionate phosphoproteins solubilized from control or hormone-stimulated cells. Stimulation of hepatocytes with 5 nM growth hormone for 10 min at 37/sup 0/C affected the phosphorylation of a number of proteins including an M/sub r/ 46,000 species of pI 4.7 whose phosphorylation was augmented (2.65 +/- 0.50)-fold. A significant fraction of the maximal effect of growth hormone on phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 46,000 species was elicited by 1-5% receptor occupancy. Bovine growth hormone, which binds to somatogenic receptors with great specificity, or recombinant human growth hormone, which is not contaminated with other hormones, affected phosphorylation of hepatic proteins similarly. The M/sub r/ 46,000 phosphoprotein was isolated in a fraction enriched in cytosol after centrifugation of cellular homogenates. Phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 46,000 phosphoprotein was also increased (1.75 +/- 0.35)-fold and (2.15 +/- 0.50)-fold by insulin and glucagon, respectively. These observations are consistent with the possibility that selective changes in the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins may mediate growth hormone actions in cells.

  17. Involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondrial/lysosomal cross-talk in olanzapine cytotoxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Aziz; Azarmi, Yadollah; Parvizpur, Alireza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    1. Olanzapine (OLZ) is a widely used atypical antipsychotic agent for the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders. Serious hepatotoxicity and elevated liver enzymes have been reported in patients receiving OLZ. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the OLZ hepatotoxicity are unknown. 2. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of OLZ on freshly isolated rat hepatocytes was assessed. Our results showed that the cytotoxicity of OLZ in hepatocytes is mediated by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial potential collapse, lysosomal membrane leakiness, GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation preceding cell lysis. All the aforementioned OLZ-induced cellular events were significantly (p < 0.05) prevented by ROS scavengers, antioxidants, endocytosis inhibitors and adenosine triphosphate generators. Also, the present results demonstrated that CYP450 is involved in OLZ-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity mechanism. 3. It is concluded that OLZ hepatotoxicity is associated with both mitochondrial/lysosomal involvement following the initiation of oxidative stress in hepatocytes.

  18. Effect of melatonin administration on parameters related to oxidative damage in hepatocytes isolated from old Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-05-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs and tissues, such as the liver, and this process might be due to oxidative damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. Melatonin is a secretory product with well-known antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Twenty-two-month old male Wistar rats were treated with oral melatonin for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated and cultured, and different parameters were measured in both cells and medium. Aging induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate, as well as a reduction in adenosine triphosphate content and phosphatidylcholine synthesis when compared to young animals. Melatonin administration significantly ameliorated all these age-related changes in males. Melatonin administration seems to exert beneficial effects against age-induced changes in hepatocytes.

  19. Regulation of amino acid transport in isolated rat hepatocytes during development

    SciTech Connect

    Leoni, S.; Spagnuolo, S.; Dini, L.; Devirgiliis, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of amino acid depletion or supplementation and the effect of glucagon and insulin on the amino acid transport mediated by system A were investigated by determining the uptake of either 2-amino (1-/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid (AIB) or N-methyl 2-amino (1-/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid (MeAIB) in rat hepatocytes, freshly isolated at different stages of pre- and postnatal development. The data obtained show that the Na/sup +/ -dependent uptake was higher at the earliest developmental stages, and steadily decreased until the adult level. The hormones increased AIB and MeAIB uptake enhancing the V/sub max/, while the K/sub m/ was unchanged. This effect was evident in cells from adult and 18-20-day-old fetuses, while no response was present before the 18th day of fetal life and in the prenatal period. Actinomycin D or cycloheximide abolished this hormone-dependent increase. A decrease in AIB and MeAIB transport after incubation in an amino acid-rich medium was demonstrated at all ages tested, but was particularly evident in the prenatal life. The increase in the activity of the system following amino acid starvation was shown to be mostly dependent from de novo protein synthesis in the fetal life; on the contrary in the adult the increase appeared to be more linked to the release from transinhibition of the transport.

  20. Fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis from specifically labeled leucine by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mathias, M M; Sullivan, A C; Hamilton, J G

    1981-10-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from female rats meal-fed a high-glucose diet were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate medium containing 16.5 mM glucose, 3H2O, and 14C-labeled amino acids (-)-Hydroxycitrate depressed the incorporation of 3H2O and [14C] alanine into fatty acids and cholesterol. Incorporation of [U-14C]leucine into lipids was not affected but incorporation of 3H2O into lipids was decreased significantly by (-)-hydroxycitrate. (-)-Hydroxycitrate depressed the incorporation of radioactivity from [2-14C]leucine into fatty acids and cholesterol by 61 and 38%, respectively, and stimulated the incorporation of radioactivity from [4,5-3H]leucine 35 and 28%. As [2-14C]leucine labels the acetyl-CoA pool and [4,5-3H]leucine labels the acetoacetate pool, it was concluded that mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA is not incorporated intact into cholesterol, and that acetoacetate can be activated effectively in the liver cytosol for support of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis.

  1. Stimulation by glucose of gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from starved rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rigoulet, M; Leverve, X M; Plomp, P J; Meijer, A J

    1987-01-01

    Control properties of the gluconeogenic pathway in hepatocytes isolated from starved rats were studied in the presence of glucose. The following observations were made. (1) Glucose stimulated the rate of glucose production from 20 mM-glycerol, from a mixture of 20 mM-lactate and 2 mM-pyruvate, or from pyruvate alone; no stimulation was observed with 20 mM-alanine or 20 mM-dihydroxyacetone. Maximal stimulation was obtained between 2 and 5 mM-glucose, depending on the conditions. At concentrations above 6 mM, gluconeogenesis declined again, so that at 10 mM-glucose the glucose production rate became equal to that in its absence. (2) With glycerol, stimulation of gluconeogenesis by glucose was accompanied by oxidation of cytosolic NADH and reduction of mitochondrial NAD+ and was insensitive to the transaminase inhibitor amino-oxyacetate; this indicated that glucose accelerated the rate of transport of cytosolic reducing equivalents to the mitochondria via the glycerol 1-phosphate shuttle. (3) With lactate plus pyruvate (10:1) as substrates, stimulation of gluconeogenesis by glucose was almost additive to that obtained with glucagon. From an analysis of the effect of glucose on the curves relating gluconeogenic flux and the steady-state intracellular concentrations of gluconeogenic intermediates under various conditions, in the absence and presence of glucagon, it was concluded that addition of glucose stimulated both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase activity. PMID:3663184

  2. The protective effect of aqueous propolis extract on isolated rat hepatocytes against carbon tetrachloride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mahran, L G; el-Khatib, A S; Agha, A M; Khayyal, M T

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of honeybee aqueous propolis extract (APE) against the hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride was investigated using isolated liver-cell suspensions as the experimental model. Various concentrations of the extract were preincubated with the hepatocyte suspensions for 30 min before being subjected to the hepatotoxin for a further 30 min. The hepatocyte toxicity was assessed using three parameters, namely, the release of lactate dehydrogenase, the formation of lipid peroxides and the depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione. It was found that a dose-related protection against the induced cell injury was conferred by APE as evidenced by its inhibitory influence on the changes induced by CCl4 on the measured parameters. The hepatocyte protective effect of APE is probably a result of its antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging properties which in turn help to maintain the intracellular level of reduced glutathione.

  3. Characterization of an intracellular hyaluronic acid binding site in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, S.J.; Raja, R.H.; Weigel, P.H. )

    1990-11-13

    125I-HA, prepared by chemical modification at the reducing sugar, specifically binds to rat hepatocytes in suspension or culture. Intact hepatocytes have relatively few surface 125I-HA binding sites and show low specific binding. However, permeabilization of hepatocytes with the nonionic detergent digitonin results in increased specific 125I-HA binding (45-65%) and a very large increase in the number of specific 125I-HA binding sites. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium 125I-HA binding to permeabilized hepatocytes in suspension at 4 degrees C indicates a Kd = 1.8 x 10(-7) M and 1.3 x 10(6) molecules of HA (Mr approximately 30,000) bound per cell at saturation. Hepatocytes in primary culture for 24 h show the same affinity but the total number of HA molecules bound per cell at saturation decreases to approximately 6.2 x 10(5). Increasing the ionic strength above physiologic concentrations decreases 125I-HA binding to permeable cells, whereas decreasing the ionic strength above causes an approximately 4-fold increase. The divalent cation chelator EGTA does not prevent binding nor does it release 125I-HA bound in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2, although higher divalent cation concentrations stimulate 125I-HA binding. Ten millimolar CaCl2 or MnCl2 increases HA binding 3-6-fold compared to EGTA-treated cells. Ten millimolar MgCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2 increased HA binding by 2-fold. The specific binding of 125I-HA to digitonin-treated hepatocytes at 4{degrees}C increased greater than 10-fold at pH 5.0 as compared to pH 7.

  4. Activation of glycogen phosphorylase in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and isolated hepatocytes by organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, F C; Davis, L H; Whittaker, M

    1990-01-15

    Several organophosphates including diisopropylfluorophosphonate (DPF) and a variety of compounds used as chemical warfare agents produced dose- and time-dependent increases in phosphorylase-a, the phosphorylated form of glycogen phosphorylase in rat pheochromocytoma cells, PC12, and isolated hepatocytes. Increases in phosphorylase-a did not occur in cells exposed to the carbamates, physostigmine or pyridostigmine, or to O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethylmethyl-phosphonathiolate (VX), an organophosphate which is protonated at physiological pH. When extracellular pH was increased to pH 8, VX acted like the other organophosphates and increased phosphorylase-a activity. The possibility that organophosphates increase phosphorylase-a in intact cells by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular binding sites is supported by the following findings: organophosphate-induced increases in phosphorylase-a did not correlate with changes in cyclic AMP in the two cell types studied; in PC12 cells, increases in this activity occurred in the absence of extracellular calcium and were not inhibited by the calcium channel blocker, verapamil; fluorescence of the calcium sensitive dye, Quin-2, in PC12 cells preloaded with the acetoxymethyl ester of the dye was increased by soman; finally, addition of the calcium ionophore, A23187, to PC12 cells maintained in calcium-free medium caused sarin-stimulated phosphorylase-a activity to return rapidly to basal levels. Collectively, these data argue strongly that organophosphates increase phosphorylase-a activity in intact cells via a novel mechanism involving release of calcium from intracellular binding sites.

  5. Effects of tert-butyl hydroperoxide on Ca(2+) ATPase activity in isolated rat hepatocytes and its reversal by antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sangram; Agarwal, Richa; Jamal, Farrukh; Mehrotra, Sudhir; Singh, Rakesh

    2012-09-01

    Calcium ions play an importantrole in various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormone action, blood clotting. They ions act as an intracellular second messenger, relaying information within cells to regulate their activity. To understand the mechanism of hepatotoxicity of t-BHP, studies were carried out using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The effect of t-BHP on Ca(2+) accumulation and Ca(2+) uptake by rat hepatocytes was monitored using 45Ca(2+). It caused decrease in 15% accumulation of 45Ca(2+) in comparison to the control group. t-BHP also significantly decreased the Ca(2+) ATPase activity in isolated hepatocytes .This decrease in Ca(2+) ATPase activity by t-BHP was reversed 40% by naturally occurring antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and 20% by the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). These results indicate that the hepatotoxic action of t-BHP involves oxidative stress as evident by the protection accorded by various antioxidants employed in the study as well as impairment of intracellular calcium homeostasis which can lead to liver cell injury.

  6. Bioactivation and cytotoxicity of 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, R; Zanovello, A; Bortolato, S; White, I N; Manno, M

    2001-04-01

    The bioactivation and cytotoxicity of 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123), a replacement for some ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, were investigated using freshly isolated hepatocytes from non-induced male rats. A time- and concentration-dependent increase in the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and a concentration-dependent loss of total cellular glutathione were observed in cells incubated with 1, 5 and 10 mM HCFC-123 under normoxic or hypoxic (about 4% O2) conditions. Lactate dehydrogenase leakage was completely prevented by pretreating the cell suspension with the free radical trapper N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone. The aspecific cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitor, metyrapone, totally prevented the lactate dehydrogenase leakage from hepatocytes, while two isoform-specific P450 inhibitors, 4-methylpyrazole and troleandomycin (a P450 2E1 and a P450 3A inhibitor, respectively), provided a partial protection against HCFC-123 cytotoxicity. Interestingly, pretreatment of cells with glutathione depletors, such as phorone and diethylmaleate, did not enhance the HCFC-123-dependent lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Two stable metabolites of HCFC-123, 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane and 1-chloro-2,2-difluoroethene, were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the head space of the hepatocyte incubations carried out under hypoxic and, although at a lower level, also normoxic conditions, indicating that reductive metabolism of HCFC-123 by hepatocytes had occurred. The results overall indicate that HCFC-123 is cytotoxic to rat hepatocytes under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, due to its bioactivation to reactive metabolites, probably free radicals, and that P450 2E1 and, to a lower extent, P450 3A, are involved in the process.

  7. Insulin resistance in uremia. Characterization of lipid metabolism in freshly isolated and primary cultures of hepatocytes from chronic uremic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Caro, J F; Lanza-Jacoby, S

    1983-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism(s) of hyperlipidemia and liver insulin sensitivity in a rat model of severe chronic uremia (U). Basal lipid synthesis was decreased in freshly isolated hepatocytes from U when compared with sham-operated ad lib.-fed controls (alfC). Basal lipid synthesis in pair-fed controls (pfC) was in between U and alfC. Similarly, the activity of liver acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, citrate cleavage enzyme, malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was diminished in U. Muscle and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase was also decreased. Insulin stimulated lipid synthesis in freshly isolated hepatocytes from alfC. Hepatocytes from U and pfC were resistant to this effect of insulin. To ascertain if the insulin resistance in U was due to starvation (chow intake 50% of alfC) or to uremia itself, the U and pfC were intragastrically fed an isocaloric diet via a Holter pump the last week of the experimental period. Hepatocytes from orally fed U and pfC were also cultured for 24 h in serum-free medium. While freshly isolated and cultured U hepatocytes remained insulin resistant, those from pfC normalized, in vivo and in vitro, when they were provided with enough nutrients. Conclusions: (a) Hyperlipidemia in uremia is not due to increased synthesis, but to defect(s) in clearance. (b) Insulin does not stimulate lipid synthesis in uremia. This finding, along with our recent demonstration that insulin binding and internalization are not decreased in the uremic liver, suggests that a post-binding defect(s) in the liver plays an important role in the mechanism(s) of insulin resistance in uremia. (c) Cultured hepatocytes from uremic rats remain insulin resistant. This quality renders these cells useful in studying the postinsulin binding events responsible for the insulin-resistant state in the absence of complicating hormonal and substrate changes that occur in vivo. PMID:6350367

  8. Cytoprotective Effects of Organosulfur Compounds against Methimazole Induced Toxicity in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Methimazole is a drug widely used in hyperthyroidism. However, life threatening hepatotoxicity has been associated with its clinical use. No protective agent has been found to be effective against methimazole induced hepatotoxicity yet. Hence, the capacity of organosulfur compounds to protect rat hepatocytes against cytotoxic effects of methimazole and its proposed toxic metabolite, N-methylthiourea was evaluated. Methods: Hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. Cells were treated with different concentrations of methimazole, N methylthiourea, and organosulfur chemicals. Cell death, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers and the role of organosulfurs administration on them was investigated. Results: Methimazole caused a decrease in cellular glutathione content, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) collapse, and protein carbonylation. In addition, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation was observed. Treating hepatocytes with N methylthiourea caused a reduction in hepatocytes glutathione reservoirs and an elevation in carbonylated proteins, but no significant ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, or mitochondrial depolarization was observed. N-acetyl cysteine, allylmercaptan, and diallyldisulfide attenuated cell death and prevented ROS formation and lipid peroxidation caused by methimazole. Furthermore, organosulfur compounds diminished methimazole induced mitochondrial damage and reduced the carbonylated proteins. In addition, these chemicals showed protective effects against cell death and protein carbonylation induced by methimazole metabolite. Conclusion: Organosulfur chemicals extend their protective effects against methimazole-induced toxicity by attenuating oxidative stress caused by this drug and preventing the adverse effects of methimazole and/or its

  9. Isolation and characterization of multivesicular bodies from rat hepatocytes: an organelle distinct from secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Hepatocytes of estradiol-treated rats, which express many low density lipoprotein receptors, rapidly accumulate intravenously injected low density lipoprotein in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We have isolated MVBs and Golgi apparatus fractions from livers of estradiol-treated rats. MVB fractions were composed mainly of large vesicles, approximately 0.55 micron diam, filled with remnantlike very low density lipoproteins, known to be taken up into hepatocytes by receptor- mediated endocytosis. MVBs also contained numerous small vesicles, 0.05- 0.07 micron in diameter, and had two types of appendages: one fingerlike and electron dense and the other saclike and electron lucent. MVBs contained little galactosyltransferase or arylsulfatase activity, and content lipoproteins were largely intact. Very low density lipoproteins from Golgi fractions, which are derived to a large extent from secretory vesicles, were larger than those of MVB fractions and contained newly synthesized triglycerides. Membranes of MVBs contained much more cholesterol and less protein than did Golgi membranes. We conclude that two distinct lipoprotein-filled organelles are located in the bile canalicular pole of hepatocytes. MVBs, a major prelysosomal organelle of low density in the endocytic pathway, contain remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, whereas secretory vesicles of the Golgi apparatus contain nascent very low density lipoproteins. PMID:3988801

  10. Evaluating the Role of Drug Metabolism and Reactive Intermediates in Trazodone-Induced Cytotoxicity toward Freshly-Isolated Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Najibi, A; Heidari, R; Zarifi, J; Jamshidzadeh, A; Firoozabadi, N; Niknahad, H

    2016-11-01

    Background: Trazodone is an antidepressant agent widely administered for the treatment of depressive disorders. On the other hand, several cases of hepatic injury have been reported after Trazodone administration. Although the precise mechanism(s) of trazodone-induced liver injury is not known, some investigations proposed the role of reactive intermediates in this complication. This study was designed to investigate the role of reactive metabolites in hepatocytes injury induced by trazodone. Methods: Isolated rat hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via the portal vein. Cells were treated with trazodone, its cytotoxic metabolite, and different enzyme inhibitors and cytoprotective agents. Results: It was found that trazodone was toxic towards hepatocytes and caused 50% cell death after 2 h of incubation at a dose of 450 µM. The trazodone postulated reactive metabolite; m-chlorophenyl piperazine (m-CPP) was less toxic and caused 50% cell death at a dose of 750 µM at a similar time period. Cellular glutathione (GSH) depletion and lipid peroxidation were detected when hepatocytes were treated with trazodone and/or m-CPP. Depleting hepatocytes GSH beforehand, increased cytotoxicity of both trazodone and m-CPP. Troleandomycin as the CYP3A4 inhibitor prevented cytotoxicity of trazodone but slightly affected m-CPP-induced cell injury. Inhibition of CYP2D6 by quinidine and cimetidine increased the cytotoxicity of both trazodone and m-CPP. Antioxidants and ATP suppliers slightly prevented cytotoxicity of trazodone and m-CPP. Conclusion: As inhibitors of CYP3A4 and 2D6 affected trazodone cytotoxicity, it is suggested that trazodone -induced cytotoxicity, at least in part, is mediated by its reactive metabolites.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-alkylamphetamines, MDMA and its analogues, on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshio; Suzuki, Toshinari; Tayama, Sumiko; Ishii, Hidemi; Ogata, Akio

    2009-01-01

    The amphetamine-derived designer drugs have been illegally used worldwide as recreational drugs, some of which are known to be hepatotoxic in humans. To compare their cytotoxic effects, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) and its related analogues, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), 3,4-(methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (BDB) and 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-propane-1-one (methylone) were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. MBDB caused not only concentration (0-4.0 mM)- and time (0-2 h)-dependent cell death accompanied by the formation of cell blebs, and the loss of cellular ATP and adenine nucleotide pools, and reduced glutathione levels, but also the accumulation of oxidized glutathione. Of the other analogues examined, the cytotoxicity of MBDB and BDB was greater than that of MDMA and methylone, suggesting that hepatotoxicity is generally induced by these drugs. In addition, DNA damage and the induction of reactive oxygen species were greater after the incubation of hepatocytes with MBDB (2 and 4 mM) than after that with MDMA. In isolated liver mitochondria, MBDB/BDB resulted in a greater increase in the rate of state 4 oxygen consumption than did MDMA/methylone, indicating an uncoupling effect and a decrease in the rate of state 3 oxygen consumption in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, MBDB resulted in mitochondrial swelling dependent on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT); the effect of MDMA was less than that of MBDB. Taken collectively, these results suggest that (1) the onset of cytotoxicity caused by designer drugs such as MBDB and MDMA is linked to mitochondrial failure dependent upon the induction of the MPT accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization and depletion of ATP through uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes, and (2) MBDB and MDMA elicit DNA damage, suggesting that nuclei as well as mitochondria are target sites of these compounds.

  12. Metabolic Rate Constants for Hydroquinone in F344 Rat and Human Liver Isolated Hepatocytes: Application to a PBPK model.

    SciTech Connect

    Poet, Torka S.; Wu, Hong; English, J C.; Corley, Rick A.

    2004-11-15

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is an important industrial chemical that also occurs naturally in foods and in the leaves and bark of a number of plant species. Exposure of laboratory animals to HQ may result in a species-, sex-, and strain-specific nephrotoxicity. The sensitivity of male F344 vs. female F344 and Sprague-Dawley rats or B6C3F1 mice appears to be related to differences in the rates of formation and further metabolism of key nephrotoxic metabolites. Metabolic rate constants for the conversion of HQ through several metabolic steps to the mono-glutathione conjugate and subsequent detoxification via mercapturic acid were measured in suspension cultures of hepatocytes isolated from male F344 rats and humans. An in vitro mathematic kinetic model was used to analyze each metabolic step by simultaneously fitting the disappearance of each substrate and the appearance of subsequent metabolites. An iterative, nested approach was used whereby downstream metabolites were considered first and the model was constrained by the requirement that rate constants determined during analysis of individual metabolic steps must also satisfy the complete, integrated metabolism scheme, including competitive pathways. The results from this study indicated that the overall capacity for metabolism of HQ and its mono-glutathione conjugate is greater in hepatocytes from humans than those isolated from rats, suggesting a greater capacity for detoxification of the glutathione conjugates. Metabolic rate constants were applied to an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the model was used to predict total glutathione metabolites produced in the liver. The results showed that body burdens of these metabolites will be much higher in rats than humans.

  13. Epinephrine effects on mitochondrial Krebs cycle are not mediated by typical adrenergic receptors in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, C.; Memon, R.A.; Bessman, S.P. )

    1990-02-26

    Oxidation of 2,3-{sup 14}C succinate (suc) carbons in the intra-mitochondrial Krebs cycle was used as a probe to investigate the effects of epinephrine (epi) on isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were incubated at 30{degrees}C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, with 0.5 mM concentration of each of the 20 natural amino acids, 0.5 mm concentration of each of the 20 natural amino acids, 2,3-{sup 14}C suc and epi (10 uM), phenylephrine (pheni) (10uM) or isoproterenol (10 uM). Epi and phepi caused a significant increase in {sup 14}CO{sub 2} formation from 2,3-{sup 14}C suc, however, phentolamine, an {infinity}-antagonist, failed to inhibit this increased oxidation of suc carbons. Isoproterenol had no effect on hepatocyte metabolism and propranolol, a {beta}-antagonist, failed to cause any reduction in basal or epi stimulated oxidation of 2,3-{sup 14}C carbons. Unlike insulin, neither epi nor phepi had any significant effect on the anabolic utilization of suc carbons for protein or lipid synthesis. Anabolic channeling of Krebs cycle intermediates into amino acids was reduced by epi treatment of hepatocytes. Although epi treatment can enhance the oxidation of substrate through the Krebs cycle reactions, only insulin is capable of channeling these substrates into anabolic reactions. Data presented also suggest that epi effects on mitochondrial Krebs cycle oxidation are mediated through an atypical {infinity}-adrenergic receptor which is unresponsive to inhibition by non-selective {infinity}-antagonists.

  14. Proliferative and oxidative response of hepatocytes (Hep) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) isolated from rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, M; Wessely-Szponder, J; Kosior-Korzecka, U

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is considered in the context of its anti-epileptic effects, but its influence on liver dysfunction has not been elucidated yet. The study was aimed to investigate the activity of hepatocytes (Hep) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) isolated from rats fed with KD, in respect of NO and superoxide generation by these cells as well as their proliferative activity in vitro. We also sought to characterize the plasma FFA profiles in control and ketogenic rats. Hep and HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion method and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4th, 8th and 12th day of incubation, the media were collected for further analysis. NO generation increased within the time of incubation both in Hep and HSC isolated from KD-rats. In HSC group NO production raised significantly from 2.65 ± 0.07 μM/10(6) cells on 4th day of incubation to 5.49 ± 1.2 μM/10(6) cells on 12th day of incubation. In respect to O2⁻· generation experimental Hep and HSC provide considerably higher quantities of this free radical until 12th day of incubation (2.5 ± 0.07 and 3.2 ± 0.3 nM/10(6) cells, respectively). Although KD exerts anti-proliferative effect on hepatocytes, in respect to HSC it intensifies their proliferative activity. Furthermore, as we estimated on the basis of NO and O2⁻. generation both Hep and HSC exposed to KD are the source of free radicals.

  15. Cytoprotective effects of silafibrate, a newly-synthesised siliconated derivative of clofibrate, against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nafisi, Sara; Heidari, Reza; Ghaffarzadeh, Mohammad; Ziaee, Mojtaba; Hamzeiy, Hossein; Garjani, Alireza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2014-06-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl para amino phenol, APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic drug responsible for various drug-induced liver injuries. This study evaluated APAP-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes alongside the protective effects of silafibrate and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by collagenase enzyme perfusion via the portal vein. This technique is based on liver perfusion with collagenase after removing calcium ions (Ca2+) with a chelator. Cells were treated with different concentrations of APAP, silafibrate, and NAC. Cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarisation were measured as toxicity markers. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation occurred after APAP administration to rat hepatocytes. APAP caused mitochondrial depolarisation in isolated cells. Administration of silafibrate (200 μmol L-1) and/or NAC (200 μmol L-1) reduced the ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarisation caused by APAP. Cytotoxicity induced by APAP in rat hepatocytes was mediated by oxidative stress. In addition, APAP seemed to target cellular mitochondria during hepatocyte damage. The protective properties of silafibrate and/or NAC against APAP‑induced hepatic injury may have involved the induction of antioxidant enzymes, protection against oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, and alteration in cellular glutathione content.

  16. Fatty acid and amino acid modulation of glucose cycling in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, L A; Neeft, M; Reijngoud, D J; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, H P; Romijn, J A; Herling, A W; Burger, H J; Meijer, A J

    2001-01-01

    We studied the influence of glucose/glucose 6-phosphate cycling on glycogen deposition from glucose in fasted-rat hepatocytes using S4048 and CP320626, specific inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate translocase and glycogen phosphorylase respectively. The effect of amino acids and oleate was also examined. The following observations were made: (1) with glucose alone, net glycogen production was low. Inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate translocase increased intracellular glucose 6-phosphate (3-fold), glycogen accumulation (5-fold) without change in active (dephosphorylated) glycogen synthase (GSa) activity, and lactate production (4-fold). With both glucose 6-phosphate translocase and glycogen phosphorylase inhibited, glycogen deposition increased 8-fold and approached reported in vivo rates of glycogen deposition during the fasted-->fed transition. Addition of a physiological mixture of amino acids in the presence of glucose increased glycogen accumulation (4-fold) through activation of GS and inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase flux. Addition of oleate with glucose present decreased glycolytic flux and increased the flux through glucose 6-phosphatase with no change in glycogen deposition. With glucose 6-phosphate translocase inhibited by S4048, oleate increased intracellular glucose 6-phosphate (3-fold) and net glycogen production (1.5-fold), without a major change in GSa activity. It is concluded that glucose cycling in hepatocytes prevents the net accumulation of glycogen from glucose. Amino acids activate GS and inhibit flux through glucose-6-phosphatase, while oleate inhibits glycolysis and stimulates glucose-6-phosphatase flux. Variation in glucose 6-phosphate does not always result in activity changes of GSa. Activation of glucose 6-phosphatase flux by fatty acids may contribute to the increased hepatic glucose production as seen in Type 2 diabetes. PMID:11535127

  17. Activation of factor X by rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, A.K.; Matschiner, J.T.

    1986-05-01

    Synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factor X was studied in hepatocytes prepared by perfusion of rat livers with collagenase. Hepatocytes were incubated in the presence of vitamin K and /sup 3/H-leucine for up to 4h at 37/sup 0/C. Factor X was isolated from the incubation medium by immunochemical techniques and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The recovered /sup 3/H-labeled proteins migrated, after reduction of disulfides, as two polypeptide chains with apparent molecular weights (M/sub r/) of approximately 42,000 and 22,000 representing the heavy and light chains of factor X respectively. The apparent M/sub r/ of the heavy chain was about 10,000 daltons lighter than seen with the heavy chain of factor X isolated from rat plasma and was more characteristic of the heavy chain of factor Xa. When the levels of factor X secreted by hepatocytes were determined by clotting assays, activity was present as factor Xa. Also, when purified plasma factor X was added to incubations of hepatocytes (>95% parenchymal cells) the added factor X was rapidly converted to factor Xa. Plasma membranes prepared from isolated hepatocytes or from liver homogenates contained an enzyme that converted factor X to factor Xa in a calcium dependent reaction. The physiological significance of a factor X activating enzyme on hepatocyte plasma membranes is not clear.

  18. Mechanisms of trazodone-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effects of melatonin and/or taurine toward freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Taziki, Shohreh; Sattari, Mohammad Reza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that the bioactive intermediate metabolites of trazodone might cause hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to investigate the exact mechanism of hepatocellular injury induced by trazodone as well as the protective effects of taurine and/or melatonin against this toxicity. Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were used. Trazodone was cytotoxic and caused cell death with LC50 of 300 µm within 2 h. Trazodone caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, malondialdehyde accumulation, depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), rise of oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, which confirms the role of oxidative stress in trazodone-induced cytotoxicity. Preincubation of hepatocytes with taurine prevented ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, depletion of intracellular reduced GSH, and increase of oxidized GSSG. Taurine could also protect mitochondria against trazodone-induced toxicity. Administration of melatonin reduced the toxic effects of trazodone in isolated rat hepatocytes.

  19. Evidence for multiple pathways of sup 125 I-insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin internalization has been characterized frequently as occurring by the coated pit pathway of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The present study in rat hepatocytes demonstrates that insulin internalization is, in part, receptor-mediated, but also occurs by nonreceptor-mediated or fluid-phase endocytosis. Endocytosis was probed with four perturbations: depletion of metabolic energy with anoxia, inhibition of endocytosis with phenylarsine oxide, disruption of coated pits with hyperosmolar sucrose, and inhibition of receptor recycling or ligand-receptor dissociation with monensin. Internalization of {sup 125}I-epidermal growth factor and {sup 125}I-asialofetuin was compared to {sup 125}I-insulin internalization. Pretreatment of cells with anoxia or hyperosmolarity inhibited {sup 125}I-insulin internalization by 40%; pretreatment with phenylarsine oxide resulted in inhibition by 54%. Monensin has no effect on uptake or degradation of a high insulin concentration, but inhibited degradation of a low insulin concentration resulting in intracellular accumulation of insulin. In contract, all four perturbations inhibited {sup 125}I-asialofetuin internalization by greater than 90%. Phenylarsine oxide almost completely abolished {sup 125}I-epidermal growth factor uptake; the other perturbations caused partial inhibition. Competition studies demonstrated that insulin internalization was receptor-mediated over a wide concentration range.

  20. Triglyceride synthesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed a low-protein diet is enhanced independently of upregulation of insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yusuke; Toyoshima, Yuka; Tokita, Reiko; Kato, Hisanori; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Minami, Shiro

    2017-08-26

    It is known that protein malnutrition develops fatty liver in rats. However, the mechanisms by which protein malnutrition enhances lipid accumulation in the liver are not fully understood. Our previous studies have demonstrated that protein malnutrition upregulates insulin signaling with an increase in TG levels in rat livers. Here, we examined whether the upregulated insulin signaling contributes to an enhancement of TG accumulation under protein malnutrition. As it is difficult to analyze insulin-induced hepatic TG synthesis in vivo, the isolated hepatocytes derived from rats fed a low-protein diet were used. The hepatocytes were isolated from rats fed a 15% casein diet (15C) as a control diet or a 5% casein diet (5C) as a low-protein diet and then treated with insulin. As shown in vivo, insulin signaling was upregulated in isolated hepatocytes from 5C-fed rats (5C hepatocytes). However, the insulin-induced increase in the mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), was similar in both groups. The amounts of TG synthesized from both glucose and palmitate, as well as ACC1 and FAS protein levels, were increased at the basal state in 5C hepatocytes, but were not further increased by insulin. These results indicate that TG synthesis via both de novo fatty acid synthesis and esterification is enhanced in 5C hepatocytes, which is independent of the upregulation of insulin signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Zonal differences in ethanol-induced impairments in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.A.; Kragskow, S.L.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J. )

    1991-02-01

    We have shown previously that ethanol-induced defects in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid occurred as early as 1 wk after ethanol feeding. This study was undertaken as an initial attempt to establish a possible role of defective receptor-mediated endocytosis in liver injury by investigating whether differences exist in the effects of ethanol on receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatocytes isolated from different regions of the liver. Perivenule cells, present in the distal half of the liver, are thought to be more susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury than are the periportal cells located in the proximal half of the liver acini. For these studies, we fed male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days with liquid diets containing either ethanol (36% of calories) or isocaloric carbohydrate. Perivenule and periportal hepatocytes were then isolated using a digitonin-collagenase perfusion method. In control animals, cells isolated from the perivenule region bound significantly more ligand than did cells from the periportal region. Amounts of ligand internalized and degraded were also greater in perivenule than in periportal cells in these animals. After ethanol feeding, cells isolated from both the perivenule and periportal regions bound significantly less ligand than their respective controls. This impairment in surface and total binding was more pronounced in perivenule than in periportal cells. Internalization and degradation of the ligand were also more adversely affected in the centrilobular region as shown by decreases of greater than 60% in perivenule cells and by only 20% to 30% in periportal cells of ethanol-fed animals compared with controls.

  2. Mitigation of statins-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction by L-carnitine in freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, N.; Azarmi, Y.; Eghbal, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used as anti hyperlipidemic agents. Hepatotoxicity is one of their adverse effects appearing in some patients. No protective agents have yet been developed to treat statins-induced hepatotoxicity. Different investigations have suggested L-carnitine as a hepatoprotective agent against drugs-induced toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine on the cytotoxic effects of statins on the freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. Cells were treated with the different concentrations of statins (simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin), alone or in combination with L-carnitine. Cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers. Furthermore, the effects of statins on cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione reservoirs were evaluated. In accordance with previous studies, an elevation in ROS formation, cellular oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation were observed after statins administration. Moreover, a decrease in cellular reduced glutathione level and cellular mitochondrial membrane potential collapse occurred. L-carnitine co-administration decreased the intensity of aforementioned toxicity markers produced by statins treatment. This study suggests the protective role of L-carnitine against statins-induced cellular damage probably through its anti oxidative and reactive radical scavenging properties as well as its effects on sub cellular components such as mitochondria. The mechanism of L-carnitine protection may be related to its capacity to facilitate fatty acid entry into mitochondria; possibly adenosine tri-phosphate or the reducing equivalents are increased, and the toxic effects of statins toward mitochondria are encountered. PMID:26487891

  3. Comparison of the effects of metals on cellular injury and lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, N.H.; Klaassen, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Various mechanisms, including increases in lipid peroxidation, have been proposed to account for metal-induced cellular injury. By comparing several metals in the same cell population, it is possible to determine whether a correlation exists between ability to produce cell injury and ability to alter parameters pertaining to a particular mechanism. Of particular interest in this study was the relation between metal-induced cytotoxicity and increases in lipid peroxidation. The effects of Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Fe, Cd, Hg, and Cu, at final concentrations of 1 to 1000 ..mu..M, on the viability of isolated hepatocytes were therefore examined by assessing the loss of intracellular K/sup +/ and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Simultaneously, the ability of the metals to induce lipid peroxidation, as measured by an increase in thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactants, was assessed. Hg and Cu required the lowest concentration to produce cellular injury, while Cd produced less dramatic changes in cell viability and Fe at 1000 ..mu..M produced only a small decrease in intracellular K/sup +/. The largest absolute increases in lipid peroxidation were found in the presence of V, followed by Fe and Hg, with Cd and Se causing the smallest increase in TBA reactants. These observations suggest that the lipid peroxidation associated with Cd and Hg is not necessarily responsible for the loss of cell viability induced by these two metals.

  4. Modeling population kinetics of free fatty acids in isolated rat hepatocytes using Markov Chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Alessandra; Thomaseth, Karl; Valerio, Anna

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is the characterization, by means of mathematical models, of the activity of isolated hepatic rat cells as regards the conversion of free fatty acids (FFA) to ketone bodies (KB). A new physiologically based compartmental model of FFA metabolism is used within a context of population pharmacokinetics. This analysis is based on a hierarchical model, that differs from standard model formulations, to account for the fact that some data sets belong to the same animal but have been collected under different experimental conditions. The statistical inference problem has been addressed within a Bayesian context and solved by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. The results obtained in this study indicate that, although hormones epinephrine and insulin are important metabolic regulatory factors in vivo, the conversion of FFA to KB by isolated hepatic rat cells is not significantly affected by epinephrine and only little influenced by insulin. So we conclude that in vivo, the interaction of these two hormones with other compounds not considered in this study plays a fundamental role in ketogenesis. From this study it appears that mathematical models of metabolic processes can be successfully employed in population kinetic studies using MCMC methods.

  5. Cryopreservation of primarily isolated porcine hepatocytes with UW solution.

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Takemi; Maruyama, Masanobu; Okitsu, Teru; Shibata, Norikuni; Takesue, Michihiko; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Kosaka, Yoshikazu; Arata, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hideaki; Oshita, Mizuko; Nakaji, Shuhei; Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kurabayashi, Yuzuru; Kodama, Makoto; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    Development of liver-targeted cell therapies, such as hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial livers, requires a large amount of functional hepatocytes as needed. To achieve this development, establishing an excellent cryopreservation method of hepatocytes is an extremely important issue. Therefore, we performed a comparative review of cryoprotective effects of various cryopreservation solutions using primarily isolated porcine hepatocytes. Porcine hepatocytes were isolated with a four-step dispase and collagenase perfusion method. The obtained hepatocytes with the initial viabilities of 76%, 84%, and 96% were assigned to the following four groups for cryopreservation at -80 degrees C: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) + 12% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (group A), University of Wisconsin (UW) solution + 12% DMSO (group B), Cell Banker 1 (group C), and Cell Banker 2 (group D). The hepatocytes in each group were thawed at 3 days, 10 days, and 5 months of cryopreservation and subjected to comparative analyses, including viability, plating efficiency, LDH release, ammonia removal test, and lentiviral gene transfer. These parameters were the most favorable in the hepatocytes cryopreserved with UW solution. Approximately 5% of thawed cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes expressed LacZ activity after lentiviral transduction. Intrasplenic transplantation of UW solution-cryopreserved hepatocytes improved the survival of rats treated with D-galactosamine. UW solution maintained the functions of cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes.

  6. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Kolychev, A P; Ternovskaya, E E; Arsenieva, A V; Shapkina, E V

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates.

  7. Inhibition by 2,5-anhydromannitol of glycolysis in isolated rat hepatocytes and in Ehrlich ascites cells.

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, P T; Kneer, N M; Wernette-Hammond, M E; Lardy, H A

    1985-01-01

    2,5-Anhydromannitol decreases lactate formation and 3H2O formation from [5-3H]glucose in isolated rat hepatocytes metabolizing high concentrations of glucose. The inhibition of glycolysis is accompanied by a slight decrease in the cellular content of fructose-6-P and a more substantial decrease in the cellular content of fructose-1,6-P2, with no change in the content of glucose-6-P. The 3H2O release data and changes in hexosephosphate distribution indicate possible inhibitions at phosphofructokinase-1 and phosphoglucose isomerase. 2,5-Anhydromannitol also inhibits glycolysis in Ehrlich ascites cells, but the tumor cells, unlike hepatocytes, must be treated with 2,5-anhydromannitol prior to exposure to glucose to obtain the inhibition. The decrease in 3H2O formation from [5-3H]glucose and the metabolite pattern that results from the addition of low concentrations (less than or equal to 0.25 mM) of 2,5-anhydromannitol indicate an inhibition at phosphofructokinase-1 that cannot be attributed to a decrease in the cellular content of fructose-2,6-P2. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 0.5 mM) of 2,5-anhydromannitol cause a substantial decrease in the cellular content of ATP that is accompanied by decreases in the content of glucose-6-P and fructose-6-P and transient increases in fructose-1,6-P2. In Ehrlich ascites cells, 2,5-anhydromannitol is metabolized to 2,5-anhydromannitol mono- and bisphosphate. The inhibition of glycolysis caused by 2,5-anhydromanitol decreases with time, because the phosphorylated metabolites formed during the preliminary incubation in the absence of glucose are rapidly dephosphorylated during the incubation in the presence of glucose. PMID:3155858

  8. Separation and characterization of the aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation stimulated by carbon tetrachloride or ADP-iron in isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomal suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Poli, G; Dianzani, M U; Cheeseman, K H; Slater, T F; Lang, J; Esterbauer, H

    1985-01-01

    Carbonyl products were separated and identified in suspensions of rat liver microsomal fractions and in isolated hepatocytes, after stimulation of lipid peroxidation by incubation with the pro-oxidants CCl4 and ADP-iron. The carbonyl products were allowed to react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, and the derivatives were extracted and separated by t.l.c. into three zones of non-polar materials, and one fraction of polar derivatives that remained at the origin. Separation of the individual non-polar hydrazones in each zone by h.p.l.c. demonstrated that zone I prepared from microsomal fraction or hepatocytes incubated with CCl4 or ADP-iron contained mainly 4-hydroxyhex-2-enal, 4-hydroxynon-2-enal and 4-hydroxynona-2,5-dienal. Zone III consisted mainly of the alkanals propanal, pentanal and hexanal, the 2-alkenals propenal, pent-2-enal, hex-2-enal, hept-2-enal, oct-2-enal and non-2-enal, the ketones butanone, pentan-2-one and pentan-3-one, and deca-2,4-dienal. Incubation of a microsomal fraction with ADP-iron was much more effective in producing malonaldehyde and other carbonyl products than an incubation with CCl4. Despite such quantitative differences, there were no obvious qualitative differences in the h.p.l.c. spectra obtained from zones I and III. However, the stoichiometric evaluation of fatty acid loss and the production of malonaldehyde and other carbonyls suggests that the pathways of lipid peroxidation triggered by CCl4 and ADP-iron are different. The accumulation of carbonyl products of lipid peroxidation in isolated hepatocytes is strongly affected by their metabolism; in particular, 4-hydroxyalkenals were found to be metabolized very rapidly. Nonetheless, both CCl4 and ADP-iron produced stimulation in the production of malonaldehyde and non-polar carbonyl production. After incubation of rat hepatocytes with CCl4 or ADP-iron it was found that approx. 50% of the total amount of non-polar carbonyls produced during incubation escaped into the external medium

  9. Separation and characterization of the aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation stimulated by carbon tetrachloride or ADP-iron in isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomal suspensions.

    PubMed

    Poli, G; Dianzani, M U; Cheeseman, K H; Slater, T F; Lang, J; Esterbauer, H

    1985-04-15

    Carbonyl products were separated and identified in suspensions of rat liver microsomal fractions and in isolated hepatocytes, after stimulation of lipid peroxidation by incubation with the pro-oxidants CCl4 and ADP-iron. The carbonyl products were allowed to react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, and the derivatives were extracted and separated by t.l.c. into three zones of non-polar materials, and one fraction of polar derivatives that remained at the origin. Separation of the individual non-polar hydrazones in each zone by h.p.l.c. demonstrated that zone I prepared from microsomal fraction or hepatocytes incubated with CCl4 or ADP-iron contained mainly 4-hydroxyhex-2-enal, 4-hydroxynon-2-enal and 4-hydroxynona-2,5-dienal. Zone III consisted mainly of the alkanals propanal, pentanal and hexanal, the 2-alkenals propenal, pent-2-enal, hex-2-enal, hept-2-enal, oct-2-enal and non-2-enal, the ketones butanone, pentan-2-one and pentan-3-one, and deca-2,4-dienal. Incubation of a microsomal fraction with ADP-iron was much more effective in producing malonaldehyde and other carbonyl products than an incubation with CCl4. Despite such quantitative differences, there were no obvious qualitative differences in the h.p.l.c. spectra obtained from zones I and III. However, the stoichiometric evaluation of fatty acid loss and the production of malonaldehyde and other carbonyls suggests that the pathways of lipid peroxidation triggered by CCl4 and ADP-iron are different. The accumulation of carbonyl products of lipid peroxidation in isolated hepatocytes is strongly affected by their metabolism; in particular, 4-hydroxyalkenals were found to be metabolized very rapidly. Nonetheless, both CCl4 and ADP-iron produced stimulation in the production of malonaldehyde and non-polar carbonyl production. After incubation of rat hepatocytes with CCl4 or ADP-iron it was found that approx. 50% of the total amount of non-polar carbonyls produced during incubation escaped into the external medium

  10. Protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against glyoxal- or methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maruf, Abdullah Al; Lip, HoYin; Wong, Horace; O'Brien, Peter J

    2015-06-05

    Glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) cause protein and nucleic acid carbonylation and oxidative stress by forming reactive oxygen and carbonyl species which have been associated with toxic effects that may contribute to cardiovascular disease, complications associated with diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. GO and MGO can be formed through oxidation of commonly used reducing sugars e.g., fructose under chronic hyperglycemic conditions. GO and MGO form advanced glycation end products which lead to an increased potential for developing inflammatory diseases. In the current study, we have investigated the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols e.g., caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, methyl ferulate, ethyl ferulate, and ferulaldehyde on GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress (ROS formation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial membrane potential maintenance) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. To investigate and compare the protective effects of ferulic acid and related polyphenols against GO- or MGO-induced toxicity, five hepatocyte models were used: (a) control hepatocytes, (b) GSH-depleted hepatocytes, (c) catalase-inhibited hepatocytes, (d) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-inhibited hepatocytes, and (e) hepatocyte inflammation system (a non-toxic H2O2-generating system). All of the polyphenols tested significantly decreased GO- or MGO-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and improved mitochondrial membrane potential in these models. The rank order of their effectiveness was caffeic acid∼ferulaldehyde>ferulic acid>ethyl ferulate>methyl ferulate>p-coumaric acid. Ferulic acid was found to decrease protein carbonylation in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. This study suggests that ferulic acid and related polyphenols can be used therapeutically to inhibit or decrease GO- or MGO-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Influence of ferulic acid on gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Pillai, K Raveendran; Kumar, P Raghu; Sudhakaran, P R; Menon, V P

    2006-12-07

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities ultimately resulting in cell death. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn, and ricebran. FA exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antiageing, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiapoptotic, and neuroprotective. The present work is aimed at evaluating the radioprotective effect of FA, on gamma-radiation induced toxicity in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, Vitamins A, E and C and uric acid. DNA damage was analyzed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). An increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with increasing dose (1, 2 and 4Gy) of gamma-radiation in cultured hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH, Vitamins C, E and A, ceruloplasmin, uric acid and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4Gy irradiation. Pretreatment with FA (1, 5 and 10 microg/ml) significantly decrease the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. In addition, pretreatment with FA significantly increased antioxidant enzymes, GSH, Vitamins A, E and C, uric acid and ceruloplasmin levels. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 10 microg/ml of FA pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with FA helps in protecting the hepatocytes against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage and can be developed as a effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

  12. Preparation of equine isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bakala, A; Karlik, W; Wiechetek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this study a detailed description of the equine hepatocyte isolation procedure is presented. Livers were obtained from horses slaughtered at the local slaughterhouse. For blood removal and liver preservation the following steps are suggested: perfusion with the oxygenated HBSS (0-2 degrees C, with continuous flow of 500-800 ml/min for 3-6 min), protection from ischemia injury by flushing with ice-cold University of Wisconsin Solution (UW, flow rate of 500-800 ml/min), and finally immersion of the liver lobe in UW solution (2 degrees C) during its transport to the laboratory. For equine isolated hepatocyte preparation a "three-step" perfusion procedure was elaborated: rewarming, chelating and collagenase perfusion. We found optimal cell yield and viability under the following conditions: rewarming with UW (38 degrees C) for 8-14 min, chelating with calcium free Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS, 38 degrees C) supplemented with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis[beta-aminoethyl esther]-N,N,N'N'-tetracetic acid at the flow rate of 450 ml/min for 6 min and enzymatic digestion with HBSS supplemented with 0.1% collagenase at 38 degrees C and 450 ml/min flow rate for 8-27 min. These conditions consistently generated cell harvests of 21 x 10(6)+/-4.86 cells/g of perfused liver tissue with viability of 82.7%+/-10.2.

  13. Effect of crilvastatin, a new cholesterol lowering agent, on unesterified LDL-cholesterol metabolism into bile salts by rat isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Clerc, T; Sbarra, V; Diaconescu, N; Lafont, H; Jadot, G; Laruelle, C; Chanussot, F

    1995-01-01

    1. The aim of these experiments was to determine the effect of crilvastatin, a new cholesterol lowering agent, on the metabolism of unesterified low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by rat freshly isolated hepatocytes. This preclinical model was developed as an alternative to in vivo experiments, to mimic the metabolic effects of a molecule on its target cells and to define optimal conditions for future experimentation on human hepatocytes. 2. Cells were obtained from normolipidaemic or hypercholesterolaemic rats, hypercholesterolaemia was nutritionally induced. Incubations were performed in a medium containing 600 microM taurocholate and 50 microM or 300 microM crilvastatin. 3. This molecule was shown in vitro to be carried by physiological transporters, i.e., albumin-bile salt micellar associations and LDL. Crilvastatin induced a significance increase in the synthesis and secretion by hepatocytes of bile salts resulting from the metabolism of unesterified LDL-cholesterol in both normolipidaemic and hypercholesterolaemic rats. Stimulation involved non-conjugated as well as tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts. These findings corroborate preliminary studies showing in vivo that crilvastatin enhances the secretion of bile acids by stimulating the uptake and incorporation of LDL-cholesterol by the liver. PMID:7735689

  14. Transport in isolated rat hepatocytes of the phospho-oligosaccharide that mimics insulin action. Effects of adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, J F; Sánchez-Arias, J A; Guadaño, A; Estévez, F; Varela, I; Felíu, J E; Mato, J M

    1991-01-01

    The addition to intact cells of an inositol phospho-oligosaccharide (POS), which is the polar head-group of an insulin-sensitive glycosylphosphatidylinositol, mimics and may mediate some of the biological effects of this hormone. Here we report the existence of a POS transport system in hepatocytes. This POS transport system is specific and time- and dose-dependent. Insulin-resistance caused by dexamethasone administration to rats was accompanied by a decrease in the hepatocyte POS transport system. In contrast, bilateral adrenalectomy provoked a significant increase in the transport of POS. Both the temporal uptake of POS and the regulation of this process by conditions known to modify the sensitivity to insulin suggest that this novel transport system might be involved in the insulin signalling mechanism. PMID:2006906

  15. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in liver homogenates and isolated hepatocytes from control and clofibrate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mannaerts, G P; Debeer, L J; Thomas, J; De Schepper, P J

    1979-06-10

    Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation were compared in whole liver homogenates. Oxidation of 0.2 mM palmitoyl-CoA or oleate by mitochondria increased rapidly with increasing molar substrate:albumin ratios and became saturated at ratios below 3, while peroxisomal oxidation increased more slowly and continued to rise to reach maximal activity in the absence of albumin. Under the latter condition mitochondrial oxidation was severely depressed. In homogenates from normal liver peroxisomal oxidation was lower than mitochondrial oxidation at all ratios tested except when albumin was absent. In contrast with mitochondrial oxidation, peroxisomal oxidation did not produce ketones, was cyanide-insensitive, was not dependent on carnitine, and was not inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine, malonyl-CoA and 4-pentenoate. Mitochondrial oxidation was inhibited by CoASH concentrations that were optimal for peroxisomal oxidation. In the presence of albumin, peroxisomal oxidation was stimulated by Triton X-100 but unaffected by freeze-thawing; both treatments suppressed mitochondrial oxidation. Clofibrate treatment increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation 2- and 6- to 8-fold, respectively. Peroxisomal oxidation remained unchanged in starvation and diabetes. Fatty acid oxidation was severely depressed by cyanide and (+)-octanoylcarnitine in hepatocytes from normal rats. Hepatocytes from clofibrate-treated rats, which displayed a 3- to 4-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, were less inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine. Hydrogen peroxide production was severalfold higher in hepatocytes from treated animals oxidizing fatty acids than in control hepatocytes. Assuming that all H2O2 produced during fatty acid oxidation was due to peroxisomal oxidation, it was calculated that the contribution of the peroxisomes to fatty acid oxidation was less than 10% both in cells from control and clofibrate-treated animals.

  16. Differential secretion of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occurs in the Golgi complex of isolated rat hepatocytes. Evidence of partial retention in the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Poüs, C; Guibourdenche, J; Drechou, A; Durand, G

    1994-02-01

    Using weakly basic amines, we investigated the step at which the secretion kinetics of concanavalin-A-retained and nonretained alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms diverge in isolated rat hepatocytes. Both chloroquine and primaquine, whose action on protein secretion is targeted to terminal domains of the Golgi apparatus, cancelled the kinetic difference without influencing carbohydrate chain sialylation. To test for a possible interaction of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein with Golgi membranes, we also permeabilized control and primaquine-treated hepatocytes, as well as purified Golgi preparations, with saponin. In each case, we found that alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was associated with Golgi membranes, the association being more marked in primaquine-treated cells than in control cells. Membrane-bound alpha 1-acid glycoprotein appeared to be preferentially retained on concanavalin A. Such retention could account for the divergent secretion kinetics of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms.

  17. Metabolism of 2,4-dinitro[14C]toluene by freshly isolated Fischer-344 rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bond, J A; Rickert, D E

    1981-01-01

    Fischer-344 rat hepatocytes display a capacity for both oxidation and reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), a potent hepatocarcinogen. The major metabolite detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography was 2,4-dinitrobenzyl alcohol (2,4-DNBalc), which accounted for 75-80% of the total metabolites formed. The apparent KM and Vmax for 2,4-DNBalc formation was 58.0 microM and 25.5 nmoles/10(6) cells/30 min, respectively. Formation of 2,4-DNBalc was enhanced by treatment of rats with Aroclor 1254 (6-fold), phenobarbital (3.5-fold), and 3-methylcholanthrene (3.5-fold). In vitro additions of either SKF 525-A or 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited the formation of 2,4-DNBalc. Hepatocytes incubated under decreased oxygen concentrations (15%, 10%, 5% O2 in N2) displayed higher levels of reductive metabolism at 2,4-DNT (up to 5-fold) than when incubated in air. Concomitant decreases in oxidative metabolism of 2,4-DNT were observed in these experiments. Hepatocyte metabolism of 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene and 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene, two major products of rat cecal metabolism of 2,4-DNT, to 2-(N-acetyl)amino-4-nitrotoluene and 4-(N-acetyl)amino-2-nitrololuene, respectively, was observed. The results of this investigation suggest that hepatic reductive metabolism of 2,4-DNT probably plays a minor role in the overall metabolic scheme of 2,4-DNT.

  18. The role of prolactin and progesterone in the regulation of lipogenesis in maternal and foetal rat liver in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes during the last day of gestation.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, M; Roncero, C; Benito, M

    1986-01-01

    The administration of progesterone on day 21 of gestation increases the rates of lipogenesis in the liver in vivo and in hepatocytes isolated from rats on day 22 of pregnancy. Bromocriptine administration increases the rates of hepatic lipogenesis in vivo, but has no effect on lipid synthesis in hepatocytes under the same treatment conditions. Concurrently, the administration of progesterone or bromocriptine on day 21 to the mother increases the rates of lipogenesis in the foetal liver in vivo on day 22. The rates of lipid synthesis in foetal isolated hepatocytes are increased by progesterone administration, but remain unchanged by bromocriptine. PMID:3800972

  19. The involvement of cytochrome P450 peroxidase in the metabolic bioactivation of cumene hydroperoxide by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Anari, M R; Khan, S; O'Brien, P J

    1996-09-01

    Organic hydroperoxides are believed to be primarily detoxified in cells by the GSH peroxidase/GSSG reductase system and activated to cytotoxic radical species by non-heme iron. However, organic hydroperoxides seem to be bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (P450) in isolated hepatocytes as various P450 (particularly P450 2E1) inhibitors inhibited cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) metabolism and attenuated subsequent cytotoxic effects including antimycin A-resistant respiration, lipid peroxidation, iron mobilization, ATP depletion, and cell membrane disruption. CumOOH metabolism was also faster in P450 1A-induced hepatocytes and was inhibited by the P450 1A inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone. The ferric chelator deferoxamine also prevented cytotoxicity even after CumOOH had been metabolized but had no effect on CumOOH metabolism. This emphasizes the toxicological significance of the iron released following hydroperoxide metabolic activation by cytochrome P450. The radical trap, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), had no effect on CumOOH metabolism but prevented CumOOH-induced antimycin A-resistant respiration, lipid peroxidation, iron mobilization, and loss of membrane integrity. These results suggest that CumOOH is metabolically activated by some P450 enzymes (e.g., P450 2E1) in hepatocytes to form reactive radical metabolites or oxidants that cause lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity.

  20. Amodiaquine-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes and the cytoprotective effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, R.; Babaei, H.; Eghbal, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Amodiaquine is an antimalarial drug used in the prophylaxis and treatment of this disease. However, hepatotoxicity as a life-threatening adverse effect is associated with its clinical use. We evaluated amodiaquine-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes as an in vitro model for studying drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This study attempts to investigate the protective effects of taurine and N-acetyl cysteine against the cytotoxicity induced by amodiaquine. Hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. This technique is based on liver perfusion with collagenase after removal of calcium ion (Ca2+) with a chelator (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) 0.5 mM). Cells were treated with different concentrations of amodiaquine, taurine and N-acetyl cysteine. Cell death, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers. Amodiaquine cytotoxic mechanism involved protein carbonylation as well as reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation. In addition, mitochondria seem to be a target for amodiaquine to induce cellular damage. Administration of taurine (200 μM) and/or N-acetyl cysteine (200 μM) reduced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation caused by amodiaquine. Furthermore, amodiaquine-induced mitochondrial injury was significantly mitigated by taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine. In glutathione-depleted cells, only N-acetyl cysteine protected hepatocytes against amodiaquine, and taurine showed no protective properties in this situation. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine protect hepatocytes against amodiaquine probably via their antioxidant properties and counteracting oxidative stress. PMID:25657778

  1. Intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolongs survival in anhepatic rats.

    PubMed

    Arkadopoulos, N; Lilja, H; Suh, K S; Demetriou, A A; Rozga, J

    1998-11-01

    To examine whether hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen can function as an ectopic liver, we performed hepatocyte transplantation in rats that were rendered anhepatic. Total hepatectomy was performed by using a novel single-stage technique. Following hepatectomy, Group 1 rats (n = 16) were monitored until death to determine survival time without prior intervention. Group 2 anhepatic rats (n = 20) were sacrificed at various times to measure blood hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) levels. Group 3 (n = 16) rats received intrasplenic injection of isolated hepatocytes (2.5 x 10(7) cells/rat) followed by total hepatectomy after 3 days. Group 4 (n = 12) sham-transplanted rats received intrasplenic saline infusion, and after 3 days they were rendered anhepatic. Group 2, 3, and 4 rats were maintained on daily Cyclosporine A (10 mg/kg; intramuscularly). Group 1 anhepatic rats survived for 22.4 +/- 5.2 hours (standard deviation). The anhepatic state was associated with a progressive and statistically significant rise in blood HGF and TGF-beta1 levels. Rats that received hepatocyte transplantation before total hepatectomy had a significantly longer survival time than sham-transplanted anhepatic controls (34.1 +/- 8.5 vs. 15.5 +/- 4.8 hrs, P < .01). Additionally, at 12 hours post-hepatectomy, transplanted rats had significantly lower blood ammonia, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and TGF-beta1 levels when compared with sham-transplanted controls. In conclusion, intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolonged survival, improved blood chemistry, and lowered blood TGF-beta1 levels in rats rendered anhepatic.

  2. Hormone controlled phosphorylation and degradation of CYP2B1 and CYP2E1 in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, I; Eliasson, E; Ingelman-Sundberg, M

    1991-01-15

    Addition of adrenalin to primary rat hepatocytes caused a 3- and 2-fold increase in [32P]-incorporation into CYP2E1 and CYP2B1, respectively. Adrenalin also increased the rate of CYP2E1 degradation at similar concentrations as needed for phosphorylation of the protein (r = 0.93), but did not influence the degradation rate of CYP2B1. Ethanol (75 mM) completely protected from adrenalin dependent phosphorylation and degradation of CYP2E1, but did not influence CYP2B1 on these parameters. Examination of para-nitrophenol hydroxylase revealed that ethanol stabilized the catalytically active form of CYP2E1. Insulin treatment caused a stabilization of CYP2E1, but did not affect CYP2B1 degradation. It is concluded that degradation of CYP2E1 is the subject of hormonal control, whereas CYP2B1 decomposition is accomplished in a different and a less regulated manner.

  3. Prediction of the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin, cerivastatin, and indomethacin using kinetic models applied to isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Paine, Stuart W; Parker, Alison J; Gardiner, Philip; Webborn, Peter J H; Riley, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    The disposition of atorvastatin, cerivastatin, and indomethacin, established substrates of rat hepatic basolateral uptake transporters, has been evaluated in suspended rat hepatocytes. Cell and media concentration-time data were simultaneously fitted to a model incorporating active uptake, permeation, binding, and metabolism. Use of the model to estimate the ratio of intracellular to extracellular steady-state free drug concentrations demonstrated the strong influence of active uptake on the kinetics of atorvastatin (18:1) and cerivastatin (8:1), in comparison with indomethacin (3.5:1). Indomethacin, however, was shown to have a higher uptake clearance (599 +/- 101 microl/min/10(6) cells) than atorvastatin (375 +/- 45 microl/min/10(6) cells) and cerivastatin (413 +/- 47 microl/min/10(6) cells). The high passive permeability of indomethacin (237 +/- 63 microl/min/10(6) cells) clearly negated the effect of the active transport on the overall disposition. An analogous physiological model was constructed that allowed prediction of the in vivo pharmacokinetics, including the free intracellular concentration in liver. Hepatic clearance was well predicted by the model, in contrast to predictions based on standard methods. Volume of distribution was well predicted for indomethacin and predicted reasonably for atorvastatin and cerivastatin and higher than might be expected for an acid compound. Furthermore, the terminal half-life predictions for all three compounds were within 2-fold of the observed values. The ability to estimate the free-intracellular hepatic concentration of uptake substrates has major benefits in terms of predicting pharmacokinetics, potential CYP-mediated drug-drug interactions, and efficacy of hepatically targeted therapeutics.

  4. In vitro effects of alpha-bromopalmitate on metabolism of essential fatty acids studied in isolated rat hepatocytes: sex differences.

    PubMed

    Hagve, T A; Christophersen, B O

    1987-02-14

    alpha-Bromopalmitate was shown to have a far more pronounced effect on metabolism of labelled linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) in isolated liver cells from female rats than in those from males. alpha-Bromopalmitate decreased triacylglycerol synthesis with a concomitant accumulation of fatty acid in diacylglycerol, indicating that the acylation of diacylglycerol is affected by alpha-bromopalmitate.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of N-hydroxysuccinimide ester chemical affinity derivatives of asialoorosomucoid that covalently cross-link to galactosyl receptors on isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Herzig, M.C.S.; Weigel, P.H. )

    1989-01-24

    The authors have developed chemical affinity reagents for the hepatic galactosyl receptor. Asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) was derivatized with five homobifunctional N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester cross-linkers. NHS/ASOR derivatives were synthesized, purified, and applied within 10 min to isolated rat hepatocytes at 4{degree}C. Specific binding of these {sup 125}I-labeled derivatives was {approximately}90% in the presence of either EGTA or excess ASOR. Specific cross-linking assessed by the resistance of specifically bound NHS/{sup 125}I-ASOR to release by EGTA, was 50-75% of the specifically bound ligand. The extent of specific cross-linking correlated with the average number of NHS groups per ASOR and was controlled by varying the molar ratio of cross-linker to ASOR during the synthesis. After being cross-linked with any of the NHS/{sup 125}I-ASOR derivatives, cells were washed with EGTA, solubilized in Triton X-100, and analyzed by SDA-PAGE and autoradiography. They conclude that all three receptor subunits can cross-link to ligand. They propose a model in which the native receptor is a heterohexamer composed of four subunits of RHL 1 and two subunits of RHL 2 and/or RHL 3.

  6. The calcium ionophore A23187 is a potent stimulator of the vitamin D3-25 hydroxylase in hepatocytes isolated from normocalcaemic vitamin D-depleted rats.

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim, N; Dubé, C; Vallieres, S; Gascon-Barré, M

    1988-01-01

    The role played by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and/or by calcium on the C-25 hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (D3) was studied in hepatocytes isolated from D-depleted rats which were divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 served as controls, Group 2 received calcium gluconate, Groups 3 and 4 were infused with 1,25(OH)2D3 at 7 and 65 pmol/24 h x 7 days respectively. The treatments normalized serum calcium in all but the controls which remained hypocalcaemic, while serum 1,25(OH)2D3 remained low in Groups 1 and 2 but increased to physiologic and supraphysiologic levels in Groups 3 and 4. The data show that basal D3-25 hydroxylase activities were not significantly affected by any of the treatments. Addition of CaCl2, EGTA, or Quin-2 in vitro revealed that relative to basal values, EGTA strongly inhibited the enzyme activity in all groups (P less than 0.0001), except in G 1; Quin-2 and CaCl2 had no significant effect on the activity of the enzyme in any of the groups. Addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 or A23187 in vitro in the presence of CaCl2 revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 did not significantly affect enzyme activity, while A23187 was found to stimulate its activity in vitamin D-depleted animals, but most specifically in Group 2 (P less than 0.001); low serum calcium (Group 1) dampened (P less than 0.01), and 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in vivo totally blunted (P less than 0.001) the response to A23187. The data suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation in vivo has per se little or no effect on the basal D3-25 hydroxylase activity. The data show, however, that the magnitude of the response to various challenges in vitro is greatly influenced by the conditioning in vivo of the animals. They also show that A23187 can be a potent stimulator of the enzyme activity, which allowed us to demonstrate a significant reserve for the C-25 hydroxylation of D3 which is well expressed in hepatocytes obtained from D-depleted calcium-supplemented rats. PMID:2848514

  7. Lycopene as a natural protector against gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M; Sudheer, A Ram; Pillai, K Raveendran; Kumar, P Raghu; Sudhakaran, P R; Menon, V P

    2007-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid, on gamma-radiation induced toxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, vitamins A, E, C and uric acid. The DNA damage was analysed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase in gamma-radiation dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy) in cultured rat hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly whereas the levels of GSH, vitamins C, E and A, ceruloplasmin, uric acid and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in gamma-irradiated groups. The maximum damage to hepatocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. Pretreatment with lycopene (1.86, 9.31 and 18.62 microM) showed a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. The antioxidant enzymes increased significantly along with the levels of GSH, vitamins A, E, C, uric acid and ceruloplasmin. The maximum protection of hepatocytes was observed at 9.31 muM of lycopene pretreatment. Thus, our results show that pretreatment with lycopene offers protection against gamma-radiation induced cellular damage and can be developed as an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

  8. Distribution of labeled products from (1-/sup 14/C), (U-/sup 14/C) and (16-/sup 14/C)-palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes and liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzidakis, C.; Otto, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    Fatty acids (FA) labeled in different carbon positions are used to study the distribution of labeled oxidation products. With rat hepatocytes (Hep) the authors observed significant differences in the distribution of label into products from (1-/sup 14/C) and (U-/sup 14/C)-palmitate (P). The total recovery of label in products (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/ + acid soluble fraction (ASF)) was identical between the two labeled FA. However, /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from (U-/sup 14/C)-P was only 40% of that from (1-/sup 14/C)-P. A recent report showed that approximately = 95% of succinate (Suc) utilized by Hep does not complete one full turn through the citric acid cycle. The authors observed that /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution from (2,3-/sup 14/C)-Suc was approximately = 9% of that from (1,4-/sup 14/C)-Suc, indicating that the differences in label distribution between (1-/sup 14/C) and (U-/sup 14/C)-P are partially due to less /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from label in the even carbon positions of the FA with consequently more label remaining in the ASF. The /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from (16-/sup 14/C)-P was only 4% of that from (1-/sup 14/C)-P a value less than expected from the Suc experiments. Ketone bodies (KB) comprised 78% of total labeled products from (16-/sup 14/C)-P as compared to 28% from (1-/sup 14/C)-P and 41% from (U-/sup 14/C)-P, giving support to the previously reported preferential use of the omega-C/sub 2/ unit for KB synthesis without entry into the acetyl-CoA pool. Studies with isolated rat liver mitochondria gave results similar to those with Hep, indicating minimal involvement of perioxisomal ..beta..-oxidation.

  9. Effects of methylmercury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes: Cell injury and inhibition of growth factor stimulated DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tanno, Keiichi; Fukazawa, Toshiyuki; Tajima, Shizuko; Fujiki, Motoo )

    1992-08-01

    Many more studies deal with the toxicity of methylmercury on nervous tissue than on its toxicity to the liver. Methylmercury accumulates in the liver in higher concentrations than brain and the liver has the primary function of detoxifying methylmercury. According to recent studies, hepatocyte mitochondrial membranes are destroyed by methylmercury and DNA synthesis is inhibited by methylmercury during hepatocyte regeneration. Methylmercury alters the membrane ion permeability of isolate skate hepatocytes, and inhibits the metal-sensitive alcohol dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase of primary cultured rat hepatocytes. However, little is known about the effect of methylmercury on hepatocyte proliferation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. We therefore used the primary cultured rat hepatocytes to investigate the effects of methylmercury on cell injury and growth factor stimulate DNA synthesis. The primary effect of methylmercury is to inhibit hepatocyte proliferation rather than to cause direct cell injury. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Immunochemical Study of the Effect of F2Glc on Glycogen Synthase Translocation and Glycogen Synthesis in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Novell, J M; Díaz-Lobo, M

    2017-09-16

    The compound 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-glucopyranosyl fluoride (F2Glc), which is a nonmetabolized superior glucose analogue, is a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and pharmacological properties are reported. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen synthase (GS) are responsible of the degradation and synthesis, respectively, of glycogen which is a polymer of glucose units that provides a readily available source of energy in mammals. GP and GS are two key enzymes that modulate cellular glucose and glycogen levels; therefore, these proteins are suggested as potential targets for the treatment of diseases related to glycogen metabolism disorders. We studied by Western Blot technique that F2Glc decreased GP activity, and we also showed that F2Glc did not affect GS activity and its translocation from a uniform cytosolic distribution to the hepatocyte periphery, which is crucial for glycogen synthesis, using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. F2Glc specifically inhibits glycogenolysis pathway and permits a greater deposition of glycogen. These observations open up the possibility of further develop drugs that act specifically on GP. The ability to selectively inhibit GP, which is a key enzyme for the release of glucose from the hepatic glycogen reserve, may represent a new approach for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.

  11. Characteristics of the accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamate derivatives in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.W.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Yalowich, J.C.; Goldman, I.D.

    1983-01-01

    The intracellular synthesis and retention of polygammaglutamyl derivatives of methotrexate and their interactions with H/sub 2/ folate reductase was evaluated. Methotrexate polyglutamates were detected within 15 minutes in hepatocytes exposed to 1 microM methotrexate, and continued to accumulate for at least 60 minutes producing a large transmembrane gradient. These derivatives appeared to be preferentially retained within the cell. In studies with the Ehrlich ascites tumor accumulation of methotrexate polyglutamates was increased over 5-fold by the addition of 5 mM L-glutamine or L-glutamate and exhibited a positive correlation with the extracellular concentration of methotrexate. When Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were exposed to 10 microM methotrexate and 5 mM L-glutamine intracellular polyglutamates were detected within 10 minutes and their levels increased linearly over 4 hours. As these derivatives accumulated, there was a decline in intracellular methotrexate due at least in part to a replacement of methotrexate on H/sub 2/ folate reductase by polyglutamates and subsequent efflux of the previously bound methotrexate from the cell. When polyglutamate derivatives were in excess of the H/sub 2/ folate reductase binding capacity and extracellular methotrexate removed, methotrexate rapidly exited the cell whereas the majority of its metabolites were retained and eventually saturated the major portion of the enzyme. These studies indicate that (1) intracellular methotrexate is rapidly converted to polygammaglutamyl derivatives, (2) these metabolites effectively compete with methotrexate for binding sites on H/sub 2/ folate reductase, (3) these derivatives are retained within the cell more effectively than methotrexate, and (4) vincristine and probenecid may be potentially useful for selectively increasing methotrexate polyglutamates in tumor cells.

  12. Quantitative analysis of flux along the gluconeogenic, glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways under reducing conditions in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, J M; Blum, J J

    1983-01-01

    Hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of fed rats and incubated with a mixture of glucose (10 mM), ribose (1 mM), mannose (4 mM), glycerol (3 mM), acetate (1.25 mM), and ethanol (5 mM) with one substrate labelled with 14C in any given incubation. Incorporation of label into CO2, glucose, glycogen, lipid glycerol and fatty acids, acetate and C-1 of glucose was measured at 20 and 40 min after the start of the incubation. The data (about 48 measurements for each interval) were used in conjunction with a single-compartment model of the reactions of the gluconeogenic, glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways and a simplified model of the relevant mitochondrial reactions. An improved method of computer analysis of the equations describing the flow of label through each carbon atom of each metabolite under steady-state conditions was used to compute values for the 34 independent flux parameters in this model. A good fit to the data was obtained, thereby permitting good estimates of most of the fluxes in the pathways under consideration. The data show that: net flux above the level of the triose phosphates is gluconeogenic; label in the hexose phosphates is fully equilibrated by the second 20 min interval; the triose phosphate isomerase step does not equilibrate label between the triose phosphates; substrate cycles are operating at the glucose-glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate-pyruvate-oxaloacetate cycles; and, although net flux through the enzymes catalysing the non-oxidative steps of the pentose phosphate pathway is small, bidirectional fluxes are large. PMID:6411069

  13. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes. Images PMID:6997878

  14. Disappearance of GFP-Positive Hepatocytes Transplanted into the Liver of Syngeneic Wild-Type Rats Pretreated with Retrorsine

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Wang, Yongchun; Fu, Yingxin; Wesson, Russell N.; Lin, Qing; Montgomery, Robert A.; Enzan, Hideaki; Sun, Zhaoli

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a widely used molecular tag to trace transplanted cells in rodent liver injury models. The differing results from various previously reported studies using GFP could be attributed to the immunogenicity of GFP. Methods Hepatocytes were obtained from GFP-expressing transgenic (Tg) Lewis rats and were transplanted into the livers of wild-type Lewis rats after they had undergone a partial hepatectomy. The proliferation of endogenous hepatocytes in recipient rats was inhibited by pretreatment with retrorsine to enhance the proliferation of the transplanted hepatocytes. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes into GFP-Tg rat liver was also performed for comparison. Results All biopsy specimens taken seven days after transplantation showed engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes, with the numbers of transplanted hepatocytes increasing until day 14. GFP-positive hepatocytes in wild-type rat livers were decreased by day 28 and could not be detected on day 42, whereas the number of wild-type hepatocytes steadily increased in GFP-Tg rat liver. Histological examination showed degenerative change of GFP-positive hepatocytes and the accumulation of infiltrating cells on day 28. PCR analysis for the GFP transgene suggested that transplanted hepatocytes were eliminated rather than being retained along with the loss of GFP expression. Both modification of the immunological response using tacrolimus and bone marrow transplantation prolonged the survival of GFP-positive hepatocytes. In contrast, host immunization with GFP-positive hepatocytes led to complete loss of GFP-positive hepatocytes by day 14. Conclusion GFP-positive hepatocytes isolated from GFP-Tg Lewis rats did not survive long term in the livers of retrorsine-pretreated wild-type Lewis rats. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon most likely involves an immunological reaction against GFP. The influence of GFP immunogenicity on cell transplantation models should be

  15. [Hepatocyte mitochondrion respiratory chain in rats with experimental toxic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Shiriaeva, A P; Baĭdiuk, E V; Arkad'eva, A V; Okovityĭ, S V; Morozov, V I; Sakuta, G A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine hepatocyte mitochondrion respiratory chain in rats subjected to ethanol and CCl4 administration within 4 weeks to induce an experimental hepatitis. Oxygen consumption was determined as a measure of mitochondrion respiration chain function. The development of liver pathology was accompanied by fat accumulation, fibrosis, triglycerides and lipid peroxidation increase. Respiratory chain characteristics damage was found. Endogenous oxygen consumption by hepatocytes isolated from pathological liver was found 34% higher compared to control. Exogenous malate and pyruvate substrates delivery didn't stimulate cell respiration. Rotenone (the inhibitor of the I complex) decreased 27% oxygen consumption by pathological hepatocytes while dinitrophenol produced 37% cell respiration increase. States 3 (V3) and 4 (V4) mitochondrial respiration with malate + glutamate as substrates were found to be 70 and 56% higher accordingly compared to control level. V3 and Vd (dinitrophenol respiration) for mitochondria from pathological liver didn't differ from control when being tested with malate + glutamate or succinate as substrates. Cytochrome c oxidase activity increased (+ 80%) as compared to control. Administration of hypolipidemic agent simvastatin simultaneously with ethanol and CC14 resulted in decrease liver fat accumulation, fibrosis and peroxidation products. Simvastatin administration caused hepatocyte endogenous respiration decrease while malate + pyruvate, dinitrophenol or rotenone delivery produced oxygen consumption alterations similar to control. However, when isolated mitochondria from liver of simvastatin treated animals being tested the decrease of oxidative phosphorylation coupling for substrates malate + glutamate was found. While simvastatin did not cause changes in cytochrome c oxidase activity. We propose the hypothesis that the NCCR complex in rat mitochondria with experimental toxic hepatitis works extensively on

  16. CD36/fatty acid translocase in rats: distribution, isolation from hepatocytes, and comparison with the scavenger receptor SR-B1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingqi; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L; Cleland, Leslie G; Ey, Peter L; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Farmer, Elizabeth-Anne; Sincock, Paul; Mayrhofer, Graham

    2003-03-01

    The new mAb UA009 recognizes an antigen expressed by microvascular endothelium, by lymphatic endothelium, and by some epithelia in a number of organs, including the small intestine, lactating mammary gland, kidney, lung, sebaceous glands, and circumvallate papillae of the tongue. This antigen is also expressed abundantly in the splenic red pulp and marginal zone and by monocytes, macrophages, and erythrocytes (but not by platelets). Among tissues that store or metabolize fatty acids, the antigen is expressed by adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, and red skeletal muscle. Importantly, it is expressed by steroidogenic cells in the adrenal gland, testis, and ovary, whereas in the liver it is expressed by hepatocytes in a pattern that is dependent on gender and genetic background. mAb UA009 immunoprecipitated a mol wt 85-kDa surface protein from detergent extracts of hepatocytes from Dark Agouti female rats. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein was identical to fatty acid translocase (FAT), the rat cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) ortholog. The mAb also reacted with COS-7 cells transfected with cDNA encoding FAT. cDNAs encoding a CD36/FAT-like polypeptide were prepared from both liver and heart RNA by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequences obtained from these cDNAs (Dark Agouti rats) revealed identity and 99% similarity, respectively, with the published sequences of Cd36/Fat in rats of the Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains. The absence of the UA009 antigen in CD36/FAT-deficient SHR/N rats confirmed the identity of the UA009 antigen and CD36/FAT. We suggest that CD36/FAT might function in the liver as a sex-regulated accessory molecule, either in reverse cholesterol transport and/or in fatty acid uptake.

  17. Metabolic changes in lipids of rat plasma and hepatocytes induced by 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol treatment.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Koide, K; Hirata, Y; Ohtani, H; Yamada, K; Kajiyama, G

    1986-11-14

    Cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-treated rats were used to investigate the change of lipid metabolism induced by administration of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol. Treatment with 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol caused a decrease of rat plasma lipids (free cholesterol, cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine). No difference in the ability of urea nitrogen synthesis could be demonstrated between cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-treated rats and propylene glycol-treated rats (control). Total cholesterol and cholesterol ester contents of cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-treated rats were increased in comparison with those of the control. Triacylglycerol content of cultured hepatocytes was not affected by 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol treatment. There was no difference in the composition of lipid content between liver tissues and cultured hepatocytes. These results suggest that hepatocytes isolated from livers maintain the character of livers treated with 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol or livers treated with propylene glycol. Free cholesterol and cholesterol ester synthesis from [14C]acetic acid by cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-treated rats were decreased to about 30% of the control. Triacylglycerol and polar lipid (phospholipid) synthesis from [14C]acetic acid were not affected by 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol treatment. Microsomal hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity of rat liver treated with 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol was decreased to about 50% of control. The secretions of free cholesterol, cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, apolipoprotein BL and BS by cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol treated rats were not decreased when compared with the control. Because lipid and apolipoprotein secretions from cultured hepatocytes treated with 17 alpha

  18. Effect of growth hormone and estrogen administration on hepatocyte alterations in old ovariectomized female wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-02-01

    Aging could be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage. On the other hand, growth hormone (GH) and estrogen deficiency induce deleterious effects on different tissues, and hormonal replacement could counteract these effects. We have investigated whether GH and estrogen administration modify some parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation in hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized female rats. Twenty-two month-old ovariectomized animals were divided into control rats, rats treated with GH, rats treated with estradiol, and rats treated with GH+estradiol. Two-month-old intact female rats were used as young reference group. Hepatocytes were isolated, cultured, and CO and NO release, ATP, cyclic-guanosyl monophosphate (cGMP), and lipid peroxide (LPO) content of cells, as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC)synthesis, were measured. Hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized rats showed a decrease in ATP content and PC synthesis compared to young rats. Age also induced an increase in LPO, NO, CO, and cGMP. Treating old rats with GH significantly increased ATP and reduced CO and cGMP levels. Estradiol administration improved all the parameters that were altered. Co-administration of GH and estrogens induced a more marked effect than estrogens alone only in cGMP content. In conclusion, administration of estrogens to old ovariectomized females seemed to prevent oxidative changes in hepatocytes, whereas the effect of GH is not so evident.

  19. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, P.A.; Sisk, R.B.; Johnson, R.M.; Garrison, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a 6-fold increase in the phosphorylation state of a cytosolic protein (pp36, M/sub r/ = 36,000, pI = 5.5) in hepatocytes isolated from fasted, male, Wistar rats. Stimulation of /sup 32/P incorporation is observed as early as 1 min following treatment of hepatocytes with EGF and is still present at 30 min after exposure to the growth factor. The phosphate incorporated into pp36 in response to EGF is located predominantly in serine but not tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of pp36 does not occur in response to insulin or to agents which specifically activate the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (S/sub p/ -cAMPS), protein kinase C (PMA) or Ca/sup 2 +//calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (A23187) in these cells. Prior treatment of hepatocytes with the cAMP analog, S/sub p/-cAMPS, or ADP-ribosylation of N/sub i/, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, does not prevent EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of pp36. However, as seen in other cell types, pretreatment of hepatocytes with PMA abolishes all EGF-mediated responses including phosphorylation of pp36. These results suggest that EGP specifically activates an uncharacterized, serine protein kinase in hepatocytes that is distal to the intrinsic EGF receptor tyrosine protein kinase. The rapid activation of this kinase suggests that it may play an important role in the early response of the cell to EGF.

  20. Phosphatidylinositol metabolism in rat hepatocytes stimulated by vasopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, C J; Michell, R H; Hems, D A

    1981-01-01

    In isolated rat hepatocytes, vasopressin evoked a large increase in the incorporation of [32P]Pi into phosphatidylinositol, accompanied by smaller increases in the incorporation of [1-14C]oleate and [U-14C]glycerol. Incorporation of these precursors into the other major phospholipids was unchanged during vasopressin treatment. Vasopressin also promoted phosphatidylinositol breakdown in hepatocytes. Half-maximum effects on phosphatidylinositol breakdown and on phosphatidylinositol labelling occurred at about 5 nM-vasopressin, a concentration at which approximately half of the hepatic vasopressin receptors are occupied but which is much greater than is needed to produce half-maximal activation of glycogen phosphorylase. Insulin did not change the incorporation of [32P]Pi into the phospholipids of hepatocytes and it had no effect on the response to vasopressin. Although the incorporation of [32P]Pi into hepatocyte lipids was decreased when cells were incubated in a Ca2+-free medium, vasopressin still provoked a substantial stimulation of phosphatidylinositol labelling under these conditions. Studies with the antagonist [1-(beta-mercapto-beta, beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionic acid),8-arginine]vasopressin indicated that the hepatic vasopressin receptors that control phosphatidylinositol metabolism are similar to those that mediate the vasopressor response in vivo. When prelabelled hepatocytes were stimulated for 5 min and then subjected to subcellular fractionation. The decrease in [3H]phosphatidylinositol content in each cell fraction with approximately in proportion to its original phosphatidylinositol content. This may be a consequence of phosphatidylinositol breakdown at a single site, followed by rapid phosphatidylinositol exchange between membranes leading to re-establishment of an equilibrium distribution. PMID:7030316

  1. Steatotic rat hepatocytes in primary culture are more susceptible to the acute toxic effect of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Kučera, O; Al-Dury, S; Lotková, H; Roušar, T; Rychtrmoc, D; Červinková, Z

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most frequent chronic liver disease in developed countries. The aim of our work was to compare the effect of APAP on intact rat hepatocytes and hepatocytes isolated from steatotic liver in primary cultures. Male Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (10 % energy from fat) and high-fat diet (71 % energy from fat) for 6 weeks and then hepatocytes were isolated. After cell attachment, APAP (1; 2.5; 3.75 and 5 mM) was added to culture media (William's E medium) and hepatocytes were cultured for up to 24 hours. APAP caused more severe dose-dependent damage of steatotic hepatocytes as documented by increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH leakage, decreased activity of cellular dehydrogenases (WST-1 test) and reduced albumin production. Intact steatotic hepatocytes contained lower amount of reduced glutathione (GSH). Treatment with APAP (1 and 2.5 mmol/l) caused more pronounced decrease in GSH in steatotic hepatocytes. ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation after 24-hour incubation was significantly higher in fatty hepatocytes using APAP at concentration of 3.75 and 5 mmol/l. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production was elevated in 2.5 mM APAP-treated nonsteatotic and steatotic hepatocyte cultures at 8 hours, compared to appropriate controls. In conclusions, our results indicate that steatotic hepatocytes exert higher sensitivity to the toxic action of APAP. This sensitivity may be caused by lower content of GSH in intact steatotic hepatocytes and by more pronounced APAP-induced decrease in intracellular concentration of GSH.

  2. Assessment of cell concentration and viability of isolated hepatocytes using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Wigg, Alan J; Phillips, John W; Wheatland, Loretta; Berry, Michael N

    2003-06-01

    The assessment of cell concentration and viability of freshly isolated hepatocyte preparations has been traditionally performed using manual counting with a Neubauer counting chamber and staining for trypan blue exclusion. Despite the simple and rapid nature of this assessment, concerns about the accuracy of these methods exist. Simple flow cytometry techniques which determine cell concentration and viability are available yet surprisingly have not been extensively used or validated with isolated hepatocyte preparations. We therefore investigated the use of flow cytometry using TRUCOUNT Tubes and propidium iodide staining to measure cell concentration and viability of isolated rat hepatocytes in suspension. Analysis using TRUCOUNT Tubes provided more accurate and reproducible measurement of cell concentration than manual cell counting. Hepatocyte viability, assessed using propidium iodide, correlated more closely than did trypan blue exclusion with all indicators of hepatocyte integrity and function measured (lactate dehydrogenase leakage, cytochrome p450 content, cellular ATP concentration, ammonia and lactate removal, urea and albumin synthesis). We conclude that flow cytometry techniques can be used to measure cell concentration and viability of isolated hepatocyte preparations. The techniques are simple, rapid, and more accurate than manual cell counting and trypan blue staining and the results are not affected by protein-containing media.

  3. Allicin modulates the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-10-01

    The effect of allicin, an active ingredient of garlic, on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, and GSH-related enzyme activity was investigated in primary hepatocytes. In this study, allicin was synthesized in our laboratory as an experimental material, and primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model. According to the results, hepatocytes treated with 10 μM allicin did not differ from the control on LDH leakage during various incubation times. When the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin, their levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive-substances (TBARS) did not differ significantly from that of the control within the 8-h incubation. However, the TBARS values of hepatocytes treated with 30 and 50 μM allicin were higher compared to the control after incubation for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The hepatocyte intracellular GSH content was significantly higher than that of the control after 30 μM allicin treatment, but treatment with 50 μM allicin caused a significant GSH depletion after incubation for 4 h or longer. In addition, when hepatocytes were treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly increased compared to that of the control, whereas 50 μM allicin treatment for 24 h or longer significantly decreased the GPx activity. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was significantly increased when the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin for 24 h, but GRd activity significantly decreased when the hepatocytes were treated with 50 μM allicin. However, hepatocytes treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin showed significantly increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity compared to the control. These results suggest that 10 μM allicin potentially enhances the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes.

  4. Activation of Kupffer cells and caspase-3 involved in rat hepatocyte apoptosis induced by endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Hamada, E; Nishida, T; Uchiyama, Y; Nakamura, J; Isahara, K; Kazuo, H; Huang, T P; Momoi, T; Ito, T; Matsuda, H

    1999-05-01

    Sepsis and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) cause mild to severe hepatic dysfunction. In this study, Kupffer cell activation, involvement of TNFalpha and caspases downstream of the TNFalpha receptor were examined in hepatocyte apoptosis induced by LPS. In in vivo experiments, male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with LPS, and small amounts of the blood and liver were sampled to evaluate apoptosis. Kupffer cells were inactivated by pretreatment with gadolinium chloride for 2 days. In in vitro experiments, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells were separately isolated from rat livers using collagenase perfusion. LPS induced time-dependent and dose-dependent increases in the number of TUNEL-positive cells, which coincided with the apoptotic features of hepatocytes demonstrated by electron microscopy and DNA ladder. Activation of caspase-3-like proteases was observed with an increase in the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. Immunostaining with activated caspase-3-specific antibody showed that caspase-3 was activated only in the cytoplasm of TUNEL-positive hepatocytes. Inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride was concomitantly accompanied by the prevention of caspase-3 activation, hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury induced by LPS. The co-culture system of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, but neither cell culture system, individually, showed LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Kupffer cell-conditioned medium induced hepatocyte apoptosis, whereas addition of anti-TNFalpha antibody to Kupffer cell-conditioned medium did not. Additions of acetyl-DEVD-CHO, acetyl-YVAD-CHO, and acetyl-IETD-CHO to Kupffer cell-conditioned medium decreased the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. These results suggest that the activation of Kupffer cells, TNFalpha and caspases downstream of TNFR1 were involved in hepatocyte apoptosis induced by LPS.

  5. Allicin Modulates the Antioxidation and Detoxification Capabilities of Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of allicin, an active ingredient of garlic, on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, and GSH-related enzyme activity was investigated in primary hepatocytes. In this study, allicin was synthesized in our laboratory as an experimental material, and primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model. According to the results, hepatocytes treated with 10 μM allicin did not differ from the control on LDH leakage during various incubation times. When the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin, their levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive-substances (TBARS) did not differ significantly from that of the control within the 8-h incubation. However, the TBARS values of hepatocytes treated with 30 and 50 μM allicin were higher compared to the control after incubation for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The hepatocyte intracellular GSH content was significantly higher than that of the control after 30 μM allicin treatment, but treatment with 50 μM allicin caused a significant GSH depletion after incubation for 4 h or longer. In addition, when hepatocytes were treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly increased compared to that of the control, whereas 50 μM allicin treatment for 24 h or longer significantly decreased the GPx activity. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was significantly increased when the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin for 24 h, but GRd activity significantly decreased when the hepatocytes were treated with 50 μM allicin. However, hepatocytes treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin showed significantly increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity compared to the control. These results suggest that 10 μM allicin potentially enhances the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes. PMID:24716147

  6. Preincubation of rat and human hepatocytes with cytoprotectants prior to cryopreservation can improve viability and function upon thawing.

    PubMed

    Terry, Claire; Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Lehec, Sharon C; Hughes, Robin D

    2005-12-01

    Cryopreservation of human hepatocytes is important for the treatment of liver disease by hepatocyte transplantation and also for the use of hepatocytes as an in vitro model of the liver. One factor in the success of cryopreservation is the quality of cells before freezing. Preincubation of hepatocytes with cytoprotective compounds to allow recovery from the isolation process prior to cryopreservation, such as those that will boost cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content or antioxidants, may improve the viability and function of cells upon thawing. Rat hepatocytes were used to investigate the effects of preincubation with 10 compounds: precursors (glucose, fructose, glutathione, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine), antioxidants (ascorbic acid and alpha-lipoic acid), and compounds with multiple effects (N-acetylcysteine, pentoxifylline, prostaglandin E(1), and tauroursodeoxycholic acid). Human hepatocytes were then used to investigate 5 of the original 10 compounds (glucose, fructose, alpha-lipoic acid, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and pentoxifylline). Glucose preincubation (100-300 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of rat hepatocytes and improved the viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage of human hepatocytes. Fructose preincubation (100-300 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of rat hepatocytes and improved the attachment efficiency of human hepatocytes. alpha-lipoic acid preincubation (0.5-5 mM) improved the viability and attachment efficiency of both rat and human hepatocytes. At a concentration of 2.5 mM alpha-lipoic acid also improved the albumin production of human hepatocytes. In conclusion, preincubation of hepatocytes prior to cryopreservation can improve the viability and function of thawed cells and may provide a method of obtaining better-quality cryopreserved hepatocytes for transplantation.

  7. Isolation of centrolobular and perilobular hepatocytes after phenobarbital treatment

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Daily phenobarbital (PB) injections, on 3-7 consecutive days, induce an intense proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) associated with a decrease of the glucose-6-phosphatase activity. This situation first affects the centrolobular hepatocytes, enhancing the degree of liver lobule heterogeneity. This experimental model was used for isolation and further subfractionation of hepatocytes on Ficoll density gradients, as described in the preceding paper. Profiles of protein, DNA, RNA, glycogen, phosphorylase, and glucose-6-phosphatase were determined all along the gradient. Two liver cell populations were distinguished: (a) light hepatocytes (mean density 1.10) present the same morphological characteristics as centrolobular cells, i.e., an abundant smooth ER composed of tubular elements, numerous small mitochondria, and few glycogen particles; (b) heavy hepatocytes (mean density 1.14) are characterized by large and compact glycogen areas and prominent rough endoplasmic cisternae, as are the perilobular cells. After incubation in the Wachstein-Meisel medium, Centrolobular hepatocytes exhibit dispersed reaction sites of glucose-6-phosphatase activity, whereas perilobular cells present a continuous and intense reaction. Morphometric determinations were carried out for both cell populations. Centrolobular PB hepatocytes are considerably enlarged (mean diameter: 23.7 mum); perilobular hepatocytes have a significantly smaller mean diameter of 19.2 mum, which is close to the values of control liver cells. PMID:167029

  8. Serum-Free Medium and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Enhance Functionality and Stabilize Integrity of Rat Hepatocyte Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ji; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Wang, William; Amiot, Bruce; Yu, Yue; Dietz, Allan B.; Nahmias, Yaakov; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term culture of hepatocyte spheroids with high ammonia clearance is valuable for therapeutic applications, especially the bioartificial liver. However, the optimal conditions are not well studied. We hypothesized that liver urea cycle enzymes can be induced by high protein diet and maintain on a higher expression level in rat hepatocyte spheroids by serum-free medium (SFM) culture and coculture with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Rats were feed normal protein diet (NPD) or high protein diet (HPD) for 7 days before liver digestion and isolation of hepatocytes. Hepatocyte spheroids were formed and maintained in a rocked suspension culture with or without MSCs in SFM or 10% serum-containing medium (SCM). Spheroid viability, kinetics of spheroid formation, hepatic functions, gene expression, and biochemical activities of rat hepatocyte spheroids were tested over 14 days of culture. We observed that urea cycle enzymes of hepatocyte spheroids can be induced by high protein diet. SFM and MSCs enhanced ammonia clearance and ureagenesis and stabilized integrity of hepatocyte spheroids compared to control conditions over 14 days. Hepatocytes from high protein diet-fed rats formed spheroids and maintained a high level of ammonia detoxification for over 14 days in a novel SFM. Hepatic functionality and spheroid integrity were further stabilized by coculture of hepatocytes with MSCs in the spheroid microenvironment. These findings have direct application to development of the spheroid reservoir bioartificial liver. PMID:23006214

  9. Role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the control by glucagon of gluconeogenesis from various precursors in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hue, L; Bartrons, R

    1984-01-01

    Hepatocytes from overnight-starved rats were incubated with 1-20 mM-fructose, -dihydroxyacetone, -glycerol, -alanine or -lactate and -pyruvate with or without 0.1 microM-glucagon. The production of glucose and lactate was measured, as was the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. The concentrations of fructose (below 5 mM) and dihydroxyacetone (above 1 mM) that gave rise to an increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were those at which a glucagon effect on the production of glucose and lactate could be observed. Glycerol had no effect on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content or on production of lactate, and glucagon did not stimulate the production of glucose from this precursor. With alanine or lactate/pyruvate as substrates, glucagon stimulated glucose production whether the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was increased or not. The extent of inactivation of pyruvate kinase by glucagon was not affected by the presence of the various gluconeogenic precursors. The role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the effect of glucagon on gluconeogenesis from precursors entering the pathway at the level of triose phosphates or pyruvate is discussed. PMID:6546872

  10. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    SciTech Connect

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Aleo, Michael D.; Strock, Christopher J.; Stedman, Donald B.; Wang, Huijun; Will, Yvonne

    2013-10-15

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary.

  11. Insulin receptor downregulation in isolated hepatocytes of river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Leibush, B N; Lappova, Y L

    1995-10-01

    Insulin receptor downregulation in the isolated hepatocytes of lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) was studied at the ambient temperature for this species. Preincubation of hepatocytes with 10(-9)-10(-8) M unlabeled insulin decreased insulin binding capacity to 43, 37, and 34% at 4, 15, and 25 degrees, respectively. Preincubation of hepatocytes in the presence of 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin had no effect on the 125I-insulin binding. The maximal decrease in the 125I-insulin binding was reached after 10 min of preincubation and was then maintained at a constant level for 2 hr. Competitive binding assays demonstrated that preincubation with unlabeled insulin resulted in a 45% decline in the number of binding sites. In rat adipocytes and frog hepatocytes used for the comparison, preincubation with insulin caused a 65% decrease in cell-surface receptors, while intracellular (internalized receptors) increased proportionally. In contrast, in the lamprey hepatocytes both cell-surface and intracellular receptors decreased. We conclude that insulin receptors of the lamprey hepatocytes could be down-regulated at the ambient temperature for the species and at the physiological concentrations of insulin (10(-9)-10(-8) M).

  12. Machine Perfusion Enhances Hepatocyte Isolation Yields From Ischemic Livers

    PubMed Central

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Perk, Sinem; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Korkut; Yarmush, Martin L.; Berthiaume, François

    2015-01-01

    Background High-quality human hepatocytes form the basis of drug safety and efficacy tests, cell-based therapies, and bridge-to-transplantation devices. Presently the only supply of cells derives from an inadequate pool of suboptimal disqualified donor livers. Here we evaluated whether machine perfusion could ameliorate ischemic injury that many of these livers experience prior to hepatocyte isolation. Methods Non-heparinized female Lewis rat livers were exposed to an hour of warm ischemia (34°C) and then perfused for 3 hours. Five different perfusion conditions that utilized the cell isolation apparatus were investigated, namely: (1) modified Williams Medium E and (2) Lifor, both with active oxygenation (95%O2/5%CO2), as well as (3) Lifor passively oxygenated with ambient air (21%O2/0.04%CO2), all at ambient temperatures (20±2°C). At hypothermic temperatures (5±1°C) and under passive oxygenation were (4) University of Wisconsin solution (UW) and (5) Vasosol. Negative and positive control groups comprised livers that had ischemia (WI) and livers that did not (Fresh) prior to cell isolation, respectively. Results Fresh livers yielded 32±9 million cells/g liver while an hour of ischemia reduced the cell yield to 1.6±0.6 million cells/g liver. Oxygenated Williams medium E and Lifor recovered yields of 39±11 and 31±2.3 million cells/g liver, respectively. The passively oxygenated groups produced 15±7 (Lifor), 13±7 (Vasosol), and 10±6 (UW) million cells/g liver. Oxygenated Williams Medium E was most effective at sustaining pH values, avoiding the accumulation of lactate, minimizing edematous weight gain and producing bile during perfusion. Conclusions Machine perfusion results in a dramatic increase in cell yields from livers that have had up to an hour of warm ischemia, but perfusate choice significantly impacts the extent of recovery. Oxygenated Williams Medium E at room temperature is superior to Lifor, UW and Vasosol, largely facilitated by its high

  13. Machine perfusion enhances hepatocyte isolation yields from ischemic livers.

    PubMed

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Perk, Sinem; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Korkut; Yarmush, Martin L; Berthiaume, François

    2015-10-01

    High-quality human hepatocytes form the basis of drug safety and efficacy tests, cell-based therapies, and bridge-to-transplantation devices. Presently the only supply of cells derives from an inadequate pool of suboptimal disqualified donor livers. Here we evaluated whether machine perfusion could ameliorate ischemic injury that many of these livers experience prior to hepatocyte isolation. Non-heparinized female Lewis rat livers were exposed to an hour of warm ischemia (34°C) and then perfused for 3h. Five different perfusion conditions that utilized the cell isolation apparatus were investigated, namely: (1) modified Williams Medium E and (2) Lifor, both with active oxygenation (95%O(2)/5%CO(2)), as well as (3) Lifor passively oxygenated with ambient air (21%O(2)/0.04%CO(2)), all at ambient temperatures (20 ± 2°C). At hypothermic temperatures (5 ± 1°C) and under passive oxygenation were (4) University of Wisconsin solution (UW) and (5) Vasosol. Negative and positive control groups comprised livers that had ischemia (WI) and livers that did not (Fresh) prior to cell isolation, respectively. Fresh livers yielded 32 ± 9 million cells/g liver while an hour of ischemia reduced the cell yield to 1.6 ± 0.6 million cells/g liver. Oxygenated Williams Medium E and Lifor recovered yields of 39 ± 11 and 31 ± 2.3 million cells/g liver, respectively. The passively oxygenated groups produced 15 ± 7 (Lifor), 13 ± 7 (Vasosol), and 10 ± 6 (UW)million cells/g liver. Oxygenated Williams Medium E was most effective at sustaining pH values, avoiding the accumulation of lactate, minimizing edematous weight gain and producing bile during perfusion. Machine perfusion results in a dramatic increase in cell yields from livers that have had up to an hour of warm ischemia, but perfusate choice significantly impacts the extent of recovery. Oxygenated Williams Medium E at room temperature is superior to Lifor, UW and Vasosol, largely facilitated by its high oxygen content and low

  14. Hormonal stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation and glycogen phosphorylase activity in calcium-depleted hepatocytes from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed Central

    Malbon, C C; Gilman, H R; Fain, J N

    1980-01-01

    Activation of glycogen phosphorylase by hormones was examined in hepatocytes isolated from euthyroid and hypothyroid female rats and incubated by Ca2+-free buffer containing 1 mM-EGTA. Basal glycogen phosphorylase activity was decreased in Ca2+-free buffer. However, the activation of hepatocyte glycogen phosphorylase, in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, in response to adrenaline, glucagon or phenylephrine was slightly lower, whereas that by vasopressin was abolished. The activation of glycogen phosphorylase by phenylephrine, adrenaline or isoproterenol (isoprenaline) in hepatocytes from euthyroid rats incubated in the absence of Ca2+ was not accompanied by any detectable increase in total cyclic AMP. The log-dose/response curves for activation of phosphorylase by phenylephrine or low concentrations of adrenaline were the same in hepatocytes from hypothyroid as compared wit euthyroid rats, whereas the response to isoproterenol was greater in hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats. However, the increases in total cyclic AMP accumulation caused by adrenaline or isoproterenol were greater in hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats than in hepatocytes from euthyroid rats. The increases in cyclic AMP accumulation caused by adrenaline or isoproterenol in Ca2+-depleted hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats were blocked by propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist. In contrast, propranolol was only partially effective asan inhibitor of the activation of glycogen phosphorylase by phenylephrine or adrenaline in hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats and ineffective on phosphorylase activation in cells from euthyroid rats. These data indicate that the alpha-adrenergic activation of glycogen phosphorylase is not affected by the absence of extracellular Ca2+, and the extent to which total cyclic AMP was increased by adrenergic amines did not correlate with glycogen phosphorylase activation. PMID:6258557

  15. DIFFERENTIATING MECHANISMS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ ),1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  16. DIFFERENTIATING MECHANISMS OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL TOXICITY IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of four quinones, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMONQ), 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ ),1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), and 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), which redox cycle or arlyate in mammalian cells, was determined in isolated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Mor...

  17. Use of mRNA expression to detect the induction of drug metabolising enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Richert, L. Tuschl, G.; Pekthong, D.; Mantion, G.; Weber, J.-C.; Mueller, S.O.

    2009-02-15

    It is important to investigate the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by drugs. The most relevant end point is enzyme activity; however, this requires many cells and is low throughput. We have compared the CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A induction response to eight inducers in rat and human hepatocytes using enzyme activities (CYP1A2 (ethoxyresorufin), 2B (benzoxyresorufin for rat and bupropion for human) and CYP3A (testosterone)) and Taqman{sup TM} Low Density Array (TLDA) analysis. There was a good correlation between the induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities and mRNA expression in human hepatocytes. In contrast, BROD activities and mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes correlated poorly. However, bupropion hydroxylation correlated well with Cyp2b1 expression in rat hepatocytes. TLDA analysis of a panel of mRNAs encoding for CYPs, phase 2 enzymes, nuclear receptors and transporters revealed that the main genes induced by the 8 compounds tested were the CYPs. AhR ligands also induced UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases in rat and human hepatocytes. The transporters, MDR1, MDR3 and OATPA were the only transporter genes significantly up-regulated in human hepatocytes. In rat hepatocytes Bsep, Mdr2, Mrp2, Mrp3 and Oatp2 were up-regulated. We could then show a good in vivo:in vitro correlation in the induction response of isolated rat hepatocytes and ex-vivo hepatic microsomes for the drug development candidate, EMD392949. In conclusion, application of TLDA methodology to investigate the potential of compounds to induce enzymes in rat and human hepatocytes increases the throughput and information gained from one assay, without reducing the predictive capacity.

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Nuket; Tasci, Ilker; Comert, Bilgin; Ocal, Ramazan; Mas, Mehmet Refik

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day) for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of hepatocytes were evaluated according to a scoring system. RESULTS: Mitochondria, nuclei, RER and SER injury scores in group II were significantly lower than those in groupI(P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: UDCA alleviates hepatocyte organelle injury in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. PMID:18286695

  19. Whole-body γ-irradiation decelerates rat hepatocyte polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Adnan M

    2015-07-01

    To characterize hepatocyte polyploidization induced by intermediate dose of γ-ray. Male Wistar strain rats were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with 2 Gy of γ-ray at the age of 1 month, and 5-6 rats were sacrificed monthly at 0-25 months after irradiation. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by flow cytometry, then hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. Survival percentage, after exposure up to the end of the study, did not indicate any differences between the irradiated groups and controls. The degree of polyploidization in hepatocytes of irradiated rats, was significantly lower than that for the control after 1 month of exposure, and it continued to be lower after up to 8 months. Thereafter, the degree of polyploidization in the irradiated group slowly returned to the control level when the irradiated rats reached the age of 10 months. Intermediate dose of ionizing radiation, in contrast to high doses, decelerate hepatocyte polyploidization, which may coincides with the hypothesis of the beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation.

  20. Impaired mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis in streptozotocin diabetic rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Memon, R.A.; Bessman, S.P.; Mohan, C. )

    1990-02-26

    Isolated hepatocytes prepared from control, streptozotocin diabetic rats were incubated at 30{degrees}C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.5 mM concentration of each of the 20 natural amino acids. Effect of insulin on the oxidation of 2,3-{sup 14}C and 1,4-{sup 14}C succinate (suc) carbons and their incorporation into hepatocyte protein, lipid and various metabolic intermediates was studied. Mitochondrial oxidation of suc carbons and their incorporation into protein and lipid was significantly lower in diabetic and insulin treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats failed to exhibit any significant insulin effect on the oxidation of either 2,3 or 1,4-{sup 14}C suc carbons. Amphibolic channeling of 2,3-{sup 14}C suc carbons into amino acids was significantly reduced in hepatocytes of diabetic rats, however, more of these carbons were diverted into the gluconeogenesis pathway. Diabetes caused a far greater decrease in the oxidation of 2,3-{sup 14}C suc carbons as compared to 1,4-{sup 14}C suc. Based on an earlier report that insulin stimulates only the intramitochondrial Krebs cycle reactions, the authors conclude that the diminished level of anabolic activities in the diabetic rat hepatocytes is due to the subsequent reduction in amphibolic channeling of metabolic intermediates.

  1. Techniques for pharmacological and toxicological studies with isolated hepatocyte suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M.N.; Halls, H.J.; Grivell, M.B. )

    1992-01-01

    The isolated hepatocyte preparation is particularly convenient for the study of the kinetics of hepatic drug uptake and excretion because the cells can be rapidly separated from the incubation medium. Isolated liver cells have also proved valuable for investigating drug metabolism since they show many of the features of the intact liver. However, they also show important differences such as losses of membrane specialization, some degree of cell polarity and the capacity to form bile. The many consequences of the hepatic toxicity of xenobiotics including lipid peroxidation, free radical formation, glutathione depletion, and covalent binding to macromolecules are also readily studied with the isolated liver cell preparation. A particular advantage is the ease with which morphological changes as a result of drug exposure can be observed in isolated hepatocytes. However, it must be remembered that the isolation procedure inevitably introduces changes that may make the cells more susceptible than the normal liver to damage by xenobiotic agents. Despite its limitations, the isolated hepatocyte preparation is now firmly established in the armamentarium of the investigator examining the interaction of the liver with xenobiotics. 237 refs.

  2. Evidence for two Ca2(+)-mobilizing purinoceptors on rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, C J; Woods, N M; Cuthbertson, K S; Cobbold, P H

    1990-01-01

    Aequorin measurements of cytosolic free Ca2+ in single rat hepatocytes show that ADP and ATP, thought to act through the same P2Y purinoceptor, elicited very different responses in the majority of cells tested. ADP invariably induced transients of short duration (approx. 9 s), whereas ATP induced either similar transients or transients with a much longer duration (approx. 49 s). We explain this variability in terms of two separate purinoceptors on rat hepatocytes, one of which responds to either ATP or ADP to generate free-Ca2+ transients of short duration, and the other responds to ATP only, with transients of longer duration. PMID:2386488

  3. Evidence for expression of the facilitated glucose transporter in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, D B; Takano, M; Gattoni-Celli, S; Chen, C C; Isselbacher, K J

    1988-01-01

    The eukaryotic facilitated glucose transporter (GT) is expressed by many cell types, with the notable exception of hepatocytes; however, GT is expressed by several hepatoma cell lines, including the well-differentiated lines Fao, Hep3B, and HepG2. We report on studies carried out to determine the aspect(s) of the transformed phenotype that might be responsible for activating GT expression. Using RNA blot analysis with probes derived from rat GT cDNA, we found that GT was expressed by rat hepatocytes under two conditions (i) in vitro, when isolated hepatocytes were placed in cell culture, and (ii) in vivo, when rats were subjected to starvation for greater than or equal to 2 days. However, GT expression was not an obligatory feature of hepatomas, since two primary hepatocellular carcinomas did not express any GT mRNA. GT expression in hepatocytes was reduced by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide or sodium butyrate to the culture medium. Since these reagents are known to promote differentiation in some cell culture systems, their effect on hepatocytes may be to maintain the GT repression normally observed in vivo. Inclusion or exclusion in the culture medium of several other agents that enhance hepatocyte viability (serum, insulin, corticosteroids, epidermal growth factor, or triiodothyronine) did not affect GT expression. It is unclear whether the two conditions that led to GT expression in hepatocytes are related by a common signaling mechanism. Possibly, both cases involve a "stress" response: in vivo, a normal physiological response to starvation; in vitro, a response to a major alteration in the cellular environment. Images PMID:3194405

  4. Valproic acid II: effects on oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytotoxicity in glutathione-depleted rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Vincent; Teng, Xiao Wei; Chang, Thomas K H; Abbott, Frank S

    2005-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with valproic acid (VPA) treatment, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of VPA-idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of VPA and the role of GSH on oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and toxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and total levels of glutathione (GSH) reduced by pretreatment with a combination of L-buthionine sulfoximine (2 mM) and diethylmaleate (0.5 mM) prior to VPA (0-1000 microg/ml) treatment. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) was determined by using the dual-fluorescent dye JC-1, and cell viability was evaluated by the water-soluble tetrazolium salt WST-1 assay. Exposure of rat hepatocytes to VPA (0-1000 mug/ml) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in 15-F(2t)-IsoP and DCF fluorescence, and these levels were further elevated in GSH-reduced hepatocytes. In control hepatocytes, VPA had no effect on cell viability; however, significant cytotoxicity was observed in the glutathione-depleted hepatocytes treated with 1000 mug/ml VPA. The Deltapsi(m) was only reduced in glutathione-reduced hepatocytes at 500 and 1000 microg/ml VPA. Our novel findings indicate that acute treatment of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with VPA resulted in oxidative stress, which occurred in the absence of cytotoxicity, and that glutathione confers protection to hepatocytes against mitochondrial damage by VPA.

  5. Acetaminophen metabolism, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in rat primary hepatocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, K.M.; Byard, J.L.

    1985-06-30

    Acetaminophen (APAP) metabolism, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity were measured in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Although 3 mM APAP caused a slight increase in cellular release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, cellular glutathione concentration (an index of APAP metabolism) was reduced by 50%. APAP at 7 mM was significantly more toxic to these hepatocytes and had a similar but more marked effect on glutathione concentrations. In spite of its cytotoxicity, neither dose of APAP stimulated DNA repair synthesis when monitored by the rate of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA following exposure to APAP. Thus, although APAP has been shown to be both hepato- and nephrotoxic in several in vivo and in vitro systems, the reactive toxic metabolite of APAP is not genotoxic in rat primary hepatocyte cultures.

  6. Engraftment of Syngeneic and Allogeneic Endothelial Cells, Hepatocytes and Cholangiocytes into Partially Hepatectomized Rats Previously Treated with Mitomycin C1

    PubMed Central

    Brilliant, Kate E.; Mills, David R.; Callanan, Helen M.; Hixson, Douglas C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pretreatment with retrorsine crosslinks host hepatocyte DNA and prevents proliferation after partial hepatectomy (PH), allowing selective expansion of transplanted progenitors. Shortcomings are length of protocol and carcinogenicity of retrorsine. Methods This report describes a rapid liver repopulation protocol using mitomycin C (MMC) to block proliferation of rat hepatocytes in response to PH. One week post-MMC treatment, dipeptidyl peptidase IV negative (DPPIV−) host rats were given a PH followed by injection of late gestation, newborn or adult total liver isolates from DPPIV+ rats. For allogeneic transplantation, host rats received injections of anti-CD3 antibody before and after PH. Results Host liver staining 2–9 weeks post-transplantation revealed well-defined donor hepatocyte colonies with strong canalicular DPPIV activity. At the same cell dose, fetal and newborn isolates produced more colonies than adult liver isolates. Hepatocyte colonies also co-expressed marker proteins characteristic of adult hepatocytes and showed polarized localization of plasma membrane proteins. Host livers contained large clusters of sinusoids lined by DPPIV+ endothelial cells co-expressing the endothelial cell marker, RECA-1 but lacked the canalicular marker leucine aminopeptidase. Colonies containing donor hepatocytes, endothelial cells and bile ducts, were also observed. Similar levels of engraftment and expansion were achieved with allogeneic liver cell isolates by using anti-CD3 antibody treatment. Conclusions The MMC transplantation model provides a rapid method for engraftment and expansion of hepatocytes, endothelial cells and cholangiocytes and should be applicable to investigations centering on the role of endothelial cells in liver regeneration and the identification and characterization of putative endothelial, hepatocyte and cholangiocyte progenitors. PMID:19696631

  7. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES.

    S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  8. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES.

    S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  9. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  10. Effect of apolipoprotein a-I complex with tetrahydrocortisone on protein biosynthesis and glucose absorption by rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sumenkova, D V; Knyazev, R A; Guschya, R S; Polyakov, L M; Panin, L E

    2009-08-01

    We studied the effect of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex on (14)C glucose absorption and lactate accumulation and on the rate of protein biosynthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex in the incubation medium increased absorption of labeled glucose by hepatocytes by 52%, while lactate content in the conditioning medium increased 4-fold. The rate of protein biosynthesis increased by 80% in comparison with control cells. It is hypothesized that the increase in protein biosynthesis rate in hepatocytes under the effect of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex is due to stimulation of energy metabolism, specifically, of its glycolytic component.

  11. A quantitative analysis of lectin binding to adult rat hepatocyte cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, H O; McMillan, P N; Hevey, K; Naik, S

    1988-05-01

    A quantitative evaluation of lectin binding to adult rat hepatocyte cell surfaces was done using cells isolated by two different collagenase perfusion methodologies and cultured as monolayers with two different tissue culture media formulations (protocol I vs. protocol II). The presence of alpha-D-mannosyl and alpha-D-glucosyl groups was detected by the binding of Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA) to freshly isolated cells. Furthermore, beta-D-galactose [Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA)] and sialic acid residues [wheat germ (WGA)] were also found. Protocols I and II served as models for evaluation of: a) the stripping effect of collagenase separation procedures, b) the restoration in culture of collagenase-stripped sugar residues, c) the effect of the culture environment on cell viability [as measured by lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage] and the protein content of hepatocytes, and d) the presence of cell surface sugar residues as a function of culture duration. The ultrastructural morphology of freshly isolated and cultured hepatocytes was also evaluated. These studies indicated that a decline in lectin binding invariably occurred earlier than a massive leakage of LDH and a decrease in the protein content of the cells in culture. Ultrastructurally, autophagocytosis was an early phenomenon in cells isolated and cultured by protocol I, which was also inferior to protocol II regarding the preservation of hepatocyte glycocalyces. Sugar residues lost due to the collagenase-stripping effect were restored, as shown by lectin binding, within the first 24 h of culture. This stripping effect was confirmed by quantitative evaluations of lectin binding to hepatocytes in culture after an incubation with collagenase. This study shows that the binding of peroxidase-labeled lectins is a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of the sugar composition of hepatocyte cultures.

  12. Comparative effects of UW and SLS solutions on concentrative proline uptake in cold preserved rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Serrar, H; Musallam, L; Haddad, P

    1999-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that the rate of cell swelling induced by concentrative proline uptake in isolated rat hepatocytes decreased by 50 per cent after only 24 h of cold storage in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, thereby representing a sensitive marker of alterations in hepatocyte functions after cold preservation and rewarming. We have thus used concentrative proline uptake to compare the capacity of UW and sodium-lactobionate-sucrose (SLS) solutions to maintain such differentiated hepatocyte functions. Isolated rat hepatocytes were kept at 4 degrees C for 4, 10, 24 and 48 h in UW or SLS solutions, and subsequently cultured at 37 degrees C for 1-2 h. Viability was measured by Trypan blue exclusion. After rewarming, cells were subjected to a 10 min administration of 10 mM proline and accumulation of the amino acid was assessed by changes in cell volume as measured by digital analysis of single-cell images obtained under bright-field illumination. Cell viability was reduced gradually and significantly after 0 to 48 h of preservation, and rewarming amplified this effect. However, loss of viability was similar in UW- and SLS-stored cells, as were initial steady-state cell volumes. Proline-induced swelling rate was reduced significantly by 13, 46 and by 57 per cent after 10, 24 and 48 h of preservation in UW solution, respectively. There is no significant difference between SLS- and UW-preserved hepatocyte swelling rates after 10 h and 48 h of cold preservation. However, the decline in the swelling rate of SLS-preserved hepatocytes incubated for 24 h is significantly lower than that of their UW-preserved counterparts. These results show that the SLS solution can preserve differentiated hepatic functions as well as the UW solution does.

  13. Distribution and origin of the basement membrane component perlecan in rat liver and primary hepatocyte culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rescan, P. Y.; Loréal, O.; Hassell, J. R.; Yamada, Y.; Guillouzo, A.; Clément, B.

    1993-01-01

    Basement membranes contain three major components (ie collagen IV, laminin, and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan termed perlecan). Although the distribution and origin of both collagen IV and laminin have been well documented in the liver, perlecan has been poorly investigated, so far. We have studied the distribution and cellular origin of perlecan in rat livers in various conditions as well as in hepatocyte primary culture. By immunolocalization in both adult and 18-day-old fetal liver, perlecan was found in portal spaces, around central veins, and throughout the lobule. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed its presence at the level of basement membranes surrounding bile ducts and blood vessels, and in the space of Disse discontinuously interacting with hepatocyte microvilli. Precursors of perlecan were detected in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of bile duct cells and both vascular and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Both hepatocytes and Ito cells were negative. Northern-blot analysis confirmed the lack of appreciable expression of perlecan in hepatocytes isolated from either fetal or adult livers. In 18-month-diethylnitrosamine-treated rat liver, perlecan was abundant in neoplastic nodules. Electron microscopic investigation revealed an almost continuous layer of perlecan in the space of Disse and intracellular staining in sinusoidal endothelial cells, only. Perlecan mRNAs were detectable in malignant nodules, and absent in hepatocytes from nontumorous areas. Hepatocytes expressed high levels of perlecan mRNAs only when put in culture. This expression was reduced in conditions that allow improvement of hepatocyte survival and function (ie addition of corticoids, dimethylsulfoxide or nicotinamide to the medium, or in coculture with liver epithelial cells from biliary origin). Immunolocalization by light and electron microscopy showed that deposition of the proteoglycan occurred in coculture, in basement membranelike structures located around hepatocyte cords. In

  14. Loofa sponge as a scaffold for culture of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Lin, Tsung-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The dried fruit from Luffa cylindrica (loofa sponge, LS), which represents a new chitinous source material, was used as a 3-D scaffold for the culture of rat hepatocytes. With the macroporous structure and large pore size (ca. 800 microm) of LS, cell loading to the scaffold should be carried out by dynamic seeding with continuous shaking throughout the seeding period. Hepatocytes attach well to the surface of loofa fibers after seeding and maintain their round shapes. The initial ammonia removal and urea-N synthesis rates of hepatocytes immobilized within LS slightly decreased with increasing cell densities, but their metabolic activities were comparable to or better than those in monolayer culture on tissue culture polystyrene control surfaces. Both urea-N synthesis and albumin secretion rates could be maintained up to 7 days for cells immobilized within LS and spheroid-like cell aggregates could be found after the second day.

  15. Cellular toxicity of hydrazine in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saber M; Frazier, John M

    2002-10-01

    Hydrazine (HzN) is an aircraft fuel and propellant used by the U.S. Air Force. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the acute toxicity of HzN in primary rat hepatocytes in vitro with reference to oxidative stress. The effects of short-term exposure (4 h) of hepatocytes to HzN were investigated with reference to viability, mitochondrial function, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. The viability data showed an increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and a decrease in mitochondrial activity with increasing concentration of HzN. The results of studies of oxidative stress biomarkers showed a depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in oxidized GSH, increased reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, and reduced catalase activity. Furthermore, depletion of GSH and catalase activity in hepatocytes by buthionine sulfoximine and 3-amino triazole, respectively, prior to exposure to HzN, increased its toxicity. The results suggest that acute HzN-induced cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes is likely to be mediated through oxidative stress.

  16. Molybdate and tungstate act like vanadate on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fillat, C; Rodríguez-Gil, J E; Guinovart, J J

    1992-01-01

    In rat hepatocytes, molybdate and tungstate inactivate glycogen synthase by a mechanism independent of Ca2+ and activate glycogen phosphorylase by a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. On the other hand, both molybdate and tungstate increase fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels and counteract the decrease in this metabolite induced by glucagon. These effectors do not directly modify 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, even though they partially counteract the inactivation of this enzyme induced by glucagon. These effects are related to an increase on the glycolytic flux, as indicated by the increase in L-lactate and CO2 production and the decrease in glucose 6-phosphate levels in the presence of glucose. All these effects are similar to those previously reported for vanadate, although molybdate and tungstate are less effective than vanadate. These results could indicate that molybdate, tungstate and vanadate act on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes by a similar mechanism of action. PMID:1313228

  17. Regulation of activity and apical targeting of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, A; Strazzabosco, M; Ng, O C; Boyer, J L

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that rat hepatocyte canalicular Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity might be regulated by HCO3- or protein kinase-induced changes in the apical targeting of vesicles, isolated rat hepatocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of HCO3-/CO2.Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity increased in cells cultured in the presence of HCO3-/CO2 or when stimulated by dibutyryl cAMP. Both of these effects were blocked by either colchicine or the protein kinase C agonist phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy, respectively, revealed increased pericanalicular-apical membrane localization of two canalicular markers, peanut agglutinin and a 110-kDa canalicular ecto-ATPase, when hepatocyte couplets were preincubated in HCO3-/CO2-containing medium, an effect that was again blocked by colchicine. Dibutyryl cAMP also stimulated canalicular localization of the 110-kDa protein. These findings suggest that hepatocyte Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity is regulated by HCO3-/CO2 and by protein kinase A and protein kinase C agonists through microtubule-dependent targeting of vesicles containing this exchanger to the canalicular domain. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8290601

  18. The effect of cysteine oxidation on isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Viña, J; Saez, G T; Wiggins, D; Roberts, A F; Hems, R; Krebs, H A

    1983-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes incubated with 4mM-cysteine lose reduced glutathione, adenine nucleotides and intracellular enzymes, thus showing extensive membrane damage. The toxic effects of cysteine are enhanced by NH4Cl. Lactate, ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids afford significant protection against cysteine-induced cytoxicity. Addition of catalase to the incubation medium also protected against cysteine toxicity, indicating that H2O2 formed during the oxidation of cysteine is involved in the toxic effects observed. Under anaerobic conditions cysteine did not cause leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from cells, confirming that rapid autoxidation is an essential condition for development of the toxic effects of cysteine. PMID:6870855

  19. Effects of phenobarbital on metabolism and toxicity of diclofenac sodium in rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, A G; Xia, T; Yuan, J; Yu, R A; Yang, K D; Chen, X M; Qu, W; Waalkes, M P

    2004-10-01

    Diclofenac sodium (DF-Na) was a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in various aspects of inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of phenobarbital (PB) on metabolism and toxicity of DF-Na in vitro and explore the potential mechanism of DF-Na induced hepatotoxicity. Rat hepatocytes were isolated by a modification of the two-step in situ collagenase perfusion technique and the harvested rat hepatocytes were cultured with sandwich method. Control or PB (2 mM) pre-treated hepatocytes were incubated with DF-Na (0.1, 0.05 or 0.01 mM) in vitro and cytosolic enzyme leakage levels, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity, and metabolite content of DF-Na in cell culture medium were measured. The results showed that without any treatment hepatocyte CYP 3A activity gradually decreased with culture time. On day four, CYP 3A activity was 53% of the initial value. The decline of CYP 3A was partially reversed by CYP inducer PB, and the maximum induction of CYP 3A was 2.2-fold over control after continuous exposure of hepatocytes to 2 mM PB for 48 h. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transamine (ALT) activity and the contents of the DF-Na metabolites 4'-hydroxydiclofenac (4'-OH-DF) and 5-hydroxydiclofenac (5-OH-DF) in media appeared to increase with increasing DF-Na concentrations, though there were no significant differences between DF-Na exposed and control hepatocytes. However, if the hepatocytes first were pre-treated with 2 mM PB for 2 days and then exposed to DF-Na, the concentrations of DF-Na metabolites and the activity of LDH in the media were significantly higher than that of control group. These findings suggest that the hepatotoxicity and metabolism of DF-Na in rat hepatocytes are increased when hepatic CYP 3A activity is increased.

  20. Metabolism of cysteine by cyteinesulfinate-independent pathway(s) in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Stipanuk, M.H.; De La Rosa, J.; Drake, M.R.

    1986-05-01

    The metabolism of cysteine (CYS) and that of cysteinesulfinate (CSA) were studied in freshly isolated hepatocytes from fed rats. In incubations of rat hepatocytes with either 1 or 25 mM CSA, over 90% of the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formed from (1-/sup 14/C)CSA could be accounted for by production of hypotaurine plus taurine. In similar incubations with 1 or 25 mM CYS, only 4% of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution from (1-/sup 14/C)CYS could be accounted for by production of hypotaurine plus taurine. Addition of unlabeled CSA inhibited recovery of label from (1-/sup 14/C)CYS as /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by 33%. Metabolism of CYS and of CSA were affected differently by addition of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, a cosubstrate for transamination, or of propargylglycine, an inhibitor of cystathionase activity. These data suggest that a substantial proportion of CYS is catabolized by CSA-independent pathways in the rat hepatocyte. Although addition of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate to incubations of hepatocytes with CSA resulted in a marked increase in CSA catabolism via the transamination pathway, addition of keto acids to incubation systems had little or no effect on production of any metabolite from CYS. Thus, CYS transamination does not appear to be a major pathway of CYS metabolism in the hepatocyte. Inhibition of cystathionase with propargylglycine reduced both /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from (1-/sup 14/C)CYS and ammonia plus urea nitrogen production from CYS by about 50%; CSA catabolism was not affected. Thus, cleavage of cyst(e)ine by cystathionase may be an important physiological pathway for CYS catabolism in the liver.

  1. Comparison of rat and hamster hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Barfknect, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated marked differences in the capacity of hepatocytes from rats or hamsters to mediate the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens to genotoxic (i.e., mutagenic) products. Thus far, very few investigations of species differences in DNA repair have been performed. Therefore, a comparison of the relative extent of DNA repair elicited by various genotoxic chemicals in rat and hamster hepatocyes was conducted, using the hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair (HPC/DR) assay. Of the ll chemicals tested, eight were more potent in inducing DNA repair in hamster hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. Dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, 2-acetylaminofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, pararosaniline hydrochloride, 1-naphthylamine, benzidine and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane were all active in hamster hepatocytes at a concentration at least ten times less than the lowest effective concentration in rat hepatocytes. The direct-acting alkylating agent, methylmethane sulfonate, was equipotent inducing DNA repair in both rat and hamster hepatocytes, indicating that the differences in DNA repair observed for the other chemicals were probably not a result of species differences in DNA repair capacities. In contrast, 1-nitropyrene produced a greater DNA repair response in rat hepatocyes than hamster hepatocytes, while the bacterial mutagen 3-(chloromethyl)pyridine hydrochloride was inactive in both hepatocyte systems. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using hamster hepatocytes in the HPC/DR assay and illustrate the utility of performing the assay with hepatocytes from more than one species.

  2. Cryopreservation of rat hepatocytes with disaccharides for cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Liana Monteiro da Fonseca; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Henriques Pons, Andrea; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2017-10-01

    Cryopreservation of hepatocytes is a crucial step in the implementation of cell therapy for treating certain liver diseases. In the present study we investigated the effect of the some disaccharides on the cryopreservation of rat hepatocytes. Liver cells were frozen in media in the presence or absence of low concentrations of Me2SO (5% Me2SO) supplemented with varying concentrations of disaccharides (sucrose, glucose and trehalose). After 7 days of cryopreservation, the hepatocytes were thawed and viability was measure by exclusion of trypan blue and by the MTT technique, as well as by determining albumin production. Among the investigated disaccharides and concentrations, 0.2 M trehalose showed the best overall outcome. Compared to the use of Me2SO alone, significant improvement in post-thaw cell viability was observed. The new solution may reduce Me2SO side effects on patients and improve the viability and quality of cryopreserved hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes for transplantation: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Terry, Claire; Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai R; Hughes, Robin D

    2006-10-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from unused donor livers are being used for transplantation in patients with acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic defects. As large numbers of hepatocytes can be prepared from a single liver and hepatocytes need to be available for emergency and repeated treatment of patients it is essential to be able to cryopreserve and store cells with good thawed cell function. This review considers the current status of cryopreservation of human hepatocytes discussing the different stages involved in the process. These include pre-treatment of cells, freezing solution, cryoprotectants and freezing and thawing protocols. There are detrimental effects of cryopreservation on hepatocyte structure and metabolic function, including cell attachment, which is important to the engraftment of transplanted cells in the liver. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes have been successfully used in clinical transplantation, with evidence of replacement of missing function. Further optimisation of hepatocyte cryopreservation protocols is important for their use in hepatocyte transplantation.

  4. Caffeine induces CYP1A2 expression in rat hepatocytes but not in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vaynshteyn, David; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2012-06-01

    Caffeine is the active constituent in coffee. Continual consumption of caffeine can lead to an attenuated response also known as tolerance. Results from rat studies have shown that caffeine is an inducer of CYP1A2, the enzyme responsible for caffeine's metabolism. This suggests that CYP1A2 induction by caffeine may be in part responsible for caffeine tolerance. However, whether caffeine induces CYP1A2 expression in humans remains unknown. Our results from luciferase assays performed in HepG2 cells showed that caffeine is not an activator of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a major transcription factor involved in upregulation of CYP1A2. Furthermore, caffeine did not induce CYP1A2 expression in primary human hepatocytes at a concentration attained by ordinary coffee drinking. On the other hand, caffeine enhanced CYP1A2 expression by 9-fold in rat hepatocytes. Our results suggest that caffeine from ordinary coffee drinking does not induce CYP1A2 expression in humans and that factors other than CYP1A2 induction by caffeine likely contribute to development of caffeine tolerance in humans.

  5. In vitro culture of isolated primary hepatocytes and stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenxia; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-08-01

    Various liver diseases result in terminal hepatic failure, and liver transplantation, cell transplantation and artificial liver support systems are emerging as effective therapies for severe hepatic disease. However, all of these treatments are limited by organ or cell resources, so developing a sufficient number of functional hepatocytes for liver regeneration is a priority. Liver regeneration is a complex process regulated by growth factors (GFs), cytokines, transcription factors (TFs), hormones, oxidative stress products, metabolic networks, and microRNA. It is well-known that the function of isolated primary hepatocytes is hard to maintain; when cultured in vitro, these cells readily undergo dedifferentiation, causing them to lose hepatocyte function. For this reason, most studies focus on inducing stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in vitro. In this review, we mainly focus on the nature of the liver regeneration process and discuss how to maintain and enhance in vitro hepatic function of isolated primary hepatocytes or stem cell-derived HLCs for liver regeneration. In this way, hepatocytes or HLCs may be applied for clinical use for the treatment of terminal liver diseases and may prolong the survival time of patients in the near future.

  6. Impaired mitochondrial functions contribute to 3-bromopyruvate toxicity in primary rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Ondřej; Endlicher, René; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kučera, Otto; Rychtrmoc, David; Raad, Marjan; Hakeem, Khurum; Červinková, Zuzana

    2016-08-01

    A compound with promising anticancer properties, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a synthetic derivative of a pyruvate molecule; however, its toxicity in non-malignant cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we elected to study the effects of 3-BP on primary hepatocytes in monolayer cultures, permeabilized hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria. After a 1-h treatment with 100 μM 3-BP cell viability of rat hepatocytes was decreased by 30 % as measured by the WST-1 test (p < 0.001); after 3-h exposure to ≥200 μM 3-BP lactate dehydrogenase leakage was increased (p < 0.001). Reactive oxygen species production was increased in the cell cultures after a 1-h treatment at concentrations ≥100 μmol/l (p < 0.01), and caspase 3 activity was increased after a 20-h incubation with 150 μM and 200 μM 3-BP (p < 0.001). This toxic effect of 3-BP was also proved using primary mouse hepatocytes. In isolated mitochondria, 3-BP induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential during a 10-min incubation both with Complex I substrates glutamate + malate or Complex II substrate succinate, although this decrease was more pronounced with the latter. We also measured the effect of 3-BP on respiration of isolated mitochondria. ADP-activated respiration was inhibited by 20 μM 3-BP within 10 min. Similar effects were also found in permeabilized hepatocytes of both species.

  7. Hepatocytic parental progenitor cells of rat small hepatocytes maintain self-renewal capability after long-term culture

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Masayuki; Kino, Junichi; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Tanimizu, Naoki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    The liver has a variety of functions for maintaining homeostasis, and hepatocytes play a major role. In contrast with the high regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes (MHs) in vivo, they have not been successfully expanded ex vivo. Here we demonstrate that CD44-positive cells sorted from small hepatocyte (SH) colonies derived from a healthy adult rat liver can proliferate on a Matrigel-coated dish in serum-free chemically defined medium; in addition, a subpopulation of the cells can divide more than 50 times in a period of 17 weeks every 4-week-passage. The passage cells retained the capability to recover highly differentiated functions, such as glycogen storage, CYP activity and bile secretion. When Matrigel-treated cells from the third passage were transplanted into retrorsine/partial hepatectomy-treated rat livers, the cells engrafted to differentiate into MHs and cholangiocytes. These results suggest that long-term cultured CD44+ SHs retain hepatocytic characteristics in vitro and the capability to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in vivo. Thus, a newly identified subpopulation of MHs possessing the attributes of hepatocytic stem/progenitor cells can be passaged several times without losing hepatocytic characteristics. PMID:28397810

  8. Metabolism of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal by isolated hepatocytes and by liver cytosolic fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Esterbauer, H; Zollner, H; Lang, J

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal and of several other related aldehydes by isolated hepatocytes and rat liver subcellular fractions has been investigated. Hepatocytes rapidly metabolize 4-hydroxynonenal in an oxygen-independent process with a maximum rate (depending on cell preparation) ranging from 130 to 230 nmol/min per 10(6) cells (average 193 +/- 50). The aldehyde is also rapidly utilized by whole rat liver homogenate and the cytosolic fraction (140 000 g supernatant) supplemented with NADH, whereas purified nuclei, mitochondria and microsomes supplemented with NADH show no noteworthy consumption of the aldehyde. In cytosol, the NADH-mediated metabolism of the aldehyde exhibits a 1:1 stoichiometry, i.e. 1 mol of NADH oxidized/mol of hydroxynonenal consumed, and the apparent Km value for the aldehyde is 0.1 mM. Addition of pyrazole (10 mM) or heat inactivation of the cytosol completely abolishes aldehyde metabolism. The various findings strongly suggest that hepatocytes and rat liver cytosol respectively convert 4-hydroxynonenal enzymically is the corresponding alcohol, non-2-ene-1,4-diol, according to the equation: CH3-[CH2]4-CH(OH)-CH = CH-CHO + NADH + H+----CH3-[CH2]4-CH(OH)-CH = CH-CH2OH + NAD+. The alcohol non-2-ene-1,4-diol has not yet been isolated from incubations with hepatocytes and liver cytosolic fractions, but was isolated in pure form from an incubation mixture containing 4-hydroxynonenal, isolated liver alcohol dehydrogenase and NADH and its chemical structure was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Compared with liver, all other tissues possess only little ability to metabolize 4-hydroxynonenal, ranging from 0% (fat pads) to a maximal 10% (kidney) of the activity present in liver. The structure of the aldehyde has a strong influence on the rate and extent of its enzymic NADH-dependent reduction to the alcohol. The saturated analogue nonanal is a poor substrate and only a small proportion of it is converted to the

  9. NAADP-sensitive Ca2+ stores in permeabilized rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bychkova, S V; Chorna, T I

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a nucleotide that is potent to release calcium from intracellular stores in different cell types. NAADP was shown to target specific type of intracellular store namely endolysosomal system or acidic store. Despite intense studies, its effect on endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) still remains to be elucidated. The main aim of our work was to investigate NAADP-sensitive store in permeabilized rat hepatocytes monitoring the level of Ca2+ inside intracellular organelles using chlorotetracycline (CTC). We have shown that NAADP triggered changes of stored Ca2+ in rat hepatocytes are dependent on concentration of EGTA-Ca2+-buffer in cell incubation medium, i.e. the higher is the EGTA concentration in incubation medium the smaller or absent is the effect of NAADP. Besides, the effect of NAADP was more pronounced upon cells pretreatment with the inhibitory concentration of ryanodine (100 μM). This might suggest that the effect of NAADP is dependent on ER luminal calcium. We have also found that NAADP-evoked Ca2+ release in permeabilized hepatocytes is sensitive to nigericin, bafilomycin A and thapsigargin. Additionally, NAADP triggered changes in stored Ca2+ were completely abolished by NED-19 as antagonist of NAADP.

  10. High concentrations of stavudine impair fatty acid oxidation without depleting mitochondrial DNA in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Igoudjil, Anissa; Massart, Julie; Begriche, Karima; Descatoire, Véronique; Robin, Marie-Anne; Fromenty, Bernard

    2008-06-01

    The antiretroviral nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) stavudine (d4T) can induce mild to severe liver injuries such as steatosis (i.e. triglyceride accumulation), steatohepatitis and liver failure. NRTI-induced toxicity has been ascribed to the inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication causing mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain dysfunction. This can secondarily impair the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation (FAO), thus leading to lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis. However, NRTIs could also impair mitochondrial function and induce hepatic steatosis through other mechanisms. In this study, we sought to determine whether d4T could inhibit mitochondrial FAO and induce triglyceride accumulation through a mtDNA-independent mechanism. Since human tumoral and non-tumoral hepatic cell lines were unable to efficiently oxidize palmitic acid, the effects of d4T on mitochondrial FAO were assessed on cultured rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that 750 microM of d4T significantly inhibited palmitic acid oxidation after 48 or 72 h of culture, without inducing cell death. Importantly, high concentrations of zidovudine and zalcitabine (two other NRTIs that can induce hepatic steatosis), or beta-aminoisobutyric acid (a d4T metabolite), did not impair FAO in rat hepatocytes. D4T-induced FAO inhibition was observed without mtDNA depletion and lactate production, and was fully prevented with l-carnitine or clofibrate coincubation. l-carnitine also prevented the accretion of neutral lipids within rat hepatocytes. High concentrations of d4T were unable to inhibit FAO on freshly isolated liver mitochondria. Moreover, a microarray analysis was performed to clarify the mechanism whereby d4T can inhibit mitochondrial FAO and induce triglyceride accumulation in rat hepatocytes. The microarray data, confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, showed that d4T increased the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c

  11. Insulin-Regulated Srebp-1c and Pck1 mRNA Expression in Primary Hepatocytes from Zucker Fatty but Not Lean Rats Is Affected by Feeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Wei; Li, Rui; Li, Yang; Ge, Yuebin; Chen, Guoxun

    2011-01-01

    Insulin regulates the transcription of genes for hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that this action may be impaired in hepatocytes from insulin resistant animals. Primary hepatocytes from insulin sensitive Zucker lean (ZL) and insulin resistant Zucker fatty (ZF) rats in ad libitum or after an overnight fasting were isolated, cultured and treated with insulin and other compounds for analysis of gene expression using real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of one insulin-induced (Srebp-1c) and one insulin-suppressed (Pck1) genes in response to insulin, glucagon, and compactin treatments in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats were analyzed. Additionally, the effects of insulin and T1317 on their levels in hepatocytes from ad libitum or fasted ZL or ZF rats were compared. The mRNA levels of Srebp-1c, Fas, and Scd1, but not that of Insr, Gck and Pck1, were higher in freshly isolated hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF than that from ZL rats. These patterns of Srebp-1c and Pck1 mRNA levels remained in primary hepatocyte cultured in vitro. Insulin's ability to regulate Srebp-1c and Pck1 expression was diminished in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF, but not ZL rats. Glucagon or compactin suppressed Srebp-1c mRNA expression in lean, but not fatty hepatocytes. However, glucagon induced Pck1 mRNA expression similarly in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats. Insulin caused the same dose-dependent increase of Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZL and ZF rats. It synergized with T1317 to induce Srebp-1c, and suppressed Pck1 mRNA levels in hepatocytes from fasted, but not that from ad libitum ZF rats. We demonstrated that insulin was unable to regulate its downstream genes' mRNA expression in hepatocytes from ad libitum ZF rats. This impairment can be partially restored in hepatocytes from ZF rats after an overnight fasting, a phenomenon that deserves further investigation. PMID:21731709

  12. Cytotoxic mechanisms of hydrosulfide anion and cyanide anion in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rodney W; Valentine, Holly L; Valentine, William M

    2003-06-30

    Hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide are known to compromise mitochondrial respiration through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and this is generally considered to be their primary mechanism of toxicity. Experimental studies and the efficiency of current treatment protocols suggest that H(2)S may exert adverse physiological effects through additional mechanisms. To evaluate the role of alternative mechanisms in H(2)S toxicity, the relative contributions of electron transport inhibition, uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to hydrosulfide and cyanide anion cytotoxicity in primary hepatocyte cultures were examined. Supplementation of hepatocytes with the glycolytic substrate, fructose, rescued hepatocytes from cyanide anion induced toxicity, whereas fructose supplementation increased hydrosulfide anion toxicity suggesting that hydrosulfide anion may compromise glycolysis in hepatocytes. Although inhibitors of the MPTP opening were protective for hydrosulfide anion, they had no effect on cyanide anion toxicity, consistent with an involvement of the permeability transition pore in hydrosulfide anion toxicity but not cyanide anion toxicity. Exposure of isolated rat liver mitochondria to hydrosulfide did not result in large amplitude swelling suggesting that if H(2)S induces the permeability transition it does so indirectly through a mechanism requiring other cellular components. Hydrosulfide anion did not appear to be an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration in hepatocytes based upon the inability of oligomycin and fructose to protect hepatocytes from hydrosulfide anion toxicity. These findings support mechanisms additional to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Further investigations are required to assess the role of the permeability transition in H(2)S toxicity, determine whether similar affects occur in other cell types or in vivo and evaluate whether this may

  13. Triacsin C reduces lipid droplet formation and induces mitochondrial biogenesis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Dechandt, Carlos R P; Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Felippe H; Teodoro, Bruno G; Fernandes, Anna Maria A P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Kettelhut, Isis C; Curti, Carlos; Alberici, Luciane C

    2017-09-16

    Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4.1 μM) for LD formation: (i) diminished LD number in a concentration-dependent manner; (ii) increased mitochondrial amount; (iii) markedly improved mitochondrial metabolism by enhancing the β-oxidation efficiency, electron transport chain capacity, and degree of coupling - treatment of isolated rat liver mitochondria with the same triacsin C concentrations did not affect the last two parameters; (iv) decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio and elevated the protein carbonyl level, which suggested an increased reactive oxygen species production, as observed in isolated mitochondria. The hepatocyte mitochondrial improvements were not related to either the transcriptional levels of PGC-1α or the content of mTOR and phosphorylated AMPK. Triacsin C at 10 μM induced hepatocyte death by necrosis and/or apoptosis through mechanisms associated with mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, as demonstrated by experiments using isolated mitochondria. Therefore, triacsin C at sub-IC50 concentrations modulates the lipid imbalance by shifting hepatocytes to a more oxidative state and enhancing the fatty acid consumption, which can in turn accelerate lipid oxidation and reverse NAFLD in long-term therapies.

  14. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective: To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Materials and Methods: The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Results: Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. Conclusions: OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. SUMMARY Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). PMID:28839374

  15. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  16. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Melatonin on the Isolation of Human Primary Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Solanas, Estela; Sostres, Carlos; Serrablo, Alejandro; García-Gil, Agustín; García, Joaquín J; Aranguren, Francisco J; Jiménez, Pilar; Hughes, Robin D; Serrano, María T

    2015-01-01

    The availability of fully functional human hepatocytes is critical for progress in human hepatocyte transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers and in vitro liver systems. However, the cell isolation process impairs the hepatocyte status and determines the number of viable cells that can be obtained. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and melatonin in the human hepatocyte isolation protocol. Human hepatocytes were isolated from liver pieces resected from 10 patients undergoing partial hepatectomy. Each piece was dissected into 2 equally sized pieces and randomized, in 5 of 10 isolations, to perfusion with 1% DMSO-containing perfusion buffer or buffer also containing 5 mM melatonin using the 2-step collagenase perfusion technique (experiment 1), and in the other 5 isolations to standard perfusion or perfusion including 1% DMSO (experiment 2). Tissues perfused with DMSO yielded 70.6% more viable hepatocytes per gram of tissue (p = 0.076), with a 26.1% greater albumin production (p < 0.05) than those perfused with control buffer. Melatonin did not significantly affect (p > 0.05) any of the studied parameters, but cell viability, dehydrogenase activity, albumin production, urea secretion, and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity were slightly higher in cells isolated with melatonin-containing perfusion buffer compared to those isolated with DMSO. In conclusion, addition of 1% DMSO to the hepatocyte isolation protocol could improve the availability and functionality of hepatocytes for transplantation, but further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved.

  17. Modulation of protein synthesis and secretion by substratum in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhakaran, P.R.; Stamatoglou, S.C.; Hughes, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Hepatocytes isolated by perfusion of adult rat liver and cultured on substrata consisting of one or more of the major components of the liver biomatrix (fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen) have been examined for the synthesis of defined proteins. Under these conditions, tyrosine amino transferase, a marker of hepatocyte function, is maintained at similar levels in response to dexamethasone over 5 days in culture on each substratum, and total cellular protein synthesis remains constant. By contrast, there is a rapid decrease in synthesis and secretion of albumin and a 3-7-fold increase in synthesis and section of ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein which are most marked on a laminin substratum, but least evident on type IV collagen, and an increased synthesis of fibronectin and type IV collagen. The newly synthesized matrix proteins are present in the cell layer as well as in cell secretions. The enhanced synthesis of fibronectin is less in cells seeded onto a fibronectin substratum than on laminin or type IV collagen substrata. These results indicate that hepatocytes cultured in serum-free medium on substrata composed of components of the liver biomatrix maintain certain functions of the differentiated state (tyrosine amino transferase), lose others (albumin secretion) and switch to increased synthesis of matrix components as well as fetal markers such as ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein. The magnitude of these effects depends on the substratum on which the hepatocytes are cultured.

  18. Sex differences in DNA damage produced by the carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene in cultured human hepatocytes compared to rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Duan, Jian-Dong; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Perrone, Carmen E

    2016-02-01

    Male rats are more susceptible to the induction of liver cancer by the aromatic amine 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) than are females. To assess the basis for this difference and to determine whether sex differences in susceptibility to AAF are present in human liver cells, the DNA reactivity of AAF was measured in livers of male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and in cultured SD rat and human hepatocytes of both sexes. In livers of rats administered oral doses of AAF, the total levels of adducts measured by nucleotide postlabelling at up to 8 weeks were about twofold greater in males than in females. Similarly, the level of AAF-DNA adducts formed in cultured male rat hepatocytes dosed with AAF was about twofold greater than in female rat hepatocytes. Also, the level of DNA repair synthesis was about threefold greater in AAF-dosed cultured male rat hepatocytes compared with female, indicating that the greater adduct levels in males was not due to lesser repair. In contrast, in cultured human hepatocytes of both sexes, AAF produced similar levels of adducts and DNA repair synthesis, which were intermediate between those produced in male and female rat hepatocytes. Thus, the greater susceptibility of male rats to AAF hepatocarcinogenicity is due at least in part to greater bioactivation and formation of AAF-DNA adducts in hepatocytes. Moreover, the data from human hepatocytes suggest that human liver could be less susceptible than male rat liver to the carcinogenic effects of aromatic amine carcinogens of the AAF type.

  19. Prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha increase fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Foix, A M; Rodríguez-Gil, J E; Guinovart, J J; Bosch, F

    1991-01-01

    In hepatocytes isolated from fed rats, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) increased, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate [Fru(2,6)P2] levels and stimulated the glycolytic flux. The rise in Fru(2,6)P2 was related to an increase in glucose 6-phosphate levels which resulted from the stimulation of glycogenolysis. In cells obtained from 24 h-starved rats, no effects of either PGE2 or PGF2 alpha could be observed. In addition, when the stimulation of glycogenolysis was abolished by incubation of fed-rat hepatocytes in a Ca2(+)-depleted medium, Fru(2,6)P2 levels did not increase. Furthermore, no effects of PGs on 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity could be observed. These results indicate that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha show similar actions to Ca2(+)-dependent hormones on hepatic glucose metabolism. PMID:2001249

  20. Free fatty acid inhibition of the insulin induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat hepatocyte monolayers.

    PubMed

    Salati, L M; Adkins-Finke, B; Clarke, S D

    1988-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture were utilized to determine if the decrease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity resulting from the ingestion of fat can be mimicked by the addition of fatty acids to a chemically, hormonally defined medium. G6PD activity in cultured hepatocytes was induced several-fold by insulin. Dexamethasone or T3 did not amplify the insulin induction of G6PD. Glucose alone increased G6PD activity in cultured hepatocytes from fasted donors by nearly 500%. Insulin in combination with glucose induced G6PD an additional two-fold. The increase in G6PD activity caused by glucose was greater in hepatocytes isolated from 72 hr-fasted rats as compared to fed donor rats. Such a response was reminiscent of the "overshoot" phenomenon in which G6PD activity is induced well above the normal level by fasting-refeeding rats a high glucose diet. Addition of linoleate to the medium resulted in a significant suppression of insulin's ability to induce G6PD, but linoleate had no effect on the induction of G6PD activity by glucose alone. A shift to the right in the insulin-response curve for the induction of G6PD also was detected for the induction of malic enzyme and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Arachidonate (0.25 mM) was a significantly more effective inhibitor of the insulin action than linoleate was. Apparently rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture can be utilized as a model to investigate the molecular mechanism by which fatty acids inhibit the production of lipogenic enzymes. In part, this mechanism of fatty acid inhibition involves desensitization of hepatocytes to the lipogenic action of insulin.

  1. Elevated level of. beta. -adrenergic receptors in hepatocytes from regenerating rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Sandnes, D.; Sand, T.E.; Sager, G.; Broenstad, G.O.; Refsnes, M.R.; Gladhaug, I.P.; Jacobsen, S.; Christoffersen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatocytes from regenerating rat liver show an enhanced epinephrine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP response, which may be involved in triggering of the cell proliferation. We have determined adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in hepatocytes isolated at various time points after partial hepatectomy. The number of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors, measured by binding of (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol ((/sup 125/I)CYP) to a particulate fraction prepared from isolated hepatocytes, increased rapidly after partial hepatectomy as compared with sham-operated or untreated controls. The maximal increase, which was observed at 48 h, was between 5- and 6-fold (from approx.1800 to approx.10,500 sites per cell). Thereafter, the number of ..beta..- adrenergic receptors decreased gradually. Competition experiments indicated ..beta../sub 2/-type receptors. Parallelism was found between the change in the number of ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors and the isoproterenol-responsive adenylate cyclase activity. The number of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors, determined by binding of (/sup 3/H)prazosin, was transiently lowered by about 35% at 18-24 h. with no significant change in K/sub d/. Although the results of this study do not exclude the possibility of post-receptor events, they suggest that the increased number of..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors is a major factor responsible for the enhanced catecholamine-responsive adenylate cyclase activity in regenerating liver.

  2. Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone on rats and human by gel entrapped hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Troglitazone, despite passing preclinical trials on animals, was shortly withdrawn from market due to its severe hepatotoxicity in clinic. As rat hepatocyte monolayer consistently showed sensitive troglitazone toxicity as human hepatocyte monolayer in contrast to the species-specific toxicity in vivo, this paper utilized both hepatocytes in three-dimensional culture of gel entrapment to reflect the species difference on hepatotoxicity. Rat hepatocytes in gel entrapment did not show obvious cellular damage even under a long-term exposure for 21 days while gel entrapped human hepatocytes significantly displayed oxidative stress, steatosis, mitochondrial damage and cell death at a short exposure for 4 days. As a result, the detected species-specific toxicity of troglitazone between gel entrapped rat and human hepatocytes consisted well with the situation in vivo but was in a sharp contrast to the performance of two hepatocytes by monolayer culture. Such contradictory toxicity of rat hepatocytes between monolayer and gel entrapment culture could be explained by the fact that troglitazone was cleared more rapidly in gel entrapment than in monolayer culture. Similarly, the differential clearance of troglitazone in rat and human might also explain its species-specific toxicity. Therefore, gel entrapment of hepatocytes might serve as a platform for evaluation of drug toxicity at early stage of drug development by reducing costs, increasing the likelihood of clinical success and limiting human exposure to unsafe drugs. -- Highlights: ► Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone reflected by rat/human hepatocytes ► 3D hepatocytes in 21 days’ long-term culture used for drug hepatotoxicity ► Oversensitive toxicity in hepatocyte monolayer by slow troglitazone clearance.

  3. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-05-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  4. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: potential roles in toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dever, Joseph T; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2009-05-01

    L-methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 degrees C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-d-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-dl-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  5. Toxicity of microcystins in the isolated hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Jie; Liang, Jun-Bo; Liu, Yong-Ding

    2007-07-01

    The toxicity of hepatotoxic microcystins produced mainly by Microcystis aeruginosa in mammals and fishes was well studied in recent years. However, there were scarcely reports in toxic effects of microcystins on isolated hepatocytes of fishes, especially investigation of microcystin-induced apoptosis and/or necrosis in carp hepatocytes. In the present study, the isolated hepatocytes of common carp were exposed to various concentrations of microcystins (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000 microg L(-1)) for 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24h, respectively, and cytotoxicity of microcystins in the toxin-treated cells was determined. Results of this study showed that cytotoxicity of microcystins on carp hepatocytes was time and dose-dependent, and the approximate LC(50) of microcystins in carp hepatocytes was 169.2 microg L(-1). The morphological changes typical of apoptosis, such as blebbing of cell membrane, condensation and fragmentation of cell nucleus were observed in the hepatocytes exposed to microcystins (1, 10 and 100 microg L(-1)) using fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA demonstrated a typical apoptotic "ladder pattern" in microcystin-treated hepatocytes after 16 h of exposure. Results of the present study indicated that the form of cell death in microcystin-treated hepatocytes depend on the exposure dose of toxin. When lower concentration of microcystins (10 and 100 microg L(-1)) was used for exposure, carp hepatocytes died in apoptosis while, when higher one used (1000 microg L(-1)), they died in the form of necrosis.

  6. Investigation of functional and morphological integrity of freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, A; Bode, D C; Pruss, J; Bilir, B; Smith, G D; Zeisloft, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a pressing need for alternative therapeutic methods effective in the treatment of patients with liver insufficiency. Isolated human hepatocytes may be a viable alternative or adjunct to orthotopic liver transplantation in such patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability and functional integrity of freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes, in preparation for a multi-center human hepatocyte transplantation trial. We are currently processing transplant-grade human parenchymal liver cells from nondiseased human livers that are obtained through a network of organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Thus far, sixteen hepatocyte transplants have been performed using hepatocytes processed by our methods. At the time of referral all specimens were deemed unsuitable for transplantation due to anatomical anomalies, high fat content, medical history, etc. Hepatocytes were isolated from encapsulated liver sections by a modified two-step perfusion technique. Isolated cells were cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for one to twelve months. The total yield of freshly isolated hepatocytes averaged 3.7x10(7) cells per gram of wet tissue. Based on trypan blue exclusion, fresh preparations contained an average of 85% viable hepatocytes vs. 70% in cryopreserved samples. The plating efficiencies of cells seeded immediately after isolation ranged from 87% to 98%, while those of cryopreserved/thawed cells were markedly lower. Flow cytometry analysis of cells labeled with 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) showed that there was no significant difference in viability compared with trypan blue staining. Both freshly isolated hepatocytes and those recovered from cryopreservation showed typical and intact morphology as demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. The product of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reaction was always expressed more intensely in cultures of freshly

  7. Metabolism and Toxicity of Thioacetamide and Thioacetamide S-Oxide in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hajovsky, Liz; Hu, Gang; Koen, Yakov; Sarma, Diganta; Cui, Wenqi; Moore, David S.; Staudinger, Jeff L.; Hanzlik, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of thioacetamide (TA) has been known since 1948. In rats, single doses cause centrilobular necrosis accompanied by increases in plasma transaminases and bilirubin. To elicit these effects TA requires oxidative bioactivation leading first to its S-oxide (TASO) and then to its chemically reactive S,S-dioxide (TASO2) which ultimately modifies amine-lipids and proteins. To generate a suite of liver proteins adducted by TA metabolites for proteomic analysis, and to reduce the need for both animals and labeled compounds, we treated isolated hepatocytes directly with TA. Surprisingly, TA was not toxic at concentrations up to 50 mM for 40 hr. On the other hand, TASO was highly toxic to isolated hepatocytes as indicated by LDH release, cellular morphology and vital staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide. TASO toxicity was partially blocked by the CYP2E1 inhibitors diallyl sulfide and 4-methylpyrazole, and was strongly inhibited by TA. Significantly, we found that hepatocytes produce TA from TASO relatively efficiently by back-reduction. The covalent binding of [14C]-TASO is inhibited by unlabeled TA which acts as a “cold-trap” for [14C]-TA and prevents its re-oxidation to [14C]-TASO. This in turn increases the net consumption of [14C]-TASO despite the fact that its oxidation to TASO2 is inhibited. The potent inhibition of TASO oxidation by TA, coupled with the back-reduction of TASO and its futile redox cycling with TA may help explain phenomena previously interpreted as “saturation toxicokinetics” in the in vivo metabolism and toxicity of TA and TASO. The improved understanding of the metabolism and covalent binding of TA and TASO facilitates the use of hepatocytes to prepare protein adducts for target protein identification. PMID:22867114

  8. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kheradpezhouh, E; Barritt, G J; Rychkov, G Y

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca(2+) entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca(2+)]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels.

  9. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, E.; Barritt, G.J.; Rychkov, G.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca2+ entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5 µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca2+]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50 nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels. PMID:26609559

  10. Autophagic sequestration of [14C]sucrose, introduced into rat hepatocytes by reversible electro-permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, P B; Seglen, P O

    1982-11-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes could be made permeable to small molecules such as [14C]sucrose (but not to proteins) by subjecting the cells to repeated electric discharges in a high-voltage field. During subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C, the permeability changes were reversed within 15 min, the electro-injected [14C]sucrose remaining trapped inside the re-sealed plasma membrane. Autophagic sequestration of [14C]sucrose, i.e., the transfer of radioactivity from cytosol to sedimentable vesicles (autophagosomes and lysosomes), could be followed by incubating the [14C]sucrose-loaded hepatocytes for up to 2 h at 37 degrees C. After incubation, the cells were disrupted by a single high-voltage discharge in electrolyte-free medium (sucrose), and sedimentable cell components were separated from the cytosol by centrifugation through metrizamide. By the use of these methods, which are particularly suitable for the analysis of many small cell samples, it could be shown that [14C]sucrose was autophagically sequestered in the hepatocytes at a rate of 4-5%/h. The sequestration was nearly completely inhibited by the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine.

  11. Glutathione (GSH) production is increased in copper deficient isolated hepatocytes and inhibition of GSH synthesis decreases intracellular cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Pi Yu Chao; Allen, K.G.D )

    1991-03-15

    Thirty male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to three groups of 10 animals each and fed AIN based copper deficient ad libitum, copper control meal fed and copper deficient meal fed diets. 12h meals were provided. Beginning on day 54 animals were used to prepare isolated hepatocytes, following a 4h meal, by portal vein collagenase infusion. Washed isolated hepatocytes were incubated in Krebs Henseleit bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4 under 95/5 O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} at 37{degree} with 2.5 mM Ca, 0.75% gelatin and 10 mM glucose, either with or without 1 mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) a specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis. Hepatocyte viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Copper deficiency significantly increased GSH production by 30-50% at 1.5 and 3 h, with no changes in GSSG. GSH production was inhibited by BSO which also significantly inhibited intracellular cholesterol appearance at 3 h. The intracellular (GHS){sup 2}/GSSG at 3 hr showed a significant correlation with cholesterol appearance rate at 3 h. Copper deficiency increases hepatocyte GSH production. Inhibition of GSH production is correlated with decreased cholesterol appearance.

  12. Persistence and accumulation of micronucleated hepatocytes in liver of rats after repeated administration of diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Narumi, Kazunori; Ashizawa, Koji; Fujiishi, Yohei; Tochinai, Ryota; Okada, Emiko; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro; Tatemoto, Hideki; Hamada, Shuichi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Ohyama, Wakako

    2013-08-15

    A repeat-dose micronucleus assay in adult rat liver was recently developed [Mutat. Res. 747 (2012) 234-239]. This assay demonstrated a high detectability of hepatocarcinogens at relatively low doses, as indicated by dose-dependent micronucleus induction. Because the adult rat liver is known to have a long life-span, this desirable property of the assay will be an advantage in detecting micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) that have persisted for long periods in the liver following repeated dosing. However, no data directly supporting the underlying mechanisms have been published to date. In the present study, we verified the mechanisms by means of pulse-labeling of micronucleated hepatocytes with the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). The rodent hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was repeatedly administered orally to male Crl:CD (SD) rats (6 weeks old) for up to 2 weeks, and EdU was injected intraperitoneally on days 1, 7, or 14. Hepatocytes were isolated by use of a non-perfusion technique at 24h, 1 week, or 2 weeks after EdU injection and analyzed for EdU incorporation and micronucleus formation. The results of our study confirmed that MNHEPs labeled with EdU on the first day of DEN administration persisted until 2 weeks post-administration in the rat livers. However, the frequency of MHNEPs among EdU-labeled hepatocytes decreased over time. In addition, the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the liver tissue increased, suggesting selective removal of micronucleated cells. Theoretical calculation of the cumulative MNHEP frequency on each of the days on which DEN was administered, taking into account the rate of loss, came out closer to the actual value observed in the liver micronucleus test. Taken together, these results indicate that although micronucleated cells induced in rat livers by administration of the genotoxic hepatocarcinogen DEN undergo selective removal, they

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase counteracted the inhibitory effect of glucose on the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hubert, A; Husson, A; Chédeville, A; Lavoinne, A

    2000-09-22

    The effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene expression was studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. Activation of AMPK by AICAR counteracted the inhibitory effect of glucose on the PEPCK gene expression, both at the mRNA and the transcriptional levels. It is proposed that a target for AMPK is involved in the inhibitory effect of glucose on PEPCK gene transcription.

  14. Sodium-proton exchanger in isolated hepatocytes exhibits a set point

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.J. )

    1988-09-01

    Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange activity was examined in hepatocytes isolated from rat liver. Activity was measured as amiloride-sensitive fluorescence changes utilizing the pH-sensitive chromophore, bis(carboxyethyl)-carboxyfluorescein. Hepatocytes, after being acidified by an NH{sub 4}Cl prepulse, exhibit amiloride-sensitive and sodium-dependent alkalinization. The rate of cellular pH recovery after acidification varied with the intracellular pH. The rate was highest at approximately pH 6.4 and declined as the pH rose, ceasing measurable activity at approximately pH 7.3. The phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, at a concentration of 10{sup {minus}6} M, shifted the set point for the exchanger to a more alkaline pH by 0.2-0.3 pH units. The above observations indicate that the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchanger plays an active role in regulating intracellular pH in liver cells and that hormones acting through protein kinase C may modulate that function.

  15. Hepatocyte isolation from resected benign tissues: Results of a 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fan-Ying; Liu, Li; Liu, Jun; Li, Chun-You; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Feng-Hui; Chen, Zhi-Shui; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze retrospectively a 5-year experience of human hepatocyte isolation from resected liver tissues with benign disease. METHODS We established a method of modified four-step retrograde perfusion to isolate primary human hepatocytes. Samples were collected from the resected livers of patients with intrahepatic duct calculi (n = 7) and liver hemangioma (n = 17). Only the samples weighing ≥ 15 g were considered suitable for hepatocyte isolation. By using the standard trypan blue exclusion technique, hepatocyte viability and yield were immediately determined after isolation. RESULTS Twenty-four liver specimens, weighing 15-42 g, were immediately taken from the margin of the removed samples and transferred to the laboratory for hepatocyte isolation. Warm ischemia time was 5-35 min and cold ischemia time was 15-45 min. For the 7 samples of intrahepatic duct calculi, the method resulted in a hepatocyte yield of 3.49 ± 2.31 × 106 hepatocytes/g liver, with 76.4% ± 10.7% viability. The 17 samples of liver hemangioma had significantly higher yield of cells (5.4 ± 1.71 × 106 cells/g vs 3.49 ± 2.31 × 106 cells/g, P < 0.05) than the samples of intrahepatic duct calculi. However, there seems to be no clear difference in cell viability (80.3% ± 9.67% vs 76.4% ± 10.7%, P > 0.05). We obtained a cell yield of 5.31 ± 1.87 × 106 hepatocytes/g liver when the samples weighed > 20 g. However, for the tissues weighing ≤ 20 g, a reduction in yield was found (3.08 ± 1.86 × 106 cells/g vs 5.31 ± 1.87 × 106 cells/g, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Benign diseased livers are valuable sources for large-number hepatocyte isolation. Our study represents the largest number of primary human hepatocytes isolated from resected specimens from patients with benign liver disease. We evaluated the effect of donor liver characteristics on cell isolation, and we found that samples of liver hemangioma can provide better results than intrahepatic duct calculi, in terms of cell yield

  16. Gel entrapment culture of rat hepatocytes for investigation of tetracycline-induced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Chong; Meng Qin Schmelzer, Eva; Bader, Augustinus

    2009-07-15

    This paper aimed to explore three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes for testing drug-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gel entrapped rat hepatocytes were applied for investigation of the tetracycline-induced steatohepatitis, while hepatocyte monolayer was set as a control. The toxic responses of hepatocytes were systematically evaluated by measuring cell viability, liver-specific function, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, adenosine triphosphate content and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results suggested that gel entrapped hepatocytes showed cell death after 96 h of tetracycline treatment at 25 {mu}M which is equivalent to toxic serum concentration in rats, while hepatocyte monolayer showed cell death at a high dose of 200 {mu}M. The concentration-dependent accumulation of lipid as well as mitochondrial damage were regarded as two early events for tetracycline hepatotoxicity in gel entrapment culture due to their detectability ahead of subsequent increase of oxidative stress and a final cell death. Furthermore, the potent protection of fenofibrate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate were evidenced in only gel entrapment culture with higher expressions on the genes related to {beta}-oxidation than hepatocyte monolayer, suggesting the mediation of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial damage in tetracycline toxicity. Overall, gel entrapped hepatocytes in three-dimension reflected more of the tetracycline toxicity in vivo than hepatocyte monolayer and thus was suggested as a more relevant system for evaluating steatogenic drugs.

  17. Effect of Concentrated Fibroblast-Conditioned Media on In Vitro Maintenance of Rat Primary Hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dayeong; Han, Chungmin; Kang, Inhye; Park, Hyun Taek; Kim, Jiyoon; Ryu, Hayoung; Gho, Yong Song; Park, Jaesung

    2016-01-01

    The effects of concentrated fibroblast-conditioned media were tested to determine whether hepatocyte function can be maintained without direct contact between hepatocytes and fibroblasts. Primary rat hepatocytes cultured with a concentrated conditioned media of NIH-3T3 J2 cell line (final concentration of 55 mg/ml) showed significantly improved survival and functions (albumin and urea) compared to those of control groups. They also showed higher expression levels of mRNA, albumin and tyrosine aminotransferase compared to hepatocyte monoculture. The results suggest that culture with concentrated fibroblast-conditioned media could be an easy method for in vitro maintenance of primary hepatocytes. They also could be contribute to understand and analyze co-culture condition of hepatocyte with stroma cells.

  18. COVALENT BINDING OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE TO PROTEINS IN HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES. (R826409)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant and occupational solvent trichloroethylene is metabolized to a reactive intermediate that covalently binds to specific hepatic proteins in exposed mice and rats. In order to compare covalent binding between humans and rodents, primary hepatocyte c...

  19. Rat-derived amniotic epithelial cells differentiate into mature hepatocytes in vivo with no evidence of cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Michela; Serra, Maria Paola; Contini, Antonella; Sini, Marcella; Strom, Stephen C; Laconi, Ezio; Marongiu, Fabio

    2015-06-15

    Amniotic epithelial cells (AEC) derived from human placenta represent a useful and noncontroversial source for liver-based regenerative medicine. Previous studies suggested that human- and rat-derived AEC differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells upon transplantation. In the retrorsine (RS) model of liver repopulation, clusters of donor-derived cells engrafted in the recipient liver and, importantly, showed characteristics of mature hepatocytes. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible involvement of cell fusion in the emergence of hepatocyte clusters displaying a donor-specific phenotype. To this end, 4-week-old GFP(+)/DPP-IV(-) rats were treated with RS and then transplanted with undifferentiated AEC isolated from the placenta of DPP-IV(+) pregnant rats at 16-19 days of gestational age. Results indicated that clusters of donor-derived cells were dipeptidyl peptidase type IV (DPP-IV) positive, but did not express the green fluorescent protein (GFP), suggesting that rat amniotic epithelial cells (rAEC) did not fuse within the host parenchyma, as no colocalization of the two tags was observed. Moreover, rAEC-derived clusters expressed markers of mature hepatocytes (eg, albumin, cytochrome P450), but were negative for the expression of biliary/progenitor markers (eg, epithelial cell adhesion molecule [EpCAM]) and did not express the marker of preneoplastic hepatic nodules glutathione S-transferase P (GST-P). These results extend our previous findings on the potential of AEC to differentiate into mature hepatocytes and suggest that this process can occur in the absence of cell fusion with host-derived cells. These studies support the hypothesis that amnion-derived epithelial cells can be an effective cell source for the correction of liver disease.

  20. Antioxidant lignans from Machilus thunbergii protect CCl4-injured primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y U; Kang, S Y; Park, H Y; Sung, S H; Lee, E J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y C

    2000-09-01

    Eleven lignans (1-11) were isolated from the CH2Cl2 fraction of the bark of Machilus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (Lauraceae). These were identified as (-)-acuminatin (1), (-)-isoguaiacin (2), meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (3), (+)-galbacin (4), (-)-sesamin (5), (+)-galbelgin (6), machilin A (7), machilin G (8), licarin A (9), and nectandrin A (10) and B (11). Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were co-incubated for 90 min with the hepatotoxin CCl4 and each of the 11 lignans (50 microM). Hepatoprotective activity was determined by measuring the level of glutamic pyruvic transaminase released into the medium from the primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. (-)-Acuminatin, (-)-isoguaiacin and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid all significantly reduced the level of glutamic pyruvic transaminase released. Further investigation revealed that these three compounds significantly preserved the levels and the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. (-)-Acuminatin, (-)-isoguaiacin and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid also ameliorated lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by a reduction of malondialdehyde production. These results suggest that (-)-acuminatin, (-)-isoguaiacin and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid exert diverse hepatoprotective activities, perhaps by serving as potent antioxidants.

  1. Caveolin-1 is enriched in the peroxisomal membrane of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Woudenberg, Jannes; Rembacz, Krzysztof P; van den Heuvel, Fiona A J; Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E; Buist-Homan, Manon; Geuken, Mariska; Hoekstra, Mark; Deelman, Leo E; Enrich, Carlos; Henning, Rob H; Moshage, Han; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2010-05-01

    Caveolae are a subtype of cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains/rafts that are routinely detected as vesicles pinching off from the plasma membrane. Caveolin-1 is an essential component of caveolae. Hepatic caveolin-1 plays an important role in liver regeneration and lipid metabolism. Expression of caveolin-1 in hepatocytes is relatively low, and it has been suggested to also reside at other subcellular locations than the plasma membrane. Recently, we found that the peroxisomal membrane contains lipid microdomains. Like caveolin-1, hepatic peroxisomes are involved in lipid metabolism. Here, we analyzed the subcellular location of caveolin-1 in rat hepatocytes. The subcellular location of rat hepatocyte caveolin-1 was analyzed by cell fractionation procedures, immunofluorescence, and immuno-electron microscopy. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged caveolin-1 was expressed in rat hepatocytes. Lipid rafts were characterized after Triton X-100 or Lubrol WX extraction of purified peroxisomes. Fenofibric acid-dependent regulation of caveolin-1 was analyzed. Peroxisome biogenesis was studied in rat hepatocytes after RNA interference-mediated silencing of caveolin-1 and caveolin-1 knockout mice. Cell fractionation and microscopic analyses reveal that caveolin-1 colocalizes with peroxisomal marker proteins (catalase, the 70 kDa peroxisomal membrane protein PMP70, the adrenoleukodystrophy protein ALDP, Pex14p, and the bile acid-coenzyme A:amino acid N-acyltransferase BAAT) in rat hepatocytes. Artificially expressed GFP-caveolin-1 accumulated in catalase-positive organelles. Peroxisomal caveolin-1 is associated with detergent-resistant microdomains. Caveolin-1 expression is strongly repressed by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist fenofibric acid. Targeting of peroxisomal matrix proteins and peroxisome number and shape were not altered in rat hepatocytes with 70%-80% reduced caveolin-1 levels and in livers of caveolin-1 knockout mice. Caveolin-1

  2. Modulation of benzoquinone-induced cytotoxicity by diethyldithiocarbamate in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lauriault, V V; McGirr, L G; Wong, W W; O'Brien, P J

    1990-10-01

    The copper-chelating thiol drug diethyldithiocarbamate protected isolated hepatocytes from benzoquinone-induced alkylation cytotoxicity by reacting with benzoquinone and forming a conjugate which was identified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as 2-(diethyldithiocarbamate-S-yl) hydroquinone. In contrast to benzoquinone, the conjugate was not cytotoxic to isolated hepatocytes. The thiol reductant dithiothreitol had no effect on benzoquinone-induced alkylation cytotoxicity. However, inactivation of catalase in the hepatocytes with azide and addition of the reducing agent ascorbate markedly enhanced the cytotoxicity of the conjugate but did not affect benzoquinone-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, inactivation of glutathione reductase and catalase in hepatocytes greatly enhanced the cytotoxicity of the conjugate and caused oxidation of GSH to GSSG. The conjugate also stimulated cyanide-resistant respiration, which suggests that the conjugate undergoes futile redox cycling resulting in the formation of hydrogen peroxide which causes cytotoxicity in isolated hepatocytes only if the peroxide detoxifying enzymes are inactivated. Diethyldithiocarbamate does, however, protect uncompromised isolated hepatocytes from benzoquinone cytotoxicity by conjugating benzoquinone, thereby preventing the electrophile from alkylating essential macromolecules. Diethyldithiocarbamate therefore changed the initiating cytotoxic mechanism of benzoquinone from alkylation to oxidative stress, which was less toxic.

  3. Latency is the major determinant of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bánhegyi, G; Garzó, T; Fulceri, R; Benedetti, A; Mandl, J

    1993-08-09

    The glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol was measured in intact, saponin- and alamethicin-treated isolated mouse hepatocytes. In saponin-permeabilized cells the elevation of extrareticular UDP-glucuronic acid concentration enhanced the rate of glucuronidation threefold. When intracellular membranes were also permeabilized by alamethicin, a further tenfold increase in the glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol was present. Parallel measurements of the ER mannose 6-phosphatase activity revealed that saponin selectively permeabilized the plasma membrane, whereas alamethicin permeabilized both plasma membrane and ER membranes. The inhibition of p-nitrophenol glucuronidation by dbcAMP in intact hepatocytes was still present in saponin-treated cells and disappeared in alamethicin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It is suggested that the permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is a major determinant of glucuronidation not only in microsomes but in isolated hepatocytes as well.

  4. Detection of DNA single-strand breaks induced by procarcinogens in Chinese hamster ovary cells cocultured with rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, K.H.; Shin, C.G.; Choe, S.Y.; Kim, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    DNA single-strand breaks induced by procarcinogens were detected in Chinese hamster overy (CHO) cell cocultured with adult rat hepatocytes. Freshly isolated adult rat hepatocytes were added to the CHO cell culture prelabeled with (/sup 3/H) thymidine. After allowing the hepatocytes to attach on or near the CHO cells, aflatoxin B/sub 1/ or benzo(a)pyrene was added to the culture and incubated for the desired time. DNA single-strand breaks in CHO cells were measured by the alkaline elution technique. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ induced some DNA single-strand breaks in CHO cells cultured alone, but in coculture system with hepatocytes the number of DNA single-strand breaks increased greatly. The magnitude of the increase was related to the dose and the time of exposure to aflatoxin B/sub 1/. Addition of proteinase-K to the cell lysates increased the elution of DNA compared to that of samples without proteinase-K. Benzo(a)pyrene did not induce any DNA single-strand breaks in CHO cells in the absence of liver cells, but a significant number of single-strand breaks were detected in the coculture system.

  5. Regulation of bile acid synthesis in rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kubaska, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    Primary hepatocyte monolayer cultures (PHC) were prepared and incubated in serum free media. Cells from a cholestyramine fed rat converted exogenous (/sup 14/C)-cholesterol into (/sup 14/C)-bile acids at a 3-fold greater rate than rats fed a normal diet. PHC synthesize bile acids (BA) at a rate of approximately 0.06 ..mu..g/mg protein/h. The major bile acid composition, as determined by GLC, was ..beta..-muricholic acid (BMC) and cholic acid (CA) in a 3:1 ratio, respectively. PHC rapidly converted free BA and BA intermediates into taurine conjugated trihydroxy-BA up to 87h after plating. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A-reductase activity assayed in microsomes prepared from PHC, decreased during the initial 48h, then remained constant. Cholesterol 7..cap alpha..-hydroxylase activity decreased during the initial 48h, then increased during the next 48h. This occurred while whole cells produced BA at a linear rate. The effect of individual BA on bile acid synthesis (BAS) was also studied. Relative rates of BAS were measured as the conversion of (/sup 14/C)-cholesterol into (/sup 14/C)-BA. BA combinations were tested in order to simulate the composition of the enterohepatic circulation. The addition of TCA (525 ..mu..M) plus TCDCA (80..mu..M), in concentrations which greatly exceed the concentration of BA (60..mu..M) in rate portal blood, failed to inhibit BAS. BA plus phospholipid and/or cholesterol also did not inhibit BAS. Surprisingly, crude rat bile with a final concentration comparable to those in the synthetic mix inhibited (/sup 14/C)-cholesterol conversion into (/sup 14/C)-BA.

  6. Induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in suspensions of rat hepatocytes by an environmental toxicant, 3,3'4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene.

    PubMed

    Hsia, M T; Kreamer, B L

    1979-04-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced by 3,3'4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB)) in freshly isolated suspensions of rat hepatocytes. A dose-dependent response was demonstrated. Hepatocellular DNA was obtained after the chloroform-isoamyl alchohol-phenol extraction of the isolated nuclei. The induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured by the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine in the presence of hydroxyurea as determined by the scintillation counting assay. DNA repair data obtained in this study on benzo[a]pyrene and methyl methanesulfonate are comparable to a previous report using primary cultures of hepatocytes and cesium chloride gradients. Hence, the present method offers promise as a rapid and sensitive screen for chemical carcinogens.

  7. Carrier-mediated uptake of lucifer yellow in skate and rat hepatocytes: a fluid-phase marker revisited.

    PubMed

    Ballatori, N; Hager, D N; Nundy, S; Miller, D S; Boyer, J L

    1999-10-01

    Uptake of lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent disulfonic acid anionic dye, was studied in isolated skate (Raja erinacea) perfused livers and primary hepatocytes to evaluate its utility as a fluid-phase marker in these cells. However, our findings demonstrated that LY is transported across the plasma membrane of skate hepatocytes largely via carrier-mediated mechanisms. Isolated perfused skate livers cleared 50% of the LY from the recirculating perfusate within 1 h of addition of either 22 or 220 microM LY, with only 4.5 and 9% of the LY remaining in the perfusate after 7 h, respectively. Most of the LY was excreted into bile, resulting in high biliary LY concentrations (1 and 10 mM at the two doses, respectively), indicating concentrative transport into bile canalicular lumen. LY uptake by freshly isolated skate hepatocytes was temperature sensitive, exhibited saturation kinetics, and was inhibited by other organic anions. Uptake was mediated by both sodium-dependent [Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)), 125 +/- 57 microM; maximal velocity (V(max)), 1.5 +/- 0.2 pmol. min(-1). mg cells(-1)] and sodium-independent (K(m), 207 +/- 55 microM; V(max), 1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol. min(-1). mg cells(-1)) mechanisms. Both of these uptake mechanisms were inhibited by various organic anions and transport inhibitors, including furosemide, bumetanide, sulfobromophthalein, rose bengal, probenecid, N-ethylmaleimide, taurocholate, and p-aminohippuric acid. Fluorescent imaging techniques showed intracellular vesicular compartmentation of LY in skate hepatocyte clusters. Studies in perfused rat livers also indicated that LY is taken up against a concentration gradient and concentrated in bile. LY uptake in isolated rat hepatocytes was saturable, but only at high concentrations, and demonstrated a K(m) of 3.7 +/- 1.0 mM and a V(max) of 1.75 +/- 0.16 nmol. min(-1). mg wet wt(-1). These results indicate that LY is transported into skate and rat hepatocytes and bile largely by carrier

  8. Pancreastatin increases free cytosolic Ca2+ in rat hepatocytes, involving both pertussis-toxin-sensitive and -insensitive mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Margalet, V; Lucas, M; Goberna, R

    1993-01-01

    Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, loaded with the Ca2+ probe Fluo-3, responded to homologous pancreastatin with a sudden increase in free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) as well as glucose release. Addition of rat pancreastatin (0.1 microM) to hepatocytes resulted in an increase in [Ca2+]i from 150 nM to 700 nM, which declined back to nearly basal values within 2-3 min. Half-maximal and maximal effects were observed at 0.3 and 100 nM pancreastatin respectively. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by vasopressin and noradrenaline was very similar in extent (from 150 to 800 nM) to that produced by pancreastatin. Neither the alpha 1-adrenergic blocker prazosin nor the vasopressin antagonist V1 modified the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by pancreastatin. Pig pancreastatin and its 33-49 C-terminal fragment produced about 65 and 75% of the effect of homologous pancreastatin respectively. Glucose production correlated with changes in [Ca2+]i in the same order of potency: vasopressin > rat pancreastatin > pig 33-49 pancreastatin > pig 1-49 pancreastatin. The effect of pancreastatin on [Ca2+]i was decreased by 50% when Ca2+ was omitted from the medium, and totally abolished when hepatocytes were depleted of internal Ca2+ stores by preincubation without Ca2+ and with 2 mM EGTA. When hepatocytes were preincubated for 5 min with PMA, the effects of ATP and noradrenaline were prevented, and those of vasopressin and pancreastatin remained unchanged. The pretreatment of hepatocytes with pertussis toxin diminished the response to pancreastatin and vasopressin. These results suggest that pancreastatin is a new Ca(2+)-mobilizing glycogenolytic hormone acting through a specific receptor which may involve both pertussis-toxin-sensitive and -insensitive GTP-binding regulatory proteins. PMID:8373359

  9. Liver fatty acid binding protein is the mitosis-associated polypeptide target of a carcinogen in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, J A; Tsichlis, P N; Sorof, S

    1987-01-01

    Hepatocytes in normal rat liver were found previously to contain a cytoplasmic 14,000-dalton polypeptide (p14) that is associated with mitosis and is the principal early covalent target of activated metabolites of the carcinogen N-2-fluorenylacetamide (2-acetylaminofluorene). The level of immunohistochemically detected p14 was low when growth activity of hepatocytes was low, was markedly elevated during mitosis in normal and regenerating livers, but was very high throughout interphase during proliferation of hyperplastic and malignant hepatocytes induced in rat liver by a carcinogen (N-2-fluorenylacetamide or 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene). We report here that p14 is the liver fatty acid binding protein. The nucleotide sequence of p14 cDNA clones, isolated by screening a rat liver cDNA library in bacteriophage lambda gt11 using p14 antiserum, was completely identical to part of the sequence reported for liver fatty acid binding protein. Furthermore, the two proteins shared the following properties: size of mRNA, amino acid composition, molecular size according to NaDodSO4 gel electrophoresis, and electrophoretic mobilities in a Triton X-100/acetic acid/urea gel. Their pI values overlapped in 2-dimensional isoelectric focusing/NaDodSO4 gel electrophoresis and showed the same response to delipidation. Either polypeptide reacted with and blocked the antiserum raised against the other polypeptide. The two polypeptides bound oleic acid similarly. Finally, identical elevations of cytoplasmic immunostain were detected specifically in mitotic hepatocytes with either antiserum. The collected findings are suggestive that liver fatty acid binding protein may carry ligands that promote hepatocyte division and may transport certain activated chemical carcinogens. Images PMID:3478711

  10. Equine hepatocytes: isolation, cryopreservation, and applications to in vitro drug metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Shibany, Khaled A; Tötemeyer, Sabine; Pratt, Stefanie L; Paine, Stuart W

    2016-10-01

    Despite reports of the successful isolation of primary equine hepatocytes, there are no published data regarding the successful cryopreservation of these isolated cells. In this study, a detailed description of the procedures for isolation, cryopreservation, and recovery of equine hepatocytes are presented. Furthermore, the intrinsic clearance (Clint) and production of metabolites for three drugs were compared between freshly isolated and recovered cryopreserved hepatocytes. Primary equine hepatocytes were isolated using a two-step collagenase perfusion method, with an average cell yield of 2.47 ± 2.62 × 10(6) cells/g of perfused liver tissue and viability of 84.1 ± 2.62%. These cells were cryopreserved with William's medium E containing 10% fetal bovine serum with 10% DMSO. The viability of recovered cells, after a 30% Percoll gradient, was 77 ± 11% and estimated recovery rate was approximately 27%. These purified cells were used to determine the in vitro Clint of three drugs used in equine medicine; omeprazole, flunixin, and phenylbutazone, via the substrate depletion method. Cryopreserved suspensions gave a comparable estimation of Clint compared to fresh cells for these three drugs as well as producing the same metabolites. This work paves the way for establishing a bank of cryopreserved equine hepatocytes that can be used for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters such as the hepatic metabolic in vivo clearance of a drug as well as producing horse-specific drug metabolites.

  11. Monitoring of sodium:poton exchange in isolated hepatocytes by electronic cell sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    To investigate volume-regulating processes in the hepatocyte, a rapid and precise method of measuring cell volume in isolated hepatocytes was devised which uses a Coulter Counter equipped with a Channelyzer. Isolated hepatocytes exhibit a volume-decreasing mechanism (potassium channel) which is triggered by cell volume increases as small as 10%. Cell volume increases in the hepatocyte may be mediated by activity of the Na:H exchanger. To examine Na:H exchange-mediated cell volume increases, without apparent interference by the volume-decreasing mechanism, acetate was substituted for chloride in the incubation medium. Hepatocytes placed in a medium containing sodium acetate at an acidic pH exhibit a continuous amiloride-sensitive swelling. A simple procedure was devised for estimating Na:H exchanger set-point by electronic cell sizing. In a sodium acetate medium, the internal pH equilibrates with the external pH. By placing cells in sodium acetate medium of various pH values and measuring the rate of amiloride-sensitive swelling, an estimate of Na:H exchanger set-point can be obtained. By this method, the exchanger was estimated to cease activity above an intracellular pH of 7.2. This method could be useful for identification of stimuli that might promote cell enlargement by raising the exchanger set-point. The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate tetraacetic acid raises the set-point of the exchanger in the isolated hepatocytes, resulting in exchanger activity at normal cellular pH, and at the same time promotes hepatocyte swelling. Exchanger activation via a kinase C-mediated mechanism is one possible way that hepatocyte enlargement may occur.

  12. Hepatocyte growth factor-modulated rat Leydig cell functions.

    PubMed

    Del Bravo, Jessica; Catizone, Angela; Ricci, Giulia; Galdieri, Michela

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) regulates many cellular functions acting through c-Met, its specific tyrosine kinase receptor. We previously reported that in prepuberal rats HGF is secreted by the peritubular myoid cells during the entire postnatal testicular development and by the Sertoli cells only at puberty. We have also demonstrated that germ cells at different stages of development express c-Met and that HGF modulates germ cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the present article, we extend our study to the interstitial compartment of the testis and demonstrate that the c-Met protein is present on Leydig cells. The receptor is functionally active as demonstrated by the detected effects of HGF. We report in this article that HGF significantly increases the amount of testosterone secreted by the Leydig cells and decreases the number of Leydig cells undergoing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of HGF is mediated by caspase-3 activity because the amount of the active fragment of the enzyme is decreased in Leydig cells cultured in the presence of HGF. However, treatment with the growth factor does not modify the expression levels of caspase-3 mRNA. These data indicate that HGF regulates the functional activities of Leydig cells. Interestingly, the steroidogenetic activity of the cells is increased by HGF in cultured explants of testicular tissues as well as the antiapoptotic effect of HGF. Therefore, our data indicate that HGF has a crucial role in the regulation of male fertility.

  13. Differential entry of ricin into malignant and normal rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Decastel, M.; Haentjens, G.; Aubery, M.; Goussault, Y. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors have compared the mechanisms of ricin binding to and entry into Zajdela hepatoma cells (ZHC) and normal rat hepatocytes (HyC). Lactose but not mannan was found to inhibit ricin binding to and toxicity on ZHC and HyC. This finding suggests that ricin binding, entry, and toxicity are expressed only through the galactose binding sites on ZHC and HyC. Nevertheless, the characteristics of ricin binding and its entry pathway appeared to be different in several respects in ZHC and HyC. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium data determined over a wide range of {sup 125}I-labeled ricin concentrations yielded a curvilinear plot for ZHC, while a straight line was obtained for HyC. These results indicate that only ZHC possess high-affinity receptors for ricin. Analysis of ricin toxicity of ZHC and HyC, in the presence of ammonium chloride or after K{sup +}-depletion in both cell types, suggests that the ricin bound to galactose receptors entered through neutral vesicles in ZHC, and through both neutral and acidic vesicles in HyC. The qualitative and quantitative differences found between the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis of ricin in ZHC and HyC might explain the differential sensitivity of the two cell types toward the toxin.

  14. Ultrastructural and biochemical alterations induced in human, rat and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture exposed to selected carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB{sub 1}), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and actinomycin D are all potential human liver carcinogens. In order to investigate carcinogenic susceptibility of human liver to these agents, primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes were exposed to the four carcinogens. In the first series of experiments, human, rat, and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to actinomycin D, AFB{sub 1}, and DMN for 24 h and examined for ultrastructural alterations. In an effort to relate the ultrastructural effects with total covalent binding of the carcinogen to DNA, human, rat and mouse hepatocytes were exposed to 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M ({sup 3}H)AFB{sub 1} for 24 h. Hepatocytes from male rats had the highest degree of ({sup 3}H)AFB{sub 1}-DNA binding. Human hepatocytes contained the next highest binding level, while hepatocytes from female rats bound 38 pmoles/mg DNA. The AFB{sub 1}-DNA binding level in mouse hepatocytes was 1.4 pmoles/mg DNA. In similar experiments, human, and male and female rat hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to the carcinogen 2-acetylamino (9-{sup 14}C)fluorene for 24 h. It was determined that male rat hepatocytes had the highest amount of radiolabeled 2-AAF bound to their DNA, female rats contained 0.57 nmoles/mg DNA, while human hepatocytes contained 0.29 nmoles/mg DNA.

  15. Differential induction of the expression of GST subunits by geniposide in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong; Young, Shun-Chieh; Sun, Yuan-Chang; Chen, Yi-Jun; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2004-01-01

    Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside isolated from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and anticarcinogenesis. In this study, the mechanism of geniposide affecting the GST (glutathione S-transferase) system was investigated. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with geniposide and examined for total GST activity and expression of GST subunits. The results showed that the geniposide-induced GST activity was dose and time dependent. Western blotting data demonstrated that geniposide induced increased protein levels of GSTM1 and GSTM2 (approximately 1.7- and 1.8-fold of control, respectively), but did not increase those of GSTA1. The corresponding transcripts levels were confirmed by RT-PCR. Using PD98059, the effect of geniposide was verified to be via the MEK pathway. The results suggest that geniposide possesses a potential for detoxication by inducing GST activity via increasing the transcription of GSTM1 and GSTM2.

  16. Biochemical characterization of domain-specific glycoproteins of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bartles, J.R.; Braiterman, L.T.; Hubbard, A.L.

    1985-10-15

    Seven integral proteins (CE 9, HA 21, HA 116, HA 16, HA 4, HA 201, and HA 301) were isolated from rat hepatocyte plasma membranes by immunoaffinity chromatography on monoclonal antibody-Sepharose. Six of the proteins (all but HA 16) exhibit domain-specific localizations (either bile canalicular or sinusoidal/lateral) about the hepatocyte surface. The authors identified three of these protein antigens as leucine aminopeptidase (HA 201), dipeptidyl peptidase IV (HA 301), and the asialoglycoprotein receptor (HA 116). They also developed SVI-lectin blotting procedures that, when used in conjunction with chemical and glycosidase treatments, permitted a comparison of the types of oligosaccharides present on the seven proteins. All seven are sialoglycoproteins, based upon the effects of prior neuraminidase and periodate-aniline-cyanoborohydride treatments of blots on labeling by SVI-wheat germ agglutinin. Depending upon the protein, they estimated the presence of 2-26 N-linked oligosaccharides/polypeptide chain from the Mr reductions accompanying chemical or enzymatic deglycosylation. Three of these mature plasma membrane proteins (HA 21, HA 116, and HA 4) have both high mannose-type and complex-type oligosaccharides on every copy of their polypeptide chains.

  17. Alcohol-induced suppression of gluconeogenesis is greater in ethanol fed female rat hepatocytes than males.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Ken D; Cogger, Alma A; Matveyenko, Aleksey V

    2007-03-01

    The impact of alcohol-induced suppression on hepatic gluconeogenesis (HGN) after chronic ethanol consumption between males and females is unknown. To determine the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (8 weeks) on HGN, the isolated hepatocyte technique was used on 24 h fasted male and female Wistar rats. Livers were initially perfused with collagenase and the hepatocytes were isolated. Aliquots of the cell suspension were placed in Krebs-Henseleit buffer and incubated for 30 min with lactate, [U -14C]lactate, and nine different concentrations of ethanol (EtOH). Dose-effect curves were generated for the determination of maximal and half-maximal alcohol-induced inhibition on HGN. There was no significant difference in HGN (lactate only and no EtOH) between males and females fed the control diet (88.5 +/- 5.1 nmol/mg protein/30 min). Similarly, the HGN (lactate only and no EtOH) in males fed the ethanol diet (ME) were not significantly different (82.8 +/- 3.5 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to controls. In contrast, the females chronically fed the ethanol diet (FE) had significantly (P < .05) lower HGN (67.8 +/- 4.6 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to both ME and controls. With alcohol in the incubation medium, the HGN significantly (P<.05) declined in all groups. While alcohol suppressed HGN to a larger (P < .05) extent in ME (45.8 +/- 3.7 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to controls (64.0 +/- 3.8 nmol/mg protein/30 min), the inhibition was even greater (P < .05) in FE (32.7 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg protein/30 min). The more pronounced effect of chronic alcohol consumption on HGN in the presence of ethanol in female hepatocytes was supported by the concomitant decreases (P < .05) in 14C-lactate incorporation into 14C-glucose, lactate uptake, and 14C-lactate uptake. The results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption elicits a greater reduction on HGN in the presence of ethanol in the hepatocytes of females compared to males.

  18. A comparison of adrenergic receptors of rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells with those of normal rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1988-04-01

    The pharmacological specificity of adrenergic receptors in the plasma membrane of rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells was compared with that in normal rat hepatocytes. The number of [125I]iodocyanopindolol-binding sites was much greater in AH130 cells than in the hepatocytes. We characterized the alpha-adrenergic receptor subtypes using the alpha 1-selective ligand [3H]prazosin and the alpha 2-selective ligand [3H]clonidine. AH130 cells had fewer prazosin-binding sites than the hepatocytes and about 8 times as many clonidine-binding sites of high affinity. The results showed that the adrenergic receptors in AH130 cells have pharmacological properties that are very different from those of the receptors in normal rat hepatocytes.

  19. Changes in the content of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes incubated in the presence of magnesium ions and/or ethanol.

    PubMed

    Grochowska-Niedworok, E; Calyniuk, B; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E; Muc-Wierzgon', M

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is one of the commonly used dietary supplements. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the content of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids and their esters in isolated rat hepatocytes induced by magnesium and/or ethanol. Isolation of hepatocytes was carried out by the Seglen's enzymatic method using collagenase. To thus prepared samples ethanol and/or MgCl2 solution were added, respectively, so that their concentrations were as follows: 150 mM/dm3 ethanol and/or 2 mM/dm3 MgCl2, 4 mM/dm3 MgCl2. The contents of short, medium and long-chain fatty acids and those of ester-bound acids were determined. The statistical evaluation of the experiment was made by comparing the area normalized for the analysed fatty acids in hepatocytes incubated for 5 h in the presence of the test substances. The effect of magnesium ions on the content of fatty acids and their esters in isolated hepatocytes incubated for 5 h depended on their concentration in the medium. A normalizing effect of magnesium ions on ethanol-induced changes in the content of C14-C17, C18-C20 and C21-C24 fatty acids was demonstrated. A normalizing effect of magnesium on ethanol-induced changes in the content of ester-bound fatty acids in hepatocytes was not confirmed.

  20. Depression of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rat hepatocyte culture by dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Mezey, E; Potter, J J; Diehl, A M

    1986-01-15

    Hepatocytes harvested from castrated rats retained a higher alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) activity than hepatocytes harvested from normal rats during 7 days of culture. Dihydrotestosterone (1 microM) decreased the enzyme activity, after 2 and 5 days of culture, in hepatocytes from castrated and control animals respectively. Dihydrotestosterone decreased the enzyme activity to similar values in both groups of hepatocytes by the end of 7 days of culture. Testosterone (1 microM) had no effect on the enzyme activity in normal hepatocytes and only a transitory effect in decreasing the enzyme activity in hepatocytes from castrated animals. The increases in alcohol dehydrogenase activity after castration and their suppression by dihydrotestosterone were associated with parallel changes in the rate of ethanol elimination. Additions of substrates of the malate-aspartate shuttle or dinitrophenol did not modify ethanol elimination. These observations indicate that dihydrotestosterone has a direct suppressant effect on hepatocyte alcohol dehydrogenase and that the enzyme activity is a major determinant of the rate of ethanol elimination.

  1. U. v. -enhanced reactivation of u. v. -irradiated herpes virus by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, J.; Yager, J.D. )

    1984-04-01

    Carcinogen treatment of cultured mammalian cells prior to infection with u.v.-irradiated virus results in enhanced virus survival and mutagenesis suggesting the induction of SOS-type processes. The development of a primary rat hepatocyte culture system is reported to investigate cellular responses to DNA damage which may be relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo. Enhanced reactivation of u.v.-irradiated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) occurred in hepatocytes irradiated with u.v. Cultured hepatocytes were pretreated with u.v. at the time of enhanced DNA synthesis. These treatments caused an inhibition followed by a recovery of DNA synthesis. At various times after pretreatment, the hepatocytes were infected with control or u.v.-irradiated HSV-1 at low multiplicity, and virus survival was measured. U.v.-irradiated HSV-1 exhibited the expected two-component survival curve in control or u.v. pretreated hepatocytes. The magnitude of enhanced reactivation of HSV-1 was dependent on the u.v. dose to the hepatocytes, the time of infection following u.v. pretreatment, and the level of DNA synthesis at the time of pretreatment. These results suggest that u.v. treatment of rat hepatocytes causes the induction of SOS-type functions tht may have a role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  2. Auto-inhibition of verapamil metabolism in rat hepatocytes of gel entrapment culture.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Meng, Qin; Dong, Xiaomei

    2011-08-01

    Mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A by verapamil and the resulting drug-drug interactions have been studied in vitro, but the inhibition of verapamil on its own metabolic clearance in clinic, namely auto-inhibition of verapamil metabolism, has never been reproduced in vitro. This paper aimed to evaluate the utility of gel entrapped rat hepatocytes in reflecting such metabolic auto-inhibition using hepatocyte monolayer as a control. Despite being a similar concentration- and time-dependent profile, auto-inhibition of verapamil metabolism showed apparent distinctions between the two culture models. Firstly, gel entrapped hepatocytes were more sensitive to such inhibition, which could be largely due to their higher CYP3A activity detected by the formation rates of 6β-hydroxy testosterone and 1'-hydroxy midazolam. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of ketoconazole and verapamil on CYP 3A activity as well as the reduction of verapamil intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) by ketoconazole was only observed in gel-entrapped hepatocytes. In this respect, the involvement of CYP3A in auto-inhibition of verapamil metabolism could be illustrated in gel-entrapped hepatocytes but not in hepatocyte monolayer. All of these results indicated that hepatocytes of gel entrapment reflected more of verapamil metabolic auto-inhibition than hepatocyte monolayer and could serve as a suitable system for investigating drug metabolism.

  3. Nanofabricated Collagen-Inspired Synthetic Elastomers for Primary Rat Hepatocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bettinger, Christopher J.; Kulig, Katherine M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic substrates that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix proteins hold significant promise for use in systems designed for tissue engineering applications. In this report, we designed a synthetic polymeric substrate that is intended to mimic chemical, mechanical, and topological characteristics of collagen. We found that elastomeric poly(ester amide) substrates modified with replica-molded nanotopographic features enhanced initial attachment, spreading, and adhesion of primary rat hepatocytes. Further, hepatocytes cultured on nanotopographic substrates also demonstrated reduced albumin secretion and urea synthesis, which is indicative of strongly adherent hepatocytes. These results suggest that these engineered substrates can function as synthetic collagen analogs for in vitro cell culture. PMID:18847357

  4. Toxin-Induced Activation of Rat Hepatocyte Prostaglandin Synthesis and Phospholipid Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-22

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necesay and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP - microcystin -LR, arachidonic acid, phospholipid...pool was reduced to 47% (p ɘ.025) by l’ 3’ microcystin -LR. Changes in phospholipid classes indicated that prostaglandin formation induced by microcystin ... microcystin -LR has important effects on the regulation of inflammatory mediator synthesis in hepatocytes. 7.,1 ,- TOXIN-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF RAT HEPATOCYTE

  5. [An experimental study on the protective effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) for the primary cultured hepatocytes obtained from iron-loaded rats].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, J

    1995-01-01

    Pathological iron deposition in liver is often found in various liver diseases. The deposited iron is thought to be one of the most important factor of liver cell injury, not only in hemochromotosis but also in cirrhosis following hepatitis virus B or C infection. To investigate the influence of the deposited iron on damage and regeneration of hepatocyte, primary cultured hepatocytes obtained from carbonyl iron-loaded rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the presence or absence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Although the section of liver from carbonyl iron-loaded rats showed no necrosis and fibrosis, iron-loaded hepatocytes contained about twofold more iron than control. The damage of iron-loaded hepatocytes induced by CCl4 was more serious than that of control, and HGF decreased this injury only in iron-loaded hepatocytes but not in control. There is no difference in DNA synthesis stimulated by HGF between iron-loaded hepatocytes and control. These findings suggest that the pathological iron deposition induces the fragility of hepatocyte and that cytoprotective effect of HGF is induced by this pathological iron.

  6. Glutamic Acid as Enhancer of Protein Synthesis Kinetics in Hepatocytes from Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, V Y; Malchenko, L A; Butorina, N N; Lazarev Konchenko, D S; Zvezdina, N D; Dubovaya, T K

    2017-08-01

    Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid. Inhibition of metabotropic receptors of glutamic acid with α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (0.01 mg/ml) abolished the effect of glutamic acid. The amplitude of oscillation of the protein synthesis rhythm in a cell population characterizes synchronization of individual oscillations caused by direct cell-cell communications. Hence, glutamic acid, acting as a receptor-dependent transmitter, enhanced direct cell-cell communications of hepatocytes that were decreased with aging. As differentiated from other known membrane signaling factors (gangliosides, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine), glutamic acid can penetrate into the brain and thus influence the communications and protein synthesis kinetics that are disturbed with aging not only in hepatocytes, but also in neurons.

  7. Deduced primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor and expression of the mRNA in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, K; Hagiya, M; Nishizawa, T; Seki, T; Shimonishi, M; Shimizu, S; Nakamura, T

    1990-01-01

    The primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was elucidated by determining the base sequence of the complementary DNA (cDNA) of HGF. The cDNA for rat HGF was isolated by screening a liver cDNA library with oligonucleotides based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of purified rat HGF. HGF is encoded in an mRNA of about 6 kilobases. Both alpha and beta subunits of HGF are specified in a single open reading frame for a 728-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 82,904. The N-terminal part of HGF has a signal sequence and a prosequence with 30 and 25 amino acid residues, respectively. The mature heterodimer structure is derived proteolytically from this single pre-pro precursor polypeptide. The calculated molecular weights of the alpha and beta subunits are 50,664 and 25,883, respectively, and each subunit has two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The amino acid sequence of HGF is 38% identical with that of plasminogen. The alpha subunit of HGF contains four "kringle" structures, and the beta subunit has 37% amino acid identity with the serine protease domain of plasmin. Northern blot analysis revealed that HGF mRNA was expressed in rat various tissues, including the liver, kidney, lung, and brain. Images PMID:2139229

  8. In vitro drug metabolism of green tea catechins in human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy W; Qin, Geng-Yao; Zhang, Ting; Feng, Wan-Yong

    2012-06-01

    The metabolic fate of green tea catechins [(-)-epicatechin ((-)-EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) (-)- epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] in cryopreserved human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes was studied. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and isomerization pathways of (-)-EC in all five species were found. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, hydrolysis, isomerization and glucosidation pathways of ECG were found. Species differences in metabolism of (-)-EC or ECG were observed. Surprisingly, no metabolites of EGC or EGCG were detected, but chemical oxidation and polymerization were observed under these experimental conditions. It appeared that enzymatic reactions and chemical reactions were differentiated by an additional hydroxyl group on the B-ring between (-)-EC/ECG and EGC/EGCG. For (-)-EC, thirty-five metabolites including isomerized (M6. M10 and M25), glucuronidated (M3, M5 and M11), sulfated (M7, M15, M16, M18, M20, M23, M26), methylated (M2, M9, M12, M17, M19, M21, M27, M30, M32), glucuronated/methylated (M4, M8, M13, M14), sulfated/methylated (M22, M24, M28, M29, M31, M33, M34, M35) and diglucuronidate (M1), were detected and characterized. M11, M18, M19 and M23 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M10, M20, M22, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M5, M6 and M10 were major metabolites in rat hepatocytes; and M5, M6 and M13 were major metabolites in mouse hepatocytes. For ECG, twelve metabolites including isomerized (M1), hydrolyzed (M3), glucosidated (M2), glucuronidated (M4 and M6), sulfated (M9, M11 and M12), methylated (M7), sulfated/glucuronidated/methylated (M8 and M10) and diglucuronidated (M5), were detected and characterized. M4, M11 and M12 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11 and M12 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M3 and M11 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M4, M6 and

  9. Effect of dexamethasone treatment on the expression and function of transport proteins in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Turncliff, Ryan Z; Meier, Peter J; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2004-08-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) is a well established inducer of CYP3A. These studies examined the influence of DEX treatment on transport protein expression and function in sandwich-cultured (SC) rat hepatocytes. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were cultured between two layers of gelled collagen and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with DEX (0.1 microM, 0-48 h and 0.1-100 microM, 48-96 h). The expression of sinusoidal [(organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1), Oatp1a4, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3), and Na(+)-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp)] and canalicular [bile salt export pump (Bsep), multidrug resistance protein 1a/b (Mdr1a/b), and Mrp2] transport proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. The accumulation and biliary excretion index (BEI; percentage of accumulated substrate in canalicular networks) of the probe substrates taurocholate (TC; 1 microM, 10 min), rhodamine 123 (Rh123; 10 microM, 30 min), and carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (CDF; 10 microM, 10 min) were employed as measures of canalicular transport protein function in SC rat hepatocytes. DEX treatment increased CYP3A1/2, Oatp1a4, and Mrp2 expression, decreased the expression of Ntcp, and did not seem to alter the expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp3, Mdr1a/b, or Bsep. The BEI of CDF, an Mrp2 substrate, increased from 18 to 37% after DEX treatment (100 microM). The accumulation of TC, an Ntcp substrate, was reduced (<50% of control), whereas the BEI of TC, also a Bsep substrate, was unchanged. Treatment of SC rat hepatocytes with DEX resulted in alterations in the expression of CYP3A1/2 and some hepatic transport proteins. Modest alterations in hepatic transport protein function were consistent with changes in protein expression.

  10. Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on age-related hepatocyte changes in old male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2004-10-01

    Aging induces changes in several organs, such as the liver, and this process might be due to damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis shows a reduction with age, and this fact could be associated with some age-related changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH administration on age-induced alterations in hepatocytes. Two and twenty two month-old male and female Wistar rats were used. Old rats were treated with human recombinant GH for 10 wk. At the end of the treatment, hepatocytes were isolated from the liver and cultured, and different parameters were measured in cells and medium. Plasma IGF-1 was also measured. Aging significantly decreased plasma IGF-1 in males. In females, plasma IGF-1 was also reduced, but not significantly. GH treatment restored plasma IGF-1 levels to values similar to young males. Aging was associated with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and cyclic guanosyl-monophosphate (cGMP), as well as a reduction in adenosyl triphosphate (ATP) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. GH administration partially prevented all these changes in males. In females, some of the parameters were significantly improved by GH (ATP, CO, cGMP), while others showed a tendency to improvement, although differences did not reach significance. In conclusion, GH administration could exert beneficial effects against age-related changes in hepatocytes, mainly in males.

  11. Screening of herbal components for attenuating amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity on gel-entrapped rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xudong; Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMD) is a hepatotoxic drug that has been widely used as a class III antiarrhythmic drug. Because, to date, only a few kinds of protectants are able to reduce AMD hepatotoxicity, this article utilized gel-entrapped rat hepatocytes to screen effective protectants from a series of herbal compounds for their effects against AMD-induced toxicity. Herbal compounds, including matrine, silibinin, glycyrrhizic acid, schisandrin B, epigallocatechin gallate and anisodamine, were cotreated with AMD to assess their protective effect, whereas vitamin E, which has been shown to be protective in rats, was selected as a control. It was found that vitamin E, as with its function in rats, provided the best protection in gel-entrapped rat hepatocytes, whereas silibinin, a major component of silymarin, could largely reduce AMD-induced hepatotoxicity, performing a similar function as silymarin in rats. The results illustrated that gel-entrapped hepatocytes may reflect the protective effects of drugs and serve as a reliable model for screening hepatoprotectants. Moreover, matrine, a widely used monomer of the traditional Chinese medicine, Sophora flavescens, for treatment of arrhythmia, was evidenced to show some effective protections against AMD hepatotoxicity. Taken together, gel-entrapped rat hepatocytes may provide a platform for screening effective candidates from the herbal component library.

  12. Quantitative assessment of canalicular bile formation in isolated hepatocyte couplets using microscopic optical planimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, A; Ng, O C; Strazzabosco, M; Boyer, J L

    1989-01-01

    Isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHC) are primary units of bile secretion that accumulate fluid in an enclosed canalicular space with time in culture. We have quantitated the rate of canalicular secretion in IRHC cultured for 4-8 h by measuring the change in canalicular space volume by video-microscopic optical planimetry using high resolution Nomarski optics. Electron microscopic morphometric studies revealed significant increases in canalicular membrane area after 4-6 h in culture. Canalicular secretion in basal L-15 medium (3.8 +/- 1.3 fl/min) increased significantly with the choleretic bile salts (10 microM), taurocholate, and ursodeoxycholate (14 +/- 7 fl/min each). Secretion rates after exposure to bile acids correlated directly with the canalicular surface area before stimulation. In contrast, expansion times after stimulation varied inversely with initial canalicular volumes. Ursodeoxycholic acid failed to produce a hypercholeresis at 10-, 100-, or 200-microM concentrations compared with taurocholate, either in normal or taurine-depleted IRHC. The present findings establish that rates of canalicular bile secretion can be quantitated in IRHC by serial optical planimetry, both in the basal state and after stimulation with bile acids. Furthermore, ursodeoxycholate does not acutely induce hypercholeresis at the canalicular level in this model. Rather, both taurocholic and ursodeoxycholic acids induced secretion in proportion to the surface area of the canalicular membrane. The IRHC are a useful model to identify canalicular choleretics and for studies of canalicular bile formation. Images PMID:2913052

  13. Demonstration of direct lineage between hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma in diethylnitrosamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Bralet, Marie-Pierre; Pichard, Virginie; Ferry, Nicolas

    2002-09-01

    The question whether hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises from dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes or from proliferation of liver stem cells is still debated. In the present study, we used retroviral-mediated genetic labeling to investigate the fate of mature hepatocytes in rats after administration of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Mature hepatocytes were genetically labeled by intravenous injection of retroviral vectors containing the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene coupled to a nuclear localization signal (nls-LacZ) 1 day after partial hepatectomy. Liver biopsies performed after completion of hepatic regeneration showed that 18.3% of hepatocytes expressed the nls-LacZ transgene. Rats were then treated with DEN in drinking water for 12 weeks and sacrificed between 98 and 151 days after the onset of DEN administration. Clones of beta-galactosidase positive cells were observed, half of which (53%) also expressed the placental form of glutathione-S-transferase (GSTp), a marker of preneoplastic cells. HCCs of various sizes expressing GSTp were present in all animals. Careful examination of 90 HCCs revealed that 16 (17.7%) also expressed nls-LacZ. This figure precisely matched the proportion of labeled hepatocytes before DEN treatment (18.3%). In conclusion, a random clonal origin of HCC from mature hepatocytes is seen in the DEN model of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. Comparison of acetaminophen toxicity in primary hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice with different appolipoprotein E alleles.

    PubMed

    Mezera, V; Kucera, O; Moravcova, A; Peterova, E; Rousar, T; Rychtrmoc, D; Sobotka, O; Cervinkova, Z

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor, important for combating electrophilic and oxidative stress in the liver and other organs. This encompasses detoxification of hepatotoxic drugs, including acetaminophen (APAP). Recently, an association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and Nrf2 expression was described. We compared the toxicity of APAP on primary culture hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice carrying two different human ApoE alleles and wild-type controls. The cells were exposed to APAP in concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mM for up to 24 hours. APAP led to a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity from 1 mM after 16 h exposure in all mice tested. The toxicity was higher in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls and most pronounced in ApoE3 mice. Concurrently, there was a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in ApoE3 hepatocytes. The formation of reactive oxygen species was increased after 24 hours with 2.5 mM APAP in hepatocytes of all strains tested, with the highest increase being in the ApoE3 genotype. The activity of caspases 3 and 7 did not differ among groups and was minimal after 24 hour incubation with 4 mM APAP. We observed higher lipid accumulation in hepatocytes isolated from both transgenic strains than in wild-type controls. The expression of Nrf2-dependent genes was higher in ApoE3 than in ApoE4 hepatocytes and some of these genes were induced by APAP treatment. In conclusion, transgenic mice with ApoE4 and ApoE3 alleles displayed higher susceptibility to acute APAP toxicity in vitro than wild-type mice. Of the two transgenic genotypes tested, ApoE3 allele carriers were more prone to injury.

  15. A transgenic rat hepatocyte - Kupffer cell co-culture model for evaluation of direct and macrophage-related effect of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Jemnitz, Katalin; Bátai-Konczos, Attila; Szabó, Mónika; Ioja, Enikő; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Orbán, Tamás I; Török, György; Homolya, László; Kovács, Eszter; Jablonkai, István; Veres, Zsuzsa

    2017-02-01

    Increasing number of papers demonstrate that Kupffer cells (KCs) play a role in the development of drug induced liver injury (DILI). Furthermore, elevated intracellular Ca(2+) level of hepatocytes is considered as a common marker of DILI. Here we applied an in vitro model based on hepatocyte mono- and hepatocyte/KC co-cultures (H/KC) isolated from transgenic rats stably expressing the GCaMP2 fluorescent Ca(2+) sensor protein to investigate the effects of polycationic (G5), polyanionic (G4.5) and polyethylene-glycol coated neutral (G5 Peg) dendrimers known to accumulate in the liver, primarily in KCs. Following dendrimer exposure, hepatocyte homeostasis was measured by MTT cytotoxicity assay and by Ca(2+) imaging, while hepatocyte functions were studied by CYP2B1/2 inducibility, and bilirubin and taurocholate transport. G5 was significantly more cytotoxic than G4.5 for hepatocytes and induced Ca(2+) oscillation and sustained Ca(2+) signals at 1μM and10 μM, respectively both in hepatocytes and KCs. Dendrimer-induced Ca(2+) signals in hepatocytes were attenuated by macrophages. Activation of KCs by lipopolysaccharide and G5 decreased the inducibility of CYP2B1/2, which was restored by depleting the KCs with gadolinium-chloride and pentoxyphylline, suggesting a role of macrophages in the hindrance of CYP2B1/2 induction by G5 and lipopolysaccharide. In the H/KC, but not in the hepatocyte mono-culture, G5 reduced the canalicular efflux of bilirubin and stimulated the uptake and canalicular efflux of taurocholate. In conclusion, H/KC provides a good model for the prediction of hepatotoxic potential of drugs, especially of nanomaterials known to be trapped by macrophages, activation of which presumably contributes to DILI.

  16. Promotion of mitochondrial energy metabolism during hepatocyte apoptosis in a rat model of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Yan; Yang, Baoshan; Zhou, Li; Ren, Feng; Duan, Zhong-Ping; Ma, Ying-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocyte apoptosis and energy metabolism in mitochondria have an important role in the mechanism of acute liver failure (ALF). However, data on the association between apoptosis and the energy metabolism of hepatocytes are lacking. The current study assessed the activity of several key enzymes in mitochondria during ALF, including citrate synthase (CS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase‑1 (CPT‑1) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which are involved in hepatocyte energy metabolism. A total of 40 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into five groups and administered D‑galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide to induce ALF. Hepatic pathology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling examinations indicated that hepatocyte apoptosis was observed at 4 h and increased 8 h after ALF. Hepatocyte necrosis appeared at 12 h and was significantly higher at 24 h with inflammatory cell invasion. The results measured by electron microscopy indicated that ultrastructural changes in mitochondria began at 4 h and the mitochondrial outer membrane was completely disrupted at 24 h resulting in mitochondrial collapse. The expression of CS, CPT‑1 and COX was measured and analyzed using assay kits. The activity and protein expression of CS, CPT‑1 and COX began to increase at 4 h, reached a peak at 8 h and decreased at 12 h during ALF. The activities of CS, CPT‑1 and COX were enhanced during hepatocyte apoptosis suggesting that these enzymes are involved in the initiation and development of ALF. Therefore, these results demonstrated that energy metabolism is important in hepatocyte apoptosis during ALF and hepatocyte apoptosis is an active and energy‑consuming procedure. The current study on how hepatocyte energy metabolism affects the transmission of death signals may provide a basis for the early diagnosis and development of an improved therapeutic strategy for ALF.

  17. Liver-targeting of primaquine-(poly-γ-glutamic acid) and its degradation in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tomiya, Noboru; Jardim, Juliette G; Hou, Jennifer; Pastrana-Mena, Rebecca; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; Lee, Yuan C

    2013-09-01

    We have synthesized poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) modified with a synthetic trivalent glyco-ligand (TriGalNAc) for the hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R). We investigated in vivo distribution of unmodified PGA and TriGalNAc-modified PGA (TriGalNAc-PGA) in mice after intravenous injection. Most of unmodified PGA administered was transported to the bladder over 20-80min, suggesting a rapid excretion of unmodified PGA into urine. In contrast, TriGalNAc-PGA was found exclusively in the liver over the same period of time. We further synthesized TriGalNAc-PGA-primaquine conjugate (TriGalNAc-PGA-PQ), and investigated binding, uptake, and catabolism of the conjugate by rat hepatocytes. Our studies indicated that approximately 250ng per million cells of the conjugate bound to one million rat hepatocytes at 0°C, and approximately 2μg per million cells of the conjugate was taken up over 7h incubation at 37°C. Furthermore, our results suggested that TriGalNAc-PGA-PQ was almost completely degraded over 24h, and small degradation products were secreted into cell culture medium. The results described in this report suggest that the TriGalNAc ligand can serve as an excellent targeting device for delivery of PGA-conjugates to the liver hepatocytes, and rat hepatocytes possess sufficient capacity to digest PGA even modified with other substituents. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. N-acetylcysteine protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jicang; Zhu, Huali; Liu, Xuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known hepatotoxic environmental pollutant. We used rat hepatocytes as a model to study oxidative damage induced by Cd, effects on the antioxidant systems, and the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in protecting cells against Cd toxicity. Hepatocytes were incubated for 12 and 24 h with Cd (2.5, 5, 10 µM). Results showed that Cd can induce cytotoxicity: 10 µM resulted in 36.2% mortality after 12 h and 47.8% after 24 h. Lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities increased. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation increased in Cd-treated hepatocytes along with malondialdehyde levels. Glutathione concentrations significantly decreased after treatment with Cd for 12 h but increased after 24 h of Cd exposure. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase activity significantly increased after treatment with Cd for 12 h but decreased after 24 h. superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased at 12 h and 24 h. glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities decreased, but not significantly. Rat hepatocytes incubated with NAC and Cd simultaneously had significantly increased viability and decreased Cd-induced ROS generation. Our results suggested that Cd induces ROS generation that leads to oxidative stress. Moreover, NAC protects rat hepatocytes from cytotoxicity associated with Cd. PMID:25234327

  19. Significant improvement of survival by intrasplenic hepatocyte transplantation in totally hepatectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Vogels, B A; Maas, M A; Bosma, A; Chamuleau, R A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intrasplenic hepatocyte transplantation (HTX) was studied in an experimental model of acute liver failure in rats with chronic liver atrophy. Rats underwent a portacaval shunt operation on Day -14 to induce liver atrophy, and underwent total hepatectomy on Day 0 as a start of acute liver failure. Intrasplenic hepatocyte or sham transplantation was performed on Day -7,-3, or -1 (n = 4 to 6 per group). During the period following hepatectomy, mean arterial blood pressure was maintained above 80 mm Hg and hypoglycaemia was prevented. Severity of hepatic encephalopathy was assessed by clinical grading and EEG spectral analysis, together with determination of blood ammonia and plasma amino acid concentrations, and "survival" time. Histological examination of the spleen and lungs was performed after sacrifice. Intrasplenic hepatocyte transplantation resulted in a significant improvement in clinical grading in all transplanted groups (p < 0.05), whereas a significant improvement in EEG left index was seen only in the group with transplantation on Day -1 (p < 0.05). In contrast to hepatocyte transplantation 1 day before total hepatectomy, rats with hepatocyte transplantation 3 and 7 days before total hepatectomy showed a significant 3- and 2-fold increase in "survival" time compared to sham transplanted controls: HTX at Day -1: 7.5 +/- 0.3 h vs. 5.9 +/- 0.6 h (p > 0.05), HTX at Day -3: 19.7 +/- 3.7 h vs. 6.5 +/- 0.3 h (p < 0.05), and HTX at Day -7: 13.8 +/- 3.2 h vs. 6.3 +/- 0.3 h (p < 0.05). Furthermore, rats with hepatocyte transplantation on Day -3 and -7 showed significantly lower blood ammonia concentrations after total hepatectomy (p < 0.0001). Histological examination of the spleens after sacrifice showed clusters of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Hepatocytes present in the spleen for 3 and 7 days showed bile accumulation and spots of beginning necrosis. The present data show that in a hard model of complete liver failure in portacaval shunted rats

  20. Hydroxylation, conjugation and sulfation of bile acids in primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Princen, H.M.; Meijer, P.

    1988-08-15

    Hydroxylation of lithocholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic and cholic acids was studied in monolayers of rat hepatocytes cultured for 76 h. The majority of added lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids was metabolized to beta-muricholic acid (56-76%). A small part of these bile acids (9%), however, and a considerable amount of deoxycholic and cholic acids (21%) were converted into metabolites more polar than cholic acid in the first culture period. Formation of these compounds decreased during the last day of culture. Bile acids synthesized after addition of (4-/sup 14/C)-cholesterol were almost entirely (97%) sulfated and/or conjugated, predominantly with taurine (54-66%), during culture. Sulfated bile acids were mainly composed of free bile acids. The ability of hepatocytes to sulfurylate bile acids declined with culture age. Thus, rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture are capable to sulfurylate bile acids and to hydroxylate trihydroxylated bile acids, suggesting formation of polyhydroxylated metabolites.

  1. Human hepatocyte and kidney cell metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene and comparison to the respective rat cells.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, R; Rudo, K

    1988-12-01

    The metabolism and mutagenic activation of 2-acetylaminofluorene by human and rat hepatocytes and kidney cells were measured. High performance liquid chromatography was used to separate the 2-acetylaminofluorene metabolites, and a cell-mediated Salmonella typhimurium mutagenesis assay was used to detect mutagenic intermediates. Rat and human differences were observed with cells from both organs and levels of metabolism and mutagenesis were higher in human cells. Within a species, liver and kidney cell differences were also evident, with levels of hepatocyte-mediated metabolism and mutagenesis being greater than kidney cells. Human inter-individual variation was apparent with cells from both organs, but the variation observed was significantly greater in hepatocytes than kidney cells. A knowledge of such differences, including an understanding that they may vary with the chemical being studied, should be useful in the extrapolation of rodent carcinogenesis data to humans.

  2. Methanethiol and dimethylsulfide formation from 3-methylthiopropionate in human and rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Blom, H J; van den Elzen, J P; Yap, S H; Tangerman, A

    1988-11-18

    This study was designed to investigate the metabolism of methanethiol, and the involvement of methanethiol and its metabolites in the transamination pathway of methionine. Gaseous methanethiol, methanethiol-mixed disulfides and dimethylsulfide were formed from 3-methylthiopropionate, a metabolite in the transamination pathway of methionine, during incubation with human and rat hepatocytes. An increase of the 3-methylthiopropionate concentration resulted in an increased formation of the products, up to a substrate concentration of 4.4 mM. Higher substrate levels resulted in a decreased methanethiol formation, probably due to poisoning of the system. However, in human hepatocytes the formation of dimethylsulfide increased up to a 3-methylthiopropionate concentration of 12.5 mM. The formation of methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and methanethiol-mixed disulfides from 3-methylthiopropionate in hepatocytes of both human and rat support the hypothesis that methanethiol can be formed from methionine via the transamination pathway.

  3. Decellularization and Recellularization of Rat Livers With Hepatocytes and Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Huang, Yan; Guo, Yibing; Wang, Lei; Ling, Changchun; Guo, Qingsong; Wang, Yao; Zhu, Shajun; Fan, Xiangjun; Zhu, Mingyan; Huang, Hua; Lu, Yuhua; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Whole-organ decellularization has been identified as a promising choice for tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to engineer intact whole rat liver scaffolds and repopulate them with hepatocytes and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in a bioreactor. Decellularized liver scaffolds were obtained by perfusing Triton X-100 with ammonium hydroxide. The architecture and composition of the original extracellular matrix were preserved, as confirmed by morphologic, histological, and immunolabeling methods. To determine biocompatibility, the scaffold was embedded in the subcutaneous adipose layer of the back of a heterologous animal to observe the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Hepatocytes were reseeded using a parenchymal injection method and cultured by continuous perfusion. EPCs were reseeded using a portal vein infusion method. Morphologic and functional examination showed that the hepatocytes and EPCs grew well in the scaffold. The present study describes an effective method of decellularization and recellularization of rat livers, providing the foundation for liver engineering and the development of bioartificial livers.

  4. Ginkgolide A contributes to the potentiation of acetaminophen toxicity by Ginkgo biloba extract in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rajaraman, Ganesh; Chen, Jie; Chang, Thomas K.H. . E-mail: tchang@interchange.ubc.ca

    2006-12-01

    The present cell culture study investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract pretreatment on acetaminophen toxicity and assessed the role of ginkgolide A and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in hepatocytes isolated from adult male Long-Evans rats provided ad libitum with a standard diet. Acetaminophen (7.5-25 mM for 24 h) conferred hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. G. biloba extract alone increased LDH leakage in hepatocytes at concentrations {>=} 75 {mu}g/ml and {>=} 750 {mu}g/ml after a 72 h and 24 h treatment period, respectively. G. biloba extract (25 or 50 {mu}g/ml once every 24 h for 72 h) potentiated LDH leakage by acetaminophen (10 mM for 24 h; added at 48 h after initiation of extract pretreatment). The effect was confirmed by a decrease in [{sup 14}C]-leucine incorporation. At the level present in a modulating concentration (50 {mu}g/ml) of the extract, ginkgolide A (0.55 {mu}g/ml), which increased CYP3A23 mRNA levels and CYP3A-mediated enzyme activity, accounted for part but not all of the potentiating effect of the extract on acetaminophen toxicity. This occurred as a result of CYP3A induction by ginkgolide A because triacetyloleandomycin (TAO), a specific inhibitor of CYP3A catalytic activity, completely blocked the effect of ginkgolide A. Ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside did not alter the extent of LDH leakage by acetaminophen. In summary, G. biloba pretreatment potentiated acetaminophen toxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes and ginkgolide A contributed to this novel effect of the extract by inducing CYP3A.

  5. Pathogenesis of selective insulin resistance in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joshua R; Langlet, Fanny; Kido, Yoshiaki; Accili, Domenico

    2015-05-29

    The development of insulin resistance (IR) in the liver is a key pathophysiologic event in the development of type 2 diabetes. Although insulin loses its ability to suppress glucose production, it largely retains its capacity to drive lipogenesis. This selective IR results in the characteristic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetes. The delineation of two branched pathways of insulin receptor (InsR) signaling to glucose versus triglyceride production, one through FoxO and the other through SREBP-1c, provides a mechanism to account for this pathophysiological abnormality. We tested the complementary hypothesis that selective IR arises due to different intrinsic sensitivities of glucose production versus de novo lipogenesis to insulin as a result of cell-autonomous down-regulation of InsR number in response to chronic hyperinsulinemia. We demonstrate in mouse primary hepatocytes that chronic hyperinsulinemia abrogates insulin's inhibition of glucose production, but not its stimulation of de novo lipogenesis. Using a competitive inhibitor of InsR, we show that there is a 4-fold difference between levels of InsR inhibition required to cause resistance of glucose production versus lipogenesis to the actions of insulin. Our data support a parsimonious model in which differential InsR activation underlies the selective IR of glucose production relative to lipogenesis, but both processes require signaling through Akt1/2. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Simple Machine Perfusion Significantly Enhances Hepatocyte Yields of Ischemic and Fresh Rat Livers

    PubMed Central

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E.; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L.; Uygun, Korkut

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3-h room temperature (20 ± 2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat nonpremedicated livers exposed to 1 h of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated, and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized. PMID:25431743

  7. SIMPLE MACHINE PERFUSION SIGNIFICANTLY ENHANCES HEPATOCYTE YIELDS OF ISCHEMIC AND FRESH RAT LIVERS.

    PubMed

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Korkut

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3 hour room temperature (20±2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat non-premedicated livers exposed to 1 hour of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers, and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Further, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized.

  8. Cytochemical Changes in Hepatocytes of Rats with Endotoxemia and Sepsis: Localization of Fibronectin, Calcium, and Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    and septic rats, respectively. Frequently. arro.,s indicate peroxisomes. Original magnifications x 12,450. a few mitocondria in the hepatocytes of LPS...infants with Intraccllular + + + + + Zellwegec’s cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (Goldfischcr, 1982). The RC2- biogenesis of peroxisomcs and synthesis of

  9. Enhancement of proliferation in a rat hepatocyte co-culture model after mitogenic stimulation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary mouse and rat hepatocyte cultures have long been the gold standard for assessment of cellular changes following chemical exposure. While helpful for assessing proliferative and responses in vitro, these cultures are limited to 1 or 2 days of incubation. Our motivation was...

  10. Enhancement of proliferation in a rat hepatocyte co-culture model after mitogenic stimulation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary mouse and rat hepatocyte cultures have long been the gold standard for assessment of cellular changes following chemical exposure. While helpful for assessing proliferative and responses in vitro, these cultures are limited to 1 or 2 days of incubation. Our motivation was...

  11. DICHLOROACETIC ACID (DCA) INHIBITS PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS IN NORMAL HEPATOCYTES OF MALE F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA} inhibits proliferation and apoptosis in nonnal hepatocytes of
    male F344 rats.

    Large segments of the population are chronically exposed to dichloroacetic acid (DCA}: DCA is a by product of the chlorine disinfection of drinking water, a metab...

  12. SELENIUM MODIFIES THE METABOLISM AND TOXICITY OF ARSENIC IN PRIMARY RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Selenium Modifies the Metabolism and Toxicity of Arsenic in Primary Rat Hepatocytes. Miroslav Styblo, David J. Thomas (2000) Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
    Arsenic and selenium are metalloids with similar chemical properties and metabolic fates. Inorganic arsenic (iAs...

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine induced oxidative injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ji, LiLi; Liu, TianYu; Wang, ZhengTao

    2010-04-01

    Clivorine is an otonecine-type hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid (HPAs), to which humans are exposed when consuming herbs containing such components. In the present study, we investigated clivorine-induced oxidative stress injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were treated with various concentrations of clivorine (1-100 microM) for 48 hours, and then cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined to evaluate the oxidative injury. The results of MTT assay showed that clivorine decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine also increased LPO amounts in rat hepatocytes at the concentrations of 50 microM and 100 microM. Further results showed that clivorine decreased GPx, GST and GR activities, which are all reduced glutathione (GSH)-related antioxidant enzymes. CAT and SOD are both important antioxidant enzymes, and the results showed that clivorine increased CAT activity at the low concentration of 5 muM and decreased cellular SOD activity at all concentrations. Taken together, our results demonstrated that clivorine induced toxicity on primary cultured rat hepatocytes by causing the damage on cellular redox balance.

  14. Characterization of rat or human hepatocytes cultured in microphysiological systems (MPS) to identify hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Yu; Voellinger, Jenna L; Van Ness, Kirk P; Chapron, Brian; Shaffer, Rachel M; Neumann, Thomas; White, Collin C; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Kelly, Edward J; Eaton, David L

    2017-04-01

    The liver is the main site for drug and xenobiotics metabolism, including inactivation or bioactivation. In order to improve the predictability of drug safety and efficacy in clinical development, and to facilitate the evaluation of the potential human health effects from exposure to environmental contaminants, there is a critical need to accurately model human organ systems such as the liver in vitro. We are developing a microphysiological system (MPS) based on a new commercial microfluidic platform (Nortis, Inc.) that can utilize primary liver cells from multiple species (e.g., rat and human). Compared to conventional monolayer cell culture, which typically survives for 5-7days or less, primary rat or human hepatocytes in an MPS exhibited higher viability and improved hepatic functions, such as albumin production, expression of hepatocyte marker HNF4α and canaliculi structure, for up to 14days. Additionally, induction of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and 3A4 in cryopreserved human hepatocytes was observed in the MPS. The acute cytotoxicity of the potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1, was evaluated in human hepatocytes cultured in an MPS, demonstrating the utility of this model for acute hepatotoxicity assessment. These results indicate that MPS-cultured hepatocytes provide a promising approach for evaluating chemical toxicity in vitro. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Oxidative stress is involved in Dasatinib-induced apoptosis in rat primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Tao; Luo, Peihua; Zhu, Hong; Zhao, Yuqin; Wu, Honghai; Gai, Renhua; Wu, Youping; Yang, Bo; Yang, Xiaochun; He, Qiaojun

    2012-06-15

    Dasatinib, a multitargeted inhibitor of BCR–ABL and SRC kinases, exhibits antitumor activity and extends the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, some patients suffer from hepatotoxicity, which occurs through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we found that Dasatinib could induce hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Dasatinib reduced the cell viability of rat primary hepatocytes, induced the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, and triggered the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes in Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Apoptotic markers (chromatin condensation, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) were detected to indicate that the injury induced by Dasatinib in hepatocytes in vitro was mediated by apoptosis. This result was further validated in vivo using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Here we found that Dasatinib dramatically increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes, reduced the intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, attenuated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), generated malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) related to oxidative stress and survival. These results confirm that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in Dasatinib-mediated hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a typical antioxidant, can scavenge free radicals, attenuate oxidative stress, and protect hepatocytes against Dasatinib-induced injury. Thus, relieving oxidative stress is a viable strategy for reducing Dasatinib-induced hepatotoxicity. -- Highlights: ►Dasatinib shows potential hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. ►Apoptosis plays a vital role in Dasatinib

  16. Polyploidization delay in rat hepatocytes under liver growth inhibition by hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faktor, V. M.; Malyutin, V. F.; Li, S. Y.; Brodskiy, V. Y.

    1981-01-01

    A study of young rats, weighing 55 to 59 g, after being for 10 days in conditions of limited mobility, shows a retardation of body growth as well as that of liver growth. The decrease in the rate of growth is accompanied by a reduction of cell proliferation and by delay polyploidization of hepatocytes in the liver of experimental rats. The materials, methods, and results of research are discussed.

  17. [Effect of qindan fuzheng capsule on ultrastructure of microwave radiation injured cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Ren, Kuang

    2011-02-01

    To explore effect of Qindan Fuzheng Capsule (QFC) on ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes injured by high microwave radiation in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were equally divided into 3 groups in random: rats in Group A were untreated as the normal control, rats in Group B received 6 min microwave radiation (100 mW/cm2 high power) to cause injury of cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, and Group C received the same radiation but treated with QFC perfusion, 2 mL (equivalent to 4.75 g crude drug) once a day, for 7 successive days, starting from 6 h after radiation. All rats were sacrificed 7 days later, their fresh tissue of heart apex and right lobe of liver were taken and prepared to routine transmission electron microscopy specimen for ultrastructural observation. Compared with Group A, different degrees of ultrastructural changes on nuclei and organelle were observed in Group B and C, but the injury in Group C was significantly milder than that in Group B, showing normal sized cells with good structure approximate to the morphology in Group A. QFC showed protective effect on microwave radiation injured ultrastructural changes in rats' cardiomyocytes and hepatocyte. Its mechanism was possibly correlated with the suppression of lipid peroxidation and the improvement of metabolism in myocardial and hepatic cells.

  18. Autophagic sequestration of (/sup 14/C)sucrose, introduced into rat hepatocytes by reversible electro-permeabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, P.B.; Seglen, P.O.

    1982-11-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes could be made permeable to small molecules such as (/sup 14/C)sucrose (but not to proteins) but subjecting the cells to repeated discharges in a high-voltage field. During subsequent incubation at 37/sup 0/C, the permeability changes were reversed within 15 min, the electron-injected (/sup 14/C)sucros remaining trapped inside the re-sealed plasma membrane. Autophagic sequestration of (/sup 14/C)sucrose, i.e., the transfer of radioactivity from cytosol to sedimentable vesicles (autophagosomes and lysosomes), could be followed by incubating the (/sup 14/C)sucrose-loaded hepatocytes for up to 2 h at 37/sup 0/C. After incubation, the cells were disrupted by a single high-voltage discharge in electrolyte-free medium (sucrose), and sedimentable cell components were separated from the cytosol by centrifugation through metrizamide. By the use of these methods, which are particularly suitable for the analysis of many small cell samples, it could be shown that (/sup 14/C)sucros was autophagically sequestered in the hepatocytes at a rate of 4-5%/h. The sequestration was nearly completely inhibited by the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine.

  19. Exposure of primary rat hepatocytes in long-term DMSO culture to selected transition metals induces hepatocyte proliferation and formation of duct-like structures.

    PubMed

    Cable, E E; Isom, H C

    1997-12-01

    We previously showed that primary rat hepatocytes plated on a rat-tail collagen coated dish and fed a chemically-defined medium supplemented with 2% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) can be maintained in a well-differentiated, non-replicating state for periods of several months. In this study, we show that the addition of copper, iron, and zinc to the DMSO-containing chemically defined medium induced DNA synthesis and cell replication during the first two months in culture without loss of hepatic differentiation. DNA synthesis occurred throughout the hepatocyte population without regard to cellular size. No changes were observed in properties indicative of well-differentiated hepatocytes, including cellular morphology, ultrastructure, albumin, or cytokeratin-8 expression. During the third month in culture, after the hepatocytes had become confluent, pseudoduct structures became apparent. Examination of cells lining the ducts by immunohistochemistry showed that these cells lost the ability to express albumin and stained more intensely for cytokeratin 19 and laminin. The ultrastructure of the cells lining the ducts was altered and became more characteristic of bile duct cells. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that connexin 43, a marker of bile-duct proliferation, was expressed in the duct-like cells. We conclude that under these specific nutritive conditions, primary rat hepatocytes proliferate and, with time, begin to form duct-like structures with altered gene expression and ultrastructural properties.

  20. Keratinocyte growth factor induces proliferation of hepatocytes and epithelial cells throughout the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Housley, R M; Morris, C F; Boyle, W; Ring, B; Biltz, R; Tarpley, J E; Aukerman, S L; Devine, P L; Whitehead, R H; Pierce, G F

    1994-11-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, was identified as a specific keratinocyte mitogen after isolation from a lung fibroblast line. Recently, recombinant (r)KGF was found to influence proliferation and differentiation patterns of multiple epithelial cell lineages within skin, lung, and the reproductive tract. In the present study, we designed experiments to identify additional target tissues, and focused on the rat gastrointestinal (GI) system, since a putative receptor, K-sam, was originally identified in a gastric carcinoma. Expression of KGF receptor and KGF mRNA was detected within the entire GI tract, suggesting the gut both synthesized and responded to KGF. Therefore, rKGF was administered to adult rats and was found to induce markedly increased proliferation of epithelial cells from the foregut to the colon, and of hepatocytes, one day after systemic treatment. Daily treatment resulted in the marked selective induction of mucin-producing cell lineages throughout the GI tract in a dose-dependent fashion. Other cell lineages were either unaffected (e.g., Paneth cells), or relatively decreased (e.g., parietal cells, enterocytes) in rKGF-treated rats. The direct effect of rKGF was confirmed by demonstrating markedly increased carcinoembryonic antigen production in a human colon carcinoma cell line, LIM1899. Serum levels of albumin were specifically and significantly elevated after daily treatment. These results demonstrate rKGF can induce epithelial cell activation throughout the GI tract and liver. Further, endogenous KGF may be a normal paracrine mediator of growth within the gut.

  1. Effects of model inducers on thyroxine UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase activity in vitro in rat and mouse hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Viollon-Abadie, C; Bigot-Lasserre, D; Nicod, L; Carmichael, N; Richert, L

    2000-12-01

    Thyroxine (T(4))-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity was measured directly in cultured male Sprague-Dawley rat and OF-1 mouse hepatocyte monolayers. The activity of T(4)-UGT (pmol/min/g liver) in vitro in hepatocyte cultures was, after 24 hr in culture, equivalent to that previously measured in vivo in rat and mouse liver microsomes (Viollon-Abadie et al., 1999). A progressive decline in T(4)-UGT activity occurred over time in both rat and mouse hepatocyte cultures. Treatment of cultures with various model inducers such as phenobarbital (PB), beta-naphthoflavone (NF) and clofibric acid (CLO) induced a strong increase in T(4)-UGT activity in rat hepatocyte monolayers. In addition, and as expected from available in vivo data, treatment of rat hepatocyte cultures with NF also increased p-nitrophenol (PNP)-UGT activity and treatment with PB or CLO increased bilirubin (Bili)-UGT activity. In contrast, T(4)-UGT activity in mouse hepatocyte monolayers was not affected by the treatments, neither were PNP- and Bili- UGT activities. These in vitro data confirm our previous in vivo observations that these inducers increase rat but not mouse liver T(4)-UGT activities (Viollon-Abadie et al., 1999). The present study thus demonstrates that hepatocyte monolayers are appropriated for the evaluation and inter-species comparison of the effects of xenobiotics on T(4)-UGT activities.

  2. Formation of glutathione conjugates by reactive metabolites of vinylidene chloride in microsomes and isolated hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liebler, D.C.; Meredith, M.J.; Guengerich, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Oxidation of the vinyl halide carcinogen and hepatotoxin vinylidene chloride (VDC) by microsomal cytochrome P-450 yields 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde, 2-chloroacetyl chloride, 2-chloroacetic acid, and 1,1-dichloroethylene oxide. The roles of these metabolites in covalent modification of proteins and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined. 2-Chloroacetyl chloride reacted with model thiols at least 10(3)-fold faster than did 1,1-dichloroethylene oxide and at least 10(5)-fold faster than did 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde or 2-chloroacetic acid. Microsomal covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)VDC was inhibited by GSH but not by lysine, suggesting that protein thiols, rather than amino groups, are major targets. Liver microsomes catalyzed the formation of three GSH:VDC metabolite conjugates, identified as S-(2,2-dichloro-1-hydroxy)ethylglutathione, 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetate, and S-(2-glutathionyl)acetylglutathione, a novel conjugate containing both stable (thioether) and labile (thioester) linkages. The latter two conjugates also were formed in isolated rat hepatocytes and measurable amounts of 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetate were released into the incubation medium. Both 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetate and S-(2-glutathionyl)acetylglutathione were formed with (/sup 35/S)GSH added to the hepatic medium, indicating that reactive VDC metabolites are capable of crossing the plasma membrane to react with extracellular targets. Unlabeled S-(2-glutathionyl)-acetylglutathione underwent carbonyl substitution with added (/sup 35/S)GSH, suggesting that this conjugate may participate in modification of protein thiols. This conjugate also underwent hydrolysis with a half-life of approximately 3 hr. GSH:VDC metabolite conjugates may serve as accessible models for labile covalent adducts formed between VDC metabolites and protein thiols.

  3. A comparison of the effects of betaine and S-adenosylmethionine on ethanol-induced changes in methionine metabolism and steatosis in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Kusum K; Rogers, David D; Mailliard, Mark E; Siford, Gerri L; Barak, Anthony J; Beckenhauer, Harriet C; Sorrell, Michael F; Tuma, Dean J

    2005-03-01

    Previous studies showed that chronic ethanol administration alters methionine metabolism in the liver, resulting in increased intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels and increased homocysteine release into the plasma. We showed further that these changes appear to be reversed by betaine administration. This study compared the effects of betaine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), another methylating agent, on ethanol-induced changes of methionine metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Wistar rats were fed ethanol or control Lieber-Decarli liquid diet for 4 wk and metabolites of the methionine cycle were measured in isolated hepatocytes. Hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats had a 50% lower intracellular SAM:SAH ratio and almost 2-fold greater homocysteine release into the media compared with controls. Supplementation of betaine or SAM in the incubation media increased this ratio in hepatocytes from both control and ethanol-fed rats and attenuated the ethanol-induced increased hepatocellular triglyceride levels by approximately 20%. On the other hand, only betaine prevented the increase in generation of homocysteine in the incubation media under basal and methionine-loaded conditions. SAM can correct only the ratio and the methylation defects and may in fact be detrimental after prolonged use because of its propensity to increase homocysteine release. Both SAM and betaine are effective in increasing the SAM:SAH ratio in hepatocytes and in attenuating hepatic steatosis; however, only betaine can effectively methylate homocysteine and prevent increased homocysteine release by the liver.

  4. HNF4α contributes to glucose formation in aged rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Eun Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeong; Cova, Anthony; Lee, Suk Keun; Cho, Sung Chun; Kwak, Chung Shil; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Sang Chul; Jun, Hee Sook; Kim, Kyung Tae

    2013-12-01

    Aging-dependent physiological conditions are attributed to parenchymal structural changes to cellular functions in aged organisms. Compared to the young animals, the primary hepatocytes from old rats showed a higher glucose output and a higher expression of the key gluconeogenesis-regulating enzyme, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The primary hepatocytes from old rats showed a higher glucose output and a higher expression of the key gluconeogenesis-regulating enzyme, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), compared with those from the young animals. The in situ hybridization study showed increased PEPCK mRNA expression in the aged liver tissues. The livers from old rats showed loosened hexagonal hepatic lobular structures, increased collagen accumulation, and high expression of the hypoxia marker hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). Hypoxia increased the PEPCK mRNA and protein expression levels in accordance with the HIF1α expression. PEPCK promoter luciferase reporter assay showed that hypoxia increased PEPCK through transcriptional activation. Furthermore, the hepatocyte nuclear factor α (HNF4α) protein, but not the HNF4α mRNA level, increased in parallel with the PEPCK mRNA expression under hypoxic conditions. Glucose production increased under hypoxic conditions, but this increment diminished by HNF4α siRNA in young hepatocytes. Moreover, increased glucose production from old rat hepatocytes was reversed by the down-regulation of HNF4α through a specific siRNA. This study suggests that the mild hypoxic conditions in response to aging-dependent hepatic structural changes may contribute to the induction of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK through HNF4α protein stabilization.

  5. Glucose metabolism by adult hepatocytes in primary culture and by cell lines from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Bissell, D M; Levine, G A; Bissell, M J

    1978-03-01

    The metabolic fate of [U-14C]glucose has been examined in detail in adult rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture, as well as in two permanent cell lines--Buffalo rat liver (BRL) and transplantable rat hepatoma (HTC) cells-derived from normal rat liver and from rat hepatoma, respectively. Under defined conditions of incubation, at a glucose concentration of 5.5 mM, the three types of cultured liver cells exhibited pronounced differences in glucose metabolism. Primary cultures, like the intact liver, differed from the cell lines in consuming relatively small amounts of glucose and converting approximately 50% of the total metabolized glucose to lactate. By contrast, the permantent cell lines consumed glucose at a 40-fold greater rate than did primary cultures, converting 80--90% of the carbohydrate to lactate. Oxidative metabolism of glucose carbon also differed among the three types of liver culture. Of the total [U-14C]glucose consumed, primary cultures converted approximately 30% to labeled CO2 per hour, whereas the liver cell lines converted 5--10%. Finally, glucose metabolism in primary culture exhibited adaptation as hepatocytes aged in culture, shifting progressively toward the pattern exhibited by the permanent cell lines. This change occurred over a time course similar to that for other kinds of functional change in hepatocytes in primary culture and thus may be relevant to the general problem of phenotypic alteration in liver cell culture.

  6. Bile acid inhibition of taurocholate uptake by rat hepatocytes: role of OH groups

    SciTech Connect

    Bellentani, S.; Hardison, W.G.M.; Marchegiano, P.; Zanasi, G.; Manenti, F.

    1987-03-01

    To define further the structural specificity of the taurocholate uptake site, the authors studied the ability of a variety of taurine-conjugated bile acids with differing hydroxyl substituents on the sterol moiety to inhibit (/sup 14/C) taurocholate uptake. Rat hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion were incubated in a tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane-phosphate buffer containing (/sup 14/C)taurocholate in the presence or absence of inhibitor bile acid. Stronger inhibitors were studied at a fixed concentration of 5 ..mu..M, weaker ones at 25 ..mu..M. Initial uptake velocity was measured. Uptake velocity could then be related to taurocholate concentration and a V/sub max/ and K/sub m/ could be determined by applying a nonlinear least squares fit to the data obtained with or without inhibitor. The kinetic parameters allowed the determination of the type of inhibition and of inhibition constants (K/sub i/) of the various test bile acids. The data indicate that bile acids containing a 6- or 7-OH group exhibit competitive inhibition, whereas bile acids with no 6- or 7-OH group exhibit noncompetitive inhibition. Of the compounds exhibiting competitive inhibition, K/sub i/ varied with the number of hydroxyl groups on the sterol moiety. They conclude that the presence of absence of a 6- or 7-OH group dictates the mechanism of inhibition; the number of hydroxyl substituents determines the potency of competitive inhibition.

  7. Arsenic trioxide induced indirect and direct inhibition of glutathione reductase leads to apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ray, Atish; Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Mukherjee, Sandip; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-06-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR) is an essential enzyme which maintains the reduced state of a cell. Therefore GR malfunction is closely associated with several disorders related to oxidative damage. The present study reports toxic manifestation of arsenic trioxide in respect of GR leading to apoptosis. Isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to arsenic trioxide were analyzed for GR expression and activity. Arsenic resulted in a time dependent inhibition of GR mediated by the superoxide anion. The cellular demand of functional enzyme is achieved by concomitant rise in gene expression. However, direct inhibition of GR by arsenic trioxide was also evident. Furthermore, arsenic induced free radical mediated inhibition of GR was found to be partially uncompetitive and associated with time dependent decrease in the substrate binding rate. Externalization of phosphatidylserine, nuclear degradation, apoptosis inducing factor leakage, apoptosome formation, caspase activation, DNA damage and break down of PARP suggest consequential induction of apoptosis due to inhibition of GR. The implication of GR was further established from the reduced rate of caspase activation in the arsenic trioxide treated cell, supplemented with complete and incomplete enzyme systems.

  8. Role of elevated S-adenosylhomocysteine in rat hepatocyte apoptosis: protection by betaine.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Kusum K; Rogers, David D; Mailliard, Mark E; Siford, Gerri L; Barak, Anthony J; Beckenhauer, Harriet C; Sorrell, Michael F; Tuma, Dean J

    2005-12-05

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that ethanol consumption results in an increase in hepatocellular S-adenosylhomocysteine levels. Because S-adenosylhomocysteine is a potent inhibitor of methylation reactions, we propose that increased intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine levels could be a major contributor to ethanol-induced pathologies. To test this hypothesis, hepatocytes isolated from rat livers were grown on collagen-coated plates in Williams' medium E containing 5% FCS and exposed to varying concentrations of adenosine in order to increase intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine levels. We observed increases in caspase-3 activity following exposure to adenosine. This increase in caspase activity correlated with increases in intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine levels and DNA hypoploidy. The adenosine-induced changes could be significantly attenuated by betaine administration. The mechanism of betaine action appeared to be via the methylation reaction catalyzed by betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase. To conclude, our results indicate that the elevation of S-adenosylhomocysteine levels in the liver by ethanol is a major factor in altering methylation reactions and in increasing apoptosis in the liver. We conclude that ethanol-induced alteration in methionine metabolic pathways may play a crucial role in the pathologies associated with alcoholic liver injury and that betaine administration may have beneficial therapeutic effects.

  9. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor and angiotensin II on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ai-Lan; Ou, Cai-Wen; He, Zhao-Chu; Liu, Qi-Cai; Dong, Qi; Chen, Min-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The combined effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Ang II on cardiomyocytes is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effect of HGF on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to explore the combined effect of HGF and Ang II on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and cultured in vitro. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 µM) alone, HGF (10 ng/mL) alone, and Ang II (1 µM) plus HGF (10 ng/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The amount of [3H]-leucine incorporation was then measured to evaluate protein synthesis. The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. The cell size of cardiomyocytes was also studied. Ang II (1 µM) increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Similar to Ang II, treatment with 1 µM HGF promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the combination of 1 µM Ang II and 10 ng/mL HGF clearly induced a combined pro-hypertrophy effect on cardiomyocytes. The present study demonstrates for the first time a novel, combined effect of HGF and Ang II in promoting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PMID:23044624

  10. Proliferation of rat small hepatocytes requires follistatin expression.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Hidekazu; Chen, Qijie; Kon, Junko; Sasaki, Kazunori; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Tanimizu, Naoki; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2012-06-01

    Small hepatocytes (SHs) are a subpopulation of hepatocytes that have high growth potential in culture and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes (MHs). The activin (Act)/follistatin (Fst) system critically contributes to homeostasis of cell growth in the normal liver. ActA and ActB consist of two disulfide-linked Inhibin (Inh)β subunits, InhβA and InhβB, respectively. Fst binds to Act and blocks its bioactivity. In the present study we carried out the experiments to clarify how Fst regulates the proliferation of SHs. The gene expression was analyzed using DNA microarray analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR, and protein expression was examined by western blots, immunocytochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RT-PCR showed that Fst expression was high in SHs and low in MHs. Although the ActA expression was opposite to that of Fst, ActB expression was high in SHs and low in MHs and increased with time in culture. Fst protein was detected in the cytoplasm of SHs and secreted into the culture medium. ActB protein was also secreted into the medium. Although the exogenous administration of ActA and ActB apparently suppressed the proliferation of SHs, apoptosis of SHs was not induced by treatment with ActA or ActB. On the other hand, Fst treatment did not affect the colony formation of SHs but prevented the inhibitory effect of ActA. Neutralization by the anti-Fst antibody resulted in the suppression of DNA synthesis in SHs, and small hairpin RNA against Fst suppressed the expansion of SH colonies. In conclusion, Fst expression is necessary for the proliferation of SHs.

  11. New modified polyetheretherketone membrane for liver cell culture in biohybrid systems: adhesion and specific functions of isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    De Bartolo, L; Morelli, S; Rende, M; Gordano, A; Drioli, E

    2004-08-01

    There has been growing interest in innovative materials with physico-chemical properties that provide improved blood/cell compatibility. We propose new polymeric membranes made of modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK-WC) as materials with potential for use in biohybrid devices. PEEK-WC exhibits high chemical, thermal stability and mechanical resistance. Owing to its lack of crystallinity this polymer can be used for preparing membranes with cheap and flexible methods. We compared the properties of PEEK-WC membranes to polyurethane membranes prepared using the same phase inverse technique and commercial membranes. The physico-chemical properties of the membranes were characterised by contact angle measurements. The different parameters acid (gamma+), base (gamma-) and Lifshitz-van der Waals (gammaLW) of the surface free energy were calculated according to Good-van Oss's model. We evaluated the cytocompatibility of PEEK-WC membranes by culturing hepatocytes isolated from rat liver. Cell adhesion and metabolic behaviour in terms of ammonia elimination, urea synthesis and protein synthesis were evaluated during the first days of culture. Liver cells adhered and formed three-dimensional aggregates on the most tested membranes. PEEK-WC membranes promoted hepatocyte adhesion most effectively. Urea synthesis, ammonia elimination and protein synthesis improved significantly when cells adhered to PEEK-WC membrane. The considerable metabolic activities of cells cultured on this membrane confirmed the good structural and physico-chemical properties of the PEEK-WC membrane that could be a promising biomaterial for cell culture in biohybrid devices.

  12. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.; Harbrecht, B.G.; Hoffman, R.A.; Simmons, R.L.; Billiar, T.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure of hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.

  13. A light- and electron-microscope study of hepatocytes of rats fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Douglas A; Chapman, George B

    2007-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are used in the treatment of epilepsy in children refractory to drug therapy. This study identifies changes in liver morphology in rats fed four different diets: a normal rodent chow diet, a calorie-restricted high-fat (ketogenic) diet and each diet supplemented with clofibric acid. Hepatocytes of rats fed the ketogenic diet show many lipid droplets and these are reduced to control levels when clofibrate is present in the diet. Mitochondria are enlarged in the livers of rats fed the ketogenic diet and further enlarged if clofibrate is present. Alterations in the appearance or numbers of other organelles are also found.

  14. Targeted gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor into rat skin by the use of laser-induced stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

    2006-02-01

    We successfully delivered therapeutic gene, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), to rat skin in vivo. The level of hHGF protein increased by the application of LISWs when compared with that of control samples without LISW application.

  15. Comparative metabolism of geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile in mouse, rat, and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Raymond A; Nabb, Diane L; Gannon, Shawn A; Snow, Timothy A; Api, Anne Marie

    2006-06-01

    Geranyl nitrile (GN) and citronellyl nitrile (CN) are fragrance components used in consumer and personal care products. Differences in the clastogenicity of these two terpenes are postulated to result from differential biotransformation, presumably involving the conjugated nitrile moiety. The metabolic clearance and biotransformation of GN and CN were compared in primary hepatocytes from mice, rats, and humans. For determination of intrinsic clearance, GN and CN were incubated with hepatocytes in sealed vials, and the headspace was sampled periodically by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For metabolite identification, GN and CN were incubated with hepatocytes from each species for 60 min, and reaction mixtures were extracted and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Both GN and CN were rapidly metabolized in hepatocytes from all species (T1/2, 0.7-11.6 min). Within a species, intrinsic clearance was similar for both compounds and increased in the order human < rat < mouse. Major common pathways for biotransformation of GN and CN involved 1) epoxidation of the 6-alkenyl moiety followed by conjugation with glutathione, 2) hydroxylation of the terminal methyl group(s) followed by direct conjugation with glucuronic acid in rodents or further oxidation to the corresponding acid in human cells, and 3) hydroxylation of the allylic C5 position. No evidence for either phase I or phase II metabolism of the conjugated nitrile moiety was obtained. Thus, the presumed metabolic basis for differences in genotoxicity remains elusive.

  16. Assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction-related, drug-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Kousei

    2016-07-01

    Evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in drug-induced liver injury is rapidly accumulating. In contrast to physiological conditions, in which almost all adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in hepatocytes is generated in mitochondria via aerobic respiration, the high glucose content and limited oxygen supply of conventional culture systems force primary hepatocytes to generate most ATP via cytosolic glycolysis. Thus, such anaerobically poised cells are resistant to xenobiotics that impair mitochondrial function, and are not suitable to identify drugs with mitochondrial liabilities. In this study, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in galactose-based medium, instead of the conventional glucose-based medium, and in hyperoxia to improve the reliance of energy generation on aerobic respiration. Activation of mitochondria was verified by diminished cellular lactate release and increased oxygen consumption. These conditions improved sensitivity to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Since oxidative stress is also a general cause of mitochondrial impairment, cells were exposed to test compounds in the presence of transferrin to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species via increased uptake of iron. Finally, 14 compounds with reported mitochondrial liabilities were tested to validate this new drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity assay. Overall, the culture of primary rat hepatocytes in galactose, hyperoxia and transferrin is a useful model for the identification of mitochondrial dysfunction-related drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  17. Soyasaponin Bb Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Lijie, Zhu; Ranran, Fu; Xiuying, Liu; Yutang, He; Bo, Wang; Tao, Ma

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been known that oxidative stress induced by alcohol played a crucial role in the formation of alcoholic liver disease. Although the formation mechanisms underlying liver injury induced by alcohol still remained largely unknown, it has been considered that oxidative stress played a core role in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte damage. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soyasaponin Bb (Ss-Bb) on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced rat hepatocyte injury. Results: It has been shown that the administration of Ss-Bb could significantly restore antioxidant activity in BRL 3A cells. Moreover, the impaired liver function and morphology changes resulting from ethanol exposure were improved by Ss-Bb treatment. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) indicated a critical role of HO-1 in mediating the protective role. Finally, we found that pretreatment with Ss-Bb to ethanol exposure cells increased the expression level of HO-1. Conclusion: It was suggested that Ss-Bb may protect against alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury through ameliorating oxidative stress, and the induction of HO-1 was an important protective mechanism. SUMMARY Effects of soyasaponin Bb was investigated on oxidative stress in rat hepatocytesCell viability and antioxidant capacities were evaluated to determine the effectsThe expression level of HO-1 was measured to reveal the proptective mechanisms PMID:27867273

  18. Metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine in rat hepatocytes: transfer of methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine by methyltransferase reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukada, K.; Abe, T.; Kuwahata, T.; Mitsui, K.

    1985-08-19

    Treatment of rats with a methionine diet leads not only to a marked increase of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in liver, but also to the increase of glycine, guanidoacetate and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferases. The activity of tRNA methyltransferase decreased with the increased amounts of methionine in the diets. However, the activities of phospholipids and S-adenosylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferases did not show any significant change. When hepatocarcinogenesis induced by 2-fluorenylacetamide progresses, the activities of glycine and guanidoacetate methyltransferases in rat liver decreased, and could not be detected in tumorous areas 8 months after treatment. The levels of S-adenosylmethionine in the liver also decreased to levels of one-fifth of control animals at 8 months. The uptake and metabolism of (methyl-/sup 3/H)-methionine and -S-adenosylmethionine have been investigated by in vivo and isolated hepatocytes. The uptake of methionine and transfer of methyl group to phospholipid in the cells by methionine were remarkably higher than those by S-adenosylmethionine. These results indicate that phospholipids in hepatocytes accept methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine immediately, when it is synthesized from methionine, before mixing its pool in the cells. 39 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  19. Phenobarbital induces alterations in the proteome of hepatocytes and mesenchymal cells of rat livers.

    PubMed

    Klepeisz, Philip; Sagmeister, Sandra; Haudek-Prinz, Verena; Pichlbauer, Melanie; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Gerner, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Preceding studies on the mode of action of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGCs) have concentrated on alterations induced in hepatocytes (HCs). A potential role of non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs) in NGC-driven hepatocarcinogenesis has been largely neglected so far. The aim of this study is to characterize NGC-induced alterations in the proteome profiles of HCs as well as NPCs. We chose the prototypic NGC phenobarbital (PB) which was applied to male rats for a period of 14 days. The livers of PB-treated rats were perfused by collagenase and the cell suspensions obtained were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to separate HCs from NPCs. In addition, HCs and NPC isolated from untreated animals were treated with PB in vitro. Proteome profiling was done by CHIP-HPLC and ion trap mass spectrometry. Proteome analyses of the in vivo experiments showed many of the PB effects previously described in HCs by other methods, e.g. induction of phase I and phase II drug metabolising enzymes. In NPCs proteins related to inflammation and immune regulation such as PAI-1 and S100-A10, ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1 and to cell migration such as kinesin-1 heavy chain, myosin regulatory light chain RLC-A and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1 were found to be induced, indicating major PB effects on these cells. Remarkably, in vitro treatment of HCs and NPCs with PB hardly reproduced the proteome alterations observed in vivo, indicating differences of NGC induced responses of cells at culture conditions compared to the intact organism. To conclude, the present study clearly demonstrated that PB induces proteome alterations not only in HCs but also in NPCs. Thus, any profound molecular understanding on the mode of action of NGCs has to consider effects on cells of the hepatic mesenchyme.

  20. Phenobarbital Induces Alterations in the Proteome of Hepatocytes and Mesenchymal Cells of Rat Livers

    PubMed Central

    Klepeisz, Philip; Sagmeister, Sandra; Haudek-Prinz, Verena; Pichlbauer, Melanie; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Gerner, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Preceding studies on the mode of action of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGCs) have concentrated on alterations induced in hepatocytes (HCs). A potential role of non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs) in NGC-driven hepatocarcinogenesis has been largely neglected so far. The aim of this study is to characterize NGC-induced alterations in the proteome profiles of HCs as well as NPCs. We chose the prototypic NGC phenobarbital (PB) which was applied to male rats for a period of 14 days. The livers of PB-treated rats were perfused by collagenase and the cell suspensions obtained were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to separate HCs from NPCs. In addition, HCs and NPC isolated from untreated animals were treated with PB in vitro. Proteome profiling was done by CHIP-HPLC and ion trap mass spectrometry. Proteome analyses of the in vivo experiments showed many of the PB effects previously described in HCs by other methods, e.g. induction of phase I and phase II drug metabolising enzymes. In NPCs proteins related to inflammation and immune regulation such as PAI-1 and S100-A10, ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1 and to cell migration such as kinesin-1 heavy chain, myosin regulatory light chain RLC-A and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1 were found to be induced, indicating major PB effects on these cells. Remarkably, in vitro treatment of HCs and NPCs with PB hardly reproduced the proteome alterations observed in vivo, indicating differences of NGC induced responses of cells at culture conditions compared to the intact organism. To conclude, the present study clearly demonstrated that PB induces proteome alterations not only in HCs but also in NPCs. Thus, any profound molecular understanding on the mode of action of NGCs has to consider effects on cells of the hepatic mesenchyme. PMID:24204595

  1. Kinetics of Arsenic Methylation by Freshly Isolated B6C3F1 Mouse Hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kedderis, Gregory L.; Elmore, Amy R.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Yager, Janice W.; Goldsworthy, Thomas L.

    2006-06-10

    The toxic and carcinogenic effects of arsenic may be mediated by both inorganic and methylated arsenic species. The methylation of arsenicIII takes place via sequential oxidative methylation and reduction steps to form monomethylarsenic (MMA) and dimethylarsenic (DMA) species. The kinetics of arsenic methylation were determined in freshly isolated hepatocytes from male B6C3F1 mice. Hepatocytes (>90% viability) were isolated by collagenase perfusion and suspended in Williams Medium E with various concentrations of arsenicIII (sodium m-arsenite). Aliquots of the cell suspension were lysed with 1.0% Triton X-100 and analyzed for arsenic species by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. The formation of MMAIII from sodium arsenite (1 ?M) was linear with respect to time for >90 min. DMAIII formation did not become significant until 60 min. MMAV and DMAV were not consistently observed in the incubations. These results suggest that the reduction of MMAV to MMAIII is rapid relative to the methylation rate since MMAV was not observed as a major product of arsenicIII metabolism in mouse hepatocytes. Metabolism of arsenicV was not observed in mouse hepatocytes, consistent with inhibition of arsenicV active cellular uptake by phosphate in the medium. The formation of MMAIII increased with increasing arsenicIII concentrations up to approximately 2 ?M and declined thereafter. The concentration dependence is consistent with a saturable methylation reaction accompanied by substrate inhibition of the reaction by arsenicIII. Kinetic analysis of the data suggested an apparent KM of approximately 3.6 ?M arsenicIII, an apparent Vmax of approximately 38.9 ?g MMAIII formed/L/hr/million cells, and an apparent KI of approximately 1.3 ?M arsenicIII. The results of this study can be used in the physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for arsenic disposition in mice to predict the concentration of MMAIII in liver and other tissues.

  2. Early-onset obesity and food restriction alter hepatocyte metabolism in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Nayra Thais D; Cruz, Gabriel Henrique P; Borrasca, Cristian L; Alves, Lucas de Paula S; de Godoy Gomes, Célia Regina; Ferreira de Godoi, Vilma Aparecida; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat Diaz

    2017-05-13

    Caloric restriction (CR) is suggested for overweight control. Systemic and liver glucose metabolism in the reduced-litter (RL) rat model under 30% CR was investigated. Newborn litters were organised in control (G9); RL with free diet (G3L); and RL with CR (G3R). Assessments were made at the age of 90 d. Higher liver glycogen content and changes in systemic glucose handling were found in the RL groups. Hepatocyte glucose metabolism was similar in groups G9 and G3L, but basal glucose production and glycogenolysis were higher, while gluconeogenesis and basal glycolysis were lower in the G3R. Urea production was lower in the RL groups. The altered glucose handling of the RL adult rats was not reversed by moderate (30%) CR. Hepatocyte glucose and nitrogen metabolism were changed by both early overfeeding and current feeding conditions. RL and CR alter systemic and liver glucose metabolism.

  3. Effect of aging on regulation of sdi-1 in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kitano, S; Venable, S; Smith, J R; Reed, T D; Roth, G S

    1996-08-05

    We examined basal and EGF stimulated DNA synthesis as well as sdi-1 mRNA and protein in primary hepatocyte cultures, and basal levels of sdi-1 mRNA and protein in whole liver homogenates from 6 and 24 month old rats. Since EGF stimulated DNA synthesis decreases with age, it was hypothesized that basal and EGF stimulated levels of sdi-1 mRNA and protein, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, might increase. Surprisingly, however both sdi-1 mRNA and protein actually decreased both in cells and homogenates of old rats. These results indicate that the age-related impairment in EGF stimulated DNA synthesis in hepatocytes appears to occur prior to or parallel with sdi-1 expression and cannot be explained on the basis of increased inhibition due to elevated levels of this protein.

  4. In vitro toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate on rat liver hepatocytes: probability of distructive binding to CYP 2E1 and involvement of cellular proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Khansari, Mehdi Rajabnia; Yousefsani, Bahareh Sadat; Kobarfard, Farzad; Faizi, Mehrdad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-08-25

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant, is one of the most common global pollutants. PFOS is used in various consumer products to provide soil, oil, and water resistance to materials used in clothing, upholstery, and food packaging. PFOS is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to mammalian species. In this study, the cellular mechanisms involved in PFOS hepatotoxicity were evaluated. For this purpose, we determined oxidative stress markers including cell lysis, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, lysosomal membrane leakiness, and cellular proteolysis. Our results demonstrated that PFOS liver cytotoxicity was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. Incubation of hepatocytes with PFOS caused rapid depletion of hepatocyte glutathione (GSH), an important marker of cellular oxidative stress. Most of the PFOS-induced GSH depletion could be attributed to the expulsion of glutathione disulfide (GSSG). PFOS hepatotoxicity was inhibited by antioxidants and ROS scavengers, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing agents, and endocytosis inhibitors. Our results suggest that PFOS hepatotoxicity might be the result of oxidative stress-induced lysosomal membrane leakiness and cellular proteolysis in rat hepatocytes.

  5. Differential regulation of the mitogen-activated protein and stress-activated protein kinase cascades by adrenergic agonists in quiescent and regenerating adult rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Spector, M S; Auer, K L; Jarvis, W D; Ishac, E J; Gao, B; Kunos, G; Dent, P

    1997-01-01

    To study the mechanisms by which catecholamines regulate hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy (PHX), hepatocytes were isolated from adult male rats 24 h after sham operation or two-thirds PHX and treated with catecholamines and other agonists. In freshly isolated sham cells, p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity was stimulated by the alpha1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PHE). Activation of p42 MAP kinase by growth factors was blunted by pretreatment of sham hepatocytes with glucagon but not by that with the beta2-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO). In PHX cells, the ability of PHE to activate p42 MAP kinase was dramatically reduced, whereas ISO became competent to inhibit p42 MAP kinase activation. PHE treatment of sham but not PHX and ISO treatment of PHX but not sham hepatocytes also activated the stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases p46/54 SAP kinase and p38 SAP kinase. These data demonstrate that an alpha1- to beta2-adrenergic receptor switch occurs upon PHX and results in an increase in SAP kinase versus MAP kinase signaling by catecholamines. In primary cultures of hepatocytes, ISO treatment of PHX but not sham cells inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation. In contrast, PHE treatment of sham but not PHX cells stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation, which was reduced by approximately 25 and approximately 95% with specific inhibitors of p42 MAP kinase and p38 SAP kinase function, respectively. Inhibition of the p38 SAP kinase also dramatically reduced basal [3H]thymidine incorporation. These data suggest that p38 SAP kinase plays a permissive role in liver regeneration. Alterations in the abilities of catecholamines to modulate the activities of protein kinase A and the MAP and SAP kinase pathways may represent one physiological mechanism by which these agonists can regulate hepatocyte proliferation after PHX. PMID:9199291

  6. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-Chi; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2009-06-01

    People in oriental countries, including Japan and Taiwan, boil guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) in water and drink the extract as a folk medicine for diabetes. The present study investigated the enhancement of aqueous guava leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes and searched for the active compound. The extract was eluted with MeOH-H(2)O solutions through Diaion, Sephadex, and MCI-gel columns to separate into fractions with different polarities. The uptake test of 2-[1-(14)C] deoxy-D-glucose in rat clone 9 hepatocytes was performed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of these fractions. The active compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that phenolics are the principal component of the extract, that high polarity fractions of the guava leaf extract are enhancers to glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes, and that quercetin is the major active compound. We suggest that quercetin in the aqueous extract of guava leaves promotes glucose uptake in liver cells, and contributes to the alleviation of hypoglycemia in diabetes as a consequence.

  7. Metabolism of cyclosporin A. I. Study in freshly isolated rabbit hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fabre, G.; Bertault-Peres, P.; Fabre, I.; Maurel, P.; Just, S.; Cano, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    The metabolism of cyclosporin A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressive agent, was evaluated in freshly isolated rabbit hepatocytes by HPLC which separated CsA from its major group of derivatives, e.g. first generation metabolites (monohydroxylated and N-demethylated) and second generation derivatives (dihydroxylated and dihydroxy-N-demethylated). After exposure of hepatocytes to radiolabeled CsA (0.5 mg/liter), CsA was rapidly accumulated inside the cells and metabolized. The dihydroxylated metabolites represent the major intracellular forms after 1 hr. CsA metabolites synthesized inside the cells are then rapidly detected in the extracellular compartment. Unchanged drug and the various metabolites are concentrated inside the cells with transmembrane chemical gradients ranging between 20:1 and 40:1. Transport and metabolic processes for CsA have been evaluated over the following CsA extracellular concentration range, 0.1-10 mg/liter. Metabolism appears to be the rate-limiting step. The apparent affinity constant of CsA for the enzyme system involved in its metabolism is approximately 15 microM. Besides the lipophilicity of the molecule, which is responsible for the retention of CsA and its metabolites in the intracellular compartment, the presence of a binding component(s) in the hepatocytes was also demonstrated. CsA and its metabolites seem to have similar affinities for this binding site. These studies demonstrate that CsA is rapidly transformed inside the hepatocytes to various metabolites which may play an important role in the pharmacological activity of the drug and/or in its clinical toxicity.

  8. Inhibition of iron toxicity in rat hepatocyte culture by natural phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chimi, H; Morel, I; Lescoat, G; Pasdeloup, N; Cillard, P; Cillard, J

    1995-10-01

    Iron supplementation of adult rat hepatocyte culture induced a cytotoxic effect as shown by an increase of lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant activity of some natural phenolic compounds from olive oil (caffeic acid, oleuropein, tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol) has been investigated on this iron-loaded hepatocyte culture model. These compounds greatly reduced malondialdehyde production which was used as a marker for iron-induced lipid peroxidation. This reduction was concentration-dependent of phenolic compound (in the range of 20-100 mum). Moreover, it was not significantly different from one tested compound to another. To clarify the antioxidant mechanism of these compounds, their free radical scavenging activity has been tested in a cell-free experimental model using spin trapping-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The four tested compounds were able to scavenge hydroxyl and lipid radicals. They exhibited various efficiency towards hydroxyl radical whereas they presented the same order of reactivity towards lipid radicals. Moreover, only caffeic acid and oleuropein could scavenge Superoxide anion. Therefore, the reactivity of the phenolic compounds towards these reactive oxygen species provided an insight into their antioxidant activity in iron-loaded hepatocyte culture. These compounds could probably interfere with the chain-propagating steps of the lipid peroxidation induced by iron in hepatocytes, which resulted in an inhibition of toxicity.

  9. Hepatocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Olsavsky Goyak, Katy M; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, research suggests that for certain systems, animal models are insufficient for human toxicology testing. The development of robust, in vitro models of human toxicity is required to decrease our dependence on potentially misleading in vivo animal studies. A critical development in human toxicology testing is the use of human primary hepatocytes to model processes that occur in the intact liver. However, in order to serve as an appropriate model, primary hepatocytes must be maintained in such a way that they persist in their differentiated state. While many hepatocyte culture methods exist, the two-dimensional collagen "sandwich" system combined with a serum-free medium, supplemented with physiological glucocorticoid concentrations, appears to robustly maintain hepatocyte character. Studies in rat and human hepatocytes have shown that when cultured under these conditions, hepatocytes maintain many markers of differentiation including morphology, expression of plasma proteins, hepatic nuclear factors, phase I and II metabolic enzymes. Functionally, these culture conditions also preserve hepatic stress response pathways, such as the SAPK and MAPK pathways, as well as prototypical xenobiotic induction responses. This chapter will briefly review culture methodologies but will primarily focus on hallmark hepatocyte structural, expression and functional markers that characterize the differentiation status of the hepatocyte.

  10. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by chemical carcinogens in cultures of initiated and normal proliferating rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Novicki, D.L.; Rosenberg, M.R.; Michalopoulos, G.

    1985-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes in primary culture can be stimulated to replicate under the influence of rat serum and sparse plating conditions. Higher replication rates are induced by serum from two-thirds partially hepatectomized rats. The effects of carcinogens and noncarcinogens on the ability of hepatocytes to synthesize DNA were examined by measuring the incorporation of (3H)thymidine by liquid scintillation counting and autoradiography. Hepatocyte DNA synthesis was not decreased by ethanol or dimethyl sulfoxide at concentrations less than 0.5%. No effect was observed when 0.1 mM ketamine, Nembutal, hypoxanthine, sucrose, ascorbic acid, or benzo(e)pyrene was added to cultures of replicating hepatocytes. Estrogen, testosterone, tryptophan, and vitamin E inhibited DNA synthesis by approximately 50% at 0.1 mM, a concentration at which toxicity was noticeable. Several carcinogens requiring metabolic activation as well as the direct-acting carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine interfered with DNA synthesis. Aflatoxin B1 inhibited DNA synthesis by 50% (ID50) at concentrations between 1 X 10(-8) and 1 X 10(-7) M. The ID50 for 2-acetylaminofluorene was between 1 X 10(-7) and 1 X 10(-6) M. Benzo(a)pyrene and 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene inhibited DNA synthesis 50% between 1 X 10(-5) and 1 X 10(-4) M. Diethylnitrosamine and dimethylnitrosamine (ID50 between 1 X 10(-4) and 5 X 10(-4) M) and 1- and 2-naphthylamine (ID50 between 1 X 10(-5) and 5 X 10(-4) M) caused inhibition of DNA synthesis at concentrations which overlapped with concentrations that caused measurable toxicity.

  11. The impairment of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells during cold preservation in rat fatty liver induced by alcohol and the beneficial effect of hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yoshihisa; Arii, Shigeki; Kaido, Toshimi; Imamura, Masayuki

    2003-04-01

    A fatty liver resulting from alcohol intake is often unattractive for grafting. In this study, we investigated the impairment of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) during cold preservation of alcohol-induced fatty liver and examined the efficacy of human recombinant hepatocyte growth factor (hrHGF). Rats were fed an alcohol diet. We performed histological examinations of the hepatocytes and observed the ultrastructural alteration of the SECs. Additionally, we measured hepatic transaminase and peroxidative lipids for hepatocellular injury and the hyaluronic acid uptake rate (HUR) to determine SEC injury. We added hrHGF to University of Wisconsin (UW) solution to assess the protective effect of the agent. Numerous fatty deposits were observed in ethanol-induced fatty livers. These grew with the duration of cold storage. Hepatic transaminases of the effluents increased during cold preservation in the livers of alcohol-treated rats. Additionally, peroxidative lipids in the effluents increased during cold preservation in the livers of alcohol-treated rats, whereas they were undetectable in non-alcohol-treated rat livers. The sinusoidal endothelium had severely deteriorated in the livers of alcohol-treated rats. Further, the HUR decreased with ethanol treatment and/or cold preservation. The addition of hrHGF suppressed the increase of hepatic transaminase in the effluent of cold-preserved alcohol-treated livers. Peroxidative lipids in the same effluents were undetectable. In fatty livers, both hepatocytes and SECs received severe damage during cold preservation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that hepatocellular injury was significantly inhibited by hrHGF.

  12. Tanshinone I increases CYP1A2 protein expression and enzyme activity in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wayne Y W; Zhou, Xuelin; Or, Penelope M Y; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Yeung, John H K

    2012-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of Danshen and its active ingredients on the protein expression and enzymatic activity of CYP1A2 in primary rat hepatocytes. The ethanolic extract of Danshen roots (containing mainly tanshinones) inhibited CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation (IC(50)=24.6 μg/ml) in primary rat hepatocytes while the water extract containing mainly salvianolic acid B and danshenshu had no effect. Individual tanshinones such as cryptotanshinone, dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone IIA inhibited the CYP1A2-mediated metabolism with IC(50) values at 12.9, 17.4 and 31.9 μM, respectively. After 4-day treatment of the rat hepatocytes, the ethanolic extract of Danshen and tanshinone I increased rat CYP1A2 activity by 6.8- and 5.2-fold, respectively, with a concomitant up-regulation of CYP1A2 protein level by 13.5- and 6.5-fold, respectively. CYP1A2 induction correlated with the up-regulation of mRNA level of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which suggested a positive feedback mechanism of tanshinone I-mediated CYP1A2 induction. A formulated Danshen pill (containing mainly danshensu and salvianolic acid B and the tanshinones) up-regulated CYP1A2 protein expression and enzyme activity, but danshensu and salvianolic acid B, when used individually, did not affect CYP1A2 activity. This study was the first report on the Janus action of the tanshinones on rat CYP1A2 activity.

  13. The isolation of primary hepatocytes from human tissue: optimising the use of small non-encapsulated liver resection surplus.

    PubMed

    Green, Charlotte J; Charlton, Catriona A; Wang, Lai-Mun; Silva, Michael; Morten, Karl J; Hodson, Leanne

    2017-07-17

    Two-step perfusion is considered the gold standard method for isolating hepatocytes from human liver tissue. As perfusion may require a large tissue specimen, which is encapsulated and has accessible vessels for cannulation, only a limited number of tissue samples may be suitable. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop an alternative method to isolate hepatocytes from non-encapsulated and small samples of human liver tissue. Healthy tissue from 44 human liver resections were graded for steatosis and tissue weights between 7.8 and 600 g were used for hepatocyte isolations. Tissue was diced and underwent a two-step digestion (EDTA and collagenase). Red cell lysis buffer was used to prevent red blood cell contamination and toxicity. Isolated hepatocyte viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Western blot and biochemical analyses were undertaken to ascertain cellular phenotype and function. Liver tissue that weighed ≥50 g yielded significantly higher (P < 0.01) cell viability than tissue <50 g. Viable cells secreted urea and displayed the phenotypic hepatocyte markers albumin and cytochrome P450. Presence of steatosis in liver tissue or intra-hepatocellular triglyceride content had no effect on cell viability. This methodology allows for the isolation of viable primary human hepatocytes from small amounts of "healthy" resected liver tissue which are not suitable for perfusion. This work provides the opportunity to increase the utilisation of resection surplus tissue, and may ultimately lead to an increased number of in vitro cellular studies being undertaken using the gold-standard model of human primary hepatocytes.

  14. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  15. The hepatocyte proteome in organotypic rat liver models and the influence of the local microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lucas T; Orbach, Sophia M; Ray, W Keith; Cassin, Margaret E; Rajagopalan, Padmavathy; Helm, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    Liver models that closely mimic the in vivo microenvironment are useful for understanding liver functions, capabilities, and intercellular communication processes. Three-dimensional (3D) liver models assembled using hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) separated by a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) provide a functional system while also permitting isolation of individual cell types for proteomic analyses. To better understand the mechanisms and processes that underlie liver model function, hepatocytes were maintained as monolayers and 3D PEM-based formats in the presence or absence of primary LSECs. The resulting hepatocyte proteomes, the proteins in the PEM, and extracellular levels of urea, albumin and glucose after three days of culture were compared. All systems were ketogenic and found to release glucose. The presence of the PEM led to increases in proteins associated with both mitochondrial and peroxisomal-based β-oxidation. The PEMs also limited production of structural and migratory proteins associated with dedifferentiation. The presence of LSECs increased levels of Phase I and Phase II biotransformation enzymes as well as several proteins associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and extracellular matrix remodeling. The proteomic analysis of the PEMs indicated that there was no significant change after three days of culture. These results are discussed in relation to liver model function. Heterotypic cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions exert different effects on hepatocyte functions and phenotypes.

  16. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Extracts of Pistacia vera against Oxidative Versus Carbonyl Stress in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Jafar; Zareh, Mona; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytoprotection of various extracts and bioactive compounds found in Pistacia vera againts cytotoxicity, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, mitochondrial and lysosomal membrane damages in cell toxicity models of diabetes related carbonyl (glyoxal) and oxidative stress (hydroperoxide). Methanol, water and ethyl acetate were used to prepare crude pistachios extracts, which were then used to screen for in-vitro cytoprotection of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes against these toxins. The order of protection by Pistacia vera extracts against both hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress (ROS formation) and glyoxal induced protein carbonylation was: pistachio methanolic extract >pistachio water extract, gallic acid, catechin> α-tochoferol and pistachio ethyl acetate extract. Finally due to higher protection achieved by methanolic extract even compared to sole pretreatment of gallic acid, catechin or α-tochoferol, we suggest that cytoprotection depends on the variety of polar and non-polar compounds found in methanolic extract, it is likely that multiple cytoprotective mechanisms are acting against oxidative and carbonyl induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the cytoprotective activity of Pistacia vera extracts against oxidative and carbonyl stress seen in type 2 diabetes hepatocytes model. PMID:25587316

  17. Effects of growth factors on hormonal stimulation of amino acid transport in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Auberger, P; Samson, M; Le Cam, A

    1983-01-01

    In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and foetal-calf serum (FCS) prevented the stimulation of amino acid transport by glucagon (cyclic AMP-dependent) and by catecholamines (cyclic AMP-independent), but not by insulin. The insulin effect, as well as the effect of other hormones, were totally inhibited by thrombin through a mechanism independent of its proteolytic activity. The inhibitory effect of growth factors, not found in freshly isolated hepatocytes, was expressed very early in culture (4h). Induction of tyrosine aminotransferase by glucagon or dexamethasone, which, like stimulation of transport, represents a late hormonal effect, was not affected by EGF, PDGF or FCS, but was inhibited by thrombin. In contrast, none of the rapid changes in protein phosphorylation caused by hormones was altered by growth factors. Thus the inhibition by growth factors of hormonal stimulation of transport presumably involves late step(s) in the cascade of events implicated in this hormonal effect. Images Fig. 6. PMID:6134522

  18. Activation of Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase in rat hepatocytes does not contribute to their cell death by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Latour, I; Leunda-Casi, A; Denef, J F; Buc Calderon, P

    2000-01-10

    Oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes caused DNA damage and loss of membrane integrity. Such DNA lesions are likely to be single strand breaks since neither caryolysis nor chromatine condensation was seen in electron micrographs from tBOOH-treated cells. In addition, pulsed field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA from both control and tBOOH-treated hepatocytes showed similar profiles, indicating the absence of internucleosomal DNA cleavage, a classical reflection of apoptotic endonuclease activity. The activation of the repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) following DNA damage by tBOOH induced a dramatic drop in both NAD(+) and ATP. The inhibition of PARP by 3-aminobenzamide enhanced DNA damage by tBOOH, restored NAD(+) and ATP levels, but did not result in better survival against cell killing by tBOOH. The lack of the protective effect of PARP inhibitor, therefore, does not implicate PARP in the mechanism of tBOOH-induced cytotoxicity. Electron micrographs also show no mitochondrial swelling in cells under oxidative stress, but such organelles were mainly located around the nucleus, a picture already observed in autoschizis, a new suggested kind of cell death which shows both apoptotic and necrotic morphological characteristics.

  19. Genotoxic and enzymatic effects of fluoranthene in microsomes and freshly isolated hepatocytes from sole (Solea solea).

    PubMed

    Wessel, N; Ménard, D; Pichavant-Rafini, K; Ollivier, H; Le Goff, J; Burgeot, T; Akcha, F

    2012-02-01

    The fluoranthene (Fluo) is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human food and in marine compartments. However, the existing data on its genotoxicity is poor and controversial. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the potential genotoxicity of Fluo in sole and its possible effect on CYP450 modulation. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed for 24 h to a range of Fluo concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μM in both culture flasks and microplate wells. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured as an indicator of the activity of the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). The genotoxic effects were evaluated by measuring both DNA strand breaks and DNA adducts by the alkaline comet assay and the postlabeling technique respectively. Calf thymus DNA was also exposed to Fluo in the presence of sole liver microsomes in order to check for Fluo DNA adduct formation. In sole hepatocytes, Fluo was shown to induce a decrease in the EROD activity in a concentration-dependent manner. A significant genotoxic effect was observed in terms of DNA strand breakage from an exposure concentration of 5 μM: despite a concentration-dependent effect was observed, it did not follow a linear dose-response. The response was similar whatever the way of exposure in flasks or in wells. One reproducible adduct was detected in the hepatocytes exposed to the highest concentrations of Fluo. The formation of Fluo adducts was confirmed by the detection of one reproducible adduct following in vitro exposure of calf thymus DNA to 100 and 200 μM of Fluo in the presence of sole microsomes. These results demonstrate the potential of sole hepatocytes to metabolize Fluo in 24 h into reactive species, able to induce genotoxicity by DNA strand breakage and DNA adduct formation. Moreover, a miniaturized cell exposure system was validated for further experiments using fewer amounts of hepatocytes and contaminants, and allowing exposure to PAH metabolites. Copyright

  20. Uptake of free choline by isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Zeisel, S H; Story, D L; Wurtman, R J; Brunengraber, H

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of free choline by isolated perfused rat liver was characterized. A saturable uptake mechanism [Ka = 0.17 +/- 0.07 mM (SD); Vmax = 0.84 +/- 0.16 mumol/min X g dry weight] and a nonsaturable mechanism (through which uptake is proportional to choline concentration in the perfusate) were identified. Most of the choline transported into hepatocytes was converted to betaine, phosphorylcholine, or lecithin. Free choline also accumulated within the intracellular space, suggesting that choline oxidase activity does not always limit choline's uptake by the liver. PMID:6933493

  1. Uptake of Free Choline by Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeisel, Steven H.; Story, David L.; Wurtman, Richard J.; Brunengraber, Henri

    1980-08-01

    The uptake of free choline by isolated perfused rat liver was characterized. A saturable uptake mechanism [Ka=0.17± 0.07 mM (SD); Vmax=0.84± 0.16\\ μ mol/min × g dry weight] and a nonsaturable mechanism (through which uptake is proportional to choline concentration in the perfusate) were identified. Most of the choline transported into hepatocytes was converted to betaine, phosphorylcholine, or lecithin. Free choline also accumulated within the intracellular space, suggesting that choline oxidase activity does not always limit choline's uptake by the liver.

  2. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is associated with mTOR regulation in hepatocytes of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hagland, Hanne R.; Nilsson, Linn I.H.; Burri, Lena; Nikolaisen, Julie; Berge, Rolf K.; Tronstad, Karl J.

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated mechanisms of mitochondrial regulation in rat hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) was employed to activate mitochondrial oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was confirmed that PPAR target genes were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism involved activation mTOR. -- Abstract: The hypolipidemic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators has been explained by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, as observed in livers of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). PPAR-activation does, however, not fully explain the metabolic adaptations observed in hepatocytes after treatment with TTA. We therefore characterized the mitochondrial effects, and linked this to signalling by the metabolic sensor, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In hepatocytes isolated from TTA-treated rats, the changes in cellular content and morphology were consistent with hypertrophy. This was associated with induction of multiple mitochondrial biomarkers, including mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase and mRNAs of mitochondrial proteins. Transcription analysis further confirmed activation of PPAR{alpha}-associated genes, in addition to genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Analysis of mitochondrial respiration revealed that the capacity of both electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation were increased. These effects coincided with activation of the stress related factor, ERK1/2, and mTOR. The protein level and phosphorylation of the downstream mTOR actors eIF4G and 4E-BP1 were induced. In summary, TTA increases mitochondrial respiration by inducing hypertrophy and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat hepatocytes, via adaptive regulation of PPARs as well as mTOR.

  3. Sulindac and Its Metabolites Inhibit Multiple Transport Proteins in Rat and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Paine, Mary F.

    2010-01-01

    Sulindac is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. This study tested the hypothesis that sulindac-mediated drug–drug interactions and/or hepatotoxicity may be caused, in part, by inhibition of proteins responsible for the hepatic transport of drugs and/or bile acids by sulindac and/or sulindac metabolites [sulindac sulfone (S-sulfone) and sulindac sulfide (S-sulfide)]. The uptake and excretion of model substrates, [3H]taurocholate (TC), [3H]estradiol 17-β-glucuronide (E217G), and nitrofurantoin (NF), were investigated in rat and human suspended and sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). In suspended rat hepatocytes, S-sulfone and S-sulfide inhibited Na+-dependent TC initial uptake (IC50 of 24.9 ± 6.4 and 12.5 ± 1.8 μM, respectively) and Na+-independent E217G initial uptake (IC50 of 12.1 ± 1.6 and 6.3 ± 0.3 μM, respectively). In rat SCH, sulindac metabolites (100 μM) decreased the in vitro biliary clearance (Clbiliary) of TC, E217G, and NF by 38 to 83%, 81 to 97%, and 33 to 57%, respectively; S-sulfone and S-sulfide also decreased the TC and NF biliary excretion index by 39 to 55%. In suspended human hepatocytes, S-sulfone and S-sulfide inhibited Na+-dependent TC initial uptake (IC50 of 42.2 and 3.1 μM, respectively); S-sulfide also inhibited the TC Clbiliary in human SCH. Sulindac/metabolites markedly inhibited hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of E217G by 51 to 100% in human SCH. In conclusion, sulindac and metabolites are potent inhibitors of the uptake and biliary clearance of bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and also inhibit substrates of rat breast cancer resistance protein, rat and human organic anion-transporting polypeptides, and human multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Inhibition of multiple hepatic transport proteins by sulindac/metabolites may play an important role in clinically significant sulindac-mediated drug–drug interactions and/or liver injury. PMID:20430841

  4. Sulindac and its metabolites inhibit multiple transport proteins in rat and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Paine, Mary F; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2010-08-01

    Sulindac is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. This study tested the hypothesis that sulindac-mediated drug-drug interactions and/or hepatotoxicity may be caused, in part, by inhibition of proteins responsible for the hepatic transport of drugs and/or bile acids by sulindac and/or sulindac metabolites [sulindac sulfone (S-sulfone) and sulindac sulfide (S-sulfide)]. The uptake and excretion of model substrates, [(3)H]taurocholate (TC), [(3)H]estradiol 17-beta-glucuronide (E217G), and nitrofurantoin (NF), were investigated in rat and human suspended and sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). In suspended rat hepatocytes, S-sulfone and S-sulfide inhibited Na(+)-dependent TC initial uptake (IC(50) of 24.9 +/- 6.4 and 12.5 +/- 1.8 microM, respectively) and Na(+)-independent E217G initial uptake (IC(50) of 12.1 +/- 1.6 and 6.3 +/- 0.3 microM, respectively). In rat SCH, sulindac metabolites (100 microM) decreased the in vitro biliary clearance (Cl(biliary)) of TC, E217G, and NF by 38 to 83%, 81 to 97%, and 33 to 57%, respectively; S-sulfone and S-sulfide also decreased the TC and NF biliary excretion index by 39 to 55%. In suspended human hepatocytes, S-sulfone and S-sulfide inhibited Na(+)-dependent TC initial uptake (IC(50) of 42.2 and 3.1 microM, respectively); S-sulfide also inhibited the TC Cl(biliary) in human SCH. Sulindac/metabolites markedly inhibited hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of E217G by 51 to 100% in human SCH. In conclusion, sulindac and metabolites are potent inhibitors of the uptake and biliary clearance of bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and also inhibit substrates of rat breast cancer resistance protein, rat and human organic anion-transporting polypeptides, and human multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Inhibition of multiple hepatic transport proteins by sulindac/metabolites may play an important role in clinically significant sulindac-mediated drug-drug interactions and/or liver injury.

  5. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated protection against bile acid-induced apoptosis in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Webster, C R; Anwer, M S

    1998-05-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to modulate apoptosis. To evaluate the role of cAMP in bile acid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we studied the effect of agents that increase cAMP on the induction of apoptosis by glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) in cultured rat hepatocytes. GCDC induced apoptosis in 26.5%+/-1.1% of hepatocytes within 2 hours. Twenty-minute pretreatment of hepatocytes with 100 micromol/L 8-(4-chlorothiophenyl) cAMP (CP-cAMP) resulted in a reduction in the amount of apoptosis to 35.2%+/-3.8% of that seen in hepatocytes treated with GCDC alone. Other agents that increase intracellular cAMP, including dibutyryl cAMP (100 micromol/L), glucagon (200 nmol/L), and a combination of forskolin (20 micromol/L) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (20 micromol/L), also inhibited GCDC-induced apoptosis to a similar extent. Pretreatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720, prevented the protective effect of CP-cAMP and inhibited CP-cAMP-induced activation of PKA activity. Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), wortmannin (50 nmol/L), or Ly 294002 (20 micromol/L) also prevented the cytoprotective effect of cAMP. PI3K assays confirmed that wortmannin (50 nmol/L) inhibited PI3K activity, while CP-cAMP had no effect on the activity of this lipid kinase. GCDC increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, but had no effect on stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activity in hepatocytes. cAMP decreased basal and GCDC-induced MAPK activity and increased SAPK activity. The MAPK kinase inhibitor, PD 98059, inhibited both GCDC-mediated MAPK activation and GCDC-induced apoptosis. 1) agents that increase intracellular cAMP protect against hepatocyte apoptosis induced by hydrophobic bile acids; 2) activation of MAPK by GCDC may be involved in bile acid-induced apoptosis; and 3) cAMP-mediated cytoprotection against bile acid-induced apoptosis appears to involve PKA, MAPK, and PI3K.

  6. Hemodynamic flow improves rat hepatocyte morphology, function, and metabolic activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Simmers, M. B.; Deering, T. G.; Berry, D. J.; Feaver, R. E.; Hastings, N. E.; Pruett, T. L.; LeCluyse, E. L.; Blackman, B. R.; Wamhoff, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro primary hepatocyte systems typically elicit drug induction and toxicity responses at concentrations much higher than corresponding in vivo or clinical plasma Cmax levels, contributing to poor in vitro-in vivo correlations. This may be partly due to the absence of physiological parameters that maintain metabolic phenotype in vivo. We hypothesized that restoring hemodynamics and media transport would improve hepatocyte architecture and metabolic function in vitro compared with nonflow cultures. Rat hepatocytes were cultured for 2 wk either in nonflow collagen gel sandwiches with 48-h media changes or under controlled hemodynamics mimicking sinusoidal circulation within a perfused Transwell device. Phenotypic, functional, and metabolic parameters were assessed at multiple times. Hepatocytes in the devices exhibited polarized morphology, retention of differentiation markers [E-cadherin and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α)], the canalicular transporter [multidrug-resistant protein-2 (Mrp-2)], and significantly higher levels of liver function compared with nonflow cultures over 2 wk (albumin ∼4-fold and urea ∼5-fold). Gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was significantly higher (fold increase over nonflow: CYP1A1: 53.5 ± 10.3; CYP1A2: 64.0 ± 15.1; CYP2B1: 15.2 ± 2.9; CYP2B2: 2.7 ± 0.8; CYP3A2: 4.0 ± 1.4) and translated to significantly higher basal enzyme activity (device vs. nonflow: CYP1A: 6.26 ± 2.41 vs. 0.42 ± 0.015; CYP1B: 3.47 ± 1.66 vs. 0.4 ± 0.09; CYP3A: 11.65 ± 4.70 vs. 2.43 ± 0.56) while retaining inducibility by 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone (fold increase over DMSO: CYP1A = 27.33 and CYP3A = 4.94). These responses were observed at concentrations closer to plasma levels documented in vivo in rats. The retention of in vivo-like hepatocyte phenotype and metabolic function coupled with drug response at more physiological concentrations emphasizes the importance of restoring in vivo physiological transport

  7. Repeated transplantation of hepatocytes prevents fulminant hepatitis in a rat model of Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Vanessa; Siaj, Ramsi; Stöppeler, Sandra; Bahde, Ralf; Spiegel, Hans-Ullrich; Köhler, Gabriele; Zibert, Andree; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2012-02-01

    The outcome of consecutive hepatocyte transplants was explored in a rat model of Wilson's disease before the onset of fulminant hepatitis without preconditioning regimens. Rats received a high-copper diet in order to induce a rapid induction of liver failure. Sham-operated rats (15/15) developed jaundice and fulminant hepatitis, and they died within 4 weeks of first transplantation. Despite the continuation of a high dietary copper challenge, long-term survival was observed for a notable proportion of the transplanted animals (7/18). All survivors displayed normalized levels of hepatitis-associated serum markers and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity by posttransplant days 50 and 98, respectively. The liver copper concentrations, the liver histology, and the expression of marker genes were significantly restored within 4 months of transplantation in comparison with the control group. The high expression of a copper transporter gene (ATPase Cu++ transporting beta polypeptide) in the livers of the survivors indicated a high rate of repopulation by donor hepatocytes. Our data suggest that repeated cell transplantation can overcome the limitations of a single therapy session in rats with severe hepatic disease by functionally restoring the host liver without preconditioning.

  8. Construction of the Database of Rat Repeated-dose Toxicity Tests of Pesticides for the Toxicological Characterization of Hepatocyte Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akane; Masuda, Miyabi; Kawano, Takuya; Kitsunai, Yoko; Nakayama, Haruka; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Uramaru, Naoto; Hosaka, Takuomi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2017-01-01

     Liver and hepatocyte hypertrophy can be induced by exposure to chemical compounds, but the mechanisms and toxicological characteristics of these phenomena have not yet been investigated extensively. In particular, it remains unclear whether the hepatocyte hypertrophy induced by chemical compounds should be judged as an adaptive response or an adverse effect. Thus, understanding of the toxicological characteristics of hepatocyte hypertrophy is of great importance to the safety evaluation of pesticides and other chemical compounds. To this end, we have constructed a database of potentially toxic pesticides. Using risk assessment reports of pesticides that are publicly available from the Food Safety Commission of Japan, we extracted all observations/findings that were based on 90-day subacute toxicity tests and 2-year chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests in rats. Analysis of the database revealed that hepatocyte hypertrophy was observed for 37-47% of the pesticides investigated (varying depending on sex and testing period), and that centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy was the most frequent among the various types of hepatocyte hypertrophy in both the 90-day and 2-year studies. The database constructed in this study enables us to investigate the relationships between hepatocyte hypertrophy and other toxicological observations/findings, and thus will be useful for characterizing hepatocyte hypertrophy.

  9. Protectivity of blue honeysuckle extract against oxidative human endothelial cells and rat hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Palíková, Irena; Valentová, Katerina; Oborná, Ivana; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2009-08-12

    The effect of Lonicera caerulea L. (blue honeysuckle) phenolic fraction (18.5% anthocyanins) on cell viability and against oxidative damage in low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), in rat microsomes and in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), was tested. The phenolic fraction was nontoxic to rat hepatocytes and HUVEC at tested concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) and time intervals up to 24 h inclusive. Phenolic fraction inhibited rat liver microsome peroxidation, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH), with IC(50) values of 160 +/- 20 microg/mL. The fraction at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL delayed LDL oxidation, induced by Cu(2+), by 130 +/- 20%, 200 +/- 30%, and 400 +/- 10%, respectively. The treatment of HUVEC with oxidatively modified LDL induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, and resulted in lower formazan formation from 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) uptake, most pronounced for 200 microg/mL (24 h oxidation) after 2 h of incubation. The protective effect of the phenolic fraction against cell damage caused by oxLDL was noted at 0.1 microg/mL for HUVEC and against tBH at 1000 microg/mL for both HUVEC and hepatocytes. The observed protective effects were probably due to the antioxidant properties of L. caerulea constituents, mainly anthocyanins. Microsome peroxidation and LDL oxidation inhibition results provide promising perspectives into the prevention of some oxidative stress-associated diseases. Other data are important in in vitro systems but seem to be accidental in vivo.

  10. Efficient liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocyte prevents cirrhosis in a rat model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ludi; Shao, Yanjiao; Li, Lu; Tian, Feng; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Xie, Weifen; Zheng, Yunwen; Ji, Yuan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah). Fah-deficient mice and pigs are phenotypically analogous to human HT1, but do not recapitulate all the chronic features of the human disorder, especially liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Rats as an important model organism for biomedical research have many advantages over other animal models. Genome engineering in rats is limited till the availability of new gene editing technologies. Using the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technique, we generated Fah−/− rats. The Fah−/− rats faithfully represented major phenotypic and biochemical manifestations of human HT1, including hypertyrosinemia, liver failure, and renal tubular damage. More importantly, the Fah−/− rats developed remarkable liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which have not been observed in Fah mutant mice or pigs. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes rescued the Fah−/− rats from impending death. Moreover, the highly efficient repopulation of hepatocytes in Fah−/− livers prevented the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and in turn restored liver architecture. These results indicate that Fah−/− rats may be used as an animal model of HT1 with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, Fah−/− rats may be used as a tool in studying hepatocyte transplantation and a bioreactor for the expansion of hepatocytes. PMID:27510266

  11. Investigations on the in vitro metabolism of five synthetic 19-norprogestins using hepatocyte suspensions isolated from five laboratory animal species.

    PubMed

    Qi-Gui, L; Ming-Da, Z; Hümpel, M

    1991-01-01

    Five synthetic progestins of the 19-nortestosterone type (norethisterone, NET; levonorgestrel, LN; gestodene, GEST; NET-3-oxime, NETO; norgestimate, NGM) were investigated in the in vitro hepatocyte model. Radiolabelled progestins were added to hepatocyte suspensions (3 x 10(6) cells/ml) freshly prepared from female rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog (beagle) and cynomolgus monkey. Drug level decreases (NET, LN, GEST) and prodrug conversions (NETO, NGM) were followed by radiochromatography (HPLC) for 60 min. In the case of NET and NETO the conversion into ethinyl estradiol (EE2) was quantified by RIA after HPLC separation. Half-lives of drug level decreases (t1/2), areas under the curves (AUC) and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were estimated for all progestins. For NETO and NGM the percentages of conversion into NET and LN were calculated, respectively, and levels of EE2 determined in the case of NET and NETO. Rat hepatocytes showed an extremely high metabolic activity towards NET, LN and GEST resulting in t1/2 values of below 2 min. Respective values for rabbit hepatocytes ranged from 5-8 min, whereas half-lives calculated for liver cells from guinea pig, dog and monkey were generally above 30 min. A drastic increase in t1/2 was found for NETO (as compared to NET) in hepatocytes from rat, rabbit and monkey but not from guinea pig. Dog hepatocytes degraded NETO about 3 times more rapidly than NET. NGM was degraded much faster than LN in hepatocytes from all species except the rat. Liver cells from guinea pig and dog seem to be able to metabolize the 3-oxime group much more rapidly than hepatocytes from the other animal species. The lowest degree of prodrug conversion of 4% was observed for NGM and dog hepatocytes. Elevated EE2 levels were found in all experiments with NET and NETO. Results of NET, LN and GEST were compared with published in vivo experiments. No correlations were found for t1/2, MCR, and AUC.

  12. Inhibition of prostaglandin D2 clearance in rat hepatocytes by the thromboxane receptor antagonists daltroban and ifetroban and the thromboxane synthase inhibitor furegrelate.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Sabine; Nath, Annegret; Jungermann, Kurt; Schieferdecker, Henrike L

    2003-08-15

    Prostanoids, i.e. prostaglandins and thromboxane, regulate liver-specific functions both in homeostasis and during defense reactions. For example, prostanoids are released from Kupffer cells, the resident liver macrophages, in response to the inflammatory mediator anaphylatoxin C5a, and mediate an enhanced glucose output from hepatocytes as energy supply. In perfused rat livers, the thromboxane receptor antagonist daltroban enhanced C5a-induced prostanoid overflow and reduced glucose output. It was the aim of this study to elucidate whether daltroban interfered with prostanoid release from Kupffer cells or prostanoid clearance by hepatocytes, and/or whether it directly influenced prostanoid-dependent glucose metabolism in these cells. In perfused rat livers, daltroban enhanced prostaglandin (PG)D(2) overflow not only after infusion of C5a (15-fold), but also after PGD(2) (10-fold). Neither daltroban nor another receptor antagonist, ifetroban, or the thromboxane synthase inhibitor furegrelate enhanced prostanoid release from Kupffer cells. In contrast, all inhibitors reduced clearance, i.e. uptake and degradation, of PGD(2) by hepatocytes: within 5 min uptake of 1 nmol/L PGD(2) was reduced from 43+/-5 fmol (controls) to 22+/-6 fmol (daltroban), 24+/-6 fmol (ifetroban) and 21+/-6 fmol (furegrelate). PGD(2) in the medium was reduced to 39+/-7% in the controls, but remained at 93+/-9%, 93+/-11% and 60+/-3% in the presence of the inhibitors. PGD(2)-dependent glucose output in the perfused liver or activation of glycogen phosphorylase in isolated hepatocytes remained unaffected by daltroban. These data clearly demonstrate that the thromboxane-inhibitors reduced PGD(2) clearance by hepatocytes, presumably by inhibition of prostanoid transport into the cells. In contrast, they did not interfere with PGD(2)-dependent glucose metabolism, suggesting an independent mechanism for the inhibition of glucose output from the liver.

  13. Antioxidant activity of extract and its major constituents from okra seed on rat hepatocytes injured by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianmei; Yu, Wenlan; Li, Ying; Prasad, Nagendra; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 → 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.

  14. Recombinant human augmenter of liver regeneration protects hepatocyte mitochondrial DNA in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun; Lin, Heng; Wu, Qiao; Zhang, Yujun; Bie, Ping; Yang, Juntao

    2015-06-01

    Hepatocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is an important cause of mitochondrial and hepatic function impairment in obstructive jaundice (OJ). This study investigated the protective effect of recombinant human augmenter of liver regeneration (rhALR) on hepatocyte mtDNA in rats with OJ. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: sham-operation, biliary obstruction and recanalization with rhALR treatment (BDO-RBF-rhALR), and BDO-RBF-Vehicle (n = 48 per group). After biliary obstruction, rats were intraperitoneally injected with 40 μg/kg rhALR in BDO-RBF-rhALR group and same volume of normal saline in other two groups once every 12 h, until sacrifice. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) expression in hepatocytes were detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Hepatocyte mtDNA damage was evaluated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. Mitochondrial and hepatic functions were also assessed. After biliary obstruction, hepatic function was clearly impaired, as shown by the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin levels, and the decrease in albumin level. Mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, phosphorus oxygen ratio, and ATP levels (all indicators of mitochondrial function) were decreased. The relative amount of total mtDNA, mtTFA, and NRF-1 expression in rat liver tissues were decreased, whereas the relative amount of deleted mtDNA was increased. However, the damage was significantly improved in the BDO-RBF-rhALR group. After recanalization, these changes were gradually restored, but the recovery was faster in the BDO-RBF-rhALR group than in BDO-RBF-Vehicle group. rhALR may protect and improve mitochondrial and hepatic functions in rats with OJ by promoting the expression of mtTFA and NRF-1 and by protecting and repairing damaged mtDNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging and compartmental modelling to assess hepatocyte bidirectional transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Céline; Leporq, Benjamin; Doblas, Sabrina; Lagadec, Matthieu; Pastor, Catherine M; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E

    2017-05-01

    Changes in the expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters in advanced fibrosis decrease the hepatic transport function of organic anions. The aim of our study was to assess if these changes can be evaluated with pharmacokinetic analysis of the hepatobiliary transport of the MR contrast agent gadoxetate. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI was performed in 17 rats with advanced fibrosis and 8 normal rats. After deconvolution, hepatocyte three-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the hepatocyte influx, biliary efflux and sinusoidal backflux rates. The expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp2 and Mrp3 organic anion membrane transporters was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the rats with advanced fibrosis, the influx and efflux rates of gadoxetate decreased and the backflux rate increased significantly (p = 0.003, 0.041 and 0.010, respectively). Significant correlations were found between influx and Oatp1a1 expression (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), biliary efflux and Mrp2 (r = 0.50, p = 0.016) and sinusoidal backflux and Mrp3 (r = 0.61, p = 0.002). These results show that changes in the bidirectional organic anion hepatocyte transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. • Expression of hepatocyte transporters is modified in rats with advanced liver fibrosis. • Kinetic parameters at gadoxetate-enhanced MRI are correlated with hepatocyte transporter expression. • Hepatocyte transport function can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. • Compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI might provide biomarkers in advanced liver fibrosis.

  16. Induction of fatty acid synthesis by pravastatin sodium in rat liver and primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, T; Tsujita, Y; Shimotsu, H

    1997-06-11

    We examined the effect of pravastatin sodium (pravastatin), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, on fatty acid synthesis in rat liver. The repeated administration of pravastatin to rats at 250 mg/kg for 7 days led to a 2.8-fold increase in fatty acid synthesis in the liver. The diurnal change of fatty acid synthesis was not affected by the treatment. Hepatic fatty acid synthase activity was increased 3.2-fold, while acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was not changed by the repeated administration of pravastatin. In rat hepatocytes, the incubation with 2 microg/ml pravastatin for 24 h increased fatty acid synthase activity 1.5-fold, as well as HMG-CoA reductase activity 2.8-fold. These results suggest that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors might increase fatty acid synthesis in vivo through the induction of hepatic fatty acid synthase.

  17. Cytoprotection by iloprost against paracetamol-induced toxicity in hamster isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Sina, P.; Fawthrop, D. J.; Wilson, J.; Boobis, A. R.; Davies, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    1 The ability of iloprost (ZK36374) to protect hamster isolated hepatocytes from the toxic effects of paracetamol and its reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NABQI) was investigated. The cytoprotection provided by iloprost was compared with that of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. 2 Treatment of hepatocytes with either NABQI (0.4 mM) or paracetamol (2 mM) alone resulted in a considerable loss of cell viability, as assessed by trypan blue exclusion or leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, accompanied by an increase in the percentage of viable cells that were blebbed. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (1.25 mM) pretreatment diminished the loss of cell viability and the percentage of blebbed cells resulting from exposure to NABQI or paracetamol, whereas iloprost (10(-16) M to 10(-10) M) pretreatment reduced only the loss of cell viability, not the percentage of viable cells exhibiting blebbing. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly attenuated the depletion by paracetamol of glutathione and decreased the covalent binding of [14C]-paracetamol to cellular proteins, whereas iloprost was without any such effects. 3 The effects of iloprost and N-acetyl-L-cysteine were also investigated by use of a model of paracetamol toxicity in which it is possible to study the biochemical events leading to cell injury separate from the generation of toxic metabolites. Hamster hepatocytes were incubated with paracetamol (4 mM) for 90 min at 37 degrees C during which metabolism of paracetamol occurs with minimal loss of cell viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1373102

  18. 10-(6'-Plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) Does Not Increase the Level of Cytochromes P450 in Rat Liver and Human Hepatocyte Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, K N; Silachev, D N; Petrov, A D

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 did not increase the content of cytochromes P450 in livers of rats that were given SkQ1 in drinking water for 5 days in a dose (2.5 µmol per kg body weight) that exceeded 10 times the SkQ1 therapeutic dose. SkQ1 did not affect the levels of cytochrome P450 forms CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in monolayer cultures of freshly isolated human hepatocytes, while specific inducers of these forms (omeprazole, phenobarbital, and rifampicin, respectively) significantly increased expression of the cytochromes P450 under the same conditions. We conclude that therapeutic doses of SkQ1 do not induce cytochromes P450 in liver, and the absence of the inducing effect cannot be explained by poor availability of hepatocytes to SkQ1 in vivo.

  19. Reduced expression of mature TGF beta 1 correlates with the suppression of rat hepatocyte apoptosis by the peroxisome proliferator, nafenopin.

    PubMed

    Strange, J; Roberts, R A

    1996-11-11

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens cause cancer without damaging the DNA. Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are a class of potent rodent non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that may act by perturbing hepatocyte growth regulation. Previously, we have shown that although cultured rat hepatocytes degenerate rapidly in culture, their survival can be reversibly maintained by the PP nafenopin. This prolonged survival is associated with a decrease in the number of hepatocytes displaying the chromatin condensation characteristic of apoptosis. The addition of the negative growth regulator TGF beta-1 induced high levels of hepatocyte apoptosis but nafenopin was able to suppress this TGF beta-1 induced apoptosis. These data suggested that increased levels of mature TGF beta-1 may be involved in the signalling of the apoptosis seen in degenerating hepatocyte cultures. To test this hypothesis, we carried out Western blot analyses using a anti-TGF beta 1 antibody. There was an increase (p = 0.014) in expression of mature TGF beta 1 in degenerating rat hepatocyte cultures compared with hepatocyte cultures surviving in the presence of nafenopin. However, there was a concomitant decrease (p = 0.024) in TGF beta 1-latency activated protein (TGF beta 1-LAP), the precursor of the active, mature form. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that TGF beta 1/TGF beta 1-LAP expression was predominantly in the hepatocytes displaying apoptotic morphology although expression was detected also in non-parenchymal liver cells. The immunocytochemistry data indicate that TGF beta 1 is involved during the onset of hepatocyte apoptosis and that the PP nafenopin can impinge on this cell death pathway. TGF beta 1-LAP, probably produced mainly by the non-parenchymal liver cells, may be processed less efficiently to the mature, active form in the presence of nafenopin, although more data are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Arsenite decreases CYP3A23 induction in cultured rat hepatocytes by transcriptional and translational mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Noreault, Trisha L.; Nichols, Ralph C.; Trask, Heidi W.; Wrighton, Steven A.; Sinclair, Peter R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F. . E-mail: JSINC@dartmouth.edu

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring, worldwide contaminant implicated in numerous pathological conditions in humans, including cancer and several forms of liver disease. One of the contributing factors to these disorders may be the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels by arsenic. In rat and human hepatocyte cultures, arsenic, in the form of arsenite, decreases the induction of several CYPs. The present study investigated whether arsenite utilizes transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms to decrease CYP3A23 in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In these cultures, a 6-h treatment with 5 {mu}M arsenite abolished dexamethasone (DEX)-mediated induction of CYP3A23 protein and activity, but did not inhibit general protein synthesis. However, arsenite treatment only reduced DEX-induced levels of CYP3A23 mRNA by 30%. The effects of arsenite on CYP3A23 transcription were examined using a luciferase reporter construct containing 1.4 kb of the CYP3A23 promoter. Arsenite caused a 30% decrease in DEX-induced luciferase expression of this reporter. Since arsenite abolished induction of CYP3A23 protein, but caused only a small decrease in CYP3A23 mRNA, the effects of arsenite on translation of CYP3A23 mRNA were investigated. Polysomal distribution analysis showed that arsenite decreased translation by decreasing the DEX-mediated increase in CYP3A23 mRNA association with polyribosomes. Arsenite did not decrease intracellular glutathione or increase lipid peroxidation, suggesting that the effect of arsenite on CYP3A23 does not involve oxidative stress. Overall, the results suggest that low-level arsenite decreases both transcription and translation of CYP3A23 in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

  1. Bioactivation and toxicity of acetaminophen in a rat hepatocyte micropatterned coculture system.

    PubMed

    Ukairo, Okechukwu; McVay, Michael; Krzyzewski, Stacy; Aoyama, Simon; Rose, Kelly; Andersen, Melvin E; Khetani, Salman R; Lecluyse, Edward L

    2013-10-01

    We have recently shown that primary rat hepatocytes organized in micropatterned cocultures with murine embryonic fibroblasts (HepatoPac™) maintain high levels of liver functions for at least 4 weeks. In this study, rat HepatoPac was assessed for its utility to study chemical bioactivation and associated hepatocellular toxicity. Treatment of HepatoPac cultures with acetaminophen (APAP) over a range of concentrations (0-15 mM) was initiated at 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks followed by the assessment of morphological and functional endpoints. Consistent and reproducible concentration-dependent effects on hepatocyte structure, viability, and basic functions were observed over the 4-week period, and were exacerbated by depleting glutathione using buthionine sulfoximine or inducing CYP3A using dexamethasone, presumably due to increased reactive metabolite-induced stress and adduct formation. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that rat HepatoPac represents a structurally and functionally stable hepatic model system to assess the long-term effects of bioactivated compounds.

  2. Expression of rat class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alloantigens and hepatocytes and hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.M.; Desai, P.A.; Chakraborty, S.

    1986-03-05

    Altered expression of Class I MHC alloantigens has been reported for murine tumors, and may be associated with the tumorigenic phenotype of tumor cells. To characterize MHC Class I alloantigen expression on a chemically-induced transplantable rat hepatoma cell line, 17X, derived from a (WF x F344) F/sub 1/ rat, polyvalent anti-F344 and anti-WF rat alloantisera were first used to immunoprecipitate the rat RT1.A Class I MHC alloantigens expressed on primary (WF x F344) F/sub 1/ hepatocyptes in short-term monolayer cultures. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE of immunoprecipitates from /sup 35/S-methionine-labeled (WF x F344) F/sub 1/ hepatocytes clearly resolved the RT1.A/sup u/ (WF) and RT1.A/sup LvI/ (F344) parental alloantigens. Identical radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation failed to detect either parental alloantigen on the 17X hepatoma cells. However, indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses demonstrated the presence of parental alloantigens on the 17X cells. Immunization of F344 rats but not of WF rats with 17X cells resulted in antibodies cytotoxic for normal (WF X F344) F/sub 1/ spleen cells in the presence of complement. These findings indicate that a combination of detection techniques will be necessary to characterize altered alloantigen expression on rat hepatoma cells.

  3. Glycyrrhizic acid modulates t-BHP induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, M; Singh, B K; Kakkar, P

    2009-02-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is the main bioactive ingredient of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). The object of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of GA on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative injury leading to apoptosis in cultured primary rat hepatocytes. Throughout the study silymarin was used as positive control. Molecular mechanisms involved in apoptotic pathways induced in hepatocytes by t-BHP at 250 microM were explored in detail. DNA fragmentation, activation of caspases and cytochrome c release were demonstrated. In addition, changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation were detected confirming involvement of mitochondrial pathway. Pre-treatment with GA (4 microg) protected the hepatocytes against t-BHP induced oxidative injury and the results were comparable to the pre-treatment with positive control, i.e. silymarin. The protective potential against cell death was achieved mainly by preventing intracellular GSH depletion, decrease in ROS formation as well as inhibition of mitochondrial membrane depolarization. GA was found to modulate critical end points of oxidative stress induced apoptosis and could be beneficial against liver diseases where oxidative stress is known to play a crucial role.

  4. Increases of intracellular magnesium promote glycodeoxycholate-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, T; Bronk, S F; Gores, G J

    1994-01-01

    Retention of bile salts by the hepatocyte contributes to liver injury during cholestasis. Although cell injury can occur by one of two mechanisms, necrosis versus apoptosis, information is lacking regarding apoptosis as a mechanism of cell death by bile salts. Our aim was to determine if the bile salt glycodeoxycholate (GDC) induces apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. Morphologic assessment included electron microscopy and quantitation of nuclear fragmentation by fluorescent microscopy. Biochemical studies included measurements of DNA fragmentation, in vitro endonuclease activity, cytosolic free Ca2+ (Cai2+), and cytosolic free Mg2+ (Mgi2+). Morphologic studies demonstrated typical features of apoptosis in GDC (50 microM) treated cells. The "ladder pattern" of DNA fragmentation was also present in DNA obtained from GDC-treated cells. In vitro endonuclease activity was 2.5-fold greater with Mg2+ than Ca2+. Although basal Cai2+ values did not change after addition of GDC, Mgi2+ increased twofold. Incubation of cells in an Mg(2+)-free medium prevented the rise in Mgi2+ and reduced nuclear and DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, GDC induces apoptosis in hepatocytes by a mechanism promoted by increases of Mgi2+ with stimulation of Mg(2+)-dependent endonucleases. These data suggest for the first time that changes of Mgi2+ may participate in the program of cellular events culminating in apoptosis. Images PMID:7989573

  5. Morphology and albumin secretion of adult rat hepatocytes cultured on a hydrophobic porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Yuminamochi, Eri; Yasuda, Ruri; Amano, Yoshifumi

    2003-01-01

    Primary culture of rat hepatocytes was performed on a hydrophobic porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane incorporated into the base of a culture dish. Two types of ePTFE membranes, a uniaxially expanded type (ePTFE-1) and a biaxially expanded type (ePTFE-2), could be used as the culture surfaces for hepatocytes. The formation of multicellular aggregates was observed in the culture dish when each membrane type was used. A pore size of 1 mum or higher was adequate for cell adhesion and albumin secretion for both membrane types. The activity of albumin secretion in the dish with the ePTFE membrane was markedly higher than that in the polystyrene dish. Spheroidal multicellular aggregates (spheroids) were observed when hepatocytes were cultured on the ePTFE-1 membrane. The ePTFE-1 membrane maintained the albumin secretion activity for a longer period than the non-expanded PTFE film. It was assumed that the cooperative action of membrane structure and oxygen permeability promoted the formation of cell aggregates and increased the albumin secretion activity.

  6. Administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin to rat increases liver mass and hepatocyte volume in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, D; Brosnan, J T

    1996-01-01

    We have established, in vivo, an increase in liver mass and hepatocyte volume after a single intraperitoneal administration, to fasted rats, of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (0127:B8) at 3 mg/kg. The phenomenon was time- and dose-dependent and could be prevented by treatment with polyclonal antiserum against tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) before the endotoxin injection. Endotoxin caused an increase of 26% in the hepatic mass compared with fasted controls at 24 h. An increase of 27% in the hepatic water content underlay the altered hepatic mass which could not be accounted for by a change in the volume of hepatic blood and/or interstitial fluid (measured in vivo), suggesting an expansion in the hepatocellular volume. This is supported by an increase of 25% in the K+ content of the endotoxic livers. Morphometric study confirmed a 15% increase in hepatocyte volume after endotoxin administration. The data are discussed in the light of possible metabolic effects of increased hepatocyte volume. PMID:8573081

  7. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor SKF-525A disrupts autophagy in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Yang, Xi; Shi, Qiang

    2016-08-05

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor SKF-525A is commonly used to study drug metabolism and toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity. By using Western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we unexpectedly found that SKF-525A at 2-20 μM caused remarkable accumulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II (LC3-II) in primary rat hepatocytes at 1, 4 and 24 h, indicating that autophagy was disrupted. SKF-525A showed no effects on chloroquine induced LC3-II accumulation, suggesting that autophagic flux was blocked, which is further supported by the increased level of the p62 protein after SKF-525A treatment. SKF-525A did not affect proteasome activities or gene expression of LC3-II or p62. Immunofluorescence of green fluorescent protein fused lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1, a specific protein marker for lysosomes) and LC3-II showed that co-localization of these two proteins was partially abolished by SKF-525A, indicating that autophagosome-lysosome fusion was blocked. The other five CYP inhibitors, metyrapone, 1-aminobenzotriazole, alpha-naphthoflavone, ticlopidine, and ketoconazole, showed no effects in parallel experiments. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which various CYP inhibitors differentially affect a same drug's toxicity in hepatocytes. The data also indicate that SKF-525A is not an ideal chemical inhibitor for probing the relation between CYP mediated metabolism and toxicity in primary hepatocytes.

  8. Carbon Tetrachloride at Hepatotoxic Levels Blocks Reversibly Gap Junctions between Rat Hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, J. C.; Bennett, M. V. L.; Spray, D. C.

    1987-05-01

    Electrical coupling and dye coupling between pairs of rat hepatocytes were reversibly reduced by brief exposure to halogenated methanes (CBrCl3, CCl4, and CHCl3). The potency of different halomethanes in uncoupling hepatocytes was comparable to their hepatotoxicity in vivo, and the rank order was the same as that of their tendency to form free radicals. The effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on hepatocytes was substantially reduced by prior treatment with SKF 525A, an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450, and by exposure to the reducing reagent β -mercaptoethanol. Halomethane uncoupling occurred with or without extracellular calcium and did not change intracellular concentrations of calcium and hydrogen ions or the phosphorylation state of the main gap-junctional protein. Thus the uncoupling appears to depend on cytochrome P-450 oxidative metabolism in which free radicals are generated and may result from oxidation of the gap-junctional protein or of a regulatory molecule that leads to closure of gap-junctional channels. Decreases in junctional conductance may be a rapid cellular response to injury that protects healthy cells by uncoupling them from unhealthy ones.

  9. Rapid and random turnover of mitochondrial DNA in rat hepatocytes of primary culture.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yoichiro; Takamatsu, Chihiro; Tokuda, Kentaro; Okamoto, Mayumi; Irita, Kazuo; Takahashi, Shosuke

    2006-12-01

    It is known that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication is independent of the cell cycle. Even in post-mitotic cells in which nuclear DNA replication has ceased, mtDNA is believed to still be replicating. Here, we investigated the turnover rate of mtDNA in primary rat hepatocytes, which are quiescent cells. Southwestern blot analysis using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was employed to estimate the activity of full-length mtDNA replication and to determine efficient doses of replication inhibitors. Southern blot analysis showed that a two-day treatment with 20mM 2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 0.2mug/ml ethidium bromide caused a 37% reduction in the amount of mtDNA, indicating that the hepatocytes had a considerably high rate of turnover of mtDNA. Further, pulse-chase analysis using Southwestern analysis showed that the amount of newly synthesized mtDNA labeled with BrdU declined to 60% of the basal level within two days. Because the rate of reduction of the new mtDNA was very similar to the overall turnover rate described above, it appears that degrading mtDNA molecules were randomly chosen. Thus, we demonstrated that there is highly active and random turnover of mtDNA in hepatocytes.

  10. Trichostatin A, a critical factor in maintaining the functional differentiation of primary cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Henkens, Tom . E-mail: Tom.Henkens@vub.ac.be; Papeleu, Peggy; Elaut, Greetje; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been shown to increase differentiation-related gene expression in several tumor-derived cell lines by hyperacetylating core histones. Effects of HDI on primary cultured cells, however, have hardly been investigated. In the present study, the ability of trichostatin A (TSA), a prototype hydroxamate HDI, to counteract the loss of liver-specific functions in primary rat hepatocyte cultures has been investigated. Upon exposure to TSA, it was found that the cell viability of the cultured hepatocytes and their albumin secretion as a function of culture time were increased. TSA-treated hepatocytes also better maintained cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated phase I biotransformation capacity, whereas the activity of phase II glutathione S-transferases (GST) was not affected. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis of CYP1A1, CYP2B1 and CYP3A11 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, further revealed that TSA acts at the transcriptional level. In addition, protein expression levels of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4{alpha}) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}) were accordingly increased by TSA throughout culture time. In conclusion, these findings indicate that TSA plays a major role in the preservation of the differentiated hepatic phenotype in culture. It is suggested that the effects of TSA on CYP gene expression are mediated via controlling the expression of LETFs.

  11. Acute effects of cadmium and selenium on glucose output from rat liver hepatocytes using various gluconeogenic precursors.

    PubMed

    Bell, R R; Soliman, M R; Early, J L

    1990-12-17

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-310 g) fasted for 24 h were injected i.p. with either sodium acetate (C2H3NaO2; 1.23 mg/kg, 15 mumol/kg), cadmium acetate (C4H6CdO4; 0.84 mg/kg, 3.6 mumol/kg), sodium selenite (Na2SeO3; 1.6 mg/kg, 9.2 mumol/kg) or cadmium acetate (0.84 mg/kg, 3.6 mumol/kg) and sodium selenite (1.6 mg/kg, 9.2 mumol/kg) simultaneously. Rats were sacrificed 180 min post-treatment and hepatocytes were isolated. An average of 85% cell viability was achieved. Hepatocyte suspension (50 mg cell wt/ml, 1 ml/tube) was incubated for 180 min at 37 degrees/C with 10 mM of one of the following substrates: beta-D(-)fructose, glycerol, DL-alanine, L(+)lactic acid or pyruvic acid. Glucose concentration of the supernatant was measured by a colorimetric method. Cadmium decreased glucose output significantly (P less than 0.05), when lactic acid or alanine was used as substrate, but did significantly (P less than 0.05) increase the output when pyruvic acid, glycerol or fructose was used. Selenium alone significantly increased (P less than 0.05) hepatic glucose output only when fructose was used as substrate. Selenium and cadmium concurrently administered significantly increased (P less than 0.05) hepatic glucose output when pyruvic acid, glycerol or fructose was used as substrate as compared to sodium acetate (control), cadmium or selenium alone. These findings suggest that cadmium and selenium affect the hepatic gluconeogenic pathway and that their effects depend on the gluconeogenic precursor used.

  12. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Effects of T-2 Toxin on Rat Hepatocytes in Vitro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on rei’eree aide If necesseary end Identify by black number) CIsT-2 mycotoxin ...with several doses of T-2 mycotoxin W.for either I or 12-h and with or without a 12-lh recovery period. Inhibition of protein synthesis and release of...Fed. Proc. 42:1809, 1983), and by cultured rat hepatocytes (J. O’Brien et al., Fed. Proc. 44, 1038, 1985). In vitro effects of the mycotoxin , fusarenon

  13. Effect of L-carnitine on glycogen synthesis and ATP production in cultured hepatocytes of the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Nishida, N; Sugimoto, T; Takeuchi, T; Kobayashi, Y

    1989-11-01

    Changes in intracellular carnitine, ATP and glycogen concentration were studied when hepatocytes of newborn or adult rats were incubated with oleate, lactate and/or carnitine. Hepatocytes of adult rats appeared to be able to maintain cellular carnitine concentration without exogenous carnitine supplementation. Hepatocytes of newborn rats appeared to be unable to maintain cellular carnitine concentration without carnitine supplementation. Moreover, ATP concentration and glycogen concentration were significantly increased by the carnitine supplement with oleate and/or lactate compared to the unsupplemented group. Increases in both intracellular ATP and carnitine concentration depended on the concentration of carnitine added to the medium. These results suggest that carnitine may be an important factor in glycogen synthesis and ATP production of newborn infants.

  14. L-Methionine Toxicity in Freshly-Isolated Mouse Hepatocytes is Gender-Dependent and Mediated in Part by Transamination

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2008-01-01

    L-methionine (Met) has been implicated in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in infants and, at high levels, causes liver toxicity by mechanisms that are not clear. In this study, Met toxicity was characterized in freshly-isolated male and female mouse hepatocytes incubated with 5-30 mM Met for 0 to 5 h. In male hepatocytes, 20 mM Met was cytotoxic at 4 h as indicated by trypan blue exclusion and LDH leakage assays. Cytotoxicity was preceded by GSH depletion at 3 h without GSSG formation. Exposure to 30 mM Met resulted in increased cytotoxicity and GSH depletion. Interestingly, female hepatocytes were resistant to Met-induced cytotoxicity at these concentrations and showed increased cellular GSH levels compared to hepatocytes exposed to medium alone. The effects of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, and 3-deazaadenosine (3-DA), an inhibitor of the Met transmethylation pathway enzyme S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase on Met toxicity in male hepatocytes were then examined. Addition of 0.2 mM AOAA partially blocked Met-induced GSH depletion and cytotoxicity whereas 0.1 mM 3-DA potentiated Met-induced toxicity. Exposure of male hepatocytes to 0.3 mM 3-methylthiopropionic acid (3-MTP), a known Met transamination metabolite, resulted in cytotoxicity and cellular GSH depletion similar to that observed with 30 mM Met whereas incubations with D-methionine resulted in no toxicity. Female hepatocytes were less sensitive to 3-MTP toxicity than males which may partially explain their resistance to Met toxicity. Collectively, these results suggest that Met transamination and not transmethylation plays a major role in Met toxicity in male mouse hepatocytes. PMID:18552130

  15. L-methionine toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent and mediated in part by transamination.

    PubMed

    Dever, Joseph T; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2008-09-01

    L-methionine (Met) has been implicated in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in infants and, at high levels, it causes liver toxicity by mechanisms that are not clear. In this study, Met toxicity was characterized in freshly isolated male and female mouse hepatocytes incubated with 5 to 30 mM Met for 0 to 5 h. In male hepatocytes, 20 mM Met was cytotoxic at 4 h as indicated by trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assays. Cytotoxicity was preceded by reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion at 3 h without glutathione disulfide formation. Exposure to 30 mM Met resulted in increased cytotoxicity and GSH depletion. It is interesting to note that female hepatocytes were resistant to Met-induced cytotoxicity at these concentrations and showed increased cellular GSH levels compared with hepatocytes exposed to medium alone. The effects of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, and 3-deazaadenosine (3-DA), an inhibitor of the Met transmethylation pathway enzyme S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, on Met toxicity in male hepatocytes were then examined. Addition of 0.2 mM AOAA partially blocked Met-induced GSH depletion and cytotoxicity, whereas 0.1 mM 3-DA potentiated Met-induced toxicity. Exposure of male hepatocytes to 0.3 mM 3-methylthiopropionic acid (3-MTP), a known Met transamination metabolite, resulted in cytotoxicity and cellular GSH depletion similar to that observed with 30 mM Met, whereas incubations with D-methionine resulted in no toxicity. Female hepatocytes were less sensitive to 3-MTP toxicity than males, which may partially explain their resistance to Met toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that Met transamination and not transmethylation plays a major role in Met toxicity in male mouse hepatocytes.

  16. Binding of concanavalin A to isolated hepatocytes and its effect on uptake and degradation of asialo-fetuin by the cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tolleshaug, H; Abdelnour, M; Berg, T

    1980-01-01

    1. The binding of 125I-labelled concanavalin A to isolated rat hepatocytes was studied at temperatures between 4 degrees C and 37 degrees C. At the latter temperature, concentrations of concanavalin A from 0.01 to 0.4 mg/ml were used. In all of these experiments, binding reached a plateau after 40--60 min, when 28--35% of the concanavalin A added was bound to the cells (cell density 8 x 10(6) cells/ml). 2. The rate of uptake of 125I-labelled asialo-fetuin by the hepatocytes was lowered to 30% of control values when the cells were preincubated with 0.1 mg of concanavalin A/ml. This decrease could be accounted for by a decrease in the rate of binding of asialo-fetuin to the beta-galactoside receptor of the cells. The binding capacity of the cells was not influenced by preincubation with concanavalin A. 3. Degradation of asialo-fetuin was decreased only if concanavalin A was present during the uptake of asialo-fetuin by the cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that concanavalin A lowered the rate of entry of endocytosed asialo-fetuin into the lysosomes. The effect of concanavalin A on degradation is distinct from its effect on the rate of uptake of asialo-fetuin by hepatocytes. PMID:6162457

  17. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure differentially affects hepatocytes and liver haemopoietic cells in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zara, Susi; De Colli, Marianna; Di Valerio, Valentina; Rapino, Monica; Zaramella, Patrizia; Dedja, Arben; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele; Porzionato, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Premature newborns are frequently exposed to hyperoxic conditions and experimental data indicate modulation of liver metabolism by hyperoxia in the first postnatal period. Conversely, nothing is known about possible modulation of growth factors and signaling molecules involved in other hyperoxic responses and no data are available about the effects of hyperoxia in postnatal liver haematopoiesis. The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of hyperoxia in the liver tissue (hepatocytes and haemopoietic cells) and to investigate possible changes in the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α), endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB). Experimental design of the study involved exposure of newborn rats to room air (controls), 60% O2 (moderate hyperoxia), or 95% O2 (severe hyperoxia) for the first two postnatal weeks. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed. Severe hyperoxia increased hepatocyte apoptosis and MMP-9 expression and decreased VEGF expression. Reduced content in reticular fibers was found in moderate and severe hyperoxia. Some other changes were specifically produced in hepatocytes by moderate hyperoxia, i.e., upregulation of HIF-1α and downregulation of eNOS and NF-kB. Postnatal severe hyperoxia exposure increased liver haemopoiesis and upregulated the expression of VEGF (both moderate and severe hyperoxia) and eNOS (severe hyperoxia) in haemopoietic cells. In conclusion, our study showed different effects of hyperoxia on hepatocytes and haemopoietic cells and differential involvement of the above factors. The involvement of VEGF and eNOS in the liver haemopoietic response to hyperoxia may be hypothesized.

  18. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate involvement in hepatic triacylglyceride lipase release from prazosin-stimulated primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tetsuya; Morita, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    We recently found that hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) was released from primary cultured rat hepatocytes after treatment with prazosin, an antagonist of alpha-1 adrenoceptors. However, the details of prazosin-induced HTGL release remain uncertain. Here we investigated whether changes in cAMP levels in hepatocytes were related to HTGL release from prazosin-stimulated hepatocytes. When hepatocytes were treated with prazosin, cAMP levels during stimulated release of HTGL increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Stimulated release of HTGL was suppressed by the adenylate cyclase inhibitors MDL-12,330A and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine. Further, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity in prazosin-stimulated hepatocytes also increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, prazosin-stimulated HTGL release was suppressed by the PKA inhibitors H-89 and KT5720. These results suggest that prazosin-stimulated HTGL release from hepatocytes was due to cAMP production and partly due to subsequent PKA activation in hepatocytes.

  19. Endogenous bile acid disposition in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, Tracy L.; Perry, Cassandra H.; St Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2012-05-15

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR{sup ®} technology, BAs were measured in cells + bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells + bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.9 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 56 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.21 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na{sup +}-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. -- Highlights: ► Bile acids (BAs) were measured in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). ► Cell and medium BA

  20. [Effects of 18beta-glycyrrhizic acid and 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid on mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome P450 3A in cultured rat primary hepatocyte].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuguang; Yang, Minghui; Ma, Zengchun; Liang, Qiande; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Gao, Yue

    2009-02-01

    To study the effects of 18beta-glycyrrhizic acid and 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid on mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome P450 3A in cultured rat primary hepatocyte. Rat heaptocyte were isolated by two-step in situ collagenase perfusion method; the hepatocytes were seeded in dishes coated with type I rat tail collagen, culture medium was added and changed daily after gelation, the effect of 18beta-glycyrrhizic acid and 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid on the expression of CYP3A was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot respectively. Treatment with 18beta-glycyrrhizic acid of primary rat hepatocytes resulted in marked up-regulation of CYP3A1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in a concentration dependent manner, while exposure to 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid of primary rat hepatocytes resulted in marked down-regulation of CYP3A1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in a concentration dependent manmer. 18beta-glycyrrhizic acid and 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid up-regulate and down-regulate CYP3A1 expression at the transcriptive levels.

  1. DEPLETION OF CELLULAR PROTEIN THIOLS AS AN INDICATOR OF ARYLATION IN ISOLATED TROUT HEPATOCYTES EXPOSED TO 1,4-BENZOQUINONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the measurement of protein thiols (PrSH), un-reacted as well as oxidized, i.e. dithiothreitol recoverable, was adapted for the determination of PrSH depletion in isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to an arylating agent, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ). Toxicant analysi...

  2. Combining a Laboratory Practical Class with a Computer Simulation: Studies on the Synthesis of Urea in Isolated Hepatocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a computer simulation is used with a laboratory experiment on the synthesis of urea in isolated hepatocytes. The simulation calculates the amount of urea formed and the amount of ammonium remaining as the concentrations of ornithine, citrulline, argininosuccinate, arginine, and aspartate are altered. (JN)

  3. Combining a Laboratory Practical Class with a Computer Simulation: Studies on the Synthesis of Urea in Isolated Hepatocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a computer simulation is used with a laboratory experiment on the synthesis of urea in isolated hepatocytes. The simulation calculates the amount of urea formed and the amount of ammonium remaining as the concentrations of ornithine, citrulline, argininosuccinate, arginine, and aspartate are altered. (JN)

  4. The effect of dimethylsulfoxide on the water transport response of rat hepatocytes during freezing.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Schulte, M; Bischof, J C

    1998-10-01

    Successful improvement of cryopreservation protocols for cells in suspension requires knowledge of how such cells respond to the biophysical stresses of freezing (intracellular ice formation, water transport) while in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA). This work investigates the biophysical water transport response in a clinically important cell type--isolated hepatocytes--during freezing in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Sprague-Dawley rat liver hepatocytes were frozen in Williams E media supplemented with 0, 1, and 2 M DMSO, at rates of 5, 10, and 50 degrees C/min. The water transport was measured by cell volumetric changes as assessed by cryomicroscopy and image analysis. Assuming that water is the only species transported under these conditions, a water transport model of the form dV/dT = f(Lpg([CPA]), ELp([CPA]), T(t)) was curve-fit to the experimental data to obtain the biophysical parameters of water transport--the reference hydraulic permeability (Lpg) and activation energy of water transport (ELp)--for each DMSO concentration. These parameters were estimated two ways: (1) by curve-fitting the model to the average volume of the pooled cell data, and (2) by curve-fitting individual cell volume data and averaging the resulting parameters. The experimental data showed that less dehydration occurs during freezing at a given rate in the presence of DMSO at temperatures between 0 and -10 degrees C. However, dehydration was able to continue at lower temperatures (< -10 degrees C) in the presence of DMSO. The values of Lpg and ELp obtained using the individual cell volume data both decreased from their non-CPA values--4.33 x 10(-13) m3/N-s (2.69 microns/min-atm) and 317 kJ/mol (75.9 kcal/mol), respectively--to 0.873 x 10(-13) m3/N-s (0.542 micron/min-atm) and 137 kJ/mol (32.8 kcal/mol), respectively, in 1 M DMSO and 0.715 x 10(-13) m3/N-s (0.444 micron/min-atm) and 107 kJ/mol (25.7 kcal/mol), respectively, in 2 M DMSO. The trends in the pooled

  5. Effect of Culture Time on the Basal Expression Levels of Drug Transporters in Sandwich-Cultured Primary Rat HepatocytesS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Jessica S.; Uyeda, Craig; Grillo, Mark P.; Jin, Lixia

    2011-01-01

    Sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes are used in drug discovery for pharmacological and toxicological assessment of drug candidates, yet their utility as a functional model for drug transporters has not been fully characterized. To evaluate the system as an in vitro model for drug transport, expression changes of hepatic transporters relative to whole liver and freshly isolated hepatocytes (day 0) were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for 4 consecutive days of culture. No significant differences in transporter expression levels were observed between freshly isolated hepatocytes and whole liver. Two distinct mRNA profiles were detected over time showing 1) a more than 5-fold decline in levels of uptake transporters such as Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp), organic anion transporter (Oat) 2, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp) 1a1, Oatp1a4, and Oatp1b2 and 2) a greater than 5-fold increase of efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), and multidrug resistance-related proteins (Mrp) 1, 2, 3, and 4. In addition, protein levels and functional activities for selected transporters were also determined. Protein levels for Mrp2, Bcrp, P-gp, Ntcp, and Oatp1a4 corresponded to changes in mRNA. Functional activities of Oatps and Oct1 exhibited a 3- and 4-fold decrease on day 2 and day 4, respectively, relative to that on day 0, whereas a more than 10-fold reduction in Oat2 activity was observed. These results indicate that the cell culture conditions used herein did not provide an optimal environment for expression of all hepatic transporters. Significant time-dependent alterations in basal gene expression patterns of transporters were detected compared with those in liver or freshly isolated hepatocytes. Further work and new strategies are required to improve the validity of this model as an in vitro tool for in vivo drug transport or biliary clearance prediction

  6. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of forskolin on adenylate cyclase in rat normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T; Hasegawa, T

    1989-02-01

    Forskolin synergistically potentiated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in rat normal hepatocytes freshly prepared by collagenase digestion and rat ascites hepatoma AH66 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation by PGE1 in AH66F cells. Forskolin activated adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner in homogenates of all cell lines. In normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, simultaneous addition of forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators [isoproterenol (IPN), PGE1, guanosine 5'-triphosphate sodium salt (GTP), 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate sodium salt (Gpp (NH)p), NaF, cholera toxin, islet activating protein and MnCl2] gave greater than additive responses. On the other hand, in AH66F cells, the effect of forskolin on adenylate cyclase was hardly influenced by GTP, but forskolin diminished the activities induced by high concentrations of GTP to that by the diterpene alone. Forskolin also significantly inhibited the PGE1-stimulated and the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-stimulated activities. Because AH66F cells were insensitive to IPN, the combination with forskolin and IPN gave similar activity to that obtained with the diterpene alone. The effect of forskolin on the activation by manganese ion was neither synergistic nor inhibitory but was additive in AH66F cells. These results suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein and the catalytic unit in normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but in AH66F cells forskolin interferes with the coupling of the two components of adenylate cyclase.

  7. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Billiar, Timothy R

    2012-06-22

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC complex upon the binding of TNF to TNFR1. In conclusion, our study shows that cAMP prevents TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes by inhibiting DISC complex formation.

  8. Supercooling as a viable non-freezing cell preservation method of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Usta, O Berk; Kim, Yeonhee; Ozer, Sinan; Bruinsma, Bote G; Lee, Jungwoo; Demir, Esin; Berendsen, Tim A; Puts, Catheleyne F; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Korkut; Uygun, Basak E; Yarmush, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    Supercooling preservation holds the potential to drastically extend the preservation time of organs, tissues and engineered tissue products, and fragile cell types that do not lend themselves well to cryopreservation or vitrification. Here, we investigate the effects of supercooling preservation (SCP at -4(o)C) on primary rat hepatocytes stored in cryovials and compare its success (high viability and good functional characteristics) to that of static cold storage (CS at +4(o)C) and cryopreservation. We consider two prominent preservation solutions a) Hypothermosol (HTS-FRS) and b) University of Wisconsin solution (UW) and a range of preservation temperatures (-4 to -10 (o)C). We find that there exists an optimum temperature (-4(o)C) for SCP of rat hepatocytes which yields the highest viability; at this temperature HTS-FRS significantly outperforms UW solution in terms of viability and functional characteristics (secretions and enzymatic activity in suspension and plate culture). With the HTS-FRS solution we show that the cells can be stored for up to a week with high viability (~56%); moreover we also show that the preservation can be performed in large batches (50 million cells) with equal or better viability and no loss of functionality as compared to smaller batches (1.5 million cells) performed in cryovials.

  9. Selective protection of normal hepatocytes by indocyanine green in photodynamic therapy for the hepatoma of rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Li, Junheng; Guo, Zhong-He

    1993-03-01

    Using hepatocarcinoma transplanted rats, the present study made consecutive observation for the color change and indocyanine green (ICG) absorption peak of the normal liver and tumor tissues after intravenous injection of ICG. The normal liver tissue of the rat was found to turn violet-green soon after ICG injection and the optic density (OD) of ICG-characteristic spectral peak of the tissue homogenate reached its maximum value at 35 minutes post-injection, while neither color change nor OD value increase was noticed in the tissue of transplanted hepatocarcinoma, suggesting that there is a specific absorption of ICG by the normal liver tissue. Chemiluminescentoassay revealed inhibited luminal chemiluminescence by ICG, indicating the depression of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidation during HPD photosensitization by ICG. In PDT of the hepatocarcinoma, the irradiated area was examined under microscope and auto-microimage analysis system after ICG administration. For tumor-free tissue, the photosensitization induced necrotic area was found smaller in those with than those without ICG administration, whereas the tumor killing effect was almost the same of the two. It is suggested that ICG may offer selective protection for healthy hepatocytes without diminishing the destruction of tumor cells. The protection of healthy hepatocytes by ICG is thought to be in accordance with the amount of ICG in the cell and the distribution of light energy.

  10. Impact of the pectenotoxin C-43 oxidation degree on its cytotoxic effect on rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Espiña, Begoña; Louzao, M Carmen; Ares, Isabel R; Fonfría, Eva S; Vilariño, Natalia; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Botana, Luis M

    2010-03-15

    The metabolism of toxins that have accumulated in fish and shellfish is considered a detoxification process, as happens with pectenotoxins (PTXs) in the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. PTXs are macrolactones that display hepatotoxicity in mice, principally by capping or sequestering actin, their molecular target. PTX-2, which is considered to be the parental compound, oxidizes progressively to PTX-1, PTX-3, and PTX-6 in the Japanese scallop. In this study, we observed that PTX-1, PTX-6, and PTX-9 induce dose-dependent damage in the actin cytoskeleton and in the viability of primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In Clone 9 rat hepatocytes, PTX-1 and PTX-9 also affect the morphology of cells, but surprisingly, PTX-6 induced no effect. In accordance with this lack of activity, the actin cytoskeleton of CaCo-2 cells, another epithelial cell line, is not affected by PTX-6. In conclusion, the order of cytotoxicity of the analogues is PTX-2 > PTX-1 > PTX-6 >PTX-9. From a structure-activity perspective, the increase in the level of oxidation of the PTX molecule on C-43 decreases its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, PTX-6 is not able to induce effects on immortal cells while retaining its toxicity against primary cultured cells, whereas PTX-9, a 7-S-isomer, is active in both cellular models. The different cytotoxicities exerted by PTX-6 on cell lines and primary cells could be determined by the presence of a carboxylic acid group on C43 of the PTX molecule.

  11. Specific pools of phospholipids are used for lipoprotein secretion by cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.E.; Vance, D.E.

    1986-05-01

    The role of phospholipid biosynthesis in lipoprotein secretion from cultured rat hepatocytes has been investigated. In liver, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is made both by the CDP-choline pathway and by the methylation of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE), which in turn is derived from both serine (via phosphatidylserine) and ethanolamine (via CDP-ethanol-amine). Monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated in the presence of (methyl-/sup 3/H)choline, (2-/sup 3/H)ethanolamine or (3-/sup 3/H)serine. The specific radioactivity of the phospholipids derived from each of these precursors was measured in the cells and in the secreted lipoproteins of the culture medium. The specific radioactivities of PC and PE derived from (1-/sup 3/H)ethanolamine were markedly lower (approximately 1/2 and less than 1/10, respectively) in the secreted phospholipids than in the cellular phospholipids. Thus, ethanolamine was not an effective precursor of the phospholipids in lipoproteins. On the contrary, the specific radioactivity of PC made from (methyl-/sup 3/H)choline was approximately equal in cells and lipoproteins. In addition, over the first 4 h of incubation with (3-/sup 3/H)serine, the specific radioactivities of PC and PE were significantly higher in the lipoproteins than in the cells. These data indicate that specific pools of phospholipids are selected on the basis of their routes of biosynthesis, for secretion into lipoproteins.

  12. Supercooling as a Viable Non-Freezing Cell Preservation Method of Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Usta, O. Berk; Kim, Yeonhee; Ozer, Sinan; Bruinsma, Bote G.; Lee, Jungwoo; Demir, Esin; Berendsen, Tim A.; Puts, Catheleyne F.; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Korkut; Uygun, Basak E.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Supercooling preservation holds the potential to drastically extend the preservation time of organs, tissues and engineered tissue products, and fragile cell types that do not lend themselves well to cryopreservation or vitrification. Here, we investigate the effects of supercooling preservation (SCP at -4oC) on primary rat hepatocytes stored in cryovials and compare its success (high viability and good functional characteristics) to that of static cold storage (CS at +4oC) and cryopreservation. We consider two prominent preservation solutions a) Hypothermosol (HTS-FRS) and b) University of Wisconsin solution (UW) and a range of preservation temperatures (-4 to -10 oC). We find that there exists an optimum temperature (-4oC) for SCP of rat hepatocytes which yields the highest viability; at this temperature HTS-FRS significantly outperforms UW solution in terms of viability and functional characteristics (secretions and enzymatic activity in suspension and plate culture). With the HTS-FRS solution we show that the cells can be stored for up to a week with high viability (~56%); moreover we also show that the preservation can be performed in large batches (50 million cells) with equal or better viability and no loss of functionality as compared to smaller batches (1.5 million cells) performed in cryovials. PMID:23874947

  13. Transplantation speed offers early hepatocyte engraftment in acute liver injured rats: A translational study with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng-Maw; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chien, Chin-Sung; Ho, Yi-Tian; Ho, Shu-Li; Hu, Rey-Heng; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lee, Po-Huang

    2015-05-01

    The impact of the rate of intraportal hepatocyte transplantation on early engraftment and repopulation is unclear. The aim of this study was to address this and to improve the engraftment and repopulation efficiencies of hepatocyte transplantation for the treatment of a rat model of acute liver failure in a clinically useful way without preconditioning. Acute hepatic injury was induced into Sprague-Dawley rats with D-galactosamine. Hepatocytes were infused intraportally over a period of 30, 70, or 100 seconds to study early engraftment (2 days) and repopulation (7 days). Three groups had significant differences in hepatocyte engraftment (P = 0.018) and repopulation efficiencies (P = 0.037), and an infusion over a period of 70 seconds produced superior outcomes. After the 70-second infusion, the transplanted cells immediately transmigrated the sinusoidal endothelial layer and rarely accumulated in the portal venules, with liver function improving significantly. The mean first peak pressures, without significant differences, were 14.8 ± 6.5, 17.7 ± 3.7, and 13.6 ± 3.0 mm Hg in the 30-, 70-, and 100-second groups, respectively. Differential hepatocyte transfusion rates contributed to accelerated early engraftment and repopulation in rats with acute liver injury. These proof-of-concept findings are of clinical significance because they are easy to translate into practice.

  14. Dexamethasone blocks arachidonate biosynthesis in isolated hepatocytes and cultured hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, C.A.; de Alaniz, M.J.; Brenner, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on the incorporation and conversion of (1-14C)eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid to arachidonic acid in isolated hepatocytes and in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells was studied. In both kinds of cells, no changes in the exogenous acid incorporation were found when the hormone was added to the incubation media at 0.1 or 0.2 mM concentration, while the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid was significantly depressed. The effect on the biosynthesis was faster in isolated normal liver cells (60 min) than in tumoral cells (120 min) and reached an inhibition of ca. 50% after 3 hr of treatment. The addition of cycloheximide (10(-6) M) also caused a marked decrease in the biosynthesis of this polyunsaturated fatty acid, but when dexamethasone was added to the media simultaneously with cycloheximide, a synergistic action was not observed. The results obtained show that protein synthesis would be involved in the modulation of the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid by glucocorticoids. The changes in the delta 5 desaturation of labeled 20:3 omega 6 to arachidonic acid correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition in isolated cells.

  15. Glycyrrhizic acid attenuates CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in rats via a p53-mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiao-Ling; Liang, Bo; Wang, Xue-Wei; Fan, Fu-Gang; Jin, Jing; Lan, Rui; Yang, Jing-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Jin, Lei; Cao, Qin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in rats via a p53-dependent mitochondrial pathway. METHODS: Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into three groups, the control group, the CCl4 group, and the GA treatment group. To induce liver fibrosis in this model, rats were given a subcutaneous injection of a 40% solution of CCl4 in olive oil at a dose of 0.3 mL/100 g body weight biweekly for 8 wk, while controls received the same isovolumetric dose of olive oil by hypodermic injection, with an initial double-dose injection. In the GA group, rats were also treated with a 40% solution of CCl4 plus 0.2% GA solution in double distilled water by the intraperitoneal injection of 3 mL per rat three times a week from the first week following previously published methods, with modifications. Controls were given the same isovolumetric dose of double distilled water. Liver function parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Pathologic changes in the liver were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagen fibers were evaluated by Sirius red staining. Hepatocyte apoptosis was investigated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and the cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry assay. The expression levels of p53 and apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry or Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: After 8 wk of treatment, GA significantly reduced serum activity of ALT (from 526.7 ± 57.2 to 342 ± 44.8, P < 0.05) and AST (from 640 ± 33.7 to 462.8 ± 30.6, P < 0.05), attenuated the changes in liver histopathology and reduced the staging score (from 3.53 ± 0.74 to 3.00 ± 0.76, P < 0.05) in CCl4-treated rats. GA markedly reduced the positive area of Sirius red and the ratio of the hepatic fibrotic region (from 7

  16. P21waf-1/cip-1/sdi-1 is expressed at G1 phase in primary culture of hepatocytes from old rats, presumably preventing the cells from entering the S phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sawada, N; Kojima, T; Obata, H; Saitoh, M; Isomura, H; Kokai, Y; Satoh, M; Mori, M

    1996-11-21

    To elucidate whether p21waf-1/cip-1/sdi-1 expression is associated with loss of growth potential of hepatocytes of old rats, we determined p21waf-1/cip-1/sdi-1 expression of hepatocytes from old (30 months) rats during the cell cycle in primary culture. A high level of expression of p21waf-1/cip-1/sdi-1 was detected at the G1 phase in old-rat hepatocytes, but after the S phase in young-rat hepatocytes. Consistently, the incidence of the cells positive for p21waf-1/cip-1/sdi-1 in nuclei before entering the S phase was significantly higher in old-rat hepatocytes than in young-rat hepatocytes. These results account for the loss of growth potential of old-rat hepatocytes in vitro and the marked retardation of regeneration of liver in old rats in vivo.

  17. Expression profiles uncover the relationship between erythropoietin and cell proliferation in rat hepatocytes after a partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihong; Yang, Yajuan; He, Tingting; Liu, Yunqing; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Yongkang; Xu, Cunshuan

    2014-09-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has a beneficial effect on hepatic cell proliferation during liver regeneration. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been elucidated. To uncover the proliferation response of EPO in rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) at the cellular level, hepatocytes (HCs) were isolated using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The genes of the EPO-mediated signaling pathway and the target genes of the transcription factor (TF) in the pathway were identified in a pathway and TF database search. Their expression profiles were then detected using Rat Genome 230 2.0 Microarray. The results indicated that the EPO-mediated signaling pathway is involved in 19 paths and that 124 genes participate, of which 32 showed significant changes and could be identified as liver regeneration-related genes. In addition, 443 targets regulated by the TFs of the pathway and 60 genes associated with cell proliferation were contained in the array. Subsequently, the synergetic effect of these genes in liver regeneration was analyzed using the E(t) mathematical model based on their expression profiles. The results demonstrated that the E(t) values of paths 3, 8, 12 and 14-17 were significantly strengthened in the progressing phase of liver regeneration through the RAS/MEK/ERK or PI3K/AκT pathways. The synergetic effect of the target genes, in parallel with target-related cell proliferation, was also enhanced 12-72 h after PH, suggesting a potential positive effect of EPO on HC proliferation during rat liver regeneration. These data imply that the EPO receptor may allow EPO to promote HC proliferation through paths 3, 8, 12 and 14-17, mediating the RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AκT pathways in rat liver regeneration after PH.

  18. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks NF-{kappa}B activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found

  19. Feasibility of direct oxygenation of primary-cultured rat hepatocytes using polyethylene glycol-decorated liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH).

    PubMed

    Naruto, Hirosuke; Huang, Hongyun; Nishikawa, Masaki; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    We tested the short-term efficacy of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in cultured rat hepatocytes. Supplementation with LEH (20% of the hemoglobin concentration of blood) did not lower albumin production in static culture, and completely reversed the cell death and deterioration in albumin production caused by an oxygen shortage in 2D flat-plate perfusion bioreactors.

  20. Biliary copper excretion by hepatocyte lysosomes in the rat. Major excretory pathway in experimental copper overload

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.B. Jr.; Myers, B.M.; Kost, L.J.; Kuntz, S.M.; LaRusso, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that lysosomes are the main source of biliary copper in conditions of hepatic copper overload. We used a rat model of oral copper loading and studied the relationship between the biliary output of copper and lysosomal hydrolases. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given tap water with or without 0.125% copper acetate for up to 36 wk. Copper loading produced a 23-fold increase in the hepatic copper concentration and a 30-65% increase in hepatic lysosomal enzyme activity. Acid phosphatase histochemistry showed that copper-loaded livers contained an increased number of hepatocyte lysosomes; increased copper concentration of these organelles was confirmed directly by both x ray microanalysis and tissue fractionation. The copper-loaded rats showed a 16-fold increase in biliary copper output and a 50-300% increase in biliary lysosomal enzyme output. In the basal state, excretory profiles over time were similar for biliary outputs of lysosomal enzymes and copper in the copper-loaded animals but not in controls. After pharmacologic stimulation of lysosomal exocytosis, biliary outputs of copper and lysosomal hydrolases in the copper-loaded animals remained coupled: injection of colchicine or vinblastine produced an acute rise in the biliary output of both lysosomal enzymes and copper to 150-250% of baseline rates. After these same drugs, control animals showed only the expected increase in lysosomal enzyme output without a corresponding increase in copper output. We conclude that the hepatocyte responds to an increased copper load by sequestering excess copper in an increased number of lysosomes that then empty their contents directly into bile. The results provide direct evidence that exocytosis of lysosomal contents into biliary canaliculi is the major mechanism for biliary copper excretion in hepatic copper overload.

  1. Low concentration of mercury induces autophagic cell death in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Ray, Atish; Mukherjee, Sandip; Agarwal, Soumik; Kundu, Rakesh; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the induction of autophagy in rat hepatocytes by a low concentration of mercury. Hepatocytes treated with different doses of mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 µM) and at different time intervals (0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 4 h) show autophagic cell death only at 5 µM HgCl2 within 30 min of incubation. At 1 and 2.5 µM HgCl2, no cell death is recorded, while apoptosis is found at 10 µM HgCl2, as evidenced by the activation of caspase 3. Autophagic cell death is confirmed by the presence of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) positive hepatocytes which is found to be highest at 1 h. Atg5-Atg12 covalent-conjugation triggers the autophagic pathway within 30 min of 5 µM HgCl2 treatment and continues till 4 h of incubation. In addition, damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) expression gradually increases from 30 min to 4 h of treatment with mercury and a corresponding linear decrease in p53 has been observed. It is concluded that a low concentration (5 µM HgCl2) of mercury induces autophagy or nonapoptotic programmed cell death following an Atg5-Atg12 covalent-conjugation pathway, which is modulated by DRAM in a p53-dependent manner.

  2. [Influence of ionizing radiation on enzymatic activity and state of nucleus-nucleolar apparatus in rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Nersesova, L S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Pogosian, S A; Pogosian, L L; Karalova, E M; Avetisian, A S; Abroian, l O; Karalian, Z A; Akopian, Zh I

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a single exposure of rats to the whole-body roentgen irradiation at the doses of 3.5 Gy and 4.5 Gy on the activity of creatine kinase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, as well as on the state of the nuclear-nucleolar apparatus in rat hepatocytes on the 6th and 13th days after radiation exposure have been studied. Irradiation at the above doses induced changes in the levels of enzymatic activity of different values and different directions within the same time periods, as well as oscillating changes in this type of enzymatic activity over time. This demonstrates various radiosensitivity and adaptation abilities of these enzymatic activities. The changes in the enzymatic activity significantly correspond to the changes in the morphometric indices of nuclear-nucleolar apparatus of hepatocytes, as well as the distribution of hepatocytes within the ploidy classes: in particular, stabilization of the enzymatic activity on the 13th day after irradiation correlates with the increased transcriptional activity, which is detectable through the increased number of nucleoli per nucleus and the expanded space of a hepatocyte nucleus. The compensation mechanisms are likely to be targeted at the changes in the functional activity of surviving hepatocytes, rather than at the replacement of the damaged cells by the new ones.

  3. Propolis protects against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Türkez, Hasan; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2012-06-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of TCDD on cultured primary rat hepatocytes. Propolis (25, 50 and 100 μM) was added to plain culture or simultaneously with TCDD (5 and 10 μM). The hepatocytes were treated with TCDD and propolis for 48 h. Then cell viability was detected by [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) levels were determined to evaluate the oxidative injury. The DNA damage was also analyzed by liver micronucleus assay (LMN) and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The results of MTT and LDH assays showed that TCDD decreased cell viability. TCDD also increased TOS level and decreased TAC level in rat hepatocytes. On the basis of increasing doses, the TCDD caused significant increases of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) and 8-OH-dG levels as compared to control culture. In cultures treated with propolis alone, cell viability and TOS level were not affected, while the level of TAC was significantly increased in dose-dependent fashion. The presence of propolis with TCDD modulated its toxic effects on primary hepatocytes cultures. Noteworthy, propolis has a protective effect against TCDD-mediated DNA damages. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. L-methionine-dl-sulfoxide metabolism and toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: gender differences and inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dever, Joseph T; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2008-11-01

    L-methionine-dl-sulfoxide (MetO) is an L-methionine (Met) metabolite, but its role in Met metabolism and toxicity is not clear. In this study, MetO uptake, metabolism to Met, cytotoxicity, and glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) status were characterized in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes incubated at 37 degrees C with 0 to 30 mM MetO for 0 to 5 h. In male hepatocytes, dose-dependent cytotoxicity concomitant with GSH depletion without GSSG formation occurred after exposure to 20 or 30 mM MetO but not after exposure to 10 mM MetO. Interestingly, female hepatocytes exposed to 30 mM MetO showed no cytotoxicity and exhibited increased intracellular GSH levels compared with control hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes had approximately 2-fold higher levels of intracellular Met-d-O or Met-l-O after MetO (30 mM) exposure for 0 to 1.5 h compared with female hepatocytes. In hepatocytes of both genders, Met-l-O was detected at nearly 5-fold higher levels than Met-d-O, and no significant increase in cellular Met levels was detected. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of transamination reactions, to MetO-exposed male hepatocytes resulted in higher cellular Met-d-O and Met-l-O levels and decreased the cytotoxicity of MetO. Interestingly, exposure of control male hepatocytes to AOAA selectively increased cellular Met-d-O levels to levels similar to those observed after exposure to MetO (30 mM). Analysis of MetO transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K in mouse liver cytosol revealed similar rates of MetO transamination in cytosol of both genders. Taken together, these results provide evidence for stereoselective oxidation of Met to Met-d-O under physiological conditions and suggest a major role for MetO transamination in MetO metabolism and toxicity.

  5. Calcium flux and endogenous calcium content in isolated mammalian growth-plate chondrocytes, hyaline-cartilage chondrocytes, and hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, J P; Brighton, C T; Stambough, J L; Storey, B T

    1985-01-01

    The role of chondrocyte mitochondria in endochondral ossification has been the subject of intensive investigation and controversy. The purpose of this study was to quantitate the endogenous calcium content and the maximum capacity for calcium accumulation and release in isolated mammalian growth-plate chondrocytes and hyaline-cartilage chondrocytes. The results indicated that the mitochondria of the isolated growth-plate and hyaline-cartilage chondrocytes possess a greater endogenous calcium content, a greater capacity for calcium accumulation, and a larger labile Ca+2 pool than do the mitochondria of hepatocytes. Growth-plate and hyaline-cartilage mitochondria had an endogenous calcium content of 908 and 142 nanomoles of Ca+2 per milligram of mitochondrial protein. The growth-plate mitochondria had a maximum calcium capacity of 5249 nanomoles of Ca+2 per milligram of mitochondrial protein. In comparison, the mitochondria of hepatocytes had a much smaller endogenous-calcium content and a smaller maximum Ca+2 capacity: twenty-one and 3262 nanomoles of Ca+2 per milligram of mitochondrial protein, respectively. The mitochondrial labile-calcium pool in both growth-plate and hyaline-cartilage chondrocytes was twofold greater than that in the mitochondria of hepatocytes. Chondrocyte mitochondria released approximately 2400 nanomoles of Ca+2 per milligram of mitochondrial protein, whereas hepatocyte mitochondria released 1200 nanomoles of Ca+2 per milligram. These results suggest that the chondrocyte mitochondria are specialized for calcium transport and are important in the calcification of the extracellular matrix of the growth plate.

  6. Protective role of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) extract on hepatocytes morphometric changes in STZ diabetic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Ghafari, Soraya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2010-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on the quantitative morphometric changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into control (G1), diabetic (G2), diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) groups. The control group received only sham injections of intraperitoneal saline; the diabetic group received intraperitoneal saline for 5 days followed by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day; and the diabetic + Urtica dioica group received 100 mg/kg Urtica dioica intraperitoneal (7) injections for 5 days and streptozotocin injection on the 6th day. After five weeks, the animals were sacrificed and whole livers removed. Liver specimens were used for quantitative morphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. All data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and expressed as the mean with standard error of means. In the G3 (diabetic + Urtica diocia) group, the mean surface area of hepatocytes in the periportal zone (Z1) was greater than in G2 (diabetic) and G1 (control) groups, but this difference was not significant. No alteration was observed in the surface area of hepatocytes in the perivenous zone (Z3) in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group compared to the diabetic (G2) group. The mean nuclear area of hepatocytes of the rats in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was higher in Z1 and lower in Z3 than that of rats in the diabetic (G2) group. The mean diameter of hepatocyte nuclei in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was lower than that of diabetic (G2) and control (G1) groups in both Z1 and Z3. This study revealed that the administration of extract of Urtica dioica leaves before induction of diabetic with streptozotocin has a protective effect on the morphometric alterations of hepatocytes in the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver lobule in rats.

  7. Comparative metabolism of honokiol in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kong, Tae Yeon; Choi, Won Gu; Lee, Hye Suk

    2016-04-01

    Honokiol has antitumor, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects. Here we aimed to identify the metabolic profile of honokiol in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes and to characterize the enzymes responsible for the glucuronidation and sulfation of honokiol. Honokiol had a high hepatic extraction ratio in all five species, indicating that it was extensively metabolized. A total of 32 metabolites, including 17 common and 15 different metabolites, produced via glucuronidation, sulfation, and oxidation of honokiol allyl groups were tentatively identified using liquid chromatography-high resolution quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Glucuronidation of honokiol to M8 (honokiol-4-glucuronide) and M9 (honokiol-2'-glucuronide) was the predominant metabolic pathway in hepatocytes of all five species; however, interspecies differences between 4- and 2'-glucuronidation of honokiol were observed. UGT1A1, 1A8, 1A9, 2B15, and 2B17 played major roles in M8 formation, whereas UGT1A7 and 1A9 played major roles in M9 formation. Human cDNA-expressed SULT1C4 played a major role in M10 formation (honokiol-2'-sulfate), whereas SULT1A1*1, 1A1*2, and 1A2 played major roles in M11 formation (honokiol-4-sulfate). In conclusion, honokiol metabolism showed interspecies differences.

  8. Insulin phosphorylates calmodulin in preparations of solubilized rat hepatocyte insulin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, D.B.; McDonald, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    It has previously been shown that insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of calmodulin in adipocyte insulin receptor preparations. Here they demonstrate that insulin also stimulates the phosphorylation of calmodulin in wheat germ lectin-enriched insulin receptor preparations obtained from rat hepatocytes. Standard phosphorylation assays were performed at 30C in the presence of 50mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100, 1mM EGTA, 50 M (el-TSP)ATP, 5mM MgCl2, 0.25 M polylysine, 1.2 M calmodulin and various CaS and insulin concentrations. The phosphorylation of calmodulin was determined by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Phosphorylation of calmodulin had an absolute requirement for insulin receptors, insulin and certain basic proteins. Phosphorylation was maximal above 13 nM insulin and at submicromolar CaS concentrations, whereas supramicromolar CaS concentrations were inhibitory. As was observed in the adipocyte insulin receptor system, calmodulin phosphorylation was dependent upon the presence of co-factors, such as polylysine, histone H/sub f/2b and protamine sulfate. The role played by these co-factors has not yet been established. These data suggest that both CaS and calmodulin participate in post receptor insulin events in hepatocytes.

  9. Nitric-oxide dioxygenase function of human cytoglobin with cellular reductants and in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Anne M; Cook, Matthew R; Gardner, Paul R

    2010-07-30

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was investigated for its capacity to function as a NO dioxygenase (NOD) in vitro and in hepatocytes. Ascorbate and cytochrome b(5) were found to support a high NOD activity. Cygb-NOD activity shows respective K(m) values for ascorbate, cytochrome b(5), NO, and O(2) of 0.25 mm, 0.3 microm, 40 nm, and approximately 20 microm and achieves a k(cat) of 0.5 s(-1). Ascorbate and cytochrome b(5) reduce the oxidized Cygb-NOD intermediate with apparent second order rate constants of 1000 m(-1) s(-1) and 3 x 10(6) m(-1) s(-1), respectively. In rat hepatocytes engineered to express human Cygb, Cygb-NOD activity shows a similar k(cat) of 1.2 s(-1), a K(m)(NO) of 40 nm, and a k(cat)/K(m)(NO) (k'(NOD)) value of 3 x 10(7) m(-1) s(-1), demonstrating the efficiency of catalysis. NO inhibits the activity at [NO]/[O(2)] ratios >1:500 and limits catalytic turnover. The activity is competitively inhibited by CO, is slowly inactivated by cyanide, and is distinct from the microsomal NOD activity. Cygb-NOD provides protection to the NO-sensitive aconitase. The results define the NOD function of Cygb and demonstrate roles for ascorbate and cytochrome b(5) as reductants.

  10. Thiol-disulfide effects on hepatic glutathione transport. Studies in cultured rat hepatocytes and perfused livers.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, S C; Ge, J L; Huang, H Y; Kuhlenkamp, J; Kaplowitz, N

    1993-01-01

    In cultured rat hepatocytes, cystine led to an inhibition of GSH efflux by lowering the Vmax by approximately 35% without affecting the Km. The cystine-mediated inhibition of GSH efflux was rapid in onset (< 1 h), with near maximum effect at 0.1 mM. Inhibition was still observed when cystine uptake was prevented. Cystine and sulfobromophthalein-GSH, a selective inhibitor of sinusoidal transport of GSH, did not exhibit additive inhibitory effects on GSH efflux. Depletion of ATP or membrane depolarization after cystine treatment were excluded as potential mechanisms. DTT not only reversed the cystine-mediated inhibition of GSH efflux, it stimulated GSH efflux up to 400-500%. The DTT effect was immediate in onset, reaching maximum after 30 min, and was partially reversed by cystine, suggesting that the two share a common site(s) of action. DTT treatment did not alter cellular ATP levels or change the membrane potential. In cultured hepatocytes, DTT treatment increased the Vmax of GSH efflux by approximately 500% without affecting the Km. Inhibition of microtubular function and vesicular acidification did not affect basal or DTT stimulated efflux. Both cystine and DTT effects on sinusoidal GSH efflux were confirmed in perfused livers. In summary, the capacity of the sinusoidal GSH transporter is markedly influenced by thiol-disulfide status. Images PMID:8376579

  11. Nitric-oxide Dioxygenase Function of Human Cytoglobin with Cellular Reductants and in Rat Hepatocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Anne M.; Cook, Matthew R.; Gardner, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was investigated for its capacity to function as a NO dioxygenase (NOD) in vitro and in hepatocytes. Ascorbate and cytochrome b5 were found to support a high NOD activity. Cygb-NOD activity shows respective Km values for ascorbate, cytochrome b5, NO, and O2 of 0.25 mm, 0.3 μm, 40 nm, and ∼20 μm and achieves a kcat of 0.5 s−1. Ascorbate and cytochrome b5 reduce the oxidized Cygb-NOD intermediate with apparent second order rate constants of 1000 m−1 s−1 and 3 × 106 m−1 s−1, respectively. In rat hepatocytes engineered to express human Cygb, Cygb-NOD activity shows a similar kcat of 1.2 s−1, a Km(NO) of 40 nm, and a kcat/Km(NO) (k′NOD) value of 3 × 107 m−1 s−1, demonstrating the efficiency of catalysis. NO inhibits the activity at [NO]/[O2] ratios >1:500 and limits catalytic turnover. The activity is competitively inhibited by CO, is slowly inactivated by cyanide, and is distinct from the microsomal NOD activity. Cygb-NOD provides protection to the NO-sensitive aconitase. The results define the NOD function of Cygb and demonstrate roles for ascorbate and cytochrome b5 as reductants. PMID:20511233

  12. Isolation and characterization of endosomes from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    Three fractions of rat liver endosomes, called 50 Kg Light, 50 Kg Heavy, and 150 Kg have been isolated on 16% Percoll gradients. The 50 Kg Heavy fraction accumulates ligand as a function of time after injection, using either /sup 125/I-asialoorosomucoid (/sup 125/I-ASOR) or /sup 125/I-immunoglobulin A (/sup 125/I-IgA) as ligands. A pulse-chase protocol was also used to study the kinetics of ligand entry into the endosomal compartments. A double-label, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB)-induced density shift protocol was used to study the internalization of two ligands with different destinations in the hepatocyte. Rats were injected intraportally with /sup 125/I-ASOR-HRP and /sup 131/I-IgA and the liver was fractionated at various times post-injection. The three ligand-containing endosomal fractions were isolated and each subjected to the DAB shift procedure. This treatment causes organelles containing /sup 125/I-ASOR-HRP and another ligand occupying the same compartment to shift to a higher density. Thus, information on whether the /sup 131/I-IgA is colocalized or segregated from the /sup 125/I-ASOR-HRP can be obtained. The authors have used an instantaneous pulse, temperature shift protocol to study the heterogeneity of these three endosomal fractions isolated from rat liver.

  13. The contribution of N-oxidation to the metabolism of the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Turesky, R J; Bracco-Hammer, I; Markovic, J; Richli, U; Kappeler, A M; Welti, D H

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, a potent bacterial mutagen and rodent carcinogen formed in low quantities in cooked meat and fish, was studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Ten metabolites were characterized by various spectroscopic methods. Sulfamate formation was the major route of metabolism in hepatocytes of untreated rats whereas ring-hydroxylated sulfuric and glucuronic acid conjugates were major metabolites in animals pretreated with the enzyme inducers Aroclor-1254, beta-naphthoflavone, or isosafrole. The formation of a mutagenic metabolite through N-oxidation, 2-(hydroxyamino)-3,8- dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HNOH-MeIQx), was an important route of metabolism in hepatocytes of pretreated animals. Its metastable derivative, the N-hydroxy-N-glucuronide, also was detected. The nitro derivative of MeIQx, a direct-acting bacterial mutagen, was readily detoxified by glutathione transferase, forming a conjugate where the thiol group of glutathione displaced the nitro moiety. Low but detectable levels of N-acetyltransferase activity were observed for MeIQx and sulfamethazine in hepatocytes. HNOH-MeIQx and 4-(hydroxyamino)biphenyl (HNOH-ABP), a recognized human carcinogen, displayed acetyl coenzyme A dependent DNA binding in hepatic cytosol assays. Sulfamethazine decreased the DNA binding of HNOH-MeIQx in hepatocytes, suggesting a competition for acetyltransferase. However, the binding of HNOH-MeIQx to DNA in hepatocytes was independent of sulfotransferase since inhibitors of this enzyme, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP), did not diminish DNA binding. In contrast, binding of HNOH-ABP to DNA was not decreased by sulfamethazine, but binding was diminished by both sulfotransferase inhibitors. From these inhibition experiments it appears that a major route of binding of HNOH-MeIQx to DNA in hepatocytes is mediated through O-acetyltransferase while a significant portion of HNOH-ABP bound to DNA

  14. Differential disposition of chenodeoxycholic acid versus taurocholic acid in response to acute troglitazone exposure in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Marion, Tracy L; Perry, Cassandra H; St Claire, Robert L; Yue, Wei; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2011-04-01

    Inhibition of bile acid (BA) transport may contribute to the hepatotoxicity of troglitazone (TRO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist. Typically, studies use taurocholic acid (TCA) as a model substrate to investigate effects of xenobiotics on BA disposition. However, TRO may differentially affect the transport of individual BAs, potentially causing hepatocyte accumulation of more cytotoxic BAs. The effects of TRO on the disposition of [(14)C]-labeled chenodeoxycholic acid ([(14)C]CDCA), an unconjugated cytotoxic BA, were determined in suspended hepatocytes and sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) from rats. (E)-3-[[[3-[2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl]phenyl][[3-(dimethylamino)-3-oxopropyl]thio]methyl]thio]-propanoic acid (MK571), a multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) inhibitor, was included to evaluate involvement of MRPs in CDCA disposition. Accumulation in cells + bile of total [(14)C]CDCA species in SCH was sixfold greater than [(3)H]TCA and unaffected by 1 and 10μM TRO; 100μM TRO and 50μM MK571 ablated biliary excretion and significantly increased intracellular accumulation of total [(14)C]CDCA species. Results were similar in Mrp2-deficient TR(-) rat hepatocytes. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed that taurine- and glycine-conjugated CDCA, in addition to unconjugated CDCA, accumulated in hepatocytes during the 10-min incubation. In suspended rat hepatocytes, initial [(14)C]CDCA uptake was primarily Na(+)-independent, whereas initial [(3)H]TCA uptake was primarily Na(+)-dependent; TRO and MK571 decreased [(14)C]CDCA uptake to a lesser extent than [(3)H]TCA. Unexpectedly, MK571 inhibited Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and bile salt export pump. Differential effects on uptake and efflux of individual BAs may contribute to TRO hepatotoxicity. Although TCA is the prototypic BA used to investigate the effects of xenobiotics on BA transport, it may not be reflective of other

  15. Measurements by filter elution of DNA single- and double-strand breaks in rat hepatocytes: effects of nitrosamines and gamma-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.O.; Dysart, G.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Harbach, P.; Lewin, J.; Wolf, G.

    1982-07-01

    This work presents a filter elution method for measuring DNA single- and double-strand breaks in primary rat hepatocytes without radioactive labeling of DNA. Researchers have studied the effects of a series of nitrosamines and of gamma-irradiation on DNA single- and double-strand break induction. The repair of DNA single-strand breaks in the hepatocytes was measured after treatment with /sup 60/Co, 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea, and N-nitrosodimethylamine. The hepatocytes were isolated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetra acetic acid-collagenase perfusion and had a mean viability of 91 +/- 4% (S.D.). The isolated cells were treated for varying lengths of time with nitrosamines in suspension culture in L-15 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. After treatment, the cells were chilled, loaded onto 2 micrometers polycarbonate filters, and lysed in a 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate-proteinase K solution, pH 9.6. The DNA was eluted from the filter at either native or denaturing pH with fractions collected every 3 hr. The quantity of DNA in each fraction was determined by measuring the fluorescent product formed between it and diaminobenzoic acid after ethanol-sodium acetate precipitation and trapping of the DNA on 0.2-micrometer polycarbonate filters. The results show that the carcinogens, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodipropylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, and 1-nitrosopiperidine all made dose- and time-related increases in the number of single-strand breaks in rat hepatocytes. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine produced small numbers of single-strand breaks. No double-strand breaks were formed by any of the nitrosamines. Single-strand breaks induced by N-nitrosodimethylamine were repaired very slowly relative to repair of either gamma-ray of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced single-strand breaks. This system has many advantages for studying carcinogen metabolism and DNA damage in hepatocytes, one of the major target cells for many carcinogens.

  16. Depletion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine with cycloleucine potentiates cytochrome P450 2E1 toxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhuge, Jian; Cederbaum, Arthur I.

    2007-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is the principal biological methyl donor. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) catalyzes the only reaction that generates SAM. Hepatocytes were treated with cycloleucine, an inhibitor of MAT, to evaluate whether hepatocytes enriched in cytochrome P450 2E1(CYP2E1) were more sensitive to a decline in SAM. Cycloleucine decreased SAM and glutathione (GSH) levels and induced cytotoxicity in hepatocytes from pyrazole-treated rats (with an increased content of CYP2E1) to a greater extent as compared to hepatocytes from saline-treated rats. Apoptosis caused by cycloleucine in pyrazole hepatocytes appeared earlier and was more pronounced than control hepatocytes and could be prevented by incubation with SAM, glutathione reduced ethyl ester and antioxidants. The cytotoxicity was prevented by treating rats with chlormethiazole, a specific inhibitor of CYP2E1. Cycloleucine induced greater production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pyrazole hepatocytes than in control hepatocytes, and treatment with SAM, Trolox and chlormethiazole lowered ROS formation. In conclusion, lowering of hepatic SAM levels produced greater toxicity and apoptosis in hepatocytes enriched in CYP2E1. This is due to elevated ROS production by CYP2E1 coupled to lower levels of hepatoprotective SAM and GSH. We speculate that such interactions e.g. induction of CYP2E1, decline in SAM and GSH may contribute to alcohol liver toxicity. PMID:17640612

  17. Amniotic fluid-borne hepatocyte growth factor protects rat pups against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Baggerman, Eric W.; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Reyes, Victor E.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    Fetal swallowing of amniotic fluid, which contains numerous cytokines and growth factors, plays a key role in gut mucosal development. Preterm birth interrupts this exposure to amniotic fluid-borne growth factors, possibly contributing to the increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants. We hypothesized that supplementation of formula feeds with amniotic fluid can provide amniotic fluid-borne growth factors and prevent experimental NEC in rat pups. We compared NEC-like injury in rat pups fed with infant formula vs. formula supplemented either with 30% amniotic fluid or recombinant hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Cytokines/growth factors in amniotic fluid were measured by immunoassays. Amniotic fluid and HGF effects on enterocyte migration, proliferation, and survival were measured in cultured IEC6 intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, we used an antibody array to investigate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation and immunoblots to measure phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Amniotic fluid supplementation in oral feeds protected rat pups against NEC-like injury. HGF was the most abundant growth factor in rat amniotic fluid in our panel of analytes. Amniotic fluid increased cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival in vitro. These effects were reproduced by HGF and blocked by anti-HGF antibody or a PI3K inhibitor. HGF transactivated several RTKs in IEC6 cells, indicating that its effects extended to multiple signaling pathways. Finally, similar to amniotic fluid, recombinant HGF also reduced the frequency and severity of NEC-like injury in rat pups. Amniotic fluid supplementation protects rat pups against experimental NEC, which is mediated, at least in part, by HGF. PMID:24407592

  18. Low selection of preneoplastic hepatocytes after treatment with the 2-acetylaminofluorene diet-partial hepatectomy regimen in the liver of hepatocarcinogenesis-resistant DRH strain rats.

    PubMed

    Imai, Koji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Norikazu; Miyakoshi, Masaaki; Honmou, Satoshi; Yoshie, Masumi; Tamakawa, Susumu; Yaginuma, Yuji; Kasai, Shinichi; Ogawa, Katsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    In hepatocarcinogenesis-resistant DRH rats, preneoplastic hepatocytic lesions are smaller than those of usual rats during carcinogenesis. When preneoplastic hepatocytes from DRH and Donryu (original strain of DRH) were reciprocally transplanted into the livers of DRH and Donryu treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) diet/two-thirds hepatectomy (PH), the Donryu cells formed small colonies within the DRH liver, whereas the DRH cells formed large colonies within the Donryu liver. The DRH liver showed less degree of oval cell proliferation after treatment with 2-AAF and PH, and DRH hepatocytes were more resistant to the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-AAF after PH. Furthermore, DRH hepatocytes were generally resistant to cytotoxicity of hepatotoxins. The tissue environment of the DRH liver, therefore, is less effective for selective growth of preneoplastic hepatocytes during the carcinogen treatment, which is probably a major cause of the hepatocarcinogenesis-resistance in DRH rats.

  19. Inactivation of PEMT2 in hepatocytes initiated by DENA in fasted/refed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Marengo, Barbara; Bottini, Consuelo; La Porta, C.A.M.; Domenicotti, Cinzia; Tessitore, Luciana . E-mail: tessitore@pharm.unipmn.it

    2006-07-21

    Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) is the enzyme that converts phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) into phosphatidylcholine. We have previously shown that PEMT suppressed hepatoma growth by triggering apoptosis. We investigate whether PEMT controlled cell death and cell proliferation triggered by fasting/refeeding and whether it is a marker of early preneoplastic lesions. The induction of programmed cell death and suppression of cell proliferation by fasting were associated with enhanced PEMT expression and activity, and with a decrease in CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase expression. Refeeding returned the liver growth and expression of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase to control levels, while the expression of PEMT decreased to below control values. After DENA administration, PEMT protein, evaluated by Western blotting, slightly increased, but it remained below control levels. The treatment with 20 mg/kg DENA to refed rats induced the appearance of initiated hepatocytes that were negative for PEMT expression. Present findings indicate that PEMT is a novel tumour marker for early liver preneoplastic lesions.

  20. Liver tissue engineering based on aggregate assembly: efficient formation of endothelialized rat hepatocyte aggregates and their immobilization with biodegradable fibres.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y; Montagne, K; Shinohara, M; Komori, K; Sakai, Y

    2012-12-01

    To realize long-term in vitro culture of hepatocytes at a high density while maintaining a high hepatic function for aggregate-based liver tissue engineering, we report here a novel culture method whereby endothelialized rat hepatocyte aggregates were formed using a PDMS microwell device and cultured in a perfusion bioreactor by introducing spacers between aggregates to improve oxygen and nutrient supply. Primary rat hepatocyte aggregates around 100 µm in diameter coated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells were spontaneously and quickly formed after 12 h of incubation, thanks to the continuous supply of oxygen by diffusion through the PDMS honeycomb microwell device. Then, the recovered endothelialized rat hepatocyte aggregates were mixed with biodegradable poly-l-lactic acid fibres in suspension and packed into a PDMS-based bioreactor. Perfusion culture of 7 days was successfully achieved with more than 73.8% cells retained in the bioreactor. As expected, the fibres acted as spacers between aggregates, which was evidenced from the enhanced albumin production and more spherical morphology compared with fibre-free packing. In summary, this study shows the advantages of using PDMS-based microwells to form heterotypic aggregates and also demonstrates the feasibility of spacing tissue elements for improving oxygen and nutrient supply to tissue engineering based on modular assembly.

  1. Featured Article: Isolation, characterization, and cultivation of human hepatocytes and non-parenchymal liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Elisa; Kegel, Victoria; Zeilinger, Katrin; Hengstler, Jan G; Nüssler, Andreas K; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are considered to be the gold standard for in vitro testing of xenobiotic metabolism and hepatotoxicity. However, PHH cultivation in 2D mono-cultures leads to dedifferentiation and a loss of function. It is well known that hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPC), such as Kupffer cells (KC), liver endothelial cells (LEC), and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), play a central role in the maintenance of PHH functions. The aims of the present study were to establish a protocol for the simultaneous isolation of human PHH and NPC from the same tissue specimen and to test their suitability for in vitro co-culture. Human PHH and NPC were isolated from tissue obtained by partial liver resection by a two-step EDTA/collagenase perfusion technique. The obtained cell fractions were purified by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. KC, LEC, and HSC contained in the NPC fraction were separated using specific adherence properties and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS®). Identified NPC revealed a yield of 1.9 × 106 KC, 2.7 × 105 LEC and 4.7 × 105 HSC per gram liver tissue, showing viabilities >90%. Characterization of these NPC showed that all populations went through an activation process, which influenced the cell fate. The activation of KC strongly depended on the tissue quality and donor anamnesis. KC became activated in culture in association with a loss of viability within 4–5 days. LEC lost specific features during culture, while HSC went through a transformation process into myofibroblasts. The testing of different culture conditions for HSC demonstrated that they can attenuate, but not prevent dedifferentiation in vitro. In conclusion, the method described allows the isolation and separation of PHH and NPC in high quality and quantity from the same donor. PMID:25394621

  2. Potential hepatoprotective effects of new Cuban natural products in rat hepatocytes culture.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Donato, M T; Martínez, I; Hernández, I; Garrido, G; González-Lavaut, J A; Menéndez, R; Laguna, A; Castell, J V; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    2008-08-01

    The protective effects of five Cuban natural products (Mangifera indica L. (MSBE), Erythroxylum minutifolium, Erythroxylum confusum, Thalassia testudinum and Dictyota pinnatifida extracts and mangiferin) on the oxidative damage induced by model toxicants in rat hepatocyte cultures were studied. Cells were pre-incubated with the natural products (5-200 microg/mL) for 24 h. Then hepatotoxins (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ethanol, carbon tetrachloride and lipopolysaccharide) were individually added and post-incubated for another 24 h. After treatments, cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Mangiferin and MSBE exhibited the highest cytoprotective potential (EC50 between 50 and 125 microg/mL), followed by T. testudinum and Erythroxylum extracts, whereas no significant protective effects was produced by Dictyota extract treatment. Antioxidant properties of the natural products against lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide were then investigated. The results show that at 36 h pre-treatment of cells with mangiferin or MSBE, concentrations of T. testudinum and Erythroxylum extracts ranging from 25 to 100 microg/mL significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (100 and 250 microM) and increased the GSH levels reduced by the toxicant. D. pinnatifida inhibited lipid peroxidation, but did not preserve GSH levels. In conclusion, MSBE, E. minutifolium, E. confusum and T. testudinum extracts and mangiferin showed hepatoprotective activity against induced damage in all the experimental series, where mangiferin and the extracts of MSBE and T. testudinum were the best candidates to inhibit "in vitro" damage to rat hepatocytes. This hepatoprotective effect found could be associated with the antioxidant properties observed for the products.

  3. Antigenic targets in tienilic acid hepatitis. Both cytochrome P450 2C11 and 2C11-tienilic acid adducts are transported to the plasma membrane of rat hepatocytes and recognized by human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Robin, M A; Maratrat, M; Le Roy, M; Le Breton, F P; Bonierbale, E; Dansette, P; Ballet, F; Mansuy, D; Pessayre, D

    1996-01-01

    Patients with tienilic acid hepatitis exhibit autoantibodies that recognize unalkylated cytochrome P450 2C9 in humans but recognize 2C11 in rats. Our aim was to determine whether the immune reaction is also directed against neoantigens. Rats were treated with tienilic acid and hepatocytes were isolated. Immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry experiments were performed with an anti-tienilic acid or an anti-cytochrome P450 2C11 antibody. Cytochrome P450 2C11 was the main microsomal or plasma membrane protein that was alkylated by tienilic acid. Inhibitors of vesicular transport decreased flow cytometric recognition of both unalkylated and tienilic acid-alkylated cytochrome P450 2C11 on the plasma membrane of cultured hepatocytes. Tienilic acid hepatitis sera that were preadsorbed on microsomes from untreated rats (to remove autoantibodies), poorly recognized untreated hepatocytes in flow cytometry experiments, but better recognized tienilic acid-treated hepatocytes. This recognition was decreased by adsorption with tienilic acid or by preexposure to the anti-tienilic acid or the anti-cytochrome P450 2C11 antibody. We conclude that cytochrome P450 2C11 is alkylated by tienilic acid and follows a vesicular route to the plasma membrane. Tienilic acid hepatitis sera contain antibodies against this tienilic acid adduct, in addition to the previously described anticytochrome P450 autoantibodies. PMID:8823314

  4. Zea mays, Stigma maydis prevents and extenuates acetaminophen-perturbed oxidative onslaughts in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Saheed, Sabiu; Frans Hendrik, O'Neill; Tom, Ashafa Anofi Omotayo

    2016-11-01

    Zea mays L. (Poaceae) Stigma maydis is an underutilized product of corn cultivation finding therapeutic applications in oxidative stress-related disorders. This study investigated its aqueous extract against acetaminophen (APAP)-perturbed oxidative insults in rat hepatocytes. Hepatotoxic rats were orally pre- and post-treated with the extract (at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) and vitamin C (200 mg/kg body weight), respectively, for 14 days. Liver function, antioxidative and histological analyses were thereafter evaluated. The APAP-induced marked (p < 0.05) increases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase and the concentrations of bilirubin, oxidized glutathione, protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and fragmented DNA were dose-dependently extenuated in the extract-treated animals. The extract also significantly (p < 0.05) improved the reduced activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase as well as total protein, albumin and glutathione concentrations in the hepatotoxic rats. These improvements may be attributed to the bioactive constituents as revealed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric chromatogram of the extract. The observed effects compared favourably with vitamin C and are informative of hepatoprotective and antioxidative attributes of the extract and were further supported by the histological analysis. The data from the present findings suggest that Stigma maydis aqueous extract is capable of preventing and ameliorating APAP-mediated oxidative hepatic damage via enhancement of antioxidant defence systems.

  5. Gating Behavior of Endoplasmic Reticulum Potassium Channels of Rat Hepatocytes in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Maedeh; Khodaei, Naser; Salari, Sajjad; Eliassi, Afsaneh; Saghiri, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Defects in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis are common occurrences in different diseases, such as diabetes, in which the function of endoplasmic reticulum is disrupted. It is now well established that ion channels of endoplasmic reticulum membrane have a critical role in endoplasmic reticulum luminal homeostasis. Our previous studies showed the presence of an ATP-sensitive cationic channel in endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, in this study, we examined and compared the activities of this channel in control and diabetic rats using single-channel recording techniques. Method: Male Wistar rats were made diabetic for 2 weeks with a single dose injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum of diabetic hepatocytes into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Results: Ion channel incorporation of rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicles into the bilayer lipid revealed that the channel current-voltage (I-V) relation with a mean slope conductance of 520 ± 19 pS was unaffected in diabetes. Interestingly, the channel Po-voltage relation was significantly lower in diabetic rats at voltages above +30 mV. Conclusion: We concluded that the endoplasmic reticulum cationic channel is involved in diabetes. Also, this finding could be considered as a goal for further therapeutic plans. PMID:24842143

  6. Administration of antisense DNA for hepatocyte growth factor causes an depressive and anxiogenic response in rats.

    PubMed

    Wakatsuki, Masatoshi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro; Ichioka, Shugo; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuru, Jusen; Matsushita, Hirotaka; Hanada, Hiroaki; Isogawa, Koichi

    2007-12-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is induced in neurons during ischemia and is neuroprotective against post-ischemic delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus. HGF might play an important role in the maturation and functioning of these neurons in the hippocampus. Our aim was to determine what effect HGF antisense has on depression and anxiety in rats. HGF antisense was infused at a constant rate into cerebral lateral ventricles and its effect on anxiety in rats was monitored. In forced swimming test, rats that received antisense DNA increased the length of time that they were immobile in the water. In the elevated plus maze test, the black and white box test and conditioned fear test, HGF antisense administration caused all indicators of anxiety to increase. Number of HGF-positive cells in C1 of hippocampus was significantly decreased in the HGF antisense-infused group compared to the vehicle- and scrambled oligonucleotide-treated group. No significant effect on general locomotor activity was seen. These results indicate that inhibition of HGF induces an increase in depression and anxiety-related behaviors suggesting a depressive and anxiogenic-like effect.

  7. Gene expression profiles of hepatocytes treated with La (NO3) 3 of rare earth in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Hao, Wei-Dong; Xu, Hou-En; Shang, Lan-Qin; Lu, You-Yong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the gene expression between La (NO3) 3-exposed and control rats in vivo. METHODS: Rats were fed La (NO3) 3 once daily at a dose of 20 mg/kg for one month by gavage. Gene expression of hepatocytes was detected using mRNA differential display (DD) technique and cDNA microarray and compared between treated and control groups. RESULTS: Six differentially expressed sequence tags were cloned by DD, of which five were up regulated and one was down regulated in treated rats. Two sequences were determined. One band was novel. The other shared 100% sequence homology with AU080263 Sugano mouse brain mncb Mus musculus cDNA clone MNCb-5435 5’. With DNA microarray, 136 differentially expressed genes were identified including 131 over-expressed genes and 5 under-expressed genes. Most of these differentially expressed genes were cell signal and transmission genes, genes associated with metabolism, protein translation and synthesis. CONCLUSION: La (NO3) 3 could change the expression levels of some kinds of genes. Further analysis of the differentially expressed genes would be helpful for understanding the wide biological effect spectrum of rare earth elements. PMID:15162537

  8. Repopulation of the fibrotic/cirrhotic rat liver by transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells and mature hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yovchev, Mladen I.; Xue, Yuhua; Shafritz, David A.; Locker, Joseph; Oertel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aim Considerable progress has been made in developing anti-fibrotic agents and other strategies to treat liver fibrosis; however, significant long-term restoration of functional liver mass has not yet been achieved. Therefore, we investigated whether transplanted hepatic stem/progenitor cells can effectively repopulate the liver with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Methods Stem/progenitor cells derived from fetal livers or mature hepatocytes from DPPIV+ F344 rats were transplanted into DPPIV− rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis/cirrhosis; rats were sacrificed 1, 2, or 4 months later. Liver tissues were analyzed by histochemistry, hydroxyproline determination, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Results After chronic TAA administration, DPPIV− F344 rats exhibited progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis and severe hepatocyte damage. Besides stellate cell activation, increased numbers of stem/progenitor cells (Dlk-1+, AFP+, CD133+, Sox-9+, FoxJ1+) were observed. In conjunction with partial hepatectomy (PH), transplanted stem/progenitor cells engrafted, proliferated competitively compared to host hepatocytes, differentiated into hepatocytic and biliary epithelial cells, and generated new liver mass with extensive long-term liver repopulation (40.8 ± 10.3%). Remarkably, more than 20% liver repopulation was achieved in the absence of PH, associated with reduced fibrogenic activity (e.g., expression of α-SMA, PDGFRβ, desmin, vimentin, TIMP1) and fibrosis (reduced collagen). Furthermore, hepatocytes can also replace liver mass with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis, but to a lesser extent than FLSPCs. Conclusions This study is a Proof of Principle demonstration that transplanted epithelial stem/progenitor cells can restore injured parenchyma in a liver environment with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and exhibit anti-fibrotic effects. PMID:23840008

  9. In vitro metabolism of [(14)C]-benalaxyl in hepatocytes of rats, dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Nallani, Gopinath C; ElNaggar, Shaaban F; Shen, Li; Chandrasekaran, Appavu

    2017-03-01

    The in vitro comparative animal metabolism study is now a data requirement under EU Directive 1107/2009 for registration of plant protection products. This type of study helps determine the extent of metabolism of a chemical in each surrogate species and whether any unique human metabolite(s) are formed. In the present study, metabolism of racemic [(14)C]-benalaxyl, a fungicide was investigated in cryopreserved rat, dog and human hepatocytes. The metabolites generated were identified/characterized by LC/MS/MS with radiometric detection and comparison with reference standards. [(14)C]-glucuronide conjugates of benalaxyl metabolites in rat, dog and human hepatocytes were confirmed via additional experiments in which known reference standards were incubated with dog liver microsomes in the presence of UDPGA. After 4 h of incubation, benalaxyl was extensively metabolized in all the species with the following trend: dog (100%) > human (86%) > rat (75%). In all species, the major metabolic pathways consisted of hydroxylation of the methyl group in the xylene moiety to 2-hydroxymethyl-benalaxyl, further oxidation to its carboxylic acid analogue (benalaxyl-2-benzoic acid), and hydrolysis of the methyl ester to yield benalaxyl acid or 2-hydroxymethyl benalaxyl acid. In addition, glucuronidation of phase I metabolites occurred in all species, to a higher extent in dog hepatocytes in which 2-hydroxymethyl-benalaxyl-glucuronide conjugate constituted the most significant metabolite. No major unique metabolite was observed in human hepatocytes. Also, benalaxyl did not undergo stereo-selective metabolism in rat or human hepatocytes.

  10. Effect of improved hydrogen supply on energy state, ureogenesis and gluconeogenesis in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Letko, G; Halangk, W

    1986-01-01

    The cellular energy state as well as ureogenesis and gluconeogenesis as ATP-consuming processes were studied as a function of hydrogen supply of mitochondria in isolated hepatocytes. Even though the ATP turnover was quite different during ureogenesis and gluconeogenesis and in the absence of these syntheses both the safranine signals (as a probe for the mitochondrial membrane potential) and the total ATP contents of the cells did not vary to a great extent. Partial uncoupling by FCCP destroyed the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased the cellular ATP totally. Under these conditions the presence of ornithine plus lactate maintained a measurable membrane potential and ATP level. In order to demonstrate the relevance of hydrogen supply of mitochondria to the syntheses of glucose and urea, the load on energy metabolism was additionally increased by partial uncoupling, and the cells were incubated in a parallel mode in Krebs-Henseleit buffer and an 80 mM succinate containing medium, the latter forcing succinate into the cells. After partial uncoupling, ureogenesis and gluconeogenesis as well as the ATP level were seen to decrease markedly in Krebs-Henseleit buffer, whereas in the succinate medium the improved hydrogen supply of mitochondria counteracted the drain by FCCP, and substantially higher rates of the syntheses and elevated ATP levels were maintained.

  11. Induction of oxidative stress by selenomethionine in isolated hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Misra, Sougat; Hamilton, Charmain; Niyogi, Som

    2012-06-01

    Fish are exposed to environmental selenium predominantly in the form of dietary selenomethionine (SeMet). The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity of SeMet using isolated hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model experimental system. Cells were exposed to an increasing range of SeMet (0-1000 μM) over 24h, and the time-dependent effects on cell viability, response of enzymatic antioxidants, thiol redox, intracellular calcium balance and caspase-mediated apoptosis were evaluated. SeMet was found to be toxic only at the highest exposure dose (1000 μM), with ∼15% decrease in cell viability. Although modest increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded following SeMet exposure, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione decreased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a gradual progression towards an oxidative intracellular environment. The peroxidation of membrane lipids also increased with increasing SeMet exposure dose. In addition, a rapid increase in intracellular calcium level and the activation of caspase 3/7 enzymes were recorded at the highest exposure dose, indicating that SeMet at a high exposure dose causes cell death probably via apoptosis. Overall, our study demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a key role in the cytotoxicity of SeMet in fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of metal ions on lipid peroxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes loaded with alpha-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Furono, K; Suetsuga, T; Sugihara, N

    1996-06-07

    We investigated the ability of various redox-active metal ions to induce lipid peroxidation in normal and alpha-linolenic acid-loaded (LNA-loaded) cultured rat hepatocytes. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the culture medium. At low concentrations induction was highest with ferrous ions (Fe), whereas at high concentrations, vanadium (V) and copper ions (Cu) had the greatest effect on both groups of hepatocytes. With any one of the three metal ions, the extent of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded hepatocytes was several times greater compared to normal cells. In addition, upon the addition of Fe or V, LNA-loaded hepatocytes were injured whereas normal cells were not. The addition of Cu caused substantial cell injury in normal hepatocytes, and even greater injury in LNA-loaded cells. The prevention of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded hepatocytes by addition of an antioxidant like N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DPPD) almost completely prevented Fe- and V-induced cell injury, and reduced Cu-induced cell injury. alpha-Tocopherol behaved in a way similar to but less effective than DPPD. .OH radical scavengers such as mannitol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) had no effect on lipid peroxidation induced by any metal ions in LNA-loaded hepatocytes. Addition of cadmium ions (Cd), which required the lowest concentration to cause cell injury, induced a slight increase in lipid peroxidation in normal hepatocytes, but did not induce lipid peroxidation to the same extent as seen in LNA-loaded cells treated with any of the three metal ions already mentioned. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by DPPD scarcely protected LNA-loaded hepatocytes from Cd-induced cell injury. None of the other metal ions including aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and tin (Sn) ions, effectively induced lipid peroxidation in either group of hepatocytes, except cobalt ions (Co), which had a peroxidative effect in LNA

  13. Effect of ethanol on the redox state of the coenzyme bound to alcohol dehydrogenase studied in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cronholm, T

    1987-01-01

    Hepatocytes were isolated from fed female rats and incubated with a redox indicator system consisting of cyclohexanone and unlabelled or perdeuterated cyclohexanol. The concentrations and deuterium contents of these were measured by g.l.c. and g.l.c.-m.s. of oxime t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. The equilibrium composition represented the redox state of the coenzyme bound to alcohol dehydrogenase, since 4-methylpyrazole inhibited the interconversion. Reduction appeared to be catalysed to a small extent also by an NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase. The NADH/NAD+ ratio on alcohol dehydrogenase was 3 orders of magnitude higher in the presence of ethanol than in its absence. This redox shift has the degree expected from reported kinetic constants. The shift was due both to a decreased rate of oxidation and to an increased rate of reduction in the indicator system. The results indicate that the redox effect of ethanol on the free NAD system is due to efficient removal of acetaldehyde from a near-equilibrium system consisting of ethanol, acetaldehyde and bound coenzymes, together with dissociation of NADH from the enzyme. The effect on the redox state of the bound coenzyme was less marked when the ethanol was deuterated at C-1, indicating an isotope effect. The 2H excess in the cyclohexanol formed was about 70% of that in the [1,1-2H2]ethanol. This dilution, which is caused by binding of free NADH to the enzyme, indicates that reoxidation of cytosolic NADH partly limits the rate of ethanol oxidation. PMID:3435467

  14. Regeneration and DNA demethylation do not trigger PDX-1 expression in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pillich, Rudolf T; Scarsella, Gianfranco; Risuleo, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility that PDX-1 gene is reactivated as a consequence of molecular events that occur during liver regeneration. METHODS: Rat hepatocytes were maintained in DMEM-F12, 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), penicillin/streptomycin and geneticin when applicable. Rat insulinoma RIN 1046-38 cells were maintained in M-199-10% FBS and penicillin/streptomycin. The final concentration of glucose was 11.1 mmol/L. During regeneration, lateral and medial liver lobes of adult male Wistar rats were surgically removed, with up 70% loss of liver mass. In methylation experiments, 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) was used. Primer3 software was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed using SYBR Green technology; primers were designed by Beacon Designer 6 software. Western blotting and SDS-PAGE were performed according to standard procedures. Antibodies were purchased from commercial suppliers. RESULTS: We explored the possibility that liver regeneration could trigger PDX-1 expression, and hence insulin production. Twenty-four hours after surgical liver removal, regeneration was active as demonstrated by the increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen; however, all the other checked genes (involved in insulin gene expression): PC-1, Ngn3, NeuroD1, Btc, PDX-1 and Ins-1, were not related to the molecular events caused by this process. The only marker detected in regenerating liver was E47: a transcription factor of the the basic helix-loop-helix family known to be expressed ubiquitously in mammalian cells. In the rat pancreas, almost all of the tested genes were expressed as shown by RT-PCR, except for Ngn3, which was silenced 2 d after birth. Therefore, the molecular events in liver regeneration are not sufficient to promote PDX-1 expression. DNA methylation is a known mechanism to achieve stable repression of gene expression in mammals: Hxk 2 gene is silenced through this mechanism in normal hepatocytes. The

  15. Amelioration of Hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn Rats after Transplantation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Wei; Sauer, Vanessa; Chang, Chan-Jung; Han, Bing; Tchaikovskaya, Tatyana; Avsar, Yesim; Tafaleng, Edgar; Madhusudana Girija, Sanal; Tar, Krisztina; Polgar, Zsuzsanna; Strom, Stephen; Bouhassira, Eric E.; Guha, Chandan; Fox, Ira J.; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocyte transplantation has the potential to cure inherited liver diseases, but its application is impeded by a scarcity of donor livers. Therefore, we explored whether transplantation of hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps) differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could ameliorate inherited liver diseases. iPSCs reprogrammed from human skin fibroblasts were differentiated to iHeps, which were transplanted into livers of uridinediphosphoglucuronate glucuronosyltransferase-1 (UGT1A1)-deficient Gunn rats, a model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome 1 (CN1), where elevated unconjugated bilirubin causes brain injury and death. To promote iHep proliferation, 30% of the recipient liver was X-irradiated before transplantation, and hepatocyte growth factor was expressed. After transplantation, UGT1A1+ iHep clusters constituted 2.5%–7.5% of the preconditioned liver lobe. A decline of serum bilirubin by 30%–60% and biliary excretion of bilirubin glucuronides indicated that transplanted iHeps expressed UGT1A1 activity, a postnatal function of hepatocytes. Therefore, iHeps warrant further exploration as a renewable source of hepatocytes for treating inherited liver diseases. PMID:26074313

  16. Effects of nutritional and hormonal factors on the metabolism of retinol-binding protein by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.L.; Goodman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore hormonal and nutritional factors that might be involved in the regulation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) synthesis and secretion by the liver. The studies employed primary cultures of hepatocytes from normal rats. When cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium alone, a high rate of RBP secretion was observed initially, which declined and became quite low by 24 hr. Supplementing the medium with amino acids maintained RBP and albumin secretion at moderate (but less than initial) rates for at least 3 days. Further addition of dexamethasone maintained the production and secretion rates of RBP, transthyretin, and albumin close to the initial rates for up to 3-5 days in culture as measured by radioimmunoassay. Hormonally treated hepatocytes produced and secreted RBP, transthyretin, and albumin at both absolute and relative rates similar to physiological values, as estimated from rates reported by others from studies in vivo and with perfused livers. Glucagon addition partially maintained the secretion rates of these 3 proteins, but less effectively than did dexamethasone. A number of other hormones, added singly or in combination, did not affect RBP production or secretion. Addition of retinol to the cultured normal hepatocytes was without effect upon RBP secretion. These studies show that supplementing the culture medium of hepatocytes with amino acids and dexamethasone maintains RBP production and secretion for several days. In normal hepatocytes, with ample supply of retinol available within the cell, addition of exogenous retinol does not appear to influence RBP metabolism or secretion by the cells.

  17. Use of in situ hybridization to identify collagen and albumin mRNAs in isolated mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Saber, M A; Zern, M A; Shafritz, D A

    1983-01-01

    We present a simple and improved method for in situ localization of albumin and collagen mRNAs in isolated mouse hepatocytes. The cells were isolated by collagenase perfusion, mincing, and differential centrifugation. Nick-translated 3H-labeled mouse albumin cDNA (pmalb-2) and chicken pro-alpha 2(I) collagen cDNA (pCg45) probes were then hybridized with the cells in silane-treated microcentrifuge tubes. The cells were transferred and fixed to a microscope slide and hybridization was evaluated semiquantitatively by counting exposure of grains in autoradiographic emulsion placed over the cells. With this method of in situ hybridization, all hepatocytes appear to have significant, but highly variable, amounts of albumin mRNA. In addition, type I procollagen mRNA appears to be present at low abundance in hepatocytes. These results indicate that in situ hybridization can effectively demonstrate the presence of specific low- or high-abundance mRNAs in isolated well-differentiated eukaryotic cells. Images PMID:6575392

  18. Site-specificity of ethanol-induced dephosphorylation of rat hepatocyte keratins 8 and 18: A 31P NMR study.

    PubMed

    Eckert, B S; Yeagle, P L

    1996-01-01

    Chronic feeding of ethanol to rats results in disorganization of the keratin intermediate filament network within hepatocytes. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that intermediate filament organization in cultured cells is related to the phosphorylation state of the proteins. Therefore, we have examined the phosphorylation state of hepatocyte keratins from control and ethanol-fed rats. Feeding ethanol to rats results in dephosphorylation of one site on keratin 8 and one site on keratin 18 at all time points beginning with 6 weeks of ethanol treatment. Dephosphorylation was detected by phosphate analysis and by two-dimensional electrophoresis in which a change in isoelectric point of keratins from ethanol-fed rats was observed. These observations indicate that dephosphorylation of keratins in ethanol-fed animals may be an early step in alcoholic hepatitis which has occurred by 6 weeks of ethanol treatment. To further characterize keratin dephosphorylation in ethanol-fed rats, we used 31P NMR spectroscopy to classify the dephosphorylation site(s). Hepatocyte keratins were purified and solubilized in 9.5 M urea, 10 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.1. 31P NMR spectra were obtained at 109 MHz, in 10 mm tubes at 30 degrees C. Samples of hepatocyte keratins were phosphorylated with A-kinase, protein kinase C, casein kinase II or Ca/CAM kinase and these samples were analyzed by 31P NMR spectroscopy. The resulting spectra were used as standards to compare the 31P chemical shifts of the resonances produced by these kinases with the phosphorus resonances of control and experimental samples. The 31P NMR spectrum of control hepatocyte keratins shows three resonances at 0.7, 4 and 5 ppm. In vitro phosphorylation by A-kinase produces a resonance at 4 ppm which is distinctly different from the resonance produced by each of the other kinases. In hepatocyte keratins from ethanol-fed animals, the resonance at 4 ppm was missing from the spectrum. These observations indicate that the

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor beta regulate 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase gene expression in rat hepatocyte primary cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Joaquin, M; Rosa, J L; Salvadó, C; López, S; Nakamura, T; Bartrons, R; Gil, J; Tauler, A

    1996-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are believed to be of major importance for hepatic regeneration after liver damage. We have studied the effect of these growth factors on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels and the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase) in rat hepatocyte primary cultures. Our results demonstrate that HGF activates the expression of the 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene by increasing the levels of its mRNA. As a consequence of this activation, the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity increased, which was reflected by a rise in Fru-2,6-P2 levels. In contrast, TGF-beta decreased the levels of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase mRNA, which led to a decrease in the amount of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase protein and Fru-2,6-P2. The different actions of HGF and TGF-beta on 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression are concomitant with their effect on cell proliferation. Here we show that, in the absence of hormones, primary cultures of hepatocytes express the F-type isoenzyme. In addition, HGF increases the expression of this isoenzyme, and dexamethasone activates the L-type isoform. HGF and TGF-beta were able to inhibit this activation. PMID:8660288

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] on alcohol-damaged primary rat hepatocyte culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenhua; Bian, Yuzhu; Wang, Zhenghui; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared a novel nanobiotherapeutic, Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase], which not only transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide but also a therapeutic antioxidant. Our previous study in a severe sustained 90 min hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigate its hepatoprotective effect further in this present report using an alcohol-damaged primary hepatocyte culture model. Results show that it significantly reduced ethanol-induced AST release, lipid peroxidation, and ROS production in rat primary hepatocytes culture. It also significantly enhanced the viability of ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the result shows that Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] also has some hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced injury in in vitro rat primary hepatocytes cell culture. This collaborate our previous observation of its hepatoprotective effect in a severe sustained 90-min hemorrhagic shock rat model.

  1. Gd-BOPTA transport into rat hepatocytes: pharmacokinetic analysis of dynamic magnetic resonance images using a hollow-fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Planchamp, Corinne; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Dornier, Christophe; Quadri, Rafael; Reist, Marianne; Ivancevic, Marko K; Vallée, Jean-Paul; Pochon, Sibylle; Terrier, François; Balant, Luc; Stieger, Bruno; Meier, Peter J; Pastor, Catherine M

    2004-08-01

    To investigate the transport of the hepatobiliary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent Gd-BOPTA into rat hepatocytes. In a MR-compatible hollow-fiber bioreactor containing hepatocytes, MR signal intensity was measured over time during the perfusion of Gd-BOPTA. For comparison, the perfusion of an extracellular contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) was also studied. A compartmental pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe dynamic signal intensity-time curves. The dynamic signal intensity-time curves of the hepatocyte hollow-fiber bioreactor during Gd-BOPTA perfusion were adequately fitted by 2 compartmental models. Modeling permitted to discriminate between the behaviors of the extracellular contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) and the hepatobiliary contrast agent (Gd-BOPTA). It allowed the successfully quantification of the parameters involved in such differences. Gd-BOPTA uptake was saturable at high substrate concentrations. The transport of Gd-BOPTA into rat hepatocytes was successfully described by compartmental analysis of the signal intensity recorded over time and supported the hypothesis of a transporter-mediated uptake.

  2. Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rat Liver Mitochondria and Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Endlicher, Rene; Sobotka, Ondrej; Drahota, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea antioxidant with adverse effects on rat liver mitochondria and hepatocytes at high doses. Here, we assessed whether low doses of EGCG would protect these systems from damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). Rat liver mitochondria or permeabilized rat hepatocytes were pretreated with EGCG and then exposed to tBHP. Oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and mitochondrial retention capacity for calcium were measured. First, 50 μM EGCG or 0.25 mM tBHP alone increased State 4 Complex I-driven respiration, thus demonstrating uncoupling effects; tBHP also inhibited State 3 ADP-stimulated respiration. Then, the coexposure to 0.25 mM tBHP and 50 μM EGCG induced a trend of further decline in the respiratory control ratio beyond that observed upon tBHP exposure alone. EGCG had no effect on MMP and no effect, in concentrations up to 50 μM, on mitochondrial calcium retention capacity. tBHP led to a decline in both MMP and mitochondrial retention capacity for calcium; these effects were not changed by pretreatment with EGCG. In addition, EGCG dose-dependently enhanced hydrogen peroxide formation in a cell- and mitochondria-free medium. Conclusion. Moderate nontoxic doses of EGCG were not able to protect rat liver mitochondria and hepatocytes from tBHP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:28074116

  3. Rat Hepatocytes Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis Identifies Specific Modules and Hub Genes Related to Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yun; Xu, Jiucheng; Liu, Yunqing; Li, Juntao; Chang, Cuifang; Xu, Cunshuan

    2014-01-01

    The recovery of liver mass is mainly mediated by proliferation of hepatocytes after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. Studying the gene expression profiles of hepatocytes after 2/3 PH will be helpful to investigate the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration (LR). We report here the first application of weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to analyze the biological implications of gene expression changes associated with LR. WGCNA identifies 12 specific gene modules and some hub genes from hepatocytes genome-scale microarray data in rat LR. The results suggest that upregulated MCM5 may promote hepatocytes proliferation during LR; BCL3 may play an important role by activating or inhibiting NF-kB pathway; MAPK9 may play a permissible role in DNA replication by p38 MAPK inactivation in hepatocytes proliferation stage. Thus, WGCNA can provide novel insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms of LR. PMID:24743545

  4. SELENIUM COMPOUNDS MODULATE THE ACTIVITY OF RECOMBINANT RAT ASIII-METHYLTRANSFERASE AND THE METHYLATION OF ARSENITE BY RAT AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Formation of methylated metabolites is a critical step in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic or selenium. We have previously shown that under conditions of a concurrent exposure selenite inhibits methylation of arsenite by cultured rat hepatocytes. Here, we com...

  5. SELENIUM COMPOUNDS MODULATE THE ACTIVITY OF RECOMBINANT RAT ASIII-METHYLTRANSFERASE AND THE METHYLATION OF ARSENITE BY RAT AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Formation of methylated metabolites is a critical step in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic or selenium. We have previously shown that under conditions of a concurrent exposure selenite inhibits methylation of arsenite by cultured rat hepatocytes. Here, we com...

  6. Endogenous Bile Acid Disposition in Rat and Human Sandwich-Cultured Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Tracy L.; Perry, Cassandra H.; St. Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR® technology, BAs were measured in cells+bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells+bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.85 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 55.6 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.210 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. PMID:22342602

  7. Determination of intracellular unbound concentrations and subcellular localization of drugs in rat sandwich-cultured hepatocytes compared with liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Nathan D; Harris, Kevin B; Yan, Grace Zhixia; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2013-11-01

    Prediction of clinical efficacy, toxicity, and drug-drug interactions may be improved by accounting for the intracellular unbound drug concentration (C(unbound)) in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, subcellular drug distribution may aid in predicting efficacy, toxicity, and risk assessment. The present study was designed to quantify the intracellular C(unbound) and subcellular localization of drugs in rat sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) compared with rat isolated perfused liver (IPL) tissue. Probe drugs with distinct mechanisms of hepatocellular uptake and accumulation were selected for investigation. Following drug treatment, SCH and IPL tissues were homogenized and fractionated by differential centrifugation to enrich for subcellular compartments. Binding in crude lysate and cytosol was determined by equilibrium dialysis; the C(unbound) and intracellular-to-extracellular C(unbound) ratio (K(pu,u)) were used to describe accumulation of unbound drug. Total accumulation (K(pobserved)) in whole tissue was well predicted by the SCH model (within 2- to 3-fold) for the selected drugs. Ritonavir (K(pu,u) ∼1) was evenly distributed among cellular compartments, but highly bound, which explained the observed accumulation within liver tissue. Rosuvastatin was recovered primarily in the cytosolic fraction, but did not exhibit extensive binding, resulting in a K(pu,u) >1 in liver tissue and SCH, consistent with efficient hepatic uptake. Despite extensive binding and sequestration of furamidine within liver tissue, a significant portion of cellular accumulation was attributed to unbound drug (K(pu,u) >16), as expected for a charged, hepatically derived metabolite. Data demonstrate the utility of SCH to predict quantitatively total tissue accumulation and elucidate mechanisms of hepatocellular drug accumulation such as active uptake versus binding/sequestration.

  8. Control of glucokinase translocation in rat hepatocytes by sorbitol and the cytosolic redox state.

    PubMed Central

    Agius, L

    1994-01-01

    In rat hepatocytes cultured in 5 mM glucose, glucokinase activity is present predominantly in a bound state, and during permeabilization of the cells with digitonin in the presence of Mg2+ less than 20% of glucokinase activity is released. However, incubation of hepatocytes with a higher [glucose] [concn. giving half-maximal activation (A50) 15 mM] or with fructose (A50 50 microM) causes translocation of glucokinase from its Mg(2+)-dependent binding site to an alternative site [Agius and Peak (1993) Biochem. J. 296, 785-796]. A comparison of various substrates showed that sorbitol (A50 8 microM) was 6-fold more potent than fructose at causing glucokinase translocation, whereas tagatose was as potent and mannitol was > 10-fold less potent (A50 550 microM). These substrates also stimulate glucose conversion into glycogen with a similar relative potency, suggesting that conversion of glucose into glycogen is dependent on the binding and/or location of glucokinase within the hepatocyte. Ethanol and glycerol inhibited the effects of fructose, sorbitol and glucose on glucokinase translocation, whereas dihydroxy-acetone had a small additive effect at sub-maximal substrate stimulation. The converse effects of glycerol and dihydroxy-acetone suggest a role for the cytosolic NADH/NAD+ redox state in controlling glucokinase translocation. Titrations with three competitive inhibitors of glucokinase did not provide evidence for involvement of glucokinase flux in glucose-induced glucokinase translocation: N-acetylglucosamine inhibited glucose conversion into glycogen, but not glucose-induced glucokinase translocation; glucosamine partially suppressed glucose-induced and fructose-induced glucokinase translocation, at concentrations that caused total inhibition of glucose conversion into glycogen; D-mannoheptulose increased glucokinase release and had an additive effect with glucose. 3,3'-Tetramethylene-glutaric acid (5 mM), an inhibitor of aldose reductase, inhibited glucokinase

  9. Direct transfer of hepatocyte growth factor gene into kidney suppresses cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Koji; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Takahara, Shiro; Imai, Enyu; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Shi, Yi; Namba, Yukiomi; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2004-04-01

    The clinical utility of cyclosporin A (CsA) has been limited by its nephrotoxicity, which is characterized by tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and progressive renal impairment. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which plays diverse roles in the regeneration of the kidney following acute renal failure, has been reported to protect against and salvage renal injury by acting as a renotropic and anti-fibrotic factor. Here, we investigated protective effects of HGF gene therapy on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity by using an electroporation-mediated gene transfer method. CsA was orally administered as a daily dose of 30 mg/kg in male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving a low sodium diet (0.03% sodium). Plasmid vector encoding HGF (200 micro g) was transferred into the kidney by electroporation. HGF gene transfer resulted in significant increases in plasma HGF levels. Morphological assessment revealed that HGF gene transfer reduced CsA-induced initial tubular injury and inhibited interstitial infiltration of ED-1-positive macrophages. In addition, northern blot analysis demonstrated that cortical mRNA levels of TGF-beta and type I collagen were suppressed in the HGF group. Finally, HGF gene transfer significantly reduced striped interstitial phenotypic alterations and fibrosis in CsA-treated rats, as assessed by alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and Masson's trichrome staining. These results suggest that HGF may prevent CsA-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis, indicating that HGF gene transfer may provide a potential strategy for preventing renal fibrosis.

  10. Embryonic mouse STO cell-derived xenografts express hepatocytic functions in the livers of nonimmunosuppressed adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjun; Joseph, Brigid; Gupta, Sanjeev; Guest, I; Xu, Meng; Sell, Stewart; Son, Kyung-Hwa; Koch, Katherine S; Leffert, Hyam L

    2005-02-01

    Cells derived from embryonic mouse STO cell lines differentiate into hepatocytes when transplanted into the livers of nonimmunosuppressed dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV)-negative F344 rats. Within 1 day after intrasplenic injection, donor cells moved rapidly into the liver and were found in intravascular and perivascular sites; by 1 month, they were intrasinusoidal and also integrated into hepatic plates with approximately 2% efficiency and formed conjoint bile canaliculi. Neither donor cell proliferation nor host inflammatory responses were observed during this time. Detection of intrahepatic mouse COX1 mitochondrial DNA and mouse albumin mRNA in recipient rats indicated survival and differentiation of donor cells for at least 3 months. Mouse COX1 targets were also detected intrahepatically 4-9 weeks after STO cell injection into nonimmunosuppressed wild-type rats. In contrast to STO-transplanted rats, mouse DNA or RNA was not detectable in untreated or mock-transplanted rats or in rats injected with donor cell DNA. In cultured STO donor cells, DPPIV and glucose-6-phosphatase activities were observed in small clusters; in contrast, mouse major histocompatibility complex class I H-2Kq, H-2Dq, and H-2Lq and class II I-Aq markers were undetectable in vitro before or after interferon gamma treatment. Together with H-2K allele typing, which confirmed the Swiss mouse origin of the donor cells, these observations indicate that mouse-derived STO cell lines can differentiate along hepatocytic lineage and engraft into rat liver across major histocompatibility barriers.

  11. Effects of chlorpromazine on Na+-K+-ATPase pumping and solute transport in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, R.W.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1987-11-01

    Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase and sodium-dependent bile acid transport has been suggested as a mechanism for the cholestasis produced by certain drugs such as chlorpromazine. We examined the effects of chlorpromazine (and in selected studies, two of its metabolites) on Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping (ouabain-suppressible /sup 86/Rb uptake), exchangeable intracellular sodium content, membrane potential (assessed by /sup 36/Cl- distribution), and sodium-dependent transport of taurocholate and alanine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Chlorpromazine (10-300 microM), 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (10-300 microM), and ouabain (0.1-2 mM), but not chlorpromazine sulfoxide, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping and an increase in intracellular sodium content. Chlorpromazine (100 microM) and ouabain (0.75 mM) also modestly decreased hepatocyte membrane potential. In further studies, chlorpromazine (75 and 100 microM) and ouabain (0.1, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) decreased initial sodium-dependent uptake rates of taurocholate and alanine by 18-63%. Although the steady-state intracellular content of alanine was decreased 25-53% by both agents, chlorpromazine increased the steady-state content of taurocholate by 171% and decreased taurocholate efflux, apparently related to partitioning of taurocholate into a large, slowly turning over intracellular pool. These studies provide direct evidence that chlorpromazine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping in intact cells and that partial inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping is associated with a reduction of both the electrochemical sodium gradient and sodium-dependent solute transport. These effects of chlorpromazine may contribute to chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in animals and humans.

  12. Toxicokinetics of acrylamide in primary rat hepatocytes: coupling to glutathione is faster than conversion to glycidamide.

    PubMed

    Watzek, Nico; Scherbl, Denise; Schug, Markus; Hengstler, Jan G; Baum, Matthias; Habermeyer, Michael; Richling, Elke; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2013-08-01

    Acrylamide (AA), classified as class 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is formed during heating of food from reducing carbohydrates and asparagine by Maillard reaction chemistry. After dietary uptake, AA is in part metabolically converted into the proximate genotoxic phase I metabolite glycidamide (GA). GA reacts with nucleophilic base positions in DNA, primarily forming N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-GA-Gua) adducts. In a competing phase II biotransformation pathway AA, as well as its phase I metabolite GA, is coupled to glutathione (GSH). The GSH coupling products are further biotransformed and excreted via urine as mercapturic acids (MA), N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-2-carbamoylethyl)cysteine (GAMA). In the present study, hepatic biotransformation pathways and DNA adduct formation were studied in primary rat hepatocytes, incubated with AA (0.2-2,000 μM) for up to 24 h. Contents of AA-GSH, GA, AAMA, and GAMA were measured in the cell culture medium after solid phase extraction (SPE). N7-GA-Gua adducts in DNA of hepatocytes were determined by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS after lysis of the cells and neutral thermal hydrolysis. Formation of AA-GSH was linear with AA concentration and incubation time and became detectable already at 0.2 μM (4 h). In contrast to AA, GA was not detected before 16 h incubation at 10-fold higher AA concentration (2 μM). In summary, the rate of AA-GSH formation was found to be about 1.5-3 times higher than that of GA formation. N7-GA-Gua adducts were found only at the highest AA concentration tested (2,000 μM).

  13. Effects of chlorpromazine on Na+-K+-ATPase pumping and solute transport in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, R W; Scharschmidt, B F

    1987-11-01

    Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase and sodium-dependent bile acid transport has been suggested as a mechanism for the cholestasis produced by certain drugs such as chlorpromazine. We examined the effects of chlorpromazine (and in selected studies, two of its metabolites) on Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping (ouabain-suppressible 86Rb uptake), exchangeable intracellular sodium content, membrane potential (assessed by 36Cl- distribution), and sodium-dependent transport of taurocholate and alanine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Chlorpromazine (10-300 microM), 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (10-300 microM), and ouabain (0.1-2 mM), but not chlorpromazine sulfoxide, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping and an increase in intracellular sodium content. Chlorpromazine (100 microM) and ouabain (0.75 mM) also modestly decreased hepatocyte membrane potential. In further studies, chlorpromazine (75 and 100 microM) and ouabain (0.1, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) decreased initial sodium-dependent uptake rates of taurocholate and alanine by 18-63%. Although the steady-state intracellular content of alanine was decreased 25-53% by both agents, chlorpromazine increased the steady-state content of taurocholate by 171% and decreased taurocholate efflux, apparently related to partitioning of taurocholate into a large, slowly turning over intracellular pool. These studies provide direct evidence that chlorpromazine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping in intact cells and that partial inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping is associated with a reduction of both the electrochemical sodium gradient and sodium-dependent solute transport. These effects of chlorpromazine may contribute to chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in animals and humans.

  14. A new flavanone isolated from rhizoma smilacis glabrae and the structural requirements of its derivatives for preventing immunological hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Li, J; Cao, J; Xu, Q; Komatsu, K; Namba, T

    1999-02-01

    From the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb., a new flavanone was isolated and named as smitilbin (1), together with 6 known compounds, engeletin (2), astilbin (3), dihydroquercetin (4), eurryphin (5), resveratrol (6), and 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (7). These compounds were applied to the assay of liver nonparenchymal cells (NPC) against hepatocytes (HC) isolated from mice with an immunological liver injury. Against the NPC-caused elevation of ALT (alanine transminase) in culture supernatant from HC, the pretreatment of NPC with flavanoids (1-3) dose-dependently blocked the ALT release while 4, the aglycone of 3, did not. The chromone 5 showed a much stronger inhibition. Compound 6 also showed the activity. However, 1-7 did not show any suppression of NPC or CCl4-induced ALT release when they were used to pretreat HC. These results suggest that compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 could protect the hepatocyte damage from NPC through selectively producing the dysfunction of NPC with an essential requirement of rhamnose, and the chromone part in their structures may be critical for exhibiting the activity rather than through protecting the hepatocyte membranes.

  15. Nicotine increases hepatic oxygen uptake in the isolated perfused rat liver by inhibiting glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Brian J; Bradford, Blair U; Thurman, Ronald G

    2002-06-01

    Nicotine influences energy metabolism, yet mechanisms remain unclear. Since the liver is one of the largest organs and performs many metabolic functions, the goal of this study was to determine whether nicotine would affect respiration and other metabolic functions in the isolated perfused liver. Infusion of 85 microM nicotine caused a rapid 10% increase in oxygen uptake over basal values of 105 +/- 5 micromol/g/h in perfused livers from fed rats, and an increase of 27% was observed with 850 microM nicotine. Concomitantly, rates of glycolysis of 105 +/- 8 micromol/g/h were decreased to 52 +/- 9 micromol/g/h with nicotine, whereas ketone body production was unaffected. Nicotine had no effect on oxygen uptake in glycogen-depleted livers from 24-h fasted rats. Furthermore, addition of glucose to perfused livers from fasted rats partially restored the stimulatory effect of nicotine. Infusion of atractyloside, potassium cyanide, or glucagon blocked the nicotine-induced increase in respiration. Intracellular calcium was increased in isolated hepatocytes by nicotine, a phenomenon prevented by incubation of cells with d-tubocurarine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Respiration was also increased approximately 30% in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats by nicotine, whereas hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats showed little response. In the presence of N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89), an inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A, nicotine failed to stimulate respiration. These data support the hypothesis that inhibition of glycolysis by nicotine increases oxygen uptake due to an ADP-dependent increase in mitochondrial respiration.

  16. Evidence for a substrate cycle between AMP and adenosine in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bontemps, F; Van den Berghe, G; Hers, H G

    1983-01-01

    The effect of adenosine on the metabolism of prelabeled adenine nucleotides was investigated in isolated hepatocytes. Adenosine caused an approximately equal to 2-fold increase in the ATP content of the cells. This effect was in part counteracted by an increased rate of adenine nucleotide catabolism that could be explained by a stimulation of both AMP deaminase (AMP aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.6) and the cytoplasmic 5'-nucleotidase (5'-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.5) because of the increased concentration of ATP. The unexpected finding that labeled adenosine was formed immediately after the addition of the unlabeled nucleoside could be explained by the trapping effect of adenosine. An accumulation of labeled adenosine was observed also in the presence of 5-iodotubercidin, a potent inhibitor of adenosine kinase (ATP:adenosine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.20). Under these conditions, there was a decrease in the concentration of ATP in the cell and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the rate of formation of allantoin. This formation of adenosine was only slightly decreased by inhibition of the membranous 5'-nucleotidase; it led to the accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine in the presence of coformycin and an excess of L-homocysteine. It was concluded that, under basal conditions, the cytoplasmic 5'-nucleotidase present in the liver cell continuously produces adenosine, which is immediately reconverted into AMP by adenosine kinase, without giving rise to allantoin. This futile cycle between AMP and adenosine amounts to at least 20 nmol/min per g of liver and, thus, exceeds the basic rate of allantoin formation. PMID:6304684

  17. New physiologically-relevant liver tissue model based on hierarchically cocultured primary rat hepatocytes with liver endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenjin; Perry, Guillaume; Komori, Kikuo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    To develop an in vitro liver tissue equivalent, hepatocytes should be cocultured with liver non-parenchymal cells to mimic the in vivo physiological microenvironments. In this work, we describe a physiologically-relevant liver tissue model by hierarchically organizing layers of primary rat hepatocytes and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (TMNK-1) on an oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, which facilitates direct oxygenation by diffusion through the membrane. This in vivo-mimicking hierarchical coculture was obtained by simply proceeding the overlay of TMNK-1 cells on the hepatocyte layer re-formed on the collagen immobilized PDMS membranes. The comparison of hepatic functionalities was achieved between coculture and sandwich culture with Matrigel, in the presence and absence of direct oxygenation. A complete double-layered structure of functional liver cells with vertical contact between hepatocytes and TMNK-1 was successfully constructed in the coculture with direct oxygen supply and was well-maintained for 14 days. The hepatocytes in this hierarchical culture exhibited improved survival, functional bile canaliculi formation, cellular level polarization and maintenance of metabolic activities including Cyp1A1/2 activity and albumin production. By contrast, the two cell populations formed discontinuous monolayers on the same surfaces in the non-oxygen-permeable cultures. These results demonstrate that (i) the direct oxygenation through the PDMS membranes enables very simple formation of a hierarchical structure consisting of a hepatocyte layer and a layer of TMNK-1 and (ii) we may include other non-parenchymal cells in this format easily, which can be widely applicable to other epithelial organs.

  18. Uptake and glutathione conjugation of ethacrynic acid and efflux of the glutathione adduct by periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tirona, R G; Tan, E; Meier, G; Pang, K S

    1999-12-01

    We assessed the impact of zonal factors on the hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) conjugation of ethacrynic acid (EA). Uptake of EA by enriched periportal (PP) and perivenous (PV) rat hepatocytes was characterized by both saturable (V(max)(uptake) = 3.4 +/- 1.7 and 3. 2 +/- 0.8 nmol/min/mg protein and K(m)(uptake) = 51 +/- 13 and 44 +/- 15 microM) and nonsaturable (12 +/- 5 and 12 +/- 3 microl/min/mg protein) components. Values for the overall GSH conjugation rates of EA (200 microM) were similar among the zonal hepatocytes and resembled those for the influx transport rates. In the absence of the hepatocyte membrane, GSH conjugation in PV and PP hepatocyte cytosol was similar, but a higher perivenous GSH conjugation activity toward EA (PV/PP of 2.4) that mirrored the higher PV/PP ratios of immunodetectable GSTs Ya (1.7) and Yb2 (2.5) was found in cell lysates obtained by the dual-digitonin-pulse perfusion technique. The GSH conjugation rates in the subcellular fragments were, however, much greater than those observed for intact hepatocytes. Efflux rates of the glutathione conjugate EA-SG from zonal hepatocytes were similar, as were levels of the immunodetectable multidrug-resistance protein 2/canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (Mrp2/cMoat) in the 100,000g pellets. The composite results suggest that the GSTs responsible for EA metabolism are more abundant in the PV region, albeit that the gradient of enzymatic activities is shallow. Despite the existence of zonal metabolic activity, the overall GSH conjugation rate of EA is homogeneous among cells because the reaction is rate limited by uptake, which occurs evenly. Results on EA-SG efflux suggest the acinar homogeneity in Mrp2/cMoat function for canalicular transport.

  19. Induction of cMrp/cMoat gene expression by cisplatin, 2-acetylaminofluorene, or cycloheximide in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, H M; Keppler, D; Kartenbeck, J; Schrenk, D

    1997-10-01

    The human multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP), a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter superfamily, is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells resistant to antineoplastic drugs. In the rat, two Mrp isoforms have been identified, Mrp and cMrp. cMrp, also called Mrp2 or cMoat (canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter), is expressed in the canalicular membrane of rat hepatocytes and mediates the excretion of glucuronate, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates into bile. We investigated the expression of cMrp and Mrp in rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Treatment with the chemical carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), the antineoplastic drug cisplatin, and the protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide led to a dose-dependent and time-dependent increase in cmrp gene expression. A 347-base pair cmrp complementary DNA (cDNA) probe served to demonstrate the induction of cmrp messenger RNA (mRNA) with 40 micromol/L 2-AAF, 5 micromol/L cisplatin, or 5 micromol/L cycloheximide. An analogous response was obtained for the increase in cMrp protein. Mrp mRNA was below the detection limit in Northern blots of RNA from liver and hepatocyte cultures, in contrast to rat testis mRNA which served as a positive control. Immunofluorescence microscopy of cultured hepatocytes was used to visualize cMrp in the plasma membrane. Treatment with 2-AAF led to a marked increase in the immunofluorescence signal confirming the cMrp-inducing potency of 2-AAF. In conclusion, the inducing effect of the compounds studied may reflect a general inducibility of hepatic cMrp by a variety of cytotoxic, carcinogenic, and chemotherapeutic agents which is likely to be of relevance for the acquisition of multidrug resistance during chemotherapy and in the process of chemical carcinogenesis in the liver.

  20. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediates the toxic effects of an asialofetuin-diphtheria toxin fragment A conjugate on cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, D B; Simpson, D L; Herschman, H R

    1981-01-01

    We have constructed a toxic hybrid protein that is recognized by asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptors of cultured rat hepatocytes. The conjugate consists of fragment A of diphtheria toxin (DTA) linked by a disulfide bond to asialofetuin (ASF). This conjugate is highly toxic, inhibiting protein synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations as low as 10 pM. The ASF-DTA conjugate was 600 and 1800 times as toxic as diphtheria toxin and DTA, respectively, on primary rat hepatocytes. The ASGP receptor recognizes galactose-terminated proteins. We tested a series of glycoproteins for their ability to block the action of the ASF-DTA conjugate. Fetuin and orosomucoid, two glycoproteins with terminal sialic acid on their oligosaccharide chains, did not block the action of the conjugate. Their galactose-terminated asialo derivatives, ASF and asialoorosomucoid, as expected, did block the action of the conjugate. The N-acetylglucosaminyl-terminated derivative (asialogalactoorsomucoid) had no appreciable effect on the activity of the conjugate. We tested the ASF-DTA conjugate on six cell types; except for primary rat hepatocytes, none of them were affected by a high concentration (10 nM) of ASF-DTA conjugate. A fetuin-DTA conjugate was less toxic by a factor of 300 than the ASF-DTA conjugate and exerted its effects primarily through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms. The highly toxic ASF-DTA conjugate is cell-type specific, and its action is mediated by a well-characterized receptor, whose mechanism of receptor-ligand internalization has been extensively investigated. Images PMID:6167984

  1. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediates the toxic effects of an asialofetuin-diphtheria toxin fragment A conjugate on cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, D.B.; Simpson, D.L.; Herschman, H.R.

    1981-06-01

    We have constructed a toxic hybrid protein that is recognized by asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptors of cultured rat hepatocytes. The conjugate consists of fragment A of diphtheria toxin (DTA) linked by a disulfide bond to asialofetuin (ASF). This conjugate is highly toxic, inhibiting protein synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations as low as 10 pM. The ASF-DTA conjugate was 600 and 1800 times as toxic as diphtheria toxin and DTA, respectively, on primary rat hepatocytes. The ASGP receptor recognizes galactose-terminated proteins. We tested a series of glycoproteins for their ability to block the action of the ASF-DTA conjugate. Fetuin and orosomucoid, two glycoproteins with terminal sialic acid on their oligosaccharide chains, did not block the action of the conjugate. Their galactose-terminated asialo derivatives, ASF and asialoorosomucoid, as expected, did block the action of the conjugate. The N-acetylglucosaminyl-terminated derivative (asialoagalactoorosomucoid) had no appreciable effect on the activity of the conjugate. We tested the ASF-DTA conjugate on six cell types; except for primary rat hepatocytes, none of them were affected by a high concentration (10 nM) of ASF-DTA conjugate. A fetuin-DTA conjugate was less toxic by a factor of 300 than the ASF-DTA conjugate and exerted its effects primarily through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms. The highly toxic ASF-DTA conjugate is cell-type specific, and its action is mediated by a well-characterized receptor, whose mechanism of receptor-ligand internalization has been extensively investigated.

  2. Regeneration of Aged Rat Vocal Folds using Hepatocyte Growth Factor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Tsunehisa; Yoo, Mi Jin; Swanson, Erik R; Hirano, Shigeru; Ossoff, Robert H; Rousseau, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis We investigated acute changes in extracellular matrix gene expression and histologic changes in the deposition of collagen and hyaluronan (HA) from hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment of the aged rat vocal fold. We hypothesized that: 1) HGF induces matrix metalloproteinase gene expression, which may contribute to the downregulation of collagen; and 2) HGF induces hyaluronan synthase (HAS) gene expression, which may play a role in the upregulation of ECM HA. Study Design prospective animal study. Methods Fifteen, 18-month old, Sprague-Dawley rats were involved in this study. For gene expression analyses, ten rats were divided into two groups and received serial injections of sham (saline) or HGF (2ng/µL) and sacrificed 2 weeks after the initial injection to investigate acute changes in extracellular matrix gene expression. A separate group of five animals received the above treatment and were sacrificed 4 weeks after the initial injection to investigate histologic changes in the deposition of collagen and HA. Results Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed significantly upregulated MMP-2, -9, and HAS-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and significantly downregulated procollagen type I mRNA expression in the HGF-treatment group, compared to the sham-treatment group. Histologic staining revealed significantly reduced collagen deposition and increased deposition of HA in the HGF-treated vocal fold, compared to the sham-treated vocal fold. Conclusions HGF induced the upregulation of MMP-2, -9, and HAS-3, and downregulated the expression of procollagen type I. Histologically, aged vocal folds treated with HGF revealed decreased collagen deposition, and increased deposition of HA, compared to sham-treated vocal folds. PMID:19507223

  3. Differential effects of long-term exposure to Aroclor 1254 on lipid secretion by primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, L.

    1992-06-01

    PCBs produce hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation (fatty liver) in experimental animals and humans exposed accidentally and occupationally. It has been suggested that this effect could be due to a block in TG secretion. On the other hand, increased levels of plasmatic TG and cholesterol have been described in rats after dietary exposure to Aroclor 1254 (Aro) and other PCBs; hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension have been also described in humans exposed for long periods to low concentrations of PCBs. Since the study of hepatic lipid metabolism and its alteration by toxic chemicals is complicated in the whole animal, short term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes have been used. We have described a system for the long term culture of adult rat hepatocytes which for several weeks maintain differentiated functions, like fatty acid and TG synthesis and their export to the culture medium. In this paper we used this culture system to study the effect of long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of Aro on the secretion of lipids by cultured hepatocytes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Osmolyte and Na+ transport balances of rat hepatocytes as a function of hypertonic stress.

    PubMed

    Wehner, F; Tinel, H

    2000-11-01

    The initial event in the regulatory volume increase (RVI) of rat hepatocytes is an influx of Na+ that is then exchanged for K+ via stimulation of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). In this study, we analysed the activation pattern of the Na+ transporters underlying RVI as a function of the degree of hypertonic stress. In confluent primary cultures, four hypertonic conditions were tested (changes from 300 to 327, 360, 400 or 450 mosmol/l) and the activities of Na+ conductance, Na+/H+ antiport, Na+-K+-2Cl- symport and Na+/K+-ATPase were quantified using intracellular microelectrodes, microfluorometry and time-dependent, furosemide- or ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, respectively. Neither Na+ conductance nor Na+-K+-2Cl- symport responded to 327 mosmol/A. At 360, 400 and 450 mosmol/l, uptake via these transporters would lead to increases of cell Na+ by 33.0, 49.0 and 49.0 and by 4.5, 10.4 and 9.2 mmol/l per 10 min, respectively. In contrast, Na+/H+ antiport exhibited 65% of its maximal activation already at 327 mosmol/l. At the four osmolarities tested, this transporter would augment cell Na+ by 6.9, 8.9, 9.8 and 10.6 mmol/l per 10 min. The sums of Na+ import were consistent with the amounts of Na+ exported via Na+/K+-ATPase plus the actual increases of cell Na+ (21.2, 58.5, 63.6 and 68.3 mmol/l per 10 min and 2.2, 4.0, 6.3 and 8.2 mmol/l, respectively). In addition, these elevations of cell Na+ plus the increases of cell K+ (via Na+/K+-ATPase) that amounted to 5.0, 6.5, 17.5 and 18.4 mmol/l were consistent with the increases of intracellular osmotic (cationic) activity of 2.5, 11.5, 21.0 and 28.5 mmol/l, respectively, computed from RVI data. It is concluded that the principle of rat hepatocyte RVI, i.e. an initial uptake of Na+ that is then exchanged for K+ via Na+/K+-ATPase, is realized over the entire range of 9-50% hypertonicity tested. The set-point for the activation of RVI clearly lies below 327 mosmol/l. Na+/H+ antiport is the most sensitive Na+ importer

  5. Isolation and co-culture of rat parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells to evaluate cellular interactions and response

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Geerts, Sharon; Jindal, Rohit; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a central organ in the human body, and first line of defense between host and external environment. Liver response to any external perturbation is a collective reaction of resident liver cells. Most of the current in vitro liver models focus on hepatocytes, the primary metabolic component, omitting interactions and cues from surrounding environment and non-parenchymal c